Sample records for stardust earth return

  1. Carbon Isotopic Ratios of Amino Acids in Stardust-Returned Samples (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.


    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2006. Preliminary examinations revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds could not be identified. Here. we present the carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and E-aminocaproic acid (EACH), the two most abundant amino acids observed, in Stardust-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio crass spectrometry coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QMS/IRMS).

  2. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector and Stardust@home (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Bastien, R.; Butterworth, A.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Kelley, N.; Lettieri, R.; Mendez, B.; Prasad, R.; Tsitrin, S.; von Korff, J.; Warren, J.; Wertheimer, D.; Zhang, A.; Zolensky, M.


    The Stardust sample return mission is effectively two missions in one. Stardust brought back to earth for analytical study the first solid samples from a known solar system body beyond the moon, comet Wild2. The first results of the analyses of these samples are reported elsewhere in this session. In a separate aerogel collector, Stardust also captured and has returned the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust. Landgraf et al. [1] has estimated that ~ 50 interstellar dust particles in the micron size range have been captured in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. Their state after capture is unknown. Before analysis of these particles can begin, they must be located in the collector. Here we describe the current status of Stardust@home, the massively distributed public search for these tiny interstellar dust particles. So far more than 13,000 volunteers have collectively performed more than 10,000,000 searches in stacks of digital images of ~10% of the collector. We report new estimates of the flux of interplanetary dust at ~2 AU based on the results of this search, and will compare with extant models[2]. References: [1] Landgraf et al., (1999) Planet. Spac. Sci. 47, 1029. [2] Staubach et al. (2001) in Interplanetary Dust, E. Grün, ed., Astron. &Astro. Library, Springer, 2001.

  3. The Stardust spacecraft arrives at KSC (United States)


    After arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility in the early morning hours, the crated Stardust spacecraft waits to be unloaded from the aircraft. Built by Lockheed Martin Astronautics near Denver, Colo., for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) NASA, the spacecraft Stardust will use a unique medium called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of comet Wild 2 in January 2004, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. Stardust will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7426 rocket from Complex 17, Cape Canaveral Air Station, targeted for Feb. 6, 1999. The collected samples will return to Earth in a re- entry capsule to be jettisoned from Stardust as it swings by in January 2006.

  4. Stardust Entry: Landing and Population Hazards in Mission Planning and Operations (United States)

    Desai, P.; Wawrzyniak, G.


    The 385 kg Stardust mission was launched on Feb 7, 1999 on a mission to collect samples from the tail of comet Wild 2 and from interplanetary space. Stardust returned to Earth in the early morning of January 15, 2006. The sample return capsule landed in the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) southwest of Salt Lake City. Because Stardust was landing on Earth, hazard analysis was required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, UTTR, and the Stardust Project to ensure the safe return of the landing capsule along with the safety of people, ground assets, and aircraft. This paper focuses on the requirements affecting safe return of the capsule and safety of people on the ground by investigating parameters such as probability of impacting on UTTR, casualty expectation, and probability of casualty. This paper introduces the methods for the calculation of these requirements and shows how they affected mission planning, site selection, and mission operations. By analyzing these requirements before and during entry it allowed for the selection of a robust landing point that met all of the requirements during the actual landing event.

  5. Four Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; hide


    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approx. 0.1 sq m in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m/day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described . A summary of analytical techniques is described.

  6. Maneuver Analysis and Targeting Strategy for the Stardust Re-Entry Capsule (United States)

    Helfrich, Cliff; Bhat, Ramachand S.; Kangas, Julie A.; Wilson, Roby S.; Wong, Mau C.; Potts, Christopher L.; Williams, Kenneth E.


    The Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) returned to Earth on January 15, 2006 after seven years of collecting interstellar and comet particles over three heliocentric revolutions, as shown in Figure 1. The SRC was carried on board the Stardust spacecraft, as shown in Figure 2. Because the spacecraft was built with unbalanced thrusters, turns and attitude control maintenance resulted in undesirable delta-v being imparted to the trajectory. As a result, a carefully planned maneuver strategy was devised to accurately target the Stardust capsule to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). This paper provides an overview of the Stardust spacecraft and mission and describes the maneuver strategy that was employed to achieve the stringent targeting requirements for landing in Utah. In addition, an overview of Stardust maneuver analysis tools and techniques will also be presented.

  7. Correlated Microanalysis of Cometary Organic Grains Returned by Stardust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B De Gregorio; R Stroud; G Cody; L Nittler; A Kilcoyne; S Wirick


    Carbonaceous matter in Stardust samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 is observed to contain a wide variety of organic functional chemistry. However, some of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We investigated six carbonaceous Stardust samples that had been previously analyzed and six new samples from Stardust Track 80 using correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM revealed that samples from Track 35 containing abundant aliphatic XANES signatures were predominantly composed of cometary organic matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed to be soluble in the epoxy embedding medium. The nitrogen-rich samples in this study (from Track 22 and Track 80) both contained metal oxide nanoparticles, and are likely contaminants. Only two types of cometary organic matter appear to be relatively unaltered during particle capture. These are (1) polyaromatic carbonyl-containing organic matter, similar to that observed in insoluble organic matter (IOM) from primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and in other carbonaceous Stardust samples, and (2) highly aromatic refractory organic matter, which primarily constitutes nanoglobule-like features. Anomalous isotopic compositions in some of these samples also confirm their cometary heritage. There also appears to be a significant labile aliphatic component of Wild 2 organic matter, but this material could not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector.

  8. Correlated microanalysis of cometary organic grains returned by Stardust (United States)

    de Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Cody, George D.; Nittler, Larry R.; David Kilcoyne, A. L.; Wirick, Sue


    Abstract- Carbonaceous matter in Stardust samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 is observed to contain a wide variety of organic functional chemistry. However, some of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We investigated six carbonaceous Stardust samples that had been previously analyzed and six new samples from Stardust Track 80 using correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM revealed that samples from Track 35 containing abundant aliphatic XANES signatures were predominantly composed of cometary organic matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed to be soluble in the epoxy embedding medium. The nitrogen-rich samples in this study (from Track 22 and Track 80) both contained metal oxide nanoparticles, and are likely contaminants. Only two types of cometary organic matter appear to be relatively unaltered during particle capture. These are (1) polyaromatic carbonyl-containing organic matter, similar to that observed in insoluble organic matter (IOM) from primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and in other carbonaceous Stardust samples, and (2) highly aromatic refractory organic matter, which primarily constitutes nanoglobule-like features. Anomalous isotopic compositions in some of these samples also confirm their cometary heritage. There also appears to be a significant labile aliphatic component of Wild 2 organic matter, but this material could not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector.

  9. The solar panels of the spacecraft Stardust are deployed before undergoing lighting test in the PHSF (United States)


    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers look over the solar panels on the Stardust spacecraft that are deployed for lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  10. Cometary Amino Acids from the STARDUST Mission (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila


    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81 P/WiId 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

  11. Stardust Blazes MOA Trail (United States)

    Faris, Grant B.; Bryant, Larry W.


    Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) started at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with the Magellan and Galileo missions of the late 80's. It continued to develop and received a significant impetus with the failures of two successive missions to Mars in the late 90's. MOA continued to evolve with each successive project at JPL achieving its current maturity with the Stardust sample return to Earth.

  12. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning (United States)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.


    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  13. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.


    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  14. Analysis of "Midnight" Tracks in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector: Possible Discovery of a Contemporary Interstellar Dust Grain (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajit, S.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; hide


    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2) day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques.

  15. Catching Stardust and Bringing it Home: The Astronomical Importance of Sample Return (United States)

    Brownlee, D.


    The return of lunar samples by the Apollo program provided the first opportunity to perform detailed laboratory studies of ancient solid materials from a known astronomical body. The highly detailed study of the samples, using the best available laboratory instruments and techniques, revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and provided fundamental insight into the remarkable and violent processes that occur early in the history of moons and terrestrial planets. This type of astronomical paleontology is only possible with samples and yet the last US sample return was made by Apollo 17- over thirty years ago! The NASA Stardust mission, began a new era of sample missions with its 1999 launch to retrieve samples from the short period comet Wild 2. Genesis (a solar wind collector) was launched in 2001, the Japanese MUSES-C asteroid sample return mission will launch in 2003 and Mars sample return missions are under study. All of these missions will use sophisticated ground-based instrumentation to provide types of information that cannot be obtained by astronomical and spacecraft remote sensing methods. In the case of Stardust, the goal is to determine the fundamental nature of the initial solid building blocks of solar systems at atomic-scale spatial resolution. The samples returned by the mission will be samples from the Kuiper Belt region and they are probably composed of submicron silicate and organic materials of both presolar and nebular origin. Unlocking the detailed records contained in the elemental, chemical, isotopic and mineralogical composition of these tiny components can only be appropriately explored with full power, precision and flexibility of laboratory instrumentation. Laboratory instrumentation has the advantage that is state-of-the-art and is not limited by serious considerations of power, mass, cost or even reliability. The comparison of the comet sample, accumulated beyond Neptune, with asteroidal meteorites that accumulated just beyond the

  16. Detection of cometary amines in samples returned by Stardust (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Sandford, S. A.


    The abundances of amino acids and amines, as well as their enantiomeric compositions, were measured in samples of Stardust comet-exposed aerogel and foil using liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection and time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS). A suite of amino acids and amines including glycine, L-alanine, β-alanine (BALA), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), ɛ-amino-n-caproic acid (EACA), ethanolamine (MEA), methylamine (MA), and ethylamine (EA) were identified in acid-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts of these Stardust materials above background levels. With the exception of MA and EA, all other primary amines detected in cometexposed aerogel fragments C2054,4 and C2086,1 were also present in the flight aerogel witness tile that was not exposed to the comet, indicating that most amines are terrestrial in origin. The enhanced relative abundances of MA and EA in comet-exposed aerogel compared to controls, coupled with MA to EA ratios (C2054,4: 1.0 ± 0.2; C2086,1: 1.8 ± 0.2) that are distinct from preflight aerogels (E243-13C and E243-13F: 7 ± 3), suggest that these volatile amines were captured from comet Wild 2. MA and EA were present predominantly in an acid-hydrolyzable bound form in the aerogel, rather than as free primary amines, which is consistent with laboratory analyses of cometary ice analog materials. It is possible that Wild 2 MA and EA were formed on energetically processed icy grains containing ammonia and approximately equal abundances of methane and ethane. The presence of cometary amines in Stardust material supports the hypothesis that comets were an important source of prebiotic organic carbon and nitrogen on the early Earth.

  17. Stardust@home: An Interactive Internet-based Search for Interstellar Dust (United States)

    Mendez, B. J.; Westphal, A. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Craig, N.


    On January 15, 2006, NASA's Stardust mission returned to Earth after nearly seven years in interplanetary space. During its journey, Stardust encountered comet Wild 2, collecting dust particles from it in a special material called aerogel. At two other times in the mission, aerogel collectors were also opened to collect interstellar dust. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector is being scanned by an automated microscope at the Johnson Space Center. There are approximately 700,000 fields of view needed to cover the entire collector, but we expect only a few dozen total grains of interstellar dust were captured within it. Finding these particles is a daunting task. We have recruited many thousands of volunteers from the public to aid in the search for these precious pieces of space dust trapped in the collectors. We call the project Stardust@home. Through Stardust@home, volunteers from the public search fields of view from the Stardust aerogel collector using a web-based Virtual Microscope. Volunteers who discover interstellar dust particles have the privilege of naming them. The interest and response to this project has been extraordinary. Many people from all walks of life are very excited about space science and eager to volunteer their time to contribute to a real research project such as this. We will discuss the progress of the project and the education and outreach activities being carried out for it.

  18. Education and Public Outreach for Stardust@home: An Interactive Internet-based Search for Interstellar Dust (United States)

    Mendez, Bryan J.; Westphal, A. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Craig, N.


    On January 15, 2006, NASA’s Stardust mission returned to Earth after nearly seven years in interplanetary space. During its journey, Stardust encountered comet Wild 2, collecting dust particles from it in a special material called aerogel. At two other times in the mission, aerogel collectors were also opened to collect interstellar dust. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector is being scanned by an automated microscope at the Johnson Space Center. There are approximately 700,000 fields of view needed to cover the entire collector, but we expect only a few dozen total grains of interstellar dust were captured within it. Finding these particles is a daunting task. We have recruited many thousands of volunteers from the public to aid in the search for these precious pieces of space dust trapped in the collectors. We call the project Stardust@home. Through Stardust@home, volunteers from the public search fields of view from the Stardust aerogel collector using a web-based Virtual Microscope. Volunteers who discover interstellar dust particles have the privilege of naming them. The interest and response to this project has been extraordinary. Many people from all walks of life are very excited about space science and eager to volunteer their time to contribute to a real research project such as this. We will discuss the progress of the project and the education and outreach activities being carried out for it.

  19. Post-Flight Evaluation of PICA and PICA-X - Comparisons of the Stardust SRC and Space-X Dragon 1 Forebody Heatshield Materials (United States)

    Stackpoole, M.; Kao, D.; Qu, V.; Gonzales, G.


    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. As a thermal protection material, PICA has the advantages of being able to withstand high heat fluxes with a relatively low density. This ablative material was used as the forebody heat shield material for the Stardust sample return capsule, which re-entered the Earths atmosphere in 2006. Based on PICA, SpaceX developed a variant, PICA-X, and used it as the heat shield material for its Dragon spacecraft, which successfully orbited the Earth and re-entered the atmosphere during the COTS Demo Flight 1 in 2010. Post-flight analysis was previously performed on the Stardust PICA heat shield material. Similarly, a near-stagnation core was obtained from the post-flight Dragon 1 heat shield, which was retrieved from the Pacific Ocean. Materials testing and analyses were performed on the core to evaluate its ablation performance and post-flight properties. Comparisons between PICA and PICA-X are made where applicable. Stardust and Dragon offer rare opportunities to evaluate materials post-flight - this data is beneficial in understanding material performance and also improves modeling capabilities.

  20. Stardust Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Minisci, Edmondo; Summerer, Leopold; McGinty, Peter


    Space debris and asteroid impacts pose a very real, very near-term threat to Earth. In order to help study and mitigate these risks, the Stardust program was formed in 2013. This training and research network was devoted to developing and mastering techniques such as removal, deflection, exploitation, and tracking. This book is a collection of many of the topics addressed at the Final Stardust Conference, describing the latest in asteroid monitoring and how engineering efforts can help us reduce space debris. It is a selection of studies bringing together specialists from universities, research institutions, and industry, tasked with the mission of pushing the boundaries of space research with innovative ideas and visionary concepts. Topics covered by the Symposium: Orbital and Attitude Dynamics Modeling Long Term Orbit and Attitude Evolution Particle Cloud Modeling and Simulation Collision and Impact Modelling and Simulation, Re-entry Modeling and Simulation Asteroid Origins and Characterization Orbit and A...

  1. Systematic Examination of Stardust Bulbous Track Wall Materials (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, A. N.; Berger, E. L.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.


    Analyses of Comet Wild-2 samples returned by NASA's Stardust spacecraft have focused primarily on terminal particles (TPs) or well-preserved fine-grained materials along the track walls [1,2]. However much of the collected material was melted and mixed intimately with the aerogel by the hypervelocity impact [3,4]. We are performing systematic examinations of entire Stardust tracks to establish the mineralogy and origins of all comet Wild 2 components [7,8]. This report focuses on coordinated analyses of indigenous crystalline and amorphous/melt cometary materials along the aerogel track walls, their interaction with aerogel during collection and comparisons with their TPs.

  2. Stardust: Catching a Comet and Bringing it Home (United States)

    Brownlee, Donald E.


    The NASA STARDUST mission collected thousands of particles from Comet Wild 2 that are now being studied by two hundred scientists around the world. The spacecraft captured the samples during a close flyby of the comet in 2004 and returned them to Earth with a dramatic entry into the atmosphere early in 2006. The precious cargo of comet dust is being studied to determine new information about the origin of the Sun and planets. The comet formed at the edge of the solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune, and is a sample of the material from which the solar system was formed. One of the most dramatic early findings from the mission was that a comet that formed in the coldest place in the solar system contained minerals that formed in the hottest place in the solar system. The comet samples are telling stories of fire and ice and they providing fascinating and unexpected information about our origins.

  3. Finding Interstellar Particle Impacts on Stardust Aluminium Foils: The Safe Handling, Imaging, and Analysis of Samples Containing Femtogram Residues (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Westphal, A. J.; Stadermann, F. J.; Armes, S. P.; Ball, A. D.; Borg, J.; Bridges, J. C.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M. J.; Chater, R. J.; hide


    Impact ionisation detectors on a suite of spacecraft have shown the direction, velocity, flux and mass distribution of smaller ISP entering the Solar System. During the aphelion segments of the Stardust flight, a dedicated collector surface was oriented to intercept ISP of beta = 1, and returned to Earth in January 2006. In this paper we describe the probable appeareance and size of IS particle craters from initial results of experimental impacts and numerical simulation, explain how foils are being prepared and mounted for crater searching by automated acquisition of high magnification electron images (whilst avoiding contamination of the foils) and comment on appropriate analytical techniques for Preliminary Examination (PE).

  4. Planetary protection considerations for sample-return missions (United States)

    Rummel, J.

    The analysis on Earth of materials returned from other solar system bodies, and beyond, is likely one of the most effective ways for us to learn about the origins, history, and present state of the universe outside of our home planet. In the past, the Apollo missions were able to return large quantities of material from the Moon, while missions currently flying (Genesis and Stardust) intend to return much smaller quantities of material. Planned and conceptualized future missions (cf., MUSES-C) intend to return a wide variety of samples such as those from a near-Earth asteroid, the surface and atmosphere of Mars , and perhaps once more from the Earth's Moon. In some cases, the bodies targeted for sample return missions may have the capability of harboring indigenous life, while in other cases there is scant possibility of that. Considerations in determining the potential for extraterrestrial contamination from sample return missions have been studied, and include such factors as the availability of liquid water in or on the target body, the availability of m tabolicallye useful energy sources, the likelihood that organic matter was available, and the overall temperature and radiation history of the sampled areas. Also of note is the potential that the natural influx to Earth of that materials in question (e.g., meteorites, etc.) might overwhelm the ability of a targeted sample-return mission to contribute something novel to the Earth's environment. Missions thought to pose a risk of extraterrestrial biological contamination are subject to a containment provision that may be very difficult to implement on a single, moderate-cost mission, but such steps are necessary to protect both our own planet and the health of solar-system exploration missions and the science they can do.

  5. COMPASS Final Report: Near Earth Asteroids Rendezvous and Sample Earth Returns (NEARER) (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.


    In this study, the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team completed a design for a multi-asteroid (Nereus and 1996 FG3) sample return capable spacecraft for the NASA In-Space Propulsion Office. The objective of the study was to support technology development and assess the relative benefits of different electric propulsion systems on asteroid sample return design. The design uses a single, heritage Orion solar array (SA) (approx.6.5 kW at 1 AU) to power a single NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster ((NEXT) a spare NEXT is carried) to propel a lander to two near Earth asteroids. After landing and gathering science samples, the Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle spirals back to Earth where it drops off the first sample s return capsule and performs an Earth flyby to assist the craft in rendezvousing with a second asteroid, which is then sampled. The second sample is returned in a similar fashion. The vehicle, dubbed Near Earth Asteroids Rendezvous and Sample Earth Returns (NEARER), easily fits in an Atlas 401 launcher and its cost estimates put the mission in the New Frontier s (NF's) class mission.

  6. Backward Planetary Protection Issues and Possible Solutions for Icy Plume Sample Return Missions from Astrobiological Targets (United States)

    Yano, Hajime; McKay, Christopher P.; Anbar, Ariel; Tsou, Peter

    ). While this is an ideal specification, it far exceeds the current PPP requirements for Category-V “restricted Earth return”, which typically center on a probability of escape of a biologically active particle (e.g., 50 nm diameter). Particles of this size (orders of magnitude larger than a helium atom) are not volatile and generally “sticky” toward surfaces; the mobility of viruses and biomolecules requires aerosolization. Thus, meeting the planetary protection challenge does not require hermetic seal. So far, only a handful of robotic missions accomplished deep space sample returns, i.e., Genesis, Stardust and Hayabusa. This year, Hayabusa-2 will be launched and OSIRIS-REx will follow in a few years. All of these missions are classified as “unrestricted Earth return” by the COSPAR PPP recommendation. Nevertheless, scientific requirements of organic contamination control have been implemented to all WBS regarding sampling mechanism and Earth return capsule of Hayabusa-2. While Genesis, Stardust and OSIRIS-REx capsules “breathe” terrestrial air as they re-enter Earth’s atmosphere, temporal “air-tight” design was already achieved by the Hayabusa-1 sample container using a double O-ring seal, and that for the Hayabusa-2 will retain noble gas and other released gas from returned solid samples using metal seal technology. After return, these gases can be collected through a filtered needle interface without opening the entire container lid. This expertise can be extended to meeting planetary protection requirements from “restricted return” targets. There are still some areas requiring new innovations, especially to assure contingency robustness in every phase of a return mission. These must be achieved by meeting both PPP and scientific requirements during initial design and WBS of the integrated sampling system including the Earth return capsule. It is also important to note that international communities in planetary protection, sample return

  7. Stardust: An overview of the tracks in the aerogel (calibration, classification and particle size distribution) (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.; Fairey, S. J.; Hörz, F.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Kearsley, A. T.; Brownlee, D. E.; See, T. H.; Westphal, A.; Green, S. F.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.


    The NASA Stardust mission (1) to comet P/Wild-2 returned to Earth in January 2006 carrying a cargo of dust captured in aerogel and residue rich craters in aluminium foils (2). Aerogel is a low density, highly porous material (3, 4). The aerogel that was carried by Stardust in the cometary dust collector trays was a SiO2 aerogel, arranged in blocks 4 cm x 2 cm (front face) and 3 cm deep, with density which varied smoothly from 5 mg/cc at the front surface to 50 mg/cc at the rear surface (5). A first look at the whole cometary dust tray at NASA showed that there were many impact features in the aerogel. During the Preliminary Examination period about 15% of the aerogel blocks were removed and studied in detail. The tracks observed in these blocks were classified into three groups: Type A were long relatively narrow tracks of "carrot shape", Type B tracks were again fairly long but had a large bulbous region at the top and appear like the bowl and stem of a flute champagne glass, Type C were purely bulbous tracks with no stem emerging beneath them. Data on the sizes and relative populations of these tracks will be given (also see (6)) along with a discussion of their implications for impactor composition. Laboratory calibrations of the impacts in aerogel have been carried out using glass beads and these permit an estimate of the size of the impactor based on the measured track properties (6). When applied to the tracks measured in the Stardust aerogel, a cumulative particle size distribution was obtained (7) which will be discussed. References (1) Brownlee D.E. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108, E10, 8111, 2003. (2) Brownlee D.E. et al., Science 314, 1711 - 1716. 2006. (3) Kistler S.S., Nature 127, 741, 1931. (4) Burchell M.J. et al., Ann. Rev. Earth. Planet. Sci. 34, 385 - 418, 2006. (5) Tsou P. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108(E10), 8113, 2003. (6) Burchell et al., submitted to MAPS, 2006. (7) Hörz F. et al., Science 314, 1716 - 1719, 2006.

  8. Organics Captured from Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, S A; Aleon, J; O' D. Alexander, C M; Araki, T; Bajt, S; Baratta, G A; Borg, J; Brucato, J R; Burchell, M J; Busemann, H; Butterworth, A; Clemett, S J; Cody, G; Colangeli, L; Cooper, G; D' Hendecourt, L; Djouadi, Z; Dworkin, J P; Ferrini, G; Fleckenstein, H; Flynn, G; Franchi, I A; Fries, M; Gilles, M K; Glavin, D P; Gounelle, M; Grossemy, F; Jacobsen, C; Keller, L P; Kilcoyne, A D; Leitner, J; Matrajt, G; Meibom, A; Mennella, V; Mostefaoui, S; Nittler, L R; Palumbo, M E; Robert, F; Rotundi, A; Snead, C J; Spencer, M K; Steele, A; Stephan, T; Tyliszczak, T; Westphal, A J; Wirick, S; Wopenka, B; Yabuta, H; Zare, R N; Zolensky, M


    Organics found in Comet Wild 2 samples show a heterogeneous and unequilibrated distribution in abundance and composition. Some organics are similar, but not identical, to those in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and carbonaceous meteorites. A class of aromatic-poor organic material is also present. The organics are rich in O and N compared to meteoritic organics. Aromatic compounds are present, but the samples tend to be relatively poorer in aromatics than meteorites and IDPs. D and {sup 15}N suggest that some organics have an interstellar/protostellar heritage. While the variable extent of modification of these materials by impact capture is not yet fully constrained, a remarkably diverse suite of organic compounds is present and identifiable within the returned samples. Comets are small bodies that accreted in the outer Solar System during its formation (1) and thus may consist of preserved samples of the ''starting materials'' from which the Solar System was made. Organic materials are expected to be present in cometary samples (2) and may include molecules made and/or modified in stellar outflows, the interstellar medium, and the protosolar nebula, as well as by parent body processing within the comet. The presence of organic compounds in comets and their ejecta is of astrobiological interest since their delivery to the early Earth may have played an important role in the origin of life on Earth (3). An overview of the Stardust Mission and the collection and recovery of Wild 2 samples is provided elsewhere (4,5). We describe the results obtained from the returned samples by the Stardust Organics Preliminary Examination Team (PET). Samples were studied using a wide range of analytical techniques, including two-step laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry (L{sub 2}MS), Liquid Chromatography with UV Fluorescence Detection and Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-FD/TOF-MS), Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM), X

  9. Strategic Map for Enceladus Plume Biosignature Sample Return (United States)

    Sherwood, B.


    The discovery of jets emitting salty water from the interior of Saturn's small moon Enceladus is one of the most astounding results of the Cassini mission to date. The measured presence of organic species in the resulting plume, the finding that the jet activity is valved by tidal stretching at apocrone, the modeled lifetime of E-ring particles, and gravitational inference of a long-lived, deep, large water reservoir all indicate that the textbook conditions for habitability are met at Enceladus today: liquid water, biologically available elements, source of energy, and longevity of conducive conditions. Enceladus may be the best place in our solar system to search for direct evidence of biomarkers, and the plume provides a way to sample, analyze, and even return them to Earth for detailed analysis. For example, it is straightforward to define a Stardust-like, fly-through, plume ice-particle, dust, and gas collection mission. Concept engineering and evaluation indicate that the associated technical, programmatic, regulatory, and cost issues are quite unlike the Stardust precedent however, not least because of such a mission's Category-V, Restricted Earth Return, classification. The poster presents a strategic framework for systematic integration of the enabling issues: cultivation of science advocacy, resolution of diverse stakeholder concerns, development of verifiable and affordable technical solutions, validation of cost estimation methods, alignment with other candidate astrobiology missions, complementarity of international agency goals, and finally the identification of appropriate research and flight-mission opportunities. A strategic approach is essential if we are to know the astrobiological state of Enceladus in our lifetime, and two international teams are already dedicated to implementing key steps on this roadmap.

  10. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination VII: Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Six Stardust Interstellar Candidates Measured with the Advanced Photon Source 2-ID-D Microprobe (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Anderson, David; Bastien, Ron K.; Brenker, Frank E.; Flynn, George J.; Frank, David; Gainsforth, Zack; Sandford, Scott A.; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Zolensky, Michael E.


    The NASA Stardust spacecraft exposed an aerogel collector to the interstellar dust passing through the solar system. We performed X-ray fluorescence element mapping and abundance measurements, for elements 19 < or = Z < or = 30, on six "interstellar candidates," potential interstellar impacts identified by Stardust@Home and extracted for analyses in picokeystones. One, I1044,3,33, showed no element hot-spots within the designated search area. However, we identified a nearby surface feature, consistent with the impact of a weak, high-speed particle having an approximately chondritic (CI) element abundance pattern, except for factor-of-ten enrichments in K and Zn and an S depletion. This hot-spot, containing approximately 10 fg of Fe, corresponds to an approximately 350 nm chondritic particle, small enough to be missed by Stardust@Home, indicating that other techniques may be necessary to identify all interstellar candidates. Only one interstellar candidate, I1004,1,2, showed a track. The terminal particle has large enrichments in S, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn relative to Fe-normalized CI values. It has high Al/Fe, but does not match the Ni/Fe range measured for samples of Al-deck material from the Stardust sample return capsule, which was within the field-of-view of the interstellar collector. A third interstellar candidate, I1075,1,25, showed an Al-rich surface feature that has a composition generally consistent with the Al-deck material, suggesting that it is a secondary particle. The other three interstellar candidates, I1001,1,16, I1001,2,17, and I1044,2,32, showed no impact features or tracks, but allowed assessment of submicron contamination in this aerogel, including Fe hot-spots having CI-like Ni/Fe ratios, complicating the search for CI-like interstellar/interplanetary dust.

  11. Mars Earth Return Vehicle (MERV) Propulsion Options (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Fincannon, James; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Parkey, Thomas; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; hide


    The COMPASS Team was tasked with the design of a Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The current Mars sample return mission is a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with ESA contributing the launch vehicle for the Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The COMPASS Team ran a series of design trades for this Mars sample return vehicle. Four design options were investigated: Chemical Return /solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage outbound, all-SEP, all chemical and chemical with aerobraking. The all-SEP and Chemical with aerobraking were deemed the best choices for comparison. SEP can eliminate both the Earth flyby and the aerobraking maneuver (both considered high risk by the Mars Sample Return Project) required by the chemical propulsion option but also require long low thrust spiral times. However this is offset somewhat by the chemical/aerobrake missions use of an Earth flyby and aerobraking which also take many months. Cost and risk analyses are used to further differentiate the all-SEP and Chemical/Aerobrake options.

  12. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination IV: Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analyses of Impact Features in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (United States)

    Butterworth, Anna L.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Frank, David R.; Allen, Carlton C.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tsou, Peter; Zolensky, Michael E.


    We report the quantitative characterization by synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy of 31 potential impact features in the aerogel capture medium of the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. Samples were analyzed in aerogel by acquiring high spatial resolution maps and high energy-resolution spectra of major rock-forming elements Mg, Al, Si, Fe, and others. We developed diagnostic screening tests to reject spacecraft secondary ejecta and terrestrial contaminants from further consideration as interstellar dust candidates. The results support an extraterrestrial origin for three interstellar candidates: I1043,1,30 (Orion) is a 3 pg particle with Mg-spinel, forsterite, and an iron-bearing phase. I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook) is a 4 pg particle comprising an olivine core surrounded by low-density, amorphous Mg-silicate and amorphous Fe, Cr, and Mn phases. I1003,1,40 (Sorok) has the track morphology of a high-speed impact, but contains no detectable residue that is convincingly distinguishable from the background aerogel. Twenty-two samples with an anthropogenic origin were rejected, including four secondary ejecta from impacts on the Stardust spacecraft aft solar panels, nine ejecta from secondary impacts on the Stardust Sample Return Capsule, and nine contaminants lacking evidence of an impact. Other samples in the collection included I1029,1,6, which contained surviving solar system impactor material. Four samples remained ambiguous: I1006,2,18, I1044,2,32, and I1092,2,38 were too dense for analysis, and we did not detect an intact projectile in I1044,3,33. We detected no radiation effects from the synchrotron soft X-ray analyses; however, we recorded the effects of synchrotron hard X-ray radiation on I1043,1,30 and I1047,1,34.

  13. Stardust the cosmic seeds of life

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, Sun


    How did life originate on Earth? For over 50 years, scientists believed that life was the result of a chemical reaction involving simple molecules such as methane and ammonia cooking in a primordial soup. Recent space observations have revealed that old stars are capable of making very complex organic compounds. At some point in their evolution, stars eject those organics and spread them all over the Milky Way galaxy. There is evidence that these organic dust particles actually reached the early Solar System. Through bombardments by comets and asteroids, the young Earth inherited significant amounts of stardust. Was the development of life assisted by the arrival of these extraterrestrial materials?   In this book, the author describes stunning discoveries in astronomy and solar system science made over the last 10 years that have yielded a new perspective on the origin of life.   Other interesting topics discussed in this book   The discovery of diamonds and other gemstones in space The origin of oil Neon...

  14. Earth-return trajectory options for the 1985-86 Halley opportunity (United States)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Dunham, D. W.


    A unique and useful family of ballistic trajectories to Halley's comet is described. The distinguishing feature of this family is that all of the trajectories return to the Earth's vicinity after the Halley intercept. It is shown that, in some cases, the original Earth-return path can be reshaped by Earth-swingby maneuvers to achieve additional small-body encounters. One mission profile includes flybys of the asteroid Geographos and comet Tempel-2 following the Halley intercept. Dual-flyby missions involving comets Encke and Borrelly and the asteroid Anteros are also discussed. Dust and gas samples are collected during the high-velocity (about 70 km/sec) flythrough of Halley, and then returned to a high-apogee Earth orbit. Aerobraking maneuvers are used to bring the sample-return spacecraft to a low-altitude circular orbit where it can be recovered by the Space Shuttle.

  15. NM-Scale Anatomy of an Entire Stardust Carrot Track (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.


    Comet Wild-2 samples collected by NASA s Stardust mission are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and have experienced wide ranges of alteration during the capture process. There are two major types of track morphologies: "carrot" and "bulbous," that reflect different structural/compositional properties of the impactors. Carrot type tracks are typically produced by compact or single mineral grains which survive essentially intact as a single large terminal particle. Bulbous tracks are likely produced by fine-grained or organic-rich impactors [1]. Owing to their challenging nature and especially high value of Stardust samples, we have invested considerable effort in developing both sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for Stardust sample analyses. Our report focuses on our systematic disassembly and coordinated analysis of Stardust carrot track #112 from the mm to nm-scale.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Karen M.; Lugaro, Maria; Gibson, Brad K.; Pilkington, Kate


    Micron-sized stardust grains that originated in ancient stars are recovered from meteorites and analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most widely studied type of stardust is silicon carbide (SiC). Thousands of these grains have been analyzed with high precision for their Si isotopic composition. Here we show that the distribution of the Si isotopic composition of the vast majority of stardust SiC grains carries the imprints of a spread in the age-metallicity distribution of their parent stars and of a power-law increase of the relative formation efficiency of SiC dust with the metallicity. This result offers a solution for the long-standing problem of silicon in stardust SiC grains, confirms the necessity of coupling chemistry and dynamics in simulations of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy, and constrains the modeling of dust condensation in stellar winds as a function of the metallicity.

  17. Supporting a Deep Space Gateway with Free-Return Earth-Moon Periodic Orbits (United States)

    Genova, A. L.; Dunham, D. W.; Hardgrove, C.


    Earth-Moon periodic orbits travel between the Earth and Moon via free-return circumlunar segments and can host a station that can provide architecture support to other nodes near the Moon and Mars while enabling science return from cislunar space.

  18. Simulating STARDUST: Reproducing Impacts of Interstellar Dust in the Laboratory (United States)

    Postberg, F.; Srama, R.; Hillier, J. K.; Sestak, S.; Green, S. F.; Trieloff, M.; Grün, E.


    Our experiments are carried out to support the analysis of interstellar dust grains, ISDGs, brought to earth by the STARDUST mission. Since the very first investigations, it has turned out that the major problem of STARDUST particle analysis is the modification (partly even the destruction) during capture when particles impact the spacecraft collectors with a velocity of up to 20 km/s. While it is possible to identify, extract, and analyse cometary grains larger than a few microns in aerogel and on metal collector plates, the STARDUST team is not yet ready for the identification, extraction, and analysis of sub-micron sized ISDGs with impact speeds of up to 20 km/s. Reconstructing the original particle properties requires a simulation of this impact capture process. Moreover, due to the lack of laboratory studies of high speed impacts of micron scale dust into interstellar STARDUST flight spares, the selection of criteria for the identification of track candidates is entirely subjective. Simulation of such impact processes is attempted with funds of the FRONTIER program within the framework of the Heidelberg University initiative of excellence. The dust accelerator at the MPI Kernphysik is a facility unique in the world to perform such experiments. A critical point is the production of cometary and interstellar dust analogue material and its acceleration to very high speeds of 20 km/s, which has never before been performed in laboratory experiments. Up to now only conductive material was successfully accelerated by the 2 MV Van de Graaf generator of the dust accelerator facility. Typical projectile materials are Iron, Aluminium, Carbon, Copper, Silver, and the conducting hydrocarbon Latex. Ongoing research now enables the acceleration of any kind of rocky planetary and interstellar dust analogues (Hillier et al. 2008, in prep.). The first batch of dust samples produced with the new method consists of micron and submicron SiO2 grains. Those were successfully

  19. 21st century early mission concepts for Mars delivery and earth return (United States)

    Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.


    In the 21st century, the early missions to Mars will entail unmanned Rover and Sample Return reconnaissance missions to be followed by manned exploration missions. High performance leverage technologies will be required to reach Mars and return to earth. This paper describes the mission concepts currently identified for these early Mars missions. These concepts include requirements and capabilities for Mars and earth aerocapture, Mars surface operations and ascent, and Mars and earth rendezvous. Although the focus is on the unmanned missions, synergism with the manned missions is also discussed.

  20. Intact Capture, Aerogel, SOCCER, Stardust and LIFE (United States)

    Tsou, P.


    In order to definitively determine many complex exploration curiosities, we must bring samples to terrestrial laboratories for detailed analyses by collaborating laboratories and analysts. We report this endeavor in SOCCER, NEARER, Stardust and LIFE.

  1. STARDUST-U experiments on fluid-dynamic conditions affecting dust mobilization during LOVAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, L.A.; Malizia, A.; Ciparisse, J.F.; Gelfusa, M.; Papa, C. Del; Giovannangeli, I.; Gaudio, P.; Tieri, F.; Murari, A.


    Since 2006 the Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics (QEP) Research Group together with ENEA FusTech of Frascati have been working on dust re-suspension inside tokamaks and its potential capability to jeopardize the integrity of future fusion nuclear plants (i.e. ITER or DEMO) and to be a risk for the health of the operators. Actually, this team is working with the improved version of the 'STARDUST' facility, i.e. 'STARDUST-Upgrade'. STARDUST-U facility has four new air inlet ports that allow the experimental replication of Loss of Vacuum Accidents (LOVAs). The experimental campaign to detect the different pressurization rates, local air velocity, temperature, have been carried out from all the ports in different accident conditions and the principal results will be analyzed and compared with the numerical simulations obtained through a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) code. This preliminary thermo fluid-dynamic analysis of the accident is crucial for numerical model development and validation, and for the incoming experimental campaign of dust resuspension inside STARDUST-U due to well-defined accidents presented in this paper.

  2. Reincarnation of Stardust (United States)

    Talyansky, Vitaly


    During the industrious 90s both government agencies and brand owners faced a growing threat: rapid advances in the computer graphics technology allowed criminal syndicates to reach high sophistication levels in forging documents and branded products resulting in global losses of billions of dollars. Having studied various means to combat counterfeiting, we recognized the promise of IR luminescent ceramics and founded Stardust Materials. With little start-up capital, as novice entrepreneurs we truly believed that IR luminescence would stem the flow of fakes and ``save the world''. Within two years after inception we won a coveted contract to provide security to US tobacco tax stamps. A group of investors became interested in our initial success and suggested forming a new entity. Lacking business experience, we made costly mistakes starting with drafting a technology licensing agreement. Pitching our technology, the new corporation managed to raise 12 million in the investment-averse climate of post 9-11. However, its fortunes went downhill from then on. Soon we were forced to resign from the corporation leaving behind our technology, equipment, and high salaries. From scratch we commenced development of a new range of products. It would be surprising, if we did not get chased with an expensive IP law suit. Having successfully defended our new portfolio, we expanded the field of applications and began a steady growth. The story of Stardust sheds light on some of the tricky turns a scientist-entrepreneur may need to take to start and operate a company of his dreams.

  3. Autonomous Mars ascent and orbit rendezvous for earth return missions (United States)

    Edwards, H. C.; Balmanno, W. F.; Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.


    The details of tha assessment of autonomous Mars ascent and orbit rendezvous for earth return missions are presented. Analyses addressing navigation system assessments, trajectory planning, targeting approaches, flight control guidance strategies, and performance sensitivities are included. Tradeoffs in the analysis and design process are discussed.

  4. Mobile/Modular BSL-4 Facilities for Meeting Restricted Earth Return Containment Requirements (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Pace, L. F.


    NASA robotic sample return missions designated Category V Restricted Earth Return by the NASA Planetary Protection Office require sample containment and biohazard testing in a receiving laboratory as directed by NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 8020.12D - ensuring the preservation and protection of Earth and the sample. Currently, NPR 8020.12D classifies Restricted Earth Return for robotic sample return missions from Mars, Europa, and Enceladus with the caveat that future proposed mission locations could be added or restrictions lifted on a case by case basis as scientific knowledge and understanding of biohazards progresses. Since the 1960s, sample containment from an unknown extraterrestrial biohazard have been related to the highest containment standards and protocols known to modern science. Today, Biosafety Level (BSL) 4 standards and protocols are used to study the most dangerous high-risk diseases and unknown biological agents on Earth. Over 30 BSL-4 facilities have been constructed worldwide with 12 residing in the United States; of theses, 8 are operational. In the last two decades, these brick and mortar facilities have cost in the hundreds of millions of dollars dependent on the facility requirements and size. Previous mission concept studies for constructing a NASA sample receiving facility with an integrated BSL-4 quarantine and biohazard testing facility have also been estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars. As an alternative option, we have recently conducted an initial trade study for constructing a mobile and/or modular sample containment laboratory that would meet all BSL-4 and planetary protection standards and protocols at a faction of the cost. Mobile and modular BSL-2 and 3 facilities have been successfully constructed and deployed world-wide for government testing of pathogens and pharmaceutical production. Our study showed that a modular BSL-4 construction could result in approximately 90% cost reduction when compared to

  5. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination X: Impact Speeds and Directions of Interstellar Grains on the Stardust Dust Collector (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle J.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Altobelli, Nicolas; Grun, Eberhard; Hillier, Jon K.; Postberg, Frank; Allen, Carlton; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, Michael E.


    On the basis of an interstellar dust model compatible with Ulysses and Galileo observations, we calculate and predict the trajectories of interstellar dust (ISD) in the solar system and the distribution of the impact speeds, directions, and flux of ISD particles on the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector during the two collection periods of the mission. We find that the expected impact velocities are generally low (less than 10 km per second) for particles with the ratio of the solar radiation pressure force to the solar gravitational force beta greater than 1, and that some of the particles will impact on the cometary side of the collector. If we assume astronomical silicates for particle material and a density of 2 grams per cubic centimeter, and use the Ulysses measurements and the ISD trajectory simulations, we conclude that the total number of (detectable) captured ISD particles may be on the order of 50. In companion papers in this volume, we report the discovery of three interstellar dust candidates in the Stardust aerogel tiles. The impact directions and speeds of these candidates are consistent with those calculated from our ISD propagation model, within the uncertainties of the model and of the observations.

  6. A Free-Return Earth-Moon Cycler Orbit for an Interplanetary Cruise Ship (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz


    A periodic circumlunar orbit is presented that can be used by an interplanetary cruise ship for regular travel between Earth and the Moon. This Earth-Moon cycler orbit was revealed by introducing solar gravity and modest phasing maneuvers (average of 39 m/s per month) which yields close-Earth encounters every 7 or 10 days. Lunar encounters occur every 26 days and offer the chance for a smaller craft to depart the cycler and enter lunar orbit, or head for a Lagrange point (e.g., EM-L2 halo orbit), distant retrograde orbit (DRO), or interplanetary destination such as a near-Earth object (NEO) or Mars. Additionally, return-to-Earth abort options are available from many points along the cycling trajectory.

  7. In search of stardust amazing micrometeorites and their terrestrial imposters

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon


    In Search of Stardust is the first comprehensive popular science book about micrometeorites. It's illustrated with 1,500 previously unpublished images from high-resolution color microscopes and scanning electron microscopes.

  8. Amino Acids from a Comet (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla


    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  9. The Contrasting Soundscapes of Hull and London in David Bowie’s Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars


    Atkinson, Peter James


    In this article I apply the concept of the urban soundscape as developed by Long and Collins (2012) in an analysis of the impact musicians from Hull had on the evolution of David Bowie’s seminal 1972 work The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. I argue that the performance of Ziggy Stardust, both on record and on stage, is doubly coded in relation to place and space. The 'concept' of The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust as a musical, a fictional story with songs performe...

  10. Restricted by Whom? A Historical Review of Strategies and Organization for Restricted Earth Return of Samples from NASA Planetary Missions (United States)

    Pugel, Betsy


    This presentation is a review of the timeline for Apollo's approach to Planetary Protection, then known as Planetary Quarantine. Return of samples from Apollo 11, 12 and 14 represented NASA's first attempts into conducting what is now known as Restricted Earth Return, where return of samples is undertaken by the Agency with the utmost care for the impact that the samples may have on Earth's environment due to the potential presence of microbial or other life forms that originate from the parent body (in this case, Earth's Moon).

  11. Overview of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle (United States)

    Dillman, Robert; Corliss, James


    NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere samples back to Earth for detailed examination. Langley Research Center's MSR Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is a core part of the mission, protecting the sample container during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing. Planetary protection requirements demand a higher reliability from the EEV than for any previous planetary entry vehicle. An overview of the EEV design and preliminary analysis is presented, with a follow-on discussion of recommended future design trade studies to be performed over the next several years in support of an MSR launch in 2018 or 2020. Planned topics include vehicle size for impact protection of a range of sample container sizes, outer mold line changes to achieve surface sterilization during re-entry, micrometeoroid protection, aerodynamic stability, thermal protection, and structural materials selection.

  12. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations (United States)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.


    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  13. Asteroid Composite Tape (United States)


    This is a composite tape showing 10 short segments primarily about asteroids. The segments have short introductory slides, which include brief descriptions about the shots. The segments are: (1) Radar movie of asteroid 1620 Geographos; (2) Animation of the trajectories of Toutatis and Earth (3) Animation of a landing on Toutatis; (4) Simulated encounter of an asteroid with Earth, includes a simulated impact trajectory; (5) An animated overview of the Manrover vehicle; (6) The Near Earth Asteroid Tracking project, includes a photograph of USAF Station in Hawaii, and animation of Earth approaching 4179 Toutatis and the asteroid Gaspara; (7) live video of the anchor tests of the Champoleon anchoring apparatus; (8) a second live video of the Champoleon anchor tests showing anchoring spikes, and collision rings; (9) An animated segment with narration about the Stardust mission with sound, which describes the mission to fly close to a comet, and capture cometary material for return to Earth; (10) live video of the drop test of a Stardust replica from a hot air balloon; this includes sound but is not narrated.

