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Sample records for starburst galaxy ngc

  1. H I observations of the nearest starburst galaxy NGC 253 with the SKA precursor KAT-7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucero, D. M.; Carignan, C.; Elson, E. C.; Randriamampandry, T. H.; Jarrett, T. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Heald, G. H.

    We present H I observations of the Sculptor group starburst spiral galaxy NGC 253, obtained with the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). KAT-7 is a pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array precursor MeerKAT, under construction. The short baselines and low system temperature of the telescope make it very

  2. Dust extinction and X-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 1482

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagshette, N. D.; Pandge, M. B.; Pandey, S. K.; Patil, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    We present the results based on multiwavelength imaging observations of the prominent dust lane starburst galaxy NGC 1482 aimed to investigate the extinction properties of dust existing in the extreme environment. (B-V) colour-index map derived for the starburst galaxy NGC 1482 confirms two prominent dust lanes running along its optical major axis and are found to extend up to ˜11 kpc. In addition to the main lanes, several filamentary structures of dust originating from the central starburst are also evident. Though, the dust is surrounded by exotic environment, the average extinction curve derived for this target galaxy is compatible with the Galactic curve, with RV = 3.05, and imply that the dust grains responsible for the optical extinction in the target galaxy are not really different than the canonical grains in the Milky Way. Our estimate of total dust content of NGC 1482 assuming screening effect of dust is ˜2.7 × 105 M⊙, and provide lower limit due to the fact that our method is not sensitive to the intermix component of dust. Comparison of the observed dust in the galaxy with that supplied by the SNe to the ISM, imply that this supply is not sufficient to account for the observed dust and hence point towards the origin of dust in this galaxy through a merger like event. Our multiband imaging analysis reveals a qualitative physical correspondence between the morphologies of the dust and Hα emission lines as well as diffuse X-ray emission in this galaxy. Spatially resolved spectral analysis of the hot gas along outflows exhibit a gradient in the temperature. Similar gradient was also noticed in the measured values of metallicity, indicating that the gas in the halo is not yet enriched. High resolution, 2-8 keV Chandra image reveals a pair of point sources in the nuclear region with their luminosities equal to 2.27 × 1039 erg s-1 and 9.34 × 1039 erg s-1, and are in excess of the Eddington-limit of 1.5 M⊙ accreting source. Spectral analysis of these

  3. H I observations of the nearest starburst galaxy NGC 253 with the SKA precursor KAT-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, D. M.; Carignan, C.; Elson, E. C.; Randriamampandry, T. H.; Jarrett, T. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Heald, G. H.

    2015-07-01

    We present H I observations of the Sculptor group starburst spiral galaxy NGC 253, obtained with the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). KAT-7 is a pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array precursor MeerKAT, under construction. The short baselines and low system temperature of the telescope make it very sensitive to large-scale, low-surface-brightness emission. The KAT-7 observations detected 33 per cent more flux than previous Very Large Array observations, mainly in the outer parts and in the halo for a total H I mass of 2.1 ± 0.1 × 109 M⊙. H I can be found at large distances perpendicular to the plane out to projected distances of ˜9-10 kpc away from the nucleus and ˜13-14 kpc at the edge of the disc. A novel technique, based on interactive profile fitting, was used to separate the main disc gas from the anomalous (halo) gas. The rotation curve (RC) derived for the H I disc confirms that it is declining in the outer parts, as seen in previous optical Fabry-Perot measurements. As for the anomalous component, its RC has a very shallow gradient in the inner parts and turns over at the same radius as the disc, kinematically lagging by 100 km s-1. The kinematics of the observed extra-planar gas is compatible with an outflow due to the central starburst and galactic fountains in the outer parts. However, the gas kinematics shows no evidence for inflow. Analysis of the near-IR WISE data, shows clearly that the star formation rate is compatible with the starburst nature of NGC 253.

  4. SHAKEN, NOT STIRRED: THE DISRUPTED DISK OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared images obtained with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the recent history of the nearby Sculptor Group spiral NGC 253, which is one of the nearest starburst galaxies. Bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are traced out to projected distances of ∼22-26 kpc (∼13-15 disk scale lengths) along the major axis. The distribution of stars in the disk is lopsided, in the sense that the projected density of AGB stars in the northeast portion of the disk between 10 and 20 kpc from the galaxy center is ∼0.5 dex higher than on the opposite side of the galaxy. A large population of red supergiants is also found in the northeast portion of the disk and, with the exception of the central 2 kpc, this area appears to have been the site of the highest levels of star-forming activity in the galaxy during the past ∼0.1 Gyr. It is argued that such high levels of localized star formation may have produced a fountain that ejected material from the disk, and the extraplanar H I detected by Boomsma et al. may be one manifestation of such activity. Diffuse stellar structures are found in the periphery of the disk, and the most prominent of these is to the south and east of the galaxy. Bright AGB stars, including cool C stars that are identified based on their J - K colors, are detected out to 15 kpc above the disk plane, and these are part of a diffusely distributed, flattened extraplanar component. Comparisons between observed and model luminosity functions suggest that the extraplanar regions contain stars that formed throughout much of the age of the universe. Additional evidence of a diffuse, extraplanar stellar component that contains moderately young stars comes from archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer images. It is suggested that the disk of NGC 253 was disrupted by a tidal encounter with a now defunct companion. This encounter introduced asymmetries that remain to this day, and the projected distribution of stars in and

  5. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowski, A. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Acero, F. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 72, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Akhperjanian, A. G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia); Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barnacka, A. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Becherini, Y. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becker, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Birsin, E. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Biteau, J.; Brun, F. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Bolmont, J. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bordas, P. [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brun, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bulik, T., E-mail: stefan.ohm@le.ac.uk [Astronomical Observatory, The University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-01

    Very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV {<=} E {<=} 100 GeV) data from {gamma}-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analyzed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE {gamma}-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.14 {+-} 0.18{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and differential flux normalization at 1 TeV of F{sub 0} = (9.6 {+-} 1.5{sub stat}(+ 5.7, -2.9){sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A power-law fit to the differential HE {gamma}-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of {Gamma} 2.24 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.03{sub sys} and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 {+-} 1.0{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray data results in a differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.34 {+-} 0.03 with a p-value of 30%. The {gamma}-ray observations indicate that at least about 20% of the energy of the cosmic rays (CRs) capable of producing hadronic interactions is channeled into pion production. The smooth alignment between the spectra in the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray domain suggests that the same transport processes dominate in the entire energy range. Advection is most likely responsible for charged particle removal from the starburst nucleus from GeV to multiple TeV energies. In a hadronic scenario for the {gamma}-ray production, the single overall power-law spectrum observed would therefore correspond to the mean energy spectrum produced by the ensemble of CR sources in the starburst region.

  6. A Starburst in the Core of a Galaxy Cluster: the Dwarf Irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Marcelo D.; Chanamé, Julio; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2015-09-01

    Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling toward the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster for the first time, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes at a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshifts, when galaxy-scale interactions were more common. Using the spatial resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and auxiliary Very Large Telescope/FORS1 ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ˜ 4× {10}6 years and stellar masses from a few 1000 up to ˜ 3× {10}4{M}⊙ , slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and initial mass function. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Hα imaging data to determine the current star formation rate in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Γ, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Γ to be among the largest such values available in the literature, consistent with starburst galaxies. Thus a large fraction of the current star formation in NGC 1427A is occurring in star clusters, with the peculiar spatial arrangement of such complexes strongly hinting at the possibility that the starburst is being triggered by the passage of the galaxy through the cluster environment

  7. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Franca, Fabio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Onori, Francesca [Netherlands Institute for Space Research, SRON, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Marconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sani, Eleonora [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Vignali, Cristian, E-mail: lafranca@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-04-18

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) samples. However, these measurements use the width of the broad line region (BLR) as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N{sub H}=8.5±0.4×10{sup 21}cm{sup -2}) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L{sub 14−195}/ergs{sup −1}) = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A{sub V} = 3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the Hα, HeI, and Paβ lines (FWHM ~1400–2300 km s{sup −1}) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M{sub BH}=10{sup 6.6±0.3}M{sub ⊙}, λ{sub Edd} = 0.01−0.03), obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N{sub H} < 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}) AGN.

  8. Are starburst galaxies proton calorimeters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2018-03-01

    Several starburst galaxies have been observed in the GeV and TeV bands. In these dense environments, gamma-ray emission should be dominated by cosmic ray (CR) interactions with the interstellar medium (pcrpism → π0 → γγ). Indeed, starbursts may act as proton `calorimeters' where a substantial fraction of CR energy input is emitted in gamma-rays. Here, we build a one-zone, `thick-target' model implementing calorimetry and placing a firm upper bound on gamma-ray emission from CR interactions. The model assumes that CRs are accelerated by supernovae (SNe), and all suffer nuclear interactions rather than escape. Our model has only two free parameters: the CR proton acceleration energy per SN ɛcr, and the proton injection spectral index s. We calculate the pionic gamma-ray emission from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and derive thick-target parameters for six galaxies with Fermi, H.E.S.S., and/or VERITAS data. Our model provides good fits for the M82 and NGC 253, and yields ɛcr and s values suggesting that SN CR acceleration is similar in starbursts and in our Galaxy. We find that these starbursts are indeed nearly if not fully proton calorimeters. For NGC 4945 and NGC 1068, the models are consistent with calorimetry but are less well-constrained due to the lack of TeV data. However, the Circinus galaxy and the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 exceed our pionic upper-limit; possible explanations are discussed.

  9. AN INITIAL MASS FUNCTION STUDY OF THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 4214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kissel, J. S. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Da Silva, Robert L.; Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD (United States); Kim, Hwihyun, E-mail: jandrews@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The production rate of ionizing photons in young ({<=}8 Myr), unresolved stellar clusters in the nearby irregular galaxy NGC 4214 is probed using multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data. We normalize the ionizing photon rate by the cluster mass to investigate the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). We have found that within the uncertainties the upper end of the stellar IMF appears to be universal in this galaxy, and that deviations from a universal IMF can be attributed to stochastic sampling of stars in clusters with masses {approx}<10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. Furthermore, we have found that there does not seem to be a dependence of the maximum stellar mass on the cluster mass. We have also found that for massive clusters, feedback may cause an underrepresentation in H{alpha} luminosities, which needs to be taken into account when conducting this type of analysis.

  10. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXIES M82 AND NGC 253 WITH THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8σ and 4.8σ, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with γ-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and γ-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.

  11. Starbursts and IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several observational hints suggest that most of the IRAS galaxies are undergoing bursts of star formation. A simple photometric model of starburst galaxy was developed in order to check whether starburst events are really able to account for the far-infrared and optical properties of all the IRAS galaxies with HII region-like spectra. FIR activities up to a few hundred are actually easily reached with rather small bursts in red host-galaxies, and L IR /L B , EW(Hα) and U-B) versus (B-V) diagrams can be used to estimate burst strength and extinction. But more observations are required to conclude about the most extreme cases. Four typical infrared-selected IRAS galaxies are presented and their burst strength and extinction estimated

  12. Evidence for large-scale winds from starburst galaxies. I. The nature of the ionized gas in M82 and NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccarthy, P.J.; Van breugel, W.; Heckman, T.; Maryland Univ., College Park)

    1987-01-01

    The results of long-slit spectroscopy and narrow-band imaging of M82 and NGC 253, the two nearest examples of FIR luminous galaxies believed to be undergoing intense bursts of star formation, are presented. The profile of the gas pressure in the emission-line filaments in M82 is derived and found to be in good agreement with the model of Chevalier and Clegg (1985) of a supernovae-driven wind from a starburst nucleus. Lower quality data from NGC 253 support the same interpretation. Analysis of the emission-line ratios suggests that the line-emitting gas may be heated by low-velocity shocks, although photoionization from dilute UV radiation from unusually hot stars in the central starburst may also be important. 56 references

  13. Spatially resolving a starburst galaxy at hard X-ray energies: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA observations of NGC 253

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ~10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within...... is detected at E > 40 keV. We report upper limits on diffuse inverse Compton emission for a range of spatial models. For the most extended morphologies considered, these hard X-ray constraints disfavor a dominant inverse Compton component to explain the γ-ray emission detected with Fermi and H.E.S.S. If NGC...

  14. Optical and near-infrared IFU spectroscopy of the nuclear region of the AGN-starburst galaxy NGC 7582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, T. V.; Steiner, J. E.; May, D.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Menezes, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    NGC 7582 is an SB(s)ab galaxy which displays evidences of simultaneous nuclear activity and star formation in its centre. Previous optical observations revealed, besides the H II regions, an ionization cone and a gas disc in its central part. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images in both optical and infrared bands show the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and a few compact structures that are possibly associated with young stellar clusters. In order to study in detail both the AGN and evidence for star formation, we analyse optical (Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph) and near-infrared (Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) archival data cubes. We detected five nebulae with strong He II λ4686 emission in the same region where an outflow is detected in the [O III] λ5007 kinematic map. We interpreted this result as clouds that are exposed to high-energy photons emerging from the AGN throughout the ionization cone. We also detected Wolf-Rayet features which are related to emission of one of the compact clusters seen in the HST image. Broad Hα and Br γ components are detected at the position of the nucleus. [Fe II] λ1.644 μm, H2λ2.122 μm and Br γ flux maps show two blobs, one north and the other south from the nucleus, that seem to be associated with five previously detected mid-infrared sources. Two of the five He II nebulae are partially ionized by photons from starbursts. However, we conclude that the main source of excitation of these blobs is the AGN jet/disc. The jet orientation indicates that the accretion disc is nearly orthogonal to the dusty torus.

  15. High spatial resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of the starburst galaxies NGC3256, IIZw 40 and Henize 2-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; Schaerer, D.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sauvage, M.

    Aims. In order to show the importance of high spatial resolution observations of extra-galactic sources when compared to observations obtained with larger apertures such as ISO, we present N-band spectra (8-13 mu m) of some locations in three starburst galaxies. In particular, we show the two

  16. X-Rays from NGC 3256: High-Energy Emission in Starburst Galaxies and Their Contribution to the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Edward C.; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Helfand, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The infrared-luminous galaxy NGC 3256 is a classic example of a merger-induced nuclear starburst system. We find here that it is the most X-ray-luminous star-forming galaxy yet detected (L 0.5-10keV =1.6x10 42 ergs s-1). Long-slit optical spectroscopy and a deep, high-resolution ROSAT X-ray image show that the starburst is driving a ''superwind'' which accounts for ∼20% of the observed soft X-ray emission. Analysis of X-ray spectral data from ASCA indicates this gas has a characteristic temperature of kT≅0.3 keV. Our model for the broadband X-ray emission of NGC 3256 contains two additional components: a warm thermal plasma (kT≅0.8 keV) associated with the central starburst, and a hard power-law component with an energy index of α X ≅0.7. We discuss the energy budget for the two thermal plasmas and find that the input of mechanical energy from the starburst is more than sufficient to sustain the observed level of emission. We also examine possible origins for the power-law component, concluding that neither a buried AGN nor the expected population of high-mass X-ray binaries can account for this emission. Inverse Compton scattering, involving the galaxy's copious flux of infrared photons and the relativistic electrons produced by supernovae, is likely to make a substantial contribution to the hard X-ray flux. Such a model is consistent with the observed radio and IR fluxes and the radio and X-ray spectral indices. We explore the role of X-ray-luminous starbursts in the production of the cosmic X-ray background radiation. The number counts and spectral index distribution of the faint radio source population, thought to be dominated by star-forming galaxies, suggest that a significant fraction of the hard X-ray background could arise from starbursts at moderate redshift. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  17. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VII. THE NGC 4214 STARBURST AND THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION HISTORY ON DWARF MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 optical observations obtained as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury as well as early release Wide Field Camera 3 ultraviolet and infrared observations of the nearby dwarf starbursting galaxy NGC 4214. Our data provide a detailed example of how covering such a broad range in wavelength provides a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties of stellar populations. The deepest data reach the ancient red clump at M F814W ∼ - 0.2. All of the optical data reach the main-sequence turnoff for stars younger than ∼300 Myr and the blue He-burning sequence for stars younger than 500 Myr. The full color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting analysis shows that all three fields in our data set are consistent with ∼75% of the stellar mass being older than 8 Gyr, in spite of showing a wide range in star formation rates at present. Thus, our results suggest that the scale length of NGC 4214 has remained relatively constant for many gigayears. As previously noted by others, we also find the galaxy has recently ramped up production consistent with its bright UV luminosity and its population of UV-bright massive stars. In the central field we find UV point sources with F336W magnitudes as bright as -9.9. These are as bright as stars with masses of at least 52-56 M sun and ages near 4 Myr in stellar evolution models. Assuming a standard initial mass function, our CMD is well fitted by an increase in star formation rate beginning 100 Myr ago. The stellar populations of this late-type dwarf are compared with those of NGC 404, an early-type dwarf that is also the most massive galaxy in its local environment. The late-type dwarf appears to have a similar high fraction of ancient stars, suggesting that these dominant galaxies may form at early epochs even if they have low total mass and very different present-day morphologies.

  18. IRAS observations of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, K.

    1987-01-01

    Far infrared properties of Starburst galaxies were analyzed using IRAS observations at 25, 60, and 100 micrometers. Seventy-nine of 102 Starburst galaxies from the list of Balzano were detected. These galaxies have high IR luminosities of up to a few 10 to the 12th power L sub 0 and concentrate in a small area of the IR color - color diagram. The IR power law spectral indices, alpha, lie within the ranges -2.5 < alpha(60,25)< -1.5 and -1.5 < alpha(100,60)< 0. These observed indices can be interpreted in terms of a cold disk component and a warm component. More than 80% of the 60 micrometer emission comes from the warm component. The fraction of the 60 micrometer emission attributable to the warm component can be used as an activity indicator

  19. The 0.3-30 Kev Spectra Of Powerful Starburst Galaxies: Nustar And Chandra Observations Of Ngc 3256 And Ngc 3310

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    observations therefore constrain the average spectral shape of galaxy-wide populations of luminous accreting binaries (i.e., ULXs). Interestingly, despite a completely different galaxy sample selection, emphasizing here a range of SFRs and stellar masses, these properties are similar to those of super...

  20. Demographics of Starbursts in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Colbert, E.; Armus, L.; Scoville, N. Z.; Heckman, T.

    2002-12-01

    We investigate the frequency of circumnuclear starbursts in Seyfert galaxies using medium-resolution H and K band spectroscopy. An unbiased sample of ~20 nearby Seyfert galaxies was observed at the KeckII telescope with an average seeing of ~0.7''. Preliminary analysis shows strong stellar absorption lines for most galaxies in our sample. Comparison of stellar equivalent widths in the H and K band will allow us to determine the average age of the dominating stellar population. Evidence for an age trend with Seyfert type would provide a strong hint toward a starburst/AGN connection.

  1. New constraints on the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies using ionization-parameter mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The fate of ionizing radiation in starburst galaxies is key to understanding cosmic reionization. However, the galactic parameters on which the escape fraction of ionizing radiation depend are not well understood. Ionization-parameter mapping provides a simple, yet effective, way to study the radiative transfer in starburst galaxies. We obtain emission-line ratio maps of [S III]/[S II] for six, nearby, dwarf starbursts: NGC 178, NGC 1482, NGC 1705, NGC 3125, NGC 7126, and He 2-10. The narrowband images are obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. Using these data, we previously reported the discovery of an optically thin ionization cone in NGC 5253, and here we also discover a similar ionization cone in NGC 3125. This latter cone has an opening angle of 40° ± 5° (0.4 sr), indicating that the passageways through which ionizing radiation may travel correspond to a small solid angle. Additionally, there are three sample galaxies that have winds and/or superbubble activity, which should be conducive to escaping radiation, yet they are optically thick. These results support the scenario that an orientation bias limits our ability to directly detect escaping Lyman continuum in many starburst galaxies. A comparison of the star formation properties and histories of the optically thin and thick galaxies is consistent with the model that high escape fractions are limited to galaxies that are old enough (≳3 Myr) for mechanical feedback to have cleared optically thin passageways in the interstellar medium, but young enough (≲5 Myr) that the ionizing stars are still present.

  2. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-09-01

    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O III]/[O II] ˜ 10-60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  3. Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Thomas Tam, Pak-Hin, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-10

    Recent detections of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggest that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a ∼5.5σ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146. Also taking into account the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC 2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC 2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC 2146 is a 'proton calorimeter'. It is also found that NGC 2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC 2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed.

  4. Wolf-Rayet Stars in Starburst Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Kunth, Daniel; Cervino, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Wolf-Rayet stars have been detected in a large number of galaxies experiencing intense bursts of star formation. All stars initially more massive than a certain, metallicity-dependent, value are believed to experience the Wolf-Rayet phase at the end of their evolution, just before collapsing in supernova explosion. The detection of Wolf-Rayet stars puts therefore important constraints on the evolutionary status of starbursts, the properties of their Initial Mass Functions and their star forma...

  5. New Portraits of Spiral Galaxies NGC 613, NGC 1792 and NGC 3627

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    of this photo retains the original pixels. Note the many arms and the pronounced dust bands. North is up and East is left. NGC 613 is a beautiful barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation Sculptor. This galaxy is inclined by 32 degrees and, contrary to most barred spirals, has many arms that give it a tentacular appearance. Prominent dust lanes are visible along the large-scale bar. Extensive star-formation occurs in this area, at the ends of the bar, and also in the nuclear regions of the galaxy. The gas at the centre, as well as the radio properties are indicative of the presence of a massive black hole in the centre of NGC 613. NGC 1792 ESO PR Photo 33b/03 ESO PR Photo 33b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 473 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 946 x 800 pix - 376k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2716 x 2297 pix - 3.2M] PR Photo 33b/03 shows the starburst spiral galaxy NGC 1792 . Note the numerous background galaxies in this sky field. North is up and East is to the left. NGC 1792 is located in the southern constellation Columba (The Dove) - almost on the border with the constellation Caelum (The Graving Tool) - and is a so-called starburst spiral galaxy. Its optical appearance is quite chaotic, due to the patchy distribution of dust throughout the disc of this galaxy. It is very rich in neutral hydrogen gas - fuel for the formation of new stars - and is indeed rapidly forming such stars. The galaxy is characterized by unusually luminous far-infrared radiation; this is due to dust heated by young stars. M 66 (NGC 3627) ESO PR Photo 33c/03 ESO PR Photo 33c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 469 x 400 pix - 24k] [Normal - JPEG: 938 x 800 pix - 383k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2698 x 2300 pix - 3.0M] PR Photo 33c/03 of the spiral galaxy M 66 (or NGC 3627). North towards upper left, West towards upper right. The third galaxy is NGC 3627 , also known as Messier 66, i.e. it is the 66th object in the famous catalogue of nebulae by French astronomer Charles Messier (1730 - 1817). It is located in the constellation

  6. The gas content in starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, I.F.; Sanders, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    The results from two large and homogeneous surveys, one in HI, the other in CO, are used for a statistical review of the gaseous properties of bright infrared galaxies. A constant ratio between the thermal far-infrared radiation and non-thermal radio emission is a universal property of star formation in spiral galaxies. The current rate of star formation in starburst galaxies is found to be 3-20 times larger than in the Milky Way. Galaxies with the higher far-infrared luminosities and warmer dust, have the larger mass fractions of molecular to atomic interstellar gas, and in some instances, striking deficiencies of neutral hydrogen are found. A statistical blueshift of the optical systemic velocities relative to the radio systemic velocities, may be due to an outward motion of the optical line-emitting gas. From the high rates of star formation, and from the short times required for the depletion of the interstellar gas, we conclude that the most luminous infrared galaxies represent a brief but important phase in the evolution of some galaxies, when two galaxies merge changing substantially their overall properties

  7. Hα Emission Line Morphologies in Markarian Starburst Galaxies A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    images of a sample of optically selected starburst galaxies from the Markar- ian lists. .... to the size of the galaxy and the histograms were sky dominated. .... simplest qualitative method is to visually examine the distribution of the emission line.

  8. From starburst to quiescence: testing active galactic nucleus feedback in rapidly quenching post-starburst galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Fang, Jerome J.; Liu, F. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Post-starbursts are galaxies in transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Although they are rare today, integrated over time they may be an important pathway to the red sequence. This work uses Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations to identify the evolutionary sequence from starbursts to fully quenched post-starbursts (QPSBs) in the narrow mass range log M(M {sub ☉}) = 10.3-10.7, and identifies 'transiting' post-starbursts (TPSBs) which are intermediate between these two populations. In this mass range, ∼0.3% of galaxies are starbursts, ∼0.1% are QPSBs, and ∼0.5% are the transiting types in between. The TPSBs have stellar properties that are predicted for fast-quenching starbursts and morphological characteristics that are already typical of early-type galaxies. The active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, as estimated from optical line ratios, of these post-starbursts is about three times higher (≳ 36% ± 8%) than that of normal star forming galaxies of the same mass, but there is a significant delay between the starburst phase and the peak of nuclear optical AGN activity (median age difference of ≳ 200 ± 100 Myr), in agreement with previous studies. The time delay is inferred by comparing the broadband near-NUV-to-optical photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We also find that starbursts and post-starbursts are significantly more dust obscured than normal star forming galaxies in the same mass range. About 20% of the starbursts and 15% of the TPSBs can be classified as 'dust-obscured galaxies' (DOGs), with a near-UV-to-mid-IR flux ratio of ≳ 900, while only 0.8% of normal galaxies are DOGs. The time delay between the starburst phase and AGN activity suggests that AGNs do not play a primary role in the original quenching of starbursts but may be responsible for quenching later low-level star formation by removing gas and dust during

  9. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. I. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF EIGHTEEN NEARBY STARBURST DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Williams, Benjamin; Dolphin, Andrew; Hidalgo-RodrIguez, Sebastian; Holtzman, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We use archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of resolved stellar populations to derive the star formation histories (SFHs) of 18 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies. In this first paper, we present the observations, color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and the SFHs of the 18 starburst galaxies, based on a homogeneous approach to the data reduction, differential extinction, and treatment of photometric completeness. We adopt a star formation rate (SFR) threshold normalized to the average SFR of the individual system as a metric for classifying starbursts in SFHs derived from resolved stellar populations. This choice facilitates finding not only the currently bursting galaxies but also 'fossil' bursts increasing the sample size of starburst galaxies in the nearby (D 100 Myr temporal baseline is thus fundamental to any starburst definition or identification method. The longer lived bursts rule out rapid 'self-quenching' of starbursts on global scales. The bursting galaxies' gas consumption timescales are shorter than the Hubble time for all but one galaxy confirming the short-lived nature of starbursts based on fuel limitations. Additionally, we find that the strength of the Hα emission usually correlates with the CMD-based SFR during the last 4-10 Myr. However, in four cases, the Hα emission is significantly less than what is expected for models of starbursts; the discrepancy is due to the SFR changing on timescales of a few Myr. The inherently short timescale of the Hα emission limits identifying galaxies as starbursts based on the current characteristics which may or may not be representative of the recent SFH of a galaxy.

  10. Nuclear starburst activity induced by elongated bulges in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunbin; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Lee, Gwang-Ho; de Grijs, Richard; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2018-06-01

    We study the effects of bulge elongation on the star formation activity in the centres of spiral galaxies using the data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We construct a volume-limited sample of face-on spiral galaxies with Mr nuclear starbursts using the fibre specific star formation rates derived from the SDSS spectra. We find a statistically significant correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts in the sense that the fraction of nuclear starbursts increases with bulge elongation. This correlation is more prominent for fainter and redder galaxies, which exhibit higher ratios of elongated bulges. We find no significant environmental dependence of the correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts. These results suggest that non-axisymmetric bulges can efficiently feed the gas into the centre of galaxies to trigger nuclear starburst activity.

  11. The Sersic-Pastoriza galaxy NGC 1808. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, D.J.; Unger, S.W.; Pedlar, A.; Yates, G.J.; Axon, D.J.; Wolstencroft, R.D.; Taylor, K.; Gyldenkerne, K.

    1990-01-01

    We present radio-continuum observations made at high angular resolution with the VLA at 20, 6 and 2 cm of the central region of the Sersic-Pastoriza galaxy NGC 1808. These observations reveal a population of compact radio sources, reminiscent of those found in the archetypal starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The bulk of these compact features are not coincident with the optical hot-spots and are likely to be individual or unresolved groups of SNRs. We have also made HI observations of NGC 1808 with the VLA (very large array). Although this was primarily to search for unusual motions which may enable us to understand the nuclear activity, we also obtained information on the large-scale distribution and dynamics of gas in this system. (author)

  12. Far-infrared luminosities of Markarian starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, L.K.; Willner, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Total far-infrared luminosities have been calculated from measured IRAS fluxes for a sample of optically selected galaxies and for a comparison sample of spiral galaxies. The starburst galaxies are notably more luminous in the far-infrared and have higher dust color temperatures than the comparison galaxies. The far-infrared light dominates the total luminosity of the starburst galaxies, and a significant amount of dust must be present. The far-infrared emission correlates well with total blue luminosity, nuclear blue luminosity, and nuclear H-alpha luminosity. The dust that produces the far-infrared light is probably heated predominantly by B rather than by O stars. 30 references

  13. Photographic surface photometry of NGC 2855 and NGC 6771 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M. de F.S.

    1984-01-01

    Photographic surface photometry in the BV system was carried out two Southern SO's galaxies, NGC 2855 and NGC 6771. B and V isophote maps were obtained as well as geometric and integrated parameters as position angles, inclination, diameters, magnitudes and integrated colors. Each luminosity profile was decomposed into bulge and disk contributions, each component being fitted to convenient laws. For NGC 2855 de Vaucouleurs law described well the bulge whereas the disk showed an exponential distribution. For NGC 6771 the barred nuclear bulge as well as the disk was best fitted by exponential laws. Additional luminosity components due to an inner fragmented ring were identified in NGC 2855 and due to both a quite prominent lens and well defined ring in NGC 6771. In this galaxy the minor axis, oriented almost edge-on, present clues of another luminosity component besides the bulge and the thin disk. For both galaxies the disk central surface brightness was found to be fainter than the standard value observed by Freeman. The fitting parameters were used to determine the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratios as well as their contribution to total luminosity. The domination by the bulge light over the disk light was clear in both galaxies. From the B and V luminosity profile the color gradients were estimated. For both objects the local color indices decreased from inner to outer regions, this effect being relatively smooth in NGC 2855 and more prominent in NGC 6771 [pt

  14. Very Luminous X-ray Point Sources in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Ptak, A.; Weaver, K. A.; Strickland, D.

    Extranuclear X-ray point sources in external galaxies with luminosities above 1039.0 erg/s are quite common in elliptical, disk and dwarf galaxies, with an average of ~ 0.5 and dwarf galaxies, with an average of ~0.5 sources per galaxy. These objects may be a new class of object, perhaps accreting intermediate-mass black holes, or beamed stellar mass black hole binaries. Starburst galaxies tend to have a larger number of these intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects (IXOs), as well as a large number of lower-luminosity (1037 - 1039 erg/s) point sources. These point sources dominate the total hard X-ray emission in starburst galaxies. We present a review of both types of objects and discuss possible schemes for their formation.

  15. Starbursts From 30 Doradus to Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Grijs, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Starbursts are important features of early galaxy evolution. Many of the distant, high-redshift galaxies we are able to detect are in a starbursting phase, often apparently provoked by a violent gravitational interaction with another galaxy. In fact, if we did not know that major starbursts existed, these conference proceedings testify that we would indeed have difficulties explaining the key properties of the Universe! These conference proceedings cover starbursts from the small-scale star-forming regions in nearby galaxies to galaxy-wide events at high redshifts; one of the major themes of the conference proved to be "scalability", i.e., can we scale up the small-scale events to describe the physics on larger scales. The key outcome of this meeting – and these proceedings – is a resounding "yes" as answer to this fundamental, yet profound question. The enhanced synergy facilitated by the collaboration among observers using cutting-edge ground and space-based facilities, theorists and modellers has made ...

  16. Spectrophotometry of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAlpine, G.M.; Williams, G.A.; Lewis, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of the bright class 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 4593 is presented. The emission-line characteristics are briefly discussed and compared with those of other Seyfert galaxies. The measured hydrogen Balmer-line ratios are reasonably consistent with expected recombination values, and the emission intensities of Fe II, He I 5876, and forbidden O III 4363 relative to other lines are stronger than average in NGC 4593

  17. The Occurence of Nuclear Starbursts in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Colbert, E.; Armus, L.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2001-05-01

    Medium resolution H and K band spectra with high angular reesolution were obtained for a small sample of nearby Seyfert galaxies using NIRSPEC at the Keck telescope. Recent studies with medium resolution have found evidence for a lack of powerful starbursts in Seyfert1 galaxies. Differences between the two Seyfert types might provide a challenge for the unified scheme proposed for Seyfert galaxies. A preliminary analysis indicates that most of the Seyfert1 galaxies do indeed show signs of circumnuclar star formation. Detailed modelling using population synthesis in conjunction with NIR spectral synthesis will allow to estimate the age, star formation history and mass of these stellar population.

  18. The Frequency of Circumnuclear Starbursts in Seyfert Galaxies --- Testing the Starburst-AGN Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Colbert, E.; Armus, L.; Scoville, N. Z.; Heckman, T. M.

    We obtained sub-arcsecond medium resolution near-infrared spectra of a sample of nearby bright Seyfert galaxies (8 Seyfert 1s, 11 Seyfert 2s) using the KeckII telescope. The stellar absorption lines present in the spectra were used in conjunction with population synthesis models to determine the age of the circumnuclear stellar population. Initial analysis of a sub-sample of the Seyfert galaxies has provided no evidence for a connection between the age of the circumnuclear stellar population and the Seyfert type. The derived ages for the circumnuclear stellar population are in the range of 10 Myr to < 0.5 Gyr assuming an instantaneous starburst (using the STARBURST99 models).

  19. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  20. Normal Spiral Galaxies Really Do Have Hot Gas in Their Halos: Chandra Observations of NGC 4013 and NGC 4217.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, D. K.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Heckman, T. M.; Hoopes, C. G.; Howk, J. C.; Rand, R. J.

    2004-08-01

    Although soft X-ray emission from million degree plasma has long been observed in the halos of starburst galaxies known to have supernova-driven galactic superwinds, X-ray observations have generally failed to detect hot halos around normal spiral galaxies. Indeed, the Milky Way and NGC 891 have historically been the only genuinely "normal" spiral galaxies with unambiguous X-ray halo detections, until now. Here we report on deep observations of NGC 4013 and NGC 4217, two Milky-Way-mass spiral galaxies with star formation rates per unit area similar to the Milky Way and NGC 891, using the Chandra X-ray observatory. Preliminary investigation of the observations clearly show extra-planar diffuse X-ray emission extending several kpc into the halo of NGC 4013. We will present the results of these observations, compare them to the non-detections of hot gas around normal spirals, and relate them to galactic fountain and IGM accretion based models for hot halos. DKS acknowledges funding from NASA through the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. grant G045095X.

  1. ANATOMY OF A POST-STARBURST MINOR MERGER: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH WFC3 STUDY OF NGC 4150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, R. Mark; Kaviraj, Sugata; Silk, Joseph I.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C. Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Trauger, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a spatially resolved near-UV/optical study, using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope, of NGC 4150, a sub-L * , early-type galaxy (ETG) of around 6 x 10 9 M sun , which has been observed as part of the WFC3 Early-Release Science Programme. Previous work indicates that this galaxy has a large reservoir of molecular hydrogen gas, exhibits a kinematically decoupled core (a likely indication of recent merging) and strong, central Hβ absorption (indicative of young stars). While relatively uninspiring in its optical image, the core of NGC 4150 shows ubiquitous near-UV emission and remarkable dusty substructure. Our analysis shows this galaxy to lie in the near-UV green valley, and its pixel-by-pixel photometry exhibits a narrow range of near-UV/optical colors that are similar to those of nearby E+A (post-starburst) galaxies and lie between those of M83 (an actively star-forming spiral) and the local quiescent ETG population. We parameterize the properties of the recent star formation (RSF; age, mass fraction, metallicity, and internal dust content) in the NGC 4150 pixels by comparing the observed near-UV/optical photometry to stellar models. The typical age of the RSF is around 0.9 Gyr, consistent with the similarity of the near-UV colors to post-starburst systems, while the morphological structure of the young component supports the proposed merger scenario. The typical RSF metallicity, representative of the metallicity of the gas fuelling star formation, is ∼0.3-0.5 Z sun . Assuming that this galaxy is a merger and that the gas is sourced mainly from the infalling companion, these metallicities plausibly indicate the gas-phase metallicity (GPM) of the accreted satellite. Comparison to the local mass-GPM relation suggests (crudely) that the mass of the accreted system is ∼3 x 10 8 M sun , making NGC 4150 a 1:20 minor merger. A summation of the pixel RSF mass fractions indicates that the RSF contributes ∼2%-3% of the

  2. DWARF GALAXY STARBURST STATISTICS IN THE LOCAL VOLUME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Janice C.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Akiyama, Sanae; Funes, S. J. Jose G.; Sakai, Shoko

    2009-01-01

    An unresolved question in galaxy evolution is whether the star formation histories (SFHs) of low-mass systems are preferentially dominated by starbursts or modes that are more quiescent and continuous. Here, we quantify the prevalence of global starbursts in dwarf galaxies at the present epoch and infer their characteristic durations and amplitudes. The analysis is based on the Hα component of the 11 Mpc Hα UV Galaxy Survey (11HUGS), which provides Hα and Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging for an approximately volume-limited sample of ∼ 300 star-forming galaxies within 11 Mpc. We first examine the completeness properties of the sample, and then directly tally the number of bursting dwarfs and compute the fraction of star formation that is concentrated in such systems. To identify starbursting dwarfs, we use an integrated Hα equivalent width (EW) threshold of 100 A, which corresponds to a stellar birthrate of ∼ 2.5, and also explore the use of empirical starburst definitions based on σ thresholds of the observed logarithmic EW distributions. Our results are robust to the exact choice of the threshold, and are consistent with a picture where dwarfs that are currently experiencing massive global bursts are just the ∼ 6% tip of a low-mass galaxy iceberg. Moreover, bursts are only responsible for about a quarter of the total star formation in the overall dwarf population, so the majority of stars in low-mass systems are not formed in this mode today. Spirals and irregulars devoid of Hα emission are rare, indicating that the complete cessation of star formation generally does not occur in such galaxies and is not characteristic of the interburst state, at least for the more luminous systems with M B < -15. The starburst statistics presented here directly constrain the duty cycle and the average burst amplitude under the simplest assumptions where all dwarf irregulars share a common SFH and undergo similar burst cycles with equal probability. Uncertainties

  3. X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, R.; Pietsch, W.; Biermann, P.L.; Kronberg, P.P.; Schmutzler, T.

    1989-01-01

    Long X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82 with the European X-ray satellite EXOSAT are reported. The observations with the low-energy imaging instrument confirm that there is extended X-ray emission from above and below the disk, with an overall extent perpendicular to the disk of almost 6 arcmin corresponding to 6 kpc. One of the best defined X-ray spectra yet of a starburst galaxy is presented. The medium energy instrument measurements can be fitted with a power-law spectrum, consistent with inverse Compton emission, or with thermal emission from optically thin hot gas of a temperature of 9 + 9 or -4 keV. Using, in addition, the earlier Einstein HRI and MPC observations, the possible origin of the X-ray emission is discussed. 31 references

  4. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from nearby starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Reda; Bouchachi, Dallel

    2018-04-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are the most energetic of any subatomic particles ever observed in nature. The quest for their mysterious origin is currently a major scientific challenge. Here we explore the possibility that these particles originate from nearby starburst galaxies, a scenario that matches the recent observation by the Telescope Array experiment of a cosmic-ray hotspot above 57 EeV not far from the direction of the starburst galaxy M82. Specifically, we study the stochastic propagation in space of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays through the state-of-the-art simulation framework CRPropa 3, taking into account all relevant particle interactions as well as deflections by the intervening magnetic fields. To ensure a comprehensive understanding of this model, we consider the energy spectrum, the cosmogenic neutrinos and gamma rays, and the distribution of arrival directions. The starburst galaxy scenario reproduces well observations from both the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatories, making it very attractive for explaining the origin of cosmic rays at the highest energies.

  5. X-rays from spiral and starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbiano, G.

    1990-01-01

    The study of the X-ray properties of normal galaxies as a class was made possible by the launch of the Einstein Observatory in November 1978. The Einstein X-ray observations of well over 100 galaxies have been reported in the literature to date, and data on a similar number can still be found in the Einstein data bank. To mention some of the unexpected results, these observations have led to the discovery of plumes of hot gas ejected by starburst nuclei, and to the study of small active nuclei. Hot X-ray halos have been discovered in early-type galaxies, and provide a potentially very powerful means for measuring their mass. The implications of these results range from new insights on the composition and evolution of X-ray emitting sources in spiral galaxies, and their relationship with star formation activity and cosmic ray production, to the formation of the intracluster medium and the origin of the X-ray background. This paper concentrates on the results of the Einstein observations of spiral and starburst galaxies. (author)

  6. Radio identifications of UGC galaxies - starbursts and monsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Broderick, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    New and previously published observational data on galaxies with declination less than +82 deg from the Uppsala General Catalog (Nilson, 1973) are compiled in extensive tables and characterized in detail. Optical positions are confirmed by measurement of Palomar Sky Survey O prints, and radio identifications for 176 galaxies are made on the basis of 1.4-GHz Green Bank sky maps or 1.49-GHz observations obtained with the C configuration of the VLA in November-December 1986; contour maps based on the latter observations are provided. Radio-selected and IR-selected galaxy populations are found to be similar (and distinct from optically selected populations), and three radio/IR criteria are developed to distinguish galaxies powered by starbursts from those with supermassive black holes or other monster energy sources. 197 references

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, P. R.; Puxley, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present 1.2 to 2.2 micron spectra of the nucleus of Henize 2 to 10, taken at United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) with the cool grating spectrometer 2 (CGS 2). This galaxy displays strong line emission from interstellar H (+) (1.282 and 2.166 microns) and (Fe (+)) (1.256 and 1.644 microns), in common with other star-forming galaxy nuclei. However, the 1 to 0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen at 2.122 micron is not detected - the upper limit of 0.15 (3 sigma) for the value of the flux ratio I sub 1-os(1)/I sub Br gamma is much lower than the typical values of 0.4 to 0.9 measured in a sample of 28 non-interacting starburst galaxies. From the Pa beta/Br gamma line ratio researchers derive a total extinction of A sub v approx. 4 mag. The de-reddened H (+) and (Fe (+) line fluxes are used to estimate the total ionizing luminosity and the average supernova rate in the central 150 pc of He 2 to 10. By comparison of these estimates with existing Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and radio continuum data, researchers are able to set limits on the range of stellar masses present in this unevolved (less than 10(exp 7) year old) starburst nucleus. Possible reasons for the low H2/H+ line ratios observed in young starburst systems (He 2 to 10, NGC 7714, IIZw40; e.g., Moorwood and Oliva 1988) are briefly discussed.

  8. An Introverted Starburst: Gas and SSC Formation in NGC 5253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. L.; Beck, S. C.

    2004-06-01

    High resolution Brackett line spectroscopy with the Keck Telescope reveals relatively narrow recombination lines toward the embedded young super star cluster nebula in NGC 5253. The gas within this nebula is almost certainly gravitationally bound by the massive and compact young star cluster.

  9. The ISM in nearby galaxies: NGC1365

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, Willem; Loenen, Edo; Spaans, Marco

    We propose a sensitive spectral survey of the nuclear region of the nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1365. These observations are to confirm a similar program carried out in 2007, which suffers from severe bandpass issues. The previous observations have resulted in 76+ tentative detections,

  10. Study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei in the mid-infrared with the ISOCAM instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Olivier

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the mid-infrared between 3 and 16 μm with the ISOCAM instrument. The study of nearby prototypical galaxies such as NGC 1068 and M 82 lead me to decompose the emission into three components. The star forming regions are characterized by (1) the infrared bands at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 μm originating from the photo-dissociation regions and also by (2) a continuum at 15 μm produced by the very small grains in HII regions. I show that AGNs have (3) strong continuum with an important contribution between 3 and 10 μm arising from hot dust heated to high temperatures of the order of 1000 K. I present two diagnostic diagrams based on the spectral properties of the three components allowing me to distinguish AGNs from starburst regions. In interacting galaxies, I show that some extra-nuclear regions harboring starburst activity can dominate the emission at 15 μm as in the Cartwheel and the Antennae galaxies. Using mid-infrared spectral features, I also define two prototypes of ultra-luminous galaxies dominated either by starburst activity in the case of Arp 220 or by the AGN in the Super-Antennae galaxy (IRAS 19254-7245). I explain how this diagram and the selection criteria evolve according to redshift. Finally, I show how we can develop new diagnostics using filters of the IRAC instrument on board the next infrared space observatory SIRTF. (author) [fr

  11. New insights into the X-ray properties of nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brnadt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Levan, A. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2008-02-01

    We present some preliminary results from new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. It shows dramatic nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation activity, including starburst regions located near each end of its strong bar, both of which host ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). With the new high-spatial-resolution Chandra imaging, we show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a faint ($L(X)~10^39 erg/s), hard central X-ray source surrounded by an X-ray bright circumnuclear starburst ring that dominates the X-ray emission in the region. The central source may represent low-level AGN activity, or alternatively the emission from X-ray binaries associated with star-formation in the nucleus.

  12. NGC 985 - Extended ionized regions and the far-infrared luminosity of a ring-shaped Seyfert galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Espinosa, J.M.; Stanga, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band H-alpha images and long-slit spectroscopy of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 985 are presented. Large-scale extended ionized zones are seen to cover a significant fraction of the ring of this object. These ionized zones are responsible for a considerable fraction (greater than 35 percent) of the far-infrared emission of NGC 985. These ionized zones are interpreted as giant H II region complexes, formed in a recent burst of star formation. It is also argued that that starburst was triggered by a galaxy interaction. 41 refs

  13. THE DRIVING MECHANISM OF STARBURSTS IN GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teyssier, Romain; Chapon, Damien; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of a major merger of disk galaxies, and study the interstellar medium (ISM) dynamics and star formation (SF) properties. High spatial and mass resolutions of 12 pc and 4 x 10 4 M sun allow us to resolve cold and turbulent gas clouds embedded in a warmer diffuse phase. We compare lower-resolution models, where the multiphase ISM is not resolved and is modeled as a relatively homogeneous and stable medium. While merger-driven bursts of SF are generally attributed to large-scale gas inflows toward the nuclear regions, we show that once a realistic ISM is resolved, the dominant process is actually gas fragmentation into massive and dense clouds and rapid SF therein. As a consequence, SF is more efficient by a factor of up to ∼10 and is also somewhat more extended, while the gas density probability distribution function rapidly evolves toward very high densities. We thus propose that the actual mechanism of starburst triggering in galaxy collisions can only be captured at high spatial resolution and when the cooling of gas is modeled down to less than 10 3 K. Not only does our model reproduce the properties of the Antennae system, but it also explains the 'starburst mode' recently revealed in high-redshift mergers compared to quiescent disks.

  14. STAR CLUSTER DISRUPTION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY MESSIER 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuo; Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard; Anders, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Using high-resolution, multiple-passband Hubble Space Telescope images spanning the entire optical/near-infrared wavelength range, we obtained a statistically complete U-band-selected sample of 846 extended star clusters across the disk of the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Based on a careful analysis of the clusters' spectral energy distributions, we determined their galaxy-wide age and mass distributions. The M82 clusters exhibit three clear peaks in their age distribution, thus defining relatively young, log (t yr –1 ) ≤ 7.5, intermediate-age, log (t yr –1 ) in [7.5, 8.5], and old samples, log (t yr –1 ) ≥ 8.5. Comparison of the completeness-corrected mass distributions offers a firm handle on the galaxy's star cluster disruption history. The most massive star clusters in the young and old samples are (almost) all concentrated in the most densely populated central region, while the intermediate-age sample's most massive clusters are more spatially dispersed, which may reflect the distribution of the highest-density gas throughout the galaxy's evolutionary history, combined with the solid-body nature of the galaxy's central region

  15. Direct Measurement of the Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; Rank, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Supernovae play a key role in the dynamics, structure, and chemical evolution of galaxies. The massive stars that end their lives as supernovae live for short times. Many are still associated with dusty star formation regions when they explode, making them difficult to observe at visible wavelengths. In active star forming regions (galactic nuclei and starburst regions), dust extintion is especially severe. Thus, determining the supernova rate in the active star forming regions of galaxies, where the supernova rate can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the average, has proven to be difficult. From observations of SN1987A, we know that the [NiII] 6.63 micron emission line was the strongest line in the infrared spectrum for a period of a year and a half after the explosion. Since dust extintion is much less at 6.63 pm than at visible wavelengths (A(sub 6.63)/A(sub V) = 0.025), the NiII line can be used as a sensitive probe for the detection of recent supernovae. We have observed a sample of starburst galaxies at 6.63 micron using ISOCAM to search for the NiII emission line characteristic of recent supernovae. We did not detect any NiII line emission brighter than a 5sigma limit of 5 mJy. We can set upper limits to the supernova rate in our sample, scaled to the rate in M82, of less than 0.3 per year at the 90% confidence level using Bayesian methods. Assuming that a supernova would have a NiII with the same luminosity as observed in SN1987A, we find less than 0.09 and 0.15 per year at the 50% and 67% confidence levels. These rates are somewhat less if a more normal type II supernovae has a NiII line luminosity greater than the line in SN1987A.

  16. Molecular clouds in the NGC 6334 and NGC 6357 region: Evidence for a 100 pc-scale cloud-cloud collision triggering the Galactic mini-starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Kohno, Mikito; Yokoyama, Keiko; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Sano, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo

    2018-05-01

    We carried out new CO (J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2) observations with NANTEN2 and ASTE in the region of the twin Galactic mini-starbursts NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. We detected two velocity molecular components of 12 km s-1 velocity separation, which is continuous over 3° along the plane. In NGC 6334 the two components show similar two-peaked intensity distributions toward the young H II regions and are linked by a bridge feature. In NGC 6357 we found spatially complementary distribution between the two velocity components as well as a bridge feature in velocity. Based on these results we hypothesize that the two clouds in the two regions collided with each other in the past few Myr and triggered the formation of the starbursts over ˜ 100 pc. We suggest that the formation of the starbursts happened toward the collisional region of extent ˜ 10 pc with initial high molecular column densities. For NGC 6334 we present a scenario which includes spatial variation of the colliding epoch due to non-uniform cloud separation. The scenario possibly explains the apparent age differences among the young O stars in NGC 6334, which range from 104 yr to 106 yr; the latest collision happened within 105 yr toward the youngest stars in NGC 6334 I(N) and I which exhibit molecular outflows without H II regions. For NGC 6357 the O stars were formed a few Myr ago, and the cloud dispersal by the O stars is significant. We conclude that cloud-cloud collision offers a possible explanation of the mini-starburst over a 100 pc scale.

  17. Accurate Distances to Important Spiral Galaxies: M63, M74, NGC 1291, NGC 4559, NGC 4625, and NGC 5398

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-01

    Accurate distances are fundamental for interpreting various measured properties of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the best-studied spiral galaxies in the Local Volume have distance uncertainties that are much larger than can be achieved with modern observation techniques. Using Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, we use the tip of the red giant branch method to measure the distances to six galaxies that are included in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey program and its offspring surveys. The sample includes M63, M74, NGC 1291, NGC 4559, NGC 4625, and NGC 5398. We compare our results with distances reported to these galaxies based on a variety of methods. Depending on the technique, there can be a wide range in published distances, particularly from the Tully–Fisher relation. In addition, differences between the planetary nebular luminosity function and surface brightness fluctuation techniques can vary between galaxies, suggesting inaccuracies that cannot be explained by systematics in the calibrations. Our distances improve upon previous results, as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in an optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  18. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN GALAXY MERGERS AND STARBURST: EVIDENCE FROM THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wentao; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Major mergers and interactions between gas-rich galaxies with comparable masses are thought to be the main triggers of starburst. In this work, we study, for a large stellar mass range, the interaction rate of the starburst galaxies in the local universe. We focus independently on central and satellite star forming galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Here the starburst galaxies are selected in the star formation rate (SFR) stellar mass plane with SFRs five times larger than the median value found for ''star forming'' galaxies of the same stellar mass. Through visual inspection of their images together with close companions determined using spectroscopic redshifts, we find that ∼50% of the ''starburst'' populations show evident merger features, i.e., tidal tails, bridges between galaxies, double cores, and close companions. In contrast, in the control sample we selected from the normal star forming galaxies, only ∼19% of galaxies are associated with evident mergers. The interaction rates may increase by ∼5% for the starburst sample and 2% for the control sample if close companions determined using photometric redshifts are considered. The contrast of the merger rate between the two samples strengthens the hypothesis that mergers and interactions are indeed the main causes of starburst

  19. HNCO ABUNDANCES IN GALAXIES: TRACING THE EVOLUTIONARY STATE OF STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sergio; Martin-Pintado, J.; Mauersberger, R.

    2009-01-01

    The chemistry in the central regions of galaxies is expected to be strongly influenced by their nuclear activity. To find the best tracers of nuclear activity is of key importance to understand the processes taking place in the most obscured regions of galactic nuclei. In this work, we present multiline observations of CS, C 34 S, HNCO, and C 18 O in a sample of 11 bright galaxies prototypical for different types of activity. The 32 S/ 34 S isotopic ratio is ∼10, supporting the idea of an isotopical 34 S enrichment due to massive star formation in the nuclear regions of galaxies. Although C 32 S and C 34 S do not seem to be significantly affected by the activity type, the HNCO abundance appears highly contrasted among starbursts (SBs). We observed HNCO abundance variations of nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The HNCO molecule is shown to be a good tracer of the amount of molecular material fueling the SB and therefore can be used as a diagnostics of the evolutionary state of a nuclear SB.