  14. Strategies for Distinguishing Abiotic Chemistry from Martian Biochemistry in Samples Returned from Mars (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Callahan, M. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Stern, J. C.; Dworkin, J. P.


    A key goal in the search for evidence of extinct or extant life on Mars will be the identification of chemical biosignatures including complex organic molecules common to all life on Earth. These include amino acids, the monomer building blocks of proteins and enzymes, and nucleobases, which serve as the structural basis of information storage in DNA and RNA. However, many of these organic compounds can also be formed abiotically as demonstrated by their prevalence in carbonaceous meteorites [1]. Therefore, an important challenge in the search for evidence of life on Mars will be distinguishing between abiotic chemistry of either meteoritic or martian origin from any chemical biosignatures from an extinct or extant martian biota. Although current robotic missions to Mars, including the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the planned 2018 ExoMars rovers, will have the analytical capability needed to identify these key classes of organic molecules if present [2,3], return of a diverse suite of martian samples to Earth would allow for much more intensive laboratory studies using a broad array of extraction protocols and state-of-theart analytical techniques for bulk and spatially resolved characterization, molecular detection, and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions that may be required for unambiguous confirmation of martian life. Here we will describe current state-of-the-art laboratory analytical techniques that have been used to characterize the abundance and distribution of amino acids and nucleobases in meteorites, Apollo samples, and comet- exposed materials returned by the Stardust mission with an emphasis on their molecular characteristics that can be used to distinguish abiotic chemistry from biochemistry as we know it. The study of organic compounds in carbonaceous meteorites is highly relevant to Mars sample return analysis, since exogenous organic matter should have accumulated in the martian regolith over the last several billion years and the

  15. Planetary Protection for LIFE-Sample Return from Enceladus (United States)

    Tsou, Peter; Yano, Hajime; Takano, Yoshinori; McKay, David; Takai, Ken; Anbar, Ariel; Baross, J.

    ]. Current Plan: At the 1st flyby of Enceladus at high plume altitude (~150 km), we would survey the status of the plume and jets by making in situ measurements of the gas and dust densities, compositions, and velocities. We would also collect solid ice/volatile samples based upon prior ground planning. The 2nd and final flyby (determined via optimal trajectory from the 1st flyby) will be conducted at low altitude (~20 km), and would perform in situ measurements and collect solid ice and volatile samples. During the 5 year return cruise, we would maintain the samples in their captured state (frozen) under desiccating conditions of low temperature and pressure. After a direct Earth reentry, we would transport the frozen samples from the sample return capsule into a sealed sample transport container, which would then be transported to a higher Biosafety Level (BSL) facility from JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) for sample return capsule de-integration and sample distribution. Planetary Protection: Several options for sample return have been conceived and some even demonstrated on previous flight missions (STARDUST, Genesis and Hayabusa). To date, a flight qualified sample containment system does not exist in the US, and it would be cost prohibitive to flight-qualify such a system for use by LIFE under a Discovery Program. Harsh sterilization of the samples would destroy valuable molecular information, defeating the very purpose of returning samples to assess the habitability of Enceladus. The LIFE team has found a viable approach by teaming with JAXA/ISAS. Their Hayabusa II sample containment is a third generation device that can be further improved to meet these NASA and COSPAR planetary protection requirements in an Integrated Sample Subsystem for LIFE. Another aspect of LIFE is the initial de-integration and certification of the returned samples in a higher BSL facility. JAMSTEC is the world’s leading oceanography organization. They are

  16. Are Samples Obtained after Return to Earth Reflective of Spaceflight or Increased Gravity? (United States)

    Wade, C. R.; Holton, E.; Baer, L.; Moran, M.


    Upon return to Earth, following space flight, living systems are immediately exposed to an increase in gravity of 1G. It has been difficult to differentiate between changes that are residuals of the acclimation to space flight from those resulting from acute exposure to an increase in =gravity upon re-entry. We compared previously reported changes observed in male Sprague-Dawley rats upon return to Earth to those induced by centrifugation, because both paradigms result in an increase of 1G. With both treatments there was a reduction in body mass, due to reduced food intake and increased urine output. The decrease in food intake was initially greater with centrifugation. The magnitudes of the changes in food intake and urine output were similar in both treatments. However, the slightly greater initial loss in body mass with centrifugation was due to a decrease in water intake not seen after space flight. The absence of pronounced differences between these treatments suggest the responses observed after landing are not residuals of adaptation to the space flight environment, but the result of adaptation to an increase in the level of gravity.

  17. Advances in Astromaterials Curation: Supporting Future Sample Return Missions (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Fries, M. D..; Righter, K.; Allton, J. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Calaway, M. J.; Bell, M. S.


    NASA's Astromaterials, curated at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, are the most extensive, best-documented, and leastcontaminated extraterrestrial samples that are provided to the worldwide research community. These samples include lunar samples from the Apollo missions, meteorites collected over nearly 40 years of expeditions to Antarctica (providing samples of dozens of asteroid bodies, the Moon, and Mars), Genesis solar wind samples, cosmic dust collected by NASA's high altitude airplanes, Comet Wild 2 and interstellar dust samples from the Stardust mission, and asteroid samples from JAXA's Hayabusa mission. A full account of NASA's curation efforts for these collections is provided by Allen, et al [1]. On average, we annually allocate about 1500 individual samples from NASA's astromaterials collections to hundreds of researchers from around the world, including graduate students and post-doctoral scientists; our allocation rate has roughly doubled over the past 10 years. The curation protocols developed for the lunar samples returned from the Apollo missions remain relevant and are adapted to new and future missions. Several lessons from the Apollo missions, including the need for early involvement of curation scientists in mission planning [1], have been applied to all subsequent sample return campaigns. From the 2013 National Academy of Sciences report [2]: "Curation is the critical interface between sample return missions and laboratory research. Proper curation has maintained the scientific integrity and utility of the Apollo, Antarctic meteorite, and cosmic dust collections for decades. Each of these collections continues to yield important new science. In the past decade, new state-of-the-art curatorial facilities for the Genesis and Stardust missions were key to the scientific breakthroughs provided by these missions." The results speak for themselves: research on NASA's astromaterials result in hundreds of papers annually, yield fundamental

  18. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. (United States)

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik


    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission.

  19. Priority Science Targets for Future Sample Return Missions within the Solar System Out to the Year 2050 (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Burton, A. S.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Jones, J. H.; Keller, L. P.; hide


    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections: (1) Apollo samples, (2) LUNA samples, (3) Antarctic meteorites, (4) Cosmic dust particles, (5) Microparticle Impact Collection [formerly called Space Exposed Hardware], (6) Genesis solar wind, (7) Star-dust comet Wild-2 particles, (8) Stardust interstellar particles, and (9) Hayabusa asteroid Itokawa particles. In addition, the next missions bringing carbonaceous asteroid samples to JSC are Hayabusa 2/ asteroid Ryugu and OSIRIS-Rex/ asteroid Bennu, in 2021 and 2023, respectively. The Hayabusa 2 samples are provided as part of an international agreement with JAXA. The NASA Curation Office plans for the requirements of future collections in an "Advanced Curation" program. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. Here we review the science value and sample curation needs of some potential targets for sample return missions over the next 35 years.

  20. An Efficient Approach for Mars Sample Return Using Emerging Commercial Capabilities. (United States)

    Gonzales, Andrew A; Stoker, Carol R


    Mars Sample Return is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the 2011 Decadal Survey of Planetary Science [1]. This article presents the results of a feasibility study for a Mars Sample Return mission that efficiently uses emerging commercial capabilities expected to be available in the near future. The motivation of our study was the recognition that emerging commercial capabilities might be used to perform Mars Sample Return with an Earth-direct architecture, and that this may offer a desirable simpler and lower cost approach. The objective of the study was to determine whether these capabilities can be used to optimize the number of mission systems and launches required to return the samples, with the goal of achieving the desired simplicity. All of the major element required for the Mars Sample Return mission are described. Mission system elements were analyzed with either direct techniques or by using parametric mass estimating relationships. The analysis shows the feasibility of a complete and closed Mars Sample Return mission design based on the following scenario: A SpaceX Falcon Heavy launch vehicle places a modified version of a SpaceX Dragon capsule, referred to as "Red Dragon", onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule carries all the hardware needed to return to Earth Orbit samples collected by a prior mission, such as the planned NASA Mars 2020 sample collection rover. The payload includes a fully fueled Mars Ascent Vehicle; a fueled Earth Return Vehicle, support equipment, and a mechanism to transfer samples from the sample cache system onboard the rover to the Earth Return Vehicle. The Red Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using Supersonic Retropropulsion. After collected samples are transferred to the Earth Return Vehicle, the single-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle launches the Earth Return Vehicle from the surface of Mars to a Mars phasing orbit. After a brief phasing period, the Earth Return

  1. Mars Sample Return Architecture Overview (United States)

    Edwards, C. D.; Vijendran, S.


    NASA and ESA are exploring potential concepts for a Sample Retrieval Lander and Earth Return Orbiter that could return samples planned to be collected and cached by the Mars 2020 rover mission. We provide an overview of the Mars Sample Return architecture.

  2. Sustainable Mars Sample Return (United States)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert


    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  3. SEM-EDS Analyses of Small Craters in Stardust Aluminum Foils: Implications for the Wild-2 Dust Distribution (United States)

    Borg, J.; Horz, F.; Bridges, J. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Djouadi, Z.; Floss, C.; Graham, G. A.; Green, S. F.; Heck, P. R.; Hoppe, P.; hide


    Aluminium foils were used on Stardust to stabilize the aerogel specimens in the modular collector tray. Part of these foils were fully exposed to the flux of cometary grains emanating from Wild 2. Because the exposed part of these foils had to be harvested before extraction of the aerogel, numerous foil strips some 1.7 mm wide and 13 or 33 mm long were generated during Stardusts's Preliminary Examination (PE). These strips are readily accommodated in their entirety in the sample chambers of modern SEMs, thus providing the opportunity to characterize in situ the size distribution and residue composition - employing EDS methods - of statistically more significant numbers of cometary dust particles compared to aerogel, the latter mandating extensive sample preparation. We describe here the analysis of nearly 300 impact craters and their implications for Wild 2 dust.

  4. Advances in Small Particle Handling of Astromaterials in Preparation for OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa2: Initial Developments (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.


    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation office at NASA Johnson Space Center has established an Advanced Curation program that is tasked with developing procedures, technologies, and data sets necessary for the curation of future astromaterials collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. One particular objective of the Advanced Curation program is the development of new methods for the collection, storage, handling and characterization of small (less than 100 micrometer) particles. Astromaterials Curation currently maintains four small particle collections: Cosmic Dust that has been collected in Earth's stratosphere by ER2 and WB-57 aircraft, Comet 81P/Wild 2 dust returned by NASA's Stardust spacecraft, interstellar dust that was returned by Stardust, and asteroid Itokawa particles that were returned by the JAXA's Hayabusa spacecraft. NASA Curation is currently preparing for the anticipated return of two new astromaterials collections - asteroid Ryugu regolith to be collected by Hayabusa2 spacecraft in 2021 (samples will be provided by JAXA as part of an international agreement), and asteroid Bennu regolith to be collected by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and returned in 2023. A substantial portion of these returned samples are expected to consist of small particle components, and mission requirements necessitate the development of new processing tools and methods in order to maximize the scientific yield from these valuable acquisitions. Here we describe initial progress towards the development of applicable sample handling methods for the successful curation of future small particle collections.

  5. Comet 81p/Wild 2: The Updated Stardust Coma Dust Fluence Measurement for Smaller (Sub 10-Micrometre) Particles (United States)

    Price, M. C.; Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Horz, Friedrich; Cole, M. J.


    Micrometre and smaller scale dust within cometary comae can be observed by telescopic remote sensing spectroscopy [1] and the particle size and abundance can be measured by in situ spacecraft impact detectors [2]. Initial interpretation of the samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft [3] appears to show that very fine dust contributes not only a small fraction of the solid mass, but is also relatively sparse [4], with a low negative power function describing grain size distribution, contrasting with an apparent abundance indicated by the on-board Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) [5] operational during the encounter. For particles above 10 m diameter there is good correspondence between results from the DFMI and the particle size inferred from experimental calibration [6] of measured aerogel track and aluminium foil crater dimensions (as seen in Figure 4 of [4]). However, divergence between data-sets becomes apparent at smaller sizes, especially submicrometre, where the returned sample data are based upon location and measurement of tiny craters found by electron microscopy of Al foils. Here effects of detection efficiency tail-off at each search magnification can be seen in the down-scale flattening of each scale component, but are reliably compensated by sensible extrapolation between segments. There is also no evidence of malfunction in the operation of DFMI during passage through the coma (S. Green, personal comm.), so can the two data sets be reconciled?

  6. Thermal Protection for Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle: A Grand Challenge for Design Methodology and Reliability Verification (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter; Wright, Michael J.


    Mars Sample Return is our Grand Challenge for the coming decade. TPS (Thermal Protection System) nominal performance is not the key challenge. The main difficulty for designers is the need to verify unprecedented reliability for the entry system: current guidelines for prevention of backward contamination require that the probability of spores larger than 1 micron diameter escaping into the Earth environment be lower than 1 million for the entire system, and the allocation to TPS would be more stringent than that. For reference, the reliability allocation for Orion TPS is closer to 11000, and the demonstrated reliability for previous human Earth return systems was closer to 1100. Improving reliability by more than 3 orders of magnitude is a grand challenge indeed. The TPS community must embrace the possibility of new architectures that are focused on reliability above thermal performance and mass efficiency. MSR (Mars Sample Return) EEV (Earth Entry Vehicle) will be hit with MMOD (Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris) prior to reentry. A chute-less aero-shell design which allows for self-righting shape was baselined in prior MSR studies, with the assumption that a passive system will maximize EEV robustness. Hence the aero-shell along with the TPS has to take ground impact and not break apart. System verification will require testing to establish ablative performance and thermal failure but also testing of damage from MMOD, and structural performance at ground impact. Mission requirements will demand analysis, testing and verification that are focused on establishing reliability of the design. In this proposed talk, we will focus on the grand challenge of MSR EEV TPS and the need for innovative approaches to address challenges in modeling, testing, manufacturing and verification.

  7. Amino Acids in Asteroids and Comets: Implications for the Origin of Life on Earth and Possibly Elsewhere (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel


    Meteorites provide a record of the chemical processes that occurred in the early solar system before life began on Earth. The delivery of organic matter by asteroids, comets, and their fragments to the Earth and other planetary bodies in our solar system could have been an important source of the prebiotic organic inventory needed for the emergence of life. Amino acids are essential components of proteins and enzymes in life on Earth and these prebiotic organic compounds have been detected in a wide variety of carbon-rich meteorites, the majority of which have been determined to be extraterrestrial in origin. In addition, many amino acids are structurally chiral (they possess handedness) and with a few very rare exceptions, only left handed (L) amino acids are found in biology, while all known abiotic syntheses of amino acids result in equal mixtures of left and right handed (LD) amino acids. The discovery of a significant left handed amino acid imbalance of up to 20% in several different carbonaceous meteorites, could point toward a possible prebiotic contribution to the origin of biological homochirality by the exogenous delivery of extraterrestrial organic material to the early Earth. In this talk, I will focus on recent state-of-the-art measurements of the distribution, chirality, and isotopic composition of amino acids in meteorites and cometary samples carried out at the Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory. Results from the analyses of a variety of Antarctic meteorites, samples from comet Wild 2 returned by the STARDUST mission, and meteorite fragments of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta recovered from northern Sudan will be discussed

  8. Nondestructive 3D confocal laser imaging with deconvolution of seven whole stardust tracks with complementary XRF and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, M.; Ebel, D.S.


    We present a nondestructive 3D system for analysis of whole Stardust tracks, using a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy and synchrotron XRF. 3D deconvolution is used for optical corrections, and results of quantitative analyses of several tracks are presented. The Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 trapped many cometary and ISM particles in aerogel, leaving behind 'tracks' of melted silica aerogel on both sides of the collector. Collected particles and their tracks range in size from submicron to millimeter scale. Interstellar dust collected on the obverse of the aerogel collector is thought to have an average track length of ∼15 (micro)m. It has been our goal to perform a total non-destructive 3D textural and XRF chemical analysis on both types of tracks. To that end, we use a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy (LCSM) and X Ray Florescence (XRF) spectrometry. Utilized properly, the combination of 3D optical data and chemical data provides total nondestructive characterization of full tracks, prior to flattening or other destructive analysis methods. Our LCSM techniques allow imaging at 0.075 (micro)m/pixel, without the use of oil-based lenses. A full textural analysis on track No.82 is presented here as well as analysis of 6 additional tracks contained within 3 keystones (No.128, No.129 and No.140). We present a method of removing the axial distortion inherent in LCSM images, by means of a computational 3D Deconvolution algorithm, and present some preliminary experiments with computed point spread functions. The combination of 3D LCSM data and XRF data provides invaluable information, while preserving the integrity of the samples for further analysis. It is imperative that these samples, the first extraterrestrial solids returned since the Apollo era, be fully mapped nondestructively in 3D, to preserve the maximum amount of information prior to other, destructive analysis.

  9. Meteorites and cosmic dust: Interstellar heritage and nebular processes in the early solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engrand C.


    Full Text Available Small solar system bodies like asteroids and comets have escaped planetary accretion. They are the oldest and best preserved witnesses of the formation of the solar system. Samples of these celestial bodies fall on Earth as meteorites and interplanetary dust. The STARDUST mission also recently returned to Earth cometary dust from comet 81P/Wild 2, a Jupiter Family Comet (JFC. These samples provide unique insights on the physico-chemical conditions and early processes of the solar system. They also contain some minute amount of materials inherited from the local interstellar medium that have survived the accretion processes in the solar system.

  10. Stardust from meteorites an introduction to presolar grains

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria


    The study of presolar meteoritic grains is a new inter-disciplinary field that brings together topics from nuclear physics to astronomy and chemistry. Traditionally, most of the information about the cosmos has been gathered by observing light through telescopes. However, with the recent discovery that some dust grains extracted from primitive meteorites were produced in stellar environments, we now have the opportunity to gather information about stars and our Galaxy from the laboratory analysis of tiny pieces of stardust. Stellar grains represent a unique and fascinating subject of study. Their analysis is a breakthrough in research on stellar nucleosynthesis and the origin of the elements. While a number of specialized reviews exist on the topic, this book is the first work that brings together in a unified and accessible manner the background knowledge necessary for the study of presolar grains together with up-to-date discoveries in the field. The book includes exercise questions and answers, an extensiv...

  11. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.


    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  12. Meteoritic Stardust and the Presolar History of the Solar Neighborhood (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R.

    Presolar stardust is present at low levels in meteorites and cometary dust and identified as ancient stellar matter by unusual isotopic compositions reflecting nuclear processes in stellar interiors and galactic chemical evolution. Most grains originated in winds from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supernova and their isotopic compositions provide important constraints on models of evolution and nucleosynthesis in these environments. The presolar grains from AGB stars appear to have formed in a lower-mass population of stars than predicted by GCE models. A merger of the Milky Way with a dwarf galaxy some 1 Gyr before the birth of the Solar System may explain this and other grain observations and the data thus can provide a unique window into the presolar history of the solar neighborhood.

  13. Mars Sample Return Using Solar Sail Propulsion (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Macdonald, Malcolm; Mcinnes, Colin; Percy, Tom


    Many Mars Sample Return (MSR) architecture studies have been conducted over the years. A key element of them is the Earth Return Stage (ERS) whose objective is to obtain the sample from the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and return it safely to the surface of the Earth. ERS designs predominantly use chemical propulsion [1], incurring a significant launch mass penalty due to the low specific impulse of such systems coupled with the launch mass sensitivity to returned mass. It is proposed to use solar sail propulsion for the ERS, providing a high (effective) specific impulse propulsion system in the final stage of the multi-stage system. By doing so to the launch mass of the orbiter mission can be significantly reduced and hence potentially decreasing mission cost. Further, solar sailing offers a unique set of non-Keplerian low thrust trajectories that may enable modifications to the current approach to designing the Earth Entry Vehicle by potentially reducing the Earth arrival velocity. This modification will further decrease the mass of the orbiter system. Solar sail propulsion uses sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like surface made of a lightweight, reflective material. The continuous photonic pressure provides propellantless thrust to conduct orbital maneuvering and plane changes more efficiently than conventional chemical propulsion. Because the Sun supplies the necessary propulsive energy, solar sails require no onboard propellant, thus reducing system mass. This technology is currently at TRL 7/8 as demonstrated by the 2010 flight of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, IKAROS mission. [2

  14. A Recursive Formula for the Evaluation of Earth Return Impedance on Buried Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Iracheta


    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative solution based on infinite series for the accurate and efficient evaluation of cable earth return impedances. This method uses Wedepohl and Wilcox’s transformation to decompose Pollaczek’s integral in a set of Bessel functions and a definite integral. The main feature of Bessel functions is that they are easy to compute in modern mathematical software tools such as Matlab. The main contributions of this paper are the approximation of the definite integral by an infinite series, since it does not have analytical solution; and its numerical solution by means of a recursive formula. The accuracy and efficiency of this recursive formula is compared against the numerical integration method for a broad range of frequencies and cable  configurations. Finally, the proposed method is used as a subroutine for cable parameter calculation in the inverse Numerical Laplace Transform (NLT to obtain accurate transient responses in the time domain.

  15. p-process xenon isotope anomalies in stardust grains from meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, U.


    Full text: In measurements on 'bulk' samples of meteorites isotopic variations due to the p-process usually have taken a backseat compared to such in s- or r-isotopes, and, in the best case, can be qualitatively attributed to the p-process, with little to no inferences concerning detailed isotopic yields. The situation is different for grains of stardust that survived in primitive meteorites. In fact, isotopically strange xenon was the key feature that led to the first identification of a stardust mineral, nanodiamonds containing xenon with overabundances of up to a factor of ∼2 in both the r-only (≡H-Xe) and p-only (≡L-Xe) isotopes. Relative excesses of the two r-only isotopes ( 134 Xe, 136 Xe) as well as of the two p-only isotopes ( 124 Xe, 126 Xe) are not equal, hence the processes responsible for HL-xenon must differ from the 'average' r- and p-processes as reflected in solar system abundances. However, while considerable effort has been put into explaining H-Xe, there has been little work on the p-side (L-Xe). Relying on scarce nuclear data, Heymann and Dziczkaniec have studied photodisintegration reactions of Xe and Ba seeds in intermediate zones of supernovae and found that the relative production of the p-Xe isotopes depends sensitively on the yield of the (γ, α) reaction on 128 Ba. Another suggestion - applicable to both the r- and p-anomalies in diamond xenon - is that of a 'rapid separation' between stable Xe isotopes and radioactive precursors produced in the 'standard' p- (as well as r-) process. For the p-isotopes to work, this would require the bulk (87%) of 126 Xe to be produced via the 126 Ba precursor, with a half live of ∼100 minutes, in order to explain the high 124 Xe/ 126 Xe. In contrast to diamond xenon, xenon in silicon carbide contains - besides the component from the s-process in their parent AGB stars - 'almost normal' Xe, with indications for 124 Xe/ 126 Xe being few (∼8)% lower than in solar Xe.

  16. 3D numerical simulations of a LOVA reproduction inside the new facility STARDUST-UPGRADE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciparisse, J.F.; Malizia, A.; Poggi, L.A.; Gelfusa, M.; Papa, C. Del; Giovannangeli, I.; Gaudio, P.; Tieri, F.; Murari, A.


    A loss of vacuum in a vessel, containing or not dust, is the typical case study considered in the STARDUST-UPGRADE facility of the Quantum Electronics and Plasma Group of the university of Rome Tor Vergata. This kind of accident was simulated numerically, without including the presence of dust, for two mass flow rates and three different inlet ports (C, E and F). Numerical settings are explained and the results obtained in each case are shown and discussed. At the end of the work, conclusions about what seen and further foreseen developments of this research are presented.

  17. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.


    affected all of the planets of the inner solar system, and in particular, could have been critical to the history of life on Earth. If the SPA is significantly older, a more orderly cratering history may be inferred. Secondly, melt-rock compositions and clasts in melt rocks or breccias may yield evidence of the composition of the lunar mantle, which could have been penetrated by the impact or exposed by the rebound process that occurred after the impact. Thirdly, study of mare and cryptomare basalts could yield further constraints on the age of SPA and the thermal history of the crust and mantle in that region. The integration of these data may allow inferences to be made on the nature of the impacting body. Secondary science objectives in samples from the SPA could include analysis of the regolith for the latitudinal effects of solar wind irradiation, which should be reduced from its equatorial values; possible remnant magnetization of very old basalts; and evidence for Imbrium Basin ejecta and KREEP materials. If a sampling site is chosen close enough to the poles, it is possible that indirect evidence of polar-ice deposits may be found in the form of oxidized or hydrated regolith constituents. A sample return mission to the Moon may be possible within the constraints of NASA's Discovery Program. Recent progress in the development of sample return canisters for Genesis, Stardust, and Mars Sample Return missions suggests that a small capsule can be returned directly to the ground without a parachute, thus reducing its mass and complexity. Return of a 1-kg sample from the lunar surface would appear to be compatible with a Delta 11 class launch from Earth, or possibly with a piggyback opportunity on a commercial launch to GEO. A total mission price tag on the order of 100 million would be a goal. Target date would be late 2002. Samples would be returned to the curatorial facility at the Johnson Space Center for description and allocation for investigations. Concentration of

  18. Comet 81P/Wild 2 under a microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownlee, D; Tsou, P; Aleon, J; Alexander, C; Araki, T; Bajt, S; Baratta, G A; Bastien, R; Bland, P; Bleuet, P; Borg, J; Bradley, J P; Brearley, A; Brenker, F; Brennan, S; Bridges, J C; Browning, N; Brucato, J R; Bullock, E; Burchell, M J; Busemann, H; Butterworth, A; Chaussidon, M; Cheuvront, A; Chi, M; Cintala, M J; Clark, B C; Clemett, S J; Cody, G; Colangeli, L; Cooper, G; Cordier, P; Daghlian, C; Dai, Z R; D' Hendecourt, L; Djouadi, Z; Dominguez, G; Duxbury, T; Dworkin, J P; Ebel, D; Economou, T E; Fairey, S J; Fallon, S; Ferrini, G; Ferroir, T; Fleckenstein, H; Floss, C; Flynn, G; Franchi, I A; Fries, M; Gainsforth, Z; Gallien, J; Genge, M; Gilles, M K; Gillet, P; Gilmour, J; Glavin, D P; Gounelle, M; Grady, M M; Graham, G A; Grant, P G; Green, S F; Grossemy, F; Grossman, L; Grossman, J; Guan, Y; Hagiya, K; Harvey, R; Heck, P; Herzog, G F; Hoppe, P; Horz, F; Huth, J; Hutcheon, I D; Ishii, H; Ito, M; Jacob, D; Jacobsen, C; Jacobsen, S; Joswiak, D; Kearsley, A T; Keller, L; Khodja, H; Kilcoyne, A D; Kissel, J; Krot, A; Langenhorst, F; Lanzirotti, A; Le, L; Leshin, L; Leitner, J; Lemelle, L; Leroux, H; Liu, M; Luening, K; Lyon, I; MacPherson, G; Marcus, M A; Marhas, K; Matrajt, G; Meibom, A; Mennella, V; Messenger, K; Mikouchi, T; Mostefaoui, S; Nakamura, T; Nakano, T; Newville, M; Nittler, L R; Ohnishi, I; Ohsumi, K; Okudaira, K; Papanastassiou, D A; Palma, R; Palumbo, M E; Pepin, R O; Perkins, D; Perronnet, M; Pianetta, P; Rao, W; Rietmeijer, F; Robert, F; Rost, D; Rotundi, A; Ryan, R; Sandford, S A; Schwandt, C S; See, T H; Schlutter, D; Sheffield-Parker, J; Simionovici, A; Simon, S; Sitnitsky, I; Snead, C J; Spencer, M K; Stadermann, F J; Steele, A; Stephan, T; Stroud, R; Susini, J; Sutton, S R; Taheri, M; Taylor, S; Teslich, N; Tomeoka, K; Tomioka, N; Toppani, A; Trigo-Rodriguez, J M; Troadec, D; Tsuchiyama, A; Tuzolino, A J; Tyliszczak, T; Uesugi, K; Velbel, M; Vellenga, J; Vicenzi, E; Vincze, L; Warren, J; Weber, I; Weisberg, M; Westphal, A J; Wirick, S; Wooden, D; Wopenka, B; Wozniakiewicz, P; Wright, I; Yabuta, K; Yano, H; Young, E D; Zare, R N; Zega, T


    The Stardust spacecraft collected thousands of particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 and returned them to Earth for laboratory study. The preliminary examination of these samples shows that the nonvolatile portion of the comet is an unequilibrated assortment of materials that have both presolar and solar system origin. The comet contains an abundance of silicate grains that are much larger than predictions of interstellar grain models, and many of these are high-temperature minerals that appear to have formed in the inner regions of the solar nebula. Their presence in a comet proves that the formation of the solar system included mixing on the grandest scales. Stardust was the first mission to return solid samples from a specific astronomical body other than the Moon. The mission, part of the NASA Discovery program, retrieved samples from a comet that is believed to have formed at the outer fringe of the solar nebula, just beyond the most distant planet. The samples, isolated from the planetary region of the solar system for billions of years, provide new insight into the formation of the solar system. The samples provide unprecedented opportunities both to corroborate astronomical (remote sensing) and sample analysis information (ground truth) on a known primitive solar system body and to compare preserved building blocks from the edge of the planetary system with sample-derived and astronomical data for asteroids, small bodies that formed more than an order of magnitude closer to the Sun. The asteroids, parents of most meteorites, formed by accretion of solids in warmer, denser, more collisionally evolved inner regions of the solar nebula where violent nebular events were capable of flash-melting millimeter-sized rocks, whereas comets formed in the coldest, least dense region. The samples collected by Stardust are the first primitive materials from a known body, and as such they provide contextual insight for all primitive meteoritic samples. About 200 investigators

  19. Cometary Dust (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Agarwal, Jessica; Cottin, Hervé; Engrand, Cécile; Flynn, George; Fulle, Marco; Gombosi, Tamas; Langevin, Yves; Lasue, Jérémie; Mannel, Thurid; Merouane, Sihane; Poch, Olivier; Thomas, Nicolas; Westphal, Andrew


    This review presents our understanding of cometary dust at the end of 2017. For decades, insight about the dust ejected by nuclei of comets had stemmed from remote observations from Earth or Earth's orbit, and from flybys, including the samples of dust returned to Earth for laboratory studies by the Stardust return capsule. The long-duration Rosetta mission has recently provided a huge and unique amount of data, obtained using numerous instruments, including innovative dust instruments, over a wide range of distances from the Sun and from the nucleus. The diverse approaches available to study dust in comets, together with the related theoretical and experimental studies, provide evidence of the composition and physical properties of dust particles, e.g., the presence of a large fraction of carbon in macromolecules, and of aggregates on a wide range of scales. The results have opened vivid discussions on the variety of dust-release processes and on the diversity of dust properties in comets, as well as on the formation of cometary dust, and on its presence in the near-Earth interplanetary medium. These discussions stress the significance of future explorations as a way to decipher the formation and evolution of our Solar System.

  20. Ground Return Current Behaviour in High Voltage Alternating Current Insulated Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato


    Full Text Available The knowledge of ground return current in fault occurrence plays a key role in the dimensioning of the earthing grid of substations and of cable sealing end compounds, in the computation of rise of earth potential at substation sites and in electromagnetic interference (EMI on neighbouring parallel metallic conductors (pipes, handrails, etc.. Moreover, the ground return current evaluation is also important in steady-state regime since this stray current can be responsible for EMI and also for alternating current (AC corrosion. In fault situations and under some assumptions, the ground return current value at a substation site can be computed by means of k-factors. The paper shows that these simplified and approximated approaches have a lot of limitations and only multiconductor analysis can show the ground return current behaviour along the cable (not only the two end values both in steady-state regime and in short circuit occurrence (e.g., phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase-to-ground. Multiconductor cell analysis (MCA considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The sensitivity of ground return current on circuit parameters (cross-bonding box resistances, substation earthing resistances, soil resistivity is presented in the paper.

  1. Interpretation of Wild 2 Dust Fine Structure: Comparison of Stardust Aluminium Foil Craters to the Three-Dimensional Shape of Experimental Impacts by Artificial Aggregate Particles and Meteorite Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearsley, A T; Burchell, M J; Price, M C; Graham, G A; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Cole, M J; Foster, N J; Teslich, N


    New experimental results show that Stardust crater morphology is consistent with interpretation of many larger Wild 2 dust grains being aggregates, albeit most of low porosity and therefore relatively high density. The majority of large Stardust grains (i.e. those carrying most of the cometary dust mass) probably had density of 2.4 g cm{sup -3} (similar to soda-lime glass used in earlier calibration experiments) or greater, and porosity of 25% or less, akin to consolidated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and much lower than the 80% suggested for fractal dust aggregates. Although better size calibration is required for interpretation of the very smallest impacting grains, we suggest that aggregates could have dense components dominated by {micro}m-scale and smaller sub-grains. If porosity of the Wild 2 nucleus is high, with similar bulk density to other comets, much of the pore-space may be at a scale of tens of micrometers, between coarser, denser grains. Successful demonstration of aggregate projectile impacts in the laboratory now opens the possibility of experiments to further constrain the conditions for creation of bulbous (Type C) tracks in aerogel, which we have observed in recent shots. We are also using mixed mineral aggregates to document differential survival of pristine composition and crystalline structure in diverse fine-grained components of aggregate cometary dust analogues, impacted onto both foil and aerogel under Stardust encounter conditions.

  2. SIMS Studies of Allende Projectiles Fired into Stardust-type Aluminum Foils at 6 km/s (United States)

    Hoppe, Peter; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Floss, Christine; Leitner, Jan; Marhas, Kuljeet; Horz, Friedrich


    We have explored the feasibility of C-, N-, and O-isotopic measurements by NanoSIMS and of elemental abundance determinations by TOF-SIMS on residues of Allende projectiles that impacted Stardust-type aluminum foils in the laboratory at 6 km/s. These investigations are part of a consortium study aimed at providing the foundation for the characterization of matter associated with micro-craters that were produced during the encounter of the Stardust space probe with comet 81P/Wild 2. Eleven experimental impact craters were studied by NanoSIMS and eighteen by TOF-SIMS. Crater sizes were between 3 and 190 microns. The NanoSIMS measurements have shown that the crater morphology has only a minor effect on spatial resolution and on instrumental mass fractionation. The achievable spatial resolution is always better than 200 nm, and C- and O-isotopic ratios can be measured with a precision of several percent at a scale of several 100 nm, the typical size of presolar grains. This clearly demonstrates that presolar matter, provided it survives the impact into the aluminum foil partly intact, is recognizable even if embedded in material of Solar System origin. TOF-SIMS studies are restricted to materials from the crater rim. The element ratios of the major rockforming elements in the Allende projectiles are well characterized by the TOF-SIMS measurements, indicating that fractionation of those elements during impact can be expected to be negligible. This permits information on the type of impactor material to be obtained. For any more detailed assignments to specific chondrite groups, however, information on the abundances of the light elements, especially C, is crucial.

  3. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    The Martian moons still remain a mystery after numerous studies by Mars orbiting spacecraft. Their study cover three major topics related to (1) Solar system in general (formation and evolution, origin of planetary satellites, origin and evolution of life); (2) small bodies (captured asteroid, or remnants of Mars formation, or reaccreted Mars ejecta); (3) Mars (formation and evolution of Mars; Mars ejecta at the satellites). As reviewed by Galimov [2010] most of the above questions require the sample return from the Martian moon, while some (e.g. the characterization of the organic matter) could be also answered by in situ experiments. There is the possibility to obtain the sample of Mars material by sampling Phobos: following to Chappaz et al. [2012] a 200-g sample could contain 10-7 g of Mars surface material launched during the past 1 mln years, or 5*10-5 g of Mars material launched during the past 10 mln years, or 5*1010 individual particles from Mars, quantities suitable for accurate laboratory analyses. The studies of Phobos have been of high priority in the Russian program on planetary research for many years. Phobos-88 mission consisted of two spacecraft (Phobos-1, Phobos-2) and aimed the approach to Phobos at 50 m and remote studies, and also the release of small landers (long-living stations DAS). This mission implemented the program incompletely. It was returned information about the Martian environment and atmosphere. The next profect Phobos Sample Return (Phobos-Grunt) initially planned in early 2000 has been delayed several times owing to budget difficulties; the spacecraft failed to leave NEO in 2011. The recovery of the science goals of this mission and the delivery of the samples of Phobos to Earth remain of highest priority for Russian scientific community. The next Phobos SR mission named Boomerang was postponed following the ExoMars cooperation, but is considered the next in the line of planetary exploration, suitable for launch around 2022. A

  4. Self-impedances of finite and infinite wires with earth-return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koglin, H.J.; Meyer, E.P.


    The electromagnetic field for a thin wire of finite length, embedded in a homogeneous earth of infinite extent in all directions, is given. The distribution of the electric field intensity close to the wire is examined. The mathematical model for the finite wire is expanded by substituting a spheroidal earth-electrode at each end. The external self-impedance of the wire between the earth-electrodes is calculated by integrating the electric field intensity along a presupposed radius. Especially in the case of short wires the results show considerable deviations to the known depth of current penetration as compared to that of an infinitely long wire. By considering the approximations used for short wires in this model, one can draw conclusions on the external self-impedance for short wires above, on and under the earth's surface. (orig.) [de

  5. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection (United States)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron


    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  6. Large eddy simulation of Loss of Vacuum Accident in STARDUST facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, Miriam; Gaudio, Pasquale; Lupelli, Ivan; Malizia, Andrea; Porfiri, Maria Teresa; Richetta, Maria


    Highlights: ► Fusion safety, plasma material interaction. ► Numerical and experimental data comparison to analyze the consequences of Loss of Vacuum Accident that can provoke dust mobilization inside the Vacuum Vessel of the Nuclear Fusion Reactor ITER-like. -- Abstract: The development of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of air ingress into the vacuum vessel (VV) represents an important issue concerning the safety analysis of nuclear fusion devices, in particular in the field of dust mobilization. The present work deals with the large eddy simulations (LES) of fluid dynamic fields during a vessel filling at near vacuum conditions to support the safety study of Loss of Vacuum Accidents (LOVA) events triggered by air income. The model's results are compared to the experimental data provided by STARDUST facility at different pressurization rates (100 Pa/s, 300 Pa/s and 500 Pa/s). Simulation's results compare favorably with experimental data, demonstrating the possibility of implementing LES in large vacuum systems as tokamaks

  7. Comet coma sample return instrument (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.


    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  8. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.


    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  9. TOF-SIMS Analysis of Crater Residues from Wild 2 Cometary on Stardust Aluminum Foil (United States)

    Leutner, Jan; Stephan, Thomas; Kearsley, T.; Horz, Friedrich; Flynn, George J.; Sandford, Scott A.


    Impact residues of cometary particles on aluminum foils from the Stardust mission were investigated with TOF-SIMS for their elemental and organic composition. The residual matter from comet 81P/Wild 2 shows a wide compositional range, from nearly monomineralic grains to polymict aggregates. Despite the comparably small analyzed sample volume, the average element composition of the investigated residues is similar to bulk CI chondritic values. Analysis of organic components in impact residues is complicated, due to fragmentation and alteration of the compounds during the impact process and by the presence of contaminants on the aluminum foils. Nevertheless, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are unambiguously associated with the impact residues were observed, and thus are most likely of cometary origin.

  10. I. T. - R. O. C. K. S. Comet Nuclei Sample Return Mission (United States)

    Dalcher, N.


    Ices, organics and minerals recording the chemical evolution of the outer regions of the early solar nebula are the main constituents of comets. Because comets maintain the nearly pristine nature of the cloud where they formed, the analyses of their composition, structure, thermodynamics and isotope ratios will increase our understanding of the processes that occurred in the early phases of the solar system as well as the Interstellar Medium (ISM) Cloud that predated the formation of the solar nebula [1]. While the deep impact mission aimed at determining the internal structure of comet Temple1's nuclei [e.g. 3], the stardust mission sample return has dramatically increased our understanding of comets. Its first implications indicated that some of the comet material originated in the inner solar system and was later transported outward beyond the freezing line [4]. A wide range of organic compounds identified within different grains of the aerogel collectors has demonstrated the heterogeneity in their assemblages [5]. This suggests either many histories associated with these material or possibly analytical constraints imposed by capture heating of Wild2 material in silica aerogel. The current mission ROSETTA, will further expand our knowledge about comets considerably through rigorous in situ analyses of a Jupiter Family Comet (JFC). As the next generation of comet research post ROSETTA, we present the comet nuclei sample return mission IT - ROCKS (International Team - Return Of Comet's Key Samples) to return several minimally altered samples from various locations of comet 88P/Howell, a typical JFC. The mission scenario includes remote sensing of the comet's nucleus with onboard instruments similar to the ROSETTA instruments [6, 7, 8] (VIS, IR, Thermal IR, X-Ray, Radar) and gas/dust composition measurements including a plasma science package. Additionally two microprobes [9] will further investigate the physical properties of the comet's surface. Retrieving of the

  11. Catching Comet's Particles in the Earth's Atmosphere by Using Balloons (United States)

    Potashko, Oleksandr; Viso, Michel

    The project is intended to catch cometary particles in the atmosphere by using balloons. The investigation is based upon knowledge that the Earth crosses the comet’s tails during the year. One can catch these particles at different altitudes in the atmosphere. So, we will be able to gradually advance in the ability to launch balloons from low to high altitudes and try to catch particles from different comet tails. The maximum altitude that we have to reach is 40 km. Both methods - distance observation and cometary samples from mission Stardust testify to the presence of organic components in comet’s particles. It would be useful to know more details about this organic matter for astrobiology; besides, the factor poses danger to the Earth. Moreover, it is important to prove that it is possible to get fundamental scientific results at low cost. In the last 5 years launching balloons has become popular and this movement looks like hackers’ one - as most of them occur without launch permission to airspace. The popularity of ballooning is connected with low cost of balloon, GPS unit, video recording unit. If you use iPhone, you have a light solution with GPS, video, picture and control function in one unit. The price of balloon itself begins from $50; it depends on maximum altitude, payload weight and material. Many university teams realized balloon launching and reached even stratosphere at an altitude of 33 km. But most of them take only video and picture. Meanwhile, it is possible to carry out scientific experiments by ballooning, for example to collect comet particles. There is rich experience at the moment of the use of mineral, chemical and isotopic analysis techniques and data of the comet’s dust after successful landing of StarDust capsule with samples in 2006. Besides, we may use absolutely perfect material to catch particles in the atmosphere, which was used by cosmic missions such as Stardust and Japanese Hayabusa. As to balloon launches, we could use

  12. Laboratory Studies of Cometary Materials - Continuity Between Asteroid and Comet (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Walker, Robert M.


    Laboratory analysis of cometary samples have been enabled by collection of cometary dust in the stratosphere by high altitude aircraft and by the direct sampling of the comet Wild-2 coma by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. Cometary materials are composed of a complex assemblage of highly primitive, unprocessed interstellar and primordial solar system materials as well as a variety of high temperature phases that must have condensed in the inner regions of the protoplanetary disk. These findings support and contradict conclusions of comet properties based solely on astronomical observations. These sample return missions have instead shown that there is a continuity of properties between comets and asteroids, where both types of materials show evidence for primitive and processed materials. Furthermore, these findings underscore the importance and value of direct sample return. There will be great value in comparing the findings of the Stardust cometary coma sample return mission with those of future asteroid surface sample returns OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa II as well as future comet nucleus sample returns.

  13. Proposals for Protection of Return Cables on SwePol Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Szczepański


    Full Text Available The return cable on the SwePol Link has been introduced as an alternative forced by environmentalists due to lack of social acceptance of other solutions. This is why in the proposed solution water and earth have been replaced by two return cables, although from a technical point of view such a solution is less effective. The last, eleventh fault of the return cable took place on 15 October 2012. In eight earlier cases the faults were caused by electrical failures in the cable in the sea and were located between ten and twenty kilometers from the Polish shore and triggered by disturbances in the northern part of the Polish power grid. In this situation it has been suggested to analyze and introduce one or two solutions shown below which may significantly limit the effects and lower the costs caused by return cable faults: a assembly of additional surge arresters b return to electrodes – lack of return cables c ”partial” electrodes working with one return cable d operation of the link only with earthings on converter stations. To sum up it needs to be stated that: • a relatively cheap way of protecting return cables against electrical failures is installing surge arresters in the cabinet located next to the cable container on the Polish shore • from the suggested preventive measures it seems reasonable to introduce the above mentioned solutions a and d simultaneously, as both of them are simple solutions which require neither considerable financial expenditure nor authorizations and may quickly show the expected results.

  14. Mars Sample Return Landed with Red Dragon (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Lemke, Lawrence G.


    A Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science. However, an affordable program to carry this out has not been defined. This paper describes a study that examined use of emerging commercial capabilities to land the sample return elements, with the goal of reducing mission cost. A team at NASA Ames examined the feasibility of the following scenario for MSR: A Falcon Heavy launcher injects a SpaceX Dragon crew capsule and trunk onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule is modified to carry all the hardware needed to return samples collected on Mars including a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) and Sample Collection and Storage hardware. The Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using SuperSonic Retro Propulsion (SSRP) as described by Braun and Manning [IEEEAC paper 0076, 2005]. Samples are acquired and deliverd to the MAV by a prelanded asset, possibly the proposed 2020 rover. After samples are obtained and stored in the ERV, the MAV launches the sample-containing ERV from the surface of Mars. We examined cases where the ERV is delivered to either low Mars orbit (LMO), C3 = 0 (Mars escape), or an intermediate energy state. The ERV then provides the rest of the energy (delta V) required to perform trans-Earth injection (TEI), cruise, and insertion into a Moon-trailing Earth Orbit (MTEO). A later mission, possibly a crewed Dragon launched by a Falcon Heavy (not part of the current study) retrieves the sample container, packages the sample, and performs a controlled Earth re-entry to prevent Mars materials from accidentally contaminating Earth. The key analysis methods used in the study employed a set of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) and standard aerospace analysis software codes modified for the MAV class of launch vehicle to determine the range of performance parameters that produced converged

  15. Performance of single wire earth return transformers with amorphous alloy core in a rural electric energy distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano


    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some considerations about the performance of single wire earth return amorphous alloy core transformers in comparison with conventional silicon steel sheets cores transformers used in rural electric energy distribution network. It has been recognized that amorphous metal core transformers improve electrical power distribution efficiency by reducing transformer core losses. This reduction is due to some electromagnetic properties of the amorphous alloys such as: high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, and low coercivity. Experimental results obtained with some single-phase, 60 Hz, 5 kVA amorphous core transformers installed in a rural area electric distribution system in Northern Brazil have been confirming their superior performance in comparison to identical nominal rated transformers built with conventional silicon steel cores, particularly with regard to the excitation power and to the no-load losses.