  20. DUST EXTINCTION IN NGC-4594, THE SOMBRERO GALAXY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KNAPEN, JH; HES, R; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF

    We have studied the extinction law in the well-defined dust lane of the Sombrero galaxy, NGC4594. In the R,I,J,H, and K bands we find good agreement between values for the extinction ratios A-lambda/A(v) in NGC4594 and those reported for our own Galaxy. We can explain the apparently somewhat lower

  1. The abundance of nitrogen in starburst nucleus galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coziol, R.; Reyes, R. E. Carlos; Considère, S.; Davoust, E.; Contini, T.

    1999-05-01

    We show that the excess of nitrogen emission observed in a large sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs) can only be explained at a given metallicity by an overabundance of nitrogen with respect to normal H ii regions in the disks of late-type spirals. The N/O ratios in the SBNGs are comparable to the values found in the bulges of normal early-type spirals, which suggests that what we observe could be the main production of nitrogen in the bulges of these galaxies. The variation of the N/O ratio as a function of metallicity in SBNGs follows a primary + secondary relation, but the increase of nitrogen does not appear as a continuous process. In SBNGs, nitrogen is probably produced by different populations of intermediate-mass stars, which were formed during past sequences of bursts of star formation. This assumption pushes the origin of the main bursts 2-3 Gyrs back in the past. On a cosmological scale, this time interval corresponds to redshifts z ~ 0.2-0.3, where a significant increase of star formation activity occurred. The origin of the SBNG phenomenon would thus have cosmological implications, it would be related to a more active phase of star formation in the Universe sometime in its recent past. Based on observations obtained at the 193cm telescope of Observatoire de Haute-Provence, operated by INSU (CNRS)

  2. Aspects of the interstellar medium in starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, M.N.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are engaged in a multifaceted program to investigate the stellar content and star formation history of actively star-forming galaxies. A large body of stellar spectra have been examined to identify spectral features characteristic of specific stellar types. These spectral diagnostics are then calibrated in terms of temperature (spectral type), gravity (luminosity class) and metallicity. The spectral data is compiled into a stellar library whose members represent specific locations in the HR diagram. Through the use of population synthesis techniques, both optimizing and evolutionary approaches, the stellar luminosity function in composite populations can be determined. Researchers have concentrated on the ultraviolet wavelength region (lambda lambda 1200 to 3200). In the optical, virtually all stars will contribute to the integrated light. In the ultraviolet however, cool stars will produce negligible flux due to their steep ultraviolet-to-visual continua, greatly simplifying the investigation of the hot component in a composite population. The researchers' initial stellar library has been applied to several blue compact galaxies, (BCGs), a class of starburst galaxy which is UV luminous. BCGs possess a complex interstellar medium which affects the emergent stellar continuum in several ways. This presents a challenge to the stellar analysis but affords insight into the properties of the gas and dust from which the massive OB stars have formed. The optimizing synthesis method solves for the stellar luminosity function and extinction simultaneously. This therefore provides an independent measure of the extinction affecting the hot population component. Despite the rise of the reddening law towards the ultraviolet, BCGs are found to be brighter in the ultraviolet than expected

  3. The low-metallicity starburst NGC346: massive-star population and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskinova, Lida

    2017-08-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is ideal to study young, massive stars at low metallicity. The compact cluster NGC346 contains about half of all O-type stars in the entire SMC. The massive-star population of this cluster powers N66, the brightest and largest HII region in the SMC. We propose to use HST-STIS to slice NGC346 with 20 long-slit exposures, in order to obtain the UV spectra of most of the massive early-type stars of this cluster. Archival data of 13 exposures that cover already a minor part of this cluster will be included in our analyses. Our aim is to quantitatively analyze virtually the whole massive-star population of NGC346. We have already secured the optical spectra of all massive stars in the field with the integral-field spectrograph MUSE at the ESO-VLT. However, for the determination of the stellar-wind parameters, i.e. the mass-loss rates and the wind velocities, ultraviolet spectra are indispensable. Our advanced Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) code will be used for modeling the stellar and wind spectra in the course of the analysis. Finally, we will obtain:(a) the fundamental stellar and wind parameters of all stars brighter than spectral type B2V in the field, which, e,g,, will constrain the initial mass function in this young low-metallicity starburst;(b) mass-loss rates of many more OB-type stars at SMC metallicity than hitherto known, allowing to better constrain their metallicity dependence;(c) the integrated feedback by ionizing radiation and stellar winds of the whole massive-star population of NGC346, which will be used as input to model the ecology of the giant HII region N66.These HST UV data will be of high legacy value.

  4. The Evolution of Dwarf-Irregular Galaxy NGC 1569: A Kinematic Study of the Stars and Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan C.

    2011-12-01

    The evolution and formation of dwarf galaxies has great importance to our knowledge of cosmological history from the Big Bang through the present day structure we observe in our local universe. Dwarf galaxies are believed to be the "building blocks" of larger galaxies, which implies that interactions and mergers of these small systems must have occurred frequently in the early universe. There is a population of starburst dwarf irregular (dIm) galaxies that seem to have characteristics indicative of interactions or mergers. One of these dIm galaxies is the nearby post-starburst NGC 1569. This dissertation project explores the stellar and gas kinematics of NGC 1569 as well as examines a deep neutral Hydrogen (HI) map made using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). From these observations, this dissertation analyzes the evolution of NGC 1569 by understanding the three-dimensional shape of this dIm system for the first time. The structure of dIm galaxies is an important fundamental, physical property necessary to understand the evolution and formation of these common systems. However, the intrinsic shape of dIm galaxies remains controversial. Projected minor-to-major axis ratios provide insufficient data to determine the shapes of dIm galaxies. Fortunately, there is another method by which accurate structures can be measured. The stellar velocity dispersion, coupled with the maximum rotational velocity derived from HI observations, gives a measure of how kinematically hot a system is, and, therefore, indicates its structure. In this dissertation, we present the stellar kinematics, including the stellar velocity dispersion, of NGC 1569 obtained using the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) Mayall 4-m+Echelle spectrograph. These data are combined with an in depth analysis of high resolution HI data and a discussion of the nature of this starburst dwarf system. The dissertation concludes with a deep HI map of NGC 1569 and three of its nearest neighbors in the

  5. THE STELLAR AND GAS KINEMATICS OF THE LITTLE THINGS DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY NGC 1569

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Megan; Hunter, Deidre A.; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Herrmann, Kimberly; Oh, Se-Heon; Elmegreen, Bruce; Brinks, Elias; Tollerud, Erik

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the formation and evolution of Magellanic-type dwarf irregular (dIm) galaxies, one needs to understand their three-dimensional structure. We present measurements of the stellar velocity dispersion in NGC 1569, a nearby post-starburst dIm galaxy. The stellar vertical velocity dispersion, σ z , coupled with the maximum rotational velocity derived from H I observations, V max , gives a measure of how kinematically hot the galaxy is, and, therefore, indicates its structure. We conclude that the stars in NGC 1569 are in a thick disk with a V max /σ z = 2.4 ± 0.7. In addition to the structure, we analyze the ionized gas kinematics from O III observations along the morphological major axis. These data show evidence for outflow from the inner starburst region and a potential expanding shell near supermassive star cluster (SSC) A. When compared to the stellar kinematics, the velocity dispersion of the stars increases in the region of SSC A supporting the hypothesis of an expanding shell. The stellar kinematics closely follow the motion of the gas. Analysis of high-resolution H I data clearly reveals the presence of an H I cloud that appears to be impacting the eastern edge of NGC 1569. Also, an ultra-dense H I cloud can be seen extending to the west of the impacting H I cloud. This dense cloud is likely the remains of a dense H I bridge that extended through what is now the central starburst area. The impacting H I cloud was the catalyst for the starburst, thus turning the dense gas into stars over a short timescale, ∼1 Gyr. We performed a careful study of the spectral energy distribution using infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photometry, producing a state-of-the-art mass model for the stellar disk. This mass modeling shows that stars dominate the gravitational potential in the inner 1 kpc. The dynamical mass of NGC 1569, derived from V max , shows that the disk may be dark matter deficient in the inner region, although, when compared to the

  6. THE STELLAR AND GAS KINEMATICS OF THE LITTLE THINGS DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY NGC 1569

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Megan [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A.; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Herrmann, Kimberly [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Oh, Se-Heon [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Elmegreen, Bruce [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Tollerud, Erik, E-mail: mjohnson@nrao.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu, E-mail: hxzhang@lowell.edu, E-mail: herrmann@lowell.edu, E-mail: se-heon.oh@uwa.edu.au, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: E.Brinks@herts.ac.uk, E-mail: etolleru@uci.edu [Center For Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the formation and evolution of Magellanic-type dwarf irregular (dIm) galaxies, one needs to understand their three-dimensional structure. We present measurements of the stellar velocity dispersion in NGC 1569, a nearby post-starburst dIm galaxy. The stellar vertical velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub z}, coupled with the maximum rotational velocity derived from H I observations, V{sub max}, gives a measure of how kinematically hot the galaxy is, and, therefore, indicates its structure. We conclude that the stars in NGC 1569 are in a thick disk with a V{sub max}/{sigma}{sub z} = 2.4 {+-} 0.7. In addition to the structure, we analyze the ionized gas kinematics from O III observations along the morphological major axis. These data show evidence for outflow from the inner starburst region and a potential expanding shell near supermassive star cluster (SSC) A. When compared to the stellar kinematics, the velocity dispersion of the stars increases in the region of SSC A supporting the hypothesis of an expanding shell. The stellar kinematics closely follow the motion of the gas. Analysis of high-resolution H I data clearly reveals the presence of an H I cloud that appears to be impacting the eastern edge of NGC 1569. Also, an ultra-dense H I cloud can be seen extending to the west of the impacting H I cloud. This dense cloud is likely the remains of a dense H I bridge that extended through what is now the central starburst area. The impacting H I cloud was the catalyst for the starburst, thus turning the dense gas into stars over a short timescale, {approx}1 Gyr. We performed a careful study of the spectral energy distribution using infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photometry, producing a state-of-the-art mass model for the stellar disk. This mass modeling shows that stars dominate the gravitational potential in the inner 1 kpc. The dynamical mass of NGC 1569, derived from V{sub max}, shows that the disk may be dark matter deficient in the inner

  7. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: The Mid-infrared Properties of Post-starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Lanz, Lauranne; Lacy, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; French, K. Decker; Ciesla, Laure; Appleton, Philip N.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Crossett, Jacob; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Kelson, Daniel D.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kriek, Mariska; Medling, Anne M.; Mulchaey, John S.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the optical and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) colors of “E+A” identified post-starburst galaxies, including a deep analysis of 190 post-starbursts detected in the 2 μm All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog. The post-starburst galaxies appear in both the optical green valley and the WISE Infrared Transition Zone. Furthermore, we find that post-starbursts occupy a distinct region of [3.4]-[4.6] versus [4.6]-[12] WISE colors, enabling the identification of this class of transitioning galaxies through the use of broadband photometric criteria alone. We have investigated possible causes for the WISE colors of post-starbursts by constructing a composite spectral energy distribution (SED), finding that the mid-infrared (4-12 μm) properties of post-starbursts are consistent with either 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, or thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and post-AGB stars. The composite SED of extended post-starburst galaxies with 22 μm emission detected with signal-to-noise ratio ≥slant 3 requires a hot dust component to produce their observed rising mid-infrared SED between 12 and 22 μm. The composite SED of WISE 22 μm non-detections (S/N systems. This could mean that including selections capable of identifying AGNs as part of a search for transitioning and post-starburst galaxies would create a more complete census of the transition pathways taken as a galaxy quenches its star formation.

  8. Carbon Abundances in Starburst Galaxies of the Local Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña-Guerrero, María A.; Leitherer, Claus; Mink, Selma de; Wofford, Aida; Kewley, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The cosmological origin of carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe, is not well known and a matter of heavy debate. We investigate the behavior of C/O to O/H in order to constrain the production mechanism of carbon. We measured emission-line intensities in the spectral range from 1600 to 10000 Å on Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long-slit spectra of 18 starburst galaxies in the local universe. We determined chemical abundances through traditional nebular analysis, and we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine where our carbon and oxygen abundances lie in the parameter space. We conclude that our C and O abundance measurements are sensible. We analyzed the behavior of our sample in the [C/O] versus [O/H] diagram with respect to other objects such as DLAs, neutral ISM measurements, and disk and halo stars, finding that each type of object seems to be located in a specific region of the diagram. Our sample shows a steeper C/O versus O/H slope with respect to other samples, suggesting that massive stars contribute more to the production of C than N at higher metallicities, only for objects where massive stars are numerous; otherwise, intermediate-mass stars dominate the C and N production.

  9. Carbon Abundances in Starburst Galaxies of the Local Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Guerrero, María A.; Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mink, Selma de [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wofford, Aida [Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Ensenada, CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Kewley, Lisa, E-mail: pena@stsci.edu, E-mail: leitherer@stsci.edu, E-mail: S.E.deMink@uva.nl, E-mail: awofford@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: lisa.kewley@anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-10-01

    The cosmological origin of carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe, is not well known and a matter of heavy debate. We investigate the behavior of C/O to O/H in order to constrain the production mechanism of carbon. We measured emission-line intensities in the spectral range from 1600 to 10000 Å on Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long-slit spectra of 18 starburst galaxies in the local universe. We determined chemical abundances through traditional nebular analysis, and we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine where our carbon and oxygen abundances lie in the parameter space. We conclude that our C and O abundance measurements are sensible. We analyzed the behavior of our sample in the [C/O] versus [O/H] diagram with respect to other objects such as DLAs, neutral ISM measurements, and disk and halo stars, finding that each type of object seems to be located in a specific region of the diagram. Our sample shows a steeper C/O versus O/H slope with respect to other samples, suggesting that massive stars contribute more to the production of C than N at higher metallicities, only for objects where massive stars are numerous; otherwise, intermediate-mass stars dominate the C and N production.

  10. CLUMPY AND EXTENDED STARBURSTS IN THE BRIGHTEST UNLENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kawabe, Ryohei; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Ikarashi, Soh [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Lee, Minju; Saito, Toshiki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Ueda, Junko [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Michiyama, Tomonari; Ando, Misaki, E-mail: d.iono@nao.ac.jp [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-09-20

    The central structure in three of the brightest unlensed z = 3–4 submillimeter galaxies is investigated through 0.″015–0.″05 (120–360 pc) 860 μ m continuum images obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The distribution in the central kiloparsec in AzTEC1 and AzTEC8 is extremely complex, and they are composed of multiple ∼200 pc clumps. AzTEC4 consists of two sources that are separated by ∼1.5 kpc, indicating a mid-stage merger. The peak star formation rate densities in the central clumps are ∼300–3000 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, suggesting regions with extreme star formation near the Eddington limit. By comparing the flux obtained by ALMA and Submillimeter Array, we find that 68%–90% of the emission is extended (≳1 kpc) in AzTEC4 and 8. For AzTEC1, we identify at least 11 additional compact (∼200 pc) clumps in the extended 3–4 kpc region. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the luminosity surface densities observed at ≲150 pc scales are roughly similar to that observed in local ULIRGs, as in the eastern nucleus of Arp 220. Between 10% and 30% of the 860 μ m continuum is concentrated in clumpy structures in the central kiloparsec, while the remaining flux is distributed over ≳1 kpc regions, some of which could also be clumpy. These sources can be explained by a rapid inflow of gas such as a merger of gas-rich galaxies, surrounded by extended and clumpy starbursts. However, the cold mode accretion model is not ruled out.

  11. A molecular line survey toward the nearby galaxies NGC 1068, NGC 253, and IC 342 at 3 mm with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope: Impact of an AGN on 1 kpc scale molecular abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Taku; Takano, Shuro; Kohno, Kotaro; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric

    2018-01-01

    It is important to investigate the relationships between the power sources and the chemical compositions of galaxies in order to understand the scenario of galaxy evolution. We carried out an unbiased molecular line survey towards active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy NGC1068, and prototypical starburst galaxies, NGC 253 and IC 342, with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in the 3 mm band. The advantage of this line survey is that the obtained spectra have the highest angular resolution ever obtained with single-dish telescopes. In particular, the beam size of this telescope is ˜15″-19″, which is able to separate spatially the nuclear molecular emission from that of the starburst ring (d ˜ 30″) in NGC 1068. We successfully detected approximately 23 molecular species in each galaxy, and calculated rotation temperatures and column densities. We estimate the molecular fractional abundances with respect to 13CO and CS molecules and compare them among three galaxies in order to investigate the chemical signatures of an AGN environment. As a result, we found clear trends in the abundances of molecules surrounding the AGN on a 1-kpc scale. HCN, H13CN, CN, 13CN, and HC3N are more abundant, and CH3CCH is deficient in NGC 1068 compared with the starburst galaxies. High abundances of HCN, H13CN, and HC3N suggest that the circumnuclear disk in NGC 1068 is in a high-temperature environment. The reason for the non-detection of CH3CCH is likely to be dissociation by high-energy radiation or less sublimation of a precursor of CH3CCH from grains.

  12. The origins of post-starburst galaxies at z < 0.05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, M. M.; Taj Aldeen, L.; Wild, V.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Lahén, N.; Johansson, P. H.; Jimenez, N.; Lucas, W.; Zheng, Y.; Walcher, C. J.; Rowlands, K.

    2018-06-01

    Post-starburst galaxies can be identified via the presence of prominent Hydrogen Balmer absorption lines in their spectra. We present a comprehensive study of the origin of strong Balmer lines in a volume-limited sample of 189 galaxies with 0.01 9.5 and projected axial ratio b/a > 0.32. We explore their structural properties, environments, emission lines, and star formation histories, and compare them to control samples of star-forming and quiescent galaxies, and simulated galaxy mergers. Excluding contaminants, in which the strong Balmer lines are most likely caused by dust-star geometry, we find evidence for three different pathways through the post-starburst phase, with most events occurring in intermediate-density environments: (1) a significant disruptive event, such as a gas-rich major merger, causing a starburst and growth of a spheroidal component, followed by quenching of the star formation (70 per cent of post-starburst galaxies at 9.510.5); (2) at 9.510.5, cyclic evolution of quiescent galaxies which gradually move towards the high-mass end of the red sequence through weak starbursts, possibly as a result of a merger with a smaller gas-rich companion (40 per cent). Our analysis suggests that active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are 'on' for 50 per cent of the duration of the post-starburst phase, meaning that traditional samples of post-starburst galaxies with strict emission-line cuts will be at least 50 per cent incomplete due to the exclusion of narrow-line AGNs.

  13. Local starburst galaxies and their descendants. Statistics from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, Nils; Marquart, Thomas; Way, Michael J.; Blomqvist, Anna; Holst, Emma; Ostlin, Goran; Zackrisson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Despite strong interest in the starburst phenomenon in extragalactic astronomy, the concept remains ill-defined. Here we use a strict definition of starburst to examine the statistical properties of starburst galaxies in the local universe. We also seek to establish links between starburst galaxies, post-starburst (hereafter postburst) galaxies, and active galaxies. Data were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. We applied a novel method of treating dust attenuation and derive star formation rates, ages, and stellar masses assuming a two-component stellar population model. Dynamical masses are calculated from the width of the H-alpha line. These masses agree excellently with the photometric masses. The mass (gas+stars) range is approximately 10( exp 9) - 10(exp 11.5) solar mass. As a selection criterion for starburst galaxies, we use, the birthrate parameter, b = SFR/SFR, requiring that b is greater than 3. For postburst galaxies, we use, the equivalent width of Hdelta in absorption with the criterion EW (sub Hdelta_abs) is greater than 6 A. Results. We find that only 1% of star-forming galaxies are starburst galaxies. They contribute 3-6% to the stellar production and are therefore unimportant for the local star formation activity. The median starburst age is 70 Myr roughly independent of mass, indicating that star formation is mainly regulated by local feedback processes. The b-parameter strongly depends on burst age. Values close to b = 60 are found at ages approximately 10 Myr, while almost no starbursts are found at ages greater than 1 Gyr. The median baryonic burst mass fraction of sub-L galaxies is 5% and decreases slowly towards high masses. The median mass fraction of the recent burst in the postburst sample is 5-10%. A smaller fraction of the postburst galaxies, however, originates in non-bursting galaxies. The age-mass distribution of the postburst progenitors (with mass fractions is greater than 3%) is bimodal with a break at logM(solar mass

  14. Initial mass function for early-type stars in starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Anderson, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The IMF slope of early-type stars in starburst galaxies is investigated using IUE observations and a technique that utilizes mass-linewidth relations for early-type stars. Fourteen low-resolution IUE spectra of eight starburst galaxies and three H II region galaxies are used to obtain line-strength ratios Si IV(1400 A)/C IV(1550 A). These are compared to model line ratios, and indicate that the average IMF slope for OB stars in these intense star-formation regions is appreciably flatter than that of the solar neighborhood. 46 references

  15. DWARFS GOBBLING DWARFS: A STELLAR TIDAL STREAM AROUND NGC 4449 AND HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION ON SMALL SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Delgado, David; Rix, Hans-Walter; Macciò, Andrea V.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Jay Gabany, R.; Annibali, Francesca; Fliri, Jürgen; Zibetti, Stefano; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Chonis, Taylor S.; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Gallego-Laborda, J.; Merrifield, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    A candidate diffuse stellar substructure was previously reported in the halo of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4449 by Karachentsev et al. We map and analyze this feature using a unique combination of deep integrated-light images from the BlackBird 0.5 m telescope, and high-resolution wide-field images from the 8 m Subaru Telescope, which resolve the nebulosity into a stream of red giant branch stars, and confirm its physical association with NGC 4449. The properties of the stream imply a massive dwarf spheroidal progenitor, which after complete disruption will deposit an amount of stellar mass that is comparable to the existing stellar halo of the main galaxy. The stellar mass ratio between the two galaxies is ∼1:50, while the indirectly measured dynamical mass ratio, when including dark matter, may be ∼1:10-1:5. This system may thus represent a 'stealth' merger, where an infalling satellite galaxy is nearly undetectable by conventional means, yet has a substantial dynamical influence on its host galaxy. This singular discovery also suggests that satellite accretion can play a significant role in building up the stellar halos of low-mass galaxies, and possibly in triggering their starbursts.

  16. HST/ACS DIRECT AGES OF THE DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES NGC 147 AND NGC 185

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geha, M. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Weisz, D. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Grocholski, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dolphin, A. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Marel, R. P. van der [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guhathakurta, P., E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. Our F606W and F814W color–magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the oldest main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located roughly ∼1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While both ACS fields show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age of NGC 147 is ∼4–5 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 prior to 12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr ago. Star formation has ceased in both ACS fields for at least 3 Gyr. Previous observations in the central regions of NGC 185 show evidence for star formation as recent as 100 Myr ago, and a strong metallicity gradient with radius. This implies a lack of radial mixing between the center of NGC 185 and our ACS field. The lack of radial gradients in NGC 147 suggests that our inferred SFHs are more representative of its global history. We interpret the inferred differences in star formation histories to imply an earlier infall time into the M31 environment for NGC 185 as compared to NGC 147.

  17. A dust-obscured massive maximum-starburst galaxy at a redshift of 6.34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A; Bradford, C M; Clements, D L; Dowell, C D; Pérez-Fournon, I; Ivison, R J; Bridge, C; Conley, A; Fu, Hai; Vieira, J D; Wardlow, J; Calanog, J; Cooray, A; Hurley, P; Neri, R; Kamenetzky, J; Aguirre, J E; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Benford, D J; Béthermin, M; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Chapman, S C; Cox, P; Dunlop, J S; Earle, L; Farrah, D; Ferrero, P; Franceschini, A; Gavazzi, R; Glenn, J; Solares, E A Gonzalez; Gurwell, M A; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hyde, A; Ibar, E; Kovács, A; Krips, M; Lupu, R E; Maloney, P R; Martinez-Navajas, P; Matsuhara, H; Murphy, E J; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Petitpas, G; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Scott, D; Smith, A J; Staguhn, J G; Streblyanska, A; Thomson, A P; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Zemcov, M; Zmuidzinas, J

    2013-04-18

    Massive present-day early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies probably gained the bulk of their stellar mass and heavy elements through intense, dust-enshrouded starbursts--that is, increased rates of star formation--in the most massive dark-matter haloes at early epochs. However, it remains unknown how soon after the Big Bang massive starburst progenitors exist. The measured redshift (z) distribution of dusty, massive starbursts has long been suspected to be biased low in z owing to selection effects, as confirmed by recent findings of systems with redshifts as high as ~5 (refs 2-4). Here we report the identification of a massive starburst galaxy at z = 6.34 through a submillimetre colour-selection technique. We unambiguously determined the redshift from a suite of molecular and atomic fine-structure cooling lines. These measurements reveal a hundred billion solar masses of highly excited, chemically evolved interstellar medium in this galaxy, which constitutes at least 40 per cent of the baryonic mass. A 'maximum starburst' converts the gas into stars at a rate more than 2,000 times that of the Milky Way, a rate among the highest observed at any epoch. Despite the overall downturn in cosmic star formation towards the highest redshifts, it seems that environments mature enough to form the most massive, intense starbursts existed at least as early as 880 million years after the Big Bang.

  18. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  19. Dynamical models of two lenticular galaxies: NGC 1023 and NGC 4526

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study kinematics and dynamics of two lenticular galaxies that possess globular clusters (GCs which extend beyond approximately seven effective radii. We analyze two nearby lenticular galaxies, NGC 1023 and NGC 4526, based on their GCs. We extract the kinematics of these galaxies and use it for dynamical modeling based on the Jeans equation. The Jeans equation was solved in both the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and assuming a dark halo in the Navarro-Frenk-White form. We find that while the first galaxy, NGC 1023, does not need a significant amount of dark matter, in the other galaxy, NGC 4526, the dark component fully dominates stellar matter in the total dynamical mass. In this paper we also used three different MOND approaches and found that while for both galaxies MOND models can provide successful fits of the observed velocity dispersion, in the case of NGC 4526 we have a hint of an additional dark component even in the MOND framework. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 176021: Visible and Invisible Matter in Nearby Galaxies: Theory and Observations

  20. Photometric Signatures of Starbursts in Interacting Galaxies and the Butcher-Oemler Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakos, Karl D.; Maindl, Thomas I.; Schombert, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents new and synthetic narrow band photometry of ellipticals, spirals, Seyferts and interacting galaxies in an attempt to identify the cause of the unusually high fraction of blue cluster galaxies in distant clusters (the Butcher-Oemler Effect). The properties and distribution of the low redshift sample specifically points to starbursts as the origin of the blue narrow band colors in interacting Arp galaxies.

  1. Embedded clusters in NGC1808 central starburst - Near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Galliano, E.; Alloin, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the course of a mid-infrared imaging campaign of close-by active galaxies, we discovered the mid-infrared counterparts of bright compact radio sources in the central star-forming region of NGC1808. We aim at confirming that these sources are deeply embedded, young star clusters and at deriving some of their intrinsic properties. To complement the mid-infrared data, we have collected a set of near-infrared data with ISAAC at the VLT: J, Ks, and L' images, as well as low-resolution, long-sli...

  2. Galaxy evolution in groups. NGC 3447/NGC 3447A: the odd couple in LGG 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Rampazzo, R.; Plana, H.; Rosado, M.; Arias, L.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Local Group (LG) analogs (LGAs) are galaxy associations dominated by a few bright spirals reminiscent of the LG. The NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system is a member of the LGG 225 group, a nearby LGA. This system is considered a physical pair composed of an intermediate-luminosity late-type spiral, NGC 3447 itself, and an irregular companion, NGC 3447A, linked by a faint, short filament of matter. A ring-like structure in the NGC 3447 outskirts has been emphasised by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observations. Aims: This work aims to contribute to the study of galaxy evolution in low-density environments, a favourable habitat to highly effective encounters, shedding light on the evolution of the NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system. Methods: We performed a multi-λ analysis of the surface photometry of this system to derive its spectral energy distribution and structural properties using ultraviolet (UV), Swift UVOT, and optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images complemented with available far-IR observations. We also characterised the velocity field of the pair using two-dimensional Hα kinematical observations of the system obtained with PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (Mexico). All these data are used to constrain smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementation to shed light on the evolution of this system. Results: The luminosity profiles, from UV to optical wavelengths, are all consistent with the presence of a disc extending and including NGC 3447A. The overall velocity field does not emphasise any significant rotation pattern, rather a small velocity gradient between NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A. Our simulation, detached from a large grid explored to best-fit the global properties of the system, suggests that this arises from an encounter between two halos of equal mass. Conclusions: NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A belong to the same halo, NGC 3447A being a substructure of the same disk including NGC

  3. STAR FORMATION RATES FOR STARBURST GALAXIES FROM ULTRAVIOLET, INFRARED, AND RADIO LUMINOSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, Lusine A.; Weedman, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comparison of star formation rates (SFR) determined from mid-infrared 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) luminosity [SFR(PAH)], from 1.4 GHz radio luminosity [SFR(radio)], and from far-ultraviolet luminosity [SFR(UV)] for a sample of 287 starburst galaxies with z ν (7.7 μm)] - 42.57 ± 0.2, for SFR in M sun yr -1 and νL ν (7.7 μm) the luminosity at the peak of the 7.7 μm PAH feature in erg s -1 , is found to agree with SFR(radio). Comparing with SFR(UV) determined independently from ultraviolet observations of the same sources with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission (not corrected for dust extinction), the median log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)] = 1.67, indicating that only 2% of the ultraviolet continuum typically escapes extinction by dust within a starburst. This ratio SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) depends on infrared luminosity, with the form log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)] = (0.53 ± 0.05)log [νL ν (7.7 μm)] - 21.5 ± 0.18, indicating that more luminous starbursts are also dustier. Using our adopted relation between νL ν (7.7 μm) and L ir , this becomes log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)]= (0.53 ± 0.05)log L ir - 4.11 ± 0.18, for L ir in L sun . Only blue compact dwarf galaxies show comparable or greater SFR(UV) compared to SFR(PAH). We also find that the ratio SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) is similar to that in infrared-selected starbursts for a sample of Markarian starburst galaxies originally selected using optical classification, which implies that there is no significant selection effect in SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) using starburst galaxies discovered by Spitzer. These results indicate that SFRs determined with ultraviolet luminosities require dust corrections by a factor of ∼10 for typical local starbursts but this factor increases to >700 for the most luminous starbursts at z ∼ 2.5. Application of this factor explains why the most luminous starbursts discovered by Spitzer at z ∼ 2.5 are optically faint; with this amount of extinction, the optical magnitude of a starburst

  4. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgarone, E; Zwaan, M A; Godard, B; Bergin, E; Ivison, R J; Andreani, P M; Bournaud, F; Bussmann, R S; Elbaz, D; Omont, A; Oteo, I; Walter, F

    2017-08-24

    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH + , is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH + (J = 1-0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH + emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH + absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

  5. Survey of Milliarcsec Structure in Eight Seyfert Galaxies: Results on NGC 1068 and NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. L.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Wilson, A. S.; Norris, R. P.

    We are surveying eight nearby Seyfert galaxies (four Sy1s and four Sy2s) that have compact radio cores, using the VLBA. We are interested in parsec-scale morphology and low-frequency absorption effects, and so are observing four frequencies (1.6, 4.8, 8.4 and 15 GHz) to get spectral-index diagnostics. In this paper, we present results on two galaxies, NGC 1068 and NGC 4151. NGC 4151 shows a curved radio jet on the sub-parsec scale, with the smallest scale structure misaligned by $55^\\circ$ from the jet on scales of parsecs to hundreds of parsecs. NGC 1068 contains several components in the inner tens of parsecs, with those components showing a variety of absorption and resolution effects.

  6. Galactic Outflows, Star Formation Histories, and Timescales in Starburst Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Heilman, Taryn N.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Kelley, Tyler

    2018-03-01

    Winds are predicted to be ubiquitous in low-mass, actively star-forming galaxies. Observationally, winds have been detected in relatively few local dwarf galaxies, with even fewer constraints placed on their timescales. Here, we compare galactic outflows traced by diffuse, soft X-ray emission from Chandra Space Telescope archival observations to the star formation histories derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations in six starburst dwarfs. We constrain the longevity of a wind to have an upper limit of 25 Myr based on galaxies whose starburst activity has already declined, although a larger sample is needed to confirm this result. We find an average 16% efficiency for converting the mechanical energy of stellar feedback to thermal, soft X-ray emission on the 25 Myr timescale, somewhat higher than simulations predict. The outflows have likely been sustained for timescales comparable to the duration of the starbursts (i.e., 100's Myr), after taking into account the time for the development and cessation of the wind. The wind timescales imply that material is driven to larger distances in the circumgalactic medium than estimated by assuming short, 5-10 Myr starburst durations, and that less material is recycled back to the host galaxy on short timescales. In the detected outflows, the expelled hot gas shows various morphologies which are not consistent with a simple biconical outflow structure. The sample and analysis are part of a larger program, the STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS), aimed at understanding the lifecycle and impact of starburst activity in low-mass systems.

  7. The Secrets of the Nearest Starburst Cluster. I. Very Large Telescope/ISAAC Photometry of NGC 3603

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandl, Bernhard; Zinnecker, Hans; Grebel, Eva K.

    2004-08-01

    VLT/ISAAC JHKL photometry with subarcsecond resolution of the dense, massive starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC forming the core of the NGC 3603 giant molecular cloud is analyzed to reveal characteristics of the stellar population in unprecedented detail. The color-magnitude plane features a strong pre-main-sequence/main-sequence (PMS/MS) transition region, including the PMS/MS transition point, and reveals a secondary sequence for the first time in a nearby young starburst cluster. Arguments for a possible binary nature of this sequence are given. The resolved PMS/MS transition region allows isochrone fitting below the hydrogen-burning turn-on in NGC 3603 YC, yielding an independent estimate of global cluster parameters. A distance modulus of 13.9 mag, equivalent to d=6.0+/-0.3 kpc, is derived, as well as a line-of-sight extinction of AV=4.5+/-0.6 toward PMS stars in the cluster center. The interpretation of a binary candidate sequence suggests a single age of 1 Myr for NGC 3603 YC, providing evidence for a single burst of star formation without the need to employ an age spread in the PMS population, as argued for in earlier studies. Disk fractions are derived from L-band excesses, indicating a radial increase in the disk frequency from 20% to 40% from the core to the cluster outskirts. The low disk fraction in the cluster core, as compared to the 42% L-band excess fraction found for massive stars in the Trapezium cluster of a comparably young age, indicates strong photoevaporation in the cluster center. The estimated binary fraction of 30%, as well as the low disk fraction, suggest strong impacts on low-mass star formation due to stellar interactions in the dense starburst. The significant differences between NGC 3603 YC and less dense and massive young star clusters in the Milky Way reveal the importance of using local starbursts as templates for massive extragalactic star formation. Based on observations obtained at the ESO VLT on Paranal, Chile, under programs 63.I

  8. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance

  9. CCD imagery of the S0 galaxies NGC 3990 and NGC 3998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.A.; Welch, D.M.K.; Dupuy, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The structure and colors of NGC 3990 and NGC 3998 are investigated using BR CCD imagery. Fits of bulge-disk models of the galaxies indicate that both disks are somewhat brighter and more compact than typical S0 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters. Although the two galaxies are separated by only about 3.5 arcmin, none of the obvious signs of gravitational interaction are seen. The colors of both galaxies are normal; the disk of NGC 3998 is somewhat bluer than its bulge. The search has failed to reveal the interstellar dust predicted from the neutral hydrogen observations of NGC 3998. The dust that is seen appears to be mixed with ionized gas which occupies the center of this galaxy and may be the same material seen at longer wavelengths by the IRAS experiment. Its low abundance relative to the neutral gas is consistent with the idea that the ISM was contributed by a gas-rich dwarf galaxy in a destructive merger. 31 refs

  10. Post-Starburst Galaxies At The End of The E+A Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Charles; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Chang, Madeleine; Lyczko, Camilla; Vega Orozco, Cecilia; SDSS-IV Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    Post-starburst galaxies, once thought to be rare curiosities, are now recognized to represent a key phase in the galaxy evolution. The post-starburst, or E+A phase, should however not be considered as a single, short-lived phenomenon; rather, it is an extended evolutionary process that occurs a galaxy transitions from an actively star-forming system into a quiescent one. We present a study of nearby galaxies at or near the end of the E+A phase, wherein all star formation has been quenched, the fossilized stellar population of the most recent starburst is highly localized, and the remainder of the galaxy's stellar population is old and quiescent. The luminosity and stellar age distribution of these "end-phase E+As" can provide insights into the evolution of galaxies onto and within the red sequence, from active to passive systems. This work is supported by National Science Foundation grants to CUNY College of Staten Island and the American Museum of Natural History; the College of Staten Island Office of Academic Affairs; the Sherman Fairchild Science Pathways Scholars Program (SP^2) at Barnard College; and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  11. Near-infrared to Mid-infrared Observations of Galaxy Mergers: NGC 2782 and NGC 7727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Wu, Ronin; Ohsawa, Ryou; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Roellig, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared-to-mid-infrared (NIR-to-MIR) imaging and NIR spectroscopic observations of two galaxy mergers, NGC 2782 (Arp 215) and NGC 7727 (Arp 222), with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. NGC 2782 shows extended MIR emission in the eastern side of the galaxy, which corresponds to the eastern tidal tail seen in the H I 21 cm map, while NGC 7727 shows extended MIR emission in the north of the galaxy, which is similar to the plumes seen in the residual image at the K-band after subtracting a galaxy model. Both extended structures are thought to have formed in association with their merger events. They show excess emission at 7–15 μm, which can be attributed to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) decline longward of 24 μm, suggesting that very small grains (VSGs) are deficient. These characteristics of the observed MIR SED may be explained if PAHs are formed by fragmentation of VSGs during merger events. The star formation rate is estimated from the MIR PAH emission in the eastern tail region of NGC 2782 and it is in fair agreement with those estimated from Hα and [C II] 158 μm. MIR observations are efficient for the study of dust processing and structures formed during merger events.

  12. E+A Galaxy Properties and Post-Starburst Galaxy Evolution Data through SDSS-IV MaNGA and Illustris: A Co-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Winonah; Dudley, Raymond; Edwards, Kay; Gonzalez, Andrea; Johnson, Amalya; Kerrison, Nicole; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Melchert, Nancy; Liu, Charles; Sloan Collaboration, SDSS-IV MaNGA

    2018-01-01

    E+A galaxies (Elliptical + A-type stars) are post-starburst galaxies that have experienced a sudden quenching phase. Using previous research methods, 39 candidates out of 2,812 galaxies observed, or 1.4%, were selected from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. We then identified morphological characteristics of the 39 galaxies including stellar kinematics, Gini coefficient, gas density and distribution and stellar ages. To study the origin of how E+A galaxies evolved to their present state, galaxy simulation data from the Illustris simulation was utilized to identify similar quenched post-starburst candidates. Seven post-starburst candidates were identified through star formation rate histories of Illustris simulated galaxies. The evolution of these galaxies is studied from 0 to 13.8 billion years ago to identify what caused the starburst and quenching of the Illustris candidates. Similar morphological characteristics of Illustris post-starburst candidates are pulled from before, during, and post-starburst and compared to the same morphological characteristics of the E+A galaxies from SDSS-IV MaNGA. The characteristics and properties of the Illustris galaxies are used to identify the possible evolutionary histories of the observed E+A galaxies. This work was supported by grants AST-1460860 from the National Science Foundation and SDSS FAST/SSP-483 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  13. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  14. Unusual Objects in the Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov Yu. N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several strange objects in the spiral galaxy NGC 6946 are described. One of these objects is the giant stellar complex noted long ago; we suggested that its sharp semicircular western edge is a result of the ram pressure, arising owing to motion of this complex through the HI halo of NGC 6946. We found another enigmatic object, proposing for it the name Red Ellipse; it is located within the isolated Northern arm of the galaxy. The enormous size of this Ellipse, and especially the spectroscopic data obtained recently with the 6-m reflector of the Special Astrophysical Observatory, made us to conclude that this object could not be a supernova remnant. The excellent image of NGC 6946 obtained with the Subaru 8-m telescope also shows a strange region with several regular crossed dark lanes, connected with a black spot.

  15. Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Krips, M; Rudnick, G H; Tremonti, C A; Sell, P H; Coil, A L; Moustakas, J

    2014-12-04

    Recent observations have revealed that starburst galaxies can drive molecular gas outflows through stellar radiation pressure. Molecular gas is the phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form, so these outflows curtail stellar mass growth in galaxies. Previously known outflows, however, involve small fractions of the total molecular gas content and have typical scales of less than a kiloparsec. In at least some cases, input from active galactic nuclei is dynamically important, so pure stellar feedback (the momentum return into the interstellar medium) has been considered incapable of rapidly terminating star formation on galactic scales. Molecular gas has been detected outside the galactic plane of the archetypal starburst galaxy M82 (refs 4 and 5), but so far there has been no evidence that starbursts can propel substantial quantities of cold molecular gas to the same galactocentric radius (about 10 kiloparsecs) as the warmer gas that has been traced by metal ion absorbers in the circumgalactic medium. Here we report observations of molecular gas in a compact (effective radius 100 parsecs) massive starburst galaxy at redshift 0.7, which is known to drive a fast outflow of ionized gas. We find that 35 per cent of the total molecular gas extends approximately 10 kiloparsecs, and one-third of this extended gas has a velocity of up to 1,000 kilometres per second. The kinetic energy associated with this high-velocity component is consistent with the momentum flux available from stellar radiation pressure. This demonstrates that nuclear bursts of star formation are capable of ejecting large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, thereby strongly affecting their evolution by truncating star formation and redistributing matter.

  16. Current star formation in S0 galaxies: NGC 4710

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies lack the substantial interstellar medium (ISM) found in the star-forming spiral galaxies. However, significant numbers of E and S0 galaxies are known to contain detectable amounts of interstellar matter (e.g., Jura 1988). Thus, it is worth investigating whether these galaxies are currently able to form stars from their ISM, or whether they should be consigned to the dustbin of inert objects (Thronson and Bally 1987). The results strongly imply that current star formation is responsible for NGC 4710's far infrared and radio continuum properties. If this is indeed the case, then one expects this star formation to be fueled by molecular gas, which is presumably dominated by H2 and can be traced by the CO-12 J=1 to 0 line. Both Kenney and Young (1988) and Sage and Wrobel (1989) have detected such an emission line from NGC 4710, and infer the presence of more than 10(exp 8) solar mass of H2. The origin of the molecular gas in NGC 4710 remains a mystery. The galaxy is very deficient in HI (Kenney and Young, in preparation), suggesting that it originally was a spiral galaxy from which the outer, mainly atomic, gas was stripped by the ram pressure of the Virgo Cluster's intracluster medium, leaving only a central interstellar medium (ISM) rich in molecular gas. Alternatively, the CO may have originated via stellar mass loss with subsequent cooling, cooling flows, or capture from a gas-rich companion. Information on the morphology and kinematics of the CO can be compared with that of the galaxy's other gases and stars to distinguish among these various possible origins for the molecular gas. Major axis CO mapping with single dishes indicate an unresolved source. Thus, a millimeter array is currently being used to image NGC 4710 in CO to provide the needed morphological and kinematical data

  17. Gas component parameters in the nucleus of galaxy NGC5879

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, G.T.; Mineva, V.A.; Kyazumov, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Relative intensities of the emission lines from the nucleus of galaxy NGC 5879 are determined, using spectra obtained by the 125-cm ZTE telescope at the Crimea Station of State Astronomical Institute Shane. On the basis of these data, the luminosity in the line HSUB(α) is determined: LSUB(Hα)= 3.43.10 38 erg/sec; also the mass of gas: MSUB(gas)= 1.10 36 g, and other quantities, for H=75 km/s Mpc. The electron density of the gas, nSUB(e), is estimated to be 1550 cm -3 . Nitrogen and sulphur ion contents are correspondingly lgN + =7.09 and lgS + =6.53, assuming lgH=12.00. The NGC 5879 galaxy exibits a weak activity, expressed in relatively strong emission lines, and can be referred to galaxies of the M51 or M81 type, studied in detail by Peimbert

  18. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1987-01-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references

  19. A VIOLENT INTERACTION BETWEEN THE DWARF GALAXY UGC-7636 AND THE GIANT ELLIPTIC GALAXY NGC-4472

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCNAMARA, BR; SANCISI, R; HENNING, PA; JUNOR, W

    We present new U, B, R, and H I imagery of the Virgo Cluster giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 and its interacting dwarf companion galaxy UGC 7636. Using a composite image reconstruction technique, we show that a trail of debris similar to 5 arcmin in length and similar to 1 arcmin in width (30x6 kpc

  20. Is the chain of galaxies near NGC 247 anomalous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkowski, C.; Chamaraux, P.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen 21-cm observations of the chain of galaxies near NGC 247 are reported on. From HI and optical data, the chain's distance is found to be 62sub(-25)+- 41 Mpc, in agreement with the redshift. This result rules out Arp's assumption of a physical association between NGC 247 and the chain at a confidence level of better than 3.9 times the r.m.s. dispersion. The HI content of the chain is quite normal, and it is likely to be dynamically stable: these results would argue against the proposal made by Burbridge et al. that the chain was formed recently. (orig.) [de

  1. POST-STARBURST TIDAL TAILS IN THE ARCHETYPICAL ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY Arp 220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Matsubayashi, K.; Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Ideue, Y.; Ohyama, Y.; Nagao, T.; Murayama, T.; Koda, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present our new deep optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy for Arp 220, the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy in the local universe. Our sensitive Hα imaging has newly revealed large-scale Hα absorption, i.e., post-starburst regions in this merger. One is found in the eastern superbubble and the other is in the two tidal tails that are clearly revealed in our deep optical imaging. The size of the Hα absorption region in the eastern bubble is 5 kpc × 7.5 kpc, and the observed Hα equivalent widths are ∼2 Å ± 0.2 Å. The sizes of the northern and southern Hα-absorption tidal tails are ∼5 kpc × 10 kpc and ∼6 kpc × 20 kpc, respectively. The observed Hα equivalent widths range from 4 Å to 7 Å. In order to explain the presence of the two post-starburst tails, we suggest a possible multiple-merger scenario for Arp 220 in which two post-starburst disk-like structures merged into one, causing the two tails. This favors Arp 220 as a multiple merging system composed of four or more galaxies arising from a compact group of galaxies. Taking our new results into account, we discuss a star formation history in the last 1 Gyr in Arp 220.

  2. NGC 5291: Implications for the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.; Hawarden, Timothy G.

    1997-01-01

    The possible formation and evolution of dwarf irregular galaxies from material derived from perturbed evolved galaxies is addressed via an H I study of a likely example, the peculiar system NGC 5291. This system, located in the western outskirts of the cluster Abell 3574, contains the lenticular galaxy NGC 5291 which is in close proximity to a disturbed companion and is flanked by an extensive complex of numerous knots extending roughly 4 min north and 4 min south of the galaxy. In an initial optical and radio study, Longmore et al. (1979, MNRAS, 188, 285) showed that these knots have the spectra of vigorous star-forming regions, and suggested that some may in fact be young dwarf irregular galaxies. High resolution 21-cm line observations taken with the VLA are presented here and reveal that the H I distribution associated with this system encompasses not only the entire N-S complex of optical knots, but also forms an incomplete ring or tail that extends approximately 3 min to the west. The H I associated with NGC 5291 itself shows a high velocity range; the Seashell is not detected. The formation mechanism for this unusual system is unclear and two models - a large, low-luminosity ram-swept disk, and a ram-swept interaction-are discussed. The H I in the system contains numerous concentrations, mostly along the N-S arc of the star-forming complexes, which generally coincide with one or more optical knots; the larger H I features contain several x 10(exp 9) solar mass of gas. Each of the knots is compared to a set of criteria designed to determine if these objects are bound against their own internal kinetic energy and are tidally stable relative to the host galaxy. An analysis of the properties of the H I concentrations surrounding the optical star-forming complexes indicates that at least the largest of these is a bound system; it also possesses a stellar component. It is suggested that this object is a genuinely young dwarf irregular galaxy that has evolved from

  3. The SDSS Discovery of a Strongly Lensed Post-Starburst Galaxy at z=0.766

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min-Su; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Falco, Emilio E.; Broadhurst, Tom; Gunn, James E.

    2008-09-30

    We present the first result of a survey for strong galaxy-galaxy lenses in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images. SDSS J082728.70+223256.4 was selected as a lensing candidate using selection criteria based on the color and positions of objects in the SDSS photometric catalog. Follow-up imaging and spectroscopy showed this object to be a lensing system. The lensing galaxy is an elliptical at z = 0.349 in a galaxy cluster. The lensed galaxy has the spectrum of a post-starburst galaxy at z = 0.766. The lensing galaxy has an estimated mass of {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup 12} M{sub {circle_dot}} and the corresponding mass to light ratio in the B-band is {approx} 26 M{sub {circle_dot}}/L{sub {circle_dot}} inside 1.1 effective radii of the lensing galaxy. Our study shows how catalogs drawn from multi-band surveys can be used to find strong galaxy-galaxy lenses having multiple lens images. Our strong lensing candidate selection based on photometry-only catalogs will be useful in future multi-band imaging surveys such as SNAP and LSST.

  4. ALMA Observations of Molecular Clouds in Three Group-centered Elliptical Galaxies: NGC 5846, NGC 4636, and NGC 5044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Amblard, Alexandre; Gitti, Myriam; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Gaspari, Massimo; Mathews, William G.; David, Laurence

    2018-05-01

    We present new ALMA CO(2–1) observations of two well-studied group-centered elliptical galaxies: NGC 4636 and NGC 5846. In addition, we include a revised analysis of Cycle 0 ALMA observations of the central galaxy in the NGC 5044 group. We find evidence that molecular gas is a common presence in bright group-centered galaxies (BGG). CO line widths are broader than Galactic molecular clouds, and using the reference Milky Way X CO, the total molecular mass ranges from 2.6 × 105 M ⊙ in NGC 4636 to 6.1 × 107 M ⊙ in NGC 5044. Complementary observations using the ALMA Compact Array do not exhibit any detection of a CO diffuse component at the sensitivity level achieved by current exposures. The origin of the detected molecular features is still uncertain, but these ALMA observations suggest that they are the end product of the hot gas cooling process and not the result of merger events. Some of the molecular clouds are associated with dust features as revealed by HST dust extinction maps, suggesting that these clouds formed from dust-enhanced cooling. The global nonlinear condensation may be triggered via the chaotic turbulent field or buoyant uplift. The large virial parameter of the molecular structures and correlation with the warm ({10}3{--}{10}5 {{K}})/hot (≥106) phase velocity dispersion provide evidence that they are unbound giant molecular associations drifting in the turbulent field, consistent with numerical predictions of the chaotic cold accretion process. Alternatively, the observed large CO line widths may be generated by molecular gas flowing out from cloud surfaces due to heating by the local hot gas atmosphere.

  5. Starbursts triggered by central overpressure in interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Chanda J.; Das, Mousumi

    1993-01-01

    A triggering mechanism for the origin of enhanced, massive-star formation in the central regions of interacting spiral galaxy pairs is proposed. Our mechanism is based on the detailed evolution of a realistic interstellar medium in a galaxy following an encounter. As a disk giant molecular cloud (GMC) tumbles into the central region following a galaxy encounter, it undergoes a radiative shock compression via the pre-existing high pressure of the central intercloud medium. The shocked outer shell of a GMC becomes gravitationally unstable and begins to fragment thus resulting in a burst of star formation, when the growth time for the gravitational instabilities in the shell becomes smaller than the crossing time of the shock. The resulting values of typical infrared luminosity agree with observations.

  6. Central structures of Seyfert galaxy NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firpo, V.; Díaz, R.; Dottori, H.; Aguero, M. P.; Bosch, G.; Hagele, G.; Cardaci, M.; Dors, O.

    2017-10-01

    We present the velocity field of the inner 4"(350 pc) of NGC1672, observed with Gemini GMOS/IFU with a spatial sampling of 0.2", spatial resolution of 0.4", and spectral resolution 6000. We determine an upper limit for the mass of the SMBH in the LINER core using the ionized gas radial velocity field, and we confirmed that the active galactic nucleus is located off-center respect to the circumnuclear disk rotation symmetry center.

  7. Starburst-driven Superwinds in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Peter; Podigachoski, Pece [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Haas, Martin, E-mail: pdb@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: podigachoski@astro.rug.nl [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    During the past five decades astronomers have been puzzled by the presence of strong absorption features including metal lines, observed in the optical and ultraviolet spectra of quasars, signaling inflowing and outflowing gas winds with relative velocities up to several thousands of km s{sup −1}. In particular, the location of these winds—close to the quasar, further out in its host galaxy, or in its direct environment—and the possible impact on their surroundings have been issues of intense discussion and uncertainty. Using our Herschel Space Observatory data, we report a tendency for this so-called associated metal absorption to occur along with prodigious star formation in the quasar host galaxy, indicating that the two phenomena are likely to be interrelated, that the gas winds likely occur on the kiloparsec scale and would then have a strong impact on the interstellar medium of the galaxy. This correlation moreover would imply that the unusually high cold dust luminosities in these quasars are connected with ongoing star formation. Given that we find no correlation with the AGN strength, the wind feedback that we establish in these radio-loud objects is most likely associated with their host star formation rather than with their black hole accretion.

  8. ISM Parameters in the Normal Galaxy NGC 5713

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, S. D.; Malhotra, S.; Lim, T.; Helou, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Dinerstein, H.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Hunter, D. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Lu, N. Y.; hide

    1996-01-01

    We report ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) observations fo the Sbc(s) pec galaxy NGC 5713. We have obtained strong detections of the fine-structure forbidden transitions [C(sub ii)] 158(micro)m, [O(sub i)]63(micro)m, and [O(sub iii)] 88(micro)m, and significant upper limits for[N(sub ii)]122(micro)m, [O(sub iii)] 52(micro)m, and [N(sub iii)] 57(micro)m. We also detect the galaxy's dust continuum emission between 43 and 197 microns.

  9. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-03

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  10. NGC 4438: Ram pressure sweeping of a tidally disrupted galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, J.E.; Vangorkom, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    NGC 4438 is the highly HI deficient peculiar spiral in the center of the Virgo cluster. Observations are given of the neutral hydrogen emission obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA) in the D-array configuration. These observations map out the total HI as determined from single dish measurements, and show the hydrogen to be confined to a region about one third the size of the optical disk and displaced to the side of the galaxy opposite M87. The hydrogen content of the galaxy is over an order of magnitude less than that expected for a galaxy of its type. The data suggest that the HI deficiency is a result of ram pressure stripping of the gas in the outer regions of the galaxy by the hot intracluster medium after being tidally perturbed

  11. EXTENDED HCN AND HCO{sup +} EMISSION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, P.; Galaz, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicua Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Salter, D.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kepley, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We mapped 3 mm continuum and line emission from the starburst galaxy M82 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We targeted the HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, and HC{sub 3}N lines, but here we focus on the HCN and HCO{sup +} emission. The map covers a field of 1.'2 with an ≈5'' resolution. The HCN and HCO{sup +} observations are short spacings corrected. The molecular gas in M82 had been previously found to be distributed in a molecular disk, coincident with the central starburst, and a galactic scale outflow which originates in the central starburst. With the new short spacings-corrected maps we derive some of the properties of the dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. From the HCN and HCO{sup +} J = (1-0) line emission, and under the assumptions of the gas being optically thin and in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we place lower limits on the amount of dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. The lower limits are 7 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and 21 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, or ≳ 2% of the total molecular mass in the outflow. The kinematics and spatial distribution of the dense gas outside the central starburst suggests that it is being expelled through chimneys. Assuming a constant outflow velocity, the derived outflow rate of dense molecular gas is ≥0.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which would lower the starburst lifetime by ≥5%. The energy required to expel this mass of dense gas is (1-10) × 10{sup 52} erg.

  12. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stierwalt, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Patton, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2 (Canada); Besla, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, S.; Putman, M., E-mail: gprivon@astro.puc.cl [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Collaboration: TiNy Titans

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The H α emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  13. Observations of the impact of starbursts on the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Schommer, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a crucial role in our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, and the concept of supernova-driven mass outflows is a vital ingredient in theories of the structure and evolution of dwarf galaxies. Despite the theoretical importance of these outflows, there is a very limited amount of direct observational evidence for their existence. We have therefore begun a detailed multi-wave-band search for outflows in dwarf (MB greater than or = -18) galaxies with extensive recent or ongoing centrally concentrated star formation. We report the first results of this search in the present paper. Observations of the ionized gas in dwarf amorphous galaxies with centrally concentrated populations of massive stars provide evidence for the large-scale expansion of their expansion of their ionized interstellar media. Fabry-Perot H alpha images reveal the presence of kiloparsec-scale 'superbubbles' and filaments which tend to be oriented along the galaxy minor axis. These structures are comparable in size to the chracteristic optical sizes of the galaxies, and dominate the morphology of the galaxies at low surface brightness in H alpha. Since expanding structure of this size and velocity are not observed in all low-mass galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation, we suggest that we are witnessing transient events that likely have a relatively low 'duty cycle' in such galaxies. That is, we argue that the particular galaxies in the present paper have had significantly elevated star formation rates over the past 107-108 yr (i.e., these are starburst or young poststarburst systems). This interpretation is consistent with the optical colors and emission-line properties of these galaxies.

  14. After the Fall: The Dust and Gas in E+A Post-starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smercina, A.; Smith, J. D. T.; Dale, D. A.; French, K. D.; Croxall, K. V.; Zhukovska, S.; Togi, A.; Bell, E. F.; Crocker, A. F.; Draine, B. T.; Jarrett, T. H.; Tremonti, C.; Yang, Yujin; Zabludoff, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The traditional picture of post-starburst galaxies as dust- and gas-poor merger remnants, rapidly transitioning to quiescence, has been recently challenged. Unexpected detections of a significant interstellar medium (ISM) in many post-starburst galaxies raise important questions. Are they truly quiescent, and if so, what mechanisms inhibit further star formation? What processes dominate their ISM energetics? We present an infrared spectroscopic and photometric survey of 33 E+A post-starbursts selected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, aimed at resolving these questions. We find compact, warm dust reservoirs with high PAH abundances and total gas and dust masses significantly higher than expected from stellar recycling alone. Both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/total infrared (TIR) and dust-to-burst stellar mass ratios are seen to decrease with post-burst age, indicative of the accumulating effects of dust destruction and an incipient transition to hot, early-type ISM properties. Their infrared spectral properties are unique, with dominant PAH emission, very weak nebular lines, unusually strong H2 rotational emission, and deep [C II] deficits. There is substantial scatter among star formation rate (SFR) indicators, and both PAH and TIR luminosities provide overestimates. Even as potential upper limits, all tracers show that the SFR has typically experienced a decline of more than two orders of magnitude since the starburst and that the SFR is considerably lower than expected given both their stellar masses and molecular gas densities. These results paint a coherent picture of systems in which star formation was, indeed, rapidly truncated, but in which the ISM was not completely expelled, and is instead supported against collapse by latent or continued injection of turbulent or mechanical heating. The resulting aging burst populations provide a “high-soft” radiation field that seemingly dominates the E+A galaxies’ unusual ISM energetics.

  15. The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arcavi, Iair [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of <200 Myr duration that ended 10–1000 Myr ago, indicating that TDEs arise at different times in their hosts’ post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star formed in the burst or before, the post-burst age constrains its mass, generally excluding O, most B, and highly massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time since the starburst began limits the coalescence timescale and thus the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 in most hosts. This uncommon ratio, if also that of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary, disfavors the scenario in which the TDE rate is boosted by the binary but is insensitive to its mass ratio. The stellar mass fraction created in the burst is 0.5%–10% for most hosts, not enough to explain the observed 30–200× boost in TDE rates, suggesting that the host’s core stellar concentration is more important. TDE hosts have stellar masses 10{sup 9.4}–10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}, consistent with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey volume-corrected, quiescent Balmer-strong comparison sample and implying SMBH masses of 10{sup 5.5}–10{sup 7.5} M {sub ☉}. Subtracting the host absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.

  16. Mapping the Supernova-Rich Fireworks Galaxy NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Locke; Levesque, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) are the spectacularly violent deaths of evolved young massive stars, which expel a shock wave into the intergalactic medium that in turn can spark star formation and disperse heavy elements into their host galaxy. While a SN event can be classified by its spectral signature, determining the nature of a SN progenitor depends upon chance photometry taken prior to the event. By turning to the study of SN host environments and their surrounding interstellar medium within the unique and rare population of galaxies that have hosted three or more SN events within the last century, we are granted the opportunity to study the locations and environmental properties of stellar populations prone to supernova progenitor production. Using moderate-resolution optical slit spectra taken with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m DIS spectrograph, our goal is to map metallicity, ionization parameter, and star formation rates using emission line diagnostic ratios across each SN-rich galaxy. Dubbed the “Fireworks Galaxy” at a distance of 5.6 ± 1.5 Mpc, NGC 6946 is of particular interest as it has uniquely produced ten core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and several other massive star transients within the last century. We present spatially-resolved metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) maps of NGC 6946, tracing fifty-five slit orientations which span the face of the galaxy and cover all CCSN host sites. Future work will include both stellar population synthesis modelling to determine stellar populations, ages, and SFR histories in NGC 6946 and a further expansion of this analysis to the other SN-rich host galaxies in our sample.

  17. Spectrophotometrical investigation of the NGC 3359 galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenkov, A.N.; Khchikyan, Eh.E.; AN Armyanskoj SSR, Byurakan. Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1986-01-01

    Results of detailed spectrophotometrical investigations of NGC 3353, carried out with 6 m telescope of SAO Academy of Sciences of the USSR are presented (dispersion approximately 65 A/mm). Four separate condensations, the brightest of which is Mark 35, are studied. In the spectrum of Mark 35 the emission lines for Hsub(α) to H 12 , HeI lambda lambda 7065, 6678, 5876, 4922, 4472, 3820 and forbidden lines [01]lambda lambdas 6300/64, [02] lambda 3727, [03] lambda lambda 5007, 4959, 4363, [Ne3] lambda 3869, [N2] lambda lambda 6584/48, [S2] lambda lambda 6717/31, [S3] lambda 6310, [Ar3] lambda 7136 are detected. In the second central condensation, called ''nucleus'', emission lines are weaker and beginning with Hsub(β) the absorption components appear which become stronger in the late members of Balmer lines. The forbidden lines in the nucleus are strong: [Ne3], [O3], [O2], [S2][N2]. The relative intensities and equivalent widths of emission lines as well as the chemical composition of Mark 35 and ''nucleus'' are estimated. Both condensations according to their physical properties look like superassociations. It has been concluded that the source of excitation are young stars. NGC 3353 is probably the net of superassociations

  18. Dynamical simulations of the interacting galaxies in the NGC 520/UGC 957 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, S. A.; Balcells, Marc

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interacting galaxies in the NGC 520/UGC 957 system are presented. Two sets of models were produced to investigate the postulated three-galaxy system of two colliding disk galaxies within NGC 520 and the dwarf galaxy UGC 957. The first set of models simulated a dwarf perturbing one-disk galaxy, which tested the possibility that NGC 520 contains only one galaxy disturbed by the passage of UGC 957. The resulting morphology of the perturbed single disk in the simulation fails to reproduce the observed tidal tails and northwest mass condensation of NGC 520. A second set of models simulated two colliding disks, which tested the hypothesis that NGC 520 itself contains two galaxies in a strong collision and UGC 957 is unimportant to the interaction. These disk-disk models produced a good match to the morphology of the present NGC 520. It is concluded that (1) NGC 520 contains two colliding disk galaxies which have produced the brighter southern half of the long tidal tail and (2) UGC 957, which may originally have been a satellite of one of the disk galaxies, formed the diffuse northern tail as it orbited NGC 520.

  19. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, P.O. Box 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Colina, Luis [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Efstathiou, Andreas [School of Sciencies, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Miralles-Caballero, Daniel [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Väisänen, Petri [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 Cape Town (South Africa); Packham, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Rajpaul, Vinesh [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  20. The Origin of the Extra-nuclear X-ray Emission in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 2992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Strickland, D. K.; Veilleux, S.; Weaver, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analysis of a Chandra ACIS observation of the edge-on Seyfert galaxy NGC 2992. We find extended X-ray emission with Lx(total) in excess of 10**40 erg/s. The brightest nebula is positioned a few 100 pc from the X-ray core, and is spatially coincident with optical line and radio emission. This emission nebula may be energized by the AGN, as opposed to a nuclear starburst. The expected kpc-scale X-ray emission due to a starburst-driven wind is larger than a few 10**39 erg/s, and we present large-scale X-ray emission that may be associated with such an outflow. The extra-nuclear emission has a very soft spectrum. Chandra and XMM spectra of the total nuclear region show a very prominent ``soft excess'' below 2-3 keV. We shall discuss the spectral properties of this soft excess, and will compare with the results from the spatial analysis, and with AGN and starburst models for extranuclear X-ray nebulae.

  1. Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ΛCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ΛCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ΛCDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor

  2. Dust Absorption and the Ultraviolet Luminosity Density at z ~ 3 as Calibrated by Local Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Calzetti, Daniela

    1999-08-01

    We refine a technique to measure the absorption-corrected ultraviolet (UV) luminosity of starburst galaxies using rest-frame UV quantities alone and apply it to Lyman-limit U dropouts at z~3 found in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). The method is based on an observed correlation between the ratio of far-infrared (FIR) to UV fluxes with spectral slope β (a UV color). A simple fit to this relation allows the UV flux absorbed by dust and reprocessed to the FIR to be calculated, and hence the dust-free UV luminosity to be determined. International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra and Infrared Astronomical Satellite fluxes of local starbursts are used to calibrate the FFIR/F1600 versus β relation in terms of A1600 (the dust absorption at 1600 Å) and the transformation from broadband photometric color to β. Both calibrations are almost completely independent of theoretical stellar-population models. We show that the recent marginal and nondetections of HDF U dropouts at radio and submillimeter wavelengths are consistent with their assumed starburst nature and our calculated A1600. This is also true of recent observations of the ratio of optical emission-line flux to UV flux density in the brightest U dropouts. This latter ratio turns out not to be a good indicator of dust extinction. In U dropouts, absolute magnitude M1600,0 correlates with β: brighter galaxies are redder, as is observed to be the case for local starburst galaxies. This suggests that a mass-metallicity relationship is already in place at z~3. The absorption-corrected UV luminosity function of U dropouts extends up to M1600,0~-24 AB mag, corresponding to a star formation rate ~200 \\Mscrsolar yr-1 (H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-3 and q0=0.5 are assumed throughout). The absorption-corrected UV luminosity density at z~3 is ρ1600,0>=1.4×1027 ergs-1 Hz-1 Mpc-1. It is still a lower limit since completeness corrections have not been done and because only galaxies with A1600dropouts. The luminosity-weighted mean dust

  3. CEPHEID VARIABLES IN THE MASER-HOST GALAXY NGC 4258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Macri, Lucas M., E-mail: lmacri@tamu.edu [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present results of a ground-based survey for Cepheid variables in NGC 4258. This galaxy plays a key role in the Extragalactic Distance Scale due to its very precise and accurate distance determination via very long baseline interferometry observations of water masers. We imaged two fields within this galaxy using the Gemini North telescope and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, obtaining 16 epochs of data in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri bands over 4 yr. We carried out point-spread function photometry and detected 94 Cepheids with periods between 7 and 127 days, as well as an additional 215 variables which may be Cepheids or Population II pulsators. We used the Cepheid sample to test the absolute calibration of theoretical gri Period–Luminosity relations and found good agreement with the maser distance to this galaxy. The expected data products from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should enable Cepheid searches out to at least 10 Mpc.

  4. A Massive, Cooling-Flow-Induced Starburst in the Core of a Highly Luminous Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Foley, R. J.; Ruel, J.; Sullivan, P.; Veilleux, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In the cores of some galaxy clusters the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster s lifetime, leading to continuous "cooling flows" of gas sinking towards the cluster center, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star formation rates and cool gas masses for these "cool core" clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by astrophysical feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical, and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (L(sub 2-10 keV) = 8.2 10(exp 45) erg/s) galaxy cluster which hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (M(sub cool) = 3820 +/- 530 Stellar Mass/yr). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (740 +/- 160 Stellar Mass/ yr), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form via accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than the current picture of central galaxies assembling entirely via mergers.

  5. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  6. Reverberation mapping of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, B. M.; Grier, C. J.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C.; Horne, Keith; Bentz, M. C.; Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A.; Kaspi, S.; Minezaki, T.; Siverd, R. J.; Bord, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    A large reverberation-mapping study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 has yielded emission-line lags for Hβ λ4861 and He II λ4686 and a central black hole mass measurement M BH ≈ 1 × 10 7 M ☉ , consistent with previous measurements. A very low level of variability during the monitoring campaign precluded meeting our original goal of recovering velocity-delay maps from the data, but with the new Hβ measurement, NGC 7469 is no longer an outlier in the relationship between the size of the Hβ-emitting broad-line region and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus. It was necessary to detrend the continuum and Hβ and He II λ4686 line light curves and those from archival UV data for different time-series analysis methods to yield consistent results.

  7. Reverberation mapping of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. M.; Grier, C. J.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Minezaki, T. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, 181-0015 Tokyo (Japan); Siverd, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bord, D. J., E-mail: peterson.12@osu.edu [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan—Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); and others

    2014-11-10

    A large reverberation-mapping study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 has yielded emission-line lags for Hβ λ4861 and He II λ4686 and a central black hole mass measurement M {sub BH} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, consistent with previous measurements. A very low level of variability during the monitoring campaign precluded meeting our original goal of recovering velocity-delay maps from the data, but with the new Hβ measurement, NGC 7469 is no longer an outlier in the relationship between the size of the Hβ-emitting broad-line region and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus. It was necessary to detrend the continuum and Hβ and He II λ4686 line light curves and those from archival UV data for different time-series analysis methods to yield consistent results.

  8. Star Formation Histories of the LEGUS Dwarf Galaxies. II. Spatially Resolved Star Formation History of the Magellanic Irregular NGC 4449

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, E.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Adamo, A.; Annibali, F.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Hunter, D. A.; Sabbi, E.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present a detailed study of the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449 based on both archival and new photometric data from the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3. Thanks to its proximity (D = 3.82 ± 0.27 Mpc), we reach stars 3 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch in the F814W filter. The recovered star formation history (SFH) spans the whole Hubble time, but due to the age–metallicity degeneracy of the red giant branch stars, it is robust only over the lookback time reached by our photometry, i.e., ∼3 Gyr. The most recent peak of star formation (SF) is around 10 Myr ago. The average surface density SF rate over the whole galaxy lifetime is 0.01 M ⊙ yr‑1 kpc‑2. From our study, it emerges that NGC 4449 has experienced a fairly continuous SF regime in the last 1 Gyr, with peaks and dips whose SF rates differ only by a factor of a few. The very complex and disturbed morphology of NGC 4449 makes it an interesting galaxy for studies of the relationship between interactions and starbursts, and our detailed and spatially resolved analysis of its SFH does indeed provide some hints on the connection between these two phenomena in this peculiar dwarf galaxy. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  9. MASS OUTFLOW IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 5548

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Kaastra, J. S.; Arav, N.; Gabel, J. R.; Korista, K. T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the intrinsic UV absorption and emission lines in an historically low-state spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which we obtained in 2004 February at high spatial and spectral resolution with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We isolate a component of emission with a width of 680 km s -1 that arises from an 'intermediate-line region' (ILR), similar to that we discovered in NGC 4151, at a distance of ∼1 pc from the central continuum source. From a detailed analysis of the five intrinsic absorption components in NGC 5548 and their behavior over a span of eight years, we present evidence that most of the UV absorbers only partially cover the ILR and do not cover an extended region of UV continuum emission, most likely from hot stars in the circumnuclear region. We also find that four of the UV absorbers are at much greater distances (greater than 70 pc) than the ILR, and none have sufficient N V or C IV column densities to be the ILR in absorption. At least a portion of the UV absorption component 3, at a radial velocity of -530 km s -1 , is likely responsible for most of the X-ray absorption, at a distance less than 7 pc from the central source. The fact that we see the ILR in absorption in NGC 4151 and not in NGC 5548 suggests that the ILR is located at a relatively large polar angle (∼45 deg.) with respect to the narrow-line region outflow axis.

  10. THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF THE INTERACTING GALAXY NGC 4490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, A. J.; Fabbiano, G.; Wang Junfeng; Roberts, T. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) in the spiral galaxy NGC 4490, which is interacting with the irregular galaxy NGC 4485, using ∼100 ks of Chandra ACIS-S observations. The high angular resolution of Chandra enables us to remove discrete sources and perform spatially resolved spectroscopy for the star-forming regions and associated outflows, allowing us to look at how the physical properties of the hot ISM such as temperature, hydrogen column density, and metal abundances vary throughout these galaxies. We find temperatures of >0.41 keV and 0.85 +0.59 -0.12 keV, electron densities of >1.87η -1/2 x 10 -3 cm -3 and 0.21 +0.03 -0.04 η -1/2 x 10 -3 cm -3 , and hot gas masses of >1.1η 1/2 x 10 7 M sun and ∼3.7η 1/2 x 10 7 M sun in the plane and halo of NGC 4490, respectively, where η is the filling factor of the hot gas. The abundance ratios of Ne, Mg, and Si with respect to Fe are found to be consistent with those predicted by theoretical models of type II supernovae (SNe). The thermal energy in the hot ISM is ∼5% of the total mechanical energy input from SNe, so it is likely that the hot ISM has been enriched and heated by type II SNe. The X-ray emission is anticorrelated with the Hα and mid-infrared emission, suggesting that the hot gas is bounded by filaments of cooler ionized hydrogen mixed with warm dust.

  11. The Bright and Dark Sides of High-redshift Starburst Galaxies from Herschel and Subaru Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Mancini, C.; Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Valentino, F.; Calabrò, A.; Jin, S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Mainieri, V.; Man, A. [ESO, Karl-Schwarschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Darvish, B. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Maier, C. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of 12 z ∼ 1.6 Herschel starburst galaxies, with star formation rate (SFR) elevated by ×8, on average, above the star-forming main sequence (MS). Comparing the H α to IR luminosity ratio and the Balmer decrement, we find that the optically thin regions of the sources contain on average only ∼10% of the total SFR, whereas ∼90% come from an extremely obscured component that is revealed only by far-IR observations and is optically thick even in H α . We measure the [N ii]{sub 6583}/H α ratio, suggesting that the less obscured regions have a metal content similar to that of the MS population at the same stellar masses and redshifts. However, our objects appear to be metal-rich outliers from the metallicity–SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the MS population. The [S ii]{sub 6732}/[S ii]{sub 6717} ratio from the average spectrum indicates an electron density n {sub e} ∼ 1100 cm{sup −3} , larger than what was estimated for MS galaxies but only at the 1.5 σ level. Our results provide supporting evidence that high- z MS outliers are analogous of local ULIRGs and are consistent with a major-merger origin for the starburst event.

  12. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties

  13. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Granada (Spain); Amorín, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Ascasibar, Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Papaderos, P., E-mail: jos@iac.es [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  14. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  15. DISCOVERY OF A GALAXY CLUSTER WITH A VIOLENTLY STARBURSTING CORE AT z = 2.506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao; Elbaz, David; Daddi, Emanuele; Valentino, Francesco; Burg, Remco van der; Zanella, Anita; Ciesla, Laure; Brun, Amandine Le [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Finoguenov, Alexis [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-0014 Helsinki (Finland); Liu, Daizhong; Tan, Qinghua [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Schreiber, Corentin [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Martín, Sergio [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Strazzullo, Veronica; Pannella, Maurilio [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Gobat, Raphael [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Hoegiro 85, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Sargent, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Shu, Xinwen [Department of Physics, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, 241000 (China); Cappelluti, Nico [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Li, Yanxia, E-mail: tao.wang@cea.fr [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at z {sub spec} = 2.506, which contains 11 massive (M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙}) galaxies in the central 80 kpc region (11.6 σ overdensity). We have spectroscopically confirmed 17 member galaxies with 11 from CO and the remaining ones from H α . The X-ray luminosity, stellar mass content, and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, cluster-sized dark matter halo with mass M {sub 200} {sub c} = 10{sup 13.9±0.2} M {sub ⊙}, making it the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the core with only 2 out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate (SFR) in the 80 kpc core reaches ∼3400 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} with a gas depletion time of ∼200 Myr, suggesting that we caught this cluster in rapid build-up of a dense core. The high SFR is driven by both a high abundance of SFGs and a higher starburst fraction (∼25%, compared to 3%–5% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of massive SFGs suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights into massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.

  16. A violent interaction between the dwarf galaxy UGC 7636 and the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.; Sancisi, Renzo; Henning, Patricia A.; Junor, William

    1994-01-01

    We present new U, B, R, and H I imagery of the Virgo Cluster giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 and its interacting dwarf companion galaxy UGC 7636. Using a composite image reconstruction technique, we show that a trail of debris approx. 5 arcmin in length and approx. 1 arcmin in width (30x6 kpc for a Virgo cluster distance of 20 Mpc) is projected northward from the dwarf galaxy. A cloud of H I is projected along the northwest edge of the debris between the dwarf and gE. The dwarf's nuclear morphology is irregular and bow-shaped on what appears to be its leading edge. Apart from a number of isolated blue regions, most of of the trailing debris is similar in color to the dwarf's nucleus. Only a modest enhancement of star formation appears to have been induced by the interaction. Although separated by 15 kpc, the H I and stellar morphologies are remarkably similar. The stars and H I appear to have been tidally distorted in situ, prior to the cloud's removal by ram pressure. If the H I has maintained its shape by magnetic support, a magnetic field strength an order of magnitude larger than the galaxy's is required. Ram pressure deceleration due to the cloud's motion through NGC 4472's x-ray-emitting interstellar medium shold be sufficient for the cloud to become gravitationally bound to NGC 4472. The H I cloud is not self-gravitating and may fragment and be destroyed in the interaction. UGC 7636 will probably be disrupted by NGC 4472's strong tidal forces; the stellar debris will disperse into the Virgo cluster or become bound to NGC 4472's halo on eccentric orbits. The debris captured in the collision will have a negligible impact on NGC 4472's stellar and gaseous content. On the other hand, if similar interactions are common in giant elliptical galaxies, they could alter or deplete surrounding dwarf galaxy populations, fuel bursts of nuclear activity, and perhaps provide a source of magnetic energy to their interstellar media.

  17. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERACTION IN THE NEAREST STARBURSTING DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidever, David L.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Ott, Jürgen; Johnson, Megan; Stanimirović, Snežana; Putman, Mary; Majewski, Steven R.; Jütte, Eva; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Burton, W. Butler

    2013-01-01

    Using deep 21 cm H I data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ≳18.3 kpc long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly found feature stretches 1.°3 to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ∼65 km s –1 lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (∼10 km s –1 across ∼26') transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The H I mass of IC 10 is 9.5 × 10 7 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ and the mass of the new extension is 7.1 × 10 5 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ . An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the H I extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously found counter-rotating H I gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall

  18. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David; Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Marvil, Josh; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO + . Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO + in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO + in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO + emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction

  19. On optical spectra of the NGC 6677 galaxy and the adjacent bright compact object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvaev, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectral observations of NGC 6677 galaxy and the adjacent object carried out during six nights on the spectrograph with the image tube of 2.6-m Shain telescope showed, that the bright compact object is a star belonging to our galaxy but not an active galaxy. The NGC 6677 galaxy has sufficiently rich emission spectrum. On the basis of measured values of red shift Z, the inclination and the extent of emission lines, the mass of the galaxy has been estimated (M=7x10 9 M Sun )

  20. THE ROLE OF STARBURST-ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS COMPOSITES IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY MERGERS: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW OPTICAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, T.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Sanders, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the fraction of starbursts, starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) composites, Seyferts, and low-ionization narrow emission-line region galaxies (LINERs) as a function of infrared luminosity (L IR ) and merger progress for ∼500 infrared (IR)-selected galaxies. Using the new optical classifications afforded by the extremely large data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the fraction of LINERs in IR-selected samples is rare ( IR > 10 12 L sun ), starburst-AGN composite galaxies dominate at early-intermediate stages of the merger, and AGN galaxies dominate during the final merger stages. Our results are consistent with models for IR-luminous galaxies where mergers of gas-rich spirals fuel both starburst and AGN, and where the AGN becomes increasingly dominant during the final merger stages of the most luminous IR objects.

  1. Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby Galaxies (SWAN): Resolved Ammonia Thermometry and Water and Methanol Masers in IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Jürgen; Rand, Richard; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Schinnerer, Eva

    2018-04-01

    The Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies (SWAN) studies atomic and molecular species across the nuclei of four star-forming galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146. As part of this survey, we present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array molecular line observations of three galaxies: IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146. NGC 253 is covered in a previous paper. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rates and to select a variety of galaxy types. We target the metastable transitions of ammonia NH3(1, 1) to (5, 5), the 22 GHz water (H2O) (616–523) transition, and the 36.1 GHz methanol (CH3OH) (4‑1–30) transition. We use the NH3 metastable lines to perform thermometry of the dense molecular gas. We show evidence for uniform heating across the central kiloparsec of IC 342 with two temperature components for the molecular gas, similar to NGC 253, of 27 and 308 K, and that the dense molecular gas in NGC 2146 has a temperature 36 GHz CH3OH masers in IC 342 and NGC 6946. For the four external galaxies the total CH3OH luminosity in each galaxy suggests a correlation with galactic star formation rate, whereas the morphology of the emission is similar to that of HNCO, a weak shock tracer.

  2. THE EXCEPTIONAL SOFT X-RAY HALO OF THE GALAXY MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardini, E.; Wang Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pellegrini, S., E-mail: e.nardini@keele.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, v.le Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-03-10

    We report on a recent {approx}150 ks long Chandra observation of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger NGC 6240, which allows a detailed investigation of the diffuse galactic halo. Extended soft X-ray emission is detected at the 3{sigma} confidence level over a diamond-shaped region with projected physical size of {approx}110 Multiplication-Sign 80 kpc, and a single-component thermal model provides a reasonably good fit to the observed X-ray spectrum. The hot gas has a temperature of {approx}7.5 million K, an estimated density of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -3}, and a total mass of {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, resulting in an intrinsic 0.4-2.5 keV luminosity of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}. The average temperature of 0.65 keV is quite high to be obviously related to either the binding energy in the dark-matter gravitational potential of the system or the energy dissipation and shocks following the galactic collision, yet the spatially resolved spectral analysis reveals limited variations across the halo. The relative abundance of the main {alpha}-elements with respect to iron is several times the solar value, and nearly constant as well, implying a uniform enrichment by type II supernovae out to the largest scales. Taken as a whole, the observational evidence is not compatible with a superwind originated by a recent, nuclear starburst, but rather hints at widespread, enhanced star formation proceeding at a steady rate over the entire dynamical timescale ({approx}200 Myr). The preferred scenario is that of a starburst-processed gas component gently expanding into, and mixing with, a pre-existing halo medium of lower metallicity (Z {approx} 0.1 solar) and temperature (kT {approx} 0.25 keV). This picture cannot be probed more extensively with the present data, and the ultimate fate of the diffuse, hot gas remains uncertain. Under some favorable conditions, at least a fraction of it might be retained after the merger completion

  3. The Exceptional Soft X-Ray Halo of the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, E.; Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Pellegrini, S.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A.

    2013-03-01

    We report on a recent ~150 ks long Chandra observation of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger NGC 6240, which allows a detailed investigation of the diffuse galactic halo. Extended soft X-ray emission is detected at the 3σ confidence level over a diamond-shaped region with projected physical size of ~110 × 80 kpc, and a single-component thermal model provides a reasonably good fit to the observed X-ray spectrum. The hot gas has a temperature of ~7.5 million K, an estimated density of 2.5 × 10-3 cm-3, and a total mass of ~1010 M ⊙, resulting in an intrinsic 0.4-2.5 keV luminosity of 4 × 1041 erg s-1. The average temperature of 0.65 keV is quite high to be obviously related to either the binding energy in the dark-matter gravitational potential of the system or the energy dissipation and shocks following the galactic collision, yet the spatially resolved spectral analysis reveals limited variations across the halo. The relative abundance of the main α-elements with respect to iron is several times the solar value, and nearly constant as well, implying a uniform enrichment by type II supernovae out to the largest scales. Taken as a whole, the observational evidence is not compatible with a superwind originated by a recent, nuclear starburst, but rather hints at widespread, enhanced star formation proceeding at a steady rate over the entire dynamical timescale (~200 Myr). The preferred scenario is that of a starburst-processed gas component gently expanding into, and mixing with, a pre-existing halo medium of lower metallicity (Z ~ 0.1 solar) and temperature (kT ~ 0.25 keV). This picture cannot be probed more extensively with the present data, and the ultimate fate of the diffuse, hot gas remains uncertain. Under some favorable conditions, at least a fraction of it might be retained after the merger completion, and evolve into the hot halo of a young elliptical galaxy.

  4. THE EXCEPTIONAL SOFT X-RAY HALO OF THE GALAXY MERGER NGC 6240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, E.; Wang Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A.; Pellegrini, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a recent ∼150 ks long Chandra observation of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger NGC 6240, which allows a detailed investigation of the diffuse galactic halo. Extended soft X-ray emission is detected at the 3σ confidence level over a diamond-shaped region with projected physical size of ∼110 × 80 kpc, and a single-component thermal model provides a reasonably good fit to the observed X-ray spectrum. The hot gas has a temperature of ∼7.5 million K, an estimated density of 2.5 × 10 –3 cm –3 , and a total mass of ∼10 10 M ☉ , resulting in an intrinsic 0.4-2.5 keV luminosity of 4 × 10 41 erg s –1 . The average temperature of 0.65 keV is quite high to be obviously related to either the binding energy in the dark-matter gravitational potential of the system or the energy dissipation and shocks following the galactic collision, yet the spatially resolved spectral analysis reveals limited variations across the halo. The relative abundance of the main α-elements with respect to iron is several times the solar value, and nearly constant as well, implying a uniform enrichment by type II supernovae out to the largest scales. Taken as a whole, the observational evidence is not compatible with a superwind originated by a recent, nuclear starburst, but rather hints at widespread, enhanced star formation proceeding at a steady rate over the entire dynamical timescale (∼200 Myr). The preferred scenario is that of a starburst-processed gas component gently expanding into, and mixing with, a pre-existing halo medium of lower metallicity (Z ∼ 0.1 solar) and temperature (kT ∼ 0.25 keV). This picture cannot be probed more extensively with the present data, and the ultimate fate of the diffuse, hot gas remains uncertain. Under some favorable conditions, at least a fraction of it might be retained after the merger completion, and evolve into the hot halo of a young elliptical galaxy.

  5. Spatially Resolved Hard X-ray Emission in the Central 5 kpc of the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, E.; Fabbiano, G.; Karovska, M.; Elvis, M.; Pellegrini, S.; Max, C. E.; Risaliti, G.; U, V.; Zezas, A.

    2013-04-01

    We have obtained a deep, sub-arcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from 70 million K hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with velocity of 2200 km/s. For the first time we obtain spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting FeXXV and find that it shows a remarkable correspondence to the large scale morphology of H_2(1-0) S(1) line emission and Hα filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originated in the starburst driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate.

  6. IUE and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, G. A.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Mason, K. O.

    1990-01-01

    Results of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579 are reported. Spatial profiles of the long wavelength IUE emission show a two component structure, with an unresolved core superimposed on broader underlying emission. The core spectrum shows strong C II lambda 2326 and broad Mg II lambda 2800 emission, and perhaps emission due to blends of Fe II multiplets (2300 to 23600 angstrom). The short wavelength emission is spatially unresolved, and shows C II lambda 1335, C III lambda 1909 broad C IV lambda 1550 emission, and a broad feature at approximately 1360 angstrom which may be due to 0.1 lambda 1356. Contrary to previous reports no evidence for He II lambda 1640 is found in the spectrum. An unresolved x ray source is detected at the location of the nucleus; its spectrum is well fitted by a power law of energy slope alpha approximately -0.5. These results further support the idea that NGC 4579 may contain a dwarf Seyfert nucleus.

  7. Galaxies in turmoil the active and starburst galaxies and the black holes that drive them

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2007-01-01

    Aimed at active amateur astronomers this book provides an up-to-date account of active galaxies. Lists and images of such objects are an important component of this book. The book makes sense of the chaotic and apparently innumerable types of violently active galaxies.

  8. Testing Star Formation Laws in a Starburst Galaxy At Redshift 3 Resolved with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, P.; Federrath, C.; da Cunha, E.; Swinbank, A. M.; Dye, S.

    2018-04-01

    Using high-resolution (sub-kiloparsec scale) data obtained by ALMA, we analyze the star formation rate (SFR), gas content and kinematics in SDP 81, a gravitationally-lensed starburst galaxy at redshift 3. We estimate the SFR surface density (ΣSFR) in the brightest clump of this galaxy to be 357^{+135}_{-85} {M_{⊙}} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}, over an area of 0.07 ± 0.02 kpc2. Using the intensity-weighted velocity of CO (5-4), we measure the turbulent velocity dispersion in the plane-of-the-sky and find σv, turb = 37 ± 5 km s-1 for the clump, in good agreement with previous estimates along the line of sight, corrected for beam smearing. Our measurements of gas surface density, freefall time and turbulent Mach number allow us to compare the theoretical SFR from various star formation models with that observed, revealing that the role of turbulence is crucial to explaining the observed SFR in this clump. While the Kennicutt Schmidt (KS) relation predicts an SFR surface density of Σ _{SFR,KS} = 52± 17 {M_{⊙}} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}, the single-freefall model by Krumholz, Dekel and McKee (KDM) predicts Σ _{SFR,KDM} = 106± 37 {M_{⊙ }} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}. In contrast, the multi-freefall (turbulence) model by Salim, Federrath and Kewley (SFK) gives Σ _{SFR,SFK} = 491^{+139 }_{-194} {M_{⊙ }} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}. Although the SFK relation overestimates the SFR in this clump (possibly due to the negligence of magnetic fields), it provides the best prediction among the available models. Finally, we compare the star formation and gas properties of this galaxy to local star-forming regions and find that the SFK relation provides the best estimates of SFR in both local and high-redshift galaxies.

  9. Chandra High Resolution Imaging of NGC 1365 and NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Lord, S.; Howell, J. H.; Mundell, C. G.

    2010-07-01

    We present Chandra high resolution imaging of the circumnuclear regions of two nearby active galaxies, namely the starburst/AGN composite Seyfert 1.8 NGC 1365 and the archetypal Seyfert 1 NGC 4151. In NGC 1365, the X-ray morphology shows a biconical soft X-ray-emission region extending ~5 kpc in projection from the nucleus, coincident with the optical high-excitation outflows. Chandra HRC imaging of the NGC 4151 nucleus resolves X-ray emission from the 4 arcsec radio jet and the narrow line region (NLR) clouds. Our results demonstrate the unique power of spatially resolved spectroscopy with Chandra, and support previous claims that frequent jet-ISM interaction may explain why jets in Seyfert galaxies appear small, slow, and thermally dominated.

  10. THE FORMATION OF SHELL GALAXIES SIMILAR TO NGC 7600 IN THE COLD DARK MATTER COSMOGONY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos; Cole, Shaun; Crawford, Ken; Zibetti, Stefano; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Jay GaBany, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present new deep observations of 'shell' structures in the halo of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 7600, alongside a movie of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe. The movie, based on an ab initio cosmological simulation, shows how continuous accretion of clumps of dark matter and stars creates a swath of diffuse circumgalactic structures. The disruption of a massive clump on a near-radial orbit creates a complex system of transient concentric shells which bare a striking resemblance to those of NGC 7600. With the aid of the simulation we interpret NGC 7600 in the context of the CDM model.

  11. The Formation of Shell Galaxies Similar to NGC 7600 in the Cold Dark Matter Cosmogony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos; Cole, Shaun; Crawford, Ken; Zibetti, Stefano; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; GaBany, R. Jay

    2011-12-01

    We present new deep observations of "shell" structures in the halo of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 7600, alongside a movie of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe. The movie, based on an ab initio cosmological simulation, shows how continuous accretion of clumps of dark matter and stars creates a swath of diffuse circumgalactic structures. The disruption of a massive clump on a near-radial orbit creates a complex system of transient concentric shells which bare a striking resemblance to those of NGC 7600. With the aid of the simulation we interpret NGC 7600 in the context of the CDM model.

  12. Detection of CO (J=1-0) in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Rydbeck, Gustaf

    1987-01-01

    The detection of CO (J = 1-0) emission in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185 is reported. The presence of massive molecular clouds in this early-type galaxy supports the idea of recent or ongoing stellar formation indicated by the population of blue stars in the center. The CO was detected in two positions in the galaxy, the center, and a prominent dustcloud. The emission profile has two peaks, roughly centered around the systemic velocity. It is found that NGC 185 is overluminous in blue light for its CO luminosity compared with Sc galaxies. This might indicate a higher star-formation efficiency for NGC 185 than for the late-type galaxies.

  13. Starbursts and the chemical evolution of HII galaxies: ages of bursts VS local environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Results previously published for oxygen, nitrogen and helium abundances in HII galaxies are revised to allow for collisional contributions to the helium lines and a few further objects added. The relationships found are similar in general to those found previously, though with fewer objects departing from the dY/dZ relation derived by Peimbert and his colleagues, and are confirmed by a principal component analysis which shows that O/H accounts for about half of the variation in helium but N/H for essentially all of it. These effects are consistent with an additional component of helium and secondary nitrogen, superposed on primary nitrogen, with the additional component either coming from low-mass stars made in very old bursts or resulting from local pollution of the observed HII regions by winds from massive stars within them. Evidence from different regions of POX 4 and NGC 5253 gives some slight support to the latter hypothesis

  14. SUBMILLIMETER H{sub 2}O MEGAMASERS IN NGC 4945 AND THE CIRCINUS GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesce, D. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Braatz, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V., E-mail: dpesce@virginia.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We present 321 GHz observations of five active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from ALMA Cycle 0 archival data: NGC 5793, NGC 1068, NGC 1386, NGC 4945, and the Circinus galaxy. Submillimeter maser emission is detected for the first time toward NGC 4945, and we present a new analysis of the submillimeter maser system in Circinus. None of the other three galaxies show maser emission, although we have detected and imaged the continuum from every galaxy. Both NGC 4945 and Circinus are known to host strong (≳10 Jy) 22 GHz megamaser emission, and VLBI observations have shown that the masers reside in the innermost ∼1 pc of the galaxies. The peak flux densities of the 321 GHz masers in both systems are substantially weaker (by a factor of ∼100) than what is observed at 22 GHz, although the corresponding isotropic luminosities are more closely matched (within a factor of ∼10) between the two transitions. We compare the submillimeter spectra presented here to the known 22 GHz spectra in both galaxies, and we argue that while both transitions originate from the gaseous environment near the AGNs, not all sites are in common. In Circinus, the spectral structure of the 321 GHz masers indicates that they may trace the accretion disk at radii interior to the 22 GHz masers. The continuum emission in NGC 4945 and NGC 5793 shows a spatial distribution indicative of an origin in the galactic disks (likely thermal dust emission), while for the other three galaxies the emission is centrally concentrated and likely originates from the nucleus.

  15. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944-0002 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Marvil, Josh [Department of Physics, New Mexico Tech., 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Walter, Fabian, E-mail: akepley@nrao.edu [Max Planck Institute fur Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO{sup +}. Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO{sup +} in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO{sup +} in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO{sup +} emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction.

  16. Untangling the magnetic fields in spiral galaxy NGC 6946 with wide-band polarimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Anna; Heald, George; Wilcots, Eric M.; Gould Zweibel, Ellen

    We present 13 cm polarization observations of nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946. These data provide a new perspective into the magnetic field structure of this galaxy. Previous observations show strong depolarization between 6 cm and 22 cm, and we show that the morphology of the 13 cm polarization

  17. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emission closely follows the ultraviolet emission mapped by ...

  18. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the. Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emis- sion closely follows the ultraviolet emission ...

  19. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Charmandaris, Vassilis; van der Werf, Paul; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Cao, Chen

    2017-08-01

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ˜34 pc) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6-5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6-5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ˜10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa-α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ˜ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ˜34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s-1 (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  20. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yinghe [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Gao Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Werf, Paul van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zhang Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zhaoyinghe@ynao.ac.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2017-08-10

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ∼34 pc) observations of the CO (6−5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μ m dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6−5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6−5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ∼10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa- α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ∼ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ∼34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s{sup −1} (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel .

  1. ALMA Reveals Weak [N II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z = 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A.; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smolčić, Vernesa

    2016-12-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [N II] 205 μm fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z = 5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [C II] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized interstellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]} ratio. We find extremely low [N II] emission compared to [C II] ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}={68}-28+200) from a “typical” ˜ {L}{UV}* star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}≲ 20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations in its ionized-gas fraction across an extended gas reservoir. The extreme SFR, warm and compact dusty starburst AzTEC-3 shows an ionized fraction higher than expected given its SFR surface density ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}=22+/- 8) suggesting that [N II] dominantly traces a diffuse ionized medium rather than star-forming H II regions in this type of galaxy. This highest redshift sample of [N II] detections provides some of the first constraints on ionized and neutral gas modeling attempts and on the structure of the interstellar medium at z = 5-6 in “normal” galaxies and starbursts.

  2. Extended Red Emission in the Evil Eye Galaxy (NGC 4826)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, D.; Majeed, A.; Boroson, T. A.; Witt, A. N.

    2002-04-01

    NGC 4826 (M64) is a nearby Sab galaxy with an outstanding, absorbing dust lane (called the Evil Eye) asymmetrically placed across its prominent bulge. In addition, its central region is associated with several regions of ongoing star formation activity. We obtained accurate low-resolution (4.3 Å pixel-1) long-slit spectroscopy (KPNO 4 m) of NGC 4826 in the 5300-9100 Å spectral range, with a slit of 4.4‧ length, encompassing the galaxy's bulge size, positioned across its nucleus. The wavelength-dependent effects of absorption and scattering by the dust in the Evil Eye are evident when comparing the observed stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of pairs of positions symmetrically located with respect to the nucleus, one on the dust lane side and one on the symmetrically opposite side of the bulge, under the assumption that the intrinsic (i.e., unobscured) radiation field is to first-order axisymmetric. We analyzed the SED ratios for a given number of pairs of positions through the multiple-scattering radiative transfer model of Witt & Gordon. As a main result, we discovered strong residual extended red emission (ERE) from a region of the Evil Eye within a projected distance of about 13" from the nucleus, adjacent to a broad, bright H II region, intercepted by the spectrograph slit. ERE is an established phenomenon well-covered in the literature and interpreted as originating from photoluminescence by nanometer-sized clusters, illuminated by UV/optical photons of the local radiation field. In the innermost part of the Evil Eye, the ERE band extends from about 5700 to 9100 Å, with an estimated peak intensity of ~3.7×10-6 ergs s -1 Å-1 cm-2 sr-1 near 8300 Å and with an ERE to scattered light band integrated intensity ratio, I(ERE)/I(sca), of about 0.7. At farther distances, approaching the broad, bright H II region, the ERE band and peak intensity shift toward longer wavelengths, while the ERE band-integrated intensity, I(ERE), diminishes and, eventually

  3. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2016-01-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10 5 M ⊙ . The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M I (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H 0  = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s −1 Mpc −1 . We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S N  = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s

  4. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. XI. THE REMARKABLY UNDISTURBED NGC 2403 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Radburn-Smith, David [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: dolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m {approx}< 28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC 2403, supplemented by several shallow (m {approx}< 26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC 2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24{mu} fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirrors the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of {approx}100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  5. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND EMISSION LINE RATIOS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, ionic emission lines, and mid-infrared continuum properties in a sample of 171 emission line galaxies taken from the literature plus 15 new active galactic nucleus (AGN) Spitzer spectra. We normalize the spectra at λ = 23 μm and grouped them according to the type of nuclear activity. The continuum shape steeply rises for longer wavelengths and can be fitted with a warm blackbody distribution of T ∼ 150-300 K. The brightest PAH spectral bands (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm) and the forbidden emission lines of [Si II] 34.8 μm, [Ar II] 6.9 μm, [S III] 18.7 and 33.4 μm were detected in all the starbursts and in ∼80% of the Seyfert 2. Taking under consideration only the PAH bands at 7.7 μm, 11.3 μm, and 12.7 μm, we find that they are present in ∼80% of the Seyfert 1, while only half of this type of activity show the 6.2 μm and 8.6 μm PAH bands. The observed intensity ratios for neutral and ionized PAHs (6.2 μm/7.7 μm x 11.3 μm/7.7 μm) were compared to theoretical intensity ratios, showing that AGNs have higher ionization fraction and larger PAH molecules (≥180 carbon atoms) than SB galaxies. The ratio between the ionized (7.7 μm) and the neutral PAH bands (8.6 μm and 11.3 μm) are distributed over different ranges for AGNs and SB galaxies, suggesting that these ratios could depend on the ionization fraction, as well as on the hardness of the radiation field. The ratio between the 7.7 μm and 11.3 μm bands is nearly constant with the increase of [Ne III]15.5 μm/[Ne II] 12.8 μm, indicating that the fraction of ionized to neutral PAH bands does not depend on the hardness of the radiation field. The equivalent width of both PAH features show the same dependence (strongly decreasing) with [Ne III]/[Ne II], suggesting that the PAH molecules, emitting either ionized (7.7 μm) or neutral (11.3 μm) bands, may be destroyed with the increase of the hardness of the radiation field.

  6. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of an Equivalent Width-Selected Sample of Starbursting Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; VanDerWeL, Arjen; DaChuna, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pacafichi, Camilla; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; VanDokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (approx. 50 km/s) for a sample of 14 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs) at redshifts 1.4 < zeta < 2.3. These measurements imply that the total dynamical masses of these systems are low ( 3 × 10(exp 9) M). Their large [O III]5007 equivalent widths (500 - 1100 A) and faint blue continuum emission imply young ages of 10-100 Myr and stellar masses of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) M, confirming the presence of a violent starburst. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase thus represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  7. New Cepheid distances to nearby galaxies based on BVRI CCD photometry. III - NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, W.L.; Madore, B.F.; Hawley, S.L.; Horowitz, I.K.; Mould, J.; Navarrete, M.; Sallmen, S. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States) JPL, Pasadena, CA (United States) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States) Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile) California, University, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A true distance modulus of (m - M) sub 0 = 26.66 +/- 0.10 mag (corresponding to 2.1 +/- 0.1 Mpc) has been determined for the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 300. New CCD data have been obtained for a sample of known Cepheids in this galaxy from which apparent distance moduli at B, V, R, and I wavelengths are determined. Combining the data available at different wavelenghts, and assuming a true distance modulus to the LMC of 18.5 mag, a true distance modulus is obtained for NGC 300, corrected for the effects of interstellar reddening. The availability of a new distance to NGC 300 brings to five the total number of galaxies with new CCD photometry of Cepheids, useful for calibration of the Hubble constant. 26 refs.

  8. Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Multiple Merger, Extended Massive Star Formation, Galactic Wind, and Nuclear Inflow in NGC 3256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lípari, S.; Díaz, R.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terlevich, R.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

    2000-08-01

    We report detailed evidence for multiple merger, extended massive star formation, galactic wind, and circular/noncircular motions in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 3256, based on observations of high-resolution imaging (Hubble Space Telescope, ESO NTT), and extensive spectroscopic data (more than 1000 spectra, collected at Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre, Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito, Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, and IUE observatories). We find in a detailed morphological study (resolution ~15 pc) that the extended massive star formation process detected previously in NGC 3256 shows extended triple asymmetrical spiral arms (r~5 kpc), emanating from three different nuclei. The main optical nucleus shows a small spiral disk (r~500 pc), which is a continuation of the external one and reaches the very nucleus. The core shows blue elongated structure (50 pc×25 pc) and harbors a blue stellar cluster candidate (r~8 pc). We discuss this complex morphology in the framework of an extended massive star formation driven by a multiple merger process (models of Hernquist et al. and Taniguchi et al.). We study the kinematics of this system and present a detailed Hα velocity field for the central region (40''×40'' rmax~30''~5 kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1" and errors of +/-15 km s-1. The color and isovelocity maps show mainly (1) a kinematic center of circular motion with ``spider'' shape, located between the main optical nucleus and the close (5") mid-IR nucleus and (2) noncircular motions in the external parts. We obtained three ``sinusoidal rotation curves'' (from the Hα velocity field) around position angle (P.A.) ~55°, ~90°, and ~130°. In the main optical nucleus we found a clear ``outflow component'' associated with galactic winds plus an ``inflow radial motion.'' The outflow component was also detected in the central and external regions (rstandard models of photoionization, shocks, and starbursts). We present four detailed emission

  9. A single population of red globular clusters around the massive compact galaxy NGC 1277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Leaman, Ryan; Montes, Mireia

    2018-03-01

    Massive galaxies are thought to form in two phases: an initial collapse of gas and giant burst of central star formation, followed by the later accretion of material that builds up their stellar and dark-matter haloes. The systems of globular clusters within such galaxies are believed to form in a similar manner. The initial central burst forms metal-rich (spectrally red) clusters, whereas more metal-poor (spectrally blue) clusters are brought in by the later accretion of less-massive satellites. This formation process is thought to result in the multimodal optical colour distributions that are seen in the globular cluster systems of massive galaxies. Here we report optical observations of the massive relic-galaxy candidate NGC 1277—a nearby, un-evolved example of a high-redshift ‘red nugget’ galaxy. We find that the optical colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 is unimodal and entirely red. This finding is in strong contrast to other galaxies of similar and larger stellar mass, the cluster systems of which always exhibit (and are generally dominated by) blue clusters. We argue that the colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 indicates that the galaxy has undergone little (if any) mass accretion after its initial collapse, and use simulations of possible merger histories to show that the stellar mass due to accretion is probably at most ten per cent of the total stellar mass of the galaxy. These results confirm that NGC 1277 is a genuine relic galaxy and demonstrate that blue clusters constitute an accreted population in present-day massive galaxies.

  10. THE STAR CLUSTER SYSTEM IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sungsoon; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Narae

    2013-01-01

    We present a photometric study of star clusters in the nearby starburst galaxy M82 based on the UBVI-, YJ- and H-band Hubble Space Telescope images. We find 1105 star clusters with V 0 ≈ 0.45, and a weaker red population. The luminosity function of the disk clusters shows a power-law distribution with a power-law index α = –2.04 ± 0.03, and the scale height of their distribution is h z = 9.''64 ± 0.''40 (164 ± 7 pc), similar to that of the stellar thin disk of M82. We have derived the ages of ∼630 star clusters using the spectral energy distribution fit method by comparing UBVI(YJ)H-band photometric data with the simple stellar population models. The age distribution of the disk clusters shows that the most dominant cluster population has ages ranging from 100 Myr to 1 Gyr, with a peak at about 500 Myr. This suggests that M82 has undergone a disk-wide star formation about 500 Myr ago, probably through the interaction with M81. The brightest star clusters in the nuclear region are much brighter than those in other regions, indicating that more massive star clusters are formed in the denser environments. On the other hand, the colors of the halo clusters are similar to those of globular clusters in the Milky Way, and their ages are estimated to be older than 1 Gyr. These are probably genuine old globular clusters in M82.

  11. 3D-HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED, LOW-METALLICITY STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 1.847

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Erb, Dawn K.; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Marchesini, Danilo; Quadri, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] λ5007 and Hβ emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 ± 100 and 520 ± 40 Å, respectively. The source has a stellar mass ∼10 8 M ☉ , sSFR ∼ 100 Gyr –1 , and detection of [O III] λ4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size r e ∼300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey.

  12. An enhanced rate of tidal disruptions in the centrally overdense E+A galaxy NGC 3156

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Nicholas C.; van Velzen, Sjoert

    2016-01-01

    Time domain optical surveys have discovered roughly a dozen candidate stellar tidal disruption flares in the last five years, and future surveys like the {\\it Large Synoptic Survey Telescope} will likely find hundreds to thousands more. These tidal disruption events (TDEs) present an interesting puzzle: a majority of the current TDE sample is hosted by rare post-starburst galaxies, and tens of percent are hosted in even rarer E+A galaxies, which make up $\\sim 0.1\\%$ of all galaxies in the loc...