  16. The earth and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T


    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te

  17. On Presolar Stardust Grains from CO Classical Novae (United States)

    Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori N.; José, Jordi; Nittler, Larry R.; Starrfield, Sumner


    About 30%–40% of classical novae produce dust 20–100 days after the outburst, but no presolar stardust grains from classical novae have been unambiguously identified yet. Although several studies claimed a nova paternity for certain grains, the measured and simulated isotopic ratios could only be reconciled, assuming that the grains condensed after the nova ejecta mixed with a much larger amount of close-to-solar matter. However, the source and mechanism of this potential post-explosion dilution of the ejecta remains a mystery. A major problem with previous studies is the small number of simulations performed and the implied poor exploration of the large nova parameter space. We report the results of a different strategy, based on a Monte Carlo technique, that involves the random sampling over the most important nova model parameters: the white dwarf composition; the mixing of the outer white dwarf layers with the accreted material before the explosion; the peak temperature and density; the explosion timescales; and the possible dilution of the ejecta after the outburst. We discuss and take into account the systematic uncertainties for both the presolar grain measurements and the simulation results. Only those simulations that are consistent with all measured isotopic ratios of a given grain are accepted for further analysis. We also present the numerical results of the model parameters. We identify 18 presolar grains with measured isotopic signatures consistent with a CO nova origin, without assuming any dilution of the ejecta. Among these, the grains G270_2, M11-334-2, G278, M11-347-4, M11-151-4, and Ag26 have the highest probability of a CO nova paternity.

  18. Return and profitability of space programs. Information - the main product of flights in space (United States)

    Nikolova, Irena

    The basic branch providing global information, as a product on the market, is astronautics and in particular aero and space flights. Nowadays economic categories like profitability, return, and self-financing are added to space information. The activity in the space information service market niche is an opportunity for realization of high economic efficiency and profitability. The present report aims at examining the possibilities for return and profitability of space programs. Specialists in economics from different countries strive for defining the economic effect of implementing space technologies in the technical branches on earth. Still the priorities here belong to government and insufficient market organization and orientation is apparent. Attracting private investors and searching for new mechanisms of financing are the factors for increasing economic efficiency and return of capital invested in the mentioned sphere. Return of utilized means is an economically justified goal, a motive for a bigger enlargement of efforts and directions for implementing the achievements of astronautics in the branches of economy on earth.

  19. Phobos/Deimos sample return via solar sail. (United States)

    Matloff, Gregory L; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley; Moton, Tryshanda


    A sample-return mission to the Martian satellites using a con-temporary solar sail for all post-Earth-escape propulsion is proposed. The 0.015 kg/m(2) areal mass-thickness sail unfurls after launch and injection onto a Mars-bound Hohmann-transfer ellipse. Structure and payload increase spacecraft areal mass thickness to 0.028 kg/m(2). During the Mars encounter, the sail functions as a parachute in the outer atmosphere of Mars to accomplish aerocapture. On-board thrusters or the sail maneuver the spacecraft into an orbit with periapsis near Mars and apoapsis near Phobos. The orbit is circularized for Phobos-rendezvous; surface samples are collected. The sail then raises the orbit for Deimos-rendezvous and sample collection. The sail next places the spacecraft on an Earth-bound Hohmann-transfer ellipse. During Earth encounter, the sail accomplishes Earth-aerocapture or partially decelerates the sample container for entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Mission mass budget is about 218 grams and mission duration is less than five years.

  20. Crew emergency return vehicle - Electrical power system design study (United States)

    Darcy, E. C.; Barrera, T. P.


    A crew emergency return vehicle (CERV) is proposed to perform the lifeboat function for the manned Space Station Freedom. This escape module will be permanently docked to Freedom and, on demand, will be capable of safely returning the crew to earth. The unique requirements that the CERV imposes on its power source are presented, power source options are examined, and a baseline system is selected. It consists of an active Li-BCX DD-cell modular battery system and was chosen for the maturity of its man-rated design and its low development costs.

  1. Mars Sample Return: Mars Ascent Vehicle Mission and Technology Requirements (United States)

    Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Jiang, Xun J.


    A Mars Sample Return mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science, the key community input process that guides NASAs science missions. A feasibility study was conducted of a potentially simple and low cost approach to Mars Sample Return mission enabled by the use of developing commercial capabilities. Previous studies of MSR have shown that landing an all up sample return mission with a high mass capacity lander is a cost effective approach. The approach proposed is the use of an emerging commercially available capsule to land the launch vehicle system that would return samples to Earth. This paper describes the mission and technology requirements impact on the launch vehicle system design, referred to as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV).

  2. A Review of New and Developing Technology to Significantly Improve Mars Sample-Return Missions (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Brophy, J.; Gilmore, M.; Rodgers, D.; Wilcox, B.


    A JPL development activity was initiated in FY 1999 for the purpose of examining and evaluating technologies that could materially improve future (i.e., beyond the 2005 launch) Mars sample return missions. The scope of the technology review was comprehensive and end-to-end; the goal was to improve mass, cost, risk, and scientific return. A specific objective was to assess approaches to sample return with only one Earth launch. While the objective of the study was specifically for sample-return, in-situ missions can also benefit from using many of the technologies examined.

  3. Supporting online materials for mineralogy and petrology of Comet81P/Wild 2 nucleus samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Zega, Thomas J.; Yano, Hajime; Wirick, Sue; Westphal, Andrew J.; Weisberg, Mike K.; Weber, Iris; Warren, Jack L.; Velbel, Michael A.; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tsou, Peter; Toppani, Alice; Tomioka, Naotaka; Tomeoka, Kazushige; Teslich, Nick; Taheri, Mitra; Susini, Jean; Stroud, Rhonda; Stephan, Thomas; Stadermann, Frank J.; Snead, Christopher J.; Simon, Steven B.; Simionovici, Alexandre; See,Thomas H.; Robert Francois; Rietmeijer, Frans J.M.; Rao, William; Perronnet, Murielle C.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.; Okudaira, Kyoko; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Ohnishi, Ichiro; Nakamura-Messenger, Keilo; Nakamura,Tomoki; Mostefaoui, Smail; Mikouchi, Takashi; Meibom, Anders; Matrajt,Graciela; Marcus, Matthew A.; Leroux, Hugues; Lemelle, Laurence; Antonio,Loan Le; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Langenhorst, Falko; Krot, Alexander N.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Kearsley, Anton T.; Joswiak, Davis; Jacob, Damien; Ishii, Hope; Harvey, Ralph; Hagiya, Kenji; Grossman, Lawrence; Grossman,Jeffrey N.; Graham, Giles A.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gillet, Philippe; Genge, Matthew J.; Flynn, George; Ferroir, Tristan; Fallow, Stewart; Ebel, Denton S.; Dai, Zu Rong; Cordier, Patrick; Clark, Benton; Chi,Miaofang; Butterworth, Anna L.; Brownlee, Donald E.; Bridges, John C.; Brennan, Sean; Brearley, Adrian; Bradley, John P.; Bleuet, Pierre; Bland,Phil A.; Bastien, Ron


    The bulk of the comet 81P/Wild 2 (hereafter Wild 2) samples returned to Earth by the Stardust spacecraft appear to be weakly constructed mixtures of nanometer-scale grains, with occasional much larger (over 1 micrometer) ferromagnesian silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, Fe-Ni metal, and accessory phases. The very wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions in comet Wild 2 requires a wide range of formation conditions, probably reflecting very different formation locations in the protoplanetary disk. The restricted compositional ranges of Fe-Ni sulfides, the wide range for silicates, and the absence of hydrous phases indicate that comet Wild 2 experienced little or no aqueous alteration. Less abundant Wild 2 materials include a refractory particle, whose presence appears to require radial transport in the early protoplanetary disk.

  4. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission (United States)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, Horst Uwe; Kuhrt, Ekkehard; A'Hearn, Michael; Altwegg, Kathrin; Betrand, Regis; Busemann, Henner; Capria, Maria Teresa; Colangeli, Luigi


    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA s Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three samples of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-and-go sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  5. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.


    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  6. Coordinated Analyses of Diverse Components in Whole Stardust Cometary Tracks (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S. R.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, L. N.; Frank, D.


    Analyses of samples returned from Comet 81P/Wild-2 by the Stardust spacecraft have resulted in a number of surprising findings that show the origins of comets are more complex than previously suspected. However, these samples pose new experimental challenges because they are diverse and suffered fragmentation, thermal alteration, and fine scale mixing with aerogel. Questions remain about the nature of Wild-2 materials, such as the abundances of organic matter, crystalline materials, and presolar grains. To overcome these challenges, we have developed new sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for entire aerogel tracks [Nakamura-Messenger et al. 2011]. We have successfully ultramicrotomed entire "carrot" and "bulbous" type tracks along their axis while preserving their original shapes. This innovation allowed us to examine the distribution of fragments along the track from the entrance hole all the way to the terminal particle (TP). We will present results of our coordinated analysis of the "carrot" type aerogel tracks #112 and #148, and the "bulbous" type aerogel tracks #113, #147 and #168 from the nanometer to the millimeter scale. Scanning TEM (STEM) was used for elemental and detailed mineralogy characterization, NanoSIMS was used for isotopic analyses, and ultrafast two-step laser mass spectrometry (ultra L2MS) was used to investigate the nature and distribution of organic phases. The isotopic measurements were performed following detailed TEM characterization for coordinated mineralogy. This approach also enabled spatially resolving the target sample from fine-scale mixtures of compressed aerogel and melt. Eight of the TPs of track #113 are dominated by coarse-grained enstatite (En90) that is largely orthoenstatite with minor, isolated clinoenstatite lamellae. One TP contains minor forsterite (Fo88) and small inclusions of diopside with % levels of Al, Cr and Fe. Two of the TPs contain angular regions of fine-grained nepheline surrounded by

  7. Predictions of asteroid hazard to the Earth for the 21st century (United States)

    Petrov, Nikita; Sokolov, Leonid; Polyakhova, Elena; Oskina, Kristina


    Early detection and investigation of possible collisions and close approaches of asteroids with the Earth are necessary to exept the asteroid-comet hazard. The difficulty of prediction of close approaches and collisions associated with resonant returns after encounters with the Earth due to loss of precision in these encounters. The main research object is asteroid Apophis (99942), for which we found many possible orbits of impacts associated with resonant returns. It is shown that the early orbit change of Apophis allows to avoid main impacts, associated with resonant returns. Such a change of the orbit, in principle, is feasible. We also study the possible impacts with the Ground asteroid 2015 RN35. We present 21 possible collisions in this century, including 7 collisions with large gaps presented in NASA website. The results of observations by the telescope ZA-320M at Pulkovo Obser-vatory of the three near-Earth asteroids, namely, 7822, 20826, 68216, two of which 7822 and 68216 are potentially hazardous, are presented.

  8. Adaptive Changes in the Vestibular System of Land Snail to a 30-Day Spaceflight and Readaptation on Return to Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Aseyev


    Full Text Available The vestibular system receives a permanent influence from gravity and reflexively controls equilibrium. If we assume gravity has remained constant during the species' evolution, will its sensory system adapt to abrupt loss of that force? We address this question in the land snail Helix lucorum exposed to 30 days of near weightlessness aboard the Bion-M1 satellite, and studied geotactic behavior of postflight snails, differential gene expressions in statocyst transcriptome, and electrophysiological responses of mechanoreceptors to applied tilts. Each approach revealed plastic changes in the snail's vestibular system assumed in response to spaceflight. Absence of light during the mission also affected statocyst physiology, as revealed by comparison to dark-conditioned control groups. Readaptation to normal tilt responses occurred at ~20 h following return to Earth. Despite the permanence of gravity, the snail responded in a compensatory manner to its loss and readapted once gravity was restored.

  9. Searching for Amino Acids in Meteorites and Comet Samples (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila


    Chemistry plays an important role in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology, which strives to understand the origin, distribution, and evolution of life throughout the universe. Chemical techniques are used to search for and characterize the basic ingredients for life, from the elements through simple molecules and up to the more complex compounds that may serve as the ingredients for life. The Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory at NASA Goddard uses state-of-the-art laboratory analytical instrumentation in unconventional ways to examine extraterrestrial materials and tackle some of the big questions in astrobiology. This talk will discuss some of the instrumentation and techniques used for these unique samples, as well as some of our most interesting results. The talk will present two areas of particular interest in our laboratory: (1) the search for chiral excesses in meteoritic amino acids, which may help to explain the origin of homochirality in life on Earth; and (2) the detection of amino acids and amines in material returned by NASA's Stardust mission, which rendevouzed with a cornet and brought back cometary particles to the Earth.

  10. Quantitative Planetary Protection for Sample Return from Ocean Worlds (United States)

    Neveu, Marc; Takano, Yoshinori; Porco, Carolyn; McKay, Christopher P.; Glavin, Daniel; Anbar, Ariel; Sherwood, Brent; Yano, Hajime


    Volcanism on ocean worlds [1,2] facilitates ocean sample return missions, enabling uniquely flexible, sensitive, and specific laboratory analyses on Earth to study how far chemistry has evolved in presumably habitable oceans [3,4]. Such mission concepts have yet to quantitatively address planetary protection (PP) for ocean worlds [3,4]. These harbor liquid water [5,6], metabolically useful energy [7], and organic matter to support life [8]. Ocean temperatures may not exceed the limit for life as we know it [9,10], they are shielded from exogenic radiation by kilometers of ice, and their material has likely not been naturally exchanged with Earth [11]. The above factors would place sample return missions in Cat. V - Restricted Earth Return [12,13]. Forward PP requirements for Europa [13] and other ocean worlds [14] require that the probability of "introduction of a single viable terrestrial microorganism into a liquid-water environment" be lower than 10 ^{-4}. This probability should be estimated from (F1) "bioburden at launch," (F2) "cruise survival for contaminating organisms," (F3) "organism survival in the radiation environment adjacent to the target," (F4) "the probability of encountering […] the target," (F5) "the probability of surviving landing/impact on the target," (F6) "mechanisms and timescales of transport to the subsurface," and (F7) "survival […] after subsurface transfer" [13,14]. The compliance of specific designs of known cost could be evaluated from measurements of molecular contaminants as robust and universal proxies for microbial particulates [15] (F1); known microbial radiation tolerance [16] and planetary radiation budgets [17] (F2-F3); trajectory design (F4); projected impact velocities [18] (F5); ice transport timescales [19] (F6), and biomass growth rates in ice [20] (F7). In contrast, current backward PP requirements are only qualitative. Current policy [13,15] prohibits "destructive impact upon return," and requires that (B1) "unless

  11. Mars Sample Return - Launch and Detection Strategies for Orbital Rendezvous (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Mattingly, Richard L.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Sturm, Erick J.


    This study sets forth conceptual mission design strategies for the ascent and rendezvous phase of the proposed NASA/ESA joint Mars Sample Return Campaign. The current notional mission architecture calls for the launch of an acquisition/cache rover in 2018, an orbiter with an Earth return vehicle in 2022, and a fetch rover and ascent vehicle in 2024. Strategies are presented to launch the sample into a coplanar orbit with the Orbiter which facilitate robust optical detection, orbit determination, and rendezvous. Repeating ground track orbits exist at 457 and 572 km which provide multiple launch opportunities with similar geometries for detection and rendezvous.

  12. Mars Sample Return: Launch and Detection Strategies for Orbital Rendezvous (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Mattingly, Richard L.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Sturm, Erick J.


    This study sets forth conceptual mission design strategies for the ascent and rendezvous phase of the proposed NASA/ESA joint Mars Sample Return Campaign. The current notional mission architecture calls for the launch of an acquisition/ caching rover in 2018, an Earth return orbiter in 2022, and a fetch rover with ascent vehicle in 2024. Strategies are presented to launch the sample into a nearly coplanar orbit with the Orbiter which would facilitate robust optical detection, orbit determination, and rendezvous. Repeating ground track orbits existat 457 and 572 km which would provide multiple launch opportunities with similar geometries for detection and rendezvous.

  13. OSIRIS-REx: Sample Return from Asteroid (101955) Bennu (United States)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Balram-Knutson, S. S.; Beshore, E.; Boynton, W. V.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Enos, H. L.; Golish, D. R.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Howell, E. S.; Bennett, C. A.; Morton, E. T.; Nolan, M. C.; Rizk, B.; Roper, H. L.; Bartels, A. E.; Bos, B. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Highsmith, D. E.; Lorenz, D. A.; Lim, L. F.; Mink, R.; Moreau, M. C.; Nuth, J. A.; Reuter, D. C.; Simon, A. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Bryan, B. H.; Ballouz, R.; Barnouin, O. S.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Hamilton, V. E.; Walsh, K. J.; Chesley, S. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. E.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Daly, M. G.; Emery, J. P.; McCoy, T. J.; McMahon, J. W.; Scheeres, D. J.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Sandford, S. A.


    In May of 2011, NASA selected the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security- Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission as the third mission in the New Frontiers program. The other two New Frontiers missions are New Horizons, which explored Pluto during a flyby in July 2015 and is on its way for a flyby of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69 on January 1, 2019, and Juno, an orbiting mission that is studying the origin, evolution, and internal structure of Jupiter. The spacecraft departed for near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu aboard an United Launch Alliance Atlas V 411 evolved expendable launch vehicle at 7:05 p.m. EDT on September 8, 2016, on a seven-year journey to return samples from Bennu. The spacecraft is on an outbound-cruise trajectory that will result in a rendezvous with Bennu in November 2018. The science instruments on the spacecraft will survey Bennu to measure its physical, geological, and chemical properties, and the team will use these data to select a site on the surface to collect at least 60 g of asteroid regolith. The team will also analyze the remote-sensing data to perform a detailed study of the sample site for context, assess Bennu's resource potential, refine estimates of its impact probability with Earth, and provide ground-truth data for the extensive astronomical data set collected on this asteroid. The spacecraft will leave Bennu in 2021 and return the sample to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) on September 24, 2023.

  14. Apollo 11 Earth Training Exercises (United States)


    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, an engineer, Bob Mason, donned in a space suit, goes through some of those training exercises on the mock lunar surface. He performed activites similar to those planned for astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin during their moon walk. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  15. Embodiment and Entangled Subjectivity: A Study of Robin Cook's Coma, Priscille Sibley's The Promise of Stardust and Alexander Beliaev's Professor Dowell's Head. (United States)

    Karmakar, Manali; Parui, Avishek


    The essay examines Robin Cook's (1977) Coma and Priscille Sibley's (2013) The Promise of Stardust that dramatize the reified and disposable status of the brain-dead patients who are classified as nonpersons. The essay argues that the man-machine entanglement as depicted in the novels constructs a deterritorialized and entangled form of subjectivity that intervenes in the dominant biomedical understanding of personhood and agency that we notionally associate with a conscious mind. The essay concludes its arguments by discussing Alexander Beliaev's (1925) Professor Dowell's Head which depicts human subjectivity as an essentially embodied and distributive phenomenon and interrogates the Cartesian mind body dualism embedded in the dominant biomedical narratives.

  16. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.


    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  17. Capturing asteroids into bound orbits around the earth: Massive early return on an asteroid terminal defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.


    Nuclear explosives may be used to capture small asteroids (e.g., 20--50 meters in diameter) into bound orbits around the earth. The captured objects could be used for construction material for manned and unmanned activity in Earth orbit. Asteroids with small approach velocities, which are the ones most likely to have close approaches to the Earth, require the least energy for capture. They are particularly easy to capture if they pass within one Earth radius of the surface of the Earth. They could be intercepted with intercontinental missiles if the latter were retrofit with a more flexible guiding and homing capability. This asteroid capture-defense system could be implemented in a few years at low cost by using decommissioned ICMs. The economic value of even one captured asteroid is many times the initial investment. The asteroid capture system would be an essential part of the learning curve for dealing with larger asteroids that can hit the earth

  18. EURO-CARES: European Roadmap for a Sample Return Curation Facility and Planetary Protection Implications. (United States)

    Brucato, John Robert


    A mature European planetary exploration program and evolving sample return mission plans gathers the interest of a wider scientific community. The interest is generated from studying extraterrestrial samples in the laborato-ry providing new opportunities to address fundamental issues on the origin and evolution of the Solar System, on the primordial cosmochemistry, and on the nature of the building blocks of terrestrial planets and on the origin of life. Major space agencies are currently planning for missions that will collect samples from a variety of Solar Sys-tem environments, from primitive (carbonaceous) small bodies, from the Moon, Mars and its moons and, final-ly, from icy moons of the outer planets. A dedicated sample return curation facility is seen as an essential re-quirement for the receiving, assessment, characterization and secure preservation of the collected extraterrestrial samples and potentially their safe distribution to the scientific community. EURO-CARES is a European Commission study funded under the Horizon-2020 program. The strategic objec-tive of EURO-CARES is to create a roadmap for the implementation of a European Extraterrestrial Sample Cu-ration Facility. The facility has to provide safe storage and handling of extraterrestrial samples and has to enable the preliminary characterization in order to achieve the required effectiveness and collaborative outcomes for the whole international scientific community. For example, samples returned from Mars could pose a threat on the Earth's biosphere if any living extraterrestrial organism are present in the samples. Thus planetary protection is an essential aspect of all Mars sample return missions that will affect the retrival and transport from the point of return, sample handling, infrastructure methodology and management of a future curation facility. Analysis of the state of the art of Planetary Protection technology shows there are considerable possibilities to define and develop

  19. The bottom of the universe: Flat earth science in the Age of Encounter. (United States)

    Allegro, James J


    This essay challenges the dominance of the spherical earth model in fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century Western European thought. It examines parallel strains of Latin and vernacular writing that cast doubt on the existence of the southern hemisphere. Three factors shaped the alternate accounts of the earth as a plane and disk put forward by these sources: (1) the unsettling effects of maritime expansion on scientific thought; (2) the revival of interest in early Christian criticism of the spherical earth; and (3) a rigid empirical stance toward entities too large to observe in their entirety, including the earth. Criticism of the spherical earth model faded in the decades after Magellan's crew returned from circuiting the earth in 1522.

  20. A Chemical Comparison of STARDUST Organics with Insoluble Organic Matter in Chondritic Meteorites (United States)

    Cody, G. D.; Yabuta, H.; Alexander, C. M.; Araki, T.; Kilcoyne, D.


    We have analyzed 15 organic rich particles extracted from the aerogel capture device flown on the STARDUST mission spacecraft to comet Wild 2 using C-, N-, and O-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Data were acquired with the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) beam line 5.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. XANES can provide both quantitative molecular functional group information and atomic N/C and O/C data. We use these data to place the organic matter extracted from the Aerogel Capture device in context with a large database of C-, N-, and O-XANES spectra obtained on meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) obtained from type 1, 2, and 3 chondrites. We find that the organic chemistry of the particles extracted from aerogel varies in functional group abundances, but is universally very rich in heteroatoms (N and O). In several cases the organic carbon is closely associated with silica (possibly derived from the aerogel), but at a concentration far in excess of the intrinsic carbon abundance of synthesized (and flown) aerogel. Independently, 29-Si, 13-C, and 1-H solid state NMR was applied to analyze the nature of organic carbon present in the aerogel as byproduct of the synthesis. The intrinsic aerogel carbon is very simple in its functional group chemistry, very low in abundance, and differs completely from that detected in the extracted organic particles.

  1. International cooperation for Mars exploration and sample return (United States)

    Levy, Eugene H.; Boynton, William V.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Carr, Michael H.; Kitchell, Jennifer H.; Mazur, Peter; Pace, Norman R.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Solomon, Sean C.; Wasserburg, Gerald J.


    The National Research Council's Space Studies Board has previously recommended that the next major phase of Mars exploration for the United States involve detailed in situ investigations of the surface of Mars and the return to earth for laboratory analysis of selected Martian surface samples. More recently, the European space science community has expressed general interest in the concept of cooperative Mars exploration and sample return. The USSR has now announced plans for a program of Mars exploration incorporating international cooperation. If the opportunity becomes available to participate in Mars exploration, interest is likely to emerge on the part of a number of other countries, such as Japan and Canada. The Space Studies Board's Committee on Cooperative Mars Exploration and Sample Return was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to examine and report on the question of how Mars sample return missions might best be structured for effective implementation by NASA along with international partners. The committee examined alternatives ranging from scientific missions in which the United States would take a substantial lead, with international participation playing only an ancillary role, to missions in which international cooperation would be a basic part of the approach, with the international partners taking on comparably large mission responsibilities. On the basis of scientific strategies developed earlier by the Space Studies Board, the committee considered the scientific and technical basis of such collaboration and the most mutually beneficial arrangements for constructing successful cooperative missions, particularly with the USSR.

  2. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.


    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  3. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of Afterbody Radiative Heating Predictions for Earth Entry (United States)

    West, Thomas K., IV; Johnston, Christopher O.; Hosder, Serhat


    The objective of this work was to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification for afterbody radiative heating predictions of Stardust capsule during Earth entry at peak afterbody radiation conditions. The radiation environment in the afterbody region poses significant challenges for accurate uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis due to the complexity of the flow physics, computational cost, and large number of un-certain variables. In this study, first a sparse collocation non-intrusive polynomial chaos approach along with global non-linear sensitivity analysis was used to identify the most significant uncertain variables and reduce the dimensions of the stochastic problem. Then, a total order stochastic expansion was constructed over only the important parameters for an efficient and accurate estimate of the uncertainty in radiation. Based on previous work, 388 uncertain parameters were considered in the radiation model, which came from the thermodynamics, flow field chemistry, and radiation modeling. The sensitivity analysis showed that only four of these variables contributed significantly to afterbody radiation uncertainty, accounting for almost 95% of the uncertainty. These included the electronic- impact excitation rate for N between level 2 and level 5 and rates of three chemical reactions in uencing N, N(+), O, and O(+) number densities in the flow field.

  4. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Image Analysis (United States)

    Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent


    NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding

  5. Integrated science and engineering for the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission (United States)

    Lauretta, D.


    Introduction: The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission will survey near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu to understand its physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties, assess its resource potential, refine the impact hazard, and return a sample of this body to the Earth [1]. This mission is scheduled for launch in 2016 and will rendezvous with the asteroid in 2018. Sample return to the Earth follows in 2023. The OSIRIS-REx mission has the challenge of visiting asteroid Bennu, characterizing it at global and local scales, then selecting the best site on the asteroid surface to acquire a sample for return to the Earth. Minimizing the risk of exploring an unknown world requires a tight integration of science and engineering to inform flight system and mission design. Defining the Asteroid Environment: We have performed an extensive astronomical campaign in support of OSIRIS-REx. Lightcurve and phase function observations were obtained with UA Observatories telescopes located in southeastern Arizona during the 2005--2006 and 2011--2012 apparitions [2]. We observed Bennu using the 12.6-cm radar at the Arecibo Observatory in 1999, 2005, and 2011 and the 3.5-cm radar at the Goldstone tracking station in 1999 and 2005 [3]. We conducted near-infrared measurements using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii in September 2005 [4]. Additional spectral observations were obtained in July 2011 and May 2012 with the Magellan 6.5-m telescope [5]. We used the Spitzer space telescope to observe Bennu in May 2007 [6]. The extensive knowledge gained as a result of our telescopic characterization of Bennu was critical in the selection of this object as the OSIRIS-REx mission target. In addition, we use these data, combined with models of the asteroid, to constrain over 100 different asteroid parameters covering orbital, bulk, rotational, radar

  6. Volumetric visualization of multiple-return LIDAR data: Using voxels (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.


    Elevation data are an important component in the visualization and analysis of geographic information. The creation and display of 3D models representing bare earth, vegetation, and surface structures have become a major focus of light detection and ranging (lidar) remote sensing research in the past few years. Lidar is an active sensor that records the distance, or range, of a laser usually fi red from an airplane, helicopter, or satellite. By converting the millions of 3D lidar returns from a system into bare ground, vegetation, or structural elevation information, extremely accurate, high-resolution elevation models can be derived and produced to visualize and quantify scenes in three dimensions. These data can be used to produce high-resolution bare-earth digital elevation models; quantitative estimates of vegetative features such as canopy height, canopy closure, and biomass; and models of urban areas such as building footprints and 3D city models.

  7. Is Mars Sample Return Required Prior to Sending Humans to Mars? (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Abell, Paul; Allwood, Abigail; Baker, John; Barnes, Jeff; Bass, Deborah; Beaty, David; Boston, Penny; Brinkerhoff, Will; Budney, Charles; hide


    Prior to potentially sending humans to the surface of Mars, it is fundamentally important to return samples from Mars. Analysis in Earth's extensive scientific laboratories would significantly reduce the risk of human Mars exploration and would also support the science and engineering decisions relating to the Mars human flight architecture. The importance of measurements of any returned Mars samples range from critical to desirable, and in all cases these samples will would enhance our understanding of the Martian environment before potentially sending humans to that alien locale. For example, Mars sample return (MSR) could yield information that would enable human exploration related to 1) enabling forward and back planetary protection, 2) characterizing properties of Martian materials relevant for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), 3) assessing any toxicity of Martian materials with respect to human health and performance, and 4) identifying information related to engineering surface hazards such as the corrosive effect of the Martian environment. In addition, MSR would be engineering 'proof of concept' for a potential round trip human mission to the planet, and a potential model for international Mars exploration.

  8. Building on the Cornerstone: Destinations for Nearside Sample Return (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Draper, D.; Stopar, J. D.; Petro, N. E.; Cohen, B. A.; Speyerer, E. J.; Gruener, J. E.


    Discoveries from LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) have transformed our knowledge of the Moon, but LRO's instruments were originally designed to collect the measurements required to enable future lunar surface exploration. Compelling science questions and critical resources make the Moon a key destination for future human and robotic exploration. Lunar surface exploration, including rovers and other landed missions, must be part of a balanced planetary science and exploration portfolio. Among the highest planetary exploration priorities is the collection of new samples and their return to Earth for more comprehensive analysis than can be done in-situ. The Moon is the closest and most accessible location to address key science questions through targeted sample return. The Moon is the only other planet from which we have contextualized samples, yet critical issues need to be addressed: we lack important details of the Moon's early and recent geologic history, the full compositional and age ranges of its crust, and its bulk composition.

  9. In Situ Pre-Selection of Return Samples with Bio-Signatures by Combined Laser Mass Spectrometry and Optical Microscopy (United States)

    Wiesendanger, R.; Wurz, P.; Tulej, M.; Wacey, D.; Neubeck, A.; Grimaudo, V.; Riedo, A.; Moreno, P.; Cedeño-López, A.; Ivarsson, M.


    The University of Bern developed instrument prototypes that allow analysis of samples on Mars prior to bringing them back to Earth, allowing to maximize the scientific outcome of the returned samples. We will present the systems and first results.

  10. Large micro-mirror arrays: key components in future space instruments for Universe and Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamkotsian Frederic


    Full Text Available In future space missions for Universe and Earth Observation, scientific return could be optimized using MOEMS devices. Micro-mirror arrays are used for designing new generation of instruments, multi-object spectrographs in Universe Observation and programmable wide field spectrographs in Earth Observation. Mock-ups have been designed and built for both applications and they show very promising results.

  11. Martian Chemical and Isotopic Reference Standards in Earth-based Laboratories — An Invitation for Geochemical, Astrobiological, and Engineering Dialog on Considering a Weathered Chondrite for Mars Sample Return. (United States)

    Ashley, J. W.; Tait, A. W.; Velbel, M. A.; Boston, P. J.; Carrier, B. L.; Cohen, B. A.; Schröder, C.; Bland, P.


    Exogenic rocks (meteorites) found on Mars 1) have unweathered counterparts on Earth; 2) weather differently than indigenous rocks; and 3) may be ideal habitats for putative microorganisms and subsequent biosignature preservation. These attributes show the potential of meteorites for addressing hypothesis-driven science. They raise the question of whether chondritic meteorites, of sufficient weathering intensity, might be considered as candidates for sample return in a potential future mission. Pursuant to this discussion are the following questions. A) Is there anything to be learned from the laboratory study of a martian chondrite that cannot be learned from indigenous materials; and if so, B) is the science value high enough to justify recovery? If both A and B answer affirmatively, then C) what are the engineering constraints for sample collection for Mars 2020 and potential follow-on missions; and finally D) what is the likelihood of finding a favorable sample? Observations relevant to these questions include: i) Since 2005, 24 candidate and confirmed meteorites have been identified on Mars at three rover landing sites, demonstrating their ubiquity and setting expectations for future finds. All have been heavily altered by a variety of physical and chemical processes. While the majority of these are irons (not suitable for recovery), several are weathered stony meteorites. ii) Exogenic reference materials provide the only chemical/isotope standards on Mars, permitting quantification of alteration rates if residence ages can be attained; and possibly enabling the removal of Late Amazonian weathering overprints from other returned samples. iii) Recent studies have established the habitability of chondritic meteorites with terrestrial microorganisms, recommending their consideration when exploring astrobiological questions. High reactivity, organic content, and permeability show stony meteorites to be more attractive for colonization and subsequent biosignature

  12. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars? (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.


    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  13. Options for human ``return to the moon'' using tomorrow's SSTO, ISRU, and LOX-augmented NTR technologies (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.


    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three ``high leverage'' technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) ``in-situ'' resource utilization (ISRU)—specifically ``lunar-derived'' liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the ``compact'' dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of ˜60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using ˜8 t of LUNOX to ``reoxidize'' the LERV for a ``direct return'' flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine's ability to operate at any oxygen/hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse (˜940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV's ``propulsion'' and ``propellant modules''. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes.

  14. Computing return times or return periods with rare event algorithms (United States)

    Lestang, Thibault; Ragone, Francesco; Bréhier, Charles-Edouard; Herbert, Corentin; Bouchet, Freddy


    The average time between two occurrences of the same event, referred to as its return time (or return period), is a useful statistical concept for practical applications. For instance insurances or public agencies may be interested by the return time of a 10 m flood of the Seine river in Paris. However, due to their scarcity, reliably estimating return times for rare events is very difficult using either observational data or direct numerical simulations. For rare events, an estimator for return times can be built from the extrema of the observable on trajectory blocks. Here, we show that this estimator can be improved to remain accurate for return times of the order of the block size. More importantly, we show that this approach can be generalised to estimate return times from numerical algorithms specifically designed to sample rare events. So far those algorithms often compute probabilities, rather than return times. The approach we propose provides a computationally extremely efficient way to estimate numerically the return times of rare events for a dynamical system, gaining several orders of magnitude of computational costs. We illustrate the method on two kinds of observables, instantaneous and time-averaged, using two different rare event algorithms, for a simple stochastic process, the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. As an example of realistic applications to complex systems, we finally discuss extreme values of the drag on an object in a turbulent flow.

  15. Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.; Kajino, T.; Onaka, T.


    A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

  16. The Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (United States)


    small fraction of NEOs are particularly accessible for exploration by spacecraft. To identify the exploration targets of highest scientific interest, the orbits and classification of a large number of NEOs should be determined by telescopic observations. Desired characterization would also include measurements of size, mass, shape, surface composition and heterogeneity, gas and dust emission, and rotation. Laboratory studies of meteorites can focus NEO exploration objectives and quantify the information obtained from telescopes. Once high-priority targets have been identified, various kinds of spacecraft missions (flyby, rendezvous, and sample return) can be designed. Some currently operational (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous [NEAR]) or planned (Deep Space 1) U.S. missions are of the first two types, and other planned U.S. and Japanese spacecraft missions will return samples. Rendezvous missions with sample return are particularly desirable from a scientific perspective because of the very great differences in the analytical capabilities that can be brought to bear in orbit and in the laboratory setting. Although it would be difficult to justify human exploration of NEOs on the basis of cost-benefit analysis of scientific results alone, a strong case can be made for starting with NEOs if the decision to carry out human exploration beyond low Earth orbit is made for other reasons. Some NEOs are especially attractive targets for astronaut missions because of their orbital accessibility and short flight duration. Because they represent deep space exploration at an intermediate level of technical challenge, these missions would also serve as stepping stones for human missions to Mars. Human exploration of NEOs would provide significant advances in observational and sampling capabilities. With respect to ground based telescopic studies, the recommended baseline is that NASA and other appropriate agencies suupport research programs for interpreting the spectra of near-Earth

  17. Mir Environmental Effects Payload and Returned Mir Solar Panel Cleanliness (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Kinard, William H.


    The MIR Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP) was attached to the Docking Module of the MIR space station for 18 months during calendar years 1996 and 1997 (March 1996, STS 76 to October 1997, STS 86). A solar panel array with more than 10 years space exposure was removed from the MIR core module in November 1997, and returned to Earth in January, 1998, STS 89. MEEP and the returned solar array are part of the International Space Station (ISS) Risk Mitigation Program. This space flight hardware has been inspected and studied by teams of space environmental effects (SEE) investigators for micrometeoroid and space debris effects, space exposure effects on materials, and electrical performance. This paper reports changes in cleanliness of parts of MEEP and the solar array due to the space exposures. Special attention is given to the extensive water soluble residues deposited on some of the flight hardware surfaces. Directionality of deposition and chemistry of these residues are discussed.

  18. Propagation of ELF Radiation from RS-LC System and Red Sprites in Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Paras


    Full Text Available In this paper, two different mechanisms return stroke-lateral corona (RS-LC system and red sprites which excite Earth-ionosphere waveguide have been discussed. The electric and magnetic fields from RS-LC system and red spites in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide have been calculated. It has been found that red sprites contribute to the Schumann resonances (SR greatly as compared to the RS-LC system.

  19. 26 CFR 301.6103(h)(2)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by... (United States)


    ... administration. 301.6103(h)(2)-1 Section 301.6103(h)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(h)(2)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information (including..., shall, to the extent provided by section 6103(h)(2) (A), (B), and (C) and subject to the requirements of...

  20. Predictable return distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions......-of-sample analyses show that the relative accuracy of the state variables in predicting future returns varies across the distribution. A portfolio study shows that an investor with power utility can obtain economic gains by applying the empirical return distribution in portfolio decisions instead of imposing...

  1. Return-to-Work Program for Injured Workers: Factors of Successful Return to Employment. (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Shahabudin, Sharifah Muhairah; Mansor, Norma


    This study examined the factors of successful return to employment among participants in the return to work program (RTW) following work-related injury. Data were obtained from the Social Security Organization database containing 9850 injured workers who underwent RTW in 2010 to 2013. About 65% had successfully returned to employment. Significant factors of successful return include gender, employer interest, motivation, age, intervention duration, and type of injury. Male and motivated employees were more likely to return to employment compared with female and unmotivated employees, respectively. Participants from interested employers were 23.22 times more likely to return to work than those from uninterested employers, whereas participants whose intervention period exceeded 5 months were 41% less likely to return to work compared with those whose intervention period was within 3 months. Appropriate strategy and enhanced collaboration between the stakeholders would improve the proportion of successful return to employment. © 2016 APJPH.

  2. A Comprehensive Structural Dynamic Analysis Approach for Multi Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) Development (United States)

    Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Siddens, Aaron


    The anticipated NASA Mars Sample Return Mission (MSR) requires a simple and reliable method in which to return collected Martian samples back to earth for scientific analysis. The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is NASA's proposed solution to this MSR requirement. Key aspects of the MMEEV are its reliable and passive operation, energy absorbing foam-composite structure, and modular impact sphere (IS) design. To aid in the development of an EEV design that can be modified for various missions requirements, two fully parametric finite element models were developed. The first model was developed in an explicit finite element code and was designed to evaluate the impact response of the vehicle and payload during the final stage of the vehicle's return to earth. The second model was developed in an explicit code and was designed to evaluate the static and dynamic structural response of the vehicle during launch and reentry. In contrast to most other FE models, built through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) pre-processor, the current model was developed using a coding technique that allows the analyst to quickly change nearly all aspects of the model including: geometric dimensions, material properties, load and boundary conditions, mesh properties, and analysis controls. Using the developed design tool, a full range of proposed designs can quickly be analyzed numerically and thus the design trade space for the EEV can be fully understood. An engineer can then quickly reach the best design for a specific mission and also adapt and optimize the general design for different missions.

  3. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return. (United States)


    ... the case of a joint return made under section 6013(b), the period of limitations provided in sections... (c)(1) of this section, relating to the application of sections 6501 and 6651 with respect to a joint... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint return after filing separate return. 1...

  4. Navigation: bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field. (United States)

    Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J; Cochran, William W; Wikelski, Martin


    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation, but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances. Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark.

  5. A core handling device for the Mars Sample Return Mission (United States)

    Gwynne, Owen


    A core handling device for use on Mars is being designed. To provide a context for the design study, it was assumed that a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) Mission would have the following characteristics: a year or more in length; visits by the rover to 50 or more sites; 100 or more meter-long cores being drilled by the rover; and the capability of returning about 5 kg of Mars regolith to Earth. These characteristics lead to the belief that in order to bring back a variegated set of samples that can address the range of scientific objetives for a MRSR mission to Mars there needs to be considerable analysis done on board the rover. Furthermore, the discrepancy between the amount of sample gathered and the amount to be returned suggests that there needs to be some method of choosing the optimal set of samples. This type of analysis will require pristine material-unaltered by the drilling process. Since the core drill thermally and mechanically alters the outer diameter (about 10 pct) of the core sample, this outer area cannot be used. The primary function of the core handling device is to extract subsamples from the core and to position these subsamples, and the core itself if needed, with respect to the various analytical instruments that can be used to perform these analyses.

  6. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth (United States)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III


    anniversary in 2007 over the launch of Sputnik (from the former Soviet Union). The ensuing Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) programs initiated serious exploration of the Moon. The samples returned from those (now historic!) early missions changed our understanding of our place in the universe forever. They were the first well documented samples from an extraterrestrial body and attracted some of the top scientists in the world to extract the first remarkable pieces of information about Earth's nearest neighbour. And so they did - filling bookcases with profound new discoveries about this airless, waterless, and beautifully mysterious ancient world. The Moon was found to represent pure geology for a silicate planetary body - without all the complicating factors of plate tectonics, climate, and weather that recycle or transform Earth materials repeatedly. And then nothing happened. After the flush of reconnaissance, there was no further exploration of the Moon. For several decades scientists had nothing except the returned samples and a few telescopes with which to further study Earth's neighbour. Lack of new information breeds ignorance and can be stifling. Even though the space age was expanding its horizons to the furthest reaches of the solar system and the universe, lunar science moved slowly if at all and was kept in the doldrums. The drought ended with two small missions to the Moon in the 1990's, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. As summarized in the SSB/NRC report (and more completely in Jolliff et al. Eds. 2006, New Views of the Moon, Rev. Min. & Geochem.), the limited data returned from these small spacecraft set in motion several fundamental paradigm shifts in our understanding of the Moon and re-invigorated an aging science community. We learned that the largest basin in the solar system and oldest on the Moon dominates the southern half of the lunar farside (only seen by spacecraft). The age of this huge basin, if known, would constrain the period of heavy bombardment

  7. The Risk Return Relationship: Evidence from Index Return and Realised Variance Series


    Minxian Yang


    The risk return relationship is analysed in bivariate models for return and realised variance(RV) series. Based on daily time series from 21 international market indices for more than 13 years (January 2000 to February 2013), the empirical findings support the arguments of risk return tradeoff, volatility feedback and statistical balance. It is reasoned that the empirical risk return relationship is primarily shaped by two important data features: the negative contemporaneous correlation betw...

  8. Closed model of the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piddington, J.H.


    The existence of large-scale motions within the earth's magnetosphere and that of a long magnetotail were predicted in 1960 as results of a hypothetical frictional interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetic field. The boundary layer model of this interaction involves the flow of magnetosheath plasma in a magnetospheric boundary layer. The flow is across magnetic field lines, and so the layer must be polarized, with a space charge field nearly balancing the induction field V x B. The space charge tends to discharge through the ionosphere, thus providing some magnetic and related activity as well as the Lorentz frictional force. This closed magnetosphere model has been largely neglected in favor of the reconnection model but is now strongly supported by observational results and their interpretation as follows. (1) The evidence for the reconnection model, increasing activity with a southward interplanetary field and invasion of the polar caps by flare particles, is shown to be equally compatible with the closed field model. (2) The magnetotail grows by the motions of closed flux tubes through the dawn and dusk meridians, a process which depends on the nature of the boundary between magnetosphere and magnetosheath plasmas and perhaps also on the solar wind dynamo. Both of these features depend, in turn, on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. (3) Closed field lines entering the tail may be stretched to a few tens of earth radii and then contract back to the corotating magnetosphere. Others enter the long tail and are stretched to hundreds of earth radii and so are pervious to fast solar particles. (4) A new model of the magnetospheric substorm involves the entry of closed field lines into the tail and their rapid return to the corotating magnetosphere. The return is due, first, to the release of their trapped plasma as it becomes electrically polarized and, second, to mounting magnetic and plasma stresses in the inflated magnetotail

  9. Spaceship Earth: A partnership in curriculum writing (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.


    As the Apollo astronauts left Earth to venture onto the surface of another planetary body, they saw their home planet in a new global perspective. Unmanned NASA missions have given us a closer look at all the other planets in our solar system and emphasized the uniqueness of Earth as the only place in our solar system that can sustain life as we know it. Spaceship Earth is a new science curriculum which was developed to help students and teachers to explore the Earth, to see it in the global perspective, and to understand the relationships among life, the planet, and the sun. Astronaut photographs, especially shuttle pictures, are used as groundbased studies to help students to understand global Earth Science and integrate various aspects of physical, life, and social science. The Spaceship Earth curriculum was developed at by a team of JSC scientists working in collaboration with teachers from local school districts. This project was done under the auspices of Partner-In-Space, a local non-profit organization dedicated to improving science education and our general knowledge of space. The team met once a month for a year then assembled the curriculum during the summer. The project is now in the testing stage as the teachers try it out in their classrooms. It was supported by the Texas Education Agency and will be offered by the State of Texas as a supplemental curriculum for statewide use. Because the curriculum was developed by teachers, it is self contained and the lessons are easy to implement and give students concrete experiences. The three sub-units follow in a logical order, but may be used independently. If they are used separately, they may be tied together by the teacher returning to the basic theme of the global Earth as each unit is completed.

  10. Earth reencounter probabilities for aborted space disposal of hazardous nuclear waste (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Feingold, H.