  13. Comparison of M33 and NGC7793: stochastic models of spiral galaxies modulated by density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Two late-type spiral galaxies with similar kinematic and photometric properties but different spiral arm structures, M33 and NGC7793, are compared to model galaxies with stochastic self-propagating star formation. The spontaneous probability, Psub(sp), representing the rate of primary star formation, is modulated by a smooth, density wave-like spiral pattern in the models of M33. When propagating star formation is included, these models show no age gradients in the underlying spiral arms. Models which have no imposed spiral modulation to Psub(sp) resemble the observed structure of NGC7793. (author)

  14. A large sample of Kohonen selected E+A (post-starburst) galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusinger, H.; Brünecke, J.; Schalldach, P.; in der Au, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The galaxy population in the contemporary Universe is characterised by a clear bimodality, blue galaxies with significant ongoing star formation and red galaxies with only a little. The migration between the blue and the red cloud of galaxies is an issue of active research. Post starburst (PSB) galaxies are thought to be observed in the short-lived transition phase. Aims: We aim to create a large sample of local PSB galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study their characteristic properties, particularly morphological features indicative of gravitational distortions and indications for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Another aim is to present a tool set for an efficient search in a large database of SDSS spectra based on Kohonen self-organising maps (SOMs). Methods: We computed a huge Kohonen SOM for ∼106 spectra from SDSS data release 7. The SOM is made fully available, in combination with an interactive user interface, for the astronomical community. We selected a large sample of PSB galaxies taking advantage of the clustering behaviour of the SOM. The morphologies of both PSB galaxies and randomly selected galaxies from a comparison sample in SDSS Stripe 82 (S82) were inspected on deep co-added SDSS images to search for indications of gravitational distortions. We used the Portsmouth galaxy property computations to study the evolutionary stage of the PSB galaxies and archival multi-wavelength data to search for hidden AGNs. Results: We compiled a catalogue of 2665 PSB galaxies with redshifts z 3 Å and z cloud, in agreement with the idea that PSB galaxies represent the transitioning phase between actively and passively evolving galaxies. The relative frequency of distorted PSB galaxies is at least 57% for EW(Hδ) > 5 Å, significantly higher than in the comparison sample. The search for AGNs based on conventional selection criteria in the radio and MIR results in a low AGN fraction of ∼2-3%. We confirm an MIR excess in the mean SED of

  15. STAR FORMATION RATES IN RESOLVED GALAXIES: CALIBRATIONS WITH NEAR- AND FAR-INFRARED DATA FOR NGC 5055 AND NGC 6946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yiming; Crocker, Alison F.; Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Wilson, Christine D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kennicutt, Robert C.; Galametz, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Murphy, Eric J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Brandl, Bernhard R.; Groves, B. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Draine, B. T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Johnson, B. D. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gordon, K. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Croxall, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Engelbracht, C. W.; Hinz, J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hao, C.-N. [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Helou, G. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hunt, L. K., E-mail: yimingl@astro.umass.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); and others

    2013-05-10

    We use the near-infrared Br{gamma} hydrogen recombination line as a reference star formation rate (SFR) indicator to test the validity and establish the calibration of the Herschel/PACS 70 {mu}m emission as a SFR tracer for sub-galactic regions in external galaxies. Br{gamma} offers the double advantage of directly tracing ionizing photons and of being relatively insensitive to the effects of dust attenuation. For our first experiment, we use archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Br{gamma} and Ks images of two nearby galaxies: NGC 5055 and NGC 6946, which are also part of the Herschel program KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel). We use the extinction corrected Br{gamma} emission to derive the SFR(70) calibration for H II regions in these two galaxies. A comparison of the SFR(70) calibrations at different spatial scales, from 200 pc to the size of the whole galaxy, reveals that about 50% of the total 70 {mu}m emission is due to dust heated by stellar populations that are unrelated to the current star formation. We use a simple model to qualitatively relate the increase of the SFR(70) calibration coefficient with decreasing region size to the star formation timescale. We provide a calibration for an unbiased SFR indicator that combines the observed H{alpha} with the 70 {mu}m emission, also for use in H II regions. We briefly analyze the PACS 100 and 160 {mu}m maps and find that longer wavelengths are not as good SFR indicators as 70 {mu}m, in agreement with previous results. We find that the calibrations show about 50% difference between the two galaxies, possibly due to effects of inclination.

  16. STAR FORMATION RATES IN RESOLVED GALAXIES: CALIBRATIONS WITH NEAR- AND FAR-INFRARED DATA FOR NGC 5055 AND NGC 6946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yiming; Crocker, Alison F.; Calzetti, Daniela; Wilson, Christine D.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Galametz, M.; Murphy, Eric J.; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Groves, B.; Draine, B. T.; Johnson, B. D.; Armus, L.; Gordon, K. D.; Croxall, K.; Dale, D. A.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Hinz, J.; Hao, C.-N.; Helou, G.; Hunt, L. K.

    2013-01-01

    We use the near-infrared Brγ hydrogen recombination line as a reference star formation rate (SFR) indicator to test the validity and establish the calibration of the Herschel/PACS 70 μm emission as a SFR tracer for sub-galactic regions in external galaxies. Brγ offers the double advantage of directly tracing ionizing photons and of being relatively insensitive to the effects of dust attenuation. For our first experiment, we use archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Brγ and Ks images of two nearby galaxies: NGC 5055 and NGC 6946, which are also part of the Herschel program KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel). We use the extinction corrected Brγ emission to derive the SFR(70) calibration for H II regions in these two galaxies. A comparison of the SFR(70) calibrations at different spatial scales, from 200 pc to the size of the whole galaxy, reveals that about 50% of the total 70 μm emission is due to dust heated by stellar populations that are unrelated to the current star formation. We use a simple model to qualitatively relate the increase of the SFR(70) calibration coefficient with decreasing region size to the star formation timescale. We provide a calibration for an unbiased SFR indicator that combines the observed Hα with the 70 μm emission, also for use in H II regions. We briefly analyze the PACS 100 and 160 μm maps and find that longer wavelengths are not as good SFR indicators as 70 μm, in agreement with previous results. We find that the calibrations show about 50% difference between the two galaxies, possibly due to effects of inclination.

  17. A UNIVERSAL, LOCAL STAR FORMATION LAW IN GALACTIC CLOUDS, NEARBY GALAXIES, HIGH-REDSHIFT DISKS, AND STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; McKee, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    Star formation laws are rules that relate the rate of star formation in a particular region, either an entire galaxy or some portion of it, to the properties of the gas, or other galactic properties, in that region. While observations of Local Group galaxies show a very simple, local star formation law in which the star formation rate per unit area in each patch of a galaxy scales linearly with the molecular gas surface density in that patch, recent observations of both Milky Way molecular clouds and high-redshift galaxies apparently show a more complicated relationship in which regions of equal molecular gas surface density can form stars at quite different rates. These data have been interpreted as implying either that different star formation laws may apply in different circumstances, that the star formation law is sensitive to large-scale galaxy properties rather than local properties, or that there are high-density thresholds for star formation. Here we collate observations of the relationship between gas and star formation rate from resolved observations of Milky Way molecular clouds, from kpc-scale observations of Local Group galaxies, and from unresolved observations of both disk and starburst galaxies in the local universe and at high redshift. We show that all of these data are in fact consistent with a simple, local, volumetric star formation law. The apparent variations stem from the fact that the observed objects have a wide variety of three-dimensional size scales and degrees of internal clumping, so even at fixed gas column density the regions being observed can have wildly varying volume densities. We provide a simple theoretical framework to remove this projection effect, and we use it to show that all the data, from small solar neighborhood clouds with masses ∼10 3 M ☉ to submillimeter galaxies with masses ∼10 11 M ☉ , fall on a single star formation law in which the star formation rate is simply ∼1% of the molecular gas mass per local

  18. EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS IN THE REMOTE HALO OF THE INTRIGUING DWARF GALAXY NGC 6822

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Narae; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Jong Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Park, Won-Kee; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    We present a study on four new star clusters discovered in the halo of the intriguing dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 from a wide-field survey covering 3 0 x 3 0 area carried out with MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The star clusters have extended structures with half-light radii R h ∼ 7.5-14.0 pc, larger than typical Galactic globular clusters and other known globular clusters in NGC 6822. The integrated colors and color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stars suggest that the new star clusters are 2-10 Gyr old and relatively metal poor with Z = 0.0001-0.004 based on the comparison with theoretical models. The projected distance of each star cluster from the galaxy center ranges from 10.'7 (∼1.5 kpc) to 77' (∼11 kpc), far beyond the optical body of the galaxy. Interestingly, the new star clusters are aligned along the elongated old stellar halo of NGC 6822, which is almost perpendicular to the H I gas distribution where young stellar populations exist. We also find that the colors and half-light radii of the new clusters are correlated with the galactocentric distance: clusters farther from the galaxy center are larger and bluer than those closer to the galaxy center. We discuss the stellar structure and evolution of NGC 6822 implied by these new extended star clusters in the halo. We also discuss the current status of observational and theoretical understandings regarding the origin of extended star clusters in NGC 6822 and other galaxies.

  19. Fast and Furious: Shock heated gas as the origin of spatially resolved hard X-ray emission in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy merger NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, Emanuele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Risaliti, Guido; Zezas, Andreas [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pellegrini, Silvia [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Max, Claire [Center for Adaptive Optics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); U, Vivian, E-mail: jfwang@northwestern.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We have obtained a deep, subarcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT ∼ 6 keV (∼70 MK) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with a velocity of ∼2200 km s{sup –1}. For the first time, we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting Fe XXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large-scale morphology of H{sub 2}(1-0) S(1) line emission and Hα filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originating in the starburst-driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L {sub 0.5-8} {sub keV} = 5.3 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}, the diffuse hard X-ray emission is ∼100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M {sub hot} = 1.8 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}) and thermal energy (E {sub th} = 6.5 × 10{sup 57} erg). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M {sub Fe} = 4.6 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.

  20. Fast and Furious: Shock Heated Gas as the Origin of Spatially Resolved Hard X-Ray Emission in the Central 5 kpc of the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, Emanuele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Pellegrini, Silvia; Max, Claire; Risaliti, Guido; U, Vivian; Zezas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a deep, subarcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT ~ 6 keV (~70 MK) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with a velocity of ~2200 km s-1. For the first time, we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting Fe XXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large-scale morphology of H2(1-0) S(1) line emission and Hα filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originating in the starburst-driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L 0.5-8 keV = 5.3 × 1041 erg s-1, the diffuse hard X-ray emission is ~100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M hot = 1.8 × 108 M ⊙) and thermal energy (E th = 6.5 × 1057 erg). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M Fe = 4.6 × 105 M ⊙. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.

  1. Fast and Furious: Shock heated gas as the origin of spatially resolved hard X-ray emission in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy merger NGC 6240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, Emanuele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Risaliti, Guido; Zezas, Andreas; Pellegrini, Silvia; Max, Claire; U, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a deep, subarcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT ∼ 6 keV (∼70 MK) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with a velocity of ∼2200 km s –1 . For the first time, we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting Fe XXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large-scale morphology of H 2 (1-0) S(1) line emission and Hα filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originating in the starburst-driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L 0.5-8 keV = 5.3 × 10 41 erg s –1 , the diffuse hard X-ray emission is ∼100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M hot = 1.8 × 10 8 M ☉ ) and thermal energy (E th = 6.5 × 10 57 erg). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M Fe = 4.6 × 10 5 M ☉ . Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.

  2. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi γ-ray space telescope of high-energy γ-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE γ-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  3. The Total Mass of the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC~4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC~4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii ($R_e$ there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond $3R_e$ the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC~4649 are also discussed.

  4. Radio continuum observations of the quasar-galaxy pair 3C 232-NGC 3067

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxthausen, E.; Carilli, C.; Vangorkom, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The quasar-galaxy pair 3C 232-NGC 3067 is well known to show absorption by gas associated with the foreground galaxy against the background quasar (see Stocke et al. this volume). Observations by Carilli, van Gorkom, and Stocke (Nature 338, 134, 1989) found that the absorbing gas is located in a long tail of gas which extends from the galaxy toward the quasar and beyond (in projection). Though the HI observations of NGC 3067 indicate that the galaxy has been severely disturbed, there is no obvious candidate in the field which could cause such a disturbance, leading to the conclusion that the system has undergone a recent merger. The radio continuum observations of this system were designed to study the nature of this highly disturbed galaxy. New continuum observations confirm the notion that NGC 3067 is a highly disturbed system, and, in particular, the notion that the western half of the galaxy extends only 1/2 as far in radius as the eastern half. This disturbance must have occurred recently, since the galactic rotation would smooth out the observed asymmetry in about 10(exp 8) years. Researchers are left with the problem that there are no obvious candidates which could have caused such a disturbance

  5. Star Formation Histories of the LEGUS Dwarf Galaxies. I. Recent History of NGC 1705, NGC 4449, and Holmberg II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, M.; Sacchi, E.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Cook, D. O.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Messa, M.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey to reconstruct the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of three actively star-forming dwarf galaxies, NGC 4449, Holmberg II, and NGC 1705, from their UV color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs). We apply a CMD fitting technique using two independent sets of stellar isochrones, PARSEC-COLIBRI and MIST, to assess the uncertainties related to stellar evolution modeling. Irrespective of the adopted stellar models, all three dwarfs are found to have had almost constant star formation rates (SFRs) in the last 100–200 Myr, with modest enhancements (a factor of ∼2) above the 100 Myr averaged SFR. Significant differences among the three dwarfs are found in terms of the overall SFR, the timing of the most recent peak, and the SFR/area. The initial mass function of NGC 1705 and Holmberg II is consistent with a Salpeter slope down to ≈5 M ⊙, whereas it is slightly flatter, s = ‑2.0, in NGC 4449. The SFHs derived with the two different sets of stellar models are consistent with each other, except for some quantitative details, attributable to their input assumptions. They also share the drawback that all synthetic diagrams predict a clear separation in color between the upper main-sequence and helium-burning stars, which is not apparent in the data. Since neither differential reddening, which is significant in NGC 4449, nor unresolved binaries appear to be sufficient to fill the gap, we suggest this calls for a revision of both sets of stellar evolutionary tracks. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS 5-26555.

  6. The Distance to NGC 4993: The Host Galaxy of the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens; Levan, Andrew J.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Lyman, Joe D.; Wojtak, Radosław; Schrøder, Sophie L.; Mandel, Ilya; Gall, Christa; Bruun, Sofie H.

    2017-10-01

    The historic detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger (GW170817) and its electromagnetic counterpart led to the first accurate (sub-arcsecond) localization of a gravitational-wave event. The transient was found to be ˜10″ from the nucleus of the S0 galaxy NGC 4993. We report here the luminosity distance to this galaxy using two independent methods. (1) Based on our MUSE/VLT measurement of the heliocentric redshift (z helio = 0.009783 ± 0.000023), we infer the systemic recession velocity of the NGC 4993 group of galaxies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) frame to be v CMB = 3231 ± 53 km s-1. Using constrained cosmological simulations we estimate the line-of-sight peculiar velocity to be v pec = 307 ± 230 km s-1, resulting in a cosmic velocity of v cosmic = 2924 ± 236 km s-1 (z cosmic = 0.00980 ± 0.00079) and a distance of D z = 40.4 ± 3.4 Mpc assuming a local Hubble constant of H 0 = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1. (2) Using Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the effective radius (15.″5 ± 1.″5) and contained intensity and MUSE/VLT measurements of the velocity dispersion, we place NGC 4993 on the Fundamental Plane (FP) of E and S0 galaxies. Comparing to a frame of 10 clusters containing 226 galaxies, this yields a distance estimate of D FP = 44.0 ± 7.5 Mpc. The combined redshift and FP distance is D NGC 4993 = 41.0 ± 3.1 Mpc. This “electromagnetic” distance estimate is consistent with the independent measurement of the distance to GW170817 as obtained from the gravitational-wave signal ({D}{GW}={43.8}-6.9+2.9 Mpc) and confirms that GW170817 occurred in NGC 4993.

  7. Luminosity distribution in galaxies. I. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 as a luminosity distribution standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.; Capaccioli, M.

    1979-01-01

    A standard mean luminosity profile in the B band of the El galaxy NGC 3379 along its east-west x-axis is derived from four sets of medium- and low-resolution photographic and photoelectric McDonald data. The 154 mean points cover a range in excess of 11 mag down to μ/sub B/=27.8 mag arcsec -2 (x=7'.3), with possible detection out to x=16'.3 (μ/sub B/approx. =30.9).The profile is presented within +- 0.08 mag at all x>10'' by μ 1 =14.076+3.0083 x/sup 1/4/ (x in arcsec). Near the center the galaxy is brighter than μ 1 by up to 0.35 mag; the excess can be represented by a Gaussian core μ/sub II/=18.565+0.03965 r 2 (r in arcsec) contributing 19.8% of the integrated magnitude B=11.97 within r* =12'' and 4.0% of the total magnitude B/sub T/=10.225 of the galaxy.This two-component model convolved by the appropriate point spread function represents the data within a standard deviation of 0.04 mag over the whole range. Other analytical formulae give generally poorer fits. There is no evidence for a tidal cutoff or a tidal extension.The integrated magnitudes derived from the model agree with aperture photometry (47 values) within 0.05 mag

  8. COLD DUST BUT WARM GAS IN THE UNUSUAL ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C. D.; Cridland, A.; Foyle, K.; Parkin, T. J.; Cooper, E. Mentuch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Roussel, H. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7095, F-75014 Paris (France); Sauvage, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Smith, M. W. L.; Gear, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; De Looze, I. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, G. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Galametz, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-10-20

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and H I emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (<12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [C II] emission raises this limit to <39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r {sup 1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is toward the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures ≥10{sup 4} K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

  9. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  10. Near-infrared mapping of ARP 299 (IC 694-NGC 3690) - colliding galaxies unveiled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesco, C.M.; Decher, R.; Gatley, I.; Edinburgh Royal Observatory, England)

    1985-01-01

    Near-infrared maps and multicolor photometry of the interacting galaxies IC 694 and NGC 3690 which form Arp 299 (= Markarian 171) are presented. These data reveal for the first time the distribution of nuclei and old red stars in a cataclysmically interacting system. The nuclei are considerably offset from the visual centroids of the galaxies but not from the mass centroids. The near-infrared colors of the most active regions are strongly affected by extinction, emission form hot dust, and bremsstrahlung. Near-infrared emission is also identified with secondary regions of star formation, probably resulting from the galaxies interaction. 24 references

  11. HALOGAS: H I OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF THE NEARBY EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 4565

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschaechner, Laura K.; Rand, Richard J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 1919 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1156 (United States); Heald, George H.; Jozsa, Gyula [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gentile, Gianfranco, E-mail: zschaech@unm.edu, E-mail: rjr@phys.unm.edu, E-mail: heald@astron.nl, E-mail: jozsa@astron.nl, E-mail: gianfranco.gentile@ugent.be [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-11-20

    We present 21 cm observations and models of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 4565, a nearby, edge-on spiral galaxy, as part of the Westerbork Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS survey. These models provide insight concerning both the morphology and kinematics of H I above, as well as within, the disk. NGC 4565 exhibits a distinctly warped and asymmetric disk with a flaring layer. Our modeling provides no evidence for a massive, extended H I halo. We see evidence for a bar and associated radial motions. Additionally, there are indications of radial motions within the disk, possibly associated with a ring of higher density. We see a substantial decrease in rotational velocity with height above the plane of the disk (a lag) of -40{sup +5} {sub -20} km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1} and -30{sup +5} {sub -30} km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1} in the approaching and receding halves, respectively. This lag is only seen within the inner {approx}4.'75 (14.9 kpc) on the approaching half and {approx}4.'25 (13.4 kpc) on the receding half, making this a radially shallowing lag, which is now seen in the H I layers of several galaxies. When comparing results for NGC 4565 and those for other galaxies, there are tentative indications of high star formation rate per unit area being associated with the presence of a halo. Finally, H I is found in two companion galaxies, one of which is clearly interacting with NGC 4565.

  12. New Insights Into The X-ray Properties Of NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Leigh; Roberts, T.; Brandt, N.; Colbert, E.; Levan, A.; Zezas, A.; Ward, M.

    2006-09-01

    We present the first results of new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. Previously classified as a Seyfert galaxy, the new combined X-ray imaging and spectral information provides evidence that the nucleus of the galaxy may be almost entirely starburst in nature, presumably triggered and sustained by gas and dust driven to the central region along the galactic bar.

  13. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M{sub I} (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S{sub N} = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  14. Keck Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Schweizer, Francois; Larsen, Soeren S.; Seitzer, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    We present moderate-resolution Keck spectra of nine candidate globular clusters in the possible merger-remnant elliptical galaxy NGC 3610. Eight of the objects appear to be bona fide globular clusters of NGC 3610. We find that two of the clusters belong to an old metal-poor population, five to an old metal-rich population, and only one to an intermediate-age metal-rich population. The estimated age of the intermediate-age cluster is 1-5 Gyr, which is in agreement with earlier estimates of the...

  15. The Rings Survey. I. Hα and H I Velocity Maps of Galaxy NGC 2280

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carl J.; Williams, T. B.; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Sellwood, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Precise measurements of gas kinematics in the disk of a spiral galaxy can be used to estimate its mass distribution. The Southern African Large Telescope has a large collecting area and field of view, and is equipped with a Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometer that can measure gas kinematics in a galaxy from the Hα line. To take advantage of this capability, we have constructed a sample of 19 nearby spiral galaxies, the RSS Imaging and Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey, as targets for detailed study of their mass distributions and have collected much of the needed data. In this paper, we present velocity maps produced from Hα FP interferometry and H i aperture synthesis for one of these galaxies, NGC 2280, and show that the two velocity measurements are generally in excellent agreement. Minor differences can mostly be attributed to the different spatial distributions of the excited and neutral gas in this galaxy, but we do detect some anomalous velocities in our Hα velocity map of the kind that have previously been detected in other galaxies. Models produced from our two velocity maps agree well with each other and our estimates of the systemic velocity and projection angles confirm previous measurements of these quantities for NGC 2280. Based in part on observations obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) program 2011-3-RU-003.

  16. THE RINGS SURVEY. I. Hα AND H i VELOCITY MAPS OF GALAXY NGC 2280

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Carl J.; Williams, T. B.; Sellwood, J. A.; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K.; Naray, Rachel Kuzio de

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurements of gas kinematics in the disk of a spiral galaxy can be used to estimate its mass distribution. The Southern African Large Telescope has a large collecting area and field of view, and is equipped with a Fabry–Pérot (FP) interferometer that can measure gas kinematics in a galaxy from the Hα line. To take advantage of this capability, we have constructed a sample of 19 nearby spiral galaxies, the RSS Imaging and Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey, as targets for detailed study of their mass distributions and have collected much of the needed data. In this paper, we present velocity maps produced from Hα FP interferometry and H i aperture synthesis for one of these galaxies, NGC 2280, and show that the two velocity measurements are generally in excellent agreement. Minor differences can mostly be attributed to the different spatial distributions of the excited and neutral gas in this galaxy, but we do detect some anomalous velocities in our Hα velocity map of the kind that have previously been detected in other galaxies. Models produced from our two velocity maps agree well with each other and our estimates of the systemic velocity and projection angles confirm previous measurements of these quantities for NGC 2280

  17. 3D-HST Grism Spectroscopy of a Gravitationally Lensed, Low-metallicity Starburst Galaxy at z = 1.847

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Labbé, Ivo; da Cunha, Elisabete; Erb, Dawn K.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Patel, Shannon; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; van der Wel, Arjen; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2012-10-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] λ5007 and Hβ emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 ± 100 and 520 ± 40 Å, respectively. The source has a stellar mass ~108 M ⊙, sSFR ~ 100 Gyr-1, and detection of [O III] λ4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size re ~300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, program 12328, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  18. Kinematics of NGC 4826: A sleeping beauty galaxy, not an evil eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1994-01-01

    A recent high resolution H I study of the Sab galaxy NGC 4826 (1992) reveals that the sense of rotation of the neutral gas reverses from the inner to the outer disk. The present paper reports on optical spectra at high velocity resolution in four position angles in NGC 4826, which cover the region of the gas reversal and which reveal a high degree of complexity. In the inner disk, which includes the prominent dusty lane, the stars and gas rotate in concert, and the spiral arms trail (for the adopted geometry). Arcs of ionized gas are observed partially encircling the nucleus; expansion velocities reach 400 km/s. At distances just beyond the prominent dust lane, the ionized gas exhibits a rapid, orderly velocity fall and within 500 parsecs it has reversed from 180 km/s prograde to 200 km/s retrograde; it also has a component radial toward the nucleus of over 100 km/s. The stars, however, continue their prograde rotation. Beyond this transition zone, the neutral gas continues its retrograde rotation, stellar velocities are prograde, but the sense of the almost circular arms is not established. Because of its kinematical complexity as well as its proximity, NGC 4826 is an excellent early-type galaxy in which to observe the long term effects of gas acquistion or a galaxy merger on a disk galaxy.

  19. A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1993-05-01

    A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

  20. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 147 estimated from the Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method applying to the color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions in the near-infrared JHK bands. Apparent magnitudes of TRGBs in each band are obtained by applying Savitzky-Golay filter to the luminosity functions, and the theoretical absolute magnitudes are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 147 are (m-M=23.69±0.12, 23.78±0.17, and 23.85±0.22 for J, H, and K bands, respectively. Distance modulus in bolometric magnitude is also derived as (m-M=23.87±0.11. We compare the derived values of the TRGB distance modulus to NGC 147 in the near-infrared bands with the previous results in other bands.

  1. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  2. THE STRUCTURE OF THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF GALAXIES: COOL ACCRETION INFLOW AROUND NGC 1097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, David V.; Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Chelouche, Doron [Department of Physics, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Tripp, Todd M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Pettini, Max [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0EZ (United Kingdom); York, Donald G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope far-UV spectra of four QSOs whose sightlines pass through the halo of NGC 1097 at impact parameters of ρ = 48–165 kpc. NGC 1097 is a nearby spiral galaxy that has undergone at least two minor merger events, but no apparent major mergers, and is relatively isolated with respect to other nearby bright galaxies. This makes NGC 1097 a good case study for exploring baryons in a paradigmatic bright-galaxy halo. Ly α absorption is detected along all sightlines and Si iii λ 1206 is found along the three sightlines with the smallest ρ ; metal lines of C ii, Si ii, and Si iv are only found with certainty toward the innermost sightline. The kinematics of the absorption lines are best replicated by a model with a disk-like distribution of gas approximately planar to the observed 21 cm H i disk, which is rotating more slowly than the inner disk, and into which gas is infalling from the intergalactic medium. Some part of the absorption toward the innermost sightline may arise either from a small-scale outflow or from tidal debris associated with the minor merger that gives rise to the well known “dog-leg” stellar stream that projects from NGC 1097. When compared to other studies, NGC 1097 appears to be a “typical” absorber, although the large dispersion in absorption line column density and equivalent width in a single halo goes perhaps some way toward explaining the wide range of these values seen in higher- z studies.

  3. A spatially resolved radio spectral index study of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Jonathan; Brinks, Elias; Hindson, Luke; Beswick, Robert; Heesen, Volker

    2018-04-01

    We study the resolved radio continuum spectral energy distribution of the dwarf irregular galaxy, NGC 1569, on a beam-by-beam basis to isolate and study its spatially resolved radio emission characteristics. Utilizing high-quality NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations that densely sample the 1-34 GHz frequency range, we adopt a Bayesian fitting procedure, where we use H α emission that has not been corrected for extinction as a prior, to produce maps of how the separated thermal emission, non-thermal emission, and non-thermal spectral index vary across NGC 1569's main disc. We find a higher thermal fraction at 1 GHz than is found in spiral galaxies (26^{+2}_{-3} {per cent}) and find an average non-thermal spectral index α = -0.53 ± 0.02, suggesting that a young population of cosmic ray electrons is responsible for the observed non-thermal emission. By comparing our recovered map of the thermal radio emission with literature H α maps, we estimate the total reddening along the line of sight to NGC 1569 to be E(B - V) = 0.49 ± 0.05, which is in good agreement with other literature measurements. Spatial variations in the reddening indicate that a significant portion of the total reddening is due to internal extinction within NGC 1569.

  4. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay, E-mail: bentz@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  5. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert; Evans, Christopher J.; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T eff indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  6. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert [Institute for Astro and Particle Physics, A-6020 Innsbruck University (Austria); Evans, Christopher J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Carraro, Giovanni, E-mail: mwhosek@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Norbert.Przybilla@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: chris.evans@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, La Silla Paranal Observatory (Chile)

    2014-04-20

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T {sub eff} indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  7. STAR CLUSTER FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE MERGING GALAXY NGC 3256

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulia, A. J.; Chandar, R. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); Whitmore, B. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We use the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the rich population of young massive star clusters in the main body of NGC 3256, a merging pair of galaxies with a high star formation rate (SFR) and SFR per unit area (Σ{sub SFR}). These clusters have luminosity and mass functions that follow power laws, dN / dL ∝ L{sup α} with α = 2.23 ± 0.07, and dN / dM ∝ M{sup β} with β = 1.86 ± 0.34 for τ < 10 Myr clusters, similar to those found in more quiescent galaxies. The age distribution can be described by dN / dτ ∝ τ{sup γ}, with γ ≈ 0.67 ± 0.08 for clusters younger than about a few hundred million years, with no obvious dependence on cluster mass. This is consistent with a picture where ∼80% of the clusters are disrupted each decade in time. We investigate the claim that galaxies with high Σ{sub SFR} form clusters more efficiently than quiescent systems by determining the fraction of stars in bound clusters (Γ) and the CMF/SFR statistic (CMF is the cluster mass function) for NGC 3256 and comparing the results with those for other galaxies. We find that the CMF/SFR statistic for NGC 3256 agrees well with that found for galaxies with Σ{sub SFR} and SFRs that are lower by 1–3 orders of magnitude, but that estimates for Γ are only robust when the same sets of assumptions are applied. Currently, Γ values available in the literature have used different sets of assumptions, making it more difficult to compare the results between galaxies.

  8. Broad-line high-excitation gas in the elliptical galaxy NGC5128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.M.; Taylor, K.; Axon, D.J.; Atherton, P.D.; Hook, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    A faint, but extensive component of broad-line ionized gas has been discovered in the peculiar giant elliptical galaxy NGC5128. This component has a radically different spatial distribution from the well-studied rotating photoionized gas associated with the dust lane although the velocity fields of the two components are similar. The origin of the broad-line gas is considered as its possible relation to the active nucleus and the X-ray jet discussed. (author)

  9. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  10. Observations of the Galaxy NGC 3077 in the Narrow-Band [S II] and Hα Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjelić M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the H I tidal arm near a dwarf galaxy NGC 3077 (member of the M81 galaxy group in the narrow-band [S II] and Hα filters. Observations were carried out in 2011 March with the 2 m RCC telescope at the NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for possible supernova remnant candidates (identified as sources with enhanced [S II] emission relative to their Hα emission in this region yielded no sources of this kind. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant Hα emission that probably represent uncatalogued, low brightness H II regions.

  11. X-Ray Emission from a Merger Remnant, NGC 7252 (the ``Atoms-for-Peace'' Galaxy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tomida, Hiroshi

    2002-03-01

    We observed a nearby merger remnant NGC 7252 with the X-ray satellite ASCA and detected X-ray emission with the X-ray flux of (1.8+/-0.3)×10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2 in the 0.5-10 keV band. This corresponds to the X-ray luminosity of 8.1×1040 ergs s-1. The X-ray emission is well described with a two-component model: a soft component with kT=0.72+/-0.13 keV and a hard component with kT>5.1 keV. Although NGC 7252 is referred to as a dynamically young protoelliptical, the 0.5-4 keV luminosity of the soft component is about 2×1040 ergs s-1, which is low for an early-type galaxy. The ratio of LX/LFIR suggests that the soft component originated from the hot gas due to star formation. Its low luminosity can be explained by the gas ejection from the galaxy as galaxy winds. Our observation reveals the existence of hard X-ray emission with the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5.6×1040 ergs s-1. This may indicate the existence of nuclear activity or an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 7252.

  12. The Halo Dynamics of NGC 3379: A Normal Elliptical Galaxy with No Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardullo, R.; Jacoby, G. H.

    1993-05-01

    We present the results of a radial velocity survey of planetary nebulae in the normal, non-interacting, elliptical galaxy NGC 3379. In two half-nights with the Kitt Peak 4-m telescope and the NESSIE multifiber spectrograph, we measured the velocities of 29 PNe with projected galactocentric distances between 0.4 and 3.8 effective radii (1 kpc < R < 10 kpc). These data, which have an observational uncertainty of ~ 7 km s(-1) , extend 3 times further into the halo than any previous absorption line study, and allow us for the first time, to examine the kinematics of halo stars in a normal E0 galaxy. The observed velocity dispersion and photometric profile of NGC 3379 agrees extremely well with that expected from a constant mass-to-light, isotropic orbit Jaffe model with a mass-to-light ratio M/L_B ~ 7. A simple c = 2.33 King model with M/L_B ~ 7 also fits the data reasonably well, but models with purely radial or circular orbits are ruled out. The data strongly suggest that NGC 3379 is a galaxy with little or no dark matter within 3.5 effective radii of its nucleus.

  13. SPT0346-52: NEGLIGIBLE AGN ACTIVITY IN A COMPACT, HYPER-STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 5.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vieira, J. D.; Sreevani, J. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N. [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Litke, K.; Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McDonald, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 37-582C, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: jingzhema@ufl.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio continuum observations of the strongly lensed dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J034640-5204.9 (hereafter SPT0346-52) at z = 5.656. This galaxy has also been observed with ALMA, HST , Spitzer , Herschel , Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Very Large Telescope. Previous observations indicate that if the infrared (IR) emission is driven by star formation, then the inferred lensing-corrected star formation rate (SFR) (∼4500 M {sub ☉} yr{sup −1}) and SFR surface density Σ{sub SFR} (∼2000 M {sub ☉} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}) are both exceptionally high. It remained unclear from the previous data, however, whether a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes appreciably to the IR luminosity. The Chandra upper limit shows that SPT0346-52 is consistent with being star formation dominated in the X-ray, and any AGN contribution to the IR emission is negligible. The ATCA radio continuum upper limits are also consistent with the FIR-to-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies with no indication of an additional AGN contribution. The observed prodigious intrinsic IR luminosity of (3.6 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉} originates almost solely from vigorous star formation activity. With an intrinsic source size of 0.61 ± 0.03 kpc, SPT0346-52 is confirmed to have one of the highest Σ{sub SFR} of any known galaxy. This high Σ{sub SFR}, which approaches the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure supported starburst, may be explained by a combination of very high star formation efficiency and gas fraction.

  14. SPT0346-52: NEGLIGIBLE AGN ACTIVITY IN A COMPACT, HYPER-STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 5.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Vieira, J. D.; Sreevani, J.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B.; Bothwell, M. S.; Brandt, W. N.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Hezaveh, Y.; Litke, K.; Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Malkan, M.; McDonald, M.; Murphy, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio continuum observations of the strongly lensed dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J034640-5204.9 (hereafter SPT0346-52) at z = 5.656. This galaxy has also been observed with ALMA, HST , Spitzer , Herschel , Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Very Large Telescope. Previous observations indicate that if the infrared (IR) emission is driven by star formation, then the inferred lensing-corrected star formation rate (SFR) (∼4500 M ☉ yr −1 ) and SFR surface density Σ SFR (∼2000 M ☉ yr −1 kpc −2 ) are both exceptionally high. It remained unclear from the previous data, however, whether a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes appreciably to the IR luminosity. The Chandra upper limit shows that SPT0346-52 is consistent with being star formation dominated in the X-ray, and any AGN contribution to the IR emission is negligible. The ATCA radio continuum upper limits are also consistent with the FIR-to-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies with no indication of an additional AGN contribution. The observed prodigious intrinsic IR luminosity of (3.6 ± 0.3) × 10 13 L ☉ originates almost solely from vigorous star formation activity. With an intrinsic source size of 0.61 ± 0.03 kpc, SPT0346-52 is confirmed to have one of the highest Σ SFR of any known galaxy. This high Σ SFR , which approaches the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure supported starburst, may be explained by a combination of very high star formation efficiency and gas fraction.

  15. Star-forming Galaxies as AGN Imposters? A Theoretical Investigation of the Mid-infrared Colors of AGNs and Extreme Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nicholas P.; Secrest, Nathan J.

    2018-05-01

    We conduct for the first time a theoretical investigation of the mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) produced by dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an extreme starburst. These models employ an integrated modeling approach using photoionization and stellar population synthesis models in which both the line and emergent continuum is predicted from gas exposed to the ionizing radiation from a young starburst and an AGN. In this work, we focus on the infrared colors from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, predicting the dependence of the colors on the input radiation field, the interstellar medium conditions, the obscuring column, and the metallicity. We find that an extreme starburst can mimic an AGN in two band mid-infrared color cuts employed in the literature. However, the three-band color cuts employed in the literature require starbursts with extremely high ionization parameters or gas densities. We show that the extreme mid-infrared colors seen in some blue compact dwarf galaxies are not due to metallicity but rather a combination of high ionization parameters and high column densities. Based on our theoretical calculations, we present a theoretical mid-infrared color cut that will exclude even the most extreme starburst that we have modeled in this work. The theoretical AGN demarcation region presented here can be used to identify elusive AGN candidates for future follow-up studies with the James Webb Space Telescope. The full suite of simulated SEDs are available online.

  16. Star formation and gas flows in the centre of the NUGA galaxy NGC 1808 observed with SINFONI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Gerold; Eckart, Andreas; Valencia-S., Mónica; Fazeli, Nastaran; Scharwächter, Julia; Combes, Françoise; García-Burillo, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    NGC 1808 is a nearby barred spiral galaxy which hosts young stellar clusters in a patchy circumnuclear ring with a radius of 240 pc. In order to study the gaseous and stellar kinematics and the star formation properties of the clusters, we perform seeing-limited H + K-band near-infrared integral-field spectroscopy with SINFONI of the inner 600 pc. From the MBH-σ∗ relation, we find a black hole mass of a few 107M⊙. We estimate the age of the young stellar clusters in the circumnuclear ring to be ≲10 Myr. No age gradient along the ring is visible. However, the starburst age is comparable to the travel time along the ring, indicating that the clusters almost completed a full orbit along the ring during their lifetime. In the central 600 pc, we find a hot molecular gas mass of 730 M⊙ which, with standard conversion factors, corresponds to a large cold molecular gas reservoir of several 108M⊙, in agreement with CO measurements from the literature. The gaseous and stellar kinematics show several deviations from pure disc motion, including a circumnuclear disc and signs of a nuclear bar potential. In addition, we confirm streaming motions on the 200 pc scale that have recently been detected in CO(1-0) emission. Thanks to the enhanced angular resolution of <1″, we find further streaming motion within the inner arcsecond that had not been detected until now. Despite the flow of gas towards the centre, no signs of significant AGN activity are found. This raises the question: will the infalling gas fuel an AGN or star formation? Based on observations with ESO-VLT, STS-Cologne GTO proposal ID 094.B-0009(A) and ESO archival data, proposal nos 074.A-9011(A) and 075.B-0648(A).

  17. A close nuclear black-hole pair in the spiral galaxy NGC 3393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, M; Risaliti, G

    2011-08-31

    The current picture of galaxy evolution advocates co-evolution of galaxies and their nuclear massive black holes, through accretion and galactic merging. Pairs of quasars, each with a massive black hole at the centre of its galaxy, have separations of 6,000 to 300,000 light years (refs 2 and 3; 1 parsec = 3.26 light years) and exemplify the first stages of this gravitational interaction. The final stages of the black-hole merging process, through binary black holes and final collapse into a single black hole with gravitational wave emission, are consistent with the sub-light-year separation inferred from the optical spectra and light-variability of two such quasars. The double active nuclei of a few nearby galaxies with disrupted morphology and intense star formation (such as NGC 6240 with a separation of about 2,600 light years and Mrk 463 with a separation of about 13,000 light years between the nuclei) demonstrate the importance of major mergers of equal-mass spiral galaxies in this evolution; such mergers lead to an elliptical galaxy, as in the case of the double-radio-nucleus elliptical galaxy 0402+379 (with a separation of about 24 light years between the nuclei). Minor mergers of a spiral galaxy with a smaller companion should be a more common occurrence, evolving into spiral galaxies with active massive black-hole pairs, but have hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of two active massive black holes, separated by about 490 light years, in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3393 (50 Mpc, about 160 million light years). The regular spiral morphology and predominantly old circum-nuclear stellar population of this galaxy, and the closeness of the black holes embedded in the bulge, provide a hitherto missing observational point to the study of galaxy/black hole evolution. Comparison of our observations with current theoretical models of mergers suggests that they are the result of minor merger evolution. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights

  18. The progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies across cosmic time: from dusty star-bursting to quiescent stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Cemile Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dunlop, James S.; Buitrago, Fernando [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-10

    Using the UltraVISTA catalogs, we investigate the evolution in the 11.4 Gyr since z = 3 of the progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies (log (M {sub star}/M {sub ☉}) ≈ 11.8; UMGs), providing a complete and consistent picture of how the most massive galaxies at z = 0 have assembled. By selecting the progenitors with a semi-empirical approach using abundance matching, we infer a growth in stellar mass of 0.56{sub −0.25}{sup +0.35} dex, 0.45{sub −0.20}{sup +0.16} dex, and 0.27{sub −0.12}{sup +0.08} dex from z = 3, z = 2, and z = 1, respectively, to z = 0. At z < 1, the progenitors of UMGs constitute a homogeneous population of only quiescent galaxies with old stellar populations. At z > 1, the contribution from star-forming galaxies progressively increases, with the progenitors at 2 < z < 3 being dominated by massive (M {sub star} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), dusty (A {sub V} ∼ 1-2.2 mag), star-forming (SFR ∼ 100-400 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) galaxies with a large range in stellar ages. At z = 2.75, ∼15% of the progenitors are quiescent, with properties typical of post-starburst galaxies with little dust extinction and strong Balmer break, and showing a large scatter in color. Our findings indicate that at least half of the stellar content of local UMGs was assembled at z > 1, whereas the remaining was assembled via merging from z ∼ 1 to the present. Most of the quenching of the star-forming progenitors happened between z = 2.75 and z = 1.25, in good agreement with the typical formation redshift and scatter in age of z = 0 UMGs as derived from their fossil records. The progenitors of local UMGs, including the star-forming ones, never lived on the blue cloud since z = 3. We propose an alternative path for the formation of local UMGs that refines previously proposed pictures and that is fully consistent with our findings.

  19. NGC 741—Mergers and AGN Feedback on a Galaxy-group Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L.; O’Sullivan, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S. W. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 6140 (New Zealand); Raychaudhury, S., E-mail: gerrit.schellenberger@cfa.harvard.edu [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-08-10

    Low-mass galaxy cluster systems and groups will play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies, such as those to be carried out with eROSITA. Though the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes are of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium, they are poorly understood on the galaxy-group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741 that provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source, strongly bent jets, a 100-kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas-sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas-stripping from NGC 742, the character of cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  20. BIMA CO (1-0) Observations of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. L.; Petitpas, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    We present high resolution observations of the CO emission in NGC 404, a nearby dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy (D = 3.3 Mpc). NGC 404 is only the third dwarf elliptical to have its CO emission mapped by interferometric observations, and is the first outside the Local Group. Our observations show a very concentrated, marginally resolved structure about 9 × 9 arcseconds in diameter. This corresponds to a very small cloud at the center of a much larger distribution of stars. NGC 404 is surrounded by a doughnut shaped distribution of HI gas centered on the stellar component. The CO and HI appear to be kinematically distinct components, suggesting that the HI may be part of the galaxy's original gas distribution, while the CO may be recycled from the products of stellar evolution. C.L.T. has been supported by CSU Sacramento via a Research and Creative Activity Award. G.R.P. has been supported by the Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy through NSF grant AST 99-81289

  1. Tilted-ring models of the prolate spiral galaxies NGC 5033 and 5055

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Tohline, Joel E.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the kinematics of H I in the disks of spiral galaxies have shown that isovelocity contours often exhibit a twisted pattern. The shape of a galaxy's gravitational potential well (whether due to luminous matter or dark matter) can be determined from the direction of the twist. If this twist is a manifestation of the precession of a nonsteady-state disk, it is shown that the twists of NGC 5033 and 5055 imply an overall prolate shape, with the major axis of the potential well aligned along the rotation axis of the disk. Therefore, the luminous disks of these galaxies must be embedded in dark halos that are prolate spheroids or prolatelike triaxial figures.

  2. Radio ejection and broad forbidden emission lines in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7674

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.W.; Pedlar, A.; Axon, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Seyfert nucleus in NGC7674 (Mkn533) is remarkable for its broad asymmetric forbidden line profiles, which extend 2000 kms -1 blueward of the systemic velocity. The galaxy also has a compact nuclear radio source. We have obtained new high-resolution radio observations of NGC7674, using the European VLBI network and the VLA, and optical spectroscopic observations using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The radio maps reveal a triple radio source with a total angular extent of about 0.7 arcsec, and provide evidence that the radio emission is powered by collimated ejection. In the plane of the sky, the ejection axis appears roughly perpendicular to the galactic rotation axis. Although the dominant radio components are separated by 0.5 arcsec, the broad [OIII]λ5007 line emission is confined to within about 0.25 arcsec of the continuum nucleus. (author)

  3. Detection of retrograde gas streaming in the SB0 galaxy NGC 4546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletta, G.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations are reported of the almost edge-on SB0 galaxy NGC 4546 which reveal a striking discordance between the derived emission and absorption-line velocities. The gas clouds show velocities that are similar in amplitude but opposite in direction from the stars. This discordance is seen in observations obtained through slits oriented in a wide range of position angles. NGC 4546 is thus, at present, unique as a disk system exhibiting large-scale retrograde motions relative to the stellar component. Orbits elongated both along the bar major axis (prograde, stars) and along the bar intermediate axis (retrograde, gas) are found. The possibility that this material originated from an infall is discussed. 27 references

  4. Investigating the Lyman photon escape in local starburst galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph ★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Leitherer, Claus; Boquien, Médéric; Buat, Véronique; Burgarella, Denis; Calzetti, Daniela; Noll, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    We present a study of 7 star-forming galaxies from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The galaxies are located at relatively low redshifts, z ˜0.3, with morphologies ranging from extended and disturbed to compact and smooth. To complement the HST observations we also analyze observations taken with the VIMOS spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). In our galaxy sample we identify three objects with double peak Lyman-α profiles similar to those seen in Green Pea compact galaxies and measure peak separations of 655, 374, and 275 km s-1. We measure Lyman-α escape fractions with values ranging between 5-13%. Given the low flux levels in the individual COS exposures we apply a weighted stacking approach to obtain a single spectrum. From this COS combined spectrum we infer upper limits for the absolute and relative Lyman continuum escape fractions of f_abs(LyC) = 0.4^{+10.1}_{-0.4}% and f_res(LyC) = 1.7^{+15.2}_{-1.7}%, respectively. Finally, we find that most of these galaxies have moderate UV and optical SFRs (SFRs ≲ 10 M⊙ yr-1).

  5. Infrared emission and extragalactic starbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesco, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the belief that recent star formation plays a significant role in determining many of the infrared properties of galaxies. Pertinent types of infrared observations and the infrared properties of starbursts are briefly summarized. Recently developed models which describe the evolution of starbursts are also considered. (U.K.)

  6. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  7. Structure and Formation of cD Galaxies: NGC 6166 in ABELL 2199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Ralf; Kormendy, John; Cornell, Mark E.; Fisher, David B.

    2015-07-01

     Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) spectroscopy is used to measure the velocity dispersion profile of the nearest prototypical cD galaxy, NGC 6166 in the cluster Abell 2199. We also present composite surface photometry from many telescopes. We confirm the defining feature of a cD galaxy; i.e., (we suggest), a halo of stars that fills the cluster center and that is controlled dynamically by cluster gravity, not by the central galaxy. Our HET spectroscopy shows that the velocity dispersion of NGC 6166 rises from σ ≃ 300 km s-1 in the inner r˜ 10\\prime\\prime to σ =865+/- 58 km s-1 at r ˜ 100″ in the cD halo. This extends published observations of an outward σ increase and shows for the first time that σ rises all the way to the cluster velocity dispersion of 819 ± 32 km s-1. We also observe that the main body of NGC 6166 moves at +206 ± 39 km s-1 with respect to the cluster mean velocity, but the velocity of the inner cD halo is ˜70 km s-1 closer to the cluster velocity. These results support our picture that cD halos consist of stars that were stripped from individual cluster galaxies by fast tidal encounters.  However, our photometry does not confirm the widespread view that cD halos are identifiable as an extra, low-surface-brightness component that is photometrically distinct from the inner, steep-Sérsic-function main body of an otherwise-normal giant elliptical galaxy. Instead, all of the brightness profile of NGC 6166 outside its core is described to ±0.037 V mag arcsec-2 by a single Sérsic function with index n≃ 8.3. The cD halo is not recognizable from photometry alone. This blurs the distinction between cluster-dominated cD halos and the similarly-large-Sérsic-index halos of giant, core-boxy-nonrotating ellipticals. These halos are believed to be accreted onto compact, high-redshift progenitors (“red nuggets”) by large numbers of minor mergers. They belong dynamically to their central galaxies. Still, cDs and core-boxy-nonrotating Es

  8. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH ANALYSIS OF NGC 4178: A BULGELESS GALAXY WITH AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secrest, N. J.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Moran, S. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Giroletti, M.; Bergmann, M. P.; Seth, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present Gemini longslit optical spectroscopy and Very Large Array radio observations of the nuclear region of NGC 4178, a late-type bulgeless disk galaxy recently confirmed to host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) through infrared and X-ray observations. Our observations reveal that the dynamical center of the galaxy is coincident with the location of the Chandra X-ray point source discovered in a previous work, providing further support for the presence of an AGN. While the X-ray and IR observations provide robust evidence for an AGN, the optical spectrum shows no evidence for the AGN, underscoring the need for the penetrative power of mid-IR and X-ray observations in finding buried or weak AGNs in this class of galaxy. Finally, the upper limit to the radio flux, together with our previous X-ray and IR results, is consistent with the scenario in which NGC 4178 harbors a deeply buried AGN accreting at a high rate

  9. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN THE MASS RATIO OF MINOR MERGERS IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: APPLICATION TO NGC 4889, THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN COMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Meng; Huang Song; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2013-01-01

    Minor mergers are thought to be important for the buildup and structural evolution of massive elliptical galaxies. In this work, we report the discovery of a system of four shell features in NGC 4889, one of the brightest members of the Coma cluster, using optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The shells are well aligned with the major axis of the host and are likely to have been formed by the accretion of a small satellite galaxy. We have performed a detailed two-dimensional photometric decomposition of NGC 4889 and of the many overlapping nearby galaxies in its vicinity. This comprehensive model allows us not only to firmly detect the low-surface brightness shells, but, crucially, also to accurately measure their luminosities and colors. The shells are bluer than the underlying stars at the same radius in the main galaxy. We make use of the colors of the shells and the color-magnitude relation of the Coma cluster to infer the luminosity (or mass) of the progenitor galaxy. The shells in NGC 4889 appear to have been produced by the minor merger of a moderate-luminosity (M I ≈ –18.7 mag) disk (S0 or spiral) galaxy with a luminosity (mass) ratio of ∼90:1 with respect to the primary galaxy. The novel methodology presented in this work can be exploited to decode the fossil record imprinted in the photometric substructure of other nearby early-type galaxies

  10. Distance and Properties of NGC 4993 as the Host Galaxy of the Gravitational-wave Source GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; Yoon, Yongmin; Lee, Seong-Kook J.; Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Joonho; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Seung-Lee; Troja, Eleonora; Choi, Changsu; Lim, Gu; Ko, Jongwan; Shim, Hyunjin

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the optical counterpart of the gravitational-wave source GW170817 has been identified in the NGC 4993 galaxy. Together with evidence from observations in electromagnetic waves, the event has been suggested as a result of a merger of two neutron stars (NSs). We analyze the multi-wavelength data to characterize the host galaxy property and its distance to examine if the properties of NGC 4993 are consistent with this picture. Our analysis shows that NGC 4993 is a bulge-dominated galaxy with {r}{eff}˜ 2{--}3 {kpc} and a Sérsic index of n=3{--}4 for the bulge component. The spectral energy distribution from 0.15 to 24 μm indicates that this galaxy has no significant ongoing star formation, a mean stellar mass of (0.3{--}1.2)× {10}11 {M}⊙ , a mean stellar age greater than ˜3 Gyr, and a metallicity of about 20%-100% of solar abundance. Optical images reveal dust lanes and extended features that suggest a past merging activity. Overall, NGC 4993 has characteristics of normal, but slightly disturbed elliptical galaxies. Furthermore, we derive the distance to NGC 4993 with the fundamental plane relation using 17 parameter sets of 7 different filters and the central stellar velocity dispersion from the literature, finding an angular diameter distance of 37.7 ± 8.7 Mpc. NGC 4993 is similar to some host galaxies of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) but much different from those of long GRBs, supporting the picture of GW170817 as a result of the merger of two NSs.