    A quantitative assessment is made of the long-term risk of earth reencounter and reentry associated with aborted disposal of hazardous material in the space environment. Numerical results are presented for 10 candidate disposal options covering a broad spectrum of disposal destinations and deployment propulsion systems. Based on representative models of system failure, the probability that a single payload will return and collide with earth within a period of 250,000 years is found to lie in the range .0002-.006. Proportionately smaller risk attaches to shorter time intervals. Risk-critical factors related to trajectory geometry and system reliability are identified as possible mechanisms of hazard reduction.

  11. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.


    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Ea...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  12. Comparison of the Oxidation State of Fe in Comet 81P/Wild 2 and Chondritic-Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles


    Ogliore, R. C.; Butterworth, A. L.; Fakra, S. C.; Gainsforth, Z.; Marcus, M. A.; Westphal, A. J.


    The fragile structure of chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP- IDPs) and their minimal parent-body alteration have led researchers to believe these particles originate in comets rather than asteroids where aqueous and thermal alteration have occurred. The solar elemental abundances and atmospheric entry speed of CP-IDPs also suggest a cometary origin. With the return of the Stardust samples from Jupiter-family comet 81P/Wild 2, this hypothesis can be tested. We have measured th...

  13. The Proposed Mars Astrobiology Explorer - Cacher [MAX-C] Rover: First Step in a Potential Sample Return Campaign (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Beaty, David W.


    Sample return from Mars has been advocated by numerous scientific advisory panels for over 30 years, most prominently beginning with the National Research Council s [1] strategy for the exploration of the inner solar system, and most recently by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG s) Next Decade Science Analysis Group [2]. Analysis of samples here on Earth would have enormous advantages over in situ analyses in producing the data quality needed to address many of the complex scientific questions the community has posed about Mars. Instead of a small, predetermined set of analytical techniques, state of the art preparative and instrumental resources of the entire scientific community could be applied to the samples. The analytical emphasis could shift as the meaning of each result becomes better appreciated. These arguments apply both to igneous rocks and to layered sedimentary materials, either of which could contain water and other volatile constituents. In 2009 MEPAG formed the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high-priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps towards the potential return of samples to Earth. This analysis resulted in a mission concept named the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C), which was envisioned for launch in the 2018 opportunity. After extensive discussion, this group concluded that by far the most definitive contribution to sample return by this mission would be to collect and cache, in an accessible location, a suite of compelling samples that could potentially be recovered and returned by a subsequent mission. This would have the effect of separating two of the essential functions of MSR, the acquisition of the sample collection and its delivery to martian orbit, into two missions.

  14. Examination of returned solar-max surfaces for impacting orbital debris and meteoroids (United States)

    Kessler, D. J.; Zook, H. A.; Potter, A. E.; Mckay, D. S.; Clanton, U. S.; Warren, J. L.; Watts, L. A.; Schultz, R. A.; Schramm, L. S.; Wentworth, S. J.


    Previous theoretical studies predicted that in certain regions of earth orbit, the man-made earth orbiting debris environment will soon exceed the interplanetary meteoroid environment for sizes smaller than 1 cm. The surfaces returned from the repaired Solar Max Mission (SMM) by STS 41-C on April 12, 1984, offered an excellent opportunity to examine both the debris and meteoroid environments. To date, approximately 0.7 sq. met. of the thermal insulation and 0.05 sq. met of the aluminum louvers have been mapped by optical microscope for crater diameters larger than 40 microns. Craters larger in diameter than about 100 microns found on the initial 75 micron thick Kapton first sheet on the MEB (Main Electronics Box) blanket are actually holes and constitute perforations through that blanket. The following populations have been found to date in impact sites on these blankets: (1) meteoritic material; (2) thermal paint particles; (3) aluminum droplets; and (4) waste particles.

  15. X-Ray Computed Tomography: The First Step in Mars Sample Return Processing (United States)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; Fries, M. D.; Grady, M. M.; Greenwood, R. C.; McCubbin, F. M.; Zeigler, R. A.; Smith, C. L.; Steele, A.


    The Mars 2020 rover mission will collect and cache samples from the martian surface for possible retrieval and subsequent return to Earth. If the samples are returned, that mission would likely present an opportunity to analyze returned Mars samples within a geologic context on Mars. In addition, it may provide definitive information about the existence of past or present life on Mars. Mars sample return presents unique challenges for the collection, containment, transport, curation and processing of samples [1] Foremost in the processing of returned samples are the closely paired considerations of life detection and Planetary Protection. In order to achieve Mars Sample Return (MSR) science goals, reliable analyses will depend on overcoming some challenging signal/noise-related issues where sparse martian organic compounds must be reliably analyzed against the contamination background. While reliable analyses will depend on initial clean acquisition and robust documentation of all aspects of developing and managing the cache [2], there needs to be a reliable sample handling and analysis procedure that accounts for a variety of materials which may or may not contain evidence of past or present martian life. A recent report [3] suggests that a defined set of measurements should be made to effectively inform both science and Planetary Protection, when applied in the context of the two competing null hypotheses: 1) that there is no detectable life in the samples; or 2) that there is martian life in the samples. The defined measurements would include a phased approach that would be accepted by the community to preserve the bulk of the material, but provide unambiguous science data that can be used and interpreted by various disciplines. Fore-most is the concern that the initial steps would ensure the pristine nature of the samples. Preliminary, non-invasive techniques such as computed X-ray tomography (XCT) have been suggested as the first method to interrogate and

  16. Predictability of Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter


    Full Text Available Predictability of stock returns has been shown by empirical studies over time. This article collects the most important theories on forecasting stock returns and investigates the factors that affecting behavior of the stocks’ prices and the market as a whole. Estimation of the factors and the way of estimation are the key issues of predictability of stock returns.

  17. Investigating the Geological History of Asteroid 101955 Bennu Through Remote Sensing and Returned Sample Analyses (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.; Bottke, W. F.


    The NASA New Frontiers Mission OSRIS-REx will return surface regolith samples from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. This target is classified as a B-type asteroid and is spectrally similar to CI and CM chondrite meteorites [1]. The returned samples are thus expected to contain primitive ancient Solar System materials that formed in planetary, nebular, interstellar, and circumstellar environments. Laboratory studies of primitive astromaterials have yielded detailed constraints on the origins, properties, and evolutionary histories of a wide range of Solar System bodies. Yet, the parent bodies of meteorites and cosmic dust are generally unknown, genetic and evolutionary relationships among asteroids and comets are unsettled, and links between laboratory and remote observations remain tenuous. The OSIRIS-REx mission will offer the opportunity to coordinate detailed laboratory analyses of asteroidal materials with known and well characterized geological context from which the samples originated. A primary goal of the OSIRIS-REx mission will be to provide detailed constraints on the origin and geological and dynamical history of Bennu through coordinated analytical studies of the returned samples. These microanalytical studies will be placed in geological context through an extensive orbital remote sensing campaign that will characterize the global geological features and chemical diversity of Bennu. The first views of the asteroid surface and of the returned samples will undoubtedly bring remarkable surprises. However, a wealth of laboratory studies of meteorites and spacecraft encounters with primitive bodies provides a useful framework to formulate priority scientific questions and effective analytical approaches well before the samples are returned. Here we summarize our approach to unraveling the geological history of Bennu through returned sample analyses.

  18. SpaceScience@Home: Authentic Research Projects that Use Citizen Scientists (United States)

    Méndez, B. J. H.


    In recent years, several space science research projects have enlisted the help of large numbers of non-professional volunteers, ``citizen scientists'', to aid in performing tasks that are critical to a project, but require more person-time (or computing time) than a small professional research team can practically perform themselves. Examples of such projects include SETI@home, which uses time from volunteers computers to process radio-telescope observation looking for signals originating from extra-terrestrial intelligences; Clickworkers, which asks volunteers to review images of the surface of Mars to identify craters; Spacewatch, which used volunteers to review astronomical telescopic images of the sky to identify streaks made by possible Near Earth Asteroids; and Stardust@home, which asks volunteers to review ``focus movies'' taken of the Stardust interstellar dust aerogel collector to search for possible impacts from interstellar dust particles. We shall describe these and other similar projects and discuss lessons learned from carrying out such projects, including the educational opportunities they create.

  19. Advanced Curation Protocols for Mars Returned Sample Handling (United States)

    Bell, M.; Mickelson, E.; Lindstrom, D.; Allton, J.

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center has over 30 years experience handling precious samples which include Lunar rocks and Antarctic meteorites. However, we recognize that future curation of samples from such missions as Genesis, Stardust, and Mars S mple Return, will require a high degree of biosafety combined witha extremely low levels of inorganic, organic, and biological contamination. To satisfy these requirements, research in the JSC Advanced Curation Lab is currently focused toward two major areas: preliminary examination techniques and cleaning and verification techniques . Preliminary Examination Techniques : In order to minimize the number of paths for contamination we are exploring the synergy between human &robotic sample handling in a controlled environment to help determine the limits of clean curation. Within the Advanced Curation Laboratory is a prototype, next-generation glovebox, which contains a robotic micromanipulator. The remotely operated manipulator has six degrees-of- freedom and can be programmed to perform repetitive sample handling tasks. Protocols are being tested and developed to perform curation tasks such as rock splitting, weighing, imaging, and storing. Techniques for sample transfer enabling more detailed remote examination without compromising the integrity of sample science are also being developed . The glovebox is equipped with a rapid transfer port through which samples can be passed without exposure. The transfer is accomplished by using a unique seal and engagement system which allows passage between containers while maintaining a first seal to the outside environment and a second seal to prevent the outside of the container cover and port door from becoming contaminated by the material being transferred. Cleaning and Verification Techniques: As part of the contamination control effort, innovative cleaning techniques are being identified and evaluated in conjunction with sensitive cleanliness verification methods. Towards this

  20. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik


    We estimate the average rate of return on investments financed by aid and by domestic resource mobilisation, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a correlated random coefficients model to estimate the average returns. Across...... different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...

  1. 76 FR 22611 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic... (United States)


    ... Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media... Register on Wednesday, March 30, 2011 (76 FR 17521) providing guidance to specified tax return preparers who prepare and file individual income tax returns using magnetic media pursuant to section 6011(e)(3...

  2. Temporal Oculomotor Inhibition of Return and Spatial Facilitation of Return in a Visual Encoding Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Luke


    Full Text Available Oculomotor inhibition of return (O-IOR is an increase in saccade latency prior to an eye movement to a recently fixated location compared to other locations. It has been proposed that this temporal O-IOR may have spatial consequences, facilitating foraging by inhibiting return to previously attended regions. In order to test this possibility, participants viewed arrays of objects and of words while their eye movements were recorded. Temporal O-IOR was observed, with equivalent effects for object and word arrays, indicating that temporal O-IOR is an oculomotor phenomenon independent of array content. There was no evidence for spatial inhibition of return. Instead, spatial facilitation of return was observed: Participants were significantly more likely than chance to make return saccades and to refixate just-visited locations. Further, the likelihood of making a return saccade to an object or word was contingent on the amount of time spent viewing that object or word before leaving it. This suggests that, unlike temporal O-IOR, return probability is influenced by cognitive processing. Taken together, these results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of return functions as a foraging facilitator. The results also provide strong evidence for a different oculomotor bias that could serve as a foraging facilitator: saccadic momentum, a tendency to repeat the most recently executed saccade program. We suggest that models of visual attention could incorporate saccadic momentum in place of inhibition of return.

  3. An integrated and accessible sample data library for Mars sample return science (United States)

    Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Williford, K. H.


    Over the course of the next decade or more, many thousands of geological samples will be collected and analyzed in a variety of ways by researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) in order to facilitate discovery and contextualize observations made of Mars rocks both in situ and here on Earth if samples are eventually returned. Integration of data from multiple analyses of samples including petrography, thin section and SEM imaging, isotope and organic geochemistry, XRF, XRD, and Raman spectrometry is a challenge and a potential obstacle to discoveries that require supporting lines of evidence. We report the development of a web-accessible repository, the Sample Data Library (SDL) for the sample-based data that are generated by the laboratories and instruments that comprise JPL's Center for Analysis of Returned Samples (CARS) in order to facilitate collaborative interpretation of potential biosignatures in Mars-analog geological samples. The SDL is constructed using low-cost, open-standards-based Amazon Web Services (AWS), including web-accessible storage, relational data base services, and a virtual web server. The data structure is sample-centered with a shared registry for assigning unique identifiers to all samples including International Geo-Sample Numbers. Both raw and derived data produced by instruments and post-processing workflows are automatically uploaded to online storage and linked via the unique identifiers. Through the web interface, users are able to find all the analyses associated with a single sample or search across features shared by multiple samples, sample localities, and analysis types. Planned features include more sophisticated search and analytical interfaces as well as data discoverability through NSF's EarthCube program.

  4. Potential benefits of maximal exercise just prior to return from weightlessness (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance of a single maximal bout of exercise during weightlessness within hours of return to earth would enhance recovery of aerobic fitness and physical work capacities under a 1G environment. Ten healthy men were subjected to a 10-d bedrest period in the 6-deg headdown position. A graded maximal supine cycle ergometer test was performed before and at the end of bedrest to simulate exercise during weightlessness. Following 3 h of resumption of the upright posture, a second maximal exercise test was performed on a treadmill to measure work capacity under conditions of 1G. Compared to before bedrest, peak oxygen consumption, V(O2), decreased by 8.7 percent and peak heart rate (HR) increased by 5.6 percent in the supine cycle test at the end of bedrest. However, there were no significant changes in peak V(O2) and peak HR in the upright treadmill test following bedrest. These data suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise prior to return from 10 d of weightlessness may be adequate to restore preflight aerobic fitness and physical work capacity.

  5. Programmable wide field spectrograph for earth observation (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Lanzoni, Patrick; Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Costes, Vincent; Hébert, Philippe-Jean


    In Earth Observation, Universe Observation and Planet Exploration, scientific return of the instruments must be optimized in future missions. Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) could be key components in future generation of space instruments. These devices are based on the mature micro-electronics technology and in addition to their compactness, scalability, and specific task customization, they could generate new functions not available with current technologies. French and European space agencies, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have initiated several studies with LAM and TAS for listing the new functions associated with several types of MEMS, and developing new ideas of instruments.

  6. 26 CFR 20.6018-2 - Returns; person required to file return. (United States)


    ... executor or administrator shall file the return. If there is more than one executor or administrator, the return must be made jointly by all. If there is no executor or administrator appointed, qualified and... decedent situated in the United States is constituted an executor for purposes of the tax (see § 20.2203-1...

  7. Solution thermodynamics of rare-earth metal ions - physicochemical study-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerkhanova, Sh K; Shlyapov, R M; Uali, A S [Buketov Karaganda state university, University str., 28, Karaganda, 100028 (Kazakhstan)], E-mail:


    The results of the studying of interactions in multicomponent systems 'polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - rare-earth element ion - nitrate of sodium - water' are represented. It is established that for rubidium (I) ions temperature and ionic strength is render destroying action, and for yttrium (III) ions the influence of these factors has return character which is connected with features of an electronic structure of metal ion. It is revealed that a dominating role of non-electrostatic formation composed, hence, the formation of donor-acceptor connection of 'metal - ligand' occurs through atom of oxygen.

  8. Physics at the edge of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.P.


    The author recounts experiences he had as an astronaut, and the ways this allowed him to practice physics in a very applied manner. He describes some of the phenomena observed in the zero gravity of space flight which are very different, and hard to imagine, by minds immersed in the images and experiences of normal gravity. Most of the paper is devoted to a description of the task of recovering lost communication satellites and returning them to earth for repair and potential redeployment. From his perspective as a physicist and astronaut he explains briefly the orbital mechanics experienced in earth orbit, and the problems in compensating for these effects which maneuvering in space untethered to the shuttle. This presents hard practical problems to be met and solved in order to accomplish the task. Using a manned maneuvering unit his mission was able to successfully couple to the satellite and bring it to the shuttle. This involved a lot of practice of the classical physics principles of orbital dynamics, and the influence that perception in a space environment has upon these laws

  9. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES) (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Mabee, B.; Wulf Tregar, S.


    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. There is a need to substantiate the benefits of Earth science applications in socially and economically meaningful terms in order to demonstrate return on investment and to prioritize investments across data products, modeling capabilities, and information systems. However, methods and techniques for quantifying the value proposition of Earth observations are currently not fully established. Furthermore, it has been challenging to communicate the value of these investments to audiences beyond the Earth science community. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. The VALUABLES Consortium will focus on three pillars: (a) a research pillar that will apply existing and innovative methods to quantify the socioeconomic benefits of information from Earth observations; (b) a capacity building pillar to catalyze interdisciplinary linkages between Earth scientists and social scientists; and (c) a communications pillar that will convey the value of Earth observations to stakeholders in government, universities, the NGO community, and the interested public. In this presentation, we will describe ongoing and future activities of the VALUABLES Consortium, provide a brief overview of frameworks to quantify the socioeconomic value of Earth observations, and describe how Earth scientists and social scientist can get involved in the Consortium's activities.

  10. Clay catalyzed RNA synthesis under Martian conditions: Application for Mars return samples. (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash C; Dubey, Krishna; Aldersley, Michael F; Sausville, Meaghen


    Catalysis by montmorillonites clay minerals is regarded as a feasible mechanism for the abiotic production and polymerization of key biomolecules on early Earth. We have investigated a montmorillonite-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of nucleosides as a model to probe prebiotic synthesis of RNA-type oligomers. Here we show that this model is specific for the generation of RNA oligomers despite deoxy-mononucleotides adsorbing equally well onto the montmorillonite catalytic surfaces. Optimum catalytic activity was observed over a range of pH (6-9) and salinity (1 ± 0.2 M NaCl). When the weathering steps of early Earth that generated catalytic montmorillonite were modified to meet Martian soil conditions, the catalytic activity remained intact without altering the surface layer charge. Additionally, the formation of oligomers up to tetramer was detected using as little as 0.1 mg of Na⁺-montmorillonite, suggesting that the catalytic activity of a Martian clay return sample can be investigated with sub-milligram scale samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PUC fast track nips returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In the first of what it says will be annual cost-of-capital proceedings to set returns on equity and rates of return on rate base for electric utilities, the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) lowered from 1989 levels the 1990 returns on common equity (ROE) and rates of return (ROR) for the state's four major investor-owned electric utilities. Under this fast-track procedure, by May 8 of every year, utilities will have to file an application for rate adjustments that reflect their projected costs of capital for the following year

  12. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  13. Projeto de aterramento para sistema monofilar com retorno pelo terra Grounding project for single wire earth return system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto C Bertolo


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o projeto de aterramento elétrico para Sistema Monofilar com Retorno pela Terra (MRT, em solicitações de baixas frequências, utilizando-se o método das imagens e considerando a simplificação do método dos potenciais constantes. Simulou-se o comportamento de três diferentes configurações de aterramento: hastes em triângulo, em quadrado vazio e para nove hastes, formando uma malha com quatro quadrados. A partir da simulação obtiveram-se o valor da resistência de aterramento para cada configuração e os potenciais gerados na superfície do solo. Com base nesses resultados foi possível comparar os valores tabelados para resistências mínimas, em função da potência do transformador, aplicados para diferentes concessionárias de energia que utilizam o Sistema MRT, com os valores calculados que mantêm os potenciais no solo em níveis seguros para seres humanos e animais. Os resultados mostraram que é possível utilizar aterramentos mais simples e mais baratos, pois os gradientes de tensões no solo se mantiveram em níveis seguros.This work presents a grounding project for a Single Wire Earth Return (SWER system in low frequency applications, through the use of the image method, a simplification of the constant potential method. The responses of three different grounding configurations were simulated: electrodes in triangular format, electrodes placed in the corners of a square and nine electrodes placed in the corners of a grid with four squares. With the mentioned simulation it was possible to calculate the ground resistance and the surface voltage of each configuration. Based on these results, it was possible to compare the values for minimal resistance, depending on the power of the transformer, applied to various power utilities that use the SWER system with the values that hold the potential in the soil at safe levels for human beings and animals. Results showed that it is possible to use simpler and

  14. Effect of Earth Ground and Environment on Body-Centric Communications in the MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Fujii


    Full Text Available Body area network (BAN research, which uses the human body as a transmission channel, has recently attracted considerable attention globally. Zimmerman first advocated the idea in 1995. Illustrations of the electric field streamlines around the human body and wearable devices with electrodes were drawn. In the pictures, the electrodes of the wearable devices constitute a closed circuit with the human body and the earth ground. However, analysis of the circuit has not been conducted. In this study, we model the human body shunted to earth ground in a radio anechoic chamber to analyze the electric field strength around it and clarify the effect of earth ground during BAN run time. The results suggest that earth ground has little influence on the human body and wearable devices. Only when the human body is directly grounded, the electric field near the feet area will decrease. The input impedance of the transmitter is approximately the same, and the received open-circuit voltage and current of the receiver are also the same. In addition, we elucidate that stable communications can be established by developing a closed circuit using earth ground as return path. When the external electronic devices and human body are shunted to earth ground, the received open-circuit voltage and current increase.

  15. Advanced Curation: Solving Current and Future Sample Return Problems (United States)

    Fries, M.; Calaway, M.; Evans, C.; McCubbin, F.


    Advanced Curation is a wide-ranging and comprehensive research and development effort at NASA Johnson Space Center that identifies and remediates sample related issues. For current collections, Advanced Curation investigates new cleaning, verification, and analytical techniques to assess their suitability for improving curation processes. Specific needs are also assessed for future sample return missions. For each need, a written plan is drawn up to achieve the requirement. The plan draws while upon current Curation practices, input from Curators, the analytical expertise of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) team, and suitable standards maintained by ISO, IEST, NIST and other institutions. Additionally, new technologies are adopted on the bases of need and availability. Implementation plans are tested using customized trial programs with statistically robust courses of measurement, and are iterated if necessary until an implementable protocol is established. Upcoming and potential NASA missions such as OSIRIS-REx, the Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM), sample return missions in the New Frontiers program, and Mars sample return (MSR) all feature new difficulties and specialized sample handling requirements. The Mars 2020 mission in particular poses a suite of challenges since the mission will cache martian samples for possible return to Earth. In anticipation of future MSR, the following problems are among those under investigation: What is the most efficient means to achieve the less than 1.0 ng/sq cm total organic carbon (TOC) cleanliness required for all sample handling hardware? How do we maintain and verify cleanliness at this level? The Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP) predicts that organic carbon, if present, will be present at the "one to tens" of ppb level in martian near-surface samples. The same samples will likely contain wt% perchlorate salts, or approximately 1,000,000x as much perchlorate oxidizer as organic carbon

  16. Fundamental volatility and stock returns : does fundamental volatility explain stock returns?


    Selboe, Guner K.; Virdee, Jaspal Singh


    In this thesis, we investigate whether the fundamental uncertainty can explain the crosssection of stock returns. To measure the fundamental uncertainty, we estimate rolling standard deviations and accounting betas of four different fundamentals: revenues, gross profit, earnings and cash flows. The standard deviation and the beta of revenues significantly explain returns in the Fama-Macbeth procedure, but only appears significant among smaller stocks in the portfolio formation ...

  17. Stardust, supernovae and the molecules of life might we all be aliens?

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Richard N


    Where were the amino acids, the molecules of life, created: perhaps in a lightning storm in the early Earth, or perhaps elsewhere in the cosmos? This book argues that at least some of them must have been produced in the cosmos, and that the fact that the Earthly amino acids have a specific handedness provides an important clue for that explanation. The book discusses several models that purport to explain the handedness, ultimately proposing a new explanation that involves cosmic processing of the amino acids produced in space. The book provides a tour for laypersons that includes a definition of life, the Big Bang, stellar nucleosynthesis, the electromagnetic spectrum, molecules, and supernovae and the particles they produce.

  18. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes


    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  19. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte


    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  20. Performance Study of Earth Networks Total Lightning Network using Rocket-Triggered Lightning Data in 2014 (United States)

    Heckman, S.


    Modern lightning locating systems (LLS) provide real-time monitoring and early warning of lightningactivities. In addition, LLS provide valuable data for statistical analysis in lightning research. It isimportant to know the performance of such LLS. In the present study, the performance of the EarthNetworks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) is studied using rocket-triggered lightning data acquired atthe International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT), Camp Blanding, Florida.In the present study, 18 flashes triggered at ICLRT in 2014 were analyzed and they comprise of 78negative cloud-to-ground return strokes. The geometric mean, median, minimum, and maximum for thepeak currents of the 78 return strokes are 13.4 kA, 13.6 kA, 3.7 kA, and 38.4 kA, respectively. The peakcurrents represent typical subsequent return strokes in natural cloud-to-ground lightning.Earth Networks has developed a new data processor to improve the performance of their network. Inthis study, results are presented for the ENTLN data using the old processor (originally reported in 2014)and the ENTLN data simulated using the new processor. The flash detection efficiency, stroke detectionefficiency, percentage of misclassification, median location error, median peak current estimation error,and median absolute peak current estimation error for the originally reported data from old processorare 100%, 94%, 49%, 271 m, 5%, and 13%, respectively, and those for the simulated data using the newprocessor are 100%, 99%, 9%, 280 m, 11%, and 15%, respectively. The use of new processor resulted inhigher stroke detection efficiency and lower percentage of misclassification. It is worth noting that theslight differences in median location error, median peak current estimation error, and median absolutepeak current estimation error for the two processors are due to the fact that the new processordetected more number of return strokes than the old processor.

  1. QR-GARCH-M Model for Risk-Return Tradeoff in U.S. Stock Returns and Business Cycles


    Nyberg, Henri


    In the empirical finance literature findings on the risk return tradeoff in excess stock market returns are ambiguous. In this study, we develop a new QR-GARCH-M model combining a probit model for a binary business cycle indicator and a regime switching GARCH-in-mean model for excess stock market return with the business cycle indicator defining the regime. Estimation results show that there is statistically significant variation in the U.S. excess stock returns over the business cycle. Howev...

  2. Return Migration as Failure or Success?: The Determinants of Return Migration Intentions Among Moroccan Migrants in Europe. (United States)

    de Haas, Hein; Fokkema, Tineke; Fihri, Mohamed Fassi

    Different migration theories generate competing hypotheses with regard to determinants of return migration. While neoclassical migration theory associates migration to the failure to integrate at the destination, the new economics of labour migration sees return migration as the logical stage after migrants have earned sufficient assets and knowledge and to invest in their origin countries. The projected return is then likely to be postponed for sustained or indefinite periods if integration is unsuccessful. So, from an indication or result of integration failure return is rather seen as a measure of success. Drawing on recent survey data ( N  = 2,832), this article tests these hypotheses by examining the main determinants of return intention among Moroccan migrants across Europe. The results indicate that structural integration through labour market participation, education and the maintenance of economic and social ties with receiving countries do not significantly affect return intentions. At the same time, investments and social ties to Morocco are positively related, and socio-cultural integration in receiving countries is negatively related to return migration intentions. The mixed results corroborate the idea that there is no uniform process of (return) migration and that competing theories might therefore be partly complementary.

  3. Standard practice for determining rail-to-Earth resistance

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers the procedures necessary to follow for measuring resistance-to-earth of the running rails which are used as the conductors for returning the train operating current to the substation in electric mass transit systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. 75 FR 76940 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 [REG-100194-10] RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic... for ``specified tax return prepares,''. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Keith L. Brau at (202) 622...

  5. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I.


    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  6. Destiny's Earth Observation Window (United States)


    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  7. A Perishable Inventory Model with Return (United States)

    Setiawan, S. W.; Lesmono, D.; Limansyah, T.


    In this paper, we develop a mathematical model for a perishable inventory with return by assuming deterministic demand and inventory dependent demand. By inventory dependent demand, it means that demand at certain time depends on the available inventory at that time with certain rate. In dealing with perishable items, we should consider deteriorating rate factor that corresponds to the decreasing quality of goods. There are also costs involved in this model such as purchasing, ordering, holding, shortage (backordering) and returning costs. These costs compose the total costs in the model that we want to minimize. In the model we seek for the optimal return time and order quantity. We assume that after some period of time, called return time, perishable items can be returned to the supplier at some returning costs. The supplier will then replace them in the next delivery. Some numerical experiments are given to illustrate our model and sensitivity analysis is performed as well. We found that as the deteriorating rate increases, returning time becomes shorter, the optimal order quantity and total cost increases. When considering the inventory-dependent demand factor, we found that as this factor increases, assuming a certain deteriorating rate, returning time becomes shorter, optimal order quantity becomes larger and the total cost increases.

  8. Planetary protection protecting earth and planets against alien microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leys, N.


    Protecting Earth and planets against the invasion of 'alien life forms' is not military science fiction, but it is the peaceful daily job of engineers and scientists of space agencies. 'Planetary Protection' is preventing microbial contamination of both the target planet and the Earth when sending robots on interplanetary space mission. It is important to preserve the 'natural' conditions of other planets and to not bring with robots 'earthly microbes' (forward contamination) when looking for 'spores of extra terrestrial life'. The Earth and its biosphere must be protected from potential extraterrestrial biological contamination when returning samples of other planets to the Earth (backward contamination). The NASA-Caltech Laboratory for Planetary Protection of Dr. Kasthuri Venkateswaran at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (California, USA) routinely monitors and characterizes the microbes of NASA spacecraft assembly rooms and space robots prior to flight. They have repeatedly isolated Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains pre-flight from spacecraft assembly rooms (floor and air) and surfaces of space robots such as the Mars Odyssey Orbiter (La Duc et al., 2003). Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains have also been found in-flight, in ISS cooling water and Shuttle drinking water (Venkateswaran et al., Pyle et al., Ott et al., all unpublished). The main objective of this study is to characterise the Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains isolated at JPL and compare them to the Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34T model strain, isolated from a Belgian contaminated soil and studied since 25 years at SCK-CEN and to enhance our knowledge by performing additional tests at JPL and gathering information regarding the environmental conditions and the cleaning and isolation methods used in such spacecraft assembling facilities

  9. What Can Nature Teach Us About Improving Earth Science Data Access? (United States)

    Young, S.


    Humans have collected earth observations data for centuries, helping us understand present conditions, allowing us to forecast the future, and giving us a window billions of years into the past. In the last 40 years the collection of earth observations data has increased on a truly massive and accelerating scale. Our abilities to collect new data have outpaced our abilities to access and use the data in all the ways users may expect. Mobile technology is a prime example. Smart telephones and tablet devices are proliferating rapidly; by 2016 there likely will be more smartphones than PCs on the planet. Earth data providers need to plan for and evolve to meet the needs, expectations, and capabilities of vast new numbers of mobile users. These users will not only consume data; many of them will also want to provide data via crowdsourcing or "citizen science" efforts. Can we channel the desire to provide citizen data in ways that help to ground-truth other observations, enrich the observations base, and improve data quality? Innovation will be key to meeting such challenges. Is it possible to innovate by studying the past? Does the earth system itself hold lessons that we can apply? We will examine what nature can teach us to foster sustainable innovation in our information technologies. Simplicity enables complexity; understanding complexity requires a return to simplicity. This presentation describes several user scenarios and examples of simplicity-complexity interactions to illustrate the connections with earth science data access.

  10. A Method for Choosing the Best Samples for Mars Sample Return. (United States)

    Gordon, Peter R; Sephton, Mark A


    Success of a future Mars Sample Return mission will depend on the correct choice of samples. Pyrolysis-FTIR can be employed as a triage instrument for Mars Sample Return. The technique can thermally dissociate minerals and organic matter for detection. Identification of certain mineral types can determine the habitability of the depositional environment, past or present, while detection of organic matter may suggest past or present habitation. In Mars' history, the Theiikian era represents an attractive target for life search missions and the acquisition of samples. The acidic and increasingly dry Theiikian may have been habitable and followed a lengthy neutral and wet period in Mars' history during which life could have originated and proliferated to achieve relatively abundant levels of biomass with a wide distribution. Moreover, the sulfate minerals produced in the Theiikian are also known to be good preservers of organic matter. We have used pyrolysis-FTIR and samples from a Mars analog ferrous acid stream with a thriving ecosystem to test the triage concept. Pyrolysis-FTIR identified those samples with the greatest probability of habitability and habitation. A three-tier scoring system was developed based on the detection of (i) organic signals, (ii) carbon dioxide and water, and (iii) sulfur dioxide. The presence of each component was given a score of A, B, or C depending on whether the substance had been detected, tentatively detected, or not detected, respectively. Single-step (for greatest possible sensitivity) or multistep (for more diagnostic data) pyrolysis-FTIR methods informed the assignments. The system allowed the highest-priority samples to be categorized as AAA (or A*AA if the organic signal was complex), while the lowest-priority samples could be categorized as CCC. Our methods provide a mechanism with which to rank samples and identify those that should take the highest priority for return to Earth during a Mars Sample Return mission. Key Words

  11. Foreign currency returns and systematic risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galsband, V.; Nitschka, T.


    We apply an empirical approximation of the intertemporal capital asset pricing model (ICAPM) to show that cross-sectional dispersion in currency returns can be rationalized by differences in currency excess returns' sensitivities to the market return's cash-flow news component. This finding echoes

  12. Heating and thermal control of brazing technique to break contamination path for potential Mars sample return (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Campos, Sergio


    The potential return of Mars sample material is of great interest to the planetary science community, as it would enable extensive analysis of samples with highly sensitive laboratory instruments. It is important to make sure such a mission concept would not bring any living microbes, which may possibly exist on Mars, back to Earth's environment. In order to ensure the isolation of Mars microbes from Earth's Atmosphere, a brazing sealing and sterilizing technique was proposed to break the Mars-to-Earth contamination path. Effectively, heating the brazing zone in high vacuum space and controlling the sample temperature for integrity are key challenges to the implementation of this technique. The break-thechain procedures for container configurations, which are being considered, were simulated by multi-physics finite element models. Different heating methods including induction and resistive/radiation were evaluated. The temperature profiles of Martian samples in a proposed container structure were predicted. The results show that the sealing and sterilizing process can be controlled such that the samples temperature is maintained below the level that may cause damage, and that the brazing technique is a feasible approach to breaking the contamination path.

  13. Estimation of High-Frequency Earth-Space Radio Wave Signals via Ground-Based Polarimetric Radar Observations (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.


    Expanding human presence in space, and enabling the commercialization of this frontier, is part of the strategic goals for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. Future near-Earth and planetary missions will support the use of high-frequency Earth-space communication systems. Additionally, increased commercial demand on low-frequency Earth-space links in the S- and C-band spectra have led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like Ku and Ka-band. Attenuation of high-frequency signals, due to a precipitating medium, can be quite severe and can cause considerable disruptions in a communications link that traverses such a medium. Previously, ground radar measurements were made along the Earth-space path and compared to satellite beacon data that was transmitted to a ground station. In this paper, quantitative estimation of the attenuation along the propagation path is made via inter-comparisons of radar data taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and ground-based polarimetric radar observations. Theoretical relationships between the expected specific attenuation (k) of spaceborne measurements with ground-based measurements of reflectivity (Zh) and differential propagation phase shift (Kdp) are developed for various hydrometeors that could be present along the propagation path, which are used to estimate the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on the PR return echo. Resolution volume matching and alignment of the radar systems is performed, and a direct comparison of PR return echo with ground radar attenuation estimates is made directly on a beam-by-beam basis. The technique is validated using data collected from the TExas and Florida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) experiment and the TRMM large Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) campaign. Attenuation estimation derived from this method can be used for strategiC planning of communication systems for

  14. The return period analysis of natural disasters with statistical modeling of bivariate joint probability distribution. (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liu, Xueqin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng


    New features of natural disasters have been observed over the last several years. The factors that influence the disasters' formation mechanisms, regularity of occurrence and main characteristics have been revealed to be more complicated and diverse in nature than previously thought. As the uncertainty involved increases, the variables need to be examined further. This article discusses the importance and the shortage of multivariate analysis of natural disasters and presents a method to estimate the joint probability of the return periods and perform a risk analysis. Severe dust storms from 1990 to 2008 in Inner Mongolia were used as a case study to test this new methodology, as they are normal and recurring climatic phenomena on Earth. Based on the 79 investigated events and according to the dust storm definition with bivariate, the joint probability distribution of severe dust storms was established using the observed data of maximum wind speed and duration. The joint return periods of severe dust storms were calculated, and the relevant risk was analyzed according to the joint probability. The copula function is able to simulate severe dust storm disasters accurately. The joint return periods generated are closer to those observed in reality than the univariate return periods and thus have more value in severe dust storm disaster mitigation, strategy making, program design, and improvement of risk management. This research may prove useful in risk-based decision making. The exploration of multivariate analysis methods can also lay the foundation for further applications in natural disaster risk analysis. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Stock return distribution in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adu


    Full Text Available Stock returns in emerging market economies exhibit patterns that are distinctively different from developed countries: returns are noted to be highly volatile and autocorrelated, and long horizon returns are predictable. While these stylized facts are well established, the assumption underlying the distribution of returns is less understood. In particular, the empirical literature continues to rely on the normality assumption as a starting point, and most asset pricing models tend to overstretch this point. This paper questions the rationale behind this supposition and proceeds to test more formally for normality using multivariate joint test for skewness and kurtosis. Additionally, the paper extends the literature by examining a number of empirical regularities for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (the BRICS for short. Our main findings are that the distribution of stock returns for the BRICS exhibits peakedness with fatter and longer tails, and this is invariant to both the unit of measurement and the time horizon of returns. Volatility clustering is prevalent in all markets, and this decays exponentially for all but Brazil. The relationship between risk and return is found to be significant and risk premiums are prevalent in our sample.

  16. Risk-return of Belgian SRI funds


    Van Liedekerke, Luc; De Moor, Lieven; Vanwalleghem, Dieter


    We analyse the risk-return profile of Belgian SRI funds versus conventional investment funds. We apply a four-factor conditional Carhart model to establish whether there are significant differences in risk-return profile between an SRI portfolio and a conventional portfolio and test for learning effects in SRI funds. We show that there is no difference in risk-return profile between SRI and conventional funds. If return is not the problem, then what is it that limits the development of an SRI...

  17. Recovering the Elemental Composition of Comet Wild 2 Dust in Five Stardust Impact Tracks and Terminal Particles in Aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, H A; Brennan, S; Bradley, J P; Luening, K; Ignatyev, K; Pianetta, P


    The elemental (non-volatile) composition of five Stardust impact tracks and terminal particles left from capture of Comet 81P/Wild 2 dust were mapped in a synchrotron x-ray scanning microprobe with full fluorescence spectra at each pixel. Because aerogel includes background levels of several elements of interest, we employ a novel 'dual threshold' approach to discriminate against background contaminants: an upper threshold, above which a spectrum contains cometary material plus aerogel and a lower threshold below which it contains only aerogel. The difference between normalized cometary-plus-background and background-only spectra is attributable to cometary material. The few spectra in between are discarded since misallocation is detrimental: cometary material incorrectly placed in the background spectrum is later subtracted from the cometary spectrum, doubling the loss of reportable cometary material. This approach improves precision of composition quantification. We present the refined whole impact track and terminal particle elemental abundances for the five impact tracks. One track shows mass increases in Cr and Mn (1.4x), Cu, As and K (2x), Zn (4x) and total mass (13%) by dual thresholds compared to a single threshold. Major elements Fe and Ni are not significantly affected. The additional Cr arises from cometary material containing little Fe. We exclude Au intermixed with cometary material because it is found to be a localized surface contaminant carried by comet dust into an impact track. The dual threshold technique can be used in other situations where elements of interest in a small sample embedded in a matrix are also present in the matrix itself

  18. 7 CFR 3560.305 - Return on investment. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Return on investment. 3560.305 Section 3560.305... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.305 Return on investment. (a) Borrower's return on investment. Borrowers may receive a return on their investment (ROI) in...

  19. Characteristics of donors who do or do not return to give blood and barriers to their return (United States)

    Wevers, Anne; Wigboldus, Daniël H.J.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; van Baaren, Rick; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J.T.


    Background In the Netherlands about 50% of whole blood donors return to give blood after an invitation to donate. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of donor return behaviour and to gain insight into the barriers to blood donation reported by the donors themselves. Materials and methods A total of 4,901 whole blood donors were invited to donate in week 39 of 2009. Barriers mentioned by donors who informed the blood bank for not donating were registered for 1 month. Logistic regression analyses assessed relevant characteristics of return behaviour, such as age and blood type, in men and women separately. Results Of the invited donors, 55% returned to give a donation, whereas 45% did not return. Male donors were more likely to return when they were older, had a higher previous return rate and had no past deferrals. The same pattern was found among women, but was less strong. The main barriers were: time constraints (35%), preference to postpone donation due to general physical problems although being eligible to donate (29%), and being ineligible to donate due to medical deferral criteria (9%). Discussion Specific donor characteristics are associated with return behaviour. Not donating due to time constraints could mean that donors do not feel the urgency of donating blood. Interventions targeted to increase commitment among specific donor groups should be tested further. PMID:23522891

  20. Money growth and aggregate stock returns


    Böing, Tobias; Stadtmann, Georg


    We empirically evaluate the predictive power of money growth measured by M2 for stock returns of the S&P 500 index. We use monthly US data and predict multiperiod returns over 1, 3, and 5 years with long-horizon regressions. In-sample regressions show that money growth is useful for predicting returns. Higher recent money growth has a significantly negative effect on subsequent returns of the S&P 500. An out-of-sample analysis shows that a simple model with money growth as a single predictor ...

  1. Poetic Return in Afghanistan Persian Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Shafagh


    Full Text Available Abstract Poetic return movement was started by a group of poets like Moshtagh and Shole Esfehani in the second half of 12 century. Their goal was restoring Persian poem and deliverance of Hindi style decline. Esfahan’s poets initiative was considered only in Iran but in other Persian language and literature areas like India, Afghanistan and Transoxiana it was ignored. After the failure of constitutional Movement in Afghanistan, motion similar poetic return was happened that caused poetic themes, which had gone towards modernism, return to Hindi style again.The present paper attempts to analyze the poetic atmosphere in Afghanistan synchronous the poetic return movement in Iran and investigate socio- political backgrounds of return to Hindi style in Afghanistan after constitution failure.

  2. Magnetic Partitioning Nanofluid for Rare Earth Extraction from Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, Bernard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nune, Satish K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Rare earth metals are critical materials in a wide variety of applications in generating and storing renewable energy and in designing more energy efficient devices. Extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines is a very challenging problem due to the low concentrations of these elements and engineering challenges with traditional chemical separations methods involving packed sorbent beds or membranes that would impede large volumetric flow rates of geothermal fluids transitioning through the plant. We are demonstrating a simple and highly cost-effective nanofluid-based method for extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines. Core-shell composite nanoparticles are produced that contain a magnetic iron oxide core surrounded by a shell made of silica or metal-organic framework (MOF) sorbent functionalized with chelating ligands selective for the rare earth elements. By introducing the nanoparticles at low concentration (≈0.05 wt%) into the geothermal brine after it passes through the plant heat exchanger, the brine is exposed to a very high concentration of chelating sites on the nanoparticles without need to pass through a large and costly traditional packed bed or membrane system where pressure drop and parasitic pumping power losses are significant issues. Instead, after a short residence time flowing with the brine, the particles are effectively separated out with an electromagnet and standard extraction methods are then applied to strip the rare earth metals from the nanoparticles, which are then recycled back to the geothermal plant. Recovery efficiency for the rare earths at ppm level has now been measured for both silica and MOF sorbents functionalized with a variety of chelating ligands. A detailed preliminary techno-economic performance analysis of extraction systems using both sorbents showed potential to generate a promising internal rate of return (IRR) up to 20%.

  3. Radioactivity observed in the sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer returned on the Apollo 17 mission (United States)

    Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Eller, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.


    In order to obtain information on radioactive background induced in the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers (7 cm x 7 cm NaI) by particle irradiation during spaceflight, and identical detector was flown and returned to earth on the Apollo 17 mission. The induced radioactivity was monitored both internally and externally from one and a half hours after splashdown. When used in conjunction with a computation scheme for estimating induced activation from calculated trapped proton and cosmic-ray fluences, these results show an important contribution resulting from both thermal and energetic neutrons produced in the heavy spacecraft by cosmic-ray interactions.

  4. Common Factors in International Bond Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Melenberg, B.; Nijman, T.E.


    In this paper we estimate and interpret the factors that jointly determine bond returns of different maturities in the US, Germany and Japan.We analyze both currency-hedged and unhedged bond returns.For currency-hedged bond returns, we find that five factors explain 96.5% of the variation of bond

  5. Return-to-work coordination programmes for improving return to work in workers on sick leave. (United States)

    Vogel, Nicole; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Ebrahim, Shanil; de Boer, Wout El; Busse, Jason W; Kunz, Regina


    To limit long-term sick leave and associated consequences, insurers, healthcare providers and employers provide programmes to facilitate disabled people's return to work. These programmes include a variety of coordinated and individualised interventions. Despite the increasing popularity of such programmes, their benefits remain uncertain. We conducted a systematic review to determine the long-term effectiveness of return-to-work coordination programmes compared to usual practice in workers at risk for long-term disability. To assess the effects of return-to-work coordination programmes versus usual practice for workers on sick leave or disability. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO up to 1 November 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled workers absent from work for at least four weeks and randomly assigned them to return-to-work coordination programmes or usual practice. Two review authors independently screened titles, abstracts and full-text articles for study eligibility; extracted data; and assessed risk of bias from eligible trials. We contacted authors for additional data where required. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. We identified 14 studies from nine countries that enrolled 12,568 workers. Eleven studies focused on musculoskeletal problems, two on mental health and one on both. Most studies (11 of 14) followed workers 12 months or longer. Risk of bias was low in 10 and high in 4 studies, but findings were not sensitive to their exclusion.We found no benefits for return-to-work coordination programmes on return-to-work outcomes.For short-term follow-up of six months, we found no effect on time to return to work (hazard ratio (HR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.88, low-quality evidence), cumulative sickness absence (mean difference (MD) -16.18 work

  6. 26 CFR 301.6103(n)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements... (United States)


    ... administration purposes. 301.6103(n)-1 Section 301.6103(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(n)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information in... administration purposes. (a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(n) of the Internal...

  7. The STS-95 crew participates in a media briefing before returning to JSC (United States)


    The day after their return to Earth on board the orbiter Discovery, members of the STS-95 crew participate in a media briefing at the Kennedy Space Center Press Site Auditorium before returning to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. From left to right are Lisa Malone, moderator and chief of NASA Public Affairs' Media Services at Kennedy Space Center; Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Mission Specialist and Payload Commander Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 mission ended with landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST on Nov. 7. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  8. Hyperspectral Analyses of Wild 2 Grains Using Synchrotron Radiation (United States)

    Simionovici, A. S.; Lemelle, L.; Ferroir, T.; Gillet, P.; Borg, J.; Grossemy, F.; Djouadi, Z.; Bleuet, P.; Susini, J.


    This work is part of the Preliminary Examination Team (PET) on Bulk Chemistry investigation of Wild 2 cometary grains brought back to Earth by the NASA Stardust mission [1]. X-rays are among the least destructive yet sensitive micro-probes, capable of analysing minute samples embedded in low density collectors, so methods based on Synchrotron Radiation had access to Stardust samples in priority. The main goal of the PET was to produce a preliminary characterization of the abundance and nature of the elements present in the returned samples [2]. In this phase it was paramount to analyze the grains in-situ, in the aerogel foam of the collectors to record the total mass fragments and avoid extraction risks. We have performed measurements on beamlines ID22/ID21 of the ESRF synchrotron in Grenoble, France, devoted to high/low energy microspectroscopy and recorded results on a collection of 6 keystones. Terminal particles as well as fragmentation tracks in the aerogel were mapped out with micron resolution, recording total mass composition for elements of Z>15 by means of X-ray fluorescence [3], as well as structural information by X-ray diffraction. This allowed the direct identification of the mineralogy of some of the grains. Finally, we recorded the evolution of the charge states of S and Fe as a function of the position in the track by means of micro-Xanes measurements. All these analyses were combined to produce a description of the Wild 2 cometary grains [4], as well as a history of their formation and of the thermal interactions during their slowing down in the aerogel collectors. [1] Brownlee, D. E. et al., LPSC XXXVII, abstract nr. 2286, 2006. [2] G. J. Flynn et al., LPSC XXXVII, abstract nr. 1217, 2006. [3] A. Simionovici, P. Chevallier, Chap. 7, Handbook of Practical X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis, 66-83, Springer, 2006. [4] G. J. Flynn et al., Science, (submitted), 2006.

  9. Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System (B) Past, Present and Future of Small Body Science and Exploration (B0.4) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, Dan; Chodas, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Ticker, Ronald


    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human space flight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low- Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human space flight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM).

  10. PHYS: Division of Physical Chemistry 258 - Properties and Origins of Cometary and Asteroidal Organic Matter Delivered to the Early Earth (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nguyen, Ann


    Comets and asteroids may have contributed much of the Earth's water and organic matter. The Earth accretes approximately 4x10(exp 7) Kg of dust and meteorites from these sources every year. The least altered meteorites contain complex assemblages of organic compounds and abundant hydrated minerals. These carbonaceous chondrite meteorites probably derive from asteroids that underwent hydrothermal processing within the first few million years after their accretion. Meteorite organics show isotopic and chemical signatures of low-T ion-molecule and grain-surface chemistry and photolysis of icy grains that occurred in cold molecular clouds and the outer protoplanetary disk. These signatures have been overprinted by aqueously mediated chemistry in asteroid parent bodies, forming amino acids and other prebiotic molecules. Comets are much richer in organic matter but it is less well characterized. Comet dust collected in the stratosphere shows larger H and N isotopic anomalies than most meteorites, suggesting better preservation of primordial organics. Rosetta studies of comet 67P coma dust find complex organic matter that may be related to the macromolecular material that dominates the organic inventory of primitive meteorites. The exogenous organic material accreting on Earth throughout its history is made up of thousands of molecular species formed in diverse processes ranging from circumstellar outflows to chemistry at near absolute zero in dark cloud cores and the formative environment within minor planets. NASA and JAXA are currently flying sample return missions to primitive, potentially organic-rich asteroids. The OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa2 missions will map their target asteroids, Bennu and Ryugu, in detail and return regolith samples to Earth. Laboratory analyses of these pristine asteroid samples will provide unprecedented views of asteroidal organic matter relatively free of terrestrial contamination within well determined geological context. Studies of

  11. Utility allowed returns and market extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, D.A.; Nan, G.D.; Harrington, B.M.


    In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy

  12. Return to sports after shoulder arthroplasty (United States)

    Johnson, Christine C; Johnson, Daniel J; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Garcia, Grant H


    Many patients prioritize the ability to return to sports following shoulder replacement surgeries, including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), and hemiarthroplasty (HA). While activity levels after hip and knee replacements have been well-established in the literature, studies on this topic in the field of shoulder arthroplasty are relatively limited. A review of the literature regarding athletic activity after shoulder arthroplasty was performed using the PubMed database. All studies relevant to shoulder arthroplasty and return to sport were included. The majority of patients returned to their prior level of activity within six months following TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA. Noncontact, low demand activities are permitted by most surgeons postoperatively and generally have higher return rates than contact sports or high-demand activities. In some series, patients reported an improvement in their ability to participate in sports following the arthroplasty procedure. The rates of return to sports following TSA (75%-100%) are slightly higher than those reported for HA (67%-76%) and RTSA (75%-85%). Patients undergoing TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA should be counseled that there is a high probability that they will be able to return to their preoperative activity level within six months postoperatively. TSA has been associated with higher rates of return to sports than RTSA and HA, although this may reflect differences in patient population or surgical indication. PMID:27672564

  13. 26 CFR 301.6019-1 - Gift tax returns. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gift tax returns. 301.6019-1 Section 301.6019-1... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6019-1 Gift tax returns. For provisions relating to requirement of gift tax returns, see §§ 25.6019-1 to 25.6019-4...

  14. Stock Returns and Risk: Evidence from Quantile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Chiang


    Full Text Available This paper employs weighted least squares to examine the risk-return relation by applying high-frequency data from four major stock indexes in the US market and finds some evidence in favor of a positive relation between the mean of the excess returns and expected risk. However, by using quantile regressions, we find that the risk-return relation moves from negative to positive as the returns’ quantile increases. A positive risk-return relation is valid only in the upper quantiles. The evidence also suggests that intraday skewness plays a dominant role in explaining the variations of excess returns.

  15. Sun-Earth National Program. 2006-2009 results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Dominique; Vilmer, Nicole


    PNST (Programme National Soleil-Terre/Sun-Earth National Program) is dedicated to analysis of the Sun-Earth system, from generation of the solar magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, until impact on the terrestrial magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Research activities carried out in the frame of Programme National Soleil-Terre (PNST) rely on both ground-based and space-borne instruments. One of the main objectives of PNST is to stimulate coordinated studies and to optimize scientific return of these instruments. This document is the 2006-2009 scientific report of the program. It presents in the introduction some highlights, the main questions, the thematic reviews and the forces and weaknesses of the program. Then, part 2 is a review of the main scientific questions: mechanisms at the origin of the eruptive activity in plasmas; mechanisms involved in particles heating and acceleration; energy transfers at different scales in the plasma and dynamics of turbulence in this anisotropic medium; coupling mechanisms between the different plasma envelopes; Sun-Earth relations and space meteorology; interfaces with other programs (planetary plasmas, magnetism and sun-type stars activity). Part 3 presents the results and prospects of the ground and space instrumentation, of databases and numerical tools. Finally, the administrative and financial status of the program is summarized (Program structure and operation, budget, manpower, publications)

  16. Space as a Tool for Astrobiology: Review and Recommendations for Experimentations in Earth Orbit and Beyond (United States)

    Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Billi, Daniela; Cockell, Charles; Demets, René; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; d'Hendecourt, Louis; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Martins, Zita; Onofri, Silvano; Quinn, Richard C.; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Ricco, Antonio J.; Slenzka, Klaus; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Westall, Frances; Carrasco, Nathalie; Fresneau, Aurélien; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Kebukawa, Yoko; Nguyen, Dara; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Stalport, Fabien; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Klamm, Benjamin A.


    The space environment is regularly used for experiments addressing astrobiology research goals. The specific conditions prevailing in Earth orbit and beyond, notably the radiative environment (photons and energetic particles) and the possibility to conduct long-duration measurements, have been the main motivations for developing experimental concepts to expose chemical or biological samples to outer space, or to use the reentry of a spacecraft on Earth to simulate the fall of a meteorite. This paper represents an overview of past and current research in astrobiology conducted in Earth orbit and beyond, with a special focus on ESA missions such as Biopan, STONE (on Russian FOTON capsules) and EXPOSE facilities (outside the International Space Station). The future of exposure platforms is discussed, notably how they can be improved for better science return, and how to incorporate the use of small satellites such as those built in cubesat format.

  17. Return to Golf After Lumbar Fusion. (United States)

    Shifflett, Grant D; Hellman, Michael D; Louie, Philip K; Mikhail, Christopher; Park, Kevin U; Phillips, Frank M

    Spinal fusion surgery is being increasingly performed, yet few studies have focused on return to recreational sports after lumbar fusion and none have specifically analyzed return to golf. Most golfers successfully return to sport after lumbar fusion surgery. Case series. Level 4. All patients who underwent 1- or 2-level primary lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative pathologies performed by a single surgeon between January 2008 and October 2012 and had at least 1-year follow-up were included. Patients completed a specifically designed golf survey. Surveys were mailed, given during follow-up clinic, or answered during telephone contact. A total of 353 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, with 200 responses (57%) to the questionnaire producing 34 golfers. The average age of golfers was 57 years (range, 32-79 years). In 79% of golfers, preoperative back and/or leg pain significantly affected their ability to play golf. Within 1 year from surgery, 65% of patients returned to practice and 52% returned to course play. Only 29% of patients stated that continued back/leg pain limited their play. Twenty-five patients (77%) were able to play the same amount of golf or more than before fusion surgery. Of those providing handicaps, 12 (80%) reported the same or an improved handicap. More than 50% of golfers return to on-course play within 1 year of lumbar fusion surgery. The majority of golfers can return to preoperative levels in terms of performance (handicap) and frequency of play. This investigation offers insight into when golfers return to sport after lumbar fusion surgery and provides surgeons with information to set realistic expectations postoperatively.

  18. Role of impact cratering for Mars sample return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, P.H.


    The preserved cratering record of Mars indicates that impacts play an important role in deciphering Martian geologic history, whether as a mechanism to modify the lithosphere and atmosphere or as a tool to sample the planet. The various roles of impact cratering in adding a broader understanding of Mars through returned samples are examined. Five broad roles include impact craters as: (1) a process in response to a different planetary localizer environment; (2) a probe for excavating crustal/mantle materials; (3) a possible localizer of magmatic and hydrothermal processes; (4) a chronicle of changes in the volcanic, sedimentary, atmospheric, and cosmic flux history; and (5) a chronometer for extending the geologic time scale to unsampled regions. The evidence for Earth-like processes and very nonlunar styles of volcanism and tectonism may shift the emphasis of a sampling strategy away from equally fundamental issues including crustal composition, unit ages, and climate history. Impact cratering not only played an important active role in the early Martian geologic history, it also provides an important tool for addressing such issues

  19. Does Aggregated Returns Disclosure Increase Portfolio Risk Taking? (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C


    Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset's returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset's return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations.

  20. A Geochemical View on the Interplay Between Earth's Mantle and Crust (United States)

    Chauvel, C.


    Over most of Earth history, oceanic and continental crust was created and destroyed. The formation of both types of crust involves the crystallization and differentiation of magmas producing by mantle melting. Their destruction proceeds by mechanical erosion and weathering above sea level, chemical alteration on the seafloor, and bulk recycling in subduction zones. All these processes enrich of some chemical element and deplete others but each process has its own effect on chemical elements. While the flux of material from mantle to crust is well understood, the return flux is much more complex. In contrast to mantle processes, erosion, weathering, chemical alteration and sedimentary processes strongly decouple elements such as the rare earths and high-field strength elements due to their different solubilities in surface fluids and mineralogical sorting during transport. Soluble elements such as strontium or uranium are quantitatively transported to the ocean by rivers and decoupled from less soluble elements. Over geological time, such decoupling significantly influences the extent to which chemical elements remain at the Earth's surface or find their way back to the mantle through subduction zones. For example, elements like Hf or Nd are retained in heavy minerals on continents whereas U and Sr are transported to the oceans and then in subduction zones to the mantle. The consequence is that different radiogenic isotopic systems give disparate age estimates for the continental crust; e.g, Hf ages could be too old. In subduction zones, chemical elements are also decoupled, due to contrasting behavior during dehydration or melting in subducting slabs. The material sent back into the mantle is generally enriched in non-soluble elements while most fluid-mobile elements return to the crust. This, in turn, affects the relationship between the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf and U-Th-Pb isotopic systems and creates correlations unlike those based on magmatic processes. By

  1. Is skeletal muscle ready for long-term spaceflight and return to gravity? (United States)

    Riley, D. A.


    It is now clear that prevention of muscle debilitation during spaceflight will require a broader approach than simple exercise aimed at strengthening of the muscle fibers. The levels of several hormones and receptors are altered by unloading and must be returned to homeostasis. Pharmacotherapy and gene transfer strategies to raise the relative level of structural proteins may minimize the problems faced by astronauts in readapting to Earth-gravity. Up to now, we have only minimally exploited microgravity for advancing our understanding of muscle biology. A research laboratory in the space station with a centrifuge facility (gravity control) is essential for conducting basic research in this field. Microgravity has proven an excellent tool for noninvasively perturbing the synthesis of muscle proteins in the search for molecular signals and gene regulatory factors influencing differentiation, growth, maintenance and atrophy of muscle. Understanding the relation between blood flow and interstitial edema and between workload and subsequent structural failure are but two important problems that require serious attention. The roles of hormones and growth factors in regulating gene expression and their microgravity-induced altered production are other urgent issues to pursue. These types of studies will yield information that advances basic knowledge of muscle biology and offers insights into countermeasure design. This knowledge is likely to assist rehabilitation of diseased or injured muscles in humans on Earth, especially individuals in the more vulnerable aging population and persons participating in strenuous sports. Will the skeletal muscle system be prepared for the increased exposure to microgravity and the return to gravity loading without injury when space station is operational? The answer depends in large part on continued access to space and funding of ground-based models and flight experiments. The previous two decades of spaceflight research have described

  2. Does Aggregated Returns Disclosure Increase Portfolio Risk Taking? (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.


    Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset’s returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset’s return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations. PMID:28553012

  3. Converting the ISS to an Earth-Moon Transport System Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, John; Maise, George; Powell, James


    Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), the International Space Station (ISS) can be placed into a cyclic orbit between the Earth and the Moon for 2-way transport of personnel and supplies to a permanent Moon Base. The ISS cycler orbit apogees 470,000 km from Earth, with a period of 13.66 days. Once a month, the ISS would pass close to the Moon, enabling 2-way transport between it and the surface using a lunar shuttle craft. The lunar shuttle craft would land at a desired location on the surface during a flyby and return to the ISS during a later flyby. At Earth perigee 7 days later at 500 km altitude, there would be 2-way transport between it and Earth's surface using an Earth shuttle craft. The docking Earth shuttle would remain attached to the ISS as it traveled towards the Moon, while personnel and supplies transferred to a lunar shuttle spacecraft that would detach and land at the lunar base when the ISS swung around the Moon. The reverse process would be carried out to return personnel and materials from the Moon to the Earth. The orbital mechanics for the ISS cycle are described in detail. Based on the full-up mass of 400 metric tons for the ISS, an ISP of 900 seconds, and a delta V burn of 3.3 km/sec to establish the orbit, 200 metric tons of liquid H-2 propellant would be required. The 200 metric tons could be stored in 3 tanks, each 8 meters in diameter and 20 meters in length. An assembly of 3 MITEE NTP engines would be used, providing redundancy if an engine were to fail. Two different MITEE design options are described. Option 1 is an 18,000 Newton, 100 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 6.6/1; Option 2 is a 180,000 Newton, 1000 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 23/1. Burn times to establish the orbit are ∼1 hour for the large 3 engine assembly, and 10 hours for the small 3 engine assembly. Both engines would use W-UO2 cermet fuel at ∼2750 K which has demonstrated the capability to operate for at least 50 hours in 2750 K hydrogen

  4. Dynamic Acquisition and Retrieval Tool (DART) for Comet Sample Return : Session: 2.06.Robotic Mobility and Sample Acquisition Systems (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bonitz, Robert; Kulczycki, Erick; Aisen, Norman; Dandino, Charles M.; Cantrell, Brett S.; Gallagher, William; Shevin, Jesse; Ganino, Anthony; Haddad, Nicolas; hide


    The 2011 Decadal Survey for planetary science released by the National Research Council of the National Academies identified Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR) as one of five high priority potential New Frontiers-class missions in the next decade. The main objectives of the research described in this publication are: develop a concept for an end-to-end system for collecting and storing a comet sample to be returned to Earth; design, fabricate and test a prototype Dynamic Acquisition and Retrieval Tool (DART) capable of collecting 500 cc sample in a canister and eject the canister with a predetermined speed; identify a set of simulants with physical properties at room temperature that suitably match the physical properties of the comet surface as it would be sampled. We propose the use of a dart that would be launched from the spacecraft to impact and penetrate the comet surface. After collecting the sample, the sample canister would be ejected at a speed greater than the comet's escape velocity and captured by the spacecraft, packaged into a return capsule and returned to Earth. The dart would be composed of an inner tube or sample canister, an outer tube, a decelerator, a means of capturing and retaining the sample, and a mechanism to eject the canister with the sample for later rendezvous with the spacecraft. One of the significant unknowns is the physical properties of the comet surface. Based on new findings from the recent Deep Impact comet encounter mission, we have limited our search of solutions for sampling materials to materials with 10 to 100 kPa shear strength in loose or consolidated form. As the possible range of values for the comet surface temperature is also significantly different than room temperature and testing at conditions other than the room temperature can become resource intensive, we sought sample simulants with physical properties at room temperature similar to the expected physical properties of the comet surface material. The chosen

  5. An Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like density. (United States)

    Pepe, Francesco; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Latham, David W; Molinari, Emilio; Udry, Stéphane; Bonomo, Aldo S; Buchhave, Lars A; Charbonneau, David; Cosentino, Rosario; Dressing, Courtney D; Dumusque, Xavier; Figueira, Pedro; Fiorenzano, Aldo F M; Gettel, Sara; Harutyunyan, Avet; Haywood, Raphaëlle D; Horne, Keith; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Lovis, Christophe; Malavolta, Luca; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Motalebi, Fatemeh; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Phillips, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Watson, Christopher A


    Recent analyses of data from the NASA Kepler spacecraft have established that planets with radii within 25 per cent of the Earth's (R Earth symbol) are commonplace throughout the Galaxy, orbiting at least 16.5 per cent of Sun-like stars. Because these studies were sensitive to the sizes of the planets but not their masses, the question remains whether these Earth-sized planets are indeed similar to the Earth in bulk composition. The smallest planets for which masses have been accurately determined are Kepler-10b (1.42 R Earth symbol) and Kepler-36b (1.49 R Earth symbol), which are both significantly larger than the Earth. Recently, the planet Kepler-78b was discovered and found to have a radius of only 1.16 R Earth symbol. Here we report that the mass of this planet is 1.86 Earth masses. The resulting mean density of the planet is 5.57 g cm(-3), which is similar to that of the Earth and implies a composition of iron and rock.

  6. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.


    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  7. Solar sail trajectory design in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three body problem (United States)

    Das, Ashwati

    The quest to explore the Moon has helped resolve scientific questions, has spurred leaps in technology development, and has revealed Earth's celestial companion to be a gateway to other destinations. With a renewed focus on returning to the Moon in this decade, alternatives to chemical propulsion systems are becoming attractive methods to efficiently use scarce resources and support extended mission durations. Thus, an investigation is conducted to develop a general framework, that facilitates propellant-free Earth-Moon transfers by exploiting sail dynamics in combination with advantageous transfer options offered in the Earth-Moon circular restricted multi-body dynamical model. Both periodic orbits in the vicinity of the Earth-Moon libration points, and lunar-centric long-term capture orbits are incorporated as target destinations to demonstrate the applicability of the general framework to varied design scanarios, each incorporating a variety of complexities and challenges. The transfers are comprised of three phases - a spiral Earth escape, a transit period, and, finally, the capture into a desirable orbit in the vicinity of the Moon. The Earth-escape phase consists of spiral trajectories constructed using three different sail steering strategies - locally optimal, on/off and velocity tangent. In the case of the Earth-libration point transfers, naturally occurring flow structures (e.g., invariant manifolds) arising from the mutual gravitational interaction of the Earth and Moon are exploited to link an Earth departure spiral with a destination orbit. In contrast, sail steering alone is employed to establish a link between the Earth-escape phase and capture orbits about the Moon due to a lack of applicable natural structures for the required connection. Metrics associated with the transfers including flight-time and the influence of operational constraints, such as occultation events, are investigated to determine the available capabilities for Earth

  8. Are there Diminishing Returns to R&D?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.

    Semi-endogenous models and, to some extent, also Schumpeterian models are based on the assumption of diminishing returns to R&D. This paper shows that the null hypothesis of constant returns to R&D cannot be rejected for the OECD countries......Semi-endogenous models and, to some extent, also Schumpeterian models are based on the assumption of diminishing returns to R&D. This paper shows that the null hypothesis of constant returns to R&D cannot be rejected for the OECD countries...

  9. NEOCAM: Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission: Bridging the Gulf between Telescopic Observations and the Chemical and Mineralogical Compositions of Asteroids or Diogenes A: Diagnostic Observation of the Geology of Near Earth Spectrally-Classified Asteroids (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.


    Studies of meteorites have yielded a wealth of scientific information based on highly detailed chemical and isotopic studies possible only in sophisticated terrestrial laboratories. Telescopic studies have revealed an enormous (greater than 10(exp 5)) number of physical objects ranging in size from a few tens of meters to several hundred kilometers, orbiting not only in the traditional asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter but also throughout the inner solar system. Many of the largest asteroids are classed into taxonomic groups based on their observed spectral properties and are designated as C, D. X, S or V types (as well as a wide range in sub-types). These objects are certainly the sources far the meteorites in our laboratories, but which asteroids are the sources for which meteorites? Spectral classes are nominally correlated to the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the asteroid itself based on studies of the spectral changes induced in meteorites due to exposure to a simulated space environment. While laboratory studies have produced some notable successes (e.g. the identification of the asteroid Vesta as the source of the H, E and D meteorite classes), it is unlikely that we have samples of each asteroidal spectral type in our meteorite collection. The correlation of spectral type and composition for many objects will therefore remain uncertain until we can return samples of specific asteroid types to Earth for analyses. The best candidates for sample return are asteroids that already come close to the Earth. Asteroids in orbit near 1 A.U. have been classified into three groups (Aten, Apollo & Amor) based on their orbital characteristics. These Near Earth Objects (NEOs) contain representatives of virtually all spectral types and sub-types of the asteroid population identified to date. Because of their close proximity to Earth, NEOs are prime targets for asteroid missions such as the NEAR-Shoemaker NASA Discovery Mission to Eros and the

  10. Changing inclination of earth satellites using the gravity of the moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla de Souza Torres


    Full Text Available We analyze the problem of the orbital control of an Earth's satellite using the gravity of the Moon. The main objective is to study a technique to decrease the fuel consumption of a plane change maneuver to be performed in a satellite that is in orbit around the Earth. The main idea of this approach is to send the satellite to the Moon using a single-impulsive maneuver, use the gravity field of the Moon to make the desired plane change of the trajectory, and then return the satellite to its nominal semimajor axis and eccentricity using a bi-impulsive Hohmann-type maneuver. The satellite is assumed to start in a Keplerian orbit in the plane of the lunar orbit around the Earth and the goal is to put it in a similar orbit that differs from the initial orbit only by the inclination. A description of the close-approach maneuver is made in the three-dimensional space. Analytical equations based on the patched conics approach are used to calculate the variation in velocity, angular momentum, energy, and inclination of the satellite. Then, several simulations are made to evaluate the savings involved. The time required by those transfers is also calculated and shown.

  11. Regime switches in the risk-return trade-off


    Marcellino, Massimiliano; Ghysels, Eric; Guerin, Pierre


    This paper deals with the estimation of the risk-return trade-off. We use a MIDAS model for the conditional variance and allow for possible switches in the risk-return relation through a Markov-switching specification. We find strong evidence for regime changes in the risk-return relation. This finding is robust to a large range of specifications. In the first regime characterized by low ex-post returns and high volatility, the risk-return relation is reversed, whereas the intuitive positive ...



    Peker, Ibrahim


    This study aims at categorizing, computing and analyzing fees and costs in Turkish Individual Pension System. To this end, net real returns after all costs were computed and these returns were compared with the disclosed fees and returns. Generally in practice, only fund management fees are taken into consideration for calculating net returns and with this method net annual average (geometric) return of the system is calculated as 2.01% for the 2008-2014 period. However, the results of this s...

  13. Do expectancies of return to work and Job satisfaction predict actual return to work in workers with long lasting LBP? (United States)

    Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Tveito, Torill H


    Musculoskeletal disorders including low back pain have major individual and socioeconomic consequences as it often leads to disability and long-term sick leave and exclusion from working life. Predictors of disability and return to work often differ, and the dominant knowledge is on predictors for prolonged sick leave and disability. Therefore it is also important to identify key predictors for return to work. The aim of the study was to assess if overall job satisfaction and expectancies of return to work predicts actual return to work after 12 months, among employees with long lasting low back pain, and to assess if there were gender differences in the predictors. Data from the Cognitive interventions and nutritional supplements trial (CINS Trial) was used. Predictors for return to work were examined in 574 employees that had been on sick leave 2-10 months for low back pain, before entering the trial. Data were analysed with multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender, and adjusted for potential confounders. Regardless of gender high expectancies were a strong and significant predictor of return to work at 12 months, while high levels of job satisfaction were not a significant predictor. There were no differences in the levels of expectancies or overall job satisfaction between men and women. However, men had in general higher odds of returning to work compared with women. Among individuals with long lasting low back pain high expectancies of returning to work were strongly associated with successful return to work. We do not know what factors influence individual expectancies of return to work. Screening expectancies and giving individuals with low expectancies interventions with a goal to change expectancies of return to work, such as CBT or self-management interventions, may contribute to increase actual return to work. , with registration number NCT00463970 . The trial was registered at the 18th of April 2007.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sudiyatno


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh kinerja keuangan konvensional; Return on Asset (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Residual Income (RI, dan kinerja keuangan yang lebih modern; Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap return saham pada perusahaan-perusahaan dalam industry makanan dan minuman yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode sensus, karena semua perusahaan dalam industry makanan dan minuman digunakan sebagai sampel. Namun dalam proses samplingnya mengunakan metode purposive sampling, yaitu menggunakan sampel dengan criteria-kriteria tertentu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Return on Asset (ROA dan Residual Income (RI berpengaruh positif dan secara statistik signifikan terhadap return saham pada level signifikansi 1%. Sedangkan Return on Equity (ROE berpengaruh negative dan secara statistik signifikan terhadap return saham pada level signifikansi 10%, dan Economic Value Added (ERA berpengaruh positif tetapi tidak signifikan terhadap return saham.This study aims to test the effect of conventional financial performance i.e. Return on Asset (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Residual Income (RI, and the more modern financial performance which is Economic Value Added (EVA toward stock returns on companies in the food and beverage industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Sampling technique in this study uses the census method, all companies in the food and beverage industry are used as a sample. The process of sampling using purposive sampling method. The result shows that Return On Asset (ROA and Residual Income (RI are positive and statistic significant impact on the stock returns at significance level 1%. While the Return on Equity (ROE is negative and statistic significant impact on the stock returns at significance level 10%, Economic Value Added (EVA is positive and statistic not significant impact on the stock returns.

  15. The Determinants of Return Migration: Evidence for Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiana Gashi


    Full Text Available Return migration represents a potentially important contributor to economic development for countries that are large exporters of labor. This paper provides an analysis of the determinants of return migration to Kosovo, a country with an especially high level of recent emigration. The findings of this investigation suggest that there is a non-linear relationship between the age of the migrant and their probability of returning. In addition, the more educated migrants and those that have acquired additional education whilst abroad are more likely to return, whereas recent migrants, those that possess permanent resident status and have their family abroad are less likely to return. As expected, the stronger the family ties of a migrant with their home country, the more likely they are to return. Finally, migrants that are expected to invest in businesses in Kosovo are more inclined to return. Together these findings suggest that return migration may be an important contributor to economic development in Kosovo and policies are outlined that could strengthen this contribution.

  16. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian


    Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from D...... of illness, health did matter. Viewed as physical, social and mental well-being in line with WHO's definition of health, health was indeed one of the most important factors when the decision to return was made....... that physical health, in the sense of the absence of illness and easy access to necessary health-care services and medicines, was not highly prioritized when the decision was made whether or not to return. However, if health is regarded more broadly as involving more than mere physical health and the absence......Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...

  17. Corporate Governance and Equity Returns


    Uchida, Shigeru


    This paper analyses the relationship between corporate governance and equity returns from the small investors view point. A primary survey has been conducted to gather the data required to examine the link. Preliminary result of the study shows that the four elements of governance: board structure, transparency, fairness and responsibility are positively related with equity returns.

  18. Effectiveness of Securities with Fuzzy Probabilistic Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piasecki


    Full Text Available The generalized fuzzy present value of a security is defined here as fuzzy valued utility of cash flow. The generalized fuzzy present value cannot depend on the value of future cash flow. There exists such a generalized fuzzy present value which is not a fuzzy present value in the sense given by some authors. If the present value is a fuzzy number and the future value is a random one, then the return rate is given as a probabilistic fuzzy subset on a real line. This kind of return rate is called a fuzzy probabilistic return. The main goal of this paper is to derive the family of effective securities with fuzzy probabilistic return. Achieving this goal requires the study of the basic parameters characterizing fuzzy probabilistic return. Therefore, fuzzy expected value and variance are determined for this case of return. These results are a starting point for constructing a three-dimensional image. The set of effective securities is introduced as the Pareto optimal set determined by the maximization of the expected return rate and minimization of the variance. Finally, the set of effective securities is distinguished as a fuzzy set. These results are obtained without the assumption that the distribution of future values is Gaussian. (original abstract

  19. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at the...

  20. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market (United States)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.


    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean . We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  1. Return currents in solar flares - Collisionless effects (United States)

    Rowland, H. L.; Vlahos, L.


    If the primary, precipitating electrons in a solar flare are unstable to beam plasma interactions, it is shown that strong Langmuir turbulence can seriously modify the way in which a return current is carried by the background plasma. In particular, the return (or reverse) current will not be carried by the bulk of the electrons, but by a small number of high velocity electrons. For beam/plasma densities greater than 0.01, this can reduce the effects of collisions on the return current. For higher density beams where the return current could be unstable to current driven instabilities, the effects of strong turbulence anomalous resistivity is shown to prevent the appearance of such instabilities. Again in this regime, how the return current is carried is determined by the beam generated strong turbulence.

  2. Rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasgnier, M.


    The review deals with pure rare earth materials such as rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films. Several preparation techniques, control methods, and nature of possible contaminations of thin films are described. These films can now be produced in an extremely well-known state concerning chemical composition, structure and texture. Structural, electric, magnetic, and optical properties of thin films are studied and discussed in comparison with the bulk state. The greatest contamination of metallic rare earth thin films is caused by reaction with hydrogen or with water vapour. The compound with an f.c.c. structure is the dihydride LnH 2 (Ln = lanthanides). The oxygen contamination takes place after annealing at higher temperatures. Then there appears a compound with a b.c.c. structure which is the C-type sesquioxide C-Ln 2 O 3 . At room atmosphere dihydride light rare earth thin films are converted to hydroxide Ln(OH) 3 . For heavy rare earth thin films the oxinitride LnNsub(x)Osub(y) is observed. The LnO-type compound was never seen. The present review tries to set the stage anew for the investigations to be undertaken in the future especially through the new generations of electron microscopes

  3. Value at Risk and Hedge Fund Return - Does High Risk Bring High Return?


    Jing, Tao; Zhao, Hongxiang


    This paper mainly focuses on the correlation between live hedge fund return and their value at risk (VaR), and is based on the historical data from May 2000 to April 2010. The authors adopt portfolio level analyses and fund level cross-sectional regression, and find that there is significant positive correlation, both statistically and economically, between the hedge fund return and VaRs (parametric, non-parametric and GARCH). Further research is conducted by sub-dividing the overall period i...

  4. Linkage between company scores and stock returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik


    Full Text Available Previous studies on company scores conducted at firm-level, generally concluded that there exists a positive relation between company scores and stock returns. Motivated by these studies, this study examines the relationship between company scores (Corporate Governance Score, Economic Score, Environmental Score, and Social Score and stock returns, both at portfolio-level analysis and firm-level cross-sectional regressions. In portfolio-level analysis, stocks are sorted based on each company scores and quintile portfolio are formed with different levels of company scores. Then, existence and significance of raw returns and risk-adjusted returns difference between portfolios with the extreme company scores (portfolio 10 and portfolio 1 is tested. In addition, firm-level cross-sectional regression is performed to examine the significance of company scores effects with control variables. While portfolio-level analysis results indicate that there is no significant relation between company scores and stock returns; firm-level analysis indicates that economic, environmental, and social scores have effect on stock returns, however, significance and direction of these effects change, depending on the included control variables in the cross-sectional regression.

  5. Mathematical Formulation of the Remote Electric and Magnetic Emissions of the Lightning Dart Leader and Return Stroke (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward M. B.

    Lightning detection and geolocation networks have found widespread use by the utility, air traffic control and forestry industries as a means of locating strikes and predicting imminent recurrence. Accurate lightning geolocation requires detecting VLF radio emissions at multiple sites using a distributed sensor network with typical baselines exceeding 150 km, along with precision time of arrival estimation to triangulate the origin of a strike. The trend has been towards increasing network accuracy without increasing sensor density by incorporating precision GPS synchronized clocks and faster front-end signal processing. Because lightning radio waveforms evolve as they propagate over a finitely conducting earth, and that measurements for a given strike may have disparate propagation path lengths, accurate models are required to determine waveform fiducials for precise strike location. The transition between the leader phase and return stroke phase may offer such a fiducial and warrants quantitative modeling to improve strike location accuracy. The VLF spectrum of the ubiquitous downward negative lightning strike is able to be modeled by the transfer of several Coulombs of negative charge from cloud to ground in a two-step process. The lightning stepped leader ionizes a plasma channel downward from the cloud at a velocity of approximately 0.05c, leaving a column of charge in its path. Upon connection with a streamer, the subsequent return stroke initiates at or near ground level and travels upward at an average but variable velocity of 0.3c. The return stroke neutralizes any negative charge along its path. Subsequent dart leader and return strokes often travel smoothly down the heated channel left by a preceding stroke, lacking the halting motion of the preceding initial stepped leader and initial return stroke. Existing lightning models often neglect the leader current and rely on approximations when solving for the return stroke. In this thesis, I present an

  6. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning. (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu


    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exploring Longitudinal Risk-return Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben J.; Bettis, Richard A.


    We study a longitudinal fit model of adaptation and its association with the longitudinal risk-return relationship. The model allows the firm to adjust its position in response to partial learning about a changing environment characterized by two path-dependent processes—a random walk and a stoch......We study a longitudinal fit model of adaptation and its association with the longitudinal risk-return relationship. The model allows the firm to adjust its position in response to partial learning about a changing environment characterized by two path-dependent processes—a random walk...... can lead to the inverse longitudinal risk-return relationships observed empirically. We discuss this apparent paradox and the possible resolution between mindless and conscious behavior as plausible causes of the longitudinal Bowman Paradox....

  8. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W.


    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism

  9. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove


    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  10. Return to nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumway, R.W.


    This paper presents a collection of TMIN (temperature of return to nucleate boiling) correlations, evaluates them under several conditions, and compares them with a wide range of data. Purpose is to obtain the best one for use in a water reactor safety computer simulator known as TRAC-B. Return to nucleate boiling can occur in a reactor accident at either high or low pressure and flow rates. Most of the correlations yield unrealistic results under some conditions. A new correlation is proposed which overcomes many of the deficiencies

  11. Different forms, reasons and motivations for return migration of persons who voluntarily decide to return to their countries of origin. (United States)

    Callea, S


    Although the 1973 oil crisis did not have the drastic effects on immigration which were originally feared, it did end a period of quasi-liberal immigration policy, establish intense and effective international cooperation on immigration, and arouse great interest in immigration studies and research. This paper analyzes the situations arising as a result of the petroleum shortage and focuses on the conditions relating to the return of emigrants to Southern European countries. This new research draws attention to the following fundamental aspects of the immigration problem: 1) the emigrant's return to his homeland cannot be considered a factor in development; it is a positive element in development only if the right socioeconomic conditions exist in the country of origin. 2) Concern for children's education is one of the most common reasons for return. 3) A large percentage of emigrants are satisfied with their work abroad. 4) An emigrant's return potential is wasted due to the slight use that is made of the resources he offers. 5) Returning workers most often want to set up an independent enterprise. 6) Savings are generally used to buy a house or farm. 7) Vocational level does not increase significantly between emigration and returning, though this increase becomes greater the longer the emigrant stays abroad. 8) The number of returning emigrants is too slight to bring about any change in the country of origin. 9) Incentives and subsidies to encourage return have not had a considerable impact on the decision to return. Callea recommends that officials of the country of origin posted abroad be assigned to counsel returning emigrants on finding employment, attending vocational development courses, obtaining housing, accruing interests and savings, and on the problems and perspectives of sociocultural reintegration.

  12. Earth as a Tool for Astrobiology—A European Perspective (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Carrasco, Nathalie; Cockell, Charles S.; de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Demets, René; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Foing, Bernard; Onofri, Silvano; Quinn, Richard; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Ricco, Antonio J.; Slenzka, Klaus; Stalport, Fabien; ten Kate, Inge L.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Westall, Frances


    Scientists use the Earth as a tool for astrobiology by analyzing planetary field analogues (i.e. terrestrial samples and field sites that resemble planetary bodies in our Solar System). In addition, they expose the selected planetary field analogues in simulation chambers to conditions that mimic the ones of planets, moons and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space conditions, as well as the chemistry occurring in interstellar and cometary ices. This paper reviews the ways the Earth is used by astrobiologists: (i) by conducting planetary field analogue studies to investigate extant life from extreme environments, its metabolisms, adaptation strategies and modern biosignatures; (ii) by conducting planetary field analogue studies to investigate extinct life from the oldest rocks on our planet and its biosignatures; (iii) by exposing terrestrial samples to simulated space or planetary environments and producing a sample analogue to investigate changes in minerals, biosignatures and microorganisms. The European Space Agency (ESA) created a topical team in 2011 to investigate recent activities using the Earth as a tool for astrobiology and to formulate recommendations and scientific needs to improve ground-based astrobiological research. Space is an important tool for astrobiology (see Horneck et al. in Astrobiology, 16:201-243, 2016; Cottin et al., 2017), but access to space is limited. Complementing research on Earth provides fast access, more replications and higher sample throughput. The major conclusions of the topical team and suggestions for the future include more scientifically qualified calls for field campaigns with planetary analogy, and a centralized point of contact at ESA or the EU for the organization of a survey of such expeditions. An improvement of the coordinated logistics, infrastructures and funding system supporting the combination of field work with planetary simulation investigations, as well as an optimization of the scientific return and data processing

  13. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Addy Sumantri


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the indications of the practice of earnings management at the time of the IPO, one year after the IPO, and two years after the IPO. This study also examined the effect of earnings management on stock returns and operating performance in moderating the relationship between earnings management and stock returns. The study sample comprised 33 firms that go public in the year 2007 to 2011 using a purposive sampling method. Earnings management is proxied by discretionary accruals using the Modified Jones Model, which used proxy for the stock return is cummulative abnormal returns (CAR, while for the company's operating performance used proxy for the return on assets (ROA. The results showed that there were indications of earnings management at the time of the IPO, one year after the IPO, and two years after the IPO with a lower profit rate. No effect on earnings management is proxied by stock return cummulative abnormal returns (CAR. Operating performance of the company also can not moderate the relationship between earnings management with stock return.   Keywords: Earning Management, Initial Public Offering, Cummulative Abnormal Return, Return On Asset

  15. The Mars Sample Return Lab(s) - Lessons from the Past and Implications for the Future (United States)

    Allen, Carlton


    It has been widely understood for many years that an essential component of a Mars Sample Return mission is a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF). The purpose of such a facility would be to take delivery of the flight hardware that lands on Earth, open the spacecraft and extract the sample container and samples, and conduct an agreed upon test protocol, while ensuring strict containment and contamination control of the samples while in the SRF. Any samples that are found to be non-hazardous (or are rendered non-hazardous by sterilization) would then be transferred to long-term curation. Although the general concept of an SRF is relatively straightforward, there has been considerable discussion about implementation planning.

  16. Oxygen Isotopes in Chondritic Interplanetary Dust: Parent-Bodies and Nebular Oxygen Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleon, J; McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L


    Planetary objects have preserved various amounts of oxygen issued from isotopically different oxygen reservoirs reflecting their origin and physico-chemical history. An 16 O-rich component is preserved in refractory inclusions (CAIs) whereas meteorites matrices are enriched in an 16 O-poor component. The origin of these components is still unclear. The most recent models are based on isotope selective photodissociation of CO in a 16 O-rich nebula/presolr cloud resulting in a 16 O-poor gas in the outer part of the nebula. However because most meteorite components are thought to be formed in the inner 3AU of the solar nebula, the precise isotopic composition of outer solar system components is yet unknown. In that respect, the oxygen isotopic composition of cometary dust is a key to understand the origin of the solar system. The Stardust mission will bring back to the Earth dust samples from comet Wild2, a short period comet from the Jupiter family. A precise determination of the oxygen isotope composition of Wild2 dust grains is essential to decipher the oxygen reservoirs of the outer solar system. However, Stardust samples may be extremely fragmented upon impact in the collector. In addition, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are likely to contain comet samples. Therefore, they started to investigate the oxygen isotopic composition of a suite of chondritic interplanetary dust particles that includes IDPs of potential cometary origin using a refined procedure to increase the lateral resolution for the analysis of Stardust grains or IDP subcomponents down to ∼ 3 (micro)m. High precision data for 4 IDPs were previously reported, here they have measured 6 additional IDPs

  17. The Importance of Sample Return in Establishing Chemical Evidence for Life on Mars or Other Solar System Bodies (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Conrad, P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.


    The search for evidence of life on Mars and elsewhere will continue to be one of the primary goals of NASA s robotic exploration program over the next decade. NASA and ESA are currently planning a series of robotic missions to Mars with the goal of understanding its climate, resources, and potential for harboring past or present life. One key goal will be the search for chemical biomarkers including complex organic compounds important in life on Earth. These include amino acids, the monomer building blocks of proteins and enzymes, nucleobases and sugars which form the backbone of DNA and RNA, and lipids, the structural components of cell membranes. Many of these organic compounds can also be formed abiotically as demonstrated by their prevalence in carbonaceous meteorites [1], though, their molecular characteristics may distinguish a biological source [2]. It is possible that in situ instruments may reveal such characteristics, however, return of the right sample (i.e. one with biosignatures or having a high probability of biosignatures) to Earth would allow for more intensive laboratory studies using a broad array of powerful instrumentation for bulk characterization, molecular detection, isotopic and enantiomeric compositions, and spatially resolved chemistry that may be required for confirmation of extant or extinct Martian life. Here we will discuss the current analytical capabilities and strategies for the detection of organics on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite and how sample return missions from Mars and other targets of astrobiological interest will help advance our understanding of chemical biosignatures in the solar system.

  18. Bringing the environment down to earth. (United States)

    Reinhardt, F L


    The debate on business and the environment has typically been framed in simple yes-or-no terms: "Does it pay to be green?" But the environment, like other business issues, requires a more complex approach--one that demands more than such all-or-nothing thinking. Managers need to ask instead, "Under what circumstances do particular kinds of environmental investments deliver returns to shareholders?" This article presents five approaches that managers can take to identify those circumstances and integrate the environment into their business thinking. These approaches will enable companies with the right industry structure, competitive position, and managerial skills to reconcile their responsibility to shareholders with the pressure to be faithful stewards of the earth's resources. Some companies can distance themselves from competitors by differentiating their products and commanding higher prices for them. Others may be able to "manage" their competitors by imposing a set of private regulations or by helping to shape the rules written by government officials. Still others may be able to cut costs and help the environment simultaneously. Almost all can learn to improve their management of risk and thus reduce the outlays associated with accidents, lawsuits, and boycotts. And some companies may even be able to make systemic changes that will redefine competition in their markets. All five approaches can help managers bring the environment down to earth. And that means bringing the environment back into the fold of business problems and determining when it really pays to be green.

  19. Building a better search engine for earth science data (United States)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Yang, C. P.; Moroni, D. F.; McGibbney, L. J.; Jiang, Y.; Huang, T.; Greguska, F. R., III; Li, Y.; Finch, C. J.


    Free text data searching of earth science datasets has been implemented with varying degrees of success and completeness across the spectrum of the 12 NASA earth sciences data centers. At the JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) the search engine has been developed around the Solr/Lucene platform. Others have chosen other popular enterprise search platforms like Elasticsearch. Regardless, the default implementations of these search engines leveraging factors such as dataset popularity, term frequency and inverse document term frequency do not fully meet the needs of precise relevancy and ranking of earth science search results. For the PO.DAAC, this shortcoming has been identified for several years by its external User Working Group that has assigned several recommendations to improve the relevancy and discoverability of datasets related to remotely sensed sea surface temperature, ocean wind, waves, salinity, height and gravity that comprise a total count of over 500 public availability datasets. Recently, the PO.DAAC has teamed with an effort led by George Mason University to improve the improve the search and relevancy ranking of oceanographic data via a simple search interface and powerful backend services called MUDROD (Mining and Utilizing Dataset Relevancy from Oceanographic Datasets to Improve Data Discovery) funded by the NASA AIST program. MUDROD has mined and utilized the combination of PO.DAAC earth science dataset metadata, usage metrics, and user feedback and search history to objectively extract relevance for improved data discovery and access. In addition to improved dataset relevance and ranking, the MUDROD search engine also returns recommendations to related datasets and related user queries. This presentation will report on use cases that drove the architecture and development, and the success metrics and improvements on search precision and recall that MUDROD has demonstrated over the existing PO.DAAC search

  20. Precautionary Principle and Mars Sample Return (United States)

    Arnould, Jacques

    Many space missions have today as an aim the exploration and the knowledge of the planet Mars; consequently, the return of Martian samples seems one of the next possible stages, at the horizon of about fifteen years. Devoted in the search of traces of life, passed or presents, such a mission presents a true stake not only from the scientific point of view but also from the ethical. Right now, the COSPAR specified the precautions to be taken to avoid or, at the very least, to limit the risk of contamination of the terrestrial biosphere by pathogenic the hitherto unknown ones. Are these recommendations sufficient? Do they concern only the scientific prudence or take truly counts of the good of humanity and the life on Earth? In the final analysis, is the incurred risk, even weak, to endanger this life worth the sorrow of it? Hitherto confined with the scientific circles of astronomy and astrobiology, this questioning could move the public opinion and this one would undoubtedly call some with the principle of precaution. In what this recourse would be relevant? The precaution aims indeed the hypothetical risks, not yet confirmed scientifically, but of which the possibility can be identified starting from empirical and scientific knowledge; such is well the case. But is it for as much possible to apply this principle to the case of the Martian samples, insofar as the objective of such a mission remains for the strictly scientific moment? Is it possible to manage the risks in the same manner when it is a question of appropriation and exploitation of the natural resources and energy (GMO, nuclear energy, etc.) and when it acts, in the case of Mars, that only search of the knowledge? How to manage the fundamental difference between the risks voluntarily taken and arbitrarily imposed, clarified and keep silent? The case of the return of the samples leads to the borders of the contemporary interrogations on the stakes and the benefits of science, on the share of risk

  1. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.