  11. COMPACT STARBURSTS IN z similar to 3-6 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES REVEALED BY ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z(phot) similar to 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are L-IR similar to, 2-6 x 10(12) L-circle dot and similar

  12. Exploring the making of a galactic wind in the starbursting dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Rafferty, D. A.; Horneffer, A.; Beck, R.; Basu, A.; Westcott, J.; Hindson, L.; Brinks, E.; ChyŻy, K. T.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Brüggen, M.; Heald, G.; Fletcher, A.; Horellou, C.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Paladino, R.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Hoeft, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2018-05-01

    Low-mass galaxies are subject to strong galactic outflows, in which cosmic rays may play an important role; they can be best traced with low-frequency radio continuum observations, which are less affected by spectral ageing. We present a study of the nearby starburst dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 using observations at 140 MHz with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), at 1580 MHz with the Very Large Array (VLA), and at 6200 MHz with the VLA and the 100-m Effelsberg telescope. We find that IC 10 has a low-frequency radio halo, which manifests itself as a second component (thick disc) in the minor axis profiles of the non-thermal radio continuum emission at 140 and 1580 MHz. These profiles are then fitted with 1D cosmic ray transport models for pure diffusion and advection. We find that a diffusion model fits best, with a diffusion coefficient of D = (0.4-0.8) × 1026(E/GeV)0.5 cm2 s-1, which is at least an order of magnitude smaller than estimates both from anisotropic diffusion and the diffusion length. In contrast, advection models, which cannot be ruled out due to the mild inclination, while providing poorer fits, result in advection speeds close to the escape velocity of ≈ 50 km s- 1, as expected for a cosmic ray-driven wind. Our favoured model with an accelerating wind provides a self-consistent solution, where the magnetic field is in energy equipartition with both the warm neutral and warm ionized medium with an important contribution from cosmic rays. Consequently, cosmic rays can play a vital role for the launching of galactic winds in the disc-halo interface.

  13. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan; Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott; Cooper, Mike; Lidman, Chris; Surace, Jason; Dunne, Loretta; Geach, James; Hayden, Brian; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Huang, Jiasheng; Pope, Alexandra; Smith, Matthew W. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N gal (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10 14 M ⊙ , comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L IR = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10 12 L ⊙ . The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M ⊙ yr −1 . The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times

  14. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3P 1T3 (Canada); Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cooper, Mike [Centre for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Surace, Jason [Spitzer Space Science Centre, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dunne, Loretta [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Geach, James [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Hayden, Brian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Institute fur Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Huang, Jiasheng [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 011003 (United States); Smith, Matthew W. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-08-20

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N{sub gal} (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙}, comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L{sub IR} = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙}. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times.

  15. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 1011 diagrams. I show that for the U/LIRGs in my sample the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGN (e.g. star formation rate (SFR), L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hdelta)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these properties and objects' locations on the BPT diagrams. I then derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Halpha that are based on how these properties vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points. The paths involve U/LIRGs that decrease in SFR and increase in AGN activity. Paths with U/LIRGs that evolve into high luminosity AGN likely do so due to recent, strong starbursts. Second, to study how the properties of the IR power sources in U/LIRGs vary, I use a combination of photometric data points that I carefully measure (using photometry from SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer) and that I retrieve from catalogues (IRAS, AKARI, and ISO) to perform UV to FIR SED-fitting with CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) for 34 U/LIRGs from the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.01 statistical analysis, and fit an exponential curve to the data to describe the expected amount of decrease in SFR seen for a U/LIRG in my sample over a given change in starburst age. Finally, I find evidence that the stellar mass and starburst mass fractions influence whether a U/LIRG in my sample will have a strong AGN and SFR, respectively. I compare the SFR-Mstar relationship seen in my sample with those predicted by models and found from previous observations. I find that the U/LIRGs with older starbursts (>125 Myr) agree with previous results, while those with younger starbursts show a large dispersion in Mstar. I conclude that this is supporting evidence that the star formation histories and timescales at which the IR power sources in U/LIRGs evolve

  16. Variability of Fe II Emission Features in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Peterson, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the low-contrast Fe II emission blends in the ultraviolet (1250--2200A) and optical (4000--6000A) spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 and show that these features vary in flux and that these variations are correlated with those of the optical continuum. The amplitude of variability ...... are correlated indicates that line fluorescence in a photoionized plasma, rather than collisional excitation, is responsible for the Fe II emission. The iron emission templates are available upon request....

  17. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  18. RED SUPERGIANTS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: THE SCULPTOR GALAXY NGC 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio; Evans, Chris; Patrick, Lee; Davies, Ben; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Bender, Ralf; Wegner, Michael; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Williams, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative spectroscopic study of 27 red supergiants (RSGs) in the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 300. J-band spectra were obtained using KMOS on the Very Large Telescope and studied with state of the art synthetic spectra including NLTE corrections for the strongest diagnostic lines. We report a central metallicity of [Z] = −0.03 ± 0.05 with a gradient of −0.083 ± 0.014 [dex/kpc], in agreement with previous studies of blue supergiants and H ii-region auroral line measurements. This result marks the first application of the J-band spectroscopic method to a population of individual RSG stars beyond the Local Group of galaxies and reveals the great potential of this technique

  19. Nuclear, disk-focused wind and the bipolar structure of the spiral galaxy NGC 3079

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duric, N.; Seaquist, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A high-resolution, radio continuum study of the spiral galaxy NGC 3079 is presented which reveals the presence of a figure eight morphology along the minor axis, centered on the nucleus. The nucleus itself dominates the emission from the galaxy. It has an inverted spectrum and is a possible VLBI source. The morphology is successfully modeled as the interaction between a nuclear wind and interstellar gas in the disk and halo. In this model, the wind plows up interstellar material as it propagates away from the nucleus. The disk focuses the wind along the minor axis, thereby creating the observed features. The restricted volume of space where the wind originates and the high energies associated with the wind point to a compact object such as a black hole or an unusually compact and massive star cluster as the source of the wind. 24 references

  20. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, L.; Monaco, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Bonifacio, P.; Villanova, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Chiba, M.; Geisler, D.; Caffau, E.; Duffau, S.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, it is suspected that the Sgr dSph has lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are thought to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed owing to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. Aims: NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two of these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. Methods: We analyze high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of unassociated MW halo globulars, and of the metal-poor Sgr dSph main body population. Results: We derive a metallicity of [Fe ii/H] = -2.26 ± 0.10 for NGC 5053, and of [Fe i/H] = -1.99 ± 0.075 and -1.97 ± 0.076 for the two stars in NGC 5634. This makes NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor globular clusters in the MW. Both clusters display an α enhancement similar to the one of the halo at comparable metallicity. The two stars in NGC 5634 clearly display the Na-O anticorrelation widespread among MW globulars. Most other abundances are in good agreement with standard MW halo trends. Conclusions: The chemistry of the Sgr dSph main body populations is similar to that of the halo at low metallicity. It is thus difficult to discriminate between an origin of NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 in the Sgr dSph, and one in the MW. However, the abundances of these clusters do appear closer to that of Sgr dSph than of the halo, favoring an origin in the Sgr dSph system. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http

  1. THE BLACK HOLE MASS IN THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY NGC 6086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Graham, James R.; Wright, Shelley A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Lauer, Tod R.; Richstone, Douglas O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first direct measurement of the central black hole mass, M . , in NGC 6086, the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) in A2162. Our investigation demonstrates for the first time that stellar-dynamical measurements of M . in BCGs are possible beyond the nearest few galaxy clusters. We observed NGC 6086 with laser guide star adaptive optics and the integral-field spectrograph (IFS) OSIRIS at the W. M. Keck Observatory and with the seeing-limited IFS GMOS-N at Gemini Observatory North. We combined the IFS data sets with existing major-axis kinematics and used axisymmetric stellar orbit models to determine M . and the R-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M * /L R . We find M . = 3.6 +1.7 -1.1 x 10 9 M sun and M * /L R = 4.6 +0.3 -0.7 M sun L sun -1 (68% confidence) from models using the most massive dark matter halo allowed within the gravitational potential of the host cluster. Models fitting only IFS data confirm M . ∼ 3 x 10 9 M sun and M * /L R ∼ 4 M sun L sun -1 , with weak dependence on the assumed dark matter halo structure. When data out to 19 kpc are included, the unrealistic omission of dark matter causes the best-fit black hole mass to decrease dramatically, to 0.6 x 10 9 M sun , and the best-fit stellar mass-to-light ratio to increase to 6.7 M sun L -1 sun,R . The latter value is at further odds with stellar population studies favoring M * /L R ∼ 2 M sun L -1 sun . Biases from dark matter omission could extend to dynamical models of other galaxies with stellar cores, and revised measurements of M . could steepen the empirical scaling relationships between black holes and their host galaxies.

  2. Investigating the Nuclear Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Koribalski, B.; Kuntz, K. D.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2011-06-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D 25 area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (LX > 5 × 1039 erg s-1) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard (Γ ~ 1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 × 1038 erg s-1. This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  3. Gathering dust: A galaxy-wide study of dust emission from cloud complexes in NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, M.; Faesi, C. M.; Forbrich, J.; Lada, C. J.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: We use multi-band observations by the Herschel Space Observatory to study the dust emission properties of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. We compile a first catalogue of the population of giant dust clouds (GDCs) in NGC 300, including temperature and mass estimates, and give an estimate of the total dust mass of the galaxy. Methods: We carried out source detection with the multiwavelength source extraction algorithm getsources. We calculated physical properties, including mass and temperature, of the GDCs from five-band Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations from 100 to 500 μm; the final size and mass estimates are based on the observations at 250 μm that have an effective spatial resolution of 170 pc. We correlated our final catalogue of GDCs to pre-existing catalogues of HII regions to infer the number of GDCs associated with high-mass star formation and determined the Hα emission of the GDCs. Results: Our final catalogue of GDCs includes 146 sources, 90 of which are associated with known HII regions. We find that the dust masses of the GDCs are completely dominated by the cold dust component and range from 1.1 × 103 to 1.4 × 104 M⊙. The GDCs have effective temperatures of 13-23 K and show a distinct cold dust effective temperature gradient from the centre towards the outer parts of the stellar disk. We find that the population of GDCs in our catalogue constitutes 16% of the total dust mass of NGC 300, which we estimate to be about 5.4 × 106 M⊙. At least about 87% of our GDCs have a high enough average dust mass surface density to provide sufficient shielding to harbour molecular clouds. We compare our results to previous pointed molecular gas observations in NGC 300 and results from other nearby galaxies and also conclude that it is very likely that most of our GDCs are associated with complexes of giant molecular clouds. The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  4. TOWARD A NEW GEOMETRIC DISTANCE TO THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 4258. III. FINAL RESULTS AND THE HUBBLE CONSTANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, E. M. L.; Reid, M. J.; Moran, J. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Argon, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report a new geometric maser distance estimate to the active galaxy NGC 4258. The data for the new model are maser line-of-sight (LOS) velocities and sky positions from 18 epochs of very long baseline interferometry observations, and LOS accelerations measured from a 10 yr monitoring program of the 22 GHz maser emission of NGC 4258. The new model includes both disk warping and confocal elliptical maser orbits with differential precession. The distance to NGC 4258 is 7.60 ± 0.17 ± 0.15 Mpc, a 3% uncertainty including formal fitting and systematic terms. The resulting Hubble constant, based on the use of the Cepheid variables in NGC 4258 to recalibrate the Cepheid distance scale, is H 0 = 72.0 ± 3.0 km s –1 Mpc –1

  5. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY HALOS AROUND HIGH-z RADIO GALAXIES: A FEEDBACK MECHANISM POWERED BY FAR-INFRARED STARBURSTS OR THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blundell, Katherine M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lehmer, B. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z {approx} 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L {sub X} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} and sizes of {approx}60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the {approx}60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z {approx} 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z {approx} 3.6 radio galaxies, which are {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter in the far-infrared than those at z {approx} 3.8, also have {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z {approx}> 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes {approx}<100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on {approx}100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly{alpha} emission line

  6. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1m > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ∼10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (∼2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z ∼> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9 +0.9 –0.5 , and ∼4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of ∼> 1000 M ☉ yr –1 and IR luminosities of ∼10 13 L ☉ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ∼ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  7. SUBMILLIMETER LINE SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 1068 FROM THE HERSCHEL-SPIRE FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Wilson, Christine D.; Parkin, Tara J.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R.; Bendo, George J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Page, Mathew J.

    2012-01-01

    The first complete submillimeter spectrum (190-670 μm) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (J up = 4-13), lines from H 2 O, the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen fluoride, two o-H 2 O + lines, and one line each from CH + and OH + have been detected, together with the two [C I] lines and the [N II] 205 μm line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circumnuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star-forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by densities of n(H 2 ) = 10 4.5 and 10 2.9 cm –3 and temperatures of T kin = 100 K and 127 K, respectively. A comparison of the CO line intensities with the photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray-dominated region (XDR) models, together with the other observational constraints, such as the observed CO surface brightness and the radiation field, indicates that the best explanation for the CO excitation of the CND is an XDR with a density of n(H 2 ) ∼ 10 4 cm –3 and an X-ray flux of 9 erg s –1 cm –2 , consistent with illumination by the active galactic nucleus, while the CO lines in the SF-ring are better modeled by a PDR. The detected water transitions, together with those observed with the Herschel PACS spectrometer, can be modeled by a large velocity gradient model with low temperature (T kin ∼ 40 K) and high density (n(H 2 ) in the range 10 6.7 -10 7.9 cm –3 ). The emission of H 2 O + and OH + are in agreement with PDR models with cosmic-ray ionization. The diffuse ionized atomic component observed through the [N II] 205 μm line is consistent with previous photoionization models of the starburst.

  8. SUBMILLIMETER LINE SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 1068 FROM THE HERSCHEL-SPIRE FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Wilson, Christine D.; Parkin, Tara J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Bendo, George J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Madden, Suzanne C. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wolfire, Mark G. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, Asantha [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Page, Mathew J., E-mail: luigi.spinoglio@iaps.inaf.it [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-20

    The first complete submillimeter spectrum (190-670 {mu}m) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (J {sub up} = 4-13), lines from H{sub 2}O, the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen fluoride, two o-H{sub 2}O{sup +} lines, and one line each from CH{sup +} and OH{sup +} have been detected, together with the two [C I] lines and the [N II] 205 {mu}m line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circumnuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star-forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by densities of n(H{sub 2}) = 10{sup 4.5} and 10{sup 2.9} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T {sub kin} = 100 K and 127 K, respectively. A comparison of the CO line intensities with the photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray-dominated region (XDR) models, together with the other observational constraints, such as the observed CO surface brightness and the radiation field, indicates that the best explanation for the CO excitation of the CND is an XDR with a density of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3} and an X-ray flux of 9 erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, consistent with illumination by the active galactic nucleus, while the CO lines in the SF-ring are better modeled by a PDR. The detected water transitions, together with those observed with the Herschel PACS spectrometer, can be modeled by a large velocity gradient model with low temperature (T {sub kin} {approx} 40 K) and high density (n(H{sub 2}) in the range 10{sup 6.7}-10{sup 7.9} cm{sup -3}). The emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and OH{sup +} are in agreement with PDR models with cosmic-ray ionization. The diffuse ionized atomic component observed through the [N

  9. Hubble space telescope grism spectroscopy of extreme starbursts across cosmic time: The role of dwarf galaxies in the star formation history of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, EPFL, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Charlot, Stephane; Lehnert, Matthew [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Lee, Janice [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bedregal, Alejandro [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX13RH (United Kingdom); Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Near infrared slitless spectroscopy with the Wide Field Camera 3, on board the Hubble Space Telescope, offers a unique opportunity to study low-mass galaxy populations at high redshift (z ∼ 1-2). While most high-z surveys are biased toward massive galaxies, we are able to select sources via their emission lines that have very faint continua. We investigate the star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation for about 1000 emission line galaxies identified over a wide redshift range of 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. We use the Hα emission as an accurate SFR indicator and correct the broadband photometry for the strong nebular contribution to derive accurate stellar masses down to M{sub *} ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We focus here on a subsample of galaxies that show extremely strong emission lines (EELGs) with rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 200 to 1500 Å. This population consists of outliers to the normal SFR-M{sub *} sequence with much higher specific SFRs (>10 Gyr{sup –1}). While on-sequence galaxies follow continuous star formation processes, EELGs are thought to be caught during an extreme burst of star formation that can double their stellar mass in a period of less than 100 Myr. The contribution of the starburst population to the total star formation density appears to be larger than what has been reported for more massive galaxies in previous studies. In the complete mass range 8.2 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) <10 and a SFR lower completeness limit of about 2 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (10 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2), we find that starbursts having EW{sub rest}(Hα) > 300, 200, and 100 Å contribute up to ∼13%, 18%, and 34%, respectively, to the total SFR of emission-line-selected sample at z ∼ 1-2. The comparison with samples of massive galaxies shows an increase in the contribution of starbursts toward lower masses.

  10. The state of the warm and cold gas in the extreme starburst at the core of the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Hogan, Michael T.; Wilner, David J.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (∼800 M ☉ yr –1 ) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L Hα = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×10 43 erg s –1 , making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM ≳ 500 km s –1 ), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M H 2 = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 10 10 M ☉ , which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ∼30 Myr if

  11. Variations in the 6.2 μm emission profile in starburst-dominated galaxies: a signature of polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelo, Carla M.; Friaça, Amâncio C. S.; Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Analyses of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature profiles, especially the 6.2 μm feature, could indicate the presence of nitrogen incorporated in their aromatic rings. In this work, 155 predominantly starburst-dominated galaxies (including H II regions and Seyferts, for example), extracted from the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph ATLAS project, have their 6.2 μm profiles fitted allowing their separation into the Peeters' A, B, and C classes. 67 per cent of these galaxies were classified as class A, 31 per cent were as class B, and 2 per cent as class C. Currently, class A sources, corresponding to a central wavelength near 6.22 μm, seem only to be explained by polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs), whereas class B may represent a mix between PAHs and PANHs emissions or different PANH structures or ionization states. Therefore, these spectra suggest a significant presence of PANHs in the interstellar medium (ISM) of these galaxies that could be related to their starburst-dominated emission. These results also suggest that PANHs constitute another reservoir of nitrogen in the Universe, in addition to the nitrogen in the gas phase and ices of the ISM.

  12. Starburst to Quiescent from HST/ALMA: Stars and Dust Unveil Minor Mergers in Submillimeter Galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guijarro, C.; Toft, S.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Magdis, G. E.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Capak, P. L.; Fraternali, F.; Fujimoto, S.; Riechers, D. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Cortzen, I.; Hasinger, G.; Hu, E. M.; Jones, G. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lee, N.; McCracken, H. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Navarrete, F.; Pović, M.; Puglisi, A.; Romano-Díaz, E.; Sheth, K.; Silverman, J. D.; Staguhn, J.; Steinhardt, C. L.; Stockmann, M.; Tanaka, M.; Valentino, F.; van Kampen, E.; Zirm, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dust-enshrouded, starbursting, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z ≥ 3 have been proposed as progenitors of z ≥ 2 compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs). To test this connection, we present a detailed spatially resolved study of the stars, dust, and stellar mass in a sample of six submillimeter-bright starburst galaxies at z ∼ 4.5. The stellar UV emission probed by HST is extended and irregular and shows evidence of multiple components. Informed by HST, we deblend Spitzer/IRAC data at rest-frame optical, finding that the systems are undergoing minor mergers with a typical stellar mass ratio of 1:6.5. The FIR dust continuum emission traced by ALMA locates the bulk of star formation in extremely compact regions (median r e = 0.70 ± 0.29 kpc), and it is in all cases associated with the most massive component of the mergers (median {log}({M}* /{M}ȯ )=10.49+/- 0.32). We compare spatially resolved UV slope (β) maps with the FIR dust continuum to study the infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV)–β relation. The SMGs display systematically higher IRX values than expected from the nominal trend, demonstrating that the FIR and UV emissions are spatially disconnected. Finally, we show that the SMGs fall on the mass–size plane at smaller stellar masses and sizes than the cQGs at z = 2. Taking into account the expected evolution in stellar mass and size between z = 4.5 and z = 2 due to the ongoing starburst and mergers with minor companions, this is in agreement with a direct evolutionary connection between the two populations.

  13. STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES IN BARRED GALAXIES (SFB). I. ULTRAVIOLET TO INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF NGC 7479

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhimin; Meng Xianmin; Wu Hong; Cao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale bars and minor mergers are important drivers for the secular evolution of galaxies. Based on ground-based optical images and spectra as well as ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we present a multi-wavelength study of star formation properties in the barred galaxy NGC 7479, which also has obvious features of a minor merger. Using various tracers of star formation, we find that under the effects of both a stellar bar and a minor merger, star formation activity mainly takes place along the galactic bar and arms, while the star formation rate changes from the bar to the disk. With the help of spectral synthesis, we find that strong star formation took place in the bar region about 100 Myr ago, and the stellar bar might have been ∼10 Gyr old. By comparing our results with the secular evolutionary scenario from Jogee et al., we suggest that NGC 7479 is possibly in a transitional stage of secular evolution at present, and it may eventually become an earlier type galaxy or a luminous infrared galaxy. We also note that the probable minor merger event happened recently in NGC 7479, and we find two candidates for minor merger remnants.

  14. THE OPTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STARBURST GALAXY M82. I. DYNAMICS OF THE DISK AND INNER-WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, J. S.; Trancho, G.; Bastian, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present Gemini-North GMOS-IFU observations of the central starburst clumps and inner wind of M82, together with WIYN DensePak IFU observations of the inner 2 x 0.9 kpc of the disk. These cover the emission lines of Hα, [N II], [S II], and [S III] at a spectral resolution of 45-80 km s -1 . The high signal-to-noise of the data is sufficient to accurately decompose the emission line profiles into multiple narrow components (FWHM ∼ 30-130 km s -1 ) superimposed on a broad (FWHM ∼ 150-350 km s -1 ) feature. This paper is the first of a series examining the optical structure of M82's disk and inner wind; here we focus on the ionized gaseous and stellar dynamics and present maps of the relevant emission line properties. Our observations show that ionized gas in the starburst core of M82 is dynamically complex with many overlapping expanding structures located at different radii. Localised line splitting of up to 100 km s -1 in the narrow component is associated with expanding shells of compressed, cool, photoionized gas at the roots of the superwind outflow. We have been able to associate some of this inner-wind gas with a distinct outflow channel characterised by its dynamics and gas density patterns, and we discuss the consequences of this discovery in terms of the developing wind outflow. The broad optical emission line component is observed to become increasingly important moving outward along the outflow channel, and in general with increasing height above/below the plane. Following our recent work on the origins of this component, we associate it with turbulent gas in wind-clump interface layers and hence sites of mass loading, meaning that the turbulent mixing of cooler gas into the outflowing hot gas must become increasingly important with height, and provides powerful direct evidence for the existence of mass-loading over a large, spatially extended area reaching far into the inner wind. We discuss the consequences and implications of this. We confirm

  15. HOT AND COLD GALACTIC GAS IN THE NGC 2563 GALAXY GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Jesper [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Bai, Xue-Ning [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van Gorkom, J. H.; Lee, Duane [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Mail Code 5246, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E. [UCO/Lick Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zabludoff, Ann I. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wilcots, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy, 4055 McPherson Laboratory, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH (United States); Roberts, Timothy P., E-mail: jr@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    The role of environmentally induced gas stripping in driving galaxy evolution in groups remains poorly understood. Here we present extensive Chandra and Very Large Array mosaic observations of the hot and cold interstellar medium within the members of the nearby, X-ray bright NGC 2563 group, a prime target for studies of the role of gas stripping and interactions in relatively small host halos. Our observations cover nearly all group members within a projected radius of 1.15 Mpc ({approx}1.4 R{sub vir}) of the group center, down to a limiting X-ray luminosity and H I mass of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, respectively. The X-ray data are consistent with efficient ram pressure stripping of the hot gas halos of early-type galaxies near the group core, but no X-ray tails are seen and the limited statistics preclude strong conclusions. The H I results suggest moderate H I mass loss from the group members when compared to similar field galaxies. Six of the 20 H I-detected group members show H I evidence of ongoing interactions with other galaxies or with the intragroup medium. Suggestive evidence is further seen for galaxies with close neighbors in position-velocity space to show relatively low H I content, consistent with tidal removal of H I. The results thus indicate removal of both hot and cold gas from the group members via a combination of ram pressure stripping and tidal interactions. We also find that 16 of the 20 H I detections occur on one side of the group, reflecting an unusual morphological segregation whose origin remains unclear.

  16. HOT AND COLD GALACTIC GAS IN THE NGC 2563 GALAXY GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Bai, Xue-Ning; Mulchaey, John S.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Lee, Duane; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Wilcots, Eric; Martini, Paul; Roberts, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The role of environmentally induced gas stripping in driving galaxy evolution in groups remains poorly understood. Here we present extensive Chandra and Very Large Array mosaic observations of the hot and cold interstellar medium within the members of the nearby, X-ray bright NGC 2563 group, a prime target for studies of the role of gas stripping and interactions in relatively small host halos. Our observations cover nearly all group members within a projected radius of 1.15 Mpc (∼1.4 R vir ) of the group center, down to a limiting X-ray luminosity and H I mass of 3 × 10 39 erg s –1 and 2 × 10 8 M ☉ , respectively. The X-ray data are consistent with efficient ram pressure stripping of the hot gas halos of early-type galaxies near the group core, but no X-ray tails are seen and the limited statistics preclude strong conclusions. The H I results suggest moderate H I mass loss from the group members when compared to similar field galaxies. Six of the 20 H I-detected group members show H I evidence of ongoing interactions with other galaxies or with the intragroup medium. Suggestive evidence is further seen for galaxies with close neighbors in position-velocity space to show relatively low H I content, consistent with tidal removal of H I. The results thus indicate removal of both hot and cold gas from the group members via a combination of ram pressure stripping and tidal interactions. We also find that 16 of the 20 H I detections occur on one side of the group, reflecting an unusual morphological segregation whose origin remains unclear.

  17. METALLICITY AND AGE OF THE STELLAR STREAM AROUND THE DISK GALAXY NGC 5907

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Seppo; Grillmair, Carl J.; Capak, Peter [Spitzer Science Center-Caltech, MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arendt, Richard G. [CRESST/UMBC/NASA GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Martínez-Delgado, David [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ashby, Matthew L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Davies, James E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Majewski, Stephen R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); GaBany, R. Jay, E-mail: seppo@ipac.caltech.edu [Black Bird Observatory, 5660 Brionne Drive, San Jose, CA 95118 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Stellar streams have become central to studies of the interaction histories of nearby galaxies. To characterize the most prominent parts of the stellar stream around the well-known nearby ( d  = 17 Mpc) edge-on disk galaxy NGC 5907, we have obtained and analyzed new, deep gri Subaru/Suprime-Cam and 3.6 μ m Spitzer /Infrared Array Camera observations. Combining the near-infrared 3.6 μ m data with visible-light images allows us to use a long wavelength baseline to estimate the metallicity and age of the stellar population along an ∼60 kpc long segment of the stream. We have fitted the stellar spectral energy distribution with a single-burst stellar population synthesis model and we use it to distinguish between the proposed satellite accretion and minor/major merger formation models of the stellar stream around this galaxy. We conclude that a massive minor merger (stellar mass ratio of at least 1:8) can best account for the metallicity of −0.3 inferred along the brightest parts of the stream.

  18. Evidence for an Ionized Accretion Disk in the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Weaver, K. A.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2000-10-01

    We present results from analyses of RXTE, ASCA and BeppoSAX X-ray spectral data from the archetypal Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. Simultaneous RXTE and ASCA data (spanning 4 - 100 keV) are best fit with a power-law continuum with photon index Γ ~ 1.7 (in agreement with the canonical value for type 1 Seyferts), plus reflection from ionized matter with ξ ~ 1000. Reflection from ionized matter is significantly preferred over reflection from cold matter (Δ χ2 ≈ 50 for 320 dof). When the Fe line complex is modelled with three narrow Gaussians at 6.4, 6.7 and 6.97 keV, we find that the 6.7 keV line flux increases by a factor of ≈ 2 in four months, between the RXTE/ASCA and BeppoSAX observations. Thus we argue that the 6.7 keV line emission comes to us directly from the accretion disk, and not from the electron scattering region further out from the nucleus. We find no evidence for variability in the line fluxes at 6.4 and 6.97 keV. Although ionized accretion disks are thought to be present in NLS1 nuclei, we are only now finding evidence for them in ``broad-line'' Seyfert nuclei (type 1: 1E 1615+061 and type 2: NGC 1068, this work). We shall discuss the implications of these results on the particular geometry required in NGC 1068.

  19. SPATIALLY RESOLVED [Fe II] 1.64 μm EMISSION IN NGC 5135: CLUES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN OF THE HARD X-RAYS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colina, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved near-IR and X-ray imaging of the central region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 5135 is presented. The kinematical signatures of strong outflows are detected in the [Fe II] 1.64 μm emission line in a compact region at 0.9 kpc from the nucleus. The derived mechanical energy release is consistent with a supernova rate of 0.05-0.1 yr –1 . The apex of the outflowing gas spatially coincides with the strongest [Fe II] emission peak and with the dominant component of the extranuclear hard X-ray emission. All these features provide evidence for a plausible direct physical link between supernova-driven outflows and the hard X-ray emitting gas in an LIRG. This result is consistent with model predictions of starbursts concentrated in small volumes and with high thermalization efficiencies. A single high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) as the major source of the hard X-ray emission, although not favored, cannot be ruled out. Outside the active galactic nucleus, the hard X-ray emission in NGC 5135 appears to be dominated by the hot interstellar medium produced by supernova explosions in a compact star-forming region, and not by the emission due to HMXBs. If this scenario is common to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, the hard X-rays would only trace the most compact (≤100 pc) regions with high supernova and star formation densities, therefore a lower limit to their integrated star formation. The star formation rate derived in NGC 5135 based on its hard X-ray luminosity is a factor of two and four lower than the values obtained from the 24 μm and soft X-ray luminosities, respectively.

  20. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN THE MASS RATIO OF MINOR MERGERS IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: APPLICATION TO NGC 4889, THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN COMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Meng; Huang Song [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Peng, Chien Y. [Giant Magellan Telescope Organization, 251 South Lake Avenue, Suite 300, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Minor mergers are thought to be important for the buildup and structural evolution of massive elliptical galaxies. In this work, we report the discovery of a system of four shell features in NGC 4889, one of the brightest members of the Coma cluster, using optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The shells are well aligned with the major axis of the host and are likely to have been formed by the accretion of a small satellite galaxy. We have performed a detailed two-dimensional photometric decomposition of NGC 4889 and of the many overlapping nearby galaxies in its vicinity. This comprehensive model allows us not only to firmly detect the low-surface brightness shells, but, crucially, also to accurately measure their luminosities and colors. The shells are bluer than the underlying stars at the same radius in the main galaxy. We make use of the colors of the shells and the color-magnitude relation of the Coma cluster to infer the luminosity (or mass) of the progenitor galaxy. The shells in NGC 4889 appear to have been produced by the minor merger of a moderate-luminosity (M{sub I} Almost-Equal-To -18.7 mag) disk (S0 or spiral) galaxy with a luminosity (mass) ratio of {approx}90:1 with respect to the primary galaxy. The novel methodology presented in this work can be exploited to decode the fossil record imprinted in the photometric substructure of other nearby early-type galaxies.

  1. A Novel Approach to Constrain the Mass Ratio of Minor Mergers in Elliptical Galaxies: Application to NGC 4889, the Brightest Cluster Galaxy in Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Meng; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Huang, Song

    2013-08-01

    Minor mergers are thought to be important for the buildup and structural evolution of massive elliptical galaxies. In this work, we report the discovery of a system of four shell features in NGC 4889, one of the brightest members of the Coma cluster, using optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The shells are well aligned with the major axis of the host and are likely to have been formed by the accretion of a small satellite galaxy. We have performed a detailed two-dimensional photometric decomposition of NGC 4889 and of the many overlapping nearby galaxies in its vicinity. This comprehensive model allows us not only to firmly detect the low-surface brightness shells, but, crucially, also to accurately measure their luminosities and colors. The shells are bluer than the underlying stars at the same radius in the main galaxy. We make use of the colors of the shells and the color-magnitude relation of the Coma cluster to infer the luminosity (or mass) of the progenitor galaxy. The shells in NGC 4889 appear to have been produced by the minor merger of a moderate-luminosity (MI ≈ -18.7 mag) disk (S0 or spiral) galaxy with a luminosity (mass) ratio of ~90:1 with respect to the primary galaxy. The novel methodology presented in this work can be exploited to decode the fossil record imprinted in the photometric substructure of other nearby early-type galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Nearby Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 estimated from the so-called Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method. To detect the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB we use the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs and luminosity functions (LFs in the near-infrared JHK bands. Foreground stars, main-sequence stars, and supergiant stars have been classified on the (g - K, g plane and removed on the near-infrared CMDs, from which only RGB and AGB stars are remained on the CMDs and LFs. By applying the Savitzky-Golay filter to the obtained LFs and detecting the peak in the second derivative of the observed LFs, we determined the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB. Theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones with the age of 12Gyr and the metallicity range of -2.0 <[Fe/H]< -0.5. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 6822 are (m - M

  3. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei, E-mail: gbmou@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-07-20

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  4. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-01-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  5. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-07-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  6. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ≈1 billion years after the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechers, Dominik A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Carilli, Christopher L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scoville, Nicholas Z. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolčić, Vernesa [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Bijenička cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Schinnerer, Eva [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Cox, Pierre [ALMA Santiago Central Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander, E-mail: dr@astro.cornell.edu [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} J = 3/2→1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 μm continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Σ{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Σ{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ∼95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  7. The Mass of the Black Hole in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4593 from Reverberation Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2006-01-01

    We present new observations leading to an improved black hole mass estimate for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 as part of a reverberation-mapping campaign conducted at the MDM Observatory. Cross-correlation analysis of the H_beta emission-line light curve with the optical continuum light curve...... reveals an emission-line time delay of 3.73 (+-0.75) days. By combining this time delay with the H_beta line width, we derive a central black hole mass of M_BH = 9.8(+-2.1)x10^6 M_sun, an improvement in precision of a factor of several over past results....

  8. The hard X–ray emission of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 as observed by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puccetti, S.; Comastri, A.; Bauer, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    We present a broad–band (∼0.3–70 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of NuSTAR observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC6240, combined with archival Chandra, XMM–Newton and BeppoSAX data. NGC 6240 is a galaxy in a relatively early merger statewith two distinct nuclei separated by ∼1′.′5. P...

  9. Near-infrared polarimetry of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, J. D.; Clemens, D. P., E-mail: montgojo@bu.edu, E-mail: clemens@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The edge-on galaxy NGC 891 was probed using near-infrared (NIR) imaging polarimetry in the H band (1.6 μm) with the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins Telescope. Polarization was detected with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three out to a surface brightness of 18.8 mag arcsec{sup –2}. The unweighted average and dispersion in polarization percentage (P) across the full disk were 0.7% and 0.3%, respectively, and the same quantities for polarization position angle (P.A.) were 12° and 19°, respectively. At least one polarization null point, where P falls nearly to zero, was detected in the northeast disk but not the southwest disk. Several other asymmetries in P between the northern and southern disk were found and may be related to spiral structure. Profiles of P and P.A. along the minor axis of NGC 891 suggest a transition from magnetic (B) field tracing dichroic polarization near the disk mid-plane to scattering dominated polarization off the disk mid-plane. A comparison between NIR P.A. and radio (3.6 cm) synchrotron polarization P.A. values revealed similar B-field orientations in the central-northeast region, which suggests that the hot plasma and cold, star-forming interstellar medium may share a common B-field. Disk-perpendicular polarizations previously seen at optical wavelengths are likely caused by scattered light from the bright galaxy center and are unlikely to be tracing poloidal B-fields in the outer disk.

  10. Physical Parameters of Late Type Spiral Galaxies I-Mass and Luminosity of NGC 6946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sug-Whan Kim

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Brandt model the mass distribution of the late type spiral galaxy NGC 6946 was derived, and the total mass was reestimated to understand the M/L ratio of this galaxy. Two kinds of the rotation curve with shape parameter n = 1 and 3.3 were examined. The followings are the main results; (1 The total masses of NGC 6946 are 3.1 x 10^11*M (n=1 and 2.8 x 10^11*M (n=3.3 respectively, and the corresponding M/L are about 17 and 16 for both cases. (2 The optical image in the blue light, whose radius is 9.6 kpc, has 8 x 10^10*Msolar and 1.4 x 10^11*Msolar. These give the value of M/L about 5 and 8 respectively. (3 The masses and M/L of the nuclear region within 1.2 kpc are 4.0 x 10^9*Msolar, 4.7 x 10^9*Msolar and 3, 4 for both cases. Those of the disk from 1.2 kpc to 9.6 kpc are 7.6 x 10^10*Msolar, 1.4 x 10^11*Msolar, and 5, 8. (4 The masses of the outer halo extended to few hundreds kiloparsecs are 2.3 x 10^11*Msolar and 1.4 x 10^11*Msolar. The corresponding M/L are about 62 and 37.

  11. Investigating The Nuclear Activity Of Barred Spirals: The case of NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Leigh; Brandt, N.; Colbert, E.; Levan, A.; Roberts, T.; Ward, M.; Zezas, A.

    2008-03-01

    We present new results from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. It shows dramatic nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation activity, including starburst regions located either end of its prominent bar. Using new X-ray imaging and spectral information, together with supporting multiwavelength data, we show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a faint, hard, central X-ray source surrounded by a circumnuclear starburst ring that dominates the X-ray emission in the region, presumably triggered and sustained by gas and dust driven inwards along the galactic bar. The faint central source may represent low-level AGN activity, or alternatively emission associated with star-formation in the nucleus. More generally, we present some preliminary results on a Chandra archival search for low-luminosity AGN activity in barred galaxies.

  12. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Appleton, Philip N.; Ogle, Patrick M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Meier, David S. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Martín, Sergio, E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot {sub out}≈110 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup –1}, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (≲ 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) to the gas surface density (Σ{sub H{sub 2}}) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ≈50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ≈150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-σ relation.

  13. X-Ray Variability Characteristics of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.

    2005-12-01

    We have characterized the energy-dependent X-ray variability properties of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 using archival XMM-Newton and Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data. The high-frequency fluctuation power spectral density function (PSD) slope is consistent with flattening toward higher energies. Light-curve cross-correlation functions yield no significant lags, but peak coefficients generally decrease as energy separation of the bands increases on both short and long timescales. We have measured the coherence between various X-ray bands over the temporal frequency range of 6×10-8-1×10-4 Hz; this range includes the temporal frequency of the low-frequency PSD break tentatively detected by Markowitz et al. and includes the lowest temporal frequency over which coherence has been measured in any active galactic nucleus to date. Coherence is generally near unity at these temporal frequencies, although it decreases slightly as energy separation of the bands increases. Temporal frequency-dependent phase lags are detected on short timescales; phase lags are consistent with increasing as energy separation increases or as temporal frequency decreases. All of these results are similar to those obtained previously for several Seyfert galaxies and stellar mass black hole systems. Qualitatively, these results are consistent with the variability models of Kotov et al. and Lyubarskii, wherein the X-ray variability is due to inwardly propagating variations in the local mass accretion rate.

  14. The Araucaria Project. The distance to the Sculptor group galaxy NGC 7793 from near-infrared photometry of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zgirski Bartlomiej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed deep near-infrared J and K photometry of a field in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793 using ESO VLT and HAWK-I instrument. We produced a sample of 14 Cepheids whose locations and periods of pulsation were known from our previous paper on distance determination to this galaxy based on V and I bands. We determined mean J and K magnitudes based on measurements from two nights and produced period-luminosity relations for both filters. Using those near-infrared dependencies together with relations for bands V and I obtained before, we were able to obtain true distance modulus for NGC 7793. We also calculated the mean reddening affecting our Cepheids.

  15. NGC 404: A REJUVENATED LENTICULAR GALAXY ON A MERGER-INDUCED, BLUEWARD EXCURSION INTO THE GREEN VALLEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilker, David A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Schiminovich, David; Gil de Paz, Armando; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Wyder, Ted; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter; Martin, Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Small, Todd; Rich, R. Michael; Yi, Sukyoung; Neff, Susan

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered recent star formation in the outermost portion ((1-4) x R 25 ) of the nearby lenticular (S0) galaxy NGC 404 using Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging. FUV-bright sources are strongly concentrated within the galaxy's H I ring (formed by a merger event according to del RIo et al.), even though the average gas density is dynamically subcritical. Archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals resolved upper main-sequence stars and conclusively demonstrates that the UV light originates from recent star formation activity. We present FUV, NUV radial surface brightness profiles, and integrated magnitudes for NGC 404. Within the ring, the average star formation rate (SFR) surface density (Σ SFR ) is ∼2.2 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 kpc -2 . Of the total FUV flux, 70% comes from the H I ring which is forming stars at a rate of 2.5 x 10 -3 M sun yr -1 . The gas consumption timescale, assuming a constant SFR and no gas recycling, is several times the age of the universe. In the context of the UV-optical galaxy color-magnitude diagram, the presence of the star-forming H I ring places NGC 404 in the green valley separating the red and blue sequences. The rejuvenated lenticular galaxy has experienced a merger-induced, disk-building excursion away from the red sequence toward bluer colors, where it may evolve quiescently or (if appropriately triggered) experience a burst capable of placing it on the blue/star-forming sequence for up to ∼1 Gyr. The green valley galaxy population is heterogeneous, with most systems transitioning from blue to red but others evolving in the opposite sense due to acquisition of fresh gas through various channels.

  16. Enormous Disc of Cool Gas Surrounding the Nearby Powerful Radio Galaxy NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    galaxies in clus- ters appear to be much more devoid of H I gas, as sug- gested by a recent H I survey of the VIRGO cluster by di Serego Alighieri et...120th Street, New York, N.Y. 10027, USA 2Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, the Netherlands 3Kapteyn...NGC 612. This paper is part of an ongoing study to map the large-scale neutral hydrogen properties of nearby radio galaxies and it presents the first

  17. STRUCTURES OF LOCAL GALAXIES COMPARED TO HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, Sara M.; De Mello, DuIlia F.; Gallagher, John S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Matt Mountain, C.; Smith, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    The rest-frame far-ultraviolet morphologies of eight nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 8, NGC 520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, and NGC 7673) are compared with 54 galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 and 46 galaxies at z ∼ 4 observed in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The nearby sample is artificially redshifted to z ∼ 1.5 and 4 by applying luminosity and size scaling. We compare the simulated galaxy morphologies to real z ∼ 1.5 and 4 UV-bright galaxy morphologies. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M 20 ), and the Sersic index (n). We explore the use of nonparametric methods with two-dimensional profile fitting and find the combination of M 20 with n an efficient method to classify galaxies as having merger, exponential disk, or bulge-like morphologies. When classified according to G and M 20 20/30% of real/simulated galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 and 37/12% at z ∼ 4 have bulge-like morphologies. The rest have merger-like or intermediate distributions. Alternatively, when classified according to the Sersic index, 70% of the z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 4 real galaxies are exponential disks or bulge-like with n>0.8, and ∼ 30% of the real galaxies are classified as mergers. The artificially redshifted galaxies have n values with ∼ 35% bulge or exponential at z ∼ 1.5 and 4. Therefore, ∼ 20%-30% of Lyman-break galaxies have structures similar to local starburst mergers, and may be driven by similar processes. We assume merger-like or clumpy star-forming galaxies in the GOODS field have morphological structure with values n 20 > - 1.7. We conclude that Mrk 8, NGC 3079, and NGC 7673 have structures similar to those of merger-like and clumpy star-forming galaxies observed at z ∼ 1.5 and 4.

  18. The Araucaria Project. The Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 7793 from Near-infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zgirski, Bartlomiej; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Wielgorski, Piotr; Narloch, Weronika; Graczyk, Dariusz [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Gieren, Wolfgang; Gorski, Marek [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Karczmarek, Paulina [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warsaw (Poland); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio, E-mail: bzgirski@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: pietrzyn@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: pwielgor@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: wnarloch@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: mgorski@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: pkarczmarek@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Following the earlier discovery of classical Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793 from an optical wide-field imaging survey, we have performed deep near-infrared J - and K -band follow-up photometry of a subsample of these Cepheids to derive the distance to this galaxy with a higher accuracy than what was possible from optical photometry alone, by minimizing the effects of reddening and metallicity on the distance result. Combining our new near-infrared period–luminosity relations with previous optical photometry, we obtain a true distance modulus to NGC 7793 of (27.66 ± 0.04) mag (statistical) ±0.07 mag (systematic), i.e., a distance of (3.40 ± 0.17) Mpc. We also determine the mean reddening affecting the Cepheids to be E(B − V) = (0.08 ± 0.02) mag, demonstrating that there is significant dust extinction intrinsic to the galaxy in addition to the small foreground extinction. A comparison of the new, improved Cepheid distance to earlier distance determinations of NGC 7793 from the Tully–Fisher and TRGB methods is in agreement within the reported uncertainties of these previous measurements.

  19. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 1404: CLUSTER PLASMA PHYSICS REVEALED BY AN INFALLING EARLY-TYPE GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roediger, Elke [E.A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Churazov, Eugene, E-mail: yuanyuan.su@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM), as a magnetized and highly ionized fluid, provides an ideal laboratory to study plasma physics under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved on Earth. NGC 1404 is a bright elliptical galaxy that is being gas stripped as it falls through the ICM of the Fornax Cluster. We use the new Chandra X-ray observations of NGC 1404 to study ICM microphysics. The interstellar medium of NGC 1404 is characterized by a sharp leading edge, 8 kpc from the Galaxy center, and a short downstream gaseous tail. Contact discontinuities are resolved on unprecedented spatial scales (0.″5 = 45 pc) due to the combination of the proximity of NGC 1404, the superb spatial resolution of Chandra , and the very deep (670 ks) exposure. At the leading edge, we observe sub-kiloparsec-scale eddies generated by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) and put an upper limit of 5% Spitzer on the isotropic viscosity of the hot cluster plasma. We also observe mixing between the hot cluster gas and the cooler galaxy gas in the downstream stripped tail, which provides further evidence of a low viscosity plasma. The assumed ordered magnetic fields in the ICM ought to be smaller than 5 μ G to allow KHI to develop. The lack of an evident magnetic draping layer just outside the contact edge is consistent with such an upper limit.

  20. HerMES: The rest-frame UV emission and a lensing model for the z = 6.34 luminous dusty starburst galaxy HFLS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, Jae; Casey, C. M.; Ma, Brian; Osage, W. A.; Wardlow, Julie L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Burgarella, D.; Bussmann, R. S.; Clements, D.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Ivison, R. J.; La Porte, N.; Lo Faro, B.; Magdis, G.; Oliver, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the rest-frame ultraviolet emission from the starbursting galaxy HFLS3 at a redshift of 6.34. The galaxy was discovered in Herschel/SPIRE data due to its red color in the submillimeter wavelengths from 250 to 500 μm. Keck/NIRC2 K s -band adaptive optics imaging data showed two potential near-IR counterparts near HFLS3. Previously, the northern galaxy was taken to be in the foreground at z = 2.1, while the southern galaxy was assumed to be HFLS3's near-IR counterpart. The recently acquired Hubble/WFC3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data show conclusively that both optically bright galaxies are in the foreground at z < 6. A new lensing model based on the Hubble imaging data and the millimeter-wave continuum emission yields a magnification factor of 2.2 ± 0.3, with a 95% confidence upper limit on the magnification of 3.5. When corrected for lensing, the instantaneous star formation rate is 1320 M ☉ yr –1 , with the 95% confidence lower limit around 830 M ☉ yr –1 . The dust and stellar masses of HFLS3 from the same spectral energy distribution (SED) models are at the level of 3 × 10 8 M ☉ and ∼5 × 10 10 M ☉ , respectively, with large systematic uncertainties on assumptions related to the SED model. With Hubble/WFC3 images, we also find diffuse near-IR emission about 0.5 arcsec (∼3 kpc) to the southwest of HFLS3 that remains undetected in the ACS imaging data. The emission has a photometric redshift consistent with either z ∼ 6 or a dusty galaxy template at z ∼ 2.

  1. Black hole growth and starburst activity at z = 0.6-4 in the Chandra Deep Field South. Host galaxies properties of obscured AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Santini, P.; Grazian, A.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Merloni, A.; Civano, F.; Fontana, A.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    Aims: The co-evolution of host galaxies and the active black holes which reside in their centre is one of the most important topics in modern observational cosmology. Here we present a study of the properties of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in the CDFS 1 Ms observation and their host galaxies. Methods: We limited the analysis to the MUSIC area, for which deep K-band observations obtained with ISAAC@VLT are available, ensuring accurate identifications of the counterparts of the X-ray sources as well as reliable determination of photometric redshifts and galaxy parameters, such as stellar masses and star formation rates. In particular, we: 1) refined the X-ray/infrared/optical association of 179 sources in the MUSIC area detected in the Chandra observation; 2) studied the host galaxies observed and rest frame colors and properties. Results: We found that X-ray selected (LX ⪆ 1042 erg s-1) AGN show Spitzer colors consistent with both AGN and starburst dominated infrared continuum; the latter would not have been selected as AGN from infrared diagnostics. The host galaxies of X-ray selected obscured AGN are all massive (Mast > 1010 M_⊙) and, in 50% of the cases, are also actively forming stars (1/SSFR mass up to a value of 30% at z > 1 and Mast > 3 × 1011 M_⊙, a fraction significantly higher than in the local Universe for AGN of similar luminosities. Tables [see full textsee full textsee full text] and [see full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Stellar kinematics and populations out to 1.5 effective radii in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4636

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Shibi; Han Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    We present high quality long slit spectra along the major and minor axes out to 1.5 effective radii of the massive galaxy NGC 4636 taken by the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Using the Fourier Correlation Quotient method, we measured the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution along the axes. Furthermore, six Lick/IDS indices (Hβ, Mgb, Fe 5015 , Fe 5270 , Fe 5335 , Fe 5406 ) are derived from the clean spectrum. By comparing the measured absorption line strengths with the predictions of Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models, we derived ages, total metallicity and α abundance profiles of the galaxy. This galaxy presents old and [α/Fe] overabundant stellar populations. Indeed, using the SSP model, we obtained the broadband color profiles. The theoretical colors match well with the measured colors and present red sharp peaks at the galaxy center. The sharp peaks of the colors are mainly shaped by the high metallicity in the galaxy's center. Interestingly, the galaxy has steep negative metallicity gradients, but the trend flattens outwards. This result likely suggests that the center and outer regions of the galaxy formed through different formation processes.

  3. Multi-wavelength study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Blustin, A J; Behar, E; Kaastra, J S; Kahn, S M; Page, M J; Sako, M; Steenbrugge, K C

    2002-01-01

    We present the analysis of multi-wavelength XMM-Newton data from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783, including UV imaging, X-ray and UV lightcurves, the 0.2-10 keV X-ray continuum, the iron K-alpha emission line, and high-resolution spectroscopy and modelling of the soft X-ray warm absorber. The 0.2-10 keV spectral continuum can be well reproduced by a power-law at higher energies; we detect a prominent Fe K-alpha emission line, with both broad and narrow components, and a weaker emission line at 6.9 keV which is probably a combination of Fe K-beta and Fe XXVI. We interpret the significant deficit of counts in the soft X-ray region as being due to absorption by ionised gas in the line of sight. This is demonstrated by the large number of narrow absorption lines in the RGS spectrum from iron, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, argon, magnesium, silicon and sulphur. The wide range of iron states present in the spectrum enables us to deduce the ionisation structure of the absorbing medium. We find that our spectrum contai...

  4. H I IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERTHIN GALAXIES. II. IC 2233 AND THE BLUE COMPACT DWARF NGC 2537

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Uson, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to image the H I 21 cm line emission in the edge-on Sd galaxy IC 2233 and the blue compact dwarf NGC 2537. We also present new optical B, R, and Hα imaging of IC 2233 obtained with the WIYN telescope. Despite evidence of localized massive star formation in the form of prominent H II regions and shells, supergiant stars, and a blue integrated color, IC 2233 is a low surface brightness system with a very low global star formation rate (∼ sun yr -1 ), and we detect no significant 21 cm radio continuum emission from the galaxy. The H I and ionized gas disks of IC 2233 are clumpy and vertically distended, with scale heights comparable to that of the young stellar disk. Both the stellar and H I disks of IC 2233 appear flared, and we also find a vertically extended, rotationally anomalous component of H I extending to ∼ 2.4d 10 kpc from the midplane. The H I disk exhibits a mild lopsidedness as well as a global corrugation pattern with a period of ∼7d 10 kpc and an amplitude of ∼150d 10 pc. To our knowledge, this is the first time corrugations of the gas disk have been reported in an external galaxy; these undulations may be linked to bending instabilities or to underlying spiral structure and suggest that the disk is largely self-gravitating. Lying at a projected distance of 16'.7 from IC 2233, NGC 2537 has an H I disk with a bright, tilted inner ring and a flocculent, dynamically cold outer region that extends to ∼3.5 times the extent of the stellar light (D 25 ). Although NGC 2537 is rotationally-dominated, we measure H I velocity dispersions as high as σ V.HI ∼25 km s -1 near its center, indicative of significant turbulent motions. The inner rotation curve rises steeply, implying a strong central mass concentration. Our data indicate that IC 2233 and NGC 2537 do not constitute a bound pair and most likely lie at different distances. We also find no compelling evidence of a recent minor merger in either IC 2233 or NGC

  5. Revealing the Faraday depth structure of radio galaxy NGC 612 with broad-band radio polarimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, J. F.; Purcell, C. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present full-polarization, broad-band observations of the radio galaxy NGC 612 (PKS B0131-637) from 1.3 to 3.1 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The relatively large angular scale of the radio galaxy makes it a good candidate with which to investigate the polarization mechanisms responsible for the observed Faraday depth structure. By fitting complex polarization models to the polarized spectrum of each pixel, we find that a single polarization component can adequately describe the observed signal for the majority of the radio galaxy. While we cannot definitively rule out internal Faraday rotation, we argue that the bulk of the Faraday rotation is taking place in a thin skin that girts the polarized emission. Using minimum energy estimates, we find an implied total magnetic field strength of 4.2 μG.

  6. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Meurer, G. R.; For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6009 (Australia); Crocker, R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bhandari, S.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Lenc, E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Sydney NSW (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Seymour, N. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Offringa, A. R. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Hanish, D. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Hindson, L. [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); McKinley, B., E-mail: anna.kapinska@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); and others

    2017-03-20

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free–free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154–231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z -direction (from the major axis).

  7. The JHKs Magnitudes of the Red Giant Branch Tip and the Distance Moduli of Nearby Dwarf Galaxy NGC 205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Jung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have used the near-infrared JHKS photometric data of resolved stars in a nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 205 to determine the magnitudes of the red giant branch tip (TRGB. By applying Savitzky-Golay filter to the observed luminosity functions (LFs in each band, we derived the second derivatives of the LFs so as to determine the magnitudes of the TRGB. Absolute magnitudes of the TRGB in JHKs bands were measured from the Yonsei-Yale isochrones. By comparing the determined apparent magnitudes and the theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB, we estimated the distance moduli of NGC 205 to be (m-M = 24.10±0:08, 24.08±0.12 and 24.14±0.14 in J, H, and Ks bands, respectively.

  8. STRUCTURAL TRANSITION IN THE NGC 6251 JET: AN INTERPLAY WITH THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE AND ITS HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chih-Yin; Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori; Pu, Hung-Yi; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Lo, Wen-Ping, E-mail: cytseng@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-20

    The structure of the NGC 6251 jet on the milliarcsecond scale is investigated using images taken with the European VLBI Network and the Very Long Baseline Array. We detect a structural transition of the jet from a parabolic to a conical shape at a distance of (1–2) × 10{sup 5} times the Schwarzschild radius from the central engine, which is close to the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also examine the jet pressure profiles with the synchrotron minimum energy assumption to discuss the physical origin of the structural transition. The NGC 6251 jet, together with the M87 jet, suggests a fundamental process of structural transition in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Collimated AGN jets are characterized by their external galactic medium, showing that AGN jets interplay with the SMBH and its host galaxy.

  9. THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE STAR FORMATION LAW AT REDSHIFT 4: WIDESPREAD, HIGHLY EFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN THE DUST-OBSCURED STARBURST GALAXY GN20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Riechers, D. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853 (United States); Decarli, R.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Daddi, E. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannerbauer, H., E-mail: jhodge@nrao.edu [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Wien (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880 μm (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3 × 0.''2 (∼2.1 × 1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 ± 1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 ± 8 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3 kpc{sup 2}. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ Σ{sub H{sub 2}{sup 2.1±1.0}}, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ∼kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12 Gyr ago.

  10. THE OPTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STARBURST GALAXY M82. II. NEBULAR PROPERTIES OF THE DISK AND INNER WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, J. S.; Trancho, G.; Bastian, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this second paper of the series, we present the results from optical Gemini-North GMOS-IFU and WIYN DensePak IFU spectroscopic observations of the starburst and inner wind zones of M82, with a focus on the state of the T ∼ 10 4 K ionized interstellar medium. Our electron density maps show peaks of a few 1000 cm -3 (implying very high thermal pressures), local small spatial-scale variations, and a falloff in the minor axis direction. We discuss the implications of these results with regards to the conditions/locations that may favor the escape of individual cluster winds that ultimately power the large-scale superwind. Our findings, when combined with the body of literature built up over the last decade on the state of the interstellar medium (ISM) in M82, imply that the starburst environment is highly fragmented into a range of clouds from small/dense clumps with low-filling factors ( e ∼> 10 4 cm -3 ) to larger filling factor, less dense gas. The most compact clouds seem to be found in the cores of the star cluster complexes, whereas the cloud sizes in the inter-complex region are larger. These dense clouds are bathed with an intense radiation field and embedded in an extensive high temperature (T ∼> 10 6 K), X-ray-emitting ISM that is a product of the high star formation rates in the starburst zones of M82. The near-constant state of the ionization state of the ∼10 4 K gas throughout the M82 starburst zone can be explained as a consequence of the small cloud sizes, which allow the gas conditions to respond quickly to any changes. In Paper I, we found that the observed emission lines are composed of multiple components, including a broad (FWHM ∼ 150-350 km s -1 ) feature that we associate with emission from turbulent mixing layers on the surfaces of the gas clouds, resulting from the interaction of the fast wind outflows from the synchrotron self-Comptons. The large number of compact clouds and wind sources provides an ideal environment for broad line

  11. Revealing the nature of the ULX and X-ray population of the spiral galaxy NGC 4088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezcua, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fabbiano, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gladstone, J. C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Farrell, S. A. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Soria, R., E-mail: mmezcua@iac.es [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2014-04-20

    We present the first Chandra and Swift X-ray study of the spiral galaxy NGC 4088 and its ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX N4088-X1). We also report very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz performed quasi-simultaneously with the Swift and Chandra observations, respectively. Fifteen X-ray sources are detected by Chandra within the D25 ellipse of NGC 4088, from which we derive the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of this galaxy. We find the XLF is very similar to those of star-forming galaxies and estimate a star-formation rate of 4.5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The Chandra detection of the ULX yields its most accurate X-ray position, which is spatially coincident with compact radio emission at 1.6 GHz. The ULX Chandra X-ray luminosity, L {sub 0.2-10.0} {sub keV} = 3.4 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1}, indicates that N4088-X1 could be located at the high-luminosity end of the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population of NGC 4088. The estimates of the black hole (BH) mass and ratio of radio to X-ray luminosity of N4088-X1 rule out a supermassive BH nature. The Swift X-ray spectrum of N4088-X1 is best described by a thermal Comptonization model and presents a statistically significant high-energy cutoff. We conclude that N4088-X1 is most likely a stellar remnant BH in an HMXB, probably fed by Roche lobe overflow, residing in a super-Eddington ultraluminous state. The 1.6 GHz VLBI source is consistent with radio emission from possible ballistic jet ejections in this state.

  12. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. V. RADIAL STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF NGC 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Roskar, Rok; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Holtzman, Jon; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan; Cole, Andrew; Debattista, Victor P.; Olsen, Knut; De Jong, Roelof S.; Karachentsev, Igor D.

    2010-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of NGC 300 taken as part of the Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). Individual stars are resolved in these images down to an absolute magnitude of M F814W = 1.0 (below the red clump). We determine the star formation history of the galaxy in six radial bins by comparing our observed color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with synthetic CMDs based on theoretical isochrones. We find that the stellar disk out to 5.4 kpc is primarily old, in contrast with the outwardly similar galaxy M33. We determine the scale length as a function of age and find evidence for inside-out growth of the stellar disk: the scale length has increased from 1.1 ± 0.1 kpc 10 Gyr ago to 1.3 ± 0.1 kpc at present, indicating a buildup in the fraction of young stars at larger radii. As the scale length of M33 has recently been shown to have increased much more dramatically with time, our results demonstrate that two galaxies with similar sizes and morphologies can have very different histories. With an N-body simulation of a galaxy designed to be similar to NGC 300, we determine that the effects of radial migration should be minimal. We trace the metallicity gradient as a function of time and find a present-day metallicity gradient consistent with that seen in previous studies. Consistent results are obtained from archival images covering the same radial extent but differing in placement and filter combination.

  13. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VI. THE ANCIENT STAR-FORMING DISK OF NGC 404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Stilp, Adrienne; Dolphin, Andrew; Seth, Anil C.; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations across the disk of the nearby isolated dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. The locations of our fields contain a roughly equal mixture of bulge and disk stars. All of our resolved stellar photometry reaches m F814W = 26 (M F814W = -1.4), which covers 2.5 mag of the red giant branch and main-sequence stars with ages F814W = 27.2 (M F814W = -0.2), sufficient to resolve the red clump and main-sequence stars with ages 10 Gyr) population. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagram suggests that ∼70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z ∼ 2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least ∼90% formed prior to z ∼ 1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on average significantly older than those of other nearby disk galaxies, suggesting that early- and late-type disks may have different long-term evolutionary histories, not simply differences in their recent star formation rates. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of the young stellar mass and FUV emission in Galaxy Evolution Explorer images show that the brightest FUV regions contain the youngest stars, but that some young stars (<160 Myr) lie outside of these regions. FUV luminosity appears to be strongly affected by both age and stellar mass within individual regions. Finally, we use our measurements to infer the relationship between the star formation rate and the gas density of the disk at previous epochs. We find that most of the history of the NGC 404 disk is consistent with star formation that has decreased with the gas density according to the Schmidt law. However, ∼ 0.5-1 Gyr ago, the star formation rate was unusually low for the inferred gas density, consistent with the possibility that there was a gas accretion event that reignited star formation ∼0.5 Gyr ago. Such an event could explain why this S0 galaxy hosts an extended gas disk.

  14. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a strange elliptical bubble in the northern arm of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yuri N.; Moiseev, Alexei V.

    2016-01-01

    NGC 6946, known as the Fireworks galaxy because of its high supernova rate and high star formation, is embedded in a very extended HI halo. Its northern spiral arm is well detached from the galactic main body. We found that this arm contains a large (~300 pc in size) Red Ellipse, named according to a strong contamination of the H-alpha emission line on its optical images. The ellipse is accompanied by a short parallel arc and a few others still smaller and less regular; a bright star cluster ...

  15. Internal Variations in Empirical Oxygen Abundances for Giant H II Regions in the Galaxy NGC 2403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ye-Wei; Lin, Lin; Kong, Xu

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a spectroscopic investigation of 11 {{H}} {{II}} regions in the nearby galaxy NGC 2403. The {{H}} {{II}} regions are observed with a long-slit spectrograph mounted on the 2.16 m telescope at XingLong station of National Astronomical Observatories of China. For each of the {{H}} {{II}} regions, spectra are extracted at different nebular radii along the slit-coverage. Oxygen abundances are empirically estimated from the strong-line indices R23, N2O2, O3N2, and N2 for each spectrophotometric unit, with both observation- and model-based calibrations adopted into the derivation. Radial profiles of these diversely estimated abundances are drawn for each nebula. In the results, the oxygen abundances separately estimated with the prescriptions on the basis of observations and models, albeit from the same spectral index, systematically deviate from each other; at the same time, the spectral indices R23 and N2O2 are distributed with flat profiles, whereas N2 and O3N2 exhibit apparent gradients with the nebular radius. Because our study naturally samples various ionization levels, which inherently decline at larger radii within individual {{H}} {{II}} regions, the radial distributions indicate not only the robustness of R23 and N2O2 against ionization variations but also the sensitivity of N2 and O3N2 to the ionization parameter. The results in this paper provide observational corroboration of the theoretical prediction about the deviation in the empirical abundance diagnostics. Our future work is planned to investigate metal-poor {{H}} {{II}} regions with measurable T e, in an attempt to recalibrate the strong-line indices and consequently disclose the cause of the discrepancies between the empirical oxygen abundances.

  16. The variability of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 2992: the case for a revived AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilli, R.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Risaliti, G.; Dadina, M.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2000-03-01

    We report the transition to an active state of the nucleus in the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992, discovered by means of new hard X-ray data. While the 2-10 keV flux declined by a factor of ~ 20 from 1978 to 1994, two recent BeppoSAX observations in 1997 and in 1998 caught the nuclear emission raising back to the same level of activity observed in 1978. In both BeppoSAX observations the X-ray spectrum of the source is well represented by a power law with spectral index Gamma =~ 1.7, absorbed by a column density of N_H =~ 1022 cm-2 and characterized by a prominent iron Kalpha line. While in the second BeppoSAX data set the line properties appear to be consistent with those expected from accretion disc models, in the first BeppoSAX data set the iron feature is rather peculiar. The broadening is not significant and the line energy is E_Kalpha =6.62+/-0.07 keV, indicating emission from highly ionized iron. The line has too high equivalent width ( ~ 700 eV) to be produced by a hot scattering medium. By comparing these data with data previously in the literature, we interpret the spectral and flux changes in terms of different phases of rebuilding an accretion disc. The timescale for the disc rebuilding is estimated to range between 1 and 5 years. The X-ray data are complemented with optical and near-infrared followup spectra taken 1.5 months after the discovery of the X-ray burst. The spectra are characterized by prominent broad emission lines. There is also evidence for hot dust emission in the H and K bands that, however, is probably still in the process of increasing.

  17. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PIXEL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTING FACE-ON SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5194 (M51A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Kyeong, Jaemann; Chung, Jiwon

    2011-01-01

    A pixel analysis is carried out on the interacting face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. After 4 x 4 binning of the HST/ACS images to secure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for each pixel, we derive several quantities describing the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5194: blue/red color cut, red pixel sequence parameters, blue pixel sequence parameters, and blue-to-red pixel ratio. The red sequence pixels are mostly older than 1 Gyr, while the blue sequence pixels are mostly younger than 1 Gyr, in their luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages. The color variation in the red pixel sequence from V = 20 mag arcsec -2 to V = 17 mag arcsec -2 corresponds to a metallicity variation of Δ[Fe/H] ∼2 or an optical depth variation of Δτ V ∼ 4 by dust, but the actual sequence is thought to originate from the combination of those two effects. At V -2 , the color variation in the blue pixel sequence corresponds to an age variation from 5 Myr to 300 Myr under the assumption of solar metallicity and τ V = 1. To investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations, we divide pixel stellar populations using the pixel color-color diagram and population synthesis models. As a result, we find that the pixel population distributions across the spiral arms agree with a compressing process by spiral density waves: dense dust → newly formed stars. The tidal interaction between NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 appears to enhance the star formation at the tidal bridge connecting the two galaxies. We find that the pixels corresponding to the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) area of NGC 5194 show a tight sequence at the bright-end of the pCMD, which are in the region of R ∼ 100 pc and may be a photometric indicator of AGN properties.

  18. WISDOM Project - III. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in the barred lenticular galaxy NGC4429

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; van de Voort, Freeke; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Liu, Lijie; North, Eve V.; Sarzi, Marc; Smith, Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses project we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC4429, that is barred and has a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-2 observations of the 12CO(3-2) emission line with a linear resolution of ≈13 pc (0.18 arcsec × 0.14 arcsec). NGC4429 has a relaxed, flocculent nuclear disc of molecular gas that is truncated at small radii, likely due to the combined effects of gas stability and tidal shear. The warm/dense 12CO(3-2) emitting gas is confined to the inner parts of this disc, likely again because the gas becomes more stable at larger radii, preventing star formation. The gas disc has a low velocity dispersion of 2.2^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. Despite the inner truncation of the gas disc, we are able to model the kinematics of the gas and estimate a mass of (1.5 ± 0.1^{+0.15}_{-0.35}) × 108 M⊙ for the SMBH in NGC4429 (where the quoted uncertainties reflect the random and systematic uncertainties, respectively), consistent with a previous upper limit set using ionized gas kinematics. We confirm that the V-band mass-to-light ratio changes by ≈30 per cent within the inner 400 pc of NGC4429, as suggested by other authors. This SMBH mass measurement based on molecular gas kinematics, the sixth presented in the literature, once again demonstrates the power of ALMA to constrain SMBH masses.

  19. HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN TURBULENT ATOMIC-DOMINATED GAS IN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IC 2163 AND NGC 2207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Kaufman, Michele; Bournaud, Frédéric; Juneau, Stéphanie; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Struck, Curtis; Brinks, Elias

    2016-01-01

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, H α , and 24 μ m observations to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high-SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207 where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40–50 km s −1 . We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  20. HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN TURBULENT ATOMIC-DOMINATED GAS IN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IC 2163 AND NGC 2207

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kaufman, Michele [110 Westchester Rd, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Bournaud, Frédéric; Juneau, Stéphanie [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Struck, Curtis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Brinks, Elias, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: kaufmanrallis@icloud.com, E-mail: frederic.bournaud@gmail.com, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu, E-mail: struck@iastate.edu, E-mail: e.brinks@herts.ac.uk [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, H α , and 24 μ m observations to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high-SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207 where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40–50 km s{sup −1}. We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  1. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B.M.; Ely, J.; Kriss, G.A.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Horne, K.; Korista, K.T.; Netzer, H.; Pogge, R.W.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A.J.; Bentz, M.C.; Brandt, W.N.; Breeveld, A.A.; Brewer, B.J.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Denney, K.D.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Evans, P.A.; Fausnaugh, M.M.; Gehrels, N.; Gelbord, J.M.; Goad, M.R.; Grier, C.J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P.B.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B.C.; Kennea, J.A.; Kochanek, C.S.; Lira, P.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I.M.; Nousek, J.A.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Pei, L.; Schimoia, J.S.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D.; Treu, T.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 171 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and

  2. CHEMODYNAMICS OF COMPACT STELLAR SYSTEMS IN NGC 5128: HOW SIMILAR ARE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS, ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS, AND DWARF GALAXIES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Harris, William E.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Hilker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Velocity dispersion measurements are presented for several of the most luminous globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) derived from high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES echelle spectrograph on the 8.2 m ESO/Very Large Telescope. The measurements are made utilizing a penalized pixel-fitting method that parametrically recovers line-of-sight velocity dispersions. Combining the measured velocity dispersions with surface photometry and structural parameter data from the Hubble Space Telescope enables both dynamical masses and mass-to-light ratios to be derived. The properties of these massive stellar systems are similar to those of both massive GCs contained within the Local Group and nuclear star clusters and ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The fundamental plane relations of these clusters are investigated in order to fill the apparent gap between the relations of Local Group GCs and more massive early-type galaxies. It is found that the properties of these massive stellar systems match those of nuclear clusters in dwarf elliptical galaxies and UCDs better than those of Local Group GCs, and that all objects share similarly old (∼>8 Gyr) ages, suggesting a possible link between the formation and evolution of nuclear star clusters in dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE,Ns), UCDs, and massive GCs. We find a very steep correlation between dynamical mass-to-light ratio and dynamical mass of the form Υ V dyn ∝ M dyn 0.24±0.02 above M dyn ∼ 2x10 6 M sun . Formation scenarios are investigated with a chemical abundance analysis using absorption-line strengths calibrated to the Lick/IDS index system. The results lend support to two scenarios contained within a single general formation scheme. Old, massive, super-solar [α/Fe] systems are formed on short (∼ 13 -10 15 M sun potential wells of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  3. The optical spectrum and morphology of the probable X-ray galaxy NGC 5506 (3U 1410-03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.S.; Penston, M.V.; Fosbury, R.A.E.; Boksenberg, A.

    1976-01-01

    Spectra of the nucleus and plates of the galaxy NGC 5506, suggested by Bahcall et al. as the identification of the X-ray source 3U 1410-03, have been obtained with the Isaac Newton and Anglo-Australian Telescopes. The photographs show it to be a highly elongated system, crossed by dust lanes and possessing a prominent nucleus. It appears to be of irregular Type II and superficially resembles M 82. The nuclear spectrum is dominated by intense emission lines of [O III], [O I], [N II], [S II] and the Balmer series. Lines of high ionized species (e.g. He II, [Ne V], [Fe VII]) are also found, implying that the object is active and greatly enhancing the probability of association with the X-ray source. Numerous weak lines of [Fe II] emission are observed. The strong lines are narrower than is characteristic of Seyfert galaxies, and have widths (FWHM) of about 400 km s -1 . The measured Balmer decrement indicates the nucleus is significantly reddened, from which a visual absorption Asub(v) approximately equal to 4.5 mag is deduced. The dereddened line intensities are remarkably similar to those derived for the radio galaxy Cyg A by Osterbrock and Miller. The forbidden lines from NGC 5506 are emitted in a region with log 10 Tsub(e) =4.2 and log 10 Nsub(e) = 3.4. The observed continuum may be described by a power law S varies as νsup(+α) with α = - 3.6 +- 0.5; after correction for reddening the spectral index becomes α = - 1.3 +- 0.6. If the X-ray source is associated with the nucleus, the high visual absorption implies a low energy cut-off in its spectrum near 0.9 keV. (author)

  4. Direction of Wolf-Rayet stars in a very powerful far-infrared galaxy - Direct evidence for a starburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armus, L.; Heckman, T.M.; Miley, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Spectra covering the wavelength range 4476-7610 A are presented for the powerful far-infrared galaxy IRAS 01003-2238. The broad emission band centered at a rest wavelength of roughly 4660 A, and other broad weaker features are interpreted, as arising from the combined effect of approximately 100,000 late Wolf-Rayet stars of the WN subtype. This represents perhaps the most direct evidence to date for the presence of a large number of hot massive stars in the nucleus of a very powerful far-infrared galaxy. The high number of Wolf-Rayet stars in relation to the number of O-type stars may be interpreted as arguing against continuous steady state star formation in 01003-2238, in favor of a recent burst of star formation occurring approximately 100 million yrs ago. 24 references

  5. GALAXY INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT GROUPS. I. THE GALACTIC WINDS OF HCG16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frederic P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J., E-mail: fvogt@mso.anu.edu.au [Mount Stromlo Observatory, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-05-10

    Using the WiFeS integral field spectrograph, we have undertaken a series of observations of star-forming galaxies in compact groups. In this first paper dedicated to the project, we present the analysis of the spiral galaxy NGC 838, a member of the Hickson Compact Group 16, and of its galactic wind. Our observations reveal that the wind forms an asymmetric, bipolar, rotating structure, powered by a nuclear starburst. Emission line ratio diagnostics indicate that photoionization is the dominant excitation mechanism at the base of the wind. Mixing from slow shocks (up to 20%) increases further out along the outflow axis. The asymmetry of the wind is most likely caused by one of the two lobes of the wind bubble bursting out of its H I envelope, as indicated by line ratios and radial velocity maps. The characteristics of this galactic wind suggest that it is caught early (a few Myr) in the wind evolution sequence. The wind is also quite different from the galactic wind in the partner galaxy NGC 839 which contains a symmetric, shock-excited wind. Assuming that both galaxies have similar interaction histories, the two different winds must be a consequence of the intrinsic properties of NGC 838 and NGC 839 and their starbursts.

  6. Correlated X-ray/UV/optical emission and short-term variability in a Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Main; Naik, Sachindra

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed multifrequency analysis of an intense monitoring programme of Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 over a duration of nearly for a month with Swift observatory. We used 185 pointings to study the variability in six ultraviolet/optical and two soft (0.3-1.5 keV) and hard X-ray (1.5-10 keV) bands. The amplitude of the observed variability is found to decrease from high energy to low energy (X-ray to optical) bands. Count-count plots of ultraviolet/optical bands with hard X-rays clearly suggest the presence of a mixture of two major components: (i) highly variable component such as hard X-ray emission, and (ii) slowly varying disc-like component. The variations observed in the ultraviolet/optical emission are strongly correlated with the hard X-ray band. Cross-correlation analysis provides the lags for the longer wavelengths compared to the hard X-rays. Such lags clearly suggest that the changes in the ultraviolet/optical bands follow the variations in the hard X-ray band. This implies that the observed variation in longer wavelengths is due to X-ray reprocessing. Though, the measured lag spectrum (lag versus wavelength) is well described by λ4/3 as expected from the standard disc model, the observed lags are found to be longer than the predicted values from standard disc model. This implies that the actual size of the disc of NGC 4593 is larger than the estimated size of standard thin disc as reported in active galactic nuclei such as NGC 5548 and Fairall 9.

  7. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae kinematics and X-ray emission in the early-type galaxy NGC 5128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the mass of the galaxy NGC 5128 based on the different mass tracers, globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe, are presented. These estimates are compared with the estimate based on the X-ray methodology and it is found that the results for the mass (and mass-to-light ratio for all three approaches are in very good agreement interior to 25 arcmin; beyond 25 arcmin the X-rays predict the mass which is too high with respect to the one found using GCs and PNe. Some possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. The Jeans equation is also solved and its predictions for the velocity dispersion are then compared with the observed values, which extend to ~8 effective radii in the case of the GCs and ~15 effective radii in the case of the PNe. It is found that interior to ~25 arcmin (~5 effective radii dark matter does not dominate because the total mass-to-light ratio in the B band in solar units is less than 10. Based on the GCs and PNe beyond ~25 arcmin the total mass-to-light ratio increases to ~14 (at ~80 arcmin which indicates the existence of dark matter in the outer regions of NGC 5128.

  8. NuSTAR spectral analysis of two bright Seyfert 1 galaxies: MCG +8-11-11 and NGC 6814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, A.; Bianchi, S.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Middei, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; De Rosa, A.; Petrucci, P. O.; Ursini, F.; Walton, D. J.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the NuSTAR observations of two bright Seyfert 1 galaxies, namely MCG +8-11-11 (100 ks) and NGC 6814 (150 ks). The main goal of these observations was to investigate the Comptonization mechanisms acting in the innermost regions of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) which are believed to be responsible for the UV/X-ray emission. The spectroscopic analysis of the NuSTAR spectra of these two sources revealed that although they had different properties overall (black hole masses, luminosity and Eddington ratios), they had very similar coronal properties. Both presented a power-law spectrum with a high-energy cut-off at ∼150-200 keV, a relativistically broadened Fe K α line and the associated disc reflection component, plus a narrow iron line likely emitted in Compton thin and distant matter. The intrinsic continuum was well described by Comptonization models that show for MCG +8-11-11 a temperature of the coronal plasma of kTe ∼ 60 keV and an extrapolated optical depth τ = 1.8; for NGC 6814, the coronal temperature was kTe ∼ 45 keV with an extrapolated optical depth of τ = 2.5. We compare and discuss these values to some most common Comptonization models that aim at explaining the energy production and stability of coronae in AGNs.

  9. Anatomy of a merger - CO in Arp 299 (IC 694-NGC 3690)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, A.; Scoville, N.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution (2.4-arcsec) CO observations of the interacting system Arp 299 (Mrk 171: IC 694 and NGC 3690) reveal major gas condensations at the nuclei of both galaxies and in the disk overlap region. The 0.9 x 10 to the 9th solar masses of H2 at the nucleus of NGC 3690 extends to radii of 310 pc and probably sustains a starburst. A compact source (radius not greater than 250 pc) of mass 3.9 x 10 to the 9th solar masses is found at the nucleus of IC 694; this galaxy may harbor an AGN. At least three discrete subcondensations, probably active star-forming knots, are detected in the 1800 x 640 pc overlap region. 24 refs

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Molecular clouds in the dwarf galaxy NGC6822 (Schruba+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schruba, A.; Leroy, A. K.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Bigiel, F.; Bolatto, A. D.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Tacconi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Walter, F.

    2017-09-01

    We observed five fields in NGC 6822 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Cycle 1 using the 1.3mm Band 6 receivers (project code: 2013.1.00351.S; PI. A. Schruba) in 2014 Mar 23-25. (1 data file).

  11. Hard X-ray emission of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 as observed by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccetti, S.; Comastri, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fiore, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Stern, D.; Urry, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Annuar, A.; Arévalo, P.; Baloković, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Koss, M. J.; La Massa, S.; Marinucci, A.; Ricci, C.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a broadband (~0.3-70 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of NuSTAR observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and BeppoSAX data. NGC 6240 is a galaxy in a relatively early merger state with two distinct nuclei separated by ~1.̋5. Previous Chandra observations resolved the two nuclei and showed that they are both active and obscured by Compton-thick material. Although they cannot be resolved by NuSTAR, we were able to clearly detect, for the first time, both the primary and the reflection continuum components thanks to the unprecedented quality of the NuSTAR data at energies >10 keV. The NuSTAR hard X-ray spectrum is dominated by the primary continuum piercing through an absorbing column density which is mildly optically thick to Compton scattering (τ ≃ 1.2, NH ~ 1.5 × 1024 cm-2). We detect moderately hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux variability up to 20% on short (15-20 ks) timescales. The amplitude of the variability is largest at ~30 keV and is likely to originate from the primary continuum of the southern nucleus. Nevertheless, the mean hard X-ray flux on longer timescales (years) is relatively constant. Moreover, the two nuclei remain Compton-thick, although we find evidence of variability in the material along the line of sight with column densities NH ≤ 2 × 1023 cm-2 over long (~3-15 yr) timescales. The observed X-ray emission in the NuSTAR energy range is fully consistent with the sum of the best-fit models of the spatially resolved Chandra spectra of the two nuclei.

  12. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Mateos, J. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Sanchez, S. F. [Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman, Calar Alto (CSIC-MPG), C/Jesus Durban Remon 2-2, E-04004 Almeria (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Boissier, S., E-mail: ramarino@fis.ucm.es [Laboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille and CNRS UMR 6110, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France)

    2012-07-20

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r {approx}36'' {approx} 4.4 kpc {approx} 0.36 (D{sub 25}/2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r {approx} 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of {lambda} = 0.053 and v{sub c} = 167 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r {approx}36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  13. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Sánchez, S. F.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Boissier, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r ∼36'' ∼ 4.4 kpc ∼ 0.36 (D 25 /2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r ∼ 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of λ = 0.053 and v c = 167 km s –1 , respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r ∼36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  14. Feedback and starbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklind, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simple phenomenological model of the regulatory coupling between the star formation rate and the molecular gas fraction is presented. The model can in a qualitative way explain both the constant star formation rate observed in most galaxies and the starbursting behaviour seen in some systems. Formation of massive stars are thought to have both a positive and a negative feedback on further stellar formation. A sudden increase in the gas available for star formation will cause a strong increase in the star formation rate lasting for ∼ 3.10 7 yrs. Both the star formation rate and the molecular gas friction will then perform damped oscillations over a period of a few x 10 8 yrs. This general behaviour is valid for a large range of parameter values

  15. Superwind Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies? : Large-Scale Radio Maps of an Edge-On Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Gallimore, J.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.

    1995-03-01

    Large-scale galactic winds (superwinds) are commonly found flowing out of the nuclear region of ultraluminous infrared and powerful starburst galaxies. Stellar winds and supernovae from the nuclear starburst provide the energy to drive these superwinds. The outflowing gas escapes along the rotation axis, sweeping up and shock-heating clouds in the halo, which produces optical line emission, radio synchrotron emission, and X-rays. These features can most easily be studied in edge-on systems, so that the wind emission is not confused by that from the disk. We have begun a systematic search for superwind outflows in Seyfert galaxies. In an earlier optical emission-line survey, we found extended minor axis emission and/or double-peaked emission line profiles in >~30% of the sample objects. We present here large-scale (6cm VLA C-config) radio maps of 11 edge-on Seyfert galaxies, selected (without bias) from a distance-limited sample of 23 edge-on Seyferts. These data have been used to estimate the frequency of occurrence of superwinds. Preliminary results indicate that four (36%) of the 11 objects observed and six (26%) of the 23 objects in the distance-limited sample have extended radio emission oriented perpendicular to the galaxy disk. This emission may be produced by a galactic wind blowing out of the disk. Two (NGC 2992 and NGC 5506) of the nine objects for which we have both radio and optical data show good evidence for a galactic wind in both datasets. We suggest that galactic winds occur in >~30% of all Seyferts. A goal of this work is to find a diagnostic that can be used to distinguish between large-scale outflows that are driven by starbursts and those that are driven by an AGN. The presence of starburst-driven superwinds in Seyferts, if established, would have important implications for the connection between starburst galaxies and AGN.

  16. A new measurement of the baryonic fraction using the sparse NGC 3258 group of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristian; Yoshii, Y.; Sommer-Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    )(-1) kpc is found to be 0.065(-0.020)(+0.051) for h(50) = 1, where h(50) = H-0/50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), in good agreement with the universal value of 0.05 +/- 0.01 predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis for a universe with Omega(0) = 1 and h(50) = 1. Since the deep potential of the NGC 3258 group...

  17. MOND prediction of a new giant shell in the elliptical galaxy NGC 3923

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Bartošková, Kateřina; Ebrová, Ivana; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 566, June (2014), A151/1-A151/11 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; UK(CZ) SVV-26089 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravitation * galaxies: kinematics and dynamics * galaxies: formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  18. Revealing the ISM in high redshift starburst galaxies: An analysis of Herschel PACS and SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations of HerMES and H-ATLAS-selected lensed galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    In the quest to develop a fundamental understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, observations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) promise significant progress this decade. The importance of DSFGs is highlighted by the fact that half of the energy emitted by extragalactic sources emerges as dust-reprocessed light at infrared (IR) to sub millimeter wavelength. In the post-herschel\\ era, we are now at a unique position to tackle some of the key questions on galaxy formation and evolution because of the large area Herschel's Key Project surveys (HerMES and H-ATLAS). In particular those surveys have allowed us to identify a sample of 250 strongly gravitationally lensed DSFGs at z > 1. They give us a unique opportunity to dissect the detailed structures and kinematics of DSFGs. The Herschel Science Archive also contains individual follow up data on 44 and 25 of the brightest sources with SPIRE-FTS and PACS, respectively, in the spectroscopy mode, taking over 250 hours in four open-time programs. Only one of the 44 SPIRE FTS targets has yet to appear in the published literature. One of the four include an open-time 2 PACS spectroscopy program that was led at UCI by a former postdoc from the PI's group. That program was initially approved at Priority 2 in 2011, but was triggered in late 2012 and achieved 100% completion during the last two weeks of Herschel lifetime in May 2013. This archival analysis, interpretation, and modeling program involves two parts: (i) PACS spectroscopy in 50 to 200 microns of 25 lensed galaxies in the fine-structure emission lines [SiII]34, [SIII]33, [OIV]26, [OIII]52, [NIII]57 and [OI]63, and the molecular hydrogen H_2 S(0) and S(1). (ii) SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of 44 lensed galaxies, including above 25, over the wavelength range of 200 to 600 microns targeting [CII]158, [OIII]88, [OI]63/145, and [NI]122. The analysis will lead to a better understanding of the ISM of starbursting galaxies that span 1 research supports Goal 2 of the

  19. PCA/HEXTE Observations of M82 and NGC253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rephaeli, Yoel

    1999-01-01

    The nearby starburst galaxies M82 & NGC 253 were observed by the RXTE satellite during the period February - November 1997. Data reduction and analysis began in summer 1998, and continued through March 1999. The spectral analysis indicates that the main emission in these galaxies is from hot gas. We find a considerable degree of variability in the emission from M82, possibly due to M81 (a known AGN) in the FOV. The main spectral parameters were determined for both sources. The results of the analysis were reported in the March 1999 meeting of the AAS. Summary of the data analysis, theoretical modeling, and interpretation will be presented in a paper which is currently being prepared for publication in the Astrophysical Journal.

  20. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES IN XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 AT z = 1.46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Matt; Lloyd-Davies, Ed; Romer, A. Kathy; Hosmer, Mark; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Stanford, S. Adam; Stott, John P.; Collins, Chris A.; Hoyle, Ben; Kay, Scott T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sahlen, Martin; Viana, Pedro T. P.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra X-ray and Spitzer infrared (IR) observations to explore the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and starburst populations of XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 at z = 1.46, one of the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters known. The high-resolution X-ray imaging reveals that the cluster emission is contaminated by point sources that were not resolved in XMM-Newton observations of the system, and have the effect of hardening the spectrum, leading to the previously reported temperature for this system being overestimated. From a joint spectroscopic analysis of the Chandra and XMM-Newton data, the cluster is found to have temperature T = 4.1 +0.6 -0.9 keV and luminosity L X = (2.92 +0.24 -0.35 ) x 10 44 erg s -1 , extrapolated to a radius of 2 Mpc. As a result of this revised analysis, the cluster is found to lie on the σ v -T relation, but the cluster remains less luminous than would be expected from self-similar evolution of the local L X -T relation. Two of the newly discovered X-ray AGNs are cluster members, while a third object, which is also a prominent 24 μm source, is found to have properties consistent with it being a high-redshift, highly obscured object in the background. We find a total of eight >5σ 24 μm sources associated with cluster members (four spectroscopically confirmed and four selected using photometric redshifts) and one additional 24 μm source with two possible optical/near-IR counterparts that may be associated with the cluster. Examining the Infrared Array Camera colors of these sources, we find that one object is likely to be an AGN. Assuming that the other 24 μm sources are powered by star formation, their IR luminosities imply star formation rates ∼100 M sun yr -1 . We find that three of these sources are located at projected distances of <250 kpc from the cluster center, suggesting that a large amount of star formation may be taking place in the cluster core, in contrast to clusters at low redshift.

  1. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY ON THE FATE OF IONIZING RADIATION IN LOCAL STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanish, D. J.; Oey, M. S.; Rigby, J. R.; Lee, J. C.; De Mello, D. F.

    2010-01-01

    The fate of ionizing radiation is vital for understanding cosmic ionization, energy budgets in the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and star formation rate indicators. The low observed escape fractions of ionizing radiation have not been adequately explained, and there is evidence that some starbursts have high escape fractions. We examine the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of local star-forming galaxies, containing 13 local starburst galaxies and 10 of their ordinary star-forming counterparts, to determine if there exist significant differences in the fate of ionizing radiation in these galaxies. We find that the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the SEDs are much larger than any systematic differences between starbursts and non-starbursts. For example, we find no significant differences in the total absorption of ionizing radiation by dust, traced by the 24 μm, 70 μm, and 160 μm MIPS bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope, although the dust in starburst galaxies appears to be hotter than that of non-starburst galaxies. We also observe no excess ultraviolet flux in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer bands that could indicate a high escape fraction of ionizing photons in starburst galaxies. The small Hα fractions of the diffuse, warm ionized medium (WIM) in starburst galaxies are apparently due to temporarily boosted Hα luminosity within the star-forming regions themselves, with an independent, constant WIM luminosity. This independence of the WIM and starburst luminosities contrasts with WIM behavior in non-starburst galaxies and underscores our poor understanding of radiation transfer in both ordinary and starburst galaxies.

  2. Two micron spectroscopy of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy Haro 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T.J.; Maillard, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of 2-micron spectroscopic observations of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy (BCDG) Haro 2, obtained with the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The spectrum contains emission lines of H I, He I, Fe II, and H2 and strong absorption originating from Delta-v = 2 transitions of CO. The strengths of the various features are discussed and the extinction in the 2-micron region is estimated. The spectrum of Haro 2 is compared with those of other BCDGs and the starburst galaxies NGC 253 and M82. It is found that, in many respects, Haro 2 is a typical starburst galaxy and that its blue near-IR colors are not necessarily a sign of youth. 35 refs

  3. Submillimeter Array/Plateau de Bure Interferometer Multiple Line Observations of the Nearby Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068: Shock-related Gas Kinematics and Heating in the Central 100 pc?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krips, M.; Martin, S.; Eckart, A.; Neri, R.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Matsushita, S.; Peck, A.; Stoklasová, Ivana; Petitpas, G.; Usero, A.; Combes, F.; Schinnerer, E.; Humphreys, L.; Baker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 736, 1-4 (2011), 37/1-37/27 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxies * active galaxies * NGC 1068 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  4. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE POPULATION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE BULGELESS GALAXIES NGC 337 AND ESO 501-23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, Garrett; Mathur, Smita; Martini, Paul; Grier, Catherine J. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, Linda [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: somers@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Hertzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    We have used Chandra observations of eight bulgeless disk galaxies to identify new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidates, study their high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report the discovery of 16 new ULX candidates in our sample of galaxies. Eight of these are found in the star forming galaxy NGC 337, none of which are expected to be background contaminants. The HMXB luminosity function of NGC 337 implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 6.8{sup +4.4}{sub -3.5} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent at 1.5σ with a recent state of the art SFR determination. We also report the discovery of a bright ULX candidate (X-1) in ESO 501-23. X-1's spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power law with Γ= 1.18{sup +0.19}{sub -0.11} and N{sub H} = 1.13{sup +7.07}{sub -1.13}×10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, implying a 0.3-8 keV flux of 1.08{sup +0.05}{sub -0.07}×10{sup -12} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Its X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ) is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the host galaxy's distance, but we argue that its spectrum implies L{sub X} > 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. An optical counterpart to this object may be present in an Hubble Space Telescope image. We also identify ULX candidates in IC 1291, PGC 3853, NGC 5964, and NGC 2805. We find no evidence of nuclear activity in the galaxies in our sample, placing a flux upper limit of 4 × 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} on putative AGN. Additionally, the Type II-P supernova SN 2011DQ in NGC 337, which exploded two months before our X-ray observation, is undetected.

  5. Dissecting the Butterfly: Dual Outflows in the Dual AGN NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Sanchez, Francisco; Comerford, Julie; Nevin, Rebecca; Davies, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Privon, George

    2018-01-01

    Current theories of galaxy evolution invoke some kind of feedback (from the stars or the supermassive black hole) to explain the properties of galaxies. However, numerical simulations and observations have not been able to evaluate the real impact of feedback in galaxies. This is largely because most studies have focused on studying stellar feedback or AGN feedback alone, instead of considering the combined effect of both. In fact, this is an unexplored territory for observations due to the difficulty of separating the contribution from the two sources.In this contribution I present the discovery of a dual outflow of different species of gas in the prototypical merging galaxy NGC 6240 using HST imaging, long-slit and integral-eld spectroscopy: an AGN-driven outflow of highly-ionized gas to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of ionized hydrogen to the northwest. The AGN outflow extends up to 4 kpc along a position angle of 56 degrees, has a conical shape with an opening angle of 52 degrees and a maximum line-of-sight velocity of 350 km/s. The WFC3 images also reveal a bubble of Halpha emission in the northwest, which has no counterpart in [O III], consistent with a scenario in which the starburst is ionizing and driving outflowing winds which inflate the bubble at an expansion velocity of 380 km/s. Assuming a spherical geometry for the starburst-driven bubble and a conical geometry for the AGN-driven outflow, we estimate mass outflow rates of 26 Msun/yr and 62 Msun/yr, respectively. We conclude that the AGN contribution to the evolution of the merger remnant and the formation of outflowing winds is signicant in the central 5 kpc of NGC 6240.

  6. Soft X-ray Emission from Large-Scale Galactic Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.; Veilleux, S.

    1998-01-01

    Kiloparsec-scale soft X-ray nebulae extend along the galaxy minor axes in several Seyfert galaxies, including NGC 2992, NGC 4388 and NGC 5506. In these three galaxies, the extended X-ray emission observed in ROSAT HRI images has 0.2-2.4 keV X-ray luminosities of 0.4-3.5 x 10(40) erg s(-1) . The X-ray nebulae are roughly co-spatial with the large-scale radio emission, suggesting that both are produced by large-scale galactic outflows. Assuming pressure balance between the radio and X-ray plasmas, the X-ray filling factor is >~ 10(4) times as large as the radio plasma filling factor, suggesting that large-scale outflows in Seyfert galaxies are predominantly winds of thermal X-ray emitting gas. We favor an interpretation in which large-scale outflows originate as AGN-driven jets that entrain and heat gas on kpc scales as they make their way out of the galaxy. AGN- and starburst-driven winds are also possible explanations if the winds are oriented along the rotation axis of the galaxy disk. Since large-scale outflows are present in at least 50 percent of Seyfert galaxies, the soft X-ray emission from the outflowing gas may, in many cases, explain the ``soft excess" X-ray feature observed below 2 keV in X-ray spectra of many Seyfert 2 galaxies.

  7. NGC2403: a flocculent galaxy with two principal centres of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.; Cepa, J.; Prieto, M.; Munoz Tunon, C.

    1987-01-01

    We have mapped the nearby flocculent spiral galaxy in the visible U, B and V bands, as well as in the near infrared J, H and K bands, with a linear resolution of 900 pc. The galaxy, which does not show marked spiral structure in visible photographs (Tammann and Sandage, 1968) nor in the 21 cm line of HI (Wevers, 1984) is found to have two principal current centres of large-scale star formation, signposted by centres of ultraviolet and blue flux. One is in the nucleus, defined by the geometrical centre of the HI emission, and the other at some 1.5 kpc radial distance away. The outer star-forming region is the more intense and the younger of the two, and corresponds to a local peak in the HI surface density. We use the colours of the star-forming regions and of the integrated galaxy to make a first order estimate of the stellar population distribution. (Author)

  8. High mass star formation to the extremes: NGC 3603 at high angular resolution in the near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberger, Dieter E A

    2008-01-01

    High angular resolution observations play a decisive role for our understanding of high mass star formation processes, both within our Galaxy and in extragalactic starburst regions. We take the Galactic starburst template NGC 3603 as paradigm and report here on high angular resolution JHK s L' observations of the enigmatic, highly reddened sources IRS 9A-C in the NGC 3603 region, which were performed with NACO at ESO's Very Large Telescope Yepun. These broad-band imaging data strongly support the classification of IRS 9A-C as high mass protostellar candidates. We also confirm unambiguously the membership of IRS 9A-C with the NGC 3603 region as gas and dust is seen to be stripped off from their circumstellar envelopes by strong stellar winds, originating from the high mass main sequence stars of the nearby OB cluster. The orientation of these gas and dust streamers coincides with that of a very faint, only marginally detected mini-pillar protruding from the adjacent molecular clump NGC 3603 MM 2. The L' data show extended envelopes around IRS 9A-C and reveal sub-structures therein which are indicative for non-spherically distributed material. It seems obvious that protostellar mass outflows are at work to clear cavities along the polar axes of the central protostar, and / or that circumstellar disks are taking shape.

  9. Stripped Elliptical Galaxies as Probes of ICM Physics. III. Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 4552: Measuring the Viscosity of the Intracluster Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, R. P.; Roediger, E.; Machacek, M.; Forman, W. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Jones, C.; Randall, S.; Su, Y. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching D-85741 (Germany); Sheardown, A., E-mail: rkraft@cfa.harvard.edu [E. A. Milne Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-10

    We present results from a deep (200 ks) Chandra observation of the early-type galaxy NGC 4552 (M89), which is falling into the Virgo cluster. Previous shallower X-ray observations of this galaxy showed a remnant gas core, a tail to the South of the galaxy, and twin “horns” attached to the northern edge of the gas core. In our deeper data, we detect a diffuse, low surface brightness extension to the previously known tail, and measure the temperature structure within the tail. We combine the deep Chandra data with archival XMM-Newton observations to put a strong upper limit on the diffuse emission of the tail out to a large distance (10× the radius of the remnant core) from the galaxy center. In our two previous papers, we presented the results of hydrodynamical simulations of ram pressure stripping specifically for M89 falling into the Virgo cluster and investigated the effect of intracluster medium (ICM) viscosity. In this paper, we compare our deep data with our specifically tailored simulations and conclude that the observed morphology of the stripped tail in NGC 4552 is most similar to the inviscid models. We conclude that, to the extent the transport processes can be simply modeled as a hydrodynamic viscosity, the ICM viscosity is negligible. More generally, any micro-scale description of the transport processes in the high- β plasma of the cluster ICM must be consistent with the efficient mixing observed in the stripped tail on macroscopic scales.

  10. ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, K.; Agrawal, V. K.; Rao, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy-time lag dependence of the source NGC 4593 using XMM-Newton/EPIC pn data. We found that the time lag dependency is linear in nature with respect to the logarithm of different energy bands. We also investigate the frequency-dependent time lags and identify that at some frequency range (5 x 10 -5 Hz to 2 x 10 -4 Hz) the X-ray emission is highly coherent, mildly frequency dependent, and very strongly energy dependent. These observations can be explained in the framework of the thermal Comptonization process, and they indicate a truncated accretion disk very close to the black hole. We discuss the plausible spectral state to explain the phenomenon and conclude that the observed properties bear a close resemblance to the intermediate state or the steep power-law state, found in galactic black hole sources.

  11. The discovery of an O VII emission line in the ASCA spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I. M.; Turner, T. J.; Netzer, H.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first observation of an O VII 0.57 keV emission line in a Seyfert 1 galaxy. NGC 3783 was observed by ASCA twice over a period of 4 days in 1993 December. The source exhibited a approximately 30% change in intensity between the two observations, with most of the variability taking place as a result of steepening of the continuum less than or approximately equal to 1 keV. Spectra from both observations show intense absorption features in the 0.5-1.5 keV band, which can be well fitted by an ionized absorber model of solar composition, column density of 10(exp 22.2)/sq cm and ionization parameter of approximately 7-8; the strongest absorption features being due to O VII and O VIII. Two emission features are also seen in the spectra which we identify as O VII 0.57 keV (equivalent width approximately equals 36 eV) and O VIII 0.65 keV (equivalent width approximately equals 11 eV). We also show that the 3-6 keV continuum of the source is well fitted by a Gamma = 1.3-1.4 power-law continuum, a narrow neutral iron K-shell fluorescence line and a strong iron K-shell absorption edge, possibly corresponding to highly ionized iron.

  12. A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF BLUE SUPERGIANT STARS IN THE SCULPTOR GALAXY NGC 55: CHEMICAL EVOLUTION AND DISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudritzki, R. P.; Ho, I.-T.; Bresolin, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Castro, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Urbaneja, M. A.; Przybilla, N. [Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25/8, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-10-01

    Low-resolution (4.5–5 Å) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities, and metallicities (from iron peak and α -elements). A metallicity gradient of −0.22 ± 0.06 dex/ R {sub 25} is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [ Z ] = −0.37 ± 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of column densities of the stellar and interstellar medium gas mass reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extraplanar metal-poor H ii regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above the galactic plane are ionized by massive stars formed in situ outside the disk. For a subsample of supergiants, for which Hubble Space Telescope photometry is available, the flux-weighted gravity–luminosity relationship is used to determine a distance modulus of 26.85 ± 0.10 mag.

  13. Diffuse X-ray emission from the NGC 2300 group of galaxies - Implications for dark matter and galaxy evolution in small groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Davis, David S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Burstein, David

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of diffuse X-ray emission from the NGC 2300 group of galaxies using the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter is reported. The gas distributions is roughly symmetric and extends to a radius of at least 0.2/h(50) Mpc. A Raymond-Smith hot plasma model provides an excellent fit the X-ray spectrum with a best-fit value temperature of 0.9 + -/15 or - 0.14 keV and abundance 0.06 + 0/.12 or - 0.05 solar. The assumption of gravitational confinement leads to a total mass of the group of 3.0 + 0.4 or - 0.5 x 10 exp 13 solar. Baryons can reasonably account for 4 percent of this mass, and errors could push this number not higher than 10-15 percent. This is one of the strongest pieces of evidence that dark matter dominates small groups such as this one. The intragroup medium in this system has the lowest metal abundance yet found in diffuse gas in a group or cluster.

  14. Deep imaging of the shell elliptical galaxy NGC3923 with MegaCam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Gwyn, S.; Ebrová, Ivana; Bartošková, Kateřina; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jílková, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 588, April (2016), A77/1-A77/12 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : elliptical and lenticular galaxies * peculiar * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  15. NGC 2770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöne, Christina C.; Michalowski, Michal; Leloudas, Giorgos

    2009-01-01

    2770 has a small irregular companion, NGC 2770B, which is highly star-forming, has a very low mass and one of the lowest metallicities detected in the nearby universe as derived from longslit spectroscopy. In the most metal poor part, we even detect Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, which is at odds with most...... and specifically the three SN sites to investigate whether this galaxy is in any way peculiar to cause a high frequency of SNe Ib. We model the global spectral energy distribution of the galaxy from broadband data and derive a star formation and SN rate comparable to the values of the Milky Way. We further study...... the galaxy using longslit spectroscopy covering the major axis and the three SN sites. From the spectroscopic study we find subsolar metallicities for the SN sites, a high extinction and a moderate star formation rate. In a high-resolution spectrum, we also detect diffuse interstellar bands in the line...

  16. Spitzer Observations of the X-ray Sources of NGC 4485/90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Gerardo A.; Colbert, E.; Hornschemeier, A.; Malhotra, S.; Roberts, T.; Ward, M.

    2006-06-01

    The mechanism for forming (or igniting) so-called Ultra-Luminous X- ray sources (ULXs) is very poorly understood. In order to investigate the stellar and gaseous environment of ULXs, we have observed the nearby starburst galaxy system NGC 4485/90 with Spitzer's IRAC and IRS instruments. High-quality mid-infrared images and spectra are used to characterize the stellar history of stars near the ULXs, and the ionization state of the surrounding gas. NGC 4485/90 fortuitively hosts six ULXs, and we have analyzed IRAC images and IRS spectra of all six regions. We also observed two "comparison" regions with no X-ray sources. Here we present our preliminary findings on the similarities and differences between the stellar and gaseous components near the ULXs.

  17. Structure of the Circumnuclear Region of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Revealed by RXTE Hard X-Ray Observations of NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, G.; Zycki, P.; Done, C.; Valinia, A.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Turek, B.

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4945 is one of the brightest Se.yfert galaxies on the sky at 100 keV, but is completely absorbed below 10 keV, implying an optical depth of the absorber to electron scattering of a few; its absorption column is probably the largest which still allows a direct view of the nucleus at hard X-ray energies. Our observations of it with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite confirm the large absorption, which for a simple phenomenological fit using an absorber with Solar abundances implies a column of 4.5(sup 0.4, sub -0.4) x 10(exp 24) /sq cm. Using a a more realistic scenario (requiring Monte Carlo modeling of the scattering), we infer the optical depth to Thomson scattering of approximately 2.4. If such a scattering medium were to subtend a large solid angle from the nucleus, it should smear out any intrinsic hard X-ray variability on time scales shorter than the light travel time through it. The rapid (with a time scale of approximately a day) hard X-ray variability of NGC 4945 we observed with the RXTE implies that the bulk of the extreme absorption in this object does not originate in a parsec-size, geometrically thick molecular torus. Limits on the amount of scattered flux require that the optically thick material on parsec scales must be rather geometrically thin, subtending a half-angle < 10 deg. This is only marginally consistent with the recent determinations of the obscuring column in hard X-rays, where only a quarter of Seyfert 2s have columns which are optically thick, and presents a problem in accounting for the Cosmic X-ray Background primarily with AGN possessing the geometry as that inferred by us. The small solid angle of the obscuring material, together with the black hole mass (of approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 6) solar mass) from megamaser measurements. allows a robust determination of the source luminosity, which in turn implies that the source radiates at approximately 10% of the Eddington limit.