  2. Return migration as failure or success? : The determinants of return migration intentions among Moroccan migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, T.; Fihri, M.F.


    Different migration theories generate competing hypotheses with regard to determinants of return migration. While neoclassical migration theory associates migration to the failure to integrate at the destination, the new economics of labour migration sees return migration as the logical stage after

  3. ACL Return to Sport Guidelines and Criteria. (United States)

    Davies, George J; McCarty, Eric; Provencher, Matthew; Manske, Robert C


    Because of the epidemiological incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, the high reinjury rates that occur when returning back to sports, the actual number of patients that return to the same premorbid level of competition, the high incidence of osteoarthritis at 5-10-year follow-ups, and the effects on the long-term health of the knee and the quality of life for the patient, individualizing the return to sports after ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) is critical. However, one of the challenging but unsolved dilemmas is what criteria and clinical decision making should be used to return an athlete back to sports following an ACL-R. This article describes an example of a functional testing algorithm (FTA) as one method for clinical decision making based on quantitative and qualitative testing and assessment utilized to make informed decisions to return an athlete to their sports safely and without compromised performance. The methods were a review of the best current evidence to support a FTA. In order to evaluate all the complicated domains of the clinical decision making for individualizing the return to sports after ACL-R, numerous assessments need to be performed including the biopsychosocial concepts, impairment testing, strength and power testing, functional testing, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The optimum criteria to use for individualizing the return to sports after ACL-R remain elusive. However, since this decision needs to be made on a regular basis with the safety and performance factors of the patient involved, this FTA provides one method of quantitatively and qualitatively making the decisions. Admittedly, there is no predictive validity of this system, but it does provide practical guidelines to facilitate the clinical decision making process for return to sports. The clinical decision to return an athlete back into competition has significant implications ranging from the safety of the athlete, to performance factors and actual

  4. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability


    Aloosh, Arash


    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  5. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas


    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  6. Comparison of the oxidation state of Fe in comet 81P/Wild 2 and chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogliore, Ryan C.; Butterworth, Anna L.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Gainsforth, Zack; Marcus, Matthew A.; Westphal, Andrew J.


    The fragile structure of chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and their minimal parent-body alteration have led researchers to believe these particles originate in comets rather than asteroids where aqueous and thermal alterations have occurred. The solar elemental abundances and atmospheric entry speed of CP-IDPs also suggest a cometary origin. With the return of the Stardust samples from Jupiter-family comet 81P/Wild 2, this hypothesis can be tested. We have measured the Fe oxidation state of 15 CP-IDPs and 194 Stardust fragments using a synchrotron-based x-ray microprobe. We analyzed {approx}300 ng of Wild 2 material - three orders of magnitude more material than other analyses comparing Wild 2 and CP-IDPs. The Fe oxidation state of these two samples of material are > 2{sigma} different: the CP-IDPs are more oxidized than the Wild 2 grains. We conclude that comet Wild 2 contains material that formed at a lower oxygen fugacity than the parent-body, or parent bodies, of CP-IDPs. If all Jupiter-family comets are similar, they do not appear to be consistent with the origin of CP-IDPs. However, comets that formed from a different mix of nebular material and are more oxidized than Wild 2 could be the source of CP-IDPs.

  7. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations. (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D


    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  8. Better understanding flow-restricted environments from hideout return analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollar, Ph.; Viricel-Honorez, L.


    Understanding and controlling the chemical phenomena in flow-restricted areas of the secondary side of steam generators (SG) is a key point in fighting against corrosion (IGA) in these areas. Hence, more than 150 hideout returns from French plants are used to assess the chemical environment in flow-restricted areas. The influence of several parameters such as tube support plates design, SG blowdown flowrate and temperature at the end of hideout returns, on returned weights and on flow-restricted environments predicted by modelling are examined. A correlation between different operating and returned chemistry indexes (molar ratios), and IGA is sought: no link is found between IGA and Na/Cl molar ratio at the beginning of hideout returns. However, as IGA extends, the returned weights of sodium and chloride seem to decrease, suggesting a greater hideout and a lower hideout return efficiency, perhaps due to SG fouling, and/or a smaller hideout/hideout return thanks to an improved operating chemistry. Using the pH computed from hideout return data as an index for the presence of IGA is also studied: no correlation is found between the two. Improving plants chemistry is finally proposed, based on an optimization of hideout returns. (authors)

  9. The Returns to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Praag, Mirjam; Raknerud, Arvid

    Empirical studies show low pecuniary returns of switching from wage employment to entrepreneurship. We reconsider the pecuniary gains of this switching by employing a two-stage procedure, where the randomness in the timing of inheritance transfers is used as an exclusion restriction to identify...... causal effects. The model is estimated on data covering the whole Norwegian population of individuals matched to the entire population of firms established in the period 2002-2011. The results indicate that the average returns to entrepreneurship are significantly negative for individuals entering...... entrepreneurship through self-employment and modest, but significantly positive, for incorporated startups....

  10. The feasibility and application of using gravitational energy to allow efficient travel between earth and Mars (United States)

    King, O. L.; Avvento, Gennaro J.

    This paper discusses the feasibility and application of using gravitational energy attained in a planetary swing-by to control the trajectory of an interplanetary transfer vehicle (IPTV) - establishing nonstop round trip orbits between earth and Mars. Energy supplied by the swing-by process and supplemented by minor correction burns will allow efficient nonstop round trip travel between earth and Mars. The IPTV will have all the necessary support equipment to maintain the cargo (manned/unmanned) during transit. At the planetary 'landfall' points, the IPTV will not decelerate but will perform a swing-by maneuver returning to the planet of origin. Cargo elements will either depart or dock with the IPTV at the planetary approach asymptote. This will be the only component of the system to undergo propulsive maneuvers.

  11. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth (United States)



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  12. Communication and collaboration among return-to-work stakeholders. (United States)

    Russell, Elizabeth; Kosny, Agnieszka


    Workers who are injured or become ill on the job are best able to return-to-work when stakeholders involved in their case collaborate and communicate. This study examined health care providers' and case managers' engagement in rehabilitation and return-to-work following workplace injury or illness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 97 health care providers and 34 case managers in four Canadian provinces about their experiences facilitating rehabilitation and return-to-work, and interacting with system stakeholders. A qualitative thematic content analysis demonstrated two key findings. Firstly, stakeholders were challenged to collaborate as a result of: barriers to interdisciplinary and cross-professional communication; philosophical differences about the timing and appropriateness of return-to-work; and confusion among health care providers about the workers' compensation system. Secondly, these challenges adversely affected the co-ordination of patient care, and consequentially, injured workers often became information conduits, and effective and timely treatment and return-to-work was sometimes negatively impacted. Communication challenges between health care providers and case managers may negatively impact patient care and alienate treating health care providers. Discussion about role clarification, the appropriateness of early return-to-work, how paperwork shapes health care providers' role expectations, and strengthened inter-professional communication are considered. Implications for Rehabilitation Administrative and conceptual barriers in workers' compensation systems challenge collaboration and communication between health care providers and case managers. Injured workers may become conduits of incorrect information, resulting in adversarial relationships, overturned health care providers' recommendations, and their disengagement from rehabilitation and return-to-work. Stakeholders should clarify the role of health care providers during

  13. 26 CFR 301.6103(j)(1)-1 - Disclosures of return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the... (United States)


    ... related activities. 301.6103(j)(1)-1 Section 301.6103(j)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(j)(1)-1 Disclosures of return information reflected on... related activities. (a) General rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(j)(1) of the Internal...

  14. Predictability of Returns and Cash Flows


    Ralph S.J. Koijen; Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh


    We review the literature on return and cash-flow growth predictability from the perspective of the present-value identity. We focus predominantly on recent work. Our emphasis is on U.S. aggregate stock return predictability, but we also discuss evidence from other asset classes and countries.

  15. Return on Investment from Biochar Application (United States)

    Current literature has yet to fully address the cost of biochar application or the return on investment to the grower. The objectives were to identify possible on-farm spreader equipment, spreader capacity, application expenses, and rate of return needed for growers to apply biochar economically. Bi...

  16. Does graded return-to-work improve sick-listed workers' chance of returning to regular working hours? (United States)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; McIntosh, James


    Using Danish register and survey data, we examine the effect of a national graded return-to-work program on the probability of sick-listed workers returning to regular working hours. During program participation, the sick-listed worker works fewer hours and receives the normal hourly wage for the hours worked and sickness benefit for the hours off work. When the worker's health improves, working hours are increased until the sick-listed worker is able to work regular hours. Taking account of unobserved differences between program participants and non-participants, we find that participation in the program significantly increases the probability of returning to regular working hours. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-energy near Earth asteroid capture using Earth flybys and aerobraking (United States)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo


    Since the Sun-Earth libration points L1 and L2 are regarded as ideal locations for space science missions and candidate gateways for future crewed interplanetary missions, capturing near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) around the Sun-Earth L1/L2 points has generated significant interest. Therefore, this paper proposes the concept of coupling together a flyby of the Earth and then capturing small NEAs onto Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. In this capture strategy, the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is used to calculate target Lypaunov orbits and their invariant manifolds. A periapsis map is then employed to determine the required perigee of the Earth flyby. Moreover, depending on the perigee distance of the flyby, Earth flybys with and without aerobraking are investigated to design a transfer trajectory capturing a small NEA from its initial orbit to the stable manifolds associated with Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. Finally, a global optimization is carried out, based on a detailed design procedure for NEA capture using an Earth flyby. Results show that the NEA capture strategies using an Earth flyby with and without aerobraking both have the potential to be of lower cost in terms of energy requirements than a direct NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby. Moreover, NEA capture with an Earth flyby also has the potential for a shorter flight time compared to the NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby.

  18. Motivational goals, group identifications, and psychosocial adjustment of returning migrants: The case of Jews returning to Russia. (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Patrakov, Eduard; Nikulina, Marina


    The present study investigated the motivational goals, group identifications, and psychosocial adjustment of Jews who returned to Russia after emigrating from the republics of the Former Soviet Union to different countries (n = 151). To gain a deeper understanding of these returning migrants, their traits were compared with those of Jews living in Russia who did not emigrate (n = 935). Compared to locals, returnees reported a higher preference for the openness to change and self-enhancement values and a lower preference for the conservation values; there was no difference in the self-transcendence values. Returning migrants had a relatively weak affiliation with the home country: they had a weaker identification with the home country than with the country of emigration, their identification with Russians was weaker than that among Jews who did not emigrate from Russia, and their intention to emigrate (again) from Russia was greater than that among locals. However, the Jewish identification of returning migrants was similar to that of locals. The adjustment of returning migrants varied across different dimensions: their economic adjustment was better than that of locals; however, the interpersonal adjustment of returnees was less successful than among locals. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Economic and accounting rates of return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, D.W.; Wang, H.


    The rate of return on invested capital is a central concept in financial analysis. The purpose of calculating the rate of return on investment in general is to measure the financial performance, to assess the desirability of a project and to make decisions on the valuation of firms. Financial

  20. Parasitic diseases in the returning traveller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 11, 2009 ... exception is infection with schistosomiasis after leisure activities in infested freshwater. (the water sports enthusiast returning from a sojourn on Lake Malawi .... are harbouring a 'blind passenger' from abroad. However, long-term travellers, both private or business, should be screened on return. A thorough ...

  1. Sealed Planetary Return Canister (SPRC), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample return missions have primary importance in future planetary missions. A basic requirement is that samples be returned in pristine, uncontaminated condition,...

  2. Product return management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaharudin, Mohd Rizaimy; Govindan, Kannan; Zailani, Suhaiza


    The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which product returns motivate manufacturing firms to adopt closed-loop supply chain activities that influence the effectiveness of reverse supply chains. The hypotheses have been tested using data from a sample of 150 environmental management...... system ISO 14001 certified manufacturing firms in Malaysia through the census sampling approach. The results of the empirical test using LISREL Version 8.70 for the structural equation modeling support the fundamental explanation of the influence of the institutional forces towards the adoption of closed...... eventually impacts the firm's effectiveness in the reverse supply chain. The findings also help managers to understand the factors that can improve the outcome of the adoption of closed-loop supply chain activities by intensifying the extent of involvement in product returns, which provides a valuable...

  3. 76 FR 17521 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media (United States)


    ... regulations reflect changes made to the law by the Worker, Homeownership, and Business Assistance Act of 2009... definition of a ``specified tax return preparer'' must electronically file Federal income tax returns that... of the Worker, Homeownership, and Business Assistance Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-92 (123 Stat. 2984...

  4. Stock returns and foreign investment in Brazil


    Reis, Luciana; Meurer, Roberto; Da Silva, Sergio


    We examine the relationship between stock returns and foreign investment in Brazil, and find that the inflows of foreign investment boosted the returns from 1995 to 2005. There was a strong contemporaneous correlation, although not Granger-causality. Foreign investment along with the exchange rate, the influence of the world stock markets, and country risk can explain 73 percent of the changes that occurred in the stock returns over the period. We also find that positive feedback trading play...



    Isaiah, Chioma; Li, Meng (Emma)


    This paper examines the relationship between the level of institutional ownership andrisk-adjusted return on stocks. We find a significant positive relationship between the level ofinstitutional ownership on a stock and its risk-adjusted return. This result holds both in the longrun and in shorter time periods. Our findings suggest that all things being equal, it is possible toobtain risk-adjusted return by going short on the stocks with low institutional ownership andgoing long on those with...

  6. 76 FR 36996 - Extension of Time for Filing Returns (United States)


    ... less time to complete accurate income tax returns and to provide timely information to the trust's... either chapter 7 or chapter 11 of Title 11 of the U.S. Code that is required to file an income tax return... estate or trust income tax return or failure to pay the amount shown as tax on the return. (g) Effective...

  7. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A


    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  8. Sun-Earth National Program (PNST). 2010-2013 results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    PNST (Programme National Soleil-Terre/Sun-Earth National Program) is dedicated to analysis of the Sun-Earth system, from generation of the solar magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, until impact on the terrestrial magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Research activities carried out in the frame of Programme National Soleil-Terre (PNST) rely on both ground-based and space-borne instruments. One of the main objectives of PNST is to stimulate coordinated studies and to optimize scientific return of these instruments. This document is the 2010-2013 scientific report of the program. It presents in the introduction the main questions and the 2010-2013 highlights. The 2010-2013 results and prospects are detailed in part 2: coupling mechanisms between the different plasma envelopes; multi-scale energy transport and turbulence; plasma acceleration and heating mechanisms; eruptive or impulsive activity in plasmas; space meteorology; perspectives. Part 3 deals with the interfaces with other programs (planetary plasmas, magnetism and sun-type stars activity). Part 4 presents the means, services and tools (ground and space instrumentation, databases and numerical tools). Finally, the administrative and financial status of the program is summarized (Program structure and operation, budget, manpower, publications)

  9. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The internal...

  10. [Organising a successful return home]. (United States)

    Mézière, Anthony

    Discharge from hospital is a major component of the quality and efficiency of the healthcare system. The failures of the return home of elderly people testify to the difficulties of applying guidelines in the area of hospital discharge. The action plan decided in the hospital for a successful return home can be jeopardised for personal, relational, functional and structural reasons originating from the different players involved in the hospital discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Capital Structure and Stock Returns


    Ivo Welch


    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt ratio dynamics (long-term debt issuing activity being most capital structurerelevant), corporate issuing motives remain largely a mystery. When stock...

  12. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian


    Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...... Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show...

  13. Mobility, return for development and sense of Europe: narratives of Moldavian immigrants returning from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marcu

    Full Text Available The article links migration, cross-border mobility and return for development embedded in terms of identity and approach to sense of Europe. Taking into account the global changes in Moldova, the paper examines the perceptions of mobility, return and identity of the Moldovans engaged in emigration in the countries of the European Union (EU. Utilising a multi-discipline approach and an in-depth qualitative interview technique, this article seeks to analyze how mobility and return can support social change and development of the country, and argues that people, who cross EU borders, living through the experience of emigration, acquire a pro-European mentality.

  14. NASA's Earth Science Flight Program Meets the Challenges of Today and Tomorrow (United States)

    Ianson, Eric E.


    NASA's capability for better understanding the current state of the Earth system. ESM and ESSP projects often involve partnerships with other US agencies and/or international organizations. This adds to the complexity of mission development, but allows for a greater scientific return on NASA's investments. The Earth Science Airborne Science Program provides manned and unmanned aircraft systems that further science and advance the use of satellite data. NASA uses these assets worldwide in campaigns to investigate extreme weather events, observe Earth system processes, obtain data for Earth science modeling activities, and calibrate instruments flying aboard Earth science spacecraft. The Airborne Science Program has six dedicated aircraft and access to many other platforms. The Earth Science Multi-Mission Operations program acquires, preserves, and distributes observational data from operating spacecraft to support Earth Science research focus areas. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), which has been in operations since 1994, primarily accomplishes this. EOSDIS acquires, processes, archives, and distributes Earth Science data and information products. The archiving of NASA Earth Science information happens at eight Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and four disciplinary data centers located across the United States. The DAACs specialize by topic area, and make their data available to researchers around the world. The DAACs currently house over 9 petabytes of data, growing at a rate of 6.4 terabytes per day. NASA's current Earth Science portfolio is responsive to the National Research Council (NRC) 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey and well as the 2010 NASA Response to President Obama's Climate Plan. As the program evolves into the future it will leverage the lessons learned from the current missions in operations and development, and plan for adjustments to future objectives in response to the anticipated 2017 NRC Decadal Survey.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky-Nagy Patrícia


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the returns of two segments of Private Equity (PE market in Europe and in the US; Venture Capital (VC and Buyout (BO. Contrary to the publicly traded stocks where information about the trade of securities is public, the measuring of the returns of these asset classes is not unambiguous. The returns of PE investments are considered as confidential information therefore we only have estimations about the real characteristics of the financial performance of the PE industry. Although it is impossible to observe the whole industry it is important to chart its performance because PE plays an essential role in the financing of firms, especially firms at special stages of their lives and the more information the investors and companies have, the more effective PE market can be therefore it can contribute to economic growth, employment, innovation etc. In the literature PE, VC and BO are not distinguished properly and they are often used as synonyms. Despite their similarities, there are significant differences in the features of these types of investments. In this paper the authors present the return characteristics of the PE industry of Europe and the US with regard to the stage-focus of PE funds. The key findings of this paper are that in average the returns of BO funds exceeded the returns of VC funds in the US as well as in Europe. Not just according to the absolute value of the returns, but also according to its risk-return tradeoff BO seems to be a preferable investment. The same statements can be made in case of the European market. The US returns are higher than European VC returns, because compared to the US VC industry the European is undeveloped. On the other hand the gap between the performances of BO funds is not as significant as the difference of VC funds. While in the 90’s US BO funds outperformed the European ones, after the millennia European BO returns were higher. The analysis of returns reveals the

  16. 14 CFR 49.21 - Return of original conveyance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Return of original conveyance. 49.21... RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.21 Return of original conveyance. If a person submitting a conveyance for recording wants the original returned to him, he must submit a true...

  17. Theoretical and experimental studies of the waveforms associated with stratospheric infrasonic returns (United States)

    Waxler, R.; Talmadge, C. L.; Blom, P.


    Theory predicts that for ground to ground infrasound propagation along paths which travel downwind, relative to the stratospheric jet, there is a shadow zone which ends about 200 km from the source where the first return from the stratosphere strikes the earth. With increasing range the single stratospheric arrival splits into two distinct arrivals, a fast arrival with the trace velocity of the effective sound speed at the stratopause, and a slower arrival with the trace velocity of the sound speed on the ground. To test the theory we have deployed eight infrasound arrays along an approximate line directly west of the site of the US Navy's Trident Missile rocket motor eliminations. The arrays were deployed during the summer of 2009 spaced roughly 10 km apart along a segment from 180 to 260 km west of the site. Comparisons between the theoretical predictions and the received data will be presented.

  18. Rocking or rolling--perception of ambiguous motion after returning from space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Clément

    Full Text Available The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive an accurate representation of spatial orientation. Adaptive changes during spaceflight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions after return to Earth. The purpose of this study was to compare tilt and translation motion perception in astronauts before and after returning from spaceflight. We hypothesized that these stimuli would be the most ambiguous in the low-frequency range (i.e., at about 0.3 Hz where the linear acceleration can be interpreted either as a translation or as a tilt relative to gravity. Verbal reports were obtained in eleven astronauts tested using a motion-based tilt-translation device and a variable radius centrifuge before and after flying for two weeks on board the Space Shuttle. Consistent with previous studies, roll tilt perception was overestimated shortly after spaceflight and then recovered with 1-2 days. During dynamic linear acceleration (0.15-0.6 Hz, ±1.7 m/s2 perception of translation was also overestimated immediately after flight. Recovery to baseline was observed after 2 days for lateral translation and 8 days for fore-aft translation. These results suggest that there was a shift in the frequency dynamic of tilt-translation motion perception after adaptation to weightlessness. These results have implications for manual control during landing of a space vehicle after exposure to microgravity, as it will be the case for human asteroid and Mars missions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Căruntu


    Full Text Available The financial rate of return is a significant indicator for assessing the economic and financial performance of an enterprise for the internal diagnosis, as well as for the analysis required by the external partners. The financial return is a basic indicator which characterizes the business performances that is found directly under the trade policy (trade cost, efficiency of capital employed (economic profitability but also under the financial policy of the company. If the economic rate of return expresses a remuneration of the employed capital only in relation to operating activities, the financial rate of return quantifies a remuneration of the private capital trough all three types of activity: operational, financial and extraordinary. Starting from the consideration that the financial rate of return expresses the efficiency of equity or permanent capital use of the company we can state that it is of particular importance to the shareholders of the company, which considers according to it’s level whether their investments are justified and they will continue to support the business development through raising of fresh capital or abandonment for a limited period to one part of the dividends due. Managers, in turn, will be keen on maintaining an appropriate level of this rate, in order to retain their positions and to achieve the performance criteria of the company.

  20. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space (United States)

    Haste, Turtle


    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  1. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may be...

  2. Returning to sports after a back injury (United States)

    ... Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  3. The Extinction and Return of Fear of Public Speaking. (United States)

    Laborda, Mario A; Schofield, Casey A; Johnson, Emily M; Schubert, Jessica R; George-Denn, Daniel; Coles, Meredith E; Miller, Ralph R


    Prior studies indicate extinguished fear often partially returns when participants are later tested outside the extinction context. Cues carried from the extinction context to the test context sometimes reduce return of fear, but it is unclear whether such extinction cues (ECs) reduce return of fear of public speaking. Here we assessed return of fear of public speaking, and whether either of two types of ECs can attenuate it. Participants gave speeches of increasing difficulty during an exposure practice session and were tested 2 days later in a different context. Testing occurred in the presence of physical ECs, after mentally rehearsing the exposure session, or without either reminder. Practice reduced fear of public speaking, but fear partially returned at test. Neither physical nor mental ECs reduced partial return of fear of public speaking. The return of extinguished fear of public speaking, although small, was reliable, but not appreciably sensitive to presence of ECs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Return Migration and Working Choices


    TANI, Massimiliano; MAHUTEAU, Stéphane


    Collective Action to Support the Reintegration of Return Migrants in their Country of Origin (MIREM) This paper uses the recent survey carried out in the framework of the MIREM project on returnees to Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia and studies the duration of emigration and the labour force status upon returning. The results suggest that age and the year of emigration play a central role in the migration decision, but they do not support the hypothesis that the duration of migration is deter...

  5. Slow return of displaced Southern Sudanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morris


    Full Text Available The pace of repatriation of Sudanese refugees and return of IDP s to South Sudan has picked up but expectations at the time of the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA CPA in January 2005 have yet to be realised. With all eyes on Darfur, assistance to sustain returns to South Sudan remains inadequate.

  6. 31 CFR 10.28 - Return of client's records. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Return of client's records. 10.28... § 10.28 Return of client's records. (a) In general, a practitioner must, at the request of a client, promptly return any and all records of the client that are necessary for the client to comply with his or...

  7. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.


    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  8. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.


    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  9. CHOMIK -Sampling Device of Penetrating Type for Russian Phobos Sample Return Mission (United States)

    Seweryn, Karol; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Rickmann, Hans; Morawski, Marek; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Drogosz, Michal; Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Kozlov, Oleg E.; Krolikowska-Soltan, Malgorzata; Sutugin, Sergiej E.; Wawrzaszek, Roman; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Zakharov, Alexander

    Measurements of physical properties of planetary bodies allow to determine many important parameters for scientists working in different fields of research. For example effective heat conductivity of the regolith can help with better understanding of processes occurring in the body interior. Chemical and mineralogical composition gives us a chance to better understand the origin and evolution of the moons. In principle such parameters of the planetary bodies can be determined based on three different measurement techniques: (i) in situ measurements (ii) measurements of the samples in laboratory conditions at the Earth and (iii) remote sensing measurements. Scientific missions which allow us to perform all type of measurements, give us a chance for not only parameters determination but also cross calibration of the instruments. Russian Phobos Sample Return (PhSR) mission is one of few which allows for all type of such measurements. The spacecraft will be equipped with remote sensing instruments like: spectrometers, long wave radar and dust counter, instruments for in-situ measurements -gas-chromatograph, seismometer, thermodetector and others and also robotic arm and sampling device. PhSR mission will be launched in November 2011 on board of a launch vehicle Zenit. About a year later (11 months) the vehicle will reach the Martian orbit. It is anticipated that it will land on Phobos in the beginning of 2013. A take off back will take place a month later and the re-entry module containing a capsule that will hold the soil sample enclosed in a container will be on its way back to Earth. The 11 kg re-entry capsule with the container will land in Kazakhstan in mid-2014. A unique geological penetrator CHOMIK dedicated for the Phobos Sample Return space mis-sion will be designed and manufactured at the Space Mechatronics and Robotics Laboratory, Space Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences (SRC PAS) in Warsaw. Functionally CHOMIK is based on the well known MUPUS

  10. Volatiles (H, C, N, O, noble gases) in comets as tracers of early solar system events (Invited) (United States)

    Marty, B.


    Volatiles (H, C, N, O, noble gases) present the largest variations in their relative abundances and, importantly, in their isotopic ratios, among solar system elements. The original composition of the protosolar nebula has been investigated through the measurements of primitive meteorites and of in-situ (e.g. Galileo probe analysis of the Jupiter's atmosphere) and sample-return (Genesis, recovery and analysis of solar wind) missions. The protosolar gas was poor in deuterium, in 15N and in 17,18O. Variations among solar system reservoir reach several hundreds of percents for the D/H and 15N/14N ratios. These variations are possibly : (i) due to interactions between XUV photons of the proto-Sun and the-dust, (ii) result from low temperature ion-molecule reactions, or (iii) constitute an heritage on interstellar volatiles trapped in dust (e.g., organics). Likewise, noble gases are elementally and isotopically (1% per amu for xenon) fractionated with respect to the composition of the solar wind (our best proxy for the protosolar nebula composition). Cometary matter directly measured on coma, or in Stardust material, or in IDPs, seems to present among the largest heterogeneities in their stable isotope compositions but knowledge on their precise compositions of the different phases and species is partial and mosty lacking. Among the several important issues requiring a better knowledge of cometary volatiles are the origin(s) of volatile elements on Earth and Moon, on Mars and on Venus, understanding large scale circulation of matter between hot and frozen zones, and the possibility of interstellar heritage for organics. Critical measurements to be made by the next cometary missions include the value of the D/H ratio in water ice, in NH3 and organics. Nitrogen is particularly interesting as cometary HCN and CN are rich in 15N, but an isotoppe mass balance will require to measure the main host species (N2 ?). Noble gases are excellent tracers of physical processes


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the diversity of return on equity in the cooperative banks in Poland in 2010– 2014. The analysis was conducted using data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, on the basis of a modifi ed decomposition rate of return on equity. Assessment of the rate of return on equity was made in a size of banks, as determined by the value of assets. In addition, in order to determine the strength and direction of impact the individual components of the model on the formation of return on equity method was applied functional. The study suggests that cooperative banks eff ectively use the equity, because the rate of return on equity was signifi cantly higher than the rate of return on assets. The average return on assets in 2010–2014 was relatively lower in the largest banks and ranged from 0.7–0.9%, and the smallest banks return on assets was approximately 1%. In turn, the return on equity was higher at banks with major assets (over 200 million PLN. In 2013–2014 the rate of return both on assets and equity expressly declined. The main determinants of changes in return on equity were changing the multiplier reduction of profi t from banking activities by operating costs and costs of banking risk and return on assets, as well as measured result on banking activities.

  12. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol


    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  13. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration...... with the equity market. We find evidence of a factor structure in daily commodity futures returns. However, the factor structure in daily commodity futures volatility is even stronger than in returns. When computing model-free realized commodity betas with the stock market we find that they were high during 2008......-2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity...

  14. Estimation of return levels against different return periods of extreme annual rainfall over Baluchistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Jan, B.; Iqbal, J.


    Unprecedented heavy monsoon rainfall began in the last week of July 2010 in the Northern part of our country, causes floods in Baluchistan and Sindh. As the high frequency rainfall events are a significant cause of current severe flooding in Pakistan and any fluctuation in the level of such events may cause huge economic losses as well as social problem, urban structures (i.e. dams, urban drainage systems and flood). Statistical distributions are used to identify extremes of annual rainfall of different cities of Baluchistan (Quetta, Sibbi, Khuzdar, Lasbella, Dalbandin and Pasni) with their return periods. Analysis predicts that Gumbel Max. (GM) Distribution is the best fitted distribution for Sibbi and Lasbella while the GEV distribution is the best fitted for Quetta, Khuzdar, Dalbandin and Pasni. The analysis also suggests that different cities of Baluchistan have 30-years return period for getting more than 90 mm average daily rainfall while they have 100-years return period for receiving more than 118 mm daily rainfall. This suggests for suitable flood forecasting and improving the river structure in Baluchistan, Pakistan. (author)

  15. Inventory control with product returns : The impact of imperfect information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Brito, M.P.; Laan, E.A.


    Product returns are characterized by considerable uncertainty on time and quantity. In the literature on inventory management for product return environments best forecasts of future returns are associated with methods that use the most information regarding product return history. In practice,

  16. 26 CFR 301.6103(j)(1)-1T - Disclosures of return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the... (United States)


    ... related activities (temporary). 301.6103(j)(1)-1T Section 301.6103(j)(1)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(j)(1)-1T Disclosures of return information... § 301.6103(j)(1)-1(a) through (b)(3)(xxiv). (xxv) From Form 6765 (when filed with corporation income tax...

  17. One-Step Direct Return Method For Mohr-Coulomb Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Andersen, Lars


    A new return method for the Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria is presented. The idea is to transform the problem into the principal direction and thereby achieve very simple formulas for calculating the elastic return stresses.......A new return method for the Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria is presented. The idea is to transform the problem into the principal direction and thereby achieve very simple formulas for calculating the elastic return stresses....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Triaryati


    Full Text Available The effect of inflation to the stock return research had been held since three decades ago based on GeneralizeFisher’s Hypotheses, but ‘how inflation influenced stock return’ had become a debate until today. In Indonesiamost of the related research used inflation as one of the variables that influenced stock return despite of others inshort period of time. This research investigated the effect of inflation to the stock return in Indonesia within fifteenyears, which was divided into 3 (three periods of time reflecting different economic growth for each of it. Thepurpose of this allotment was to see the consistency how inflation influenced the stock market. Using a secondarydata from monthly inflation and IHSG period 1998 until 2012, included three hundred and sixty observation,simple regression model analyses was applied. This research acknowledged that inflation negatively influencedstock return in a long time period, but it did not exist in the short time period, except when the level of inflationreached 10%. In conclusion, inflation influence on the stock return was not ascertained by how long the investigationwas held but if there was any inflation rate reaching 10% within the period of investigation.

  19. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig


    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM procedure to estimate and test the Campbell and Cochrane (1999, By force of habit: a consumption-based explanation of aggregate stock market behavior. Journal of Political Economy 107, 205–251.) habit formation model with a time......-varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  20. Dynamic returns of beta arbitrage


    Nascimento, Mafalda


    This thesis studies the patterns of the abnormal returns of the beta strategy. The topic can be helpful for professional investors, who intend to achieve a better performance in their portfolios. Following the methodology of Lou, Polk, & Huang (2016), the COBAR measure is computed in order to determine the levels of beta arbitrage in the market in each point in time. It is argued that beta arbitrage activity can have impact on the returns of the beta strategy. In fact, it is demonstrated that...

  1. Returns on Investment in California County Departments of Public Health. (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T


    To estimate the average return on investment for the overall activities of county departments of public health in California. I gathered the elements necessary to estimate the average return on investment for county departments of public health in California during the period 2001 to 2008-2009. These came from peer-reviewed journal articles published as part of a larger project to develop a method for determining return on investment for public health by using a health economics framework. I combined these elements by using the standard formula for computing return on investment, and performed a sensitivity analysis. Then I compared the return on investment for county departments of public health with the returns on investment generated for various aspects of medical care. The estimated return on investment from $1 invested in county departments of public health in California ranges from $67.07 to $88.21. The very large estimated return on investment for California county departments of public health relative to the return on investment for selected aspects of medical care suggests that public health is a wise investment.

  2. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  3. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  4. Why Earth Science? (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.


    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  5. Barriers to return to work after burn injuries. (United States)

    Esselman, Peter C; Askay, Shelley Wiechman; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Lezotte, Dennis C; Holavanahalli, Radha K; Magyar-Russell, Gina; Fauerbach, James A; Engrav, Loren H


    To identify barriers to return to work after burn injury as identified by the patient. A cohort study with telephone interview up to 1 year. Hospital-based burn centers at 3 national sites. Hospitalized patients (N=154) meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn injury, employed at least 20 hours a week at the time of injury, and with access to a telephone after discharge. Patients were contacted via telephone every 2 weeks up to 4 months, then monthly up to 1 year after discharge. A return to work survey was used to identify barriers that prevented patients from returning to work. A graphic rating scale determined the impact of each barrier. By 1 year, 79.7% of patients returned to work. Physical and wound issues were barriers early after discharge. Although physical abilities continued to be a significant barrier up to 1 year, working conditions (temperature, humidity, safety) and psychosocial factors (nightmares, flashbacks, appearance concerns) became important issues in those with long-term disability. The majority of patients return to work after a burn injury. Although physical and work conditions are important barriers, psychosocial issues need to be evaluated and treated to optimize return to work.

  6. Return to Experience and Initial Wage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to nonparametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationship...

  7. Intergranular attack evaluation from hideout return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, F.; Dupin, M.; Menet, O.; Fiquet, J.-M.


    Intergranular Attack (IGA) is the secondary side corrosion mechanism on PWR steam generator tubing, which can occur most frequently even with a good waterchemistry. It has moderately developed in a few French units. Consequently, several remedies have been implemented, such as sodium content decrease in makeup water and application of more stringent chemistry specifications. In order to evaluate the local chemistry in restricted areas where IGA may occur, a large hideout return programme has been carried out on many units. It shows that free alkalinity returning during shutdown is usually ranging from 0.5 to 5 g of sodium per steam generator, and that the required time to let it return is about 40 hours. However, high temperature pH calculations indicate that such an amount of alkalinity can correspond to a potentially corrosive solution in restricted areas, where a concentration factor of 10 5 to 10 7 can be reached, inducing a pH of 10 at 300 o C. Studies are still in progress in order to define when a shutdown should be required to allow hideout return and help to prevent IGA. (author)

  8. Nurses' views about returning to practice after a career break. (United States)

    Durand, Mary Alison; Randhawa, Gurch

    Shortages in nursing staff have led to recruitment campaigns targeting nurses who have left the profession. The present study explored reasons why career-break nurses decide for or against a return to practice, as well as perceptions of nursing following return. Semistructured interview were conducted with 24 nurses who had returned recently to the profession and 28 nurses on a "career break". Findings revealed that those who returned did so when their personal circumstances allowed, and half returned as bank nurses in order to work flexible, family-friendly hours. Some non-returners reported that they could not afford to return because of childcare costs. Although still a caring one, the nurse's role is seen by returners as becoming increasingly technologically and administratively demanding. Flexibility with regard to working practices, increased salaries and demonstrating that it values its staff, were highlighted by interviewees generally as priority issues for the NHS if it wishes to recruit career-break nurses.

  9. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms (United States)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan


    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  10. Return to experience and initial wage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.L.; Vejlin, R.


    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to non-parametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationshi...

  11. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.


    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in

  12. Husbands' return migration and wives' occupational choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahe, Clotilde


    Exploiting the documented effect of migration on occupational choice upon return to their origin country with data from Egypt, we establish a link between return migration of men and their wives' time use through within-couple occupational interdependence. Seemingly Unrelated Regression model

  13. Risk-return relationship in a complex adaptive system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunyu Song

    Full Text Available For survival and development, autonomous agents in complex adaptive systems involving the human society must compete against or collaborate with others for sharing limited resources or wealth, by using different methods. One method is to invest, in order to obtain payoffs with risk. It is a common belief that investments with a positive risk-return relationship (namely, high risk high return and vice versa are dominant over those with a negative risk-return relationship (i.e., high risk low return and vice versa in the human society; the belief has a notable impact on daily investing activities of investors. Here we investigate the risk-return relationship in a model complex adaptive system, in order to study the effect of both market efficiency and closeness that exist in the human society and play an important role in helping to establish traditional finance/economics theories. We conduct a series of computer-aided human experiments, and also perform agent-based simulations and theoretical analysis to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that investments with a negative risk-return relationship have dominance over those with a positive risk-return relationship instead in such a complex adaptive systems. We formulate the dynamical process for the system's evolution, which helps to discover the different role of identical and heterogeneous preferences. This work might be valuable not only to complexity science, but also to finance and economics, to management and social science, and to physics.

  14. Risk-return relationship in a complex adaptive system. (United States)

    Song, Kunyu; An, Kenan; Yang, Guang; Huang, Jiping


    For survival and development, autonomous agents in complex adaptive systems involving the human society must compete against or collaborate with others for sharing limited resources or wealth, by using different methods. One method is to invest, in order to obtain payoffs with risk. It is a common belief that investments with a positive risk-return relationship (namely, high risk high return and vice versa) are dominant over those with a negative risk-return relationship (i.e., high risk low return and vice versa) in the human society; the belief has a notable impact on daily investing activities of investors. Here we investigate the risk-return relationship in a model complex adaptive system, in order to study the effect of both market efficiency and closeness that exist in the human society and play an important role in helping to establish traditional finance/economics theories. We conduct a series of computer-aided human experiments, and also perform agent-based simulations and theoretical analysis to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that investments with a negative risk-return relationship have dominance over those with a positive risk-return relationship instead in such a complex adaptive systems. We formulate the dynamical process for the system's evolution, which helps to discover the different role of identical and heterogeneous preferences. This work might be valuable not only to complexity science, but also to finance and economics, to management and social science, and to physics.

  15. Expected commodity returns and pricing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortazar, Gonzalo; Kovacevic, Ivo; Schwartz, Eduardo S.


    Stochastic models of commodity prices have evolved considerably in terms of their structure and the number and interpretation of the state variables that model the underlying risk. Using multiple factors, different specifications and modern estimation techniques, these models have gained wide acceptance because of their success in accurately fitting the observed commodity futures' term structures and their dynamics. It is not well emphasized however that these models, in addition to providing the risk neutral distribution of future spot prices, also provide their true distribution. While the parameters of the risk neutral distribution are estimated more precisely and are usually statistically significant, some of the parameters of the true distribution are typically measured with large errors and are statistically insignificant. In this paper we argue that to increase the reliability of commodity pricing models, and therefore their use by practitioners, some of their parameters — in particular the risk premium parameters — should be obtained from other sources and we show that this can be done without losing any precision in the pricing of futures contracts. We show how the risk premium parameters can be obtained from estimations of expected futures returns and provide alternative procedures for estimating these expected futures returns. - Highlights: • Simple methodology to improve the performance of commodity pricing models • New information about commodity futures expected return is added to the estimation. • No significant effect in pricing futures contracts is observed. • More reliable commodity pricing model's expected returns are obtained. • Methodology is open to any expected futures return model preferred by practitioner

  16. Earth Rotation (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.


    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  17. Lidar 2009 - All Returns (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  18. Returns on Investment in California County Departments of Public Health (United States)


    Objectives. To estimate the average return on investment for the overall activities of county departments of public health in California. Methods. I gathered the elements necessary to estimate the average return on investment for county departments of public health in California during the period 2001 to 2008–2009. These came from peer-reviewed journal articles published as part of a larger project to develop a method for determining return on investment for public health by using a health economics framework. I combined these elements by using the standard formula for computing return on investment, and performed a sensitivity analysis. Then I compared the return on investment for county departments of public health with the returns on investment generated for various aspects of medical care. Results. The estimated return on investment from $1 invested in county departments of public health in California ranges from $67.07 to $88.21. Conclusions. The very large estimated return on investment for California county departments of public health relative to the return on investment for selected aspects of medical care suggests that public health is a wise investment. PMID:27310339

  19. Exploring consumer online product returning behavior : Chinese e-consumers’ perspective


    Zhu, Yijun


    In the retail world, product returns are a common practice by consumers. Many businesses have been attempting to obtain more sales by providing customers with lenient return policies as well as customer-friendly return processes and procedures. Over the past decade, the issue of product returns by consumers is on the rise and drawing increased attention from practitioners and researchers. The objective of this thesis is to explore Chinese e-consumers’ perception of fraudulent returning beh...

  20. Analyse Risk-Return Paradox: Evidence from Electricity Sector of Pakistan


    Naqi Shah, Sadia; Qayyum, Abdul


    This study analyse risk return relationship of the electricity companies of Pakistan by using the log return series of these electricity companies. Financial time series data have the property of autoregressive heteroscedasticity so move towards the GARCH family test. As the study want to analyse the risk return relationship so, GARCH-M Model of Engel et al (1987) is used, who empirically found relationship between risk and return. Results show that risk return in case of Pakistan electricity...

  1. Returns management in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka


    Full Text Available Background:  The aim of this exploratory empirical research was to evaluate the level of cooperation in the area of reverse logistics between selected retail chains and logistics operators and suppliers; to identify and evaluate the influence the procedures of handling returns have on the relationships with customers, cost reduction, value recovery, inventory reduction and increasing profitability; as well as determining to what extent logistics operators are involved in the procedures of handling returns in the analysed chains. Methods: Based on the literature and the experience of researchers from developed countries a questionnaire was constructed which was subsequently used to conduct empirical research in selected retail chains operating in two provinces in Poland. The questionnaire survey involved the sales personnel of selected retail chains in the clothing industry. Overall, 105 questionnaires were collected and analysed. Results: Various aspects of cooperation with suppliers and logistics operators in respect of handling returns were evaluated. Most indicators of cooperation were evaluated favourably, with the exception of joint access to the database, the use of inventory data available online, and access to information from the warehouse, which received low marks from the respondents. In the case of the studied stores, some of the activities in the area of reverse logistics are outsourced; for example, obtaining products from users, logistics, and the transport of returns are typically done by an outside operator. Inspection, sorting, appraisal, repairs, as well as the sales of refurbished products are usually performed within the studied retail corporations. Conclusions: The research has shown that the retail chains developed very good programmes for handling returns in the supply chain, as evidenced by the presented and highly rated indicators of cooperation, with the exception of information exchange where there is still much

  2. Return to the workforce following infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H.; Kragholm, Kristian; Dalager-Pedersen, Michael


    Background The ability to return to work after infective endocarditis (IE) holds important socioeconomic consequences for both patients and society, yet data on this issue are sparse. We examined return to the workforce and associated factors in IE patients of working age. Methods Using Danish...

  3. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age (United States)

    Johnston, D. T.; Wolfe-Simon, F.; Pearson, A.; Knoll, A. H.


    Molecular oxygen (O2) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580–550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O2 production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O2 budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe2+ rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms. PMID:19805080

  4. Return Predictability, Model Uncertainty, and Robust Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel

    Stock return predictability is subject to great uncertainty. In this paper we use the model confidence set approach to quantify uncertainty about expected utility from investment, accounting for potential return predictability. For monthly US data and six representative return prediction models, we...... find that confidence sets are very wide, change significantly with the predictor variables, and frequently include expected utilities for which the investor prefers not to invest. The latter motivates a robust investment strategy maximizing the minimal element of the confidence set. The robust investor...... allocates a much lower share of wealth to stocks compared to a standard investor....

  5. An Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Francesco; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Latham, David W.


    significantly larger than the Earth. Recently, the planet Kepler-78b was discovered(8) and found to have a radius of only 1.16R(circle plus). Here we report that the mass of this planet is 1.86 Earth masses. The resulting mean density of the planet is 5.57 g cm(-3), which is similar to that of the Earth...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6031(a)-1 - Return of partnership income. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of partnership income. 1.6031(a)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6031(a)-1 Return of partnership income. (a) Domestic partnerships—(1) Return required. Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(3) and (c) of this section...

  7. Tick size and stock returns (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo


    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  8. Fun and Games: using Games and Immersive Exploration to Teach Earth and Space Science (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.


    We have been using games to teach Earth and Space Science for over 15 years. Our software "TicTacToe" has been used continuously at the Houston Museum of Natural Science since 2002. It is the single piece of educational software in the "Earth Forum" suite that holds the attention of visitors the longest - averaging over 10 minutes compared to 1-2 minutes for the other software kiosks. We now have question sets covering solar system, space weather, and Earth science. In 2010 we introduced a new game technology - that of immersive interactive explorations. In our "Tikal Explorer", visitors use a game pad to navigate a three-dimensional environment of the Classic Maya city of Tikal. Teams of students climb pyramids, look for artifacts, identify plants and animals, and site astronomical alignments that predict the annual return of the rains. We also have a new 3D exploration of the International Space Station, where students can fly around and inside the ISS. These interactive explorations are very natural to the video-game generation, and promise to bring educational objectives to experiences that had previously been used strictly for gaming. If space permits, we will set up our portable Discovery Dome in the poster session for a full immersive demonstration of these game environments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU


    Full Text Available Romanian youth migration is an increasing phenomenon, due to subjective and objective factors as economical reasons, professional carrer and increasingly more international competition for talent. In these circumstances, the present article aims to evaluate determinant factors that contribute to the decision of Romanian graduates to return national labour market. We sustain that young Romanians consider carefully and hardly decide their professional future. A particular attention is given to their personal reasons and motivations as well as family and friends network. For designing returning factors we present the results of a questionnaire survey, asking young pupils and students about their future educational way and personal reasons underlying the decision to study in a foreign country and taking into consideration the returning decision. As far international student migration is seen as a first step to migration for work, our work desires to fight for returning home of Romanian well-educated graduates.

  10. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan


    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  11. Return to play in elite rugby union: application of global positioning system technology in return-to-running programs. (United States)

    Reid, Laura C; Cowman, Jason R; Green, Brian S; Coughlan, Garrett F


    Global positioning systems (GPS) are widely used in sport settings to evaluate the physical demands on players in training and competition. The use of these systems in the design and implementation of rehabilitation and return-to-running programs has not yet been elucidated. To demonstrate the application of GPS technology in the management of return to play in elite-club Rugby Union. Case series. Professional Rugby Union club team. 8 elite Rugby Union players (age 27.86 ± 4.78 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, weight 99.14 ± 9.96 kg). Players wore GPS devices for the entire duration of a club game. Variables of locomotion speed and distance were measured. Differences in physical demands between playing positions were observed for all variables. An analysis of the position-specific physical demands measured by GPS provides key information regarding the level and volume of loads sustained by a player in a game environment. Using this information, sports-medicine practitioners can develop rehabilitation and return-to-running protocols specific to the player position to optimize safe return to play.

  12. Risk-Return Trade-Off for European Stock Markets


    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Savva, Christos S.


    This paper adopts dynamic factor models with macro-finance predictors to revisit the intertemporal risk-return relation in five large European stock markets. We identify country specific, Euro area, and global factors to determine the conditional moments of returns considering the role of higher-order moments as additional measures of risk. The preferred combination of factors varies across countries. In the linear model, there is a strong but negative relation between conditional returns and...

  13. Understanding the Puzzling Risk-Return Relationship for Housing


    Lu Han


    Standard theory predicts a positive relationship between risk and return, yet recent data show that housing returns vary positively with risk in some markets but negatively in others. This paper rationalizes these cross-market differences in the risk-return relationship for housing, and in so doing, explains the puzzling negative relationship. The paper shows that when the current house provides a hedge against the risk associated with the future housing consumption, households are willing to...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6063-1 - Signing of partnership returns. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signing of partnership returns. 301.6063-1 Section 301.6063-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....6063-1 Signing of partnership returns. For provisions relating to the signing of returns of partnership...

  15. Investment Strategy Based on Aviation Accidents: Are there abnormal returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa


    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an investment strategy based on aviation accidents can generate abnormal returns. We performed an event study considering all the aviation accidents with more than 10 fatalities in the period from 1998 to 2009 and the stock market performance of the respective airlines and aircraft manufacturers in the days after the event. The tests performed were based on the model of Campbell, Lo & MacKinlay (1997 for definition of abnormal returns, by means of linear regression between the firms’ stock returns and the return of a market portfolio used as a benchmark. This enabled projecting the expected future returns of the airlines and aircraft makers, for comparison with the observed returns after each event. The result obtained suggests that an investment strategy based on aviation accidents is feasible because abnormal returns can be obtained in the period immediately following an aviation disaster.

  16. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas


    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  17. Returnable containers: an example of reverse logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G.M.C. Vrijens


    textabstractConsiders the application of returnable containers as an example of reverse logistics. A returnable container is a type of secondary packaging that can be used several times in the same form, in contrast with traditional cardboard boxes. For this equipment to be used, a system for the

  18. Possible Gems and Ultra-Fine Grained Polyphase Units in Comet Wild 2. (United States)

    Gainsforth, Z.; Butterworth, A. L.; Jilly-Rehak, C. E.; Westphal, A. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D.; Ogliore, R. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bechtel, H. A.; Ebel, D. S.; hide


    GEMS and ultrafine grained polyphase units (UFG-PU) in anhydrous IDPs are probably some of the most primitive materials in the solar system. UFG-PUs contain nanocrystalline silicates, oxides, metals and sulfides. GEMS are rounded approximately 100 nm across amorphous silicates containing embedded iron-nickel metal grains and sulfides. GEMS are one of the most abundant constituents in some anhydrous CPIDPs, often accounting for half the material or more. When NASA's Stardust mission returned with samples from comet Wild 2 in 2006, it was thought that UFG-PUs and GEMS would be among the most abundant materials found. However, possibly because of heating during the capture process in aerogel, neither GEMS nor UFG-PUs have been clearly found.

  19. Robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ulivi, Paolo

    In Robotic Exploration of the Solar System, Paolo Ulivi and David Harland provide a comprehensive account of the design and managment of deep-space missions, the spacecraft involved - some flown, others not - their instruments, and their scientific results. This third volume in the series covers launches in the period 1997 to 2003 and features: - a chapter entirely devoted to the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn; - coverage of planetary missions of the period, including the Deep Space 1 mission and the Stardust and Hayabusa sample returns from comets and asteroids; - extensive coverage of Mars exploration, the failed 1999 missions, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity. The story will continue in Part 4.

  20. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.


    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by

  1. Sovereign Risk and Currently Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Pasquale; Sarno, Lucio; Schmeling, Maik

    We empirically investigate the relation between sovereign risk and exchange rates for a broad set of currencies. An increase in the credit default swap (CDS) spread of a country is accompanied by a significant depreciation of the exchange rate. More generally, CDS spread changes have substantial...... explanatory power for currency returns which is largely driven by shocks to global credit risk. Consistent with the notion that sovereign risk is priced, we find that a country's exposure to global credit risk forecasts excess returns to trading exchange rates as well as to trading on the volatility, skewness...

  2. Sovereign Risk and Currency Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Pasquale; Sarno, Lucio; Schmeling, Maik

    We empirically investigate the relation between sovereign risk and exchange rates for a broad set of currencies. An increase in the credit default swap (CDS) spread of a country is accompanied by a significant depreciation of the exchange rate. More generally, CDS spread changes have substantial...... explanatory power for currency returns which is largely driven by shocks to global credit risk. Consistent with the notion that sovereign risk is priced, we find that a country's exposure to global credit risk forecasts excess returns to trading exchange rates as well as to trading on the volatility, skewness...

  3. Return to golf after spine surgery. (United States)

    Abla, Adib A; Maroon, Joseph C; Lochhead, Richard; Sonntag, Volker K H; Maroon, Adara; Field, Melvin


    no published evidence indicates when patients can resume golfing after spine surgery. The objective of this study is to provide data from surveys sent to spine surgeons. a survey of North American Spine Society members was undertaken querying the suggested timing of return to golf. Of 1000 spine surgeons surveyed, 523 responded (52.3%). The timing of recommended return to golf and the reasons were questioned for college/professional athletes and avid and recreational golfers of both sexes. Responses were tallied for lumbar laminectomy, lumbar microdiscectomy, lumbar fusion, and anterior cervical discectomy with fusion. the most common recommended time for return to golf was 4-8 weeks after lumbar laminectomy and lumbar microdiscectomy, 2-3 months after anterior cervical fusion, and 6 months after lumbar fusion. The results showed a statistically significant increase in the recommended time to resume golf after lumbar fusion than after cervical fusion in all patients (p golf after spine surgery depends on many variables, including the general well-being of patients in terms of pain control and comfort when golfing. This survey serves as a guide that can assist medical practitioners in telling patients the average times recommended by surgeons across North America regarding return to golf after spine surgery.

  4. Efficient Return Algorithms For Associated Plasticity With Multiple Yield Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars; Andersen, Lars


    of such criteria. The return formulae are in closed form and no iteration is required. The method accounts for three types of stress return: Return to a single yield plane, to a discontinuity line at the intersection of two yield planes and to a discontinuity point at the intersection between three or more yield...... planes. The infinitesimal and the consistent elastoplastic constitutive matrix are calculated for each type of stress return, as are the conditions to ascertain which type of return is required. The method is exemplified with the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion....

  5. What stock market returns to expect for the future? (United States)

    Diamond, P A


    In evaluating proposals for reforming Social Security that involve stock investments, the Office of the Chief Actuary (OCACT) has generally used a 7.0 percent real return for stocks. The 1994-96 Advisory Council specified that OCACT should use that return in making its 75-year projections of investment-based reform proposals. The assumed ultimate real return on Treasury bonds of 3.0 percent implies a long-run equity premium of 4.0 percent. There are two equity-premium concepts: the realized equity premium, which is measured by the actual rates of return; and the required equity premium, which investors expect to receive for being willing to hold available stocks and bonds. Over the past two centuries, the realized premium was 3.5 percent on average, but 5.2 percent for 1926 to 1998. Some critics argue that the 7.0 percent projected stock returns are too high. They base their arguments on recent developments in the capital market, the current high value of the stock market, and the expectation of slower economic growth. Increased use of mutual funds and the decline in their costs suggest a lower required premium, as does the rising fraction of the American public investing in stocks. The size of the decrease is limited, however, because the largest cost savings do not apply to the very wealthy and to large institutional investors, who hold a much larger share of the stock market's total value than do new investors. These trends suggest a lower equity premium for projections than the 5.2 percent of the past 75 years. Also, a declining required premium is likely to imply a temporary increase in the realized premium because a rising willingness to hold stocks tends to increase their price. Therefore, it would be a mistake during a transition period to extrapolate what may be a temporarily high realized return. In the standard (Solow) economic growth model, an assumption of slower long-run growth lowers the marginal product of capital if the savings rate is constant

  6. After a career break: supporting women returning to ICT


    Herman, Clem


    This is a case study of an initiative to support women returning to ICT after a career break, which was run in the UK and Ireland between 2005 and 2011.The article starts by outlining how the UK government’s concern about women failing return to SET careers led to the setting up of a national campaign (RETURN) to address this issue. A brief overview of previous research about women’s reasons for leaving ICT employment and the difficulties and barriers they encounter in returning to work, sets...

  7. The risks and returns of stock investment in a financial market (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Mei, Dong-Cheng


    The risks and returns of stock investment are discussed via numerically simulating the mean escape time and the probability density function of stock price returns in the modified Heston model with time delay. Through analyzing the effects of delay time and initial position on the risks and returns of stock investment, the results indicate that: (i) There is an optimal delay time matching minimal risks of stock investment, maximal average stock price returns and strongest stability of stock price returns for strong elasticity of demand of stocks (EDS), but the opposite results for weak EDS; (ii) The increment of initial position recedes the risks of stock investment, strengthens the average stock price returns and enhances stability of stock price returns. Finally, the probability density function of stock price returns and the probability density function of volatility and the correlation function of stock price returns are compared with other literatures. In addition, good agreements are found between them.

  8. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors. (United States)

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris


    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  9. Industry Returns and the Fisher Effect.


    Boudoukh, Jacob; Richardson, Matthew; Whitelaw, Robert F


    The authors investigate the cross-sectional relation between industry-sorted stock returns and expected inflation, and they find that this relation is linked to cyclical movements in industry output. Stock returns of noncyclical industries tend to covary positively with expected inflation, while the reverse holds for cyclical industries. From a theoretical perspective, the authors describe a model that captures both (1) the cross-sectional variation in these relations across industries and (2...

  10. Red-emitting alkaline-earth rare-earth pentaoxometallates powders ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moisture-insensitive metal carboxylates that are mostly liquids at room temperature have been first applied to ... alkaline-earth ion, or possibly even a rare-earth ion and alkali metal ... sion spectra of the powders were recorded on a fluorescent.

  11. Consumption Risk and the Cross Section of Expected Returns. (United States)

    Parker, Jonathan A.; Julliard, Christian


    This paper evaluates the central insight of the consumption capital asset pricing model that an asset's expected return is determined by its equilibrium risk to consumption. Rather than measure risk by the contemporaneous covariance of an asset's return and consumption growth, we measure risk by the covariance of an asset's return and consumption…

  12. Return to Play (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne


    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  13. Feature discrimination/identification based upon SAR return variations (United States)

    Rasco, W. A., Sr.; Pietsch, R.


    A study of the statistics of The look-to-look variation statistics in the returns recorded in-flight by a digital, realtime SAR system are analyzed. The determination that the variations in the look-to-look returns from different classes do carry information content unique to the classes was illustrated by a model based on four variants derived from four look in-flight SAR data under study. The model was limited to four classes of returns: mowed grass on a athletic field, rough unmowed grass and weeds on a large vacant field, young fruit trees in a large orchard, and metal mobile homes and storage buildings in a large mobile home park. The data population in excess of 1000 returns represented over 250 individual pixels from the four classes. The multivariant discriminant model operated on the set of returns for each pixel and assigned that pixel to one of the four classes, based on the target variants and the probability distribution function of the four variants for each class.

  14. Earth - South America (first frame of Earth Spin Movie) (United States)


    This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Atlantic, lower right. This is the first frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500- frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  15. Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids. (United States)

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E; Snyder, Anastasia R; Jang, Bohyun Joy


    Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162), and returns to (n = 6,530), the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from, and returns to, the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from, and earlier returns to, the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed.

  16. Returns to Schooling in Less Developed Countries: New Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.


    In our analysis of returns to schooling in Zambia, we look at the rural and urban population separately, and estimate the returns to schooling in each region based on a selection model in two stages. For urban areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are nil whereas the returns to scho...... to schooling beyond primary school are higher. For rural areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are positive and no different from the returns to education beyond primary school. Udgivelsesdato: JAN...

  17. Beyond 3-D: The New Spectrum of Lidar Applications for Earth and Ecological Sciences (United States)

    Eitel, Jan U. H.; Hofle, Bernhard; Vierling, Lee A.; Abellan, Antonio; Asner, Gregory P.; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Glennie, Craig L.; Joerg, Phillip C.; LeWinter, Adam L.; Magney, Troy S.; hide


    Capturing and quantifying the world in three dimensions (x,y,z) using light detection and ranging (lidar) technology drives fundamental advances in the Earth and Ecological Sciences (EES). However, additional lidar dimensions offer the possibility to transcend basic 3-D mapping capabilities, including i) the physical time (t) dimension from repeat lidar acquisition and ii) laser return intensity (LRI?) data dimension based on the brightness of single- or multi-wavelength (?) laser returns. The additional dimensions thus add to the x,y, and z dimensions to constitute the five dimensions of lidar (x,y,z, t, LRI?1... ?n). This broader spectrum of lidar dimensionality has already revealed new insights across multiple EES topics, and will enable a wide range of new research and applications. Here, we review recent advances based on repeat lidar collections and analysis of LRI data to highlight novel applications of lidar remote sensing beyond 3-D. Our review outlines the potential and current challenges of time and LRI information from lidar sensors to expand the scope of research applications and insights across the full range of EES applications.

  18. Maternal perspectives on postpartum return to the workplace. (United States)

    Nichols, Mary R; Roux, Gayle M


    To describe maternal perceptions about postpartum return to the workplace. The research framework was McCubbin and McCubbin's Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation. Employed, postpartum women, who resided in six different states, were recruited from day care and primary care settings to participate in this descriptive study. Seventy-four employed, married women, who returned to the workplace within one year after childbirth. As part of a larger study, perceptions about combining multiple roles after return to the workplace are the focus for this report. Participants responded to open-ended questions about their return to the workplace during the first months after giving birth. Content analysis of those responses resulted in two major categories, Resiliency Challenges: Negative Aspects (role conflict/overload, family stress, family/child issues, finances, psychosocial issues) and Resiliency Building: Positive Aspects (social support, maternal role satisfaction, positive adaptation, career role satisfaction). The data support the premise that employed women view returning to the workforce as having more challenges than they expected because the experience was viewed as being mostly negative. Preparing for return to the workplace is an important, but neglected, topic that needs to be addressed and defined more clearly in the literature. Therefore, future research is needed to identify resources and interventions that will help women experience fewer challenges associated with postpartum employment.

  19. 26 CFR 1.6017-1 - Self-employment tax returns. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-employment tax returns. 1.6017-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6017-1 Self-employment tax returns. (a) In general. (1) Every individual, other than a nonresident alien, having net earnings from self-employment, as defined...

  20. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Motamedi


    Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovski


    Full Text Available Prominent financial stock pricing models are built on assumption that asset returns follow a normal (Gaussian distribution. However, many authors argue that in the practice stock returns are often characterized by skewness and kurtosis, so we test the existence of the Gaussian distribution of stock returns and calculate the kurtosis of several stocks at the Macedonian Stock Exchange (MSE. Obtaining information about the shape of distribution is an important step for models of pricing risky assets. The daily stock returns at Macedonian Stock Exchange (MSE are characterized by high volatility and non-Gaussian behaviors as well as they are extremely leptokurtic. The analysis of MSE time series stock returns determine volatility clustering and high kurtosis. The fact that daily stock returns at MSE are not normally distributed put into doubt results that rely heavily on this assumption and have significant implications for portfolio management. We consider this stock market as good representatives of emerging markets. Therefore, we argue that our results are valid for other similar emerging stock markets.

  2. The Returns to Quality in Graduate Education (United States)

    Stevenson, Adam


    This paper estimates the monetary return to quality in US graduate education, controlling for cognitive ability and self-selection across award level, program quality, and field-of-study. In most program types, I cannot reject the hypothesis of no returns to either degree completion or program quality. Important exceptions include master's…

  3. Managing Returns in a Catalog Distribution Center (United States)

    Gates, Joyce; Stuart, Julie Ann; Bonawi-tan, Winston; Loehr, Sarah


    The research team of the Purdue University in the United States developed an algorithm that considers several different factors, in addition to cost, to help catalog distribution centers process their returns more efficiently. A case study to teach the students important concepts involved in developing a solution to the returns disposition problem…

  4. Conditional Relationship Between Beta and Return in the US Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing XIAO


    Full Text Available According to the CAPM, risk is measured by the beta, and the relation between required expected return and beta is linear. This paper examines the conditional relationship between beta and return in the US stock market. The conditional covariances and variances used to estimate beta are modeled as an ARCH process. The beta return relationship is tested upon the sign of the excess market return. The implication of the sign of the excess market return follows Morelli (2011. This study shows the importance of recognizing the sign of the excess market return when testing the beta-return relationship. The approach also allows us to distinguish the size effect and the effect of economic cycles.

  5. Building a Dashboard of the Planet with Google Earth and Earth Engine (United States)

    Moore, R. T.; Hancher, M.


    In 2005 Google Earth, a popular 3-D virtual globe, was first released. Scientists immediately recognized how it could be used to tell stories about the Earth. From 2006 to 2009, the "Virtual Globes" sessions of AGU included innovative examples of scientists and educators using Google Earth, and since that time it has become a commonplace tool for communicating scientific results. In 2009 Google Earth Engine, a cloud-based platform for planetary-scale geospatial analysis, was first announced. Earth Engine was initially used to extract information about the world's forests from raw Landsat data. Since then, the platform has proven highly effective for general analysis of georeferenced data, and users have expanded the list of use cases to include high-impact societal issues such as conservation, drought, disease, food security, water management, climate change and environmental monitoring. To support these use cases, the platform has continuously evolved with new datasets, analysis functions, and user interface tools. This talk will give an overview of the latest Google Earth and Earth Engine functionality that allow partners to understand, monitor and tell stories about of our living, breathing Earth.

  6. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  7. Analysis of factors influencing return to work after total hip arthroplasty. (United States)

    Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Rąpała, Kazimierz; Tarnowski, Adam; Kucharczyk, Wojciech


    BACKGROUND. Patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) find it difficult to return to work. OBJECTIVES. Analysis of factors influencing return to work after THA. Assessment of patients' quality of life and its impact on their attitude to work. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied patients operated on for degenerative hip disease at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education in Otwock between 2007 and 2012. The total number of the patients was 400; however, we chose only those patients who were younger than 65 and still in employment. The study population consisted of 54 of these patients. The mean patient age was 55.89 (±7.424). There were 29 men (57.3%) and 25 women (46.3%). RESULTS. 32 patients (59.3%) returned to work. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the attitude to work and return to work. An overwhelming majority of the patients who returned to work--31 out of 32 (96.6%)--liked their jobs. The 12 patients (22.22%) who did not return to work declared their intention to apply for a disability pension. The patients who returned to work assessed their physical health as better than the patients who did not return to work. CONCLUSIONS. 1. 40.7% of patients after THA did not return to preoperative employment. The reasons for not returning were not medical, because elimination of pain and an increased range of motion made return to work possible. 2. The perception of the quality of physical and psychological health among patients with THA who returned to work was significantly better than among those who did not return.

  8. Heuristics for Relevancy Ranking of Earth Dataset Search Results (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Quinn, Patrick; Norton, James


    As the Variety of Earth science datasets increases, science researchers find it more challenging to discover and select the datasets that best fit their needs. The most common way of search providers to address this problem is to rank the datasets returned for a query by their likely relevance to the user. Large web page search engines typically use text matching supplemented with reverse link counts, semantic annotations and user intent modeling. However, this produces uneven results when applied to dataset metadata records simply externalized as a web page. Fortunately, data and search provides have decades of experience in serving data user communities, allowing them to form heuristics that leverage the structure in the metadata together with knowledge about the user community. Some of these heuristics include specific ways of matching the user input to the essential measurements in the dataset and determining overlaps of time range and spatial areas. Heuristics based on the novelty of the datasets can prioritize later, better versions of data over similar predecessors. And knowledge of how different user types and communities use data can be brought to bear in cases where characteristics of the user (discipline, expertise) or their intent (applications, research) can be divined. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System has begun implementing some of these heuristics in the relevancy algorithm of its Common Metadata Repository search engine.

  9. Endogenous time-varying risk aversion and asset returns. (United States)

    Berardi, Michele


    Stylized facts about statistical properties for short horizon returns in financial markets have been identified in the literature, but a satisfactory understanding for their manifestation is yet to be achieved. In this work, we show that a simple asset pricing model with representative agent is able to generate time series of returns that replicate such stylized facts if the risk aversion coefficient is allowed to change endogenously over time in response to unexpected excess returns under evolutionary forces. The same model, under constant risk aversion, would instead generate returns that are essentially Gaussian. We conclude that an endogenous time-varying risk aversion represents a very parsimonious way to make the model match real data on key statistical properties, and therefore deserves careful consideration from economists and practitioners alike.

  10. What Is the Expected Return on a Stock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Ian; Wagner, Christian

    We derive a formula that expresses the expected return on a stock in terms of the risk-neutral variance of the market and the stock's excess risk-neutral variance relative to the average stock. These components can be computed from index and stock option prices; the formula has no free parameters....... We test the theory in-sample by running panel regressions of stock returns onto risk-neutral variances. The formula performs well at 6-month and 1-year forecasting horizons, and our predictors drive out beta, size, book-to-market, and momentum. Out-of-sample, we find that the formula outperforms...... a range of competitors in forecasting individual stock returns. Our results suggest that there is considerably more variation in expected returns, both over time and across stocks, than has previously been acknowledged....

  11. What is the Expected Return on a Stock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Ian; Wagner, Christian

    We derive a formula that expresses the expected return on a stock in terms of the risk-neutral variance of the market and the stock’s excess risk-neutral variance relative to the average stock. These components can be computed from index and stock option prices; the formula has no free parameters....... We test the theory in-sample by running panel regressions of stock returns onto risk-neutral variances. The formula performs well at 6-month and 1-year forecasting horizons, and our predictors drive out beta, size, book-to-market, and momentum. Out-of-sample, we find that the formula outperforms...... a range of competitors in forecasting individual stock returns. Our results suggest that there is considerably more variation in expected returns, both over time and across stocks, than has previously been acknowledged....

  12. Macro factors in oil futures returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sevi, Benoit


    We investigate the macro factors that can explain the monthly oil futures return for the NYMEX WTI futures contract for the time period 1993:11 to 2010:03. We build a new database of 187 real and nominal macro-economic variables from developed and emerging countries and resort to the large factor approximate model to extract 9 factors from this dataset. We then regress crude oil return on several combinations of these factors. Our best model explains around 38% of the variability of oil futures return. More interestingly, the factor which has the largest influence on crude oil price is related to real variables from emerging countries. This result confirms the latest finding in the literature that the recent evolution in oil price is attributable to change in supply and demand conditions and not to the large increase in trading activity from speculators. (authors)

  13. 26 CFR 1.857-10 - Information returns. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information returns. 1.857-10 Section 1.857-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-10 Information returns. Nothing in §§ 1.857-8 and 1...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6013-1 - Joint returns. (United States)


    ... for the right of an executor to file a late separate return for a deceased spouse and thereby... respect to the decedent may be made only by his executor or administrator, as defined in paragraph (c) of... respect of which the joint return is made; (ii) No executor or administrator has been appointed at or...

  15. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull return. 111.05-11 Section 111.05-11 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A vessel's hull must not carry current as a conductor except for the following systems: (1) Impressed current...

  16. 27 CFR 28.220 - Notice of return. (United States)


    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.220 Notice of return. If an exporter desires to return wine to a bonded wine cellar or wholesale liquor... wine cellar from which withdrawn; (b) Date and serial number of the Form 1582-A (5120.24) on which the...

  17. Return to the workforce following coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H; Rørth, Rasmus; Kragholm, Kristian


    Background Returning to the workforce after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) holds important socioeconomic consequences not only for patients, but the society as well. Yet data on this issue are limited. We examined return to the workforce and associated factors in patients of working age.......0%) patients had returned to the workforce, 614 (10.2%) were on paid sick leave, 267 (4.4%) received disability pension, 250 (4.1%) were on early retirement, 57 (0.9%) had died, and 16 (0.3%) had emigrated. Factors associated with return to the workforce were identified using multivariable logistic regression...

  18. Return Migration to Mexico: Does Health Matter? (United States)

    Arenas, Erika; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Teruel, Graciela


    We use data from three rounds of the Mexican Family Life Survey to examine whether migrants in the United States returning to Mexico in the period 2005-2012 have worse health than those remaining in the United States. Despite extensive interest by demographers in health-related selection, this has been a neglected area of study in the literature on U.S.-Mexico migration, and the few results to date have been contradictory and inconclusive. Using five self-reported health variables collected while migrants resided in the United States and subsequent migration history, we find direct evidence of higher probabilities of return migration for Mexican migrants in poor health as well as lower probabilities of return for migrants with improving health. These findings are robust to the inclusion of potential confounders reflecting the migrants' demographic characteristics, economic situation, family ties, and origin and destination characteristics. We anticipate that in the coming decade, health may become an even more salient issue in migrants' decisions about returning to Mexico, given the recent expansion in access to health insurance in Mexico.

  19. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M


    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  20. 26 CFR 25.6075-1 - Returns, time for filing gift tax returns for gifts made after December 31, 1981. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns, time for filing gift tax returns for gifts made after December 31, 1981. 25.6075-1 Section 25.6075-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER...

  1. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID


    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  2. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle


    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  3. Return Rates for Needle Exchange Programs: A Common Criticism Answered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksobiech Kate


    Full Text Available Abstract This study searched the available needle exchange program (NEP literature for return rate data. A total of 26 articles were found. The overall worldwide return rate was 90%, although this ranged from a low of 15% to a high of 112%. U.S. NEP return rates were gathered from only eight studies, indicating a clear need for more data, although U.S. return rates were comparable to those from NEPs outside of the U.S. One underlying assumption made by opponents of NEPs is that IDUs will not return needles to the distribution site, thereby potentially increasing the risk of health problems to the surrounding community from exposure to contaminated needles. This study's results suggest that NEPs are relatively successful in taking in used needles, although it is generally unclear where the needles were originally acquired, and if IDUs return their own needles, or are returning needles for a social network. Ways for AIDS Service Organizations to capitalize on these brief encounters with IDUs, as well as public policy implications of the findings, are discussed.

  4. Trajectory Options for a Potential Mars Mission Combining Orbiting Science, Relay and a Sample Return Rendezvous Demonstration (United States)

    Guinn, Joseph R.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Wilson, Roby S.


    Mars sample return is a major scientific goal of the 2011 US National Research Council Decadal Survey for Planetary Science. Toward achievement of this goal, recent architecture studies have focused on several mission concept options for the 2018/2020 Mars launch opportunities. Mars orbiters play multiple roles in these architectures such as: relay, landing site identification/selection/certification, collection of on-going or new measurements to fill knowledge gaps, and in-orbit collection and transportation of samples from Mars to Earth. This paper reviews orbiter concepts that combine these roles and describes a novel family of relay orbits optimized for surface operations support. Additionally, these roles provide an intersection of objectives for long term NASA science, human exploration, technology development and international collaboration.

  5. 640 Gbit/s return-to-zero to non-return-to-zero format conversion based on optical linear spectral phase filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael


    We propose a novel approach for all-optical return-to-zero (RZ) to non-return-to-zero (NRZ) telecommunication data format conversion based on linear spectral phase manipulation of an RZ data signal. The operation principle is numerically analyzed and experimentally validated through successful fo...

  6. Income, self-selection, and return and onward interprovincial migration in Canada. (United States)

    Newbold, K B


    "Estimated returns to migration based on comparison of individual migrants may be biased owing to self-selection in the migration process. Using data derived from the 1986 Canadian census, I will study the effects of expected wage differentials in determining the return or onward migration decision of nonnative adults aged 20 to 64 years. Evidence was found that return migrations were in the 'right' direction, as they are observed to respond to provincial economic variables (that is, average employment growth and income levels) in a rational manner. After accounting for self-selectivity, I found that...return migrants...are negatively selected, and experience lower income levels, following the return migration, than onward migrants would have, had they chosen the return migration option. This drop in expected wages decreases the propensity associated with making a return migration. Despite this drop in income, the large proportion selecting the return migration option suggests the importance of the province of birth in the mental map of nonnative migrants." excerpt

  7. Volatility smile and stochastic arbitrage returns


    Sergei Fedotov; Stephanos Panayides


    The purpose of this work is to explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in pricing financial derivatives. We use a non-equilibrium model to set up a stochastic portfolio, and for the random arbitrage return, we choose a stationary ergodic random process rapidly varying in time. We exploit the fact that option price and random arbitrage returns change on different time scales which allows us to develop an asymptotic pricing theory involving the central limit theorem for random...

  8. Returning to Work After Electrical Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stergiou-Kita, M.; Mansfield, E.; Bayley, M.


    were conducted with individuals who experienced an electrical injury at the workplace. Participants were recruited from specialized burns rehabilitation programs in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis used to analyze the qualitative interviews. Data regarding......The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of workers' experiences with returning to work, the challenges they experienced, and the supports they found most beneficial when returning to work after a workplace electrical injury. Thirteen semistructured qualitative telephone interviews...

  9. Gold Returns


    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra


    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  10. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in Turner syndrome. (United States)

    van den Hoven, Allard T; Chelu, Raluca G; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie L; Demulier, Laurent; Devos, Daniel; Nieman, Koen; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Loeys, Bart L; van Hagen, Iris M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W


    The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence, anatomy, associations and clinical impact of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with Turner syndrome. All Turner patients who presented at our Turner clinic, between January 2007 and October 2015 were included in this study and underwent ECG, echocardiography and advanced imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance or computed tomography as part of their regular clinical workup. All imaging was re-evaluated and detailed anatomy was described. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return was diagnosed in 24 (25%) out of 96 Turner patients included and 14 (58%) of these 24 partial anomalous pulmonary venous return had not been reported previously. Right atrial or ventricular dilatation was present in 11 (46%) of 24 partial anomalous pulmonary venous return patients. When studied with advanced imaging modalities and looked for with specific attention, PAPVR is found in 1 out of 4 Turner patients. Half of these patients had right atrial and/or ventricular dilatation. Evaluation of pulmonary venous return should be included in the standard protocol in all Turner patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Daily happiness and stock returns: Some international evidence (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Xiao; Shen, Dehua; Teglio, Andrea


    In this paper, we examine the relations between the daily happiness sentiment extracted from Twitter and the stock market performance in 11 international stock markets. By partitioning this happiness sentiment into quintiles from the least to the happiest days, we first show that the contemporary correlation coefficients between happiness sentiment and index return in the 4 and most-happiness subgroups are higher than that in least, 2 and 3-happiness subgroups. Secondly, the happiness sentiment can provide additional explanatory power for index return in the most-happiness subgroup. Thirdly, the daily happiness can granger-cause the changes in index return for the majority of stock markets. Fourthly, we find that the index return and the range-based volatility of the most-happiness subgroup are larger than those of other subgroups. These results highlight the important role of social media in stock market.

  12. One hundred years of return period: Strengths and limitations (United States)

    Volpi, E.; Fiori, A.; Grimaldi, S.; Lombardo, F.; Koutsoyiannis, D.


    One hundred years from its original definition by Fuller, the probabilistic concept of return period is widely used in hydrology as well as in other disciplines of geosciences to give an indication on critical event rareness. This concept gains its popularity, especially in engineering practice for design and risk assessment, due to its ease of use and understanding; however, return period relies on some basic assumptions that should be satisfied for a correct application of this statistical tool. Indeed, conventional frequency analysis in hydrology is performed by assuming as necessary conditions that extreme events arise from a stationary distribution and are independent of one another. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of return period when the independence condition is omitted; hence, we explore how the different definitions of return period available in literature affect results of frequency analysis for processes correlated in time. We demonstrate that, for stationary processes, the independence condition is not necessary in order to apply the classical equation of return period (i.e., the inverse of exceedance probability). On the other hand, we show that the time-correlation structure of hydrological processes modifies the shape of the distribution function of which the return period represents the first moment. This implies that, in the context of time-dependent processes, the return period might not represent an exhaustive measure of the probability of failure, and that its blind application could lead to misleading results. To overcome this problem, we introduce the concept of Equivalent Return Period, which controls the probability of failure still preserving the virtue of effectively communicating the event rareness.

  13. Return emigration: analysis of the situation through life stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Pino Juste


    Full Text Available In the context of the importance presently acquired by return immigration in Spain, in this article a descriptive study around the returned emigrants over 65 years old in Galicia is presented.After a brief theoretical introduction on return migration,the research carried out is developed. In the first place, the methodology used in the investigation which allowed an approach to the point of view of the persons concerned is explained: the biographical method through the technique of life stories. In second term, the specific results of the research are presented. After out lining the profile of the returned emigrant, different categories relating to the migratory project in its different phases have been analyzed: fromits beginning —reasons for emigrating—, in their arrival to destiny—labour activity, adaptation, uprooting, etc.—, to the return—reasons for returning, problems of readjustment to the place of origin, etc.—

  14. Consumption growth and time-varying expected stock returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig


    When the consumption growth rate is measured based upon fourth quarter data, it tracks predictable variation in future excess stock returns. Low fourth quarter consumption growth rates predict high future excess stock returns such that expected returns are high at business cycle troughs and low...... of each calendar year, and at possibly random times in between. The consumption growth rate measured based upon fourth quarter data is a much stronger predictive variable than benchmark predictive variables such as the dividend-price ratio, the term spread, and the default spread....

  15. Finding Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) Destinations for Human Exploration: Implications for Astrobiology (United States)

    Landis, Rob; Abell, Paul; Barbee, Brent; Johnson, Lindley


    The current number of known potential NEA targets for HSF is limited to those objects whose orbital characteristics are similar to that of the Earth. This is due to the projected capabilities of the exploration systems currently under consideration and development at NASA. However, NEAs with such orbital characteristics often have viewing geometries that place them at low solar elongations and thus are difficult to detect from the vicinity of Earth. While ongoing ground-based surveys and data archives maintained by the NEO Program Observation Program Office and the Minor Planet Center (MPC) have provided a solid basis upon which to build, a more complete catalog of the NEO population is required to inform a robust and sustainable HSF exploration program. Since all the present NEO observing assets are currently confined to the vicinity of the Earth, additional effort must be made to provide capabilities for detection of additional HSF targets via assets beyond Earth orbit. A space-based NEO survey telescope located beyond the vicinity of the Earth, has considerable implications for planetary science and astrobiology. Such a telescope will provide foundational knowledge of our Solar System small body population and detect targets of interest for both the HSF and scientific communities. Data from this asset will yield basic characterization data on the NEOs observed (i.e., albedo, size determination, potential for volatiles and organics, etc.) and help down select targets for future HSF missions. Ideally, the most attractive targets from both HSF and astrobiology perspectives are those NEAs that may contain organic and volatile materials, and which could be effectively sampled at a variety of locations and depths. Presented here is an overview of four space-based survey concepts; any one of which after just a few years of operation will discover many highly accessible NEO targets suitable for robotic and human exploration. Such a space-based survey mission will reveal

  16. Atmospheric acceleration and Earth-expansion deceleration of the Earth rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Shen


    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that tidal friction gives rise to the secular deceleration of the Earth rotation by a quantity of about 2.25 ms/cy. Here we just consider additional contributions to the secular Earth rotation deceleration. Atmospheric solar semi-diurnal tide has a small amplitude and certain amount of phase lead. This periodic global air-mass excess distribution exerts a quasi-constant torque to accelerate the Earth's spin rotation. Using an updated atmospheric tide model, we re-estimate the amounts of this atmospheric acceleration torque and corresponding energy input, of which the associated change rate in LOD (length of day is −0.1 ms/cy. In another aspect, evidences from space-geodesy and sea level rise observations suggest that Earth expands at a rate of 0.35 mm/yr in recent decades, which gives rise to the increase of LOD at rate of 1.0 ms/cy. Hence, if the previous estimate due to the tidal friction is correct, the secular Earth rotation deceleration due to tidal friction and Earth expansion should be 3.15 ms/cy.

  17. Fourth-quarter Economic Growth and Time-varying Expected Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig V.; Rangvid, Jesper

    not predict returns. Fourth-quarter economic growth rates contain considerably more information about expected returns than standard variables used in the literature, are robust to the choice of macro variable, and work in-sample, out-of-sample, and in subsamples. To help explain these results, we show...... that economic growth and growth in consumer confidence are correlated during the fourth quarter, but not during the other quarters: When economic growth is low during the fourth quarter, confidence in the economy is also low such that investors require higher future returns. We discuss rational and behavioral...... reasons why fourth-quarter economic growth, growth in consumer confidence, and expected returns are related....

  18. Stakeholder views on returning research results. (United States)

    Haga, Susanne B; Zhao, Jennifer Q


    While the disclosure of research findings is relevant to all types of biomedical research, it has garnered particular attention with respect to genetics and genomics research due to some of the unique aspects of the data and the high public profile of the field. In this chapter, we review the attitudes of stakeholders (research participants, policymakers, and researchers) to define areas of consensus regarding the issue of returning research results across and within groups. In addition to stakeholder attitudes about obligations and interest in research results, other major related issues related to returning research results, such as informed consent, communication of research results, and cost, are discussed. Given the consensus between stakeholders to return summary reports of a study's outcomes and individual research results of clinical significance, we conclude that the time has come to encourage, if not require, researchers to consider these issues in the developmental planning stages of a project and to plan and budget accordingly. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Signal Separation of Helicopter Radar Returns Using Wavelet-Based Sparse Signal Optimisation (United States)


    helicopter from the composite radar returns. The received signal consists of returns from the rotating main and tail rotor blades, the helicopter used to separate the main and tail rotor blade components of a helicopter from the composite radar returns. The received signal consists of returns...Two algorithms are presented in the report to separately extract main rotor blade returns and tail rotor blade returns from the composite signal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irman firmansyah


    Full Text Available Islamic capital market is the investment alternatives in accordance with Islamic law. However, the purpose of investing is to obtain a high return stock. This study aimed to analyze the fundamental factors in predicting stock return of sharia with systematic risk as a mediating variable. Fundamental factors measured by DER, EPS, ROA, PER and NPM and systematic risk measured by beta. Data taken from the Islamic capital market through the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII in a span of research in 2013 and 2014. The analysis used is multiple regression analysis and Sobel test. The results showed that DER and PER positive effect on sharia stock return, beta negative effect on sharia stock return and EPS, ROA and NPM no effect on sharia stock return. Whereas in mediating variable testing, the beta did not mediate the relationship between DER, EPS, ROA, NPM and PER to sharia stock return.

  1. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  2. Returning to work after laparoscopic myomectomy: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Huff, Keren O; Aref-Adib, Mehrnoosh; Magama, Zwelihle; Vlachodimitropoulou, Evangelia K; Oliver, Reeba; Odejinmi, Funlayo


    Laparoscopic myomectomy offers women many benefits over conventional open surgery, including an expedited recovery and return to employment. Our study evaluates the time taken for women to return to work after laparoscopic myomectomy and identifies factors prolonging recovery to > 8 weeks. We prospectively evaluated 94 women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy by a single surgeon between January 2012 and March 2015. Women had standardized preoperative counseling and completed a validated return to work questionnaire 3 months postoperatively via telephone, post or in clinic. In all, 71/94 (75.5%) women completed the questionnaire. Results were analyzed comparing women who returned to work in ≤ 8 weeks [43/71 (60.6%)] with those who returned > 8 weeks postoperatively [28/71 (39.4%)]. A higher proportion of Asian and Caucasian women returned to work in ≤ 8 weeks (24/29) compared with black African and Caribbean women (19/42) (p = 0.003). Mean number of fibroids removed (2.59 and 5.75, respectively) was the only significantly differing factor between the two groups (p = 0.004). There was a significant difference in body mass index (BMI) and time to return to normal activity between the ≤ 8-week and > 8-week groups (p = 0.027, p = 0.011, respectively). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that BMI and time to return to normal activity were the only factors prolonging recovery to > 8 weeks (p = 0.039, p = 0.015, respectively). Time to return to normal activity and BMI significantly influenced the time taken for women to work after laparoscopic myomectomy. Further data would support clinicians in counseling women appropriately and optimizing their postoperative return to employment. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Occupational health care return-to-work practices for workers with job burnout. (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Riitta; Saaranen, Terhi; Räsänen, Kimmo


    Occupational health care supports return to work in cases of burnout; however, there is little research on return-to-work practices. To describe occupational health care return-to-work practices for workers with burnout and to identify potential for the development of the practices. Open-ended interviews and essays were used to collect data from 25 occupational health care professionals. A qualitative content analysis method was used. Occupational health care was involved in the return-to-work support in the off-work, work re-entry and maintenance phases during the return-to-work process. However, occupational health care had no influence in the advancement phase. The key return-to-work actions were: (i) defining burnout, (ii) supporting disengagement from work, (iii) supporting recovery, (iv) determining the return-to-work goal, (v) supporting re-engagement with work, (vi) monitoring the job-person match, (vii) re-evaluating the return-to-work goal, (viii) supporting the maintenance of the achieved return-to-work goal, and, where appropriate, (ix) supporting an alternative return-to-work goal. There were varied return-to-work practices among the occupational health care centers evaluated. The occupational health care return-to-work practices for workers with burnout are described with recommendations to further develop common practice guidelines.

  4. Framework for resilience in material supply chains, with a case study from the 2010 Rare Earth Crisis. (United States)

    Sprecher, Benjamin; Daigo, Ichiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Kleijn, Rene; Vos, Matthijs; Kramer, Gert Jan


    In 2010, Chinese export restrictions caused the price of the rare earth element neodymium to increase by a factor of 10, only to return to almost normal levels in the following months. This despite the fact that the restrictions were not lifted. The significant price peak shows that this material supply chain was only weakly resistant to a major supply disruption. However, the fact that prices rapidly returned to lower levels implies a certain resilience. With the help of a novel approach, based on resilience theory combined with a material flow analysis (MFA) based representation of the neodymium magnet (NdFeB) supply chain, we show that supply chain resilience is composed of various mechanisms, including (a) resistance, (b) rapidity, and (c) flexibility, that originate from different parts of the supply chain. We make recommendations to improve the capacity of the NdFeB system to deal with future disruptions and discuss potential generalities for the resilience of other material supply chains.

  5. Bond return predictability in expansions and recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther; Jensen, Magnus David Sander

    We document that over the period 1953-2011 US bond returns are predictable in expansionary periods but unpredictable during recessions. This result holds in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses and using both univariate regressions and combination forecasting techniques. A simulation study...... but negative in recessions. The results are also consistent with tests showing that the expectations hypothesis of the term structure holds in recessions but not in expansions. However, the results for bonds are in sharp contrast to results for stocks showing that stock returns are predictable in recessions...... but not in expansions. Thus, our results indicate that there is not a common predictive pattern of stock and bond returns associated with the state of the economy....

  6. Early Earth(s) Across Time and Space (United States)

    Mojzsis, S.


    The geochemical and cosmochemical record of our solar system is the baseline for exploring the question: "when could life appear on a world similar to our own?" Data arising from direct analysis of the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals from the first 500 Myr of Earth history - termed the Hadean Eon - inform us about the timing for the establishment of a habitable silicate world. Liquid water is the key medium for life. The origin of water, and its interaction with the crust as revealed in the geologic record, guides our exploration for a cosmochemically Earth-like planets. From the time of primary planetary accretion to the start of the continuous rock record on Earth at ca. 3850 million years ago, our planet experienced a waning bolide flux that partially or entirely wiped out surface rocks, vaporized oceans, and created transient serpentinizing atmospheres. Arguably, "Early Earths" across the galaxy may start off as ice planets due to feeble insolation from their young stars, occasionally punctuated by steam atmospheres generated by cataclysmic impacts. Alternatively, early global environments conducive to life spanned from a benign surface zone to deep into crustal rocks and sediments. In some scenarios, nascent biospheres benefit from the exogenous delivery of essential bio-elements via leftovers of accretion, and the subsequent establishment of planetary-scale hydrothermal systems. If what is now known about the early dynamical regime of the Earth serves as any measure of the potential habitability of worlds across space and time, several key boundary conditions emerge. These are: (i) availability and long-term stability of liquid water; (ii) presence of energy resources; (iii) accessibility of organic raw materials; (iv) adequate inventory of radioisotopes to drive internal heating; (v) gross compositional parameters such as mantle/core mass ratio, and (vi) P-T conditions at or near the surface suitable for sustaining biological activity. Life could

  7. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  8. Consumer returns policies with endogenous deadline and supply chain coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Yongjian; Govindan, Kannan


    on consumers' behavior and the pricing and inventory policies of the retailer are systematically investigated. Moreover, based on the analysis of consumer return behavior on a traditional buy-back contract, we present a new differentiated buy-back contract, contingent on return deadline, to coordinate a supply......This paper considers returns policies under which consumers' valuation depends on the refund amount they receive and the length of time theymustwait after the item is returned. Consumers face an uncertain valuation before purchase, and the realization of that purchase's value occurs only after...... chain consisting of an upstream manufacturer and a downstream retailer. Finally, extensions on some specific behavioral factors such as moral hazard, inertia return, and external effect are investigated....