  18. SUZAKU MONITORING OF THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 5548: WARM ABSORBER LOCATION AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR COSMIC FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krongold, Y.; Andrade-Velazquez, M.; Binette, L.; Jimenez-Bailon, E.; Elvis, M.; Nicastro, F.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Liu, Y.; Wilkes, B.; Mathur, S.; Reeves, J. N.; Grupe, D.; McHardy, I. M.; Minezaki, T.; Yoshii, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a 2 month Suzaku X-ray monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The campaign consists of seven observations (with exposure time of ∼30 ks each), separated by ∼1 week. This paper focus on the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer data of NGC 5548. We analyze the response in the opacity of the gas that forms the well-known ionized absorber in this source for ionizing flux variations. Despite variations by a factor of ∼4 in the impinging continuum, the soft X-ray spectra of the source show little spectral variations, suggesting no response from the ionized absorber. A detailed time modeling of the spectra confirms the lack of opacity variations for an absorbing component with high ionization (U X ∼ -0.85), and high outflow velocity (v out ∼ 1040 km s -1 ), as the ionization parameter was found to be consistent with a constant value during the whole campaign. Instead, the models suggest that the ionization parameter of a low ionization (U X ∼ -2.8), low velocity (v out ∼ 590 km s -1 ) absorbing component might be changing linearly with the ionizing flux, as expected for gas in photoionization equilibrium. However, given the lack of spectral variations among observations, we consider the variations in this component as tentative. Using the lack of variations, we set an upper limit of n e 7 cm -3 for the electron density of the gas forming the high ionization, high velocity component. This implies a large distance from the continuum source (R>0.033 pc; R>5000R S ). If the variations in the low ionization, low velocity component are real, they imply n e >9.8 x 10 4 cm -3 and R 1.2 x 10 56 erg) can be enough to disrupt the interstellar medium, possibly quenching or regulating large-scale star formation. However, the total mass and energy ejected by the wind may still be lower than the one required for cosmic feedback, even when extrapolated to quasar luminosities. Such feedback would require that we are observing the wind before it is fully accelerated.

  19. Extraplanar H II Regions in Spiral Galaxies. I. Low-metallicity Gas Accreting through the Disk-halo Interface of NGC 4013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Rueff, Katherine M.; Lehner, Nicolas; Wotta, Christopher B.; Croxall, Kevin; Savage, Blair D.

    2018-04-01

    The interstellar thick disks of galaxies serve as the interface between the thin star-forming disk, where feedback-driven outflows originate, and the distant halo, the repository for accreted gas. We present optical emission line spectroscopy of a luminous, thick disk H II region located at z = 860 pc above the plane of the spiral galaxy NGC 4013 taken with the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph on the Large Binocular Telescope. This nebula, with an Hα luminosity ∼4–7 times that of the Orion nebula, surrounds a luminous cluster of young, hot stars that ionize the surrounding interstellar gas of the thick disk, providing a measure of the properties of that gas. We demonstrate that strong emission line methods can provide accurate measures of relative abundances between pairs of H II regions. From our emission line spectroscopy, we show that the metal content of the thick disk H II region is a factor of ≈2 lower than gas in H II regions at the midplane of this galaxy (with the relative abundance of O in the thick disk lower by ‑0.32 ± 0.09 dex). This implies incomplete mixing of material in the thick disk on small scales (hundreds of parsecs) and that there is accretion of low-metallicity gas through the thick disks of spirals. The inclusion of low-metallicity gas this close to the plane of NGC 4013 is reminiscent of the recently proposed “fountain-driven” accretion models.

  20. THE BRIGHTEST YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN NGC 5253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts—Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Andrews, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Smith, L. J. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Whitmore, B. C.; Aloisi, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, H. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Thilker, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zackrisson, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mink, S. E. de [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chandar, R., E-mail: calzetti@astro.umass.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); and others

    2015-10-01

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a number of young, massive star clusters, the two youngest of which are centrally concentrated and surrounded by thermal radio emission (the “radio nebula”). To investigate the role of these clusters in the starburst energetics, we combine new and archival Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC 5253 with wavelength coverage from 1500 Å to 1.9 μm in 13 filters. These include Hα, Pβ, and Pα, and the imaging from the Hubble Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey). The extraordinarily well-sampled spectral energy distributions enable modeling with unprecedented accuracy the ages, masses, and extinctions of the nine optically brightest clusters (M{sub V} < −8.8) and the two young radio nebula clusters. The clusters have ages ∼1–15 Myr and masses ∼1 × 10{sup 4}–2.5 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The clusters’ spatial location and ages indicate that star formation has become more concentrated toward the radio nebula over the last ∼15 Myr. The most massive cluster is in the radio nebula; with a mass ∼2.5 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙} and an age ∼1 Myr, it is 2–4 times less massive and younger than previously estimated. It is within a dust cloud with A{sub V} ∼ 50 mag, and shows a clear near-IR excess, likely from hot dust. The second radio nebula cluster is also ∼1 Myr old, confirming the extreme youth of the starburst region. These two clusters account for about half of the ionizing photon rate in the radio nebula, and will eventually supply about 2/3 of the mechanical energy in present-day shocks. Additional sources are required to supply the remaining ionizing radiation, and may include very massive stars.

  1. Seeing Red in NGC 1978, NGC 55, and NGC 3109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2018-04-01

    Spectra of the intermediate-age star cluster NGC 1978 and the dwarf irregular galaxies NGC 55 and NGC 3109 are discussed. The spectra were recorded with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph on Gemini South and span the 0.7–1.1 μm wavelength interval. Five slit pointings were observed in NGC 1978, and these are used to examine stochastic effects on the integrated red light from an intermediate-age cluster. The removal of either the brightest M giant or the brightest C star from the co-added spectrum has minor effects on the equivalent withs of the Ca triplet. The most robust signature of C stars in the integrated cluster spectrum at these wavelengths is the CN band head near 7900 Å. The equivalent widths of Ca triplet lines in the NGC 1978 spectrum and in the spectra of individual cluster stars are larger than expected for a scaled-solar abundance system. It is suggested that these stars have a lower than expected surface gravity, which might occur if the stars in NGC 1978 have been subject to extra mixing processes, as suggested by Lederer et al. The near-infrared color profile of NGC 1978 is shown to contain a prominent red cusp in the central 10 arcsec, and the suppression of light from this cusp does not affect the depth of the Ca lines in the integrated spectrum. The NGC 55 spectra run parallel to the major axis, and a gradient is found in the strength of the Ca lines, in the sense that the Ca lines weaken with increasing distance from the disk plane. Comparisons with models suggest that the disk light is dominated by stars with ages 1–2 Gyr, in agreement with star-forming histories (SFHs) obtained from the analysis of color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The NGC 55 spectra also sample a large star-forming complex. The age of this complex inferred from comparisons with models is broadly consistent with that estimated from a near-infrared CMD of the same region. The CN band head at 7900 Å in this part of NGC 55 is detected, but this is likely a signature of

  2. An Archival Search For Young Globular Clusters in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1995-07-01

    One of the most intriguing results from HST has been the discovery of ultraluminous star clusters in interacting and merging galaxies. These clusters have the luminosities, colors, and sizes that would be expected of young globular clusters produced by the interaction. We propose to use the data in the HST Archive to determine how prevalent this phenomena is, and to determine whether similar clusters are produced in other environments. Three samples will be extracted and studied in a systematic and consistent manner: 1} interacting and merging galaxies, 2} starburst galaxies, 3} a control sample of ``normal'' galaxies. A preliminary search of the archives shows that there are at least 20 galaxies in each of these samples, and the number will grow by about 50 observations become available. The data will be used to determine the luminosity function, color histogram , spatial distribution, and structural properties of the clusters using the same techniques employed in our study of NGC 7252 {``Atoms -for-Peace'' galaxy} and NGC 4038/4039 {``The Antennae''}. Our ultimate goals are: 1} to understand how globular clusters form, and 2} to use the clusters as evolutionary tracers to unravel the histories of interacting galaxies.

  3. An interaction scenario of the galaxy pair NGC 3893/96 (KPG 302): A single passage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbasov, R. F.; Rosado, M. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM), A.P. 70-264,04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Klapp, J., E-mail: ruslan.gabb@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México (Mexico)

    2014-05-20

    Using the data obtained previously from Fabry-Perot interferometry, we study the orbital characteristics of the interacting pair of galaxies KPG 302 with the aim to estimate a possible interaction history, the conditions necessary for the spiral arm formation, and initial satellite mass. We found by performing N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the interaction that a single passage can produce a grand design spiral pattern in less than 1 Gyr. Although we reproduce most of the features with the single passage, the required satellite to host mass ratio should be ∼1:5, which is not confirmed by the dynamical mass estimate made from the measured rotation curve. We conclude that a more realistic interaction scenario would require several passages in order to explain the mass ratio discrepancy.

  4. Lots of Small Stars Born in Starburst Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Decisive Study of NGC 3603 with the VLT and ISAAC An international group of astronomers [1] has used the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal (Chile) to perform unique observations of an interstellar nebula in which stars are currently being born. Thanks to the excellent imaging properties of the first of the four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, ANTU, they were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of large numbers of small and relatively light, new-born stars in NGC 3603, a well-known "starburst" region in the Milky Way Galaxy . Until now, it has only been possible to observe brighter and much heavier stars in such nebulae. The new observations show that stars of all masses are being born together in the same starburst event, a fundamental result for our understanding of the very complex process of star formation. Background of the project The present research programme was granted observing time with VLT ANTU in April 1999. Its general aim is to investigate collective, massive star formation, in particular the coalescence of high- and low-mass stars in the violent environments of starburst regions . These are areas in which the processes that lead to the birth of new stars are particularly active just now. Several fundamental questions arise in this context. A very basic one is whether low-mass stars form at all in such environments. And if so, do they form together with the most massive stars in a starburst event or do they form at different times, before or after or perhaps on different timescales? Are low-mass stars born with any "preferred" mass that may possibly give further clues to the ongoing processes? All of this is most important in order to understand the detailed mechanisms of star formation. Most current theoretical scenarios explain how single stars form in an isolated, contracting gas cloud, but most stars in the Universe did not form in that simple way. Once some massive stars have formed in some place and start to shine, they

  5. Joint XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the NGC 1407/1400 complex: A tail of an early-type galaxy and a tale of a nearby merging group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuanyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gu, Liyi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); White III, Raymond E.; Irwin, Jimmy, E-mail: yuanyuas@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    The nearby group centered on its bright central galaxy NGC 1407 has been suggested by previous kinematic studies to be an unusually dark system. It is also known for hosting a bright galaxy, NGC 1400, with a large radial velocity (1200 km s{sup –1}) with respect to the group center. Previous ROSAT X-ray observations revealed an extended region of enhanced surface brightness just eastward of NGC 1400. We investigate the NGC 1407/1400 complex with XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We find that the temperature and metallicity of the enhanced region are different (cooler and more metal rich) than those of the surrounding group gas but are consistent with those of the interstellar medium (ISM) in NGC 1400. The relative velocity of NGC 1400 is large enough that much of its ISM could have been ram pressure stripped while plunging through the group atmosphere. We conclude that the enhanced region is likely to be hot gas stripped from the ISM of NGC 1400. We constrain the motion of NGC 1400 using the pressure jump at its associated stagnation front and the total mass profile of the NGC 1407 group. We conclude that NGC 1400 is moving within ∼30° of the line of sight with Mach number M≲3. We do not detect any obvious shock features in this complex, perhaps because of the high line-of-sight motion of NGC 1400. With an XMM-Newton pointing on the relatively relaxed eastern side of NGC 1407, we derive a hydrostatic mass for this group of ∼1 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} within 100 kpc. The total mass extrapolated to the virial radius (681 kpc) is 3.8 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, which puts an upper limit of ∼300 M{sub ⊙}/L{sub B{sub ⊙}} on the mass-to-light ratio of this group. This suggests that the NGC 1407 group is not an unusually dark group.

  6. XMM-Newton Observations of NGC 253: Resolving the Emission Components in the Disk and Nuclear Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Borozdin, K. N.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Cappi, M.; Ehle, M.; Ferrando, P.; Freyberg, M. J.; Kahn, S. M.; Ponman, T. J.; Ptak, A.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the first XMM-Newton observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. As known from previous X-ray observations, NGC 253 shows a mixture of extended (disk and halo) and point-source emission. The high XMM-Newton throughput allows for the first time a detailed investigation of the spatial, spectral and variability properties of these components simultaneously. We detect a bright X-ray transient approx. 70 sec SSW of the nucleus and show the spectrum and light curve of the brightest point source (approx. 30 sec S of the nucleus, most likely a black-hole X-ray binary, BHXRB). The unprecedented combination of RGS and EPIC also sheds new light on the emission of the complex nuclear region, the X-ray plume and the disk diffuse emission. In particular, EPIC images reveal that the limb-brightening of the plume is mostly seen in higher ionization emission lines, while in the lower ionization lines, and below 0.5 keV, the plume is more homo- geneously structured, pointing to new interpretations as to the make up of the starburst-driven outflow. Assuming that type IIa supernova remnants (SNRs) are mostly responsible for the E greater than 4 keV emission, the detection with EPIC of the 6.7 keV line allows us to estimate a supernova rate within the nuclear starburst of 0.2 /yr.

  7. Radiative and mechanical feedback into the molecular gas of NGC 253

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kazandjian, M. V.; van der Werf, P. P.; Israel, F. P.; Meijerink, R.; Weiß, A.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Güsten, R.

    Starburst galaxies are galaxies or regions of galaxies undergoing intense periods of star formation. Understanding the heating and cooling mechanisms in these galaxies can give us insight to the driving mechanisms that fuel the starburst. Molecular emission lines play a crucial role in the cooling

  8. Central regions of LIRGs: rings, hidden starbursts, Supernovae and star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Väisänen, Petri; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Escala, Andres; Kankare, Erkki; Mattila, Seppo; Reunanen, Juha; Kotilainen, Jari; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Ryder, Stuart; Zijlstra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We study star formation (SF) in very active environments, in luminous IR galaxies, which are often interacting. A variety of phenomena are detected, such as central starbursts, circumnuclear SF, obscured SNe tracing the history of recent SF, massive super star clusters, and sites of strong off-nuclear SF. All of these can be ultimately used to define the sequence of triggering and propagation of star-formation and interplay with nuclear activity in the lives of gas rich galaxy interactions and mergers. In this paper we present analysis of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of central regions of two interacting LIRGs. We detect a nuclear 3.3 μm PAH ring around the core of NGC 1614 with thermal-IR IFU observations. The ring's characteristics and relation to the strong star-forming ring detected in recombination lines are presented, as well as a scenario of an outward expanding starburst likely initiated with a (minor) companion detected within a tidal feature. We then present NIR IFU observations of IRAS 19115-2124, aka the Bird, which is an intriguing triple encounter. The third component is a minor one, but, nevertheless, is the source of 3/4 of the SFR of the whole system. Gas inflows and outflows are detected in their nuclei locations. Finally, we briefly report on our on-going NIR adaptive optics imaging survey of several dozen LIRGs. We have detected highly obscured core-collapse SNe in the central kpc, and discuss the statistics of 'missing SNe' due to dust extinction. We are also determining the characteristics of hundreds of super star clusters in and around the core regions of LIRGs, as a function of host-galaxy properties.

  9. High-energy emission from star-forming galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Rephaeli, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the convection-diffusion model for energetic electron and proton propagation, and accounting for al lthe relevant hadronic and leptonic processes, the steady-state energy distributions of these particles in the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253 can be determined with a detailed numerical treatment. The electron distribution is directly normalized by the measured synchrotron radioemission from the central starburst region; a commonly expected theoretical relationis then used to normalize the proton spectrum in thisr egion, and a radial profile is assumed for the magnetic field. The resulting radiative yields of electrons and protons are calculated: thepredicted > 100MeV and > 100GeV fluxes are in agreement with the corresponding quantities measured with the orbiting Fermite lescope and the ground-based VERITAS and HESS Cherenkov telescopes. The cosmic-rayenergy densities in central regions of starburst galaxies, as inferred from the radioand γ-ray measurements of (respectively) non-thermal synchrotron and π 0 -decay emission, are U p = O(100)eVcm -3 , i.e. at least an order of magnitude larger than near the Galactic center and in other non-very-actively star-forming galaxies. These very different energy density levelsr eflect a similar disparity in the respective supernova rates in the two environments. A L γ proper to SFR 1.4 relationship is then predicted, in agreement with preliminary observational evidence.

  10. Geometrical evidence for dark matter: X-ray constraints on the mass of the elliptical galaxy NGC 720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1994-01-01

    We describe (1) a new test for dark matter and alternate theories of gravitation based on the relative geometries of the X-ray and optical surface brightness distributions and an assumed form for the potential, of the optical light, (2) a technique to measure the shapes of the total gravitating matter and dark matter of an ellipsoidal system which is insensitive to the precise value of the temperature of the gas and to modest temperature gradients, and (3) a new method to determine the ratio of dark mass to stellar mass that is dependent on the functional forms for the visible star, gas and dark matter distributions, but independent of the distance to the galaxy or the gas temperature. We apply these techniques to X-ray data from the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of the optically flattened elliptical galaxy NGC 720; the optical isophotes have ellipticity epsilon approximately 0.40 extending out to approximately 120 sec. The X-ray isophotes are significantly elongated, epsilon = 0.20-0.30 for semimajor axis a approximately 100 sec. The major axes of the optical and X-ray isophotes are misaligned by approximately 30 deg +/- 15 deg. Spectral analysis of the X-ray data reveals no evidence of temperature gradients or anisotropies and demonstrates that a single-temperature plasma (T approximately 0.6 keV) having subsolar heavy element abundances and a two-temperature model having solar abundances describe the spectrum equally well. Considering only the relative geometries of the X-ray and optical surface brightness distributions and an assumed functional form for the potential of the optical light, we conclude that matter distributed like the optical light cannot produce the observed ellipticities of the X-ray isophotes, independent of the gas pressure, the gas temperature, and the value of the stellar mass; this comparison assumes a state of quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium so that the three-dimensional surfaces of the gas emissivity trace the three

  11. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. III. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001-Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We map the spatial distribution of recent star formation over a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Myr timescales in 15 starburst dwarf galaxies using the location of young blue helium burning stars identified from optically resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. By comparing the star formation histories from both the high surface brightness central regions and the diffuse outer regions, we measure the degree to which the star formation has been centrally concentrated during the galaxies' starbursts, using three different metrics for the spatial concentration. We find that the galaxies span a full range in spatial concentration, from highly centralized to broadly distributed star formation. Since most starbursts have historically been identified by relatively short timescale star formation tracers (e.g., H{alpha} emission), there could be a strong bias toward classifying only those galaxies with recent, centralized star formation as starbursts, while missing starbursts that are spatially distributed.

  12. Isotopologues of dense gas tracers in NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junzhi; Qiu, Jianjie [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, 200030, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Shi, Yong [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Zhang, Jiangshui [Center For Astrophysics, GuangZhou University, 510006, GuangZhou (China); Fang, Min, E-mail: jzwang@shao.ac.cn [ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munich (Germany)

    2014-11-20

    We present observations of isotopic lines of dense gas tracers toward the nuclear region of nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with the IRAM 30 m telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) 12 m telescope. We detected four isotopic lines (H{sup 13}CN 1-0, H{sup 13}CO{sup +} 1-0, HN{sup 13}C 1-0, and HC{sup 18}O{sup +} 1-0) at the 3 mm band with the IRAM 30 m telescope and obtained upper limits of other lines. We calculated optical depths of dense gas tracers with the detected isotopic lines of HCN 1-0, HCO{sup +} 1-0, and HNC 1-0. We find that the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N abundance ratio is greater than 420 if we adopt the upper limit of HC{sup 15}N(1-0) emission. Combining this with fluxes of 1-0 lines from IRAM 30 m observations and the upper limit of 3-2 lines from APEX 12 m observations, we also estimated the excitation condition of molecular gas in the nuclear region of NGC 1068, which is less dense than that in the extreme starburst regions of galaxies.

  13. The X-ray Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4945: Analysis and Application of the Method of Light Curve Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Martin; /SLAC

    2010-12-16

    The study of the power density spectrum (PDS) of fluctuations in the X-ray flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN) complements spectral studies in giving us a view into the processes operating in accreting compact objects. An important line of investigation is the comparison of the PDS from AGN with those from galactic black hole binaries; a related area of focus is the scaling relation between time scales for the variability and the black hole mass. The PDS of AGN is traditionally modeled using segments of power laws joined together at so-called break frequencies; associations of the break time scales, i.e., the inverses of the break frequencies, with time scales of physical processes thought to operate in these sources are then sought. I analyze the Method of Light Curve Simulations that is commonly used to characterize the PDS in AGN with a view to making the method as sensitive as possible to the shape of the PDS. I identify several weaknesses in the current implementation of the method and propose alternatives that can substitute for some of the key steps in the method. I focus on the complications introduced by uneven sampling in the light curve, the development of a fit statistic that is better matched to the distributions of power in the PDS, and the statistical evaluation of the fit between the observed data and the model for the PDS. Using archival data on one AGN, NGC 3516, I validate my changes against previously reported results. I also report new results on the PDS in NGC 4945, a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a well-determined black hole mass. This source provides an opportunity to investigate whether the PDS of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies differ. It is also an attractive object for placement on the black hole mass-break time scale relation. Unfortunately, with the available data on NGC 4945, significant uncertainties on the break frequency in its PDS remain.

  14. Starburst to Quiescent from HST/ALMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Guijarro, C.; Toft, S.; Karim, A.

    2018-01-01

    Dust-enshrouded, starbursting, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z ≥ 3 have been proposed as progenitors of z ≥ 2 compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs). To test this connection, we present a detailed spatially resolved study of the stars, dust, and stellar mass in a sample of six submillimeter...... (β) maps with the FIR dust continuum to study the infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV)–β relation. The SMGs display systematically higher IRX values than expected from the nominal trend, demonstrating that the FIR and UV emissions are spatially disconnected. Finally, we show that the SMGs fall...... on the mass–size plane at smaller stellar masses and sizes than the cQGs at z = 2. Taking into account the expected evolution in stellar mass and size between z = 4.5 and z = 2 due to the ongoing starburst and mergers with minor companions, this is in agreement with a direct evolutionary connection between...

  15. A search for extragalactic pulsars in the local group galaxies IC 10 and Barnard’s galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Noori, H; Roberts, M S E; Champion, D; McLaughlin, M; Ransom, Scott; Ray, P S

    2017-01-01

    As of today, more than 2500 pulsars have been found, nearly all in the Milky Way, with the exception of ∼28 pulsars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. However, there have been few published attempts to search for pulsars deeper in our Galactic neighborhood. Two of the more promising Local Group galaxies are IC 10 and NGC 6822 (also known as Barnard’s Galaxy) due to their relatively high star formation rate and their proximity to our galaxy. IC 10 in particular, holds promise as it is the closest starburst galaxy to us and harbors an unusually high number of Wolf-Rayet stars, implying the presence of many neutron stars. We observed IC 10 and NGC 6822 at 820 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope for ∼15 and 5 hours respectively, and put a strong upper limit of 0.1 mJy on pulsars in either of the two galaxies. We also performed single pulse searches of both galaxies with no firm detections. (paper)

  16. CO mapping of the nuclear region of NGC 6946 and IC 342 with Nobeyama millimeter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuki, Sumio; Kawabe, Ryohei; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Ishiguro, Masato

    1990-01-01

    CO observations of nearby galaxies with nuclear active star forming regions (and starburst galaxies) with angular resolutions around 7 seconds revealed that molecular bars with a length of a few kiloparsecs have been formed in the central regions of the galaxies. The molecular bar is interpreted as part of shock waves induced by an oval or barred potential field. By shock dissipation or dissipative cloud-cloud collisions, the molecular gas gains an infall motion and the nuclear star formation activity is fueled. But the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the nuclear regions, which are sites of active star formation, remain unknown. Higher angular resolutions are needed to investigate the gas in the nuclear regions. Researchers made aperture synthesis observations of the nuclear region of the late-type spiral galaxies NGC 6946 and IC 342 with resolutions of 7.6 seconds x 4.2 seconds (P.A. = 147 deg) and 2.4 seconds x 2.3 seconds (P.A. = 149 deg), respectively. The distances to NGC 6496 and IC 342 are assumed to be 5.5 Mpc and 3.9 Mpc, respectively. Researchers have found 100-300 pc nuclear gas disk and ring inside a few kpc molecular gas bars. Researchers present the results of the observations and propose a possible mechanism of active star formation in the nuclear region.

  17. On the Relationship between Star Formation and Activity in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Delgado, Rosa M.

    1995-11-01

    This thesis is made of three main parts. In the first one a sample of 55 galaxies with an active nucleus (Seyfert 1, Seyfert2 and LINERs) is analysed; these were observed with the 4.2m WHT and 1m JKT in CCD narrow band H-alpha +[NII] and [OIII] to map the distribution of HII regions and the morphology of the circumnuclear extended emission associated with the active nucleus. The analysis of the extended emission and HII regions is carried out, as a function of the level of activity and of the Hubble type. One third of the sample shows circumnuclear HII regions, but only 9% of these are S1. The number surface density of the star forming sites and the location of the brightest HII region, indicates that in S2 the star formation is more important in the inner disk; however, in S1 the distribution of the star forming sites is more uniform with distance, and the brighest HII regions are farther away from the nucleus than in S2. The luminosity function, size distribution, the relationship between the Ha flux and the size, the emission measure, and the radial distribution of the HII regions in 27 out of the 55 galaxies of the sample are studied. This comprises a statistical analysis of more than 2000 HII regions. In the second part of this thesis the giant extragalactic HII region NGC 2363 and the starburst galaxy NGC 7714 are studied; they were observed in narrow band CCD H-alpha image with the JKT and spectroscopically from 3700 to 9600 A with the WHT. Both objects are experiencing intense star formation activity. Evidence of this comes from the detection of WC and WN emission features in NGC 2363 and in NGC 7714 respectively; this suggests an age of the present burst between 3 and 5 Myr. However, evidence for the existence of a previous burst in NGC 7714 comes from the detection of the infrared CaII triplet in absorption. The physical conditions and chemical composition of the gas are derived. In both cases, the metallicity is low (12+log O/H=7.89 for NGC 2363) and

  18. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUBMILLIMETER DENSE MOLECULAR GAS TRACERS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE-1 ACTIVE NUCLEUS OF NGC 7469

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Ikarashi, Soh; Aalto, Susanne; Doi, Akihiro; Espada, Daniel; Fathi, Kambiz; Harada, Nanase; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Matsushita, Satoki; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hattori, Takashi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iono, Daisuke; Ishizuki, Sumio; Nagai, Hiroshi; Krips, Melanie; Martín, Sergio; Meier, David S.; Nakai, Naomasa

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 1 observations of the central kiloparsec region of the luminous type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 with unprecedented high resolution (0.″5 ×0.″4 = 165 × 132 pc) at submillimeter wavelengths. Utilizing the wide bandwidth of ALMA, we simultaneously obtained HCN(4–3), HCO + (4–3), CS(7–6), and partially CO(3–2) line maps, as well as the 860 μm continuum. The region consists of the central ∼1″ component and the surrounding starburst ring with a radius of ∼1.″5–2.″5. Several structures connect these components. Except for CO(3–2), these dense gas tracers are significantly concentrated toward the central ∼1″, suggesting their suitability to probe the nuclear regions of galaxies. Their spatial distribution resembles well those of centimeter and mid-infrared continuum emissions, but it is anticorrelated with the optical one, indicating the existence of dust-obscured star formation. The integrated intensity ratios of HCN(4–3)/HCO + (4–3) and HCN(4–3)/CS(7–6) are higher at the active galactic nucleus (AGN) position than at the starburst ring, which is consistent with our previous findings (submillimeter-HCN enhancement). However, the HCN(4–3)/HCO + (4–3) ratio at the AGN position of NGC 7469 (1.11 ± 0.06) is almost half of the corresponding value of the low-luminosity type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 (2.0 ± 0.2), despite the more than two orders of magnitude higher X-ray luminosity of NGC 7469. But the ratio is comparable to that of the close vicinity of the AGN of NGC 1068 (∼1.5). Based on these results, we speculate that some heating mechanisms other than X-ray (e.g., mechanical heating due to an AGN jet) can contribute significantly for shaping the chemical composition in NGC 1097

  19. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUBMILLIMETER DENSE MOLECULAR GAS TRACERS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE-1 ACTIVE NUCLEUS OF NGC 7469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Ikarashi, Soh [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aalto, Susanne [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, SE-439 94 Onsala (Sweden); Doi, Akihiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Espada, Daniel [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova, 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Fathi, Kambiz [Stockholm Observatory, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Harada, Nanase; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Matsushita, Satoki [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hattori, Takashi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iono, Daisuke; Ishizuki, Sumio; Nagai, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Krips, Melanie; Martín, Sergio [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 St. Martin d’Hères (France); Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Soccoro, NM 87801 (United States); Nakai, Naomasa, E-mail: takumaizumi@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Ten-nodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); and others

    2015-09-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 1 observations of the central kiloparsec region of the luminous type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 with unprecedented high resolution (0.″5 ×0.″4 = 165 × 132 pc) at submillimeter wavelengths. Utilizing the wide bandwidth of ALMA, we simultaneously obtained HCN(4–3), HCO{sup +}(4–3), CS(7–6), and partially CO(3–2) line maps, as well as the 860 μm continuum. The region consists of the central ∼1″ component and the surrounding starburst ring with a radius of ∼1.″5–2.″5. Several structures connect these components. Except for CO(3–2), these dense gas tracers are significantly concentrated toward the central ∼1″, suggesting their suitability to probe the nuclear regions of galaxies. Their spatial distribution resembles well those of centimeter and mid-infrared continuum emissions, but it is anticorrelated with the optical one, indicating the existence of dust-obscured star formation. The integrated intensity ratios of HCN(4–3)/HCO{sup +}(4–3) and HCN(4–3)/CS(7–6) are higher at the active galactic nucleus (AGN) position than at the starburst ring, which is consistent with our previous findings (submillimeter-HCN enhancement). However, the HCN(4–3)/HCO{sup +}(4–3) ratio at the AGN position of NGC 7469 (1.11 ± 0.06) is almost half of the corresponding value of the low-luminosity type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 (2.0 ± 0.2), despite the more than two orders of magnitude higher X-ray luminosity of NGC 7469. But the ratio is comparable to that of the close vicinity of the AGN of NGC 1068 (∼1.5). Based on these results, we speculate that some heating mechanisms other than X-ray (e.g., mechanical heating due to an AGN jet) can contribute significantly for shaping the chemical composition in NGC 1097.

  20. The size of the narrow-line-emitting region in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 from emission-line variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, B. M.; Denney, K. D.; De Rosa, G.; Grier, C. J.; Pogge, R. W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bentz, M. C.; Vestergaard, M.; Kilerci-Eser, E.; G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3 I-35122, Padova (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3 I-35122, Padova (Italy))" >Dalla Bontà, E.; G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3 I-35122, Padova (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3 I-35122, Padova (Italy))" >Ciroi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The narrow [O III] λλ4959, 5007 emission-line fluxes in the spectrum of the well-studied Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 are shown to vary with time. From this we show that the narrow-line-emitting region has a radius of only 1-3 pc and is denser (n e ∼ 10 5 cm –3 ) than previously supposed. The [O III] line width is consistent with virial motions at this radius given previous determinations of the black hole mass. Since the [O III] emission-line flux is usually assumed to be constant and is therefore used to calibrate spectroscopic monitoring data, the variability has ramifications for the long-term secular variations of continuum and emission-line fluxes, though it has no effect on shorter-term reverberation studies. We present corrected optical continuum and broad Hβ emission-line light curves for the period 1988-2008.

  1. The size of the narrow-line-emitting region in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 from emission-line variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. M.; Denney, K. D.; De Rosa, G.; Grier, C. J.; Pogge, R. W.; Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 610, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Vestergaard, M.; Kilerci-Eser, E. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dalla Bontà, E.; Ciroi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " G. Galilei," Università di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3 I-35122, Padova (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    The narrow [O III] λλ4959, 5007 emission-line fluxes in the spectrum of the well-studied Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 are shown to vary with time. From this we show that the narrow-line-emitting region has a radius of only 1-3 pc and is denser (n {sub e} ∼ 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) than previously supposed. The [O III] line width is consistent with virial motions at this radius given previous determinations of the black hole mass. Since the [O III] emission-line flux is usually assumed to be constant and is therefore used to calibrate spectroscopic monitoring data, the variability has ramifications for the long-term secular variations of continuum and emission-line fluxes, though it has no effect on shorter-term reverberation studies. We present corrected optical continuum and broad Hβ emission-line light curves for the period 1988-2008.

  2. Cepheids in external galaxies. I. The maser-host galaxy NGC 4258 and the metallicity dependence of period-luminosity and period-Wesenheit relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bono, G.; Caputo, F.; Fiorentino, G.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.

    2008-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of Cepheids in NGC4258, the Magellanic Clouds, and Milky Way in order to verify the reliability of the theoretical scenario based on a large set of nonlinear convective pulsation models. We derive Wesenheit functions from the synthetic BVI magnitudes of the pulsators,

  3. A Chandra Observation of the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 19254-7245 (The Superantennae): X-Ray Emission from the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and the Diffuse Starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a Chandra observation of IRAS 19254-7245, a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy also known as the Superantennae. The high spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to disentangle for the first time the diffuse starburst (SB) emission from the embedded Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the southern nucleus. No AGN activity is detected in the northern nucleus. The 2-10 keV spectrum of the AGN emission is fitted by a flat power law (TAU = 1.3) and an He-like Fe Kalpha line with equivalent width 1.5 keV, consistent with previous observations. The Fe K line profile could be resolved as a blend of a neutral 6.4 keV line and an ionized 6.7 keV (He-like) or 6.9 keV (H-like) line. Variability of the neutral line is detected compared with the previous XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations, demonstrating the compact size of the iron line emission. The spectrum of the galaxy-scale extended emission excluding the AGN and other bright point sources is fitted with a thermal component with a best-fit kT of approximately 0.8 keV. The 2-10 keV luminosity of the extended emission is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the AGN. The basic physical and structural properties of the extended emission are fully consistent with a galactic wind being driven by the SB. A candidate ultraluminous X-ray source is detected 8 south of the southern nucleus. The 0.3 - 10 keV luminosity of this off-nuclear point source is approximately 6 x 10(exp 40) erg per second if the emission is isotropic and the source is associated with the Superantennae.

  4. A GMOS-N IFU study of the central H II region in the blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 4449: kinematics, nebular metallicity and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nimisha; James, Bethan L.; Irwin, Mike J.

    2017-10-01

    We use integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph North (GMOS-N) to study the central H II region in a nearby blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 4449. The IFS data enable us to explore the variation of physical and chemical conditions of the star-forming region and the surrounding gas on spatial scales as small as 5.5 pc. Our kinematical analysis shows possible signatures of shock ionization and shell structures in the surroundings of the star-forming region. The metallicity maps of the region, created using direct Te and indirect strong line methods (R23, O3N2 and N2), do not show any chemical variation. From the integrated spectrum of the central H II region, we find a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.88 ± 0.14 ({˜ }0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.04} Z⊙) using the direct method. Comparing the central H II region metallicity derived here with those of H II regions throughout this galaxy from previous studies, we find evidence of increasing metallicity with distance from the central nucleus. Such chemical inhomogeneities can be due to several mechanisms, including gas loss via supernova blowout, galactic winds or metal-poor gas accretion. However, we find that the localized area of decreased metallicity aligns spatially with the peak of star-forming activity in the galaxy, suggesting that gas accretion may be at play here. Spatially resolved IFS data for the entire galaxy are required to confirm the metallicity inhomogeneity found in this study and determine its possible cause.

  5. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of the starburst core of M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.F.; Gaffney, N.; Carr, J.S.; Joy, M.

    1990-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy of the M82 starburst core is presented, including complete J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of 0.0035-micron for the inner 60 pc of the galaxy. Also, spatial profiles along the starburst ridge are presented for Br-gamma, molecular hydrogen, and forbidden Fe II line fluxes. Emission from shocked molecular hydrogen is detected from the core of M82. The distribution of features across the starburst disk are mapped to study the relationships between spectral diagnostics. The observations are used to test the appropriateness of single-beam, aggregate models for studying the physical conditions in starbursts. 68 refs

  6. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of the starburst core of M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D. F.; Gaffney, N.; Carr, J. S.; Joy, M.

    1990-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy of the M82 starburst core is presented, including complete J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of 0.0035-micron for the inner 60 pc of the galaxy. Also, spatial profiles along the starburst ridge are presented for Br-gamma, molecular hydrogen, and forbidden Fe II line fluxes. Emission from shocked molecular hydrogen is detected from the core of M82. The distribution of features across the starburst disk are mapped to study the relationships between spectral diagnostics. The observations are used to test the appropriateness of single-beam, aggregate models for studying the physical conditions in starbursts.

  7. Two separate outflows in the dual supermassive black hole system NGC 6240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F; Nevin, R; Comerford, J M; Davies, R I; Privon, G C; Treister, E

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical models and numerical simulations have established a framework of galaxy evolution in which galaxies merge and create dual supermassive black holes (with separations of one to ten kiloparsecs), which eventually sink into the centre of the merger remnant, emit gravitational waves and coalesce. The merger also triggers star formation and supermassive black hole growth, and gas outflows regulate the stellar content 1-3 . Although this theoretical picture is supported by recent observations of starburst-driven and supermassive black hole-driven outflows 4-6 , it remains unclear how these outflows interact with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the relative contributions of star formation and black hole activity to galactic feedback remain unknown 7-9 . Here we report observations of dual outflows in the central region of the prototypical merger NGC 6240. We find a black-hole-driven outflow of [O III] to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of Hα to the northwest. The orientations and positions of the outflows allow us to isolate them spatially and study their properties independently. We estimate mass outflow rates of 10 and 75 solar masses per year for the Hα bubble and the [O III] cone, respectively. Their combined mass outflow is comparable to the star formation rate 10 , suggesting that negative feedback on star formation is occurring.

  8. The fate of the Antennae galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahén, Natalia; Johansson, Peter H.; Rantala, Antti; Naab, Thorsten; Frigo, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    We present a high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) and follow the evolution 3 Gyr beyond the final coalescence. The simulation includes metallicity-dependent cooling, star formation, and both stellar feedback and chemical enrichment. The simulated best-match Antennae reproduce well both the observed morphology and the off-nuclear starburst. We also produce for the first time a simulated two-dimensional (2D) metallicity map of the Antennae and find good agreement with the observed metallicity of off-nuclear stellar clusters; however, the nuclear metallicities are overproduced by ˜0.5 dex. Using the radiative transfer code SKIRT, we produce multiwavelength observations of both the Antennae and the merger remnant. The 1-Gyr-old remnant is well fitted with a Sérsic profile of n = 7.07, and with an r-band effective radius of re = 1.6 kpc and velocity dispersion of σe = 180 km s-1 the remnant is located on the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies (ETGs). The initially blue Antennae remnant evolves on to the red sequence after ˜2.5 Gyr of secular evolution. The remnant would be classified as a fast rotator, as the specific angular momentum evolves from λRe ≈ 0.11 to 0.14 during its evolution. The remnant shows ordered rotation and a double peaked maximum in the mean 2D line-of-sight velocity. These kinematical features are relatively common amongst local ETGs and we specifically identify three local ETGs (NGC 3226, NGC 3379, and NGC 4494) in the atlas3D sample, whose photometric and kinematic properties most resemble the Antennae remnant.

  9. HST Observations of NGC 7252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad; Schweizer, Francois; Leitherer, Claus; Borne, Kirk; Robert, Carmelle

    1993-05-01

    A population of about 40 blue pointlike objects has been discovered in NGC 7252 using the Planetary Camera on board of the Hubble Space Telescope. NGC 7252 (sometimes referred to as the ``Atoms-for-Peace'' galaxy) is one of the prototypical examples of a merger between two disk galaxies. Schweizer (1982: ApJ, 252, 455) has argued that the remnant will eventually become an elliptical galaxy. The luminosities, V-I colors, spatial distribution, and sizes are all compatible with the hypothesis that these objects formed <= 1 Gyr ago during the original merger, and that they are the progenitors of globular clusters similar to those we see around galaxies today. It therefore appears that the number of globular clusters is not a conserved quantity during the merger of two spiral galaxies, but increases instead. This weakens van den Bergh's objection against ellipticals being formed through disk mergers, based mainly on the fact that disk galaxies have fewer globular clusters per unit luminosity than ellipticals galaxies do. The objects found in NGC 7252 are very similar to the pointlike sources recently discovered in NGC 1275 by Holtzman et al. (1992: AJ, 103, 691). However, NGC 1275 is a peculiar galaxy in the center of the Perseus cluster. While Holtzman et al. argue that the objects in NGC 1275 may be the progenitors of globular clusters, Richer et al. (1993: AJ, 105, 877) suggest that these objects may instead be related to the strong cooling flow in the cluster. Our discovery of a population of bright blue pointlike objects in NGC 7252, a prototypical merger, makes a much stronger connection between the formation of globular clusters and the merger history of a galaxy. Other findings are: (1) NGC 7252 has a single, semi-stellar nucleus; (2) spiral arms are seen within 3.5'' (1.6 kpc) of the center, presumably formed through the continued infall of gas into a disk around the center of the galaxy; (3) dust lanes and very weak spiral structure are seen out to about 9

  10. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  11. CHANDRA observations of the NGC 1550 galaxy group: Implication for the temperature and entropy profiles of 1 keV galaxy groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, M.; Forman, W.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2003-01-01

    is remarkably similar to those of two other 1 keV groups with accurate temperature determination. The temperature begins to decline at 0.07r(vir) - 0.1r(vir), while in hot clusters the decline begins at or beyond 0.2rvir. Thus, there are at least some 1 keV groups that have temperature profiles significantly...... different from those of hot clusters, which may reflect the role of nongravitational processes in intracluster medium/intergalactic medium evolution. NGC 1550 has no isentropic core in its entropy pro. le, in contrast to the predictions of "entropy floor'' simulations. We compare the scaled entropy profiles...

  12. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  13. Formation of stars and star clusters in colliding galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Mergers are known to be essential in the formation of large-scale structures and to have a significant role in the history of galaxy formation and evolution. Besides a morphological transformation, mergers induce important bursts of star formation. These starburst are characterised by high Star Formation Efficiencies (SFEs) and Specific Star Formation Rates, i.e., high Star Formation Rates (SFR) per unit of gas mass and high SFR per unit of stellar mass, respectively, compared to spiral galaxies. At all redshifts, starburst galaxies are outliers of the sequence of star-forming galaxies defined by spiral galaxies. We have investigated the origin of the starburst-mode of star formation, in three local interacting systems: Arp 245, Arp 105 and NGC 7252. We combined high-resolution JVLA observations of the 21-cm line, tracing the HI diffuse gas, with UV GALEX observations, tracing the young star-forming regions. We probe the local physical conditions of the Inter-Stellar Medium (ISM) for independent star-forming regions and explore the atomic-to-dense gas transformation in different environments. The SFR/HI ratio is found to be much higher in central regions, compared to outer regions, showing a higher dense gas fraction (or lower HI gas fraction) in these regions. In the outer regions of the systems, i.e., the tidal tails, where the gas phase is mostly atomic, we find SFR/HI ratios higher than in standard HI-dominated environments, i.e., outer discs of spiral galaxies and dwarf galaxies. Thus, our analysis reveals that the outer regions of mergers are characterised by high SFEs, compared to the standard mode of star formation. The observation of high dense gas fractions in interacting systems is consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations; it results from the increase of the gas turbulence during a merger. The merger is likely to affect the star-forming properties of the system at all spatial scales, from large scales, with a globally enhanced turbulence

  14. TIME-SERIES PHOTOMETRY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: M62 (NGC 6266), THE MOST RR LYRAE-RICH GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE GALAXY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, R.; Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.; Kuehn, C. A.; Pritzl, B. J.; Borissova, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new time-series CCD photometry, in the B and V bands, for the moderately metal-rich ([Fe/H] ≅ -1.3) Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC 6266). The present data set is the largest obtained so far for this cluster and consists of 168 images per filter, obtained with the Warsaw 1.3 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory and the 1.3 m telescope of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, in two separate runs over the time span of 3 months. The procedure adopted to detect the variable stars was the optimal image subtraction method (ISIS v2.2), as implemented by Alard. The photometry was performed using both ISIS and Stetson's DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME package. We have identified 245 variable stars in the cluster fields that have been analyzed so far, of which 179 are new discoveries. Of these variables, 133 are fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab), 76 are first overtone (RRc) pulsators, 4 are type II Cepheids, 25 are long-period variables (LPVs), 1 is an eclipsing binary, and 6 are not yet well classified. Such a large number of RR Lyrae stars places M62 among the top two most RR Lyrae-rich (in the sense of total number of RR Lyrae stars present) globular clusters known in the Galaxy, second only to M3 (NGC 5272) with a total of 230 known RR Lyrae stars. Since this study covers most but not all of the cluster area, it is not unlikely that M62 is in fact the most RR Lyrae-rich globular cluster in the Galaxy. In like vein, thanks to the time coverage of our data sets, we were also able to detect the largest sample of LPVs known so far in a Galactic globular cluster. We analyze a variety of Oosterhoff type indicators for the cluster, including mean periods, period distribution, Bailey diagrams, and Fourier decomposition parameters (as well as the physical parameters derived therefrom). All of these indicators clearly show that M62 is an Oosterhoff type I system. This is in good agreement with the moderately high metallicity of the cluster, in spite of its

  15. EXTENDED X-RAY EMISSION IN THE H I CAVITY OF NGC 4151: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfeng; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Risaliti, Guido; Elvis, Martin; Zezas, Andreas; Mundell, Carole G.; Dumas, Gaelle; Schinnerer, Eva

    2010-01-01

    We present the Chandra discovery of soft diffuse X-ray emission in NGC 4151 (L 0.5-2 k eV ∼ 10 39 erg s -1 ), extending ∼2 kpc from the active nucleus and filling in the cavity of the H I material. The best fit to the X-ray spectrum requires either a kT ∼ 0.25 keV thermal plasma or a photoionized component. In the thermal scenario, hot gas heated by the nuclear outflow would be confined by the thermal pressure of the H I gas and the dynamic pressure of inflowing neutral material in the galactic disk. In the case of photoionization, the nucleus must have experienced an Eddington limit outburst. For both scenarios, the active galactic nucleus (AGN)-host interaction in NGC 4151 must have occurred relatively recently (some 10 4 yr ago). This very short timescale to the last episode of high activity phase may imply such outbursts occupy ∼>1% of AGN lifetime.

  16. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-Forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from sensitive, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations of the late-type star-forming galaxy M83 (d = 4.6 Mpc). This is the first investigation to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) X-ray emission of this galaxy. The nuclear region and similar to 20 off-nuclear point sources......, including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC3115 & NGC1399 VEGAS-SSS globular clusters (Cantiello+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Spavone, M.; Paolillo, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Limatola, L.; Grado, A.; Iodice, E.; Raimondo, G.; Napolitano, N.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Brocato, E.; Forbes, D. A.; Hilker, M.; Mieske, S.; Peletier, R.; van de Ven, G.; Schipani, P.

    2017-11-01

    Photometric catalogs for globular cluster (GC) candidates over the the 1 sq. degree area around NGC3115 and NGC1399 (ngc3115.dat and ngc1399.dat). The catalogues are based on u-, g- and i- band images from the VST elliptical galaxies survey (VEGAS). Aperture magnitudes, corrected for aperture correction are reported. We also provide the full catalogs of matched sources, which also include the matched background and foreground sources in the frames (ngc3115_full.dat and ngc1399_full.dat). (4 data files).

  18. Acceleration of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in starburst superwinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    The sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been stubbornly elusive. However, the latest report of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a compelling indication for a possible correlation between the arrival directions of UHECRs and nearby starburst galaxies. We argue that if starbursts are sources of UHECRs, then particle acceleration in the large-scale terminal shock of the superwind that flows from the starburst engine represents the best known concept model in the market. We investigate new constraints on the model and readjust free parameters accordingly. We show that UHECR acceleration above about 1 011 GeV remains consistent with observation. We also show that the model could accommodate hard source spectra as required by Auger data. We demonstrate how neutrino emission can be used as a discriminator among acceleration models.

  19. Turbulence and the Formation of Filaments, Loops, and Shock Fronts in NGC 1275

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Lazarian, A.

    2010-01-01

    NGC 1275, the central galaxy in the Perseus cluster, is the host of gigantic hot bipolar bubbles inflated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets observed in the radio as Perseus A. It presents a spectacular Hα-emitting nebulosity surrounding NGC 1275, with loops and filaments of gas extending to over 50 kpc. The origin of the filaments is still unknown, but probably correlates with the mechanism responsible for the giant buoyant bubbles. We present 2.5 and three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of the central region of the cluster in which turbulent energy, possibly triggered by star formation and supernovae (SNe) explosions, is introduced. The simulations reveal that the turbulence injected by massive stars could be responsible for the nearly isotropic distribution of filaments and loops that drag magnetic fields upward as indicated by recent observations. Weak shell-like shock fronts propagating into the intracluster medium (ICM) with velocities of 100-500 km s-1 are found, also resembling the observations. The isotropic outflow momentum of the turbulence slows the infall of the ICM, thus limiting further starburst activity in NGC 1275. As the turbulence is subsonic over most of the simulated volume, the turbulent kinetic energy is not efficiently converted into heat and additional heating is required to suppress the cooling flow at the core of the cluster. Simulations combining the MHD turbulence with the AGN outflow can reproduce the temperature radial profile observed around NGC 1275. While the AGN mechanism is the main heating source, the SNe are crucial to isotropize the energy distribution.

  20. CO LINE EMISSION FROM COMPACT NUCLEAR STARBURST DISKS AROUND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J. N.; Ballantyne, D. R., E-mail: jarmour3@gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    There is substantial evidence for a connection between star formation in the nuclear region of a galaxy and growth of the central supermassive black hole. Furthermore, starburst activity in the region around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) may provide the obscuration required by the unified model of AGNs. Molecular line emission is one of the best observational avenues to detect and characterize dense, star-forming gas in galactic nuclei over a range of redshift. This paper presents predictions for the carbon monoxide (CO) line features from models of nuclear starburst disks around AGNs. These small-scale ({approx}< 100 pc), dense and hot starbursts have CO luminosities similar to scaled-down ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and quasar host galaxies. Nuclear starburst disks that exhibit a pc-scale starburst and could potentially act as the obscuring torus show more efficient CO excitation and higher brightness temperature ratios than those without such a compact starburst. In addition, the compact starburst models predict strong absorption when J{sub Upper} {approx}> 10, a unique observational signature of these objects. These findings allow for the possibility that CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) could be used to determine if starburst disks are responsible for the obscuration in z {approx}< 1 AGNs. Directly isolating the nuclear CO line emission of such compact regions around AGNs from galactic-scale emission will require high-resolution imaging or selecting AGN host galaxies with weak galactic-scale star formation. Stacking individual CO SLEDs will also be useful in detecting the predicted high-J features.

  1. Polarization study of spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Thompson, D

    1987-01-01

    Optical polarimetry results are presented for four spiral galaxies: NGC 5194 (M51), NGC 1068, NGC 4565 and NGC 4594 (M104). M51 and NGC 1068 show spiral polarization patterns interpreted as indicating a spiral magnetic field in each case. NGC 4565 and M104 show polarizations in their dust lanes which are parallel to their galactic planes, and which are interpreted in terms of a magnetic field in the plane of each. It is hypothesized that the observed magnetic fields may be linked to galactic shocks. A discussion of the origin of galactic magnetic fields concludes that there is not evidence that necessitates a primordial magnetic field.

  2. The host of the Type I SLSN 2017egm. A young, sub-solar metallicity environment in a massive spiral galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, L.; Thöne, C. C.; García-Benito, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Cano, Z.; Kann, D. A.; Bensch, K.; Della Valle, M.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Hedrosa, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) host galaxies are predominantly low-metallicity, highly star-forming (SF) dwarfs. One of the current key questions is whether Type I SLSNe can only occur in such environments and hosts. Aims: Here we present an integral-field study of the massive, high-metallicity spiral NGC 3191, the host of SN 2017egm, the closest Type I SLSN known to date. We use data from PMAS/CAHA and the public MaNGA survey to shed light on the properties of the SLSN site and the origin of star formation in this non-starburst spiral galaxy. Methods: We map the physical properties of different H II regions throughout the galaxy and characterise their stellar populations using the STARLIGHT fitting code. Kinematical information allows us to study a possible interaction with its neighbouring galaxy as the origin of recent star formation activity which could have caused the SLSN. Results: NGC 3191 shows intense star formation in the western part with three large SF regions of low metallicity. Taking only the properties of emitting gas, the central regions of the host have a higher metallicity, a lower specific star formation rate, and lower ionisation. Modelling the stellar populations gives a different picture: the SLSN region has two dominant stellar populations with different ages, the younger one with an age of 2-10 Myr and lower metallicity, likely the population from which the SN progenitor originated. Emission line kinematics of NGC 3191 show indications of interaction with its neighbour MCG+08-19-017 at 45 kpc, which might be responsible for the recent starburst. In fact, this galaxy pair has hosted a total of four SNe, 1988B (Type Ia), SN 2003ds (Type Ic in MCG+08-19-017), PTF10bgl (Type II), and 2017egm, underlying the enhanced SF in both galaxies due to interaction. Conclusions: Our study shows that care should be taken when interpreting global host and even gas properties without looking at the stellar population history of the region

  3. Direct Evidence for Maser Emission from the 36.2 GHz Class I Transition of Methanol in NGC253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; McCarthy, Tiege P.; Zhong, Wei-Ye; Deng, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Observations made with the Jansky Very large Array (JVLA) at an angular resolution of ∼0.″1 have detected class I methanol maser emission from the 36.2 GHz transition toward the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The methanol emission is detected toward four sites which lie within the regions of extended methanol emission detected in previous lower angular resolution (a few arcseconds) observations. The peak flux densities of the detected compact components are in the range 3–9 mJy beam‑1. Combining the JVLA data with single-dish observations from the Shanghai Tianma Radio Telescope (TMRT) and previous interferometric observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we show that the 36.2 GHz class I methanol emission consists of both extended and compact structures, with typical scales of ∼6″ (0.1 kpc) and ∼0.″05 (1 pc), respectively. The strongest components have a brightness temperature of >103 K, much higher than the maximum kinetic temperature (∼100 K) of the thermal methanol emission from NGC 253. Therefore, these observations conclusively demonstrate for the first time the presence of maser emission from a class I methanol transition in an external galaxy.

  4. A Missing Link in Galaxy Evolution: The Mysteries of Dissolving Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Anne; Meyer, Martin; Harris, Jason; Calzetti, Daniela

    2007-05-01

    Star-forming events in starbursts and normal galaxies have a direct impact on the global stellar content of galaxies. These events create numerous compact clusters where stars are produced in great number. These stars eventually end up in the star field background where they are smoothly distributed. However, due to instrumental limitations such as spatial resolution and sensitivity, the processes involved during the transition phase from the compact clusters to the star field background as well as the impact of the environment (spiral waves, bars, starburst) on the lifetime of clusters are still poorly constrained observationally. I will present our latest results on the physical properties of dissolving clusters directly detected in HST/ACS archival images of the three nearby galaxies IC 2574, NGC 1313, and IC 10 (D detect and spatially resolve individual stars in nearby galaxies within a large field-of-view. For all ACS images obtained in three filters (F435W, F555W or F606W, and F814W), we performed PSF stellar photometry in crowded field. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) allow us to identify the most massive stars more likely to be part of dissolving clusters (A-type and earlier), and to isolate them from the star field background. We then adapt and use a clustering algorithm on the selected stars to find groups of stars to reveal and quantify the properties of all star clusters (compactness, size, age, mass). With this algorithm, even the less compact clusters are revealed while they are being destroyed. Our sample of three galaxies covers an interesting range in gravitational potential well and explores a variety of galaxy morphological types, which allows us to discuss the dissolving cluster properties as a function of the host galaxy characteristics. The properties of the star field background will also be discussed.

  5. A rare encounter with very massive stars in NGC 3125-A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofford, Aida [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [University of Toledo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bouret, Jean-Claude, E-mail: wofford@iap.edu [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)

    2014-02-01

    Super star cluster A1 in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 3125 is characterized by broad He II λ1640 emission (FWHM ∼ 1200 km s{sup –1}) of unprecedented strength (equivalent width, EW = 7.1 ± 0.4 Å). Previous attempts to characterize the massive star content in NGC 3125-A1 were hampered by the low resolution of the UV spectrum and the lack of co-spatial panchromatic data. We obtained far-UV to near-IR spectroscopy of the two principal emitting regions in the galaxy with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We use these data to study three clusters in the galaxy, A1, B1, and B2. We derive cluster ages of 3-4 Myr, intrinsic reddenings of E(B – V) = 0.13, 0.15, and 0.13, and cluster masses of 1.7 × 10{sup 5}, 1.4 × 10{sup 5}, and 1.1 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, respectively. A1 and B2 show O V λ1371 absorption from massive stars, which is rarely seen in star-forming galaxies, and have Wolf-Rayet (WR) to O star ratios of N(WN5-6)/N(O) = 0.23 and 0.10, respectively. The high N(WN5-6)/N(O) ratio of A1 cannot be reproduced by models that use a normal initial mass function (IMF) and generic WR star line luminosities. We rule out that the extraordinary He II λ1640 emission and O V λ1371 absorption of A1 are due to an extremely flat upper IMF exponent, and suggest that they originate in the winds of very massive (>120 M {sub ☉}) stars. In order to reproduce the properties of peculiar clusters such as A1, the present grid of stellar evolution tracks implemented in Starburst99 needs to be extended to masses >120 M {sub ☉}.

  6. Dark matter study of NGC 5055

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ungku Ferwani Salwa Ungku; Hashim, Norsiah; Abidin, Zamri Zainal

    2013-05-01

    This paper is about rediscovering dark matter (DM) in galaxies before the year 1970. It is an Italy-Malaysia Astroproject (SISSA-Radio Cosmology Research group), introducing to the field of DM. Investigations about the rotation curve (RC) of NGC 5055 or the Sunflower Galaxy at that time showed that there was a distinct possibility that they had the knowledge and also the theory of gravitation to initiate the study of dark matter. NGC 5055 was chosen because of its good kinematical and photometric data. Information of the surface brightness of this spiral galaxy will determine the disk length scale, RD. Using this RD and by fitting the RC data of NGC 5055 with the velocity profile of the Freeman's disk, we look at the results to conclude whether there are signs of dark matter in the Sunflower Galaxy.

  7. THE VERY MASSIVE STAR CONTENT OF THE NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS IN NGC 5253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Crowther, P. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts—Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Sidoli, F., E-mail: lsmith@stsci.edu [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a very young starburst containing twin nuclear star clusters, separated by a projected distance of 5 pc. One cluster (#5) coincides with the peak of the H α emission and the other (#11) with a massive ultracompact H ii region. A recent analysis of these clusters shows that they have a photometric age of 1 ± 1 Myr, in apparent contradiction with the age of 3–5 Myr inferred from the presence of Wolf-Rayet features in the cluster #5 spectrum. We examine Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of #5 and show that the stellar features arise from very massive stars (VMSs), with masses greater than 100 M {sub ⊙}, at an age of 1–2 Myr. We further show that the very high ionizing flux from the nuclear clusters can only be explained if VMSs are present. We investigate the origin of the observed nitrogen enrichment in the circumcluster ionized gas and find that the excess N can be produced by massive rotating stars within the first 1 Myr. We find similarities between the NGC 5253 cluster spectrum and those of metal-poor, high-redshift galaxies. We discuss the presence of VMSs in young, star-forming galaxies at high redshift; these should be detected in rest-frame UV spectra to be obtained with the James Webb Space Telescope . We emphasize that population synthesis models with upper mass cutoffs greater than 100 M {sub ⊙} are crucial for future studies of young massive star clusters at all redshifts.

  8. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minchin, R.F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J.I.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Keenan, O.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, Rhys

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 4 (2016), s. 3430-3435 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : individual galaxies NGC 1156 * individual galaxies NGC 5523 * individual galaxies UGC 2082 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  9. NEW RADIAL ABUNDANCE GRADIENTS FOR NGC 628 AND NGC 2403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Croxall, Kevin V. [Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Marble, Andrew R. [National Solar Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gordon, Karl [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Garnett, Donald R., E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: croxall.5@osu.edu, E-mail: amarble@nso.edu, E-mail: jd.smith@utoledo.edu, E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu, E-mail: robk@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2013-10-01

    Motivated by recent interstellar medium studies, we present high quality MMT and Gemini spectroscopic observations of H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403 in order to measure their chemical abundance gradients. Using long-slit and multi-object mask optical spectroscopy, we obtained measurements of the temperature sensitive auroral lines [O III] λ4363 and/or [N II] λ5755 at a strength of 4σ or greater in 11 H II regions in NGC 628 and 7 regions in NGC 2403. These observations allow us, for the first time, to derive an oxygen abundance gradient in NGC 628 based solely on 'direct' oxygen abundances of H II regions: 12 + log(O/H) = (8.43 ± 0.03) + (–0.017 ± 0.002) × R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.10 dex, from 14 regions with a radial coverage of ∼2-19 kpc. This is a significantly shallower slope than found by previous 'strong-line' abundance studies. In NGC 2403, we derive an oxygen abundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = (8.48 ± 0.04) + (–0.032 ± 0.007)× R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.07 dex, from seven H II with a radial coverage of ∼1-10 kpc. Additionally, we measure the N, S, Ne, and Ar abundances. We find the N/O ratio decreases with increasing radius for the inner disk, but reaches a plateau past R{sub 25} in NGC 628. NGC 2403 also has a negative N/O gradient with radius, but we do not sample the outer disk of the galaxy past R{sub 25} and so do not see evidence for a plateau. This bi-modal pattern measured for NGC 628 indicates dominant contributions from secondary nitrogen inside of the R{sub 25} transition and dominantly primary nitrogen farther out. As expected for α-process elements, S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O are consistent with constant values over a range in oxygen abundance.

  10. Physical conditions of the molecular gas in metal-poor galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. K.; Weiß, A.; Henkel, C.; Combes, F.; García-Burillo, S.; Casasola, V.; Caselli, P.; Lundgren, A.; Maiolino, R.; Menten, K. M.; Testi, L.

    2017-10-01

    Studying the molecular component of the interstellar medium (ISM) in metal-poor galaxies has been challenging because of the faintness of carbon monoxide emission, the most common proxy of H2. Here we present new detections of molecular gas at low metallicities, and assess the physical conditions in the gas through various CO transitions for 8 galaxies. For one, NGC 1140 (Z/Z⊙ 0.3), two detections of 13CO isotopologues and atomic carbon, [Ci](1-0) and an upper limit for HCN(1-0) are also reported. After correcting to a common beam size, we compared 12CO(2-1)/12CO(1-0) (R21) and 12CO(3-2)/12CO(1-0) (R31) line ratios of our sample with galaxies from the literature and find that only NGC 1140 shows extreme values (R21 R31 2). Fitting physical models to the 12CO and 13CO emission in NGC 1140 suggests that the molecular gas is cool (kinetic temperature Tkin ≲ 20 K), dense (H2 volume density nH2 ≳ 106 cm-3), with moderate CO column density (NCO 1016 cm-2) and low filling factor. Surprisingly, the [12CO]/[13CO] abundance ratio in NGC 1140 is very low ( 8-20), lower even than the value of 24 found in the Galactic Center. The young age of the starburst in NGC 1140 precludes 13CO enrichment from evolved intermediate-mass stars; instead we attribute the low ratio to charge-exchange reactions and fractionation, because of the enhanced efficiency of these processes in cool gas at moderate column densities. Fitting physical models to 12CO and [Ci](1-0) emission in NGC 1140 gives an unusually low [12CO]/[12C] abundance ratio, suggesting that in this galaxy atomic carbon is at least 10 times more abundant than 12CO. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). IRAM is supported by the INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain), and APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.

  11. Emerging Massive Star Clusters Revealed: High-Resolution Imaging of NGC 4449 from the Radio to the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Goss, W. M.

    2008-06-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of embedded massive clusters in the nearby (3.9 Mpc) starburst galaxy NGC 4449 in an effort to uncover the earliest phases of massive cluster evolution. By combining high-resolution imaging from the radio to the ultraviolet, we reveal these clusters to be in the process of emerging from their gaseous and dusty birth cocoons. We use Very Large Array (VLA) observations at centimeter wavelengths to identify young clusters surrounded by ultra-dense H II regions, detectable via their production of thermal free-free radio continuum. Ultraviolet, optical and infrared observations are obtained from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope archives for comparison. We detect 39 compact radio sources toward NGC 4449 at 3.6 cm using the highest resolution (1farcs3) and sensitivity (~12 μJy) VLA image of the galaxy to date. We reliably identify 13 thermal radio sources and derive their physical properties using both nebular emission from the H II regions and spectral energy distribution fitting to the stellar continuum. These radio-detected clusters have ages lsim5 Myr and stellar masses of order 104 M sun. The measured extinctions are quite low: 12 of the 13 thermal radio sources have A V lsim 1.5, while the most obscured source has A V ≈ 4.3. By combining results from the nebular and stellar emission, we find an I-band excess that is anti-correlated with cluster age and an apparent mass-age correlation. Additionally, we find evidence that local processes such as supernovae and stellar winds likely play an important role in triggering the current bursts of star formation within NGC 4449.

  12. Source-plane reconstruction of the giant gravitational arc in A2667: A candidate Wolf-Rayet galaxy at z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Federico II, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy))" >Covone, Giovanni; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan; Izzo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Very Large Telescope imaging and spectroscopic data of a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.0334 in the lensing cluster A2667. Using this high-resolution imaging, we present an updated lens model that allows us to fully understand the lensing geometry and reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc gives a unique opportunity to view the structure of a high-redshift disk galaxy. We find that the lensed galaxy of A2667 is a typical spiral galaxy with a morphology similar to the structure of its counterparts at higher redshift, z ∼ 2. The surface brightness of the reconstructed source galaxy in the z 850 band reveals the central surface brightness I(0) = 20.28 ± 0.22 mag arcsec –2 and a characteristic radius r s = 2.01 ± 0.16 kpc at redshift z ∼ 1. The morphological reconstruction in different bands shows obvious negative radial color gradients for this galaxy. Moreover, the redder central bulge tends to contain a metal-rich stellar population, rather than being heavily reddened by dust due to high and patchy obscuration. We analyze the VIMOS/integral field unit spectroscopic data and find that, in the given wavelength range (∼1800-3200 Å), the combined arc spectrum of the source galaxy is characterized by a strong continuum emission with strong UV absorption lines (Fe II and Mg II) and shows the features of a typical starburst Wolf-Rayet galaxy, NGC 5253. More specifically, we have measured the equivalent widths of Fe II and Mg II lines in the A2667 spectrum, and obtained similar values for the same wavelength interval of the NGC 5253 spectrum. Marginal evidence for [C III] 1909 emission at the edge of the grism range further confirms our expectation.

  13. HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left

  14. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical and IO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1979-01-01

    New HI detections have been obtained using the Nancay radiotelescope for NGC 2974 and 3962. These results and the large scale distribution obtained for NGC 3962 indicate that the HI-rich elliptical galaxies exhibit common properties which are not easily explained by accretion of an intergalactic cloud. The field aroud NGC 1052 has been mapped and there is an HI connection with the neighbouring galaxies. The HI content of several IO galaxies indicates that the galaxies which are members of groups are relatively HI-rich; this could be produced by additional HI coming from companion galaxies [fr

  15. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. IV. A Super-Salpeter IMF in the Center of NGC 1407 from Non-parametric Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511 (United States); Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    It is now well-established that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) can be determined from the absorption line spectra of old stellar systems, and this has been used to measure the IMF and its variation across the early-type galaxy population. Previous work focused on measuring the slope of the IMF over one or more stellar mass intervals, implicitly assuming that this is a good description of the IMF and that the IMF has a universal low-mass cutoff. In this work we consider more flexible IMFs, including two-component power laws with a variable low-mass cutoff and a general non-parametric model. We demonstrate with mock spectra that the detailed shape of the IMF can be accurately recovered as long as the data quality is high (S/N ≳ 300 Å{sup −1}) and cover a wide wavelength range (0.4–1.0 μ m). We apply these flexible IMF models to a high S/N spectrum of the center of the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1407. Fitting the spectrum with non-parametric IMFs, we find that the IMF in the center shows a continuous rise extending toward the hydrogen-burning limit, with a behavior that is well-approximated by a power law with an index of −2.7. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of extreme (super-Salpeter) IMFs in the cores of massive galaxies.

  16. Connections between Star Cluster Populations and Their Host Galaxy Nuclear Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; de Grijs, Richard; Ho, Luis C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear rings are excellent laboratories for probing diverse phenomena such as the formation and evolution of young massive star clusters and nuclear starbursts, as well as the secular evolution and dynamics of their host galaxies. We have compiled a sample of 17 galaxies with nuclear rings, which are well resolved by high-resolution Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope imaging. For each nuclear ring, we identified the ring star cluster population, along with their physical properties (ages, masses, and extinction values). We also determined the integrated ring properties, including the average age, total stellar mass, and current star formation rate (SFR). We find that Sb-type galaxies tend to have the highest ring stellar mass fraction with respect to the host galaxy, and this parameter is correlated with the ring’s SFR surface density. The ring SFRs are correlated with their stellar masses, which is reminiscent of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. There are striking correlations between star-forming properties (i.e., SFR and SFR surface density) and nonaxisymmetric bar parameters, appearing to confirm previous inferences that strongly barred galaxies tend to have lower ring SFRs, although the ring star formation histories turn out to be significantly more complicated. Nuclear rings with higher stellar masses tend to be associated with lower cluster mass fractions, but there is no such relation for the ages of the rings. The two youngest nuclear rings in our sample, NGC 1512 and NGC 4314, which have the most extreme physical properties, represent the young extremity of the nuclear ring age distribution.

  17. Comparative study of dust and young stars in three small galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of dust and young stars in the central regions of the three small galaxies NGC 205, NGC 185, and NGC 3077 in the U, B, V, and K filters, and at six additional optical wavelengths. All three program galaxies have been successfully modeled with the empirical models of Oemler (1976); NGC 205 and NGC 3077 were also modeled with unsharp mask models. Subtracting model galaxies from the data enabled the authors to isolate clusters of young stars and dust clouds in the central regions of each galaxy. A comparison of the colors of the young clusters in NGC 3077 and those in NGC 205 reveals that the colors of the clusters in these two small galaxies are different. In NGC 185, diffuse emission after subtracting an Oemler model was discovered. NGC 205 also showed this remnant emission, with very similar colors to those of the remnant in NGC 185, but NGC 3077 did not. The colors of this diffuse remnant emission in NGC 205 and NGC 185 are interpreted as being due to previous episodes of star formation in the two dwarf ellipticals. A comparison of the author's data with that of Caldwell (1983) on a sample of 33 dwarf elliptical galaxies in Virgo indicates that star formation in dwarf elliptical galaxies is a common phenomenon. The study of dust in NGC 185 and NGC 205 at optical wavelengths shows that the properties of dust in NGC 205 are very similar to those of galactic dust, while the dust in NGC 185 is distinctly different. The optical and 2.2 micron centers of NGC 3077 are found to be different. From comparison of the three galaxies studied here, the author concludes that it is unlikely that NGC 205 and NGC 185 tidally interacted with M31

  18. Optical observations of the nucleus of NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, G; Minello, S [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1977-08-01

    Photographic observations of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151, carried out during the last seven years, are reported. The object shows irregular variations between photographic magnitudes 11.2 and 13.0.

  19. The search for inner polar disks with integral field spectroscopy : the case of NGC 2855 and NGC 7049

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccato, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Bertola, F.

    Context. The presence of non-circular and off-plane gas motion is frequently observed in the inner regions of disk galaxies. Aims. With integral-field spectroscopy we have measured the surface-brightness distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas in NGC 2855 and NGC 7049. These two early-type

  20. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of starbursts : from Spitzer-IRS to JWST-MIRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of star-forming regions and starburst galaxies are unique tracers of the star formation processes in these environments, since they contain information on the escaping and processed photons emitted by newly formed massive stars. Understanding these internal

  1. Isolated ellipticals and their globular cluster systems. III. NGC 2271, NGC 2865, NGC 3962, NGC 4240, and IC 4889

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Alabi, A.; Richtler, T.; Lane, R. R.

    2015-05-01

    As tracers of star formation, galaxy assembly, and mass distribution, globular clusters have provided important clues to our understanding of early-type galaxies. But their study has been mostly constrained to galaxy groups and clusters where early-type galaxies dominate, leaving the properties of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of isolated ellipticals as a mostly uncharted territory. We present Gemini-South/GMOS g'i' observations of five isolated elliptical galaxies: NGC 3962, NGC 2865, IC 4889, NGC 2271, and NGC 4240. Photometry of their GCSs reveals clear color bimodality in three of them, but remains inconclusive for the other two. All the studied GCSs are rather poor with a mean specific frequency SN ~ 1.5, independently of the parent galaxy luminosity. Considering information from previous work as well, it is clear that bimodality and especially the presence of a significant, even dominant, population of blue clusters occurs at even the most isolated systems, which casts doubts on a possible accreted origin of metal-poor clusters, as suggested by some models. Additionally, we discuss the possible existence of ultra-compact dwarfs around the isolated elliptical NGC 3962. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Globular cluster photometry is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A59Appendices are available in

  2. NGC6819

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, R.; Brogaard, K.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present an extensive peakbagging effort on Kepler data of similar to 50 red giant stars in the open star cluster NGC6819. By employing sophisticated pre-processing of the time series and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques we extracted individual frequencies, heights and line widths for hundre...

  3. NGC 346: Looking in the Cradle of a Massive Star Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Hony, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    How does a star cluster of more than few 10,000 solar masses form? We present the case of the cluster NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud, still embedded in its natal star-forming region N66, and we propose a scenario for its formation, based on observations of the rich stellar populations in the region. Young massive clusters host a high fraction of early-type stars, indicating an extremely high star formation efficiency. The Milky Way galaxy hosts several young massive clusters that fill the gap between young low-mass open clusters and old massive globular clusters. Only a handful, though, are young enough to study their formation. Moreover, the investigation of their gaseous natal environments suffers from contamination by the Galactic disk. Young massive clusters are very abundant in distant starburst and interacting galaxies, but the distance of their hosting galaxies do not also allow a detailed analysis of their formation. The Magellanic Clouds, on the other hand, host young massive clusters in a wide range of ages with the youngest being still embedded in their giant HII regions. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of such star-forming complexes provide a stellar sampling with a high dynamic range in stellar masses, allowing the detailed study of star formation at scales typical for molecular clouds. Our cluster analysis on the distribution of newly-born stars in N66 shows that star formation in the region proceeds in a clumpy hierarchical fashion, leading to the formation of both a dominant young massive cluster, hosting about half of the observed pre-main-sequence population, and a self-similar dispersed distribution of the remaining stars. We investigate the correlation between stellar surface density (and star formation rate derived from star-counts) and molecular gas surface density (derived from dust column density) in order to unravel the physical conditions that gave birth to NGC 346. A power law fit to the data yields a steep correlation between these

  4. NGC1300 dynamics - II. The response models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, C.; Patsis, P. A.; Grosbøl, P.

    2010-10-01

    We study the stellar response in a spectrum of potentials describing the barred spiral galaxy NGC1300. These potentials have been presented in a previous paper and correspond to three different assumptions as regards the geometry of the galaxy. For each potential we consider a wide range of Ωp pattern speed values. Our goal is to discover the geometries and the Ωp supporting specific morphological features of NGC1300. For this purpose we use the method of response models. In order to compare the images of NGC1300 with the density maps of our models, we define a new index which is a generalization of the Hausdorff distance. This index helps us to find out quantitatively which cases reproduce specific features of NGC1300 in an objective way. Furthermore, we construct alternative models following a Schwarzschild-type technique. By this method we vary the weights of the various energy levels, and thus the orbital contribution of each energy, in order to minimize the differences between the response density and that deduced from the surface density of the galaxy, under certain assumptions. We find that the models corresponding to Ωp ~ 16 and 22 kms-1kpc-1 are able to reproduce efficiently certain morphological features of NGC1300, with each one having its advantages and drawbacks. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile: programme ESO 69.A-0021. E-mail: ckalapot@phys.uoa.gr (CK); patsis@academyofathens.gr (PAP); pgrosbol@eso.org (PG)

  5. Cosmic Collisions: Galaxy Mergers and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouille, Laura; Willett, Kyle; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Christopher; Whyte, Laura; Lynn, Stuart; Tremonti, Christina A.

    2014-08-01

    Over the years evidence has mounted for a significant mode of galaxy evolution via mergers. This process links gas-rich, spiral galaxies; starbursting galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); post-starburst galaxies; and gas-poor, elliptical galaxies, as objects representing different phases of major galaxy mergers. The post-starburst phase is particularly interesting because nearly every galaxy that evolves from star-forming to quiescent must pass through it. In essence, this phase is a sort of galaxy evolution “bottleneck” that indicates that a galaxy is actively evolving through important physical transitions. In this talk I will present the results from the ‘Galaxy Zoo Quench’ project - using post-starburst galaxies to place observational constraints on the role of mergers and AGN activity in quenching star formation. `Quench’ is the first fully collaborative research project with Zooniverse citizen scientists online; engaging the public in all phases of research, from classification to data analysis and discussion to writing the article and submission to a refereed journal.

  6. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which are rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting narrow beams of radiation. Images of ... rized into starburst galaxies and AGN powered by SMBHs. The ..... swer lies in the relativistic motion of the jets which boosts the flux density of .... radio cores, detection of ... to as synchrotron self-Compton or SSC, or those of the cosmic.

  7. Structure and evolution of NGC 5128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    New photographic and spectroscopic observations have been made of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 5128 with the CTIO 4 m telescope. A deep blue photograph shows some faint streamers in the NW quadrant, several arc minutes from the nucleus. No indication of a concentration of globular clusters associated with the galaxy is seen in this photograph. Velocities are given for the gaseous and stellar components of the galaxy. The main body of NGC 5128 resembles in many respects a normal giant elliptical galaxy. Concentric with it, is an inclined rotating disk which contains both stars and gas. In parts of the galaxy, material in the disk gives rise to prominent sharp interstellar absorption lines. The heliocentric velocity indicated by emission lines originating from gas near the nucleus is 548 +- 5 km s -1 . This is consistent with the mean velocity given by the diffuse absorption lines from unresolved stars in the elliptical component, 536 +- 30 km s -1 . A rotation curve for the disk is derived. If a distance of 5 Mpc is assumed, an approximate value for the mass of the galaxy is 3 x 10 11 M/sub sun/ to a distance of 11 kpc from the nucleus. No rotation is observed in the elliptical component greater than 30 km s -1 at a distance of 1.5 kpc in any direction from the nucleus. The origin and evolution of the galaxy are discussed. One possibility is that the optical and radio characteristics of the galaxy have developed from the merger of a gas cloud or small galaxy with a giant elliptical galaxy about 10 9 years ago. The main radio characteristics and the unusual activity in the nucleus of NGC 5128 appear to be a consequence rather than the cause of the peculiar structural features of the galaxy

  8. Star Formation in the Central Regions of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mengchun

    2015-08-01

    The galactic central region connects the galactic nucleus to the host galaxy. If the central black hole co-evolved with the host galaxies, there should be some evidence left in the central region. We use the environmental properties in the central regions such as star-forming activity, stellar population and molecular abundance to figure out a possible scenario of the evolution of galaxies. In this thesis at first we investigated the properties of the central regions in the host galaxies of active and normal galaxies. We used radio emission around the nuclei of the host galaxies to represent activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and used infrared ray (IR) emission to represent the star-forming activity and stellar population of the host galaxies. We determined that active galaxies have higher stellar masses (SMs) within the central kiloparsec radius than normal galaxies do independent of the Hubble types of the host galaxies; but both active and normal galaxies exhibit similar specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We also discovered that certain AGNs exhibit substantial inner stellar structures in the IR images; most of the AGNs with inner structures are Seyferts, whereas only a few LINERs exhibit inner structures. We note that the AGNs with inner structures show a positive correlation between the radio activity of the AGNs and the SFRs of the host galaxies, but the sources without inner structures show a negative correlation between the radio power and the SFRs. These results might be explained with a scenario of starburst-AGN evolution. In this scenario, AGN activities are triggered following a nuclear starburst; during the evolution, AGN activities are accompanied by SF activity in the inner regions of the host galaxies; at the final stage of the evolution, the AGNs might transform into LINERs, exhibiting weak SF activity in the central regions of the host galaxies. For further investigation about the inner structure, we choose the most nearby and luminous

  9. STAR-FORMING OR STARBURSTING? THE ULTRAVIOLET CONUNDRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Hong, S.; Kennicutt, R.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C.; Portouw, J.; Gordon, K. D.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to starburst galaxies, normal star-forming galaxies have been shown to display a much larger dispersion of the dust attenuation at fixed reddening through studies of the IRX-β diagram (the IR/UV ratio 'IRX' versus the UV color 'β'). To investigate the causes of this larger dispersion and attempt to isolate second parameters, we have used GALEX UV, ground-based optical, and Spitzer infrared imaging of eight nearby galaxies, and examined the properties of individual UV and 24 μm selected star-forming regions. We concentrated on star-forming regions, in order to isolate simpler star formation histories than those that characterize whole galaxies. We find that (1) the dispersion is not correlated with the mean age of the stellar populations; (2) a range of dust geometries and dust extinction curves are the most likely causes for the observed dispersion in the IRX-β diagram, (3) together with some potential dilution of the most recent star-forming population by older unrelated bursts, at least in the case of star-forming regions within galaxies; and (4) we also recover some general characteristics of the regions, including a tight positive correlation between the amount of dust attenuation and the metal content. Although generalizing our results to whole galaxies may not be immediate, the possibility of a range of dust extinction laws and geometries should be accounted for in the latter systems as well.

  10. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE EVIDENCE OF ENDURING HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN AN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY: HIGH [Ca/Fe] IN NGC 5128 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Durán, María Fernanda; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between –1.6 and –0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <–0.4 is +0.37 ± 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 ± 0.09 and +0.24 ± 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope

  11. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE EVIDENCE OF ENDURING HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN AN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY: HIGH [Ca/Fe] IN NGC 5128 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Duran, Maria Fernanda; Bernstein, Rebecca A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1156 High Street, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: jcolucci@ucolick.org [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 {+-} 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 {+-} 0.09 and +0.24 {+-} 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  12. Chemical Abundance Evidence of Enduring High Star Formation Rates in an Early-type Galaxy: High [Ca/Fe] in NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Fernanda Durán, María; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 ± 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 ± 0.09 and +0.24 ± 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope. This Letter includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. IRAS low-resolution spectra of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Volk, K.

    1989-01-01

    The spectra of external galaxies are selected and extracted from the IRAS LRS database. Twenty-one objects present viable spectra. One is a peculiar star-forming E-S0 galaxy. The remainder are all starburst or H II region galaxies. Their average spectrum demonstrates the importance of the PAH emission bands in the 8-23-micron region and reinforces the conclusion reached from ground-based spectra, that there is a strong correlation between the PAH bands and the starburst or H II region character of a galaxy. 32 refs

  14. Chandra Sees Wealth Of Black Holes In Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found new populations of suspected mid-mass black holes in several starburst galaxies, where stars form and explode at an unusually high rate. Although a few of these objects had been found previously, this is the first time they have been detected in such large numbers and could help explain their relationship to star formation and the production of even more massive black holes. At the 198th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Pasadena, California, three independent teams of scientists reported finding dozens of X-ray sources in galaxies aglow with star formation. These X-ray objects appear point-like and are ten to a thousand times more luminous in X-rays than similar sources found in our Milky Way and the M81 galaxy. "Chandra gives us the ability to study the populations of individual bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies in extraordinary detail," said Andreas Zezas, lead author from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics team that observed The Antennae, a pair of colliding galaxies, and M82, a well-known starburst galaxy. "This allows us to build on earlier detections of these objects and better understand their relationship to starburst galaxies." Antennae-True Color Image True Color Image of Antennae Credit: NASA/SAO/G.Fabbiano et al. Press Image and Caption Kimberly Weaver, of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, lead scientist of the team that studied the starburst galaxy NGC 253, discussed the importance of the unusual concentration of these very luminous X-ray sources near the center of that galaxy. Four sources, which are tens to thousands of times more massive than the Sun, are located within 3,000 light years of the galaxy core. "This may imply that these black holes are gravitating toward the center of the galaxy where they could coalesce to form a single supermassive black hole," Weaver suggested. "It could be that this starburst galaxy is transforming itself into a quasar

  15. The Nova Rate in NGC 2403

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franck, J.R.; Shafter, A.W.; Hornoch, Kamil; Misselt, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 760, č. 1 (2012), 13-1-13-8 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxy NGC 2403 * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.733, year: 2012

  16. ALMA CO(3-2) Observations of Star-forming Filaments in a Gas-poor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, S. Michelle; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara; Meier, David S.; Silich, Sergiy; Zhao, Jun-Hui

    2017-11-01

    We report ALMA observations of 12CO(3-2) and 13CO(3-2) in the gas-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 5253. These 0.″3(5.5 pc) resolution images reveal small, dense molecular gas clouds that are located in kinematically distinct extended filaments. Some of the filaments appear to be falling into the galaxy and may be fueling its current star formation. The most intense CO(3-2) emission comes from the central ˜100 pc region centered on the luminous radio-infrared H II region known as the supernebula. The CO(3-2) clumps within the starburst region are anti-correlated with Hα on ˜5 pc scales, but are well-correlated with radio free-free emission. Cloud D1, which enshrouds the supernebula, has a high 12CO/13CO ratio, as does another cloud within the central 100 pc starburst region, possibly because the clouds are hot. CO(3-2) emission alone does not allow determination of cloud masses as molecular gas temperature and column density are degenerate at the observed brightness, unless combined with other lines such as 13CO.

  17. Gaia17biu/SN 2017egm in NGC 3191: The Closest Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova to Date Is in a “Normal,” Massive, Metal-rich Spiral Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subhash; Dong, Subo; Pastorello, A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kochanek, C. S.; Mauerhan, Jon; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Brink, Thomas G.; Chen, Ping; Prieto, J. L.; Post, R.; Ashall, Christopher; Grupe, Dirk; Tomasella, L.; Benetti, Stefano; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Cai, Zheng; Falco, E.; Lundqvist, Peter; Mattila, Seppo; Mutel, Robert; Ochner, Paolo; Pooley, David; Stritzinger, M. D.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Zheng, WeiKang; Beswick, R. J.; Brown, Peter J.; Cappellaro, E.; Davis, Scott; Fraser, Morgan; de Jaeger, Thomas; Elias-Rosa, N.; Gall, C.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Hestenes, Julia; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Hsiao, E. Y.; Hu, Shaoming; Jaejin, Shin; Jeffers, Ben; Koff, R. A.; Kumar, Sahana; Kurtenkov, Alexander; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Prentice, Simon; Reynolds, T.; Rudy, Richard J.; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Somero, Auni; Stassun, Keivan G.; Thompson, Todd A.; Valenti, Stefano; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yunus, Sameen

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) have been predominantly found in low-metallicity, star-forming dwarf galaxies. Here we identify Gaia17biu/SN 2017egm as an SLSN-I occurring in a “normal” spiral galaxy (NGC 3191) in terms of stellar mass (several times 1010 M⊙) and metallicity (roughly solar). At redshift z = 0.031, Gaia17biu is also the lowest-redshift SLSN-I to date, and the absence of a larger population of SLSNe-I in dwarf galaxies of similar redshift suggests that metallicity is likely less important to the production of SLSNe-I than previously believed. With the smallest distance and highest apparent brightness for an SLSN-I, we are able to study Gaia17biu in unprecedented detail. Its pre-peak near-ultraviolet to optical color is similar to that of Gaia16apd and among the bluest observed for an SLSN-I, while its peak luminosity (Mg = ‑21 mag) is substantially lower than that of Gaia16apd. Thanks to the high signal-to-noise ratios of our spectra, we identify several new spectroscopic features that may help to probe the properties of these enigmatic explosions. We detect polarization at the ∼0.5% level that is not strongly dependent on wavelength, suggesting a modest, global departure from spherical symmetry. In addition, we put the tightest upper limit yet on the radio luminosity of an SLSN-I with early stage in the evolution of an SLSN-I. This limit largely rules out an association of this SLSN-I with known populations of gamma-ray-burst-like central engines.

  18. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) correspondingly large ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3) small velocity dispersions with respect to the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the `bulge' part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles and (6) starbursts. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognisable. However, pseudo and classical bulges can coexist in the same galaxy. I review two important implications of secular evolution: (1) The existence of pseudobulges highlights a problem with our theory of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering. We cannot explain galaxies that are completely bulgeless. Galaxy mergers are expected to happen often enough so that every giant galaxy should have a classical bulge. But we observe that bulgeless giant galaxies are common in field environments. We now realise that many dense centres of galaxies that we used to think are bulges were not made by mergers; they were grown out of disks. So the challenge gets more difficult. This is the biggest problem faced by our theory of galaxy formation. (2) Pseudobulges are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well-known, tight correlations between BH mass and the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge. This leads to the suggestion that there are two fundamentally different BH feeding processes. Rapid global inward gas transport in galaxy mergers leads to giant BHs that correlate with host ellipticals and classical bulges, whereas local and more stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies evidently involves too little energy feedback to result in BH-host coevolution. It is an important success of the secular evolution picture that morphological differences can be used to

  19. Ionized Gas Outflows from the MAGNUM Survey: NGC 1365 and NGC 4945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturi, Giacomo; Marconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Mingozzi, Matilde [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carniani, Stefano [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cresci, Giovanni [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Risaliti, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Mannucci, Filippo, E-mail: gventuri@arcetri.astro.it [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy)

    2017-11-24

    AGN feedback, acting through strong outflows accelerated in the nuclear region of AGN hosts, is invoked as a key ingredient for galaxy evolution by many models to explain the observed BH-galaxy scaling relations. Recently, some direct observational evidence of radiative mode feedback in action has been finally found in quasars at z >1.5. However, it is not possible to study outflows in quasars at those redshifts on small scales (≲100 pc), as spatial information is limited by angular resolution. This is instead feasible in nearby active galaxies, which are ideal laboratories to explore outflow structure and properties, as well as the effects of AGN on their host galaxies. In this proceeding we present preliminary results from the MAGNUM survey, which comprises nearby Seyfert galaxies observed with the integral field spectrograph VLT/MUSE. We focus on two sources, NGC 1365 and NGC 4945, that exhibit double conical outflows extending on distances >1 kpc. We disentangle the dominant contributions to ionization of the various gas components observed in the central ~5.3 kpc of NGC 1365. An attempt to infer outflow 3D structure in NGC 4945 is made via simple kinematic modeling, suggesting a hollow cone geometry.

  20. Ionized Gas Outflows from the MAGNUM Survey: NGC 1365 and NGC 4945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Venturi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AGN feedback, acting through strong outflows accelerated in the nuclear region of AGN hosts, is invoked as a key ingredient for galaxy evolution by many models to explain the observed BH-galaxy scaling relations. Recently, some direct observational evidence of radiative mode feedback in action has been finally found in quasars at z >1.5. However, it is not possible to study outflows in quasars at those redshifts on small scales (≲100 pc, as spatial information is limited by angular resolution. This is instead feasible in nearby active galaxies, which are ideal laboratories to explore outflow structure and properties, as well as the effects of AGN on their host galaxies. In this proceeding we present preliminary results from the MAGNUM survey, which comprises nearby Seyfert galaxies observed with the integral field spectrograph VLT/MUSE. We focus on two sources, NGC 1365 and NGC 4945, that exhibit double conical outflows extending on distances >1 kpc. We disentangle the dominant contributions to ionization of the various gas components observed in the central ~5.3 kpc of NGC 1365. An attempt to infer outflow 3D structure in NGC 4945 is made via simple kinematic modeling, suggesting a hollow cone geometry.

  1. X-ray Luminosity and Absorption Column Fluctuations in the H2O Maser Galaxy NGC 4258 from Weeks to Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon, A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors report monitoring of the 0.3-10 keV spectrum of NGC 4258 with the XMM-Newton observatory at five epochs over 1.5 years. They also report reprocessing of an overlapping four epoch series of archival Chandra observations (0.5-10 keV). By including earlier ASCA and Beppo-SAX observations, they present a new, nine year time-series of models fit to the X-ray spectrum of NGC 4258. They model the Chandra and XMM-Newton data self-consistently with partially absorbed, hard power-law, soft thermal plasma, and soft power-law components. Over the nine years, the photo-electric absorbing column (∼ 10 23 cm -2 ) did not vary detectably, except for a ∼ 40% drop between two ASCA epochs separated by 3 years (in 1993 and 1996) and a ∼ 60% rise between two XMM-Newton epochs separated by just 5 months (in 2001 and 2002). In contrast, factor of 2-3 changes are seen in absorbed flux on the timescale of years. These are uncorrelated with changes in absorbing column and indicative of central engine variability. The most rapid change in luminosity (5-10 keV) that the authors detect (with XMM-Newton and Chandra) is on the order of 30% over 19 days. The warped disk that is a known source of H 2 O maser emission in NGC 4258 is believed to cross the line of sight to the central engine. They propose that the variations in absorbing column arise from inhomogeneities in the rotating disk, as they sweep across the line of sight. They estimate that the inhomogeneities are ∼ 10 15 cm in size

  2. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the interstellar gas in the starburst core of M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.F.; Carr, J.; Joy, M.; Gaffney, N.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers used the McDonald Observatory Infrared Grating Spectrometer, to complete a program of spatially resolved spectroscopy of M82. The inner 300 pc of the starburst was observed with 4 inch (50 pc) resolution. Complete J, H and K band spectra with resolution 0.0035 micron (lambda/delta lambda=620 at K) were measured at the near-infrared nucleus of the galaxy. Measurements of selected spectral features including lines of FeII, HII and H2 were observed along the starburst ridge-line, so the relative distribution of the diagnostic features could be understood. This information was used to better define the extinction towards the starburst region, the excitation conditions in the gas, and to characterize the stellar populations there

  3. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the interstellar gas in the starburst core of M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Dan F.; Carr, John; Joy, Marshall; Gaffney, Niall

    1990-01-01

    Researchers used the McDonald Observatory Infrared Grating Spectrometer, to complete a program of spatially resolved spectroscopy of M82. The inner 300 pc of the starburst was observed with 4 inch (50 pc) resolution. Complete J, H and K band spectra with resolution 0.0035 micron (lambda/delta lambda=620 at K) were measured at the near-infrared nucleus of the galaxy. Measurements of selected spectral features including lines of FeII, HII and H2 were observed along the starburst ridge-line, so the relative distribution of the diagnostic features could be understood. This information was used to better define the extinction towards the starburst region, the excitation conditions in the gas, and to characterize the stellar populations there.

  4. The ISM in the M82 starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Steven

    1993-01-01

    We have observed (O 1) (63 microns) and (Si 2) (35 microns) in the central 700 pc of the starburst galaxy M82. The luminosities in these transitions are 7.1 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity and 6.2 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity, respectively, which are each approx. 0.15% of the bolometric luminosity from this region. The ratios of (O 1) line luminosity to (O 3), (Si 2) (35 microns), and to bolometric luminosities in M82 are similar to those in M42, M17, and Sgr A. These similarities, and the association of the bulk of the (O 1) and (Si 2) emission with the ionized emission, suggest that the dominant emission mechanism for (O 1) and (Si 2) in M82 is the same as in these Galactic regions, namely warm gas photodissociated by UV flux from the OB stars responsible for the nearby H 2 regions. We argue that shock or x ray heated gas or H 2 plasma is a minor contributor to the intensities of these fine structure lines. Both the (O 1) (53 microns) and the (Si 2) (35 microns) spectrum show an asymmetric line profile indistinguishable in shape from those of the (O 3) (52 and 88 microns) and (N 3) (57 microns) lines and similar to that of the more extended (C 2) 158 micron line measured previously in M82. We detect two distinct velocity components, which we attribute to emission from two regions at either end of the central bar, where the bar connects to an orbiting torus of neutral gas seen in H 1 and CO J = 1-0. We model separately the two velocity components and derive the physical conditions in these two regions. The clouds in these regions are small, R approx. 1-2 pc, have warm neutral gas surfaces, T approx. 200 K, and are concentrated with volume filling factors of approx. 0.02 and area filling factors of 1-5. The entire central region (R approx. 700 pc) is characterized by a large number, approx. 5 x 10(exp 4), of 2 x 10(exp 3) solar mass clouds with surface densities of approx. 3 x 10(exp 4) cm(exp -3), illuminated by FUV fluxes 10(exp 4) times the average local

  5. The Taxonomy of Blue Amorphous Galaxies. II. Structure and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-09-01

    Dwarf galaxies play an important role in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, and starbursts are believed to affect the structure and evolution of dwarf galaxies strongly. We have therefore embarked on a systematic study of 12 of the nearest dwarf galaxies thought to be undergoing bursts of star formation. These were selected primarily by their morphological type (blue ``amorphous'' galaxies). We show that these blue amorphous galaxies are not physically distinguishable from dwarfs selected as starbursting by other methods, such as blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and H II galaxies. All these classes exhibit surface brightness profiles that are exponential in the outer regions (r>~1.5re) but often have a predominantly central blue excess, suggesting a young burst in an older, redder galaxy. Typically, the starbursting ``cores'' are young (~107-108 yr) events compared to the older (~109-1010 yr) underlying galaxy (the ``envelope''). The ratio of the core to envelope in blue light ranges from essentially zero to about 2. These starbursts are therefore modest events involving only a few percent of the stellar mass. The envelopes have surface brightnesses that are much higher than typical dwarf irregular (dI) galaxies, so it is unlikely that there is a straightforward evolutionary relation between typical dIs and dwarf starburst galaxies. Instead we suggest that amorphous galaxies may repeatedly cycle through starburst and quiescent phases, corresponding to the galaxies with strong and weak/absent cores, respectively. Once amorphous galaxies use up the available gas (either through star formation or galactic winds) so that star formation is shut off, the faded remnants would strongly resemble dwarf elliptical galaxies. However, in the current cosmological epoch, this is evidently a slow process that is the aftermath of a series of many weak, recurring bursts. Present-day dE's must have experienced more rapid and intense evolution than this in the distant past.

  6. Spatially Resolved Dust, Gas, and Star Formation in the Dwarf Magellanic Irregular NGC 4449

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, D.; Wilson, G. W.; Draine, B. T.; Roussel, H.; Johnson, K. E.; Heyer, M. H.; Wall, W. F.; Grasha, K.; Battisti, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Rosa González, D.; Vega, O.; Puschnig, J.; Yun, M.; Östlin, G.; Evans, A. S.; Tang, Y.; Lowenthal, J.; Sánchez-Arguelles, D.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the relation between gas and star formation in subgalactic regions, ∼360 pc to ∼1.5 kpc in size, within the nearby starburst dwarf NGC 4449, in order to separate the underlying relation from the effects of sampling at varying spatial scales. Dust and gas mass surface densities are derived by combining new observations at 1.1 mm, obtained with the AzTEC instrument on the Large Millimeter Telescope, with archival infrared images in the range 8–500 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. We extend the dynamic range of our millimeter (and dust) maps at the faint end, using a correlation between the far-infrared/millimeter colors F(70)/F(1100) (and F(160)/F(1100)) and the mid-infrared color F(8)/F(24) that we establish for the first time for this and other galaxies. Supplementing our data with maps of the extinction-corrected star formation rate (SFR) surface density, we measure both the SFR–molecular gas and the SFR–total gas relations in NGC 4449. We find that the SFR–molecular gas relation is described by a power law with an exponent that decreases from ∼1.5 to ∼1.2 for increasing region size, while the exponent of the SFR–total gas relation remains constant with a value of ∼1.5 independent of region size. We attribute the molecular law behavior to the increasingly better sampling of the molecular cloud mass function at larger region sizes; conversely, the total gas law behavior likely results from the balance between the atomic and molecular gas phases achieved in regions of active star formation. Our results indicate a nonlinear relation between SFR and gas surface density in NGC 4449, similar to what is observed for galaxy samples. Based on observations obtained with the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano—a binational collaboration between INAOE (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts–Amherst (USA).

  7. Interactions, Starbursts, and Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Knapen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study how interactions between galaxies affect star formation within them by considering a sample of almost 1500 of the nearest galaxies, all within a distance of ∼45 Mpc. We use the far-IR emission to define the massive star formation rate (SFR, and then normalise the SFR by the stellar mass of the galaxy to obtain the specific star formation rate (SSFR. We explore the distribution of (SSFR with morphological type and with stellar mass. We calculate the relative enhancement of SFR and SSFR for each galaxy by normalising them by the median SFR and SSFR values of individual control samples of similar non-interacting galaxies. We find that both the median SFR and SSFR are enhanced in interacting galaxies, and more so as the degree of interaction is higher. The increase is moderate, reaching a maximum of a factor of 1.9 for the highest degree of interaction (mergers. While the SFR and SSFR are enhanced statistically by interactions, in many individual interacting galaxies they are not enhanced at all. Our study is based on a representative sample of nearby galaxies and should be used to place constraints on studies based on samples of galaxies at larger distances.

  8. THE AGES OF HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN NGC 2403 AND NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew, E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: bbinder@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: mce@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon Company, Tucson, AZ 85734 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have examined resolved stellar photometry from HST imaging surrounding 18 high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) candidates in NGC 300 and NGC 2403 as determined from combined Chandra/HST analysis. We have fit the color-magnitude distribution of the surrounding stars with stellar evolution models. All but one region in NGC 300 and two in NGC 2403 contain a population with an age between 20 and 70 Myr. One of the candidates is the ultraluminous X-ray source in NGC 2403, which we associate with a 60 {+-} 5 Myr old population. These age distributions provide additional evidence that 16 of these 18 candidates are HMXBs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the most common HMXB age in these galaxies is 40-55 Myr. This preferred age is similar to observations of HMXBs in the Small Magellanic Cloud, providing new evidence of this formation timescale, but in higher metallicity populations. We suggest that this preferred HMXB age is the result of the fortuitous combination of two physical effects. First, this is the age of a population when the greatest rate of core-collapse events should be occurring, maximizing neutron star production. Second, this is the age when B stars are most likely to be actively losing mass. We also discuss our results in the context of HMXB feedback in galaxies, confirming HMXBs as a potentially important source of energy for the interstellar medium in low-mass galaxies.

  9. Metallic Winds in Dwarf Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Valdez, F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; Esquivel, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present results from models of galactic winds driven by energy injected from nuclear (at the galactic center) and non-nuclear starbursts. The total energy of the starburst is provided by very massive young stellar clusters, which can push the galactic interstellar medium and produce an important outflow. Such outflow can be a well or partially mixed wind, or a highly metallic wind. We have performed adiabatic 3D N -Body/Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of galactic winds using the gadget-2 code. The numerical models cover a wide range of parameters, varying the galaxy concentration index, gas fraction of the galactic disk, and radial distance of the starburst. We show that an off-center starburst in dwarf galaxies is the most effective mechanism to produce a significant loss of metals (material from the starburst itself). At the same time, a non-nuclear starburst produces a high efficiency of metal loss, in spite of having a moderate to low mass loss rate.

  10. THE COMPACT STAR-FORMING COMPLEX AT THE HEART OF NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidge, T. J., E-mail: tim.davidge@nrc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2016-02-20

    We discuss integral field spectra of the compact star-forming complex that is the brightest near-infrared (NIR) source in the central regions of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The spectra cover the H and K passbands and were recorded with the Gemini NIR Spectrograph during subarcsecond seeing conditions. Absorption features in the spectrum of the star-forming complex are weaker than in the surroundings. An absorption feature is found near 1.78 μm that coincides with the location of a C{sub 2} bandhead. If this feature is due to C{sub 2} then the star-forming complex has been in place for at least a few hundred Myr. Emission lines of Brγ, [Fe ii], and He i 2.06 μm do not track the NIR continuum light. Pockets of star-forming activity that do not have associated concentrations of red supergiants, and so likely have ages <8 Myr, are found along the western edge of the complex, and there is evidence that one such pocket contains a rich population of Wolf–Rayet stars. Unless the star-forming complex is significantly more metal-poor than the surroundings, then a significant fraction of its total mass is in stars with ages <8 Myr. If the present-day star formation rate is maintained then the timescale to double its stellar mass ranges from a few Myr to a few tens of Myr, depending on the contribution made by stars older than ∼8 Myr. If—as suggested by some studies—the star-forming complex is centered on the galaxy’s nucleus, which presumably contains a large population of old and intermediate-age stars, then the nucleus of NGC 253 is currently experiencing a phase of rapid growth in its stellar mass.

  11. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN NGC 4631

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Roberto; Ghosh, Kajal K.

    2009-01-01

    We have re-examined the most luminous X-ray sources in the starburst galaxy NGC 4631, using XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT data. The most interesting source is a highly variable supersoft ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). We suggest that its bolometric luminosity ∼ a few 10 39 erg s -1 in the high/supersoft state: this is an order of magnitude lower than estimated in previous studies, thus reducing the need for extreme or exotic scenarios. Moreover, we find that this source was in a noncanonical low/soft (kT ∼ 0.1-0.3 keV) state during the Chandra observation. By comparing the high and low state, we argue that the spectral properties may not be consistent with the expected behavior of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. We suggest that recurrent super-Eddington outbursts with photospheric expansion from a massive white dwarf (M wd ∼> 1.3 M sun ), powered by nonsteady nuclear burning, may be a viable possibility, in alternative to the previously proposed scenario of a super-Eddington outflow from an accreting stellar-mass black hole. The long-term average accretion rate required for nuclear burning to power such white-dwarf outbursts in this source and perhaps in other supersoft ULXs is ∼(5-10) x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 : this is comparable to the thermal-timescale mass transfer rate invoked to explain the most luminous hard-spectrum ULXs (powered by black hole accretion). The other four most luminous X-ray sources in NGC 4631 (three of which can be classified as ULXs) appear to be typical accreting black holes, in four different spectral states: high/soft, convex-spectrum, power-law with soft excess, and simple power-law. None of them require masses ∼>50 M sun .

  12. [S IV] IN THE NGC 5253 SUPERNEBULA: IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Sara C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv (Israel); Lacy, John H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Turner, Jean L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt [Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Crosthwaite, Lucian P., E-mail: sara@wise.tau.ac.il [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, San Diego, CA 92127 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5 {mu}m line of S{sup +3} at 3.8 km s{sup -1} spectral and 1.''4 spatial resolution, using the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s{sup -1} and another of similar strength and FWHM 94 km s{sup -1} centered {approx}20 km s{sup -1} to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows toward us out of the molecular cloud, as in a 'blister' or 'champagne flow' or in the H II regions modelled by Zhu.

  13. COS-burst: Observations of the Impact of Starburst-driven Winds on the Properties of the Circum-galactic Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Timothy; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9AJ (United Kingdom); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bordoloi, Rongmon, E-mail: theckma1@jhu.edu [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    We report on observations made with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) using background quasi-stellar objects to probe the circum-galactic medium (CGM) around 17 low-redshift galaxies that are undergoing or have recently undergone a strong starburst (the COS-Burst program). The sightlines extend out to roughly the virial radius of the galaxy halo. We construct control samples of normal star-forming low-redshift galaxies from the COS/ HST archive that match the starbursts in terms of galaxy stellar mass and impact parameter. We find clear evidence that the CGM around the starbursts differs systematically compared to the control galaxies. The Ly α , Si iii, C iv, and possibly O vi absorption lines are stronger as a function of impact parameter, and the ratios of the equivalent widths of C iv/Ly α and Si iii/Ly α are both higher than in normal star-forming galaxies. We also find that the widths and the velocity offsets (relative to v {sub sys}) of the Ly α absorption lines are significantly larger in the CGM of the starbursts, implying velocities of the absorbing material that are roughly twice the halo virial velocity. We show that these properties can be understood as a consequence of the interaction between a starburst-driven wind and the preexisting CGM. These results underscore the importance of winds driven from intensely star-forming galaxies in helping drive the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. They also offer a new probe of the properties of starburst-driven winds and of the CGM itself.

  14. Radio Continuum and Far-infrared Emission from the Galaxies in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    . Stotal. Galaxy. (mJy/bm). (arc sec). (mJy). Morph. NGC 1407. 0.50. 6 × 6. 99 ± 10. Diffuse. NGC 1371. 0.22. 15 × 15. 19.7 ± 2. Linear. NGC 1415. 0.12. 4 × 4. 27 ± 3. Linear. NGC 1482. 0.81. 8 × 8. 280 ± 30. Diffuse. NGC 1385. 0.41. 15 × 15.