  9. Conditional Relationship Between Beta and Return in the US Stock Market


    Bing XIAO


    According to the CAPM, risk is measured by the beta, and the relation between required expected return and beta is linear. This paper examines the conditional relationship between beta and return in the US stock market. The conditional covariances and variances used to estimate beta are modeled as an ARCH process. The beta return relationship is tested upon the sign of the excess market return. The implication of the sign of the excess market return follows Morelli (2011). This study shows th...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Cecilia


    Full Text Available probability that cash flows or return will vary from expectations. Standard corporate finance theory supposes that a company chooses a capital structure that maximizes company value. A fundamental idea in finance is the relationship between risk and return. The greater the amount of risk that an investor is willing to take on, the greater the potential return. The reason for this is that investors need to be compensated for taking on additional risk. Why put capital at significant risk for a return that is no higher than the return on government bonds? Or expect higher than averages returns from low-risk activities? It is impossible to separate measuring the performance of a company from the risks that the management takes to achieve it.In most aspects of company operations, risk assessment plays a different but equally important, role. It is an integral part of informed decision taking in achieving performance. Risk assessment is involved from the highest level in strategic choices about what activities to undertake, what assets to buy or what markets to serve all the way to detailed operational decisions about whether to accept payment in foreign currencies and the adequacy of safety measures in the workplace. It plays a part whether or not an organization is aware of managing risk and many managers feel that their instinct and judgment are enough – a behavior risk. The danger is that this leaves company risk unplanned and unmanaged. This paper proposes a framework where we realized a study cases: we test if return on assets and return on equity has influence on the risk, both on long and short term. For this purposes, we conduct an empirical research that covers 59 selected companies traded at the Bucharest Stock Exchange within the time period 1999-2010. For this study our results reveal that dynamic global risk can be associated to a low intensity with total assets performance of the company’s. Investments efficiency and the

  11. Rare earths and rare earth alloys electrolytic preparation process and device for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, F.; Barthole, G.


    Electrolysis of a molten salt of rare earth or rare earth alloy for preparation of the metal or alloy is described. The molten salt bath comprises at least a rare earth chloride, at least an alkaline or alkaline earth chloride and at least an alkaline or alkaline earth fluoride [fr

  12. Returning home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte


    flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices......, and by comparing three groups of educational migrants, the migrants’ reasons for staying connected and sending remittances are scrutinized. The paper finds that although educational migrants do not generate extensive economic remittances for local development in Nepal, they stay connected to their rural homes...

  13. Energy-loss return gate via liquid dielectric polarization. (United States)

    Kim, Taehun; Yong, Hyungseok; Kim, Banseok; Kim, Dongseob; Choi, Dukhyun; Park, Yong Tae; Lee, Sangmin


    There has been much research on renewable energy-harvesting techniques. However, owing to increasing energy demands, significant energy-related issues remain to be solved. Efforts aimed at reducing the amount of energy loss in electric/electronic systems are essential for reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. Here, we design an energy-loss return gate system that reduces energy loss from electric/electronic systems by utilizing the polarization of liquid dielectrics. The use of a liquid dielectric material in the energy-loss return gate generates electrostatic potential energy while reducing the dielectric loss of the electric/electronic system. Hence, an energy-loss return gate can make breakthrough impacts possible by amplifying energy-harvesting efficiency, lowering the power consumption of electronics, and storing the returned energy. Our study indicates the potential for enhancing energy-harvesting technologies for electric/electronics systems, while increasing the widespread development of these systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Baroroh


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to examine empirical test the long term equilibrium and simulteneous relationship between macroeconomics variables to stock return in Indonesia and to observe stock return response because shock/innovation of inflation, SBI discount rate and exchange rate Rupiah to US dollar. The data sample used in this study are monthly time series data from 2003.1 – 2010.6. Those data are SBI discount rate, inflation (CPI, exchange rate Rupiah to US dollar, money supply and stock return (IHSG. A method of analysis in this study are Granger Causality Test and Cointegration test. The empirical results shows that SBI discount rate, inflation (CPI, and exchange rate Rupiah to US dollar have causality relationship to stock return.. The cointegration test indicates that among research variables there is long term equilibrium and simultaneous relationshipDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v2i2.2421

  15. Global time-size distribution of volcanic eruptions on Earth. (United States)

    Papale, Paolo


    Volcanic eruptions differ enormously in their size and impacts, ranging from quiet lava flow effusions along the volcano flanks to colossal events with the potential to affect our entire civilization. Knowledge of the time and size distribution of volcanic eruptions is of obvious relevance for understanding the dynamics and behavior of the Earth system, as well as for defining global volcanic risk. From the analysis of recent global databases of volcanic eruptions extending back to more than 2 million years, I show here that the return times of eruptions with similar magnitude follow an exponential distribution. The associated relative frequency of eruptions with different magnitude displays a power law, scale-invariant distribution over at least six orders of magnitude. These results suggest that similar mechanisms subtend to explosive eruptions from small to colossal, raising concerns on the theoretical possibility to predict the magnitude and impact of impending volcanic eruptions.

  16. 20 CFR 216.24 - Relinquishment of rights to return to work. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relinquishment of rights to return to work... of rights to return to work. (a) What return to work rights must be given up. Before an individual... work for any railroad employer. (b) When right to return to work is ended. An individual's right to...

  17. Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain


    Mercier, Marion; David, Anda; Mahia, Ramón; De Arce, Rafael


    Using the ECM2 survey data on Ecuadorian migrants returning from Spain, we investigate the determinants of reintegration upon return. We study how the migration experience, but also the before- and after-migration characteristics, correlate with migrants’ outcomes upon return. We adopt a broad conception of reintegration, considering jointly labour market-related outcomes that proxy for structural reintegration and subjective indicators that provide insights on sociocultural reintegration. Th...

  18. A study on relationship between the return of value/growth portfolio and market return: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Mashhadi Ramezanali


    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the returns of two value and growth portfolios and the return of market on 15 selected firms on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2011. The study divides the firms into two groups in terms of the ratios of price on earning as well as price on book value into two groups of value and growth portfolios. Using some regression analysis, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between value portfolio and market return when the market is on the upside but this relationship is not meaningful during the bear session. The results indicate that during the bull sessions, value portfolios provide better investment opportunities than growth ones do.

  19. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.


    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  20. The effects of self-generated and applied magnetic fields on the computation of flow over a Mars return aerobrake (United States)

    Palmer, Grant


    A CFD technique is developed to calculate the electromagnetic phenomena simultaneously with the fluid flow in the shock layer over an axisymmetric blunt body in a thermal-equilibrium chemical-nonequilibrium environment. The flowfield is solved using an explicit time-marching, first-order spatially accurate scheme. The electromagnetic phenomena are coupled to the real-gas flow solver through an iterative procedure. The electromagnetic terms introduce a strong stiffness, which was overcome by using significantly smaller time steps for the electromagnetic conservation equation. The technique is applied in calculating the flow over a Mars return aerobrake vehicle entering the Earth's atmosphere. For the case where no external field is applied, the electromagnetic effects have little impact on the flowfield.

  1. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned to...

  2. Risk-Return Trade-Off for European Stock Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Savva, Christos S.

    This paper adopts dynamic factor models with macro-finance predictors to revisit the intertemporal risk-return relation in five large European stock markets. We identify country specific, Euro area, and global factors to determine the conditional moments of returns considering the role of higher...

  3. Accounting for Heterogeneous Returns in Sequential Schooling Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamarro, G.


    This paper presents a method for estimating returns to schooling that takes into account that returns may be heterogeneous among agents and that educational decisions are made sequentially.A sequential decision model is interesting because it explicitly considers that the level of education of each

  4. Electromagnetic model of a lightning dart leader in the earth atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, A.V.; Losseva, T.V.


    The fundamentally new approach to the lightning dart leader structure investigation is suggested, which is connected with the charge separation and the appearance of the Hall potential in the current-channel magnetic field of the lightning dart leader. Generation of the strong radial electric field provides both the relativistic electron drift along the lightning channel and the breakdown in the Earth atmosphere at the front of the propagating filament. The magnetic selfinsulation in the current channel ensures the propagation of the current filament with the relativistic electrons up to the Earth surface. After this stage the reflected magnetic selfinsulation wave realizes the return stroke stage of the lightning that is accompanied by the strong gas heating in the lightning channel. The current data in the lightning dart leader channel (4-11 kA) and the range of the X-ray emission from the lightning channel (30-250 keV), which are obtained in in-situ observations, are in reasonably good agreement with the estimates made in the frame of this model. Profiles of magnetic field Bq, electron concentration ne, electron velocity v ez and radial electric field E r in current channel for the current value 11 kA are presented. (author)

  5. Price returns efficiency of the Shanghai A-Shares (United States)

    Long, Wang Jiang; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Samsudin, Humaida Banu


    Beta measured from the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is the most widely used risk to estimate expected return. In this paper factors that influence Shanghai A-share stock return based on CAPM are explored and investigated. Price data of 312 companies listed on Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) from the year 2000 to 2011 are investigated. This study employed the Fama-MacBeth cross-sectional method to avoid weakness of traditional CAPM. In addition, this study improves the model by adjusting missing data. Findings of this study justifies that systematic risk can explain the portfolios' returns of China SSE stock market.

  6. The Rate of Return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program. (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Savelyev, Peter A; Yavitz, Adam


    This paper estimates the rate of return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, an early intervention program targeted toward disadvantaged African-American youth. Estimates of the rate of return to the Perry program are widely cited to support the claim of substantial economic benefits from preschool education programs. Previous studies of the rate of return to this program ignore the compromises that occurred in the randomization protocol. They do not report standard errors. The rates of return estimated in this paper account for these factors. We conduct an extensive analysis of sensitivity to alternative plausible assumptions. Estimated annual social rates of return generally fall between 7-10 percent, with most estimates substantially lower than those previously reported in the literature. However, returns are generally statistically significantly different from zero for both males and females and are above the historical return on equity. Estimated benefit-to-cost ratios support this conclusion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nurul Huda


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effect of financial performances of Economic Value Added (EVA, Market Value Added (MVA as well as financial ratios (Fixed Asset Turnover, Return on Investment, Debt to Equity Ratio, Price to Book Value, Total Asset Turnover on Stock Return. This study used the data of six representative palm oil companies which were listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The analysis models that were used included three multiple regression equations for EVA, MVA and Stock Return. The results indicate that DER significantly influences EVA and PBV, and TATO significantly influences MVA. Return Shares are significantly only affected by EVA. The company's fundamentals, especially EVA, PBV, TATO and DER were used by investors to predict the Stock Return in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2009–2014 period. This study confirmed the previous studies that these variables are involved on regression model to predict the Stock Return. The results of the analysis of the company's financial performance with EVA and MVA and financial fundamental variables provide a better alternative picture on the achievement of the company so that the benefits in investing in the palm oil business in Indonesia can be maximally managed.Keywords: Indonesia Stock Exchange, investor, market, multiple regression, stock

  8. Weibo sentiments and stock return: A time-frequency view. (United States)

    Xu, Yingying; Liu, Zhixin; Zhao, Jichang; Su, Chiwei


    This study provides new insights into the relationships between social media sentiments and the stock market in China. Based on machine learning, we classify microblogs posted on Sina Weibo, a Twitter's variant in China into five detailed sentiments of anger, disgust, fear, joy, and sadness. Using wavelet analysis, we find close positive linkages between sentiments and the stock return, which have both frequency and time-varying features. Five detailed sentiments are positively related to the stock return for certain periods, particularly since October 2014 at medium to high frequencies of less than ten trading days, when the stock return is undergoing significant fluctuations. Sadness appears to have a closer relationship with the stock return than the other four sentiments. As to the lead-lag relationships, the stock return causes Weibo sentiments rather than reverse for most of the periods with significant linkages. Compared with polarity sentiments (negative vs. positive), detailed sentiments provide more information regarding relationships between Weibo sentiments and the stock market. The stock market exerts positive effects on bullishness and agreement of microblogs. Meanwhile, agreement leads the stock return in-phase at the frequency of approximately 40 trading days, indicating that less disagreement improves certainty about the stock market.

  9. Weibo sentiments and stock return: A time-frequency view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xu

    Full Text Available This study provides new insights into the relationships between social media sentiments and the stock market in China. Based on machine learning, we classify microblogs posted on Sina Weibo, a Twitter's variant in China into five detailed sentiments of anger, disgust, fear, joy, and sadness. Using wavelet analysis, we find close positive linkages between sentiments and the stock return, which have both frequency and time-varying features. Five detailed sentiments are positively related to the stock return for certain periods, particularly since October 2014 at medium to high frequencies of less than ten trading days, when the stock return is undergoing significant fluctuations. Sadness appears to have a closer relationship with the stock return than the other four sentiments. As to the lead-lag relationships, the stock return causes Weibo sentiments rather than reverse for most of the periods with significant linkages. Compared with polarity sentiments (negative vs. positive, detailed sentiments provide more information regarding relationships between Weibo sentiments and the stock market. The stock market exerts positive effects on bullishness and agreement of microblogs. Meanwhile, agreement leads the stock return in-phase at the frequency of approximately 40 trading days, indicating that less disagreement improves certainty about the stock market.

  10. Weibo sentiments and stock return: A time-frequency view (United States)

    Liu, Zhixin; Zhao, Jichang; Su, Chiwei


    This study provides new insights into the relationships between social media sentiments and the stock market in China. Based on machine learning, we classify microblogs posted on Sina Weibo, a Twitter’s variant in China into five detailed sentiments of anger, disgust, fear, joy, and sadness. Using wavelet analysis, we find close positive linkages between sentiments and the stock return, which have both frequency and time-varying features. Five detailed sentiments are positively related to the stock return for certain periods, particularly since October 2014 at medium to high frequencies of less than ten trading days, when the stock return is undergoing significant fluctuations. Sadness appears to have a closer relationship with the stock return than the other four sentiments. As to the lead-lag relationships, the stock return causes Weibo sentiments rather than reverse for most of the periods with significant linkages. Compared with polarity sentiments (negative vs. positive), detailed sentiments provide more information regarding relationships between Weibo sentiments and the stock market. The stock market exerts positive effects on bullishness and agreement of microblogs. Meanwhile, agreement leads the stock return in-phase at the frequency of approximately 40 trading days, indicating that less disagreement improves certainty about the stock market. PMID:28672026

  11. Multivariate return periods of sea storms for coastal erosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella


    Full Text Available The erosion of a beach depends on various storm characteristics. Ideally, the risk associated with a storm would be described by a single multivariate return period that is also representative of the erosion risk, i.e. a 100 yr multivariate storm return period would cause a 100 yr erosion return period. Unfortunately, a specific probability level may be associated with numerous combinations of storm characteristics. These combinations, despite having the same multivariate probability, may cause very different erosion outcomes. This paper explores this ambiguity problem in the context of copula based multivariate return periods and using a case study at Durban on the east coast of South Africa. Simulations were used to correlate multivariate return periods of historical events to return periods of estimated storm induced erosion volumes. In addition, the relationship of the most-likely design event (Salvadori et al., 2011 to coastal erosion was investigated. It was found that the multivariate return periods for wave height and duration had the highest correlation to erosion return periods. The most-likely design event was found to be an inadequate design method in its current form. We explore the inclusion of conditions based on the physical realizability of wave events and the use of multivariate linear regression to relate storm parameters to erosion computed from a process based model. Establishing a link between storm statistics and erosion consequences can resolve the ambiguity between multivariate storm return periods and associated erosion return periods.

  12. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.


    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  13. Magnetic, dielectric and microwave absorption properties of rare earth doped Ni–Co and Ni–Co–Zn spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stergiou, Charalampos, E-mail:


    In this article we analyze the electromagnetic properties of rare earth substituted Ni–Co and Ni–Co–Zn cubic ferrites in the microwave band, along with their performance as microwave absorbing materials. Ceramic samples with compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2−x}R{sub x}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2−x}R{sub x}O{sub 4} (R=Y and La, x=0, 0.02), fabricated with the solid state reaction method, were characterized with regard to the complex permeability μ*(f) and permittivity ε*(f) up to 20 GHz. The rare earth substitutions basically affect the microwave μ*(f) spectra and the dynamic magnetization mechanisms of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. Key parameters for this effect are the reduced magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the created crystal inhomogeneities. Moreover, permittivity is increased with the Y and La content, due to the enhancement of the dielectric orientation polarization. Regarding the electromagnetic wave attenuation, the prepared ferrites exhibit narrowband return losses (RL) by virtue of the cancellation of multiple reflections, when their thickness equals an odd multiple of quarter-wavelength. Interestingly, the zero-reflection conditions are satisfied in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic resonance. As the rare earth doping shifts this mechanism to lower frequencies, loss peaks with RL>46 dB occur at 4.1 GHz and 5 GHz for Y and La-doped Ni–Co–Zn spinels, whereas peaks with RL>40 dB appear at 18 GHz and 19 GHz for Y and La-doped Ni–Co spinels, respectively. The presented experimental findings underline the potential of cubic ferrites with high Co concentration in the suppression of electromagnetic reflections well above the 1 GHz region. - Highlights: • Due to cation distribution, magnetic anisotropy drops in Y and La doped samples. • Microwave permeability spectra shift to lower frequencies with rare earth doping. • Permittivity is increased due to crystal modifications

  14. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie


    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashief Hamam


    Full Text Available Rapid development in Islamic financial industry has not been supported by sharia monetary policy instruments. This study looks at the possibility of sharia returns as the instrument. Using both error correction model and vector error correction model to estimate the data from 2002(1 to 2010(12, this paper finds that sharia return has the same effect as the interest rate in the demand for money. The shock effect of sharia return on broad money supply, Gross Domestic Product, and Consumer Price Index is greater than that of interest rate. In addition, these three variables are more quickly become stable following the shock of sharia return. Keywords: Sharia return, islamic financial system, vector error correction modelJEL classification numbers: E52, G15

  16. The "Earth Physics" Workshops Offered by the Earth Science Education Unit (United States)

    Davies, Stephen


    Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science…

  17. Past and Future Sources of Commercial Real Estate Returns


    Joseph L. Pagliari, Jr.; James R. Webb


    Historical commercial real estate returns are attributed to three fundamental factors: initial current yield, growth in net operating income, and changes in going-in versus going-out capitalization rates (i.e., pricing movements). Separating returns into these three factors appears to provide more insightful information than the traditionally reported income and appreciation returns. Using this three-factor model, a two-dimensional matrix of projected ten-year real yields is estimated for eac...

  18. Cesium return program lessons learned FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, E.P.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is returning leased cesium capsules from IOTECH, Incorporated (IOTECH), Northglenn, Colorado, and the Applied Radiant Energy Company (ARECO), Lynchburg, Virginia, to the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) on the Hanford Site, to ensure safe management and storage, pending final capsule disposition. Preparations included testing and modifying the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask, preparing an Environmental Assessment (EA), development of a comprehensive Transportation Plan, coordination with the Western Governors' Association (WGA) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR), and interface with the public and media. Additional activities include contracting for a General Electric (GE) 2000 cask to expedite IOTECH capsule returns, and coordination with Eastern and Midwestern States to revise the transportation plan in support of ARECO capsule returns

  19. Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM) (United States)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny


    Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.

  20. Multifractal analysis of Moroccan family business stock returns (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim


    In this paper, long-range temporal correlations at different scales in Moroccan family business stock returns are investigated. For comparison purpose, presence of multifractality is also investigated in Casablanca Stock Exchange (CSE) major indices: MASI which is the all shares index and MADEX which is the index of most liquid shares. It is found that return series of both family business companies and major stock market indices show strong evidence of multifractality. In particular, empirical results reveal that short (long) fluctuations in family business stock returns are less (more) persistent (anti-persistent) than short fluctuations in market indices. In addition, both serial correlation and distribution characteristics significantly influence the strength of the multifractal spectrums of CSE and family business stocks returns. Furthermore, results from multifractal spectrum analysis suggest that family business stocks are less risky. Thus, such differences in price dynamics could be exploited by investors and forecasters in active portfolio management.

  1. Beautiful Earth: Inspiring Native American students in Earth Science through Music, Art and Science (United States)

    Casasanto, V.; Rock, J.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Angell, D.; Beautiful Earth


    The Beautiful Earth program, awarded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), is a live multi-media performance at partner science centers linked with hands-on workshops featuring Earth scientists and Native American experts. It aims to inspire, engage and educate diverse students in Earth science through an experience of viewing the Earth from space as one interconnected whole, as seen through the eyes of astronauts. The informal education program is an outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA Living Atlas Experience ( performed across the globe since 2008 and following the successful Earth Day education events in 2009 and 2010 with NASA's DLN (Digital Learning Network) Beautiful Earth takes a new approach to teaching, by combining live music and data visualizations, Earth Science with indigenous perspectives of the Earth, and hands-on interactive workshops. The program will utilize the emotionally inspiring multi-media show as a springboard to inspire participants to learn more about Earth systems and science. Native Earth Ways (NEW) will be the first module in a series of three "Beautiful Earth" experiences, that will launch the national tour at a presentation in October 2011 at the MOST science museum in collaboration with the Onandaga Nation School in Syracuse, New York. The NEW Module will include Native American experts to explain how they study and conserve the Earth in their own unique ways along with hands-on activities to convey the science which was seen in the show. In this first pilot run of the module, 110 K-12 students with faculty and family members of the Onandaga Nations School will take part. The goal of the program is to introduce Native American students to Earth Sciences and STEM careers, and encourage them to study these sciences and become responsible stewards of the Earth. The second workshop presented to participants will be the

  2. Impact of the tick-size on financial returns and correlations (United States)

    Münnix, Michael C.; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas


    We demonstrate that the lowest possible price change (tick-size) has a large impact on the structure of financial return distributions. It induces a microstructure as well as possibly altering the tail behavior. On small return intervals, the tick-size can distort the calculation of correlations. This especially occurs on small return intervals and thus contributes to the decay of the correlation coefficient towards smaller return intervals (Epps effect). We study this behavior within a model and identify the effect in market data. Furthermore, we present a method to compensate this purely statistical error.

  3. Return to the Workforce After First Hospitalization for Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Wong, Chih; Kragholm, Kristian


    Background: Return to work is important financially, as a marker of functional status and for self-esteem in patients developing chronic illness. We examined return to work after first heart failure (HF) hospitalization. Methods: By individual-level linkage of nationwide Danish registries, we...... with lower chance of return to work. Conclusions: Patients in the workforce before HF hospitalization had low mortality but high risk of detachment from the workforce 1 year later. Young age, male sex, and a higher level of education were predictors of return to work....

  4. Raising awareness for research on earth walls, and earth scientific aspects (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Baas, Henk; Groenewoudt, Bert; Peen, Charlotte


    A conference to raise awareness In the Netherlands, little research on earth walls has been done. To improve attention for earth walls, a number of organisations, including Geoheritage NL, organized a conference at the RCE, the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The conference* presented a state-of-the-art of research done. The book with the presentations, and extra case studies added, was published in December 2012. The book concludes with a research action list, including earth science research, and can be downloaded freely from the internet. It has English summaries. The earth science aspects Historical earth walls do not only add cultural value to a landscape, but also geodiversity value. Apart from geomorphological aspects, the walls contain information about past land- and climate conditions: - They cover up a former topography, a past landscape. A relevant source of scientific information where lands are levelled, as is the case in many parts of The Netherlands; - The soil formation under the earth wall is a reference soil. The soil formation in the top of the wall gives insight in the rate of soil formation in relationship with the age and parent material of the wall; - The soil profiles of different age have ecological significance. Older walls with a more pronounced soil formation often hold forest flora that has disappeared from the surrounding environment, such as historical bush or tree species, autogenetic DNA material or a specific soil fauna; - The materials in the earth walls tell about the process of wall-building. Paleosols and sedimentary structures in the earth walls, in the gullies and colluvial fans along the walls contain information about past land management and climate. - The eroded appearance of the earth walls is part of their history, and contain information about past management and land conditions, has ecological relevance, for example for insects, and is often visually more interesting. Insight in the rates of erosion are

  5. Investigating the excess return of contrarian strategy in the active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obtaining the appropriate rate of return is the most important expectation of investors in the investment process and different statategies have been used by investors to gain a required rate of return. Contrarian strategy is one the strategies used recently to predict the return of stock using the historical information. Contrarian ...

  6. 27 CFR 24.295 - Return of unmerchantable wine to bond. (United States)


    ... wine to bond. 24.295 Section 24.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Return of Unmerchantable Wine to Bond § 24.295 Return of unmerchantable wine to bond. (a) General. Wine produced in the...

  7. Time-bound product returns and optimal order quantities for mass merchandisers (United States)

    Yu, Min-Chun; Goh, Mark


    The return guidelines for a mass merchandiser usually entail a grace period, a markdown on the original price and the condition of the returned items. This research utilises eight scenarios formed from the variation of possible return guidelines to model the cost functions of single-product categories for a typical mass merchandiser. Models for the eight scenarios are developed and solved with the objective of maximising the expected profit so as to obtain closed form solutions for the associated optimal order quantity. An illustrative example and sensitivity analysis are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Our results show that merchandisers who allow for returns within a time window, albeit with a penalty cost imposed and the returned products being recoverable, should plan for larger order amounts as such products do not affect the business. Similarly, the merchandisers who allow for returns beyond a grace period and without any penalty charges, but where the returned products are irrecoverable, should manage their stocks in this category more judiciously by ordering as little as possible so as to limit the number of returns and carefully consider the effects of their customer satisfaction-guaranteed policies, if any.

  8. A New Method to Calculate Internal Rate of Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azadeh zandi


    Full Text Available A number of methods have been developed to choose the best capital investment projects such as net present value, internal rate of return and etc. Internal rate of return method is probably the most popular method among managers and investors. But despite the popularity there are serious drawbacks and limitations in this method. After decades of efforts made by economists and experts to improve the method and its shortcomings, Magni in 2010 has revealed a new approach that can solves the most of internal rate of return method problems. This paper present a new method which is originated from Magni’s approach but has much more simple calculations and can resolve all the drawbacks of internal rate of return method.

  9. The VIX, the Variance Premium, and Expected Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterrieder, Daniela Maria; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel; Vera-Valdés, Eduardo


    . These problems are eliminated if risk is captured by the variance premium (VP) instead; it is unobservable, however. We propose a 2SLS estimator that produces consistent estimates without observing the VP. Using this method, we find a positive risk–return trade-off and long-run return predictability. Our...

  10. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    -2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity...

  11. Extraction of rare earths from iron-rich rare earth deposits


    Bisaka, K.; Thobadi, I.C.; Pawlik, C.


    Rare earth metals are classified as critical metals by the United Nations, as they have found wide application in the fabrication of magnets, particularly those used in green energy technologies which mitigate global warming. Processing of ores containing rare earth elements is complex, and differs according to the nature of each ore. In the conventional process, run of mine (ROM) ores are processed in a physical separation plant to produce a concentrate from which rare earth elements are ext...

  12. Relationship between the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth and Cambrian explosion (United States)

    Maruyama, S.; Yoshihara, A.; Isozaki, Y.


    Origin of snowball Earth has been debated in terms of greenhouse gas (e.g., Hoffman and Schrag), obliqueness of Earth's rotation axis (Williams, 1975), true polar wander (Evans, 2003), Galactic cosmic ray radiation (Shaviv and Veizer, 2003; Svensmark, 2006), or weakened geomagnetism (Maruyama and Yoshihara, 2003). A major difficulty for the greenhouse gas hypothesis is the on-off switch causing decrease and increase of appropriate amounts of CO2 by plume- and plate tectonics, and also in available amount of CO2 in atmosphere to be consistent with the observations. In contrast, the cosmic ray radiation models due to the star burst peaked at 2.5- 2.1 Ga and 1.4-0.8 Ga can explain on-off switch more easily than the greenhouse gas model. Cosmic ray radiations, however, must be modified by the geomagnetic intensity, fluctuating 150"% to cause the snowball Earth. Time difference between the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth and Cambrian explosion is as large as 250 millions years, and this refuses their direct close-relationship. Role of frequent mass extinctions, i.e., 8 times during 100 m.y. from 585 Ma to 488 Ma, during the Ediacaran and Cambrian, has been proposed (Zhu et al., 2007). This frequency is one order of magnitude higher compared to that in the post-Ordovician time. Yet, the Cambrian explosion cannot be explained by mass extinction which replaced the vacant niches shortly after the mass extinction and never created a new animal with a new body plan. A new model proposed herein is derived from weakened geomagnetism and resultant extensive cosmic radiation to alter gene and genome for a long period over advancement of low magnetic intensity and cosmic radiations (Svensmark, 2006) from 1.2-0.8Ga. As to the new body plans of animals, it took an appreciably long time to prepare all 34 genometypes before the apparent Cambrian explosion. Geochemically extreme conditions and widened shallow marine environment on continental shelf by the return-flow of sweater into

  13. Return to play after infectious mononucleosis. (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan A; Smith, Julie Anne


    Infectious mononucleosis is a disease primarily of adolescence and early adulthood. The risk of splenic injury and chronic fatigue make return-to-play decisions a challenge for the clinician caring for athletes with infectious mononucleosis. Data were obtained from the PubMed and MEDLINE databases through December 2012 by searching for epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, management, and the role of the spleen in infectious mononucleosis. Clinical review. Level 4. Infectious mononucleosis is commonly encountered in young athletes. Its disease pattern is variable and can affect multiple organ systems. Supportive care is the cornerstone, with little role for medications such as corticosteroids. Physical examination is unreliable for the spleen, and ultrasound imaging has limitations in its ability to guide return-to-play decisions. Exercise does not appear to place the young athlete at risk for chronic fatigue, but determining who is at risk for persistent symptoms is a challenge. Return-to-play decisions for the athlete with infectious mononucleosis need to be individualized because of the variable disease course and lack of evidence-based guidelines.

  14. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns. (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred


    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  15. Preventing customer defection and stimulating return of the lost customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senić Radoslav


    Full Text Available Customers represent company's most valuable asset. Company can assure its survival, further growth and development by retaining existing, attracting new and returning lost customers. Retaining existing, loyal customers is the most profitable business activity, attracting new ones is the most expensive, while returning lost and frequently forgotten customers is a type of business activity that still generates modest interest among researchers and practitioners. So far, marketing strategies have been mainly directed towards the first two categories of customers. The objective of this paper is dedicated to customer defection and returning lost customers. Paper discusses customer relationship life-cycle and the significance of managing customer return within it, types of customer defections, the process of managing return, as well as, the reasons that led to customer defection.

  16. Economic Return of Clinical Trials Performed Under the Pediatric Exclusivity Program (United States)

    Li, Jennifer S.; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Grabowski, Henry G.; Reid, Elizabeth D.; Mangum, Barry; Schulman, Kevin A.; Goldsmith, John V.; Murphy, M. Dianne; Califf, Robert M.; Benjamin, Daniel K.


    Context In 1997, Congress authorized the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to grant 6 month extensions of marketing rights through the Pediatric Exclusivity program if industry sponsors complete FDA-requested pediatric trials. The program has been praised for creating incentives for studies in children; it has been criticized as a “windfall” to the innovator drug industry. This critique has been a substantial part of Congressional debate on the program, which is due to sunset in 2007. Objective To quantify the economic return to industry for completing Pediatric Exclusivity. Design Cohort study of programs conducted for Pediatric Exclusivity. We selected 9 drugs that were granted Pediatric Exclusivity. From the final study reports submitted to FDA, we obtained key elements of the clinical trial design and study operations. We estimated the cost of performing each study and converted these into estimates of after-tax cash outflows. We obtained 3-year market sales and converted these into estimates of after-tax cash inflows based upon 6 months of additional market protection. We then calculated the net economic return (cash inflows less outflows) and ratio net return to costs (net economic return divided by cash outflows) for each product. Main Outcome Measures Net economic return and ratio of net return to cost. Results The indications studied reflected a broad representation of the program: asthma, tumors, attention deficit disorder, hypertension, depression/generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux, bacterial infection, and bone mineralization. The distribution of net economic return for 6 months of exclusivity varied substantially among products [net return ranged from (−)$8.9 million to (+)$507.9 million; ratio of return to cost ranged from −0.68 to 73.6] Conclusions The economic return for pediatric exclusivity is highly variable. Pediatric Exclusivity, as an incentive to complete much-needed clinical trials in children, can

  17. 26 CFR 301.6031(a)-1 - Return of partnership income. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of partnership income. 301.6031(a)-1....6031(a)-1 Return of partnership income. For provisions relating to the requirement of returns of partnership income, see § 1.6031(a)-1 of this chapter. [T.D. 8841, 64 FR 61502, Nov. 12, 1999] ...

  18. Return of qualified Sudanese


    Lindsay T McMahon


    With the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005, the new Government of South Sudan began to call for the return of the millions of South Sudanese IDP s and refugees. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) has developed a programme to help them do so.

  19. Stock return, seasonality and asymmetric conditional volatility in steel & iron subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chirila


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained following the testing of five hypotheses regarding conditional return and volatility of the most listed European stocks in the steel & iron subsector. The following elements of the stocks are analysed: time variation of volatility, seasonality of return and volatility, relationship between return and volatility and volatility asymmetry. The results obtained confirm for all the analyzed stocks the existence of volatility variation in time, the lack of correlation between return and volatility, the existence of asymmetry phenomenon of volatility and the presence in some stocks of the seasonality effect both for return and volatility.

  20. Space Technology 5 Multi-point Measurements of Near-Earth Magnetic Fields: Initial Results (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Le, G.; Strangeway, R. L.; Wang, Y.; Boardsen, S.A.; Moldwin, M. B.; Spence, H. E.


    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) mission successfully placed three micro-satellites in a 300 x 4500 km dawn-dusk orbit on 22 March 2006. Each spacecraft carried a boom-mounted vector fluxgate magnetometer that returned highly sensitive and accurate measurements of the geomagnetic field. These data allow, for the first time, the separation of temporal and spatial variations in field-aligned current (FAC) perturbations measured in low-Earth orbit on time scales of approximately 10 sec to 10 min. The constellation measurements are used to directly determine field-aligned current sheet motion, thickness and current density. In doing so, we demonstrate two multi-point methods for the inference of FAC current density that have not previously been possible in low-Earth orbit; 1) the "standard method," based upon s/c velocity, but corrected for FAC current sheet motion, and 2) the "gradiometer method" which uses simultaneous magnetic field measurements at two points with known separation. Future studies will apply these methods to the entire ST-5 data set and expand to include geomagnetic field gradient analyses as well as field-aligned and ionospheric currents.

  1. China's rare-earth industry (United States)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan


    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  2. Returning to work after cancer: know your rights (United States)

    ... for you. Ability to return to work as long as you return within 12 weeks. Ability to work fewer hours if you need to. If you cannot do ... can before taking leave. You must schedule your health care visits so they disrupt ... long as the company covers the cost. The Affordable ...

  3. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.


    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  4. Mission to Planet Earth (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.


    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  5. Return to sports after ankle fractures: a systematic review. (United States)

    Del Buono, Angelo; Smith, Rebecca; Coco, Manuela; Woolley, Laurence; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola


    This review aims to provide information on the time athletes will take to resume sports activity following ankle fractures. We systematically searched Medline (PubMED), EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane, Sports Discus and Google scholar databases using the combined keywords 'ankle fractures', 'ankle injuries', 'athletes', 'sports', 'return to sport', 'recovery', 'operative fixation', 'pinning', 'return to activity' to identify articles published in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese and Italian. Seven retrospective studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Of the 793 patients, 469 (59%) were males and 324 (41%) were females, and of the 356 ankle fractures we obtained information on, 338 were acute and 18 stress fractures. The general principles were to undertake open reduction and internal fixation of acute fractures, and manage stress fractures conservatively unless a thin fracture line was visible on radiographs. The best timing to return to sports after an acute ankle fracture is still undefined, given the heterogeneity of the outcome measures and results. The time to return to sports after an acute stress injury ranged from 3 to 51 weeks. When facing athletes with ankle fractures, associated injuries have to be assessed and addressed to improve current treatment lines and satisfy future expectancies. The best timing to return to sports after an ankle fracture has not been established yet. The ideas of the return to activity parameter and surgeon databases including sports-related information could induce research to progress.

  6. 21 CFR 1305.18 - Return of unused DEA Forms 222. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of unused DEA Forms 222. 1305.18 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.18 Return of unused DEA Forms 222. If the registration... substances for which the purchaser is registered, the purchaser must return all unused DEA Forms 222 to the...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1, 301...

  8. Neurovestibular and sensorimotor studies in space and Earth benefits. (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott


    This review summarizes what has been learned from studies of human neurovestibular system in weightless conditions, including balance and locomotion, gaze control, vestibular-autonomic function and spatial orientation, and gives some examples of the potential Earth benefits of this research. Results show that when astronauts and cosmonauts return from space flight both the peripheral and central neural processes are physiologically and functionally altered. There are clear distinctions between the virtually immediate adaptive compensations to weightlessness and those that require longer periods of time to adapt. However, little is known to date about the adaptation of sensory-motor functions to long-duration space missions in weightlessness and to the transitions between various reduced gravitational levels, such as on the Moon and Mars. Results from neurovestibular research in space have substantially enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms and characteristics of postural, gaze, and spatial orientation deficits, analogous to clinical cases of labyrinthine-defective function. Also, space neurosciences research has participated in the development and application of significant new technologies, such as video recording and processing of three-dimensional eye movements and posture, hardware for the unencumbered measurement of head and body movement, and procedures for investigating otolith function on Earth. In particular, devices such as centrifugation or off-vertical axis rotation could enhance clinical neurological testing because it provides linear acceleration which specifically stimulates the otolith organs in a frequency range close to natural head and body movement.

  9. EarthServer: Cross-Disciplinary Earth Science Through Data Cube Analytics (United States)

    Baumann, P.; Rossi, A. P.


    The unprecedented increase of imagery, in-situ measurements, and simulation data produced by Earth (and Planetary) Science observations missions bears a rich, yet not leveraged potential for getting insights from integrating such diverse datasets and transform scientific questions into actual queries to data, formulated in a standardized way.The intercontinental EarthServer [1] initiative is demonstrating new directions for flexible, scalable Earth Science services based on innovative NoSQL technology. Researchers from Europe, the US and Australia have teamed up to rigorously implement the concept of the datacube. Such a datacube may have spatial and temporal dimensions (such as a satellite image time series) and may unite an unlimited number of scenes. Independently from whatever efficient data structuring a server network may perform internally, users (scientist, planners, decision makers) will always see just a few datacubes they can slice and dice.EarthServer has established client [2] and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman [3,4], enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, common EO data processing, and general analytics. Services exclusively rely on the open OGC "Big Geo Data" standards suite, the Web Coverage Service (WCS). Conversely, EarthServer has shaped and advanced WCS based on the experience gained. The first phase of EarthServer has advanced scalable array database technology into 150+ TB services. Currently, Petabyte datacubes are being built for ad-hoc and cross-disciplinary querying, e.g. using climate, Earth observation and ocean data.We will present the EarthServer approach, its impact on OGC / ISO / INSPIRE standardization, and its platform technology, rasdaman.References: [1] Baumann, et al. (2015) DOI: 10.1080/17538947.2014.1003106 [2] Hogan, P., (2011) NASA World Wind, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computing for Geospatial Research

  10. Doctors' health: obstacles and enablers to returning to work. (United States)

    Cohen, D; Rhydderch, M; Reading, P; Williams, S


    For doctors returning to work after absence due to ill-health or performance concerns, the obstacles can seem insurmountable. Doctors' perspectives of these obstacles have been investigated. To support them more effectively, the perspectives of organizations that interact with such doctors should also be considered. To explore the obstacles and enablers to doctors' return to work after long-term absence from the perspective of key organizations involved in assessment and support. We identified organizations operating in the field of doctors' health, well-being and performance. We conducted semi-structured, 30-45 min telephone interviews with representatives of the organizations, exploring problems that they had encountered that were experienced by doctors with health or performance concerns returning to work after absence of a month or longer. We analysed our field notes using theoretical analysis. We conducted 11 telephone interviews. Data analysis identified four key themes of obstacles and enablers to returning to work: 'communication', 'return to work', 'finance and funding' and 'relationships and engagement'. Sub-themes relating to the organization and the individual also emerged. Organizations responsible for supporting doctors back to work reported poor communication as a significant obstacle to doctors returning to work after illness. They also reported differences between specialities, employing organizations, occupational health departments and human resources in terms of knowledge and expertise in supporting doctors with complex issues. Clear communication channels, care pathways and support processes, such as workplace advocates, were perceived as strong enablers to return to work for doctors after long-term absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. International Space Station (ISS) External Television (TV) Camera Shutdown Investigation (United States)

    Kichak, Robert; Young, Eric; Pandipati, Chetty; Cooke, Robert


    In the early morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) successfully delivered its precious cargo of cometary particles to the awaiting recovery team at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). As the SRC entered at 12.8 km/s, the fastest manmade object to traverse the atmosphere, a team of researchers imaged the event aboard the NASA DC-8 airborne observatory. At SRC entry, the airplane was at an altitude of 11.9 km positioned within 6.4 km of the prescribed, preferred target view location. The incoming SRC was first acquired approximately 18 seconds (s) after atmospheric interface and tracked for approximately 60 s, an observation period that is roughly centered in time around predicted peak heating.

  12. Does Exposure to Returning SEN Students Harm Peers’ Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    Returning SEN (special educational needs) students from segregated settings to regular class rooms may have spill-over effects on their peers. Using a combination of survey data and data from administrative registers from Denmark, I investigate whether becoming exposed to returning SEN students a...... themselves finds that while reading results are unaffected, returners experience large improvements in math achievement of roughly 65% of a standard deviation over a three year period. Intermediate and advanced math skills are more affected than basic skills....

  13. Measuring the Returns to R&D: The Depreciation Problem


    Bronwyn H. Hall


    Measuring the private returns to R&D requires knowledge of its private depreciation or obsolescence rate, which is inherently variable and responds to competitive pressure. Nevertheless, most of the previous literature has used a constant depreciation rate to construct R&D capital stocks and measure the returns to R&D, a rate usually equal to 15 per cent. In this paper I review the implications of this assumption for the measurement of returns using two different methodologies: one based on t...

  14. Intertemporal Risk-Return Trade-off in Foreign Exchange Rates


    Christiansen, Charlotte


    We investigate the intertemporal risk-return trade-off of foreign ex-change (FX) rates for ten currencies quoted against the USD. For each currency,we use three risk measures simultaneously that pertain to that currency; its re-alized volatility, its realized skewness, and its value-at-risk. We apply monthlyFX excess returns and monthly FX risk measures calculated from daily ob-servations. We find that there is a positive and signi…cant contemporaneousrisk-return trade-off for most currencies...

  15. On fractality and chaos in Moroccan family business stock returns and volatility (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim


    The purpose of this study is to examine existence of fractality and chaos in returns and volatilities of family business companies listed on the Casablanca Stock Exchange (CSE) in Morocco, and also in returns and volatility of the CSE market index. Detrended fluctuation analysis based Hurst exponent and fractionally integrated generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (FIGARCH) model are used to quantify fractality in returns and volatility time series respectively. Besides, the largest Lyapunov exponent is employed to quantify chaos in both time series. The empirical results from sixteen family business companies follow. For return series, fractality analysis show that most of family business returns listed on CSE exhibit anti-persistent dynamics, whilst market returns have persistent dynamics. Besides, chaos tests show that business family stock returns are not chaotic while market returns exhibit evidence of chaotic behaviour. For volatility series, fractality analysis shows that most of family business stocks and market index exhibit long memory in volatility. Furthermore, results from chaos tests show that volatility of family business returns is not chaotic, whilst volatility of market index is chaotic. These results may help understanding irregularities patterns in Moroccan family business stock returns and volatility, and how they are different from market dynamics.

  16. The social interaction of return to work explored from co-workers experiences. (United States)

    Tjulin, Åsa; MacEachen, Ellen; Stiwne, Elinor Edvardsson; Ekberg, Kerstin


    The objective was to explore the role and contribution of co-workers in the return-to-work process. The social interaction of co-workers in the return-to-work process are analysed within the framework of the Swedish national and local employer organisational return-to-work policies. An exploratory qualitative method was used, consisting of open-ended interviews with 33 workplace actors across seven work units. Organisational return-to-work policies were collected from the three public sector employers. The key findings that emerged during analysis showed that some co-workers have a more work-task oriented approach towards the return-to-work process, whilst others had a more social relational approach. In both situations, the social relations worked hand in hand with job tasks (how task were allocated, and how returning workers were supported by others) and could make or break the return-to-work process. A suggestion for improvement of return-to-work models and policies is the need to take into account the social relations amongst workplace actors, especially involving co-workers when planning for return-to-work interventions. Otherwise the proper attention to work arrangements, social communication and the role of co-workers in the return-to-work process might not be seen.

  17. The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns.


    Fama, Eugene F; French, Kenneth R


    Two easily measured variables, size and book-to-market equity, combine to capture the cross-sectional variation in average stock returns associated with market "beta", size, leverage, book-to-market equity, and earnings-price ratios. Moreover, when the tests allow for variation in "beta" that is unrelated to size, t he relation between market "beta" and average return is flat, even when "beta" is the only explanatory variable. Copyright 1992 by American Finance Association.

  18. Return models and dynamic asset allocation strategies


    Shi, Wyanet Wen


    This thesis studies the design of optimal investment strategies. A strategy is considered optimal when it minimizes the variance of terminal portfolio wealth for a given level of expected terminal portfolio wealth, or equivalently, maximizes an investor's utility. We study this issue in two particular situations: when asset returns follow a continuous-time path-independent process, and when they follow a discrete-time path-dependent process. Continuous-time path-independent return mode...

  19. Tail Risk Premia and Return Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Viktor; Xu, Lai

    The variance risk premium, defined as the difference between actual and risk-neutralized expectations of the forward aggregate market variation, helps predict future market returns. Relying on new essentially model-free estimation procedure, we show that much of this predictability may be attribu......The variance risk premium, defined as the difference between actual and risk-neutralized expectations of the forward aggregate market variation, helps predict future market returns. Relying on new essentially model-free estimation procedure, we show that much of this predictability may......-varying economic uncertainty and changes in risk aversion, or market fears, respectively....

  20. Return of qualified Sudanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay T McMahon


    Full Text Available With the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005, the new Government of South Sudan began to call for the return of the millions of South Sudanese IDP s and refugees. The International Organization for Migration (IOM has developed a programme to help them do so.