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Sample records for star forming core

  1. Small scale kinematics of massive star-forming cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kuo-Song

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the formation of Solar-type stars, the formation of massive stars (M>8 Msun) is not yet well understood. For Solar-type protostars, the presence of circumstellar or protoplanetary disks which provide a path for mass accretion onto protostars is well established. However, to date only few

  2. The Evolution of High-Mass Star-Forming Cores in the Nessie Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James; Rathborne, Jill; Sanhueza, Patricio; Whitaker, John Scott; Camarata, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    We aim to deduce the evolution of the ensemble properties of high-mass star-forming cores within a cluster-forming molecular clump. Two different theories of high-mass star-formation, "competitive accretion" and "monolithic collapse" make very different predictions for this evolution. In "competitive accretion" the clump will contain only low-mass cores in the early phases, and high-mass cores will be found in the later stages. In "monolithic collapse" high-mass cores are found early on, and the mass distribution of the cores will remain essentially unchanged. Both models predict cores to increase in temperature. We can classify evolutionary stage from Spitzer mid-IR images. We choose to study 6 cores in the Nessie nebula that span the complete range of protostellar evolution. Nessie is an ideal laboratory because all the cores are at the same distance and in the same Galactic environment.

  3. THE FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIZED, MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORES WITH RADIATIVE FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Andrew T.; McKee, Christopher F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cunningham, Andrew J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-23, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Klein, Richard I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: atmyers@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present a set of three-dimensional, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic calculations of the gravitational collapse of massive (300 M{sub Sun }), star-forming molecular cloud cores. We show that the combined effects of magnetic fields and radiative feedback strongly suppress core fragmentation, leading to the production of single-star systems rather than small clusters. We find that the two processes are efficient at suppressing fragmentation in different regimes, with the feedback most effective in the dense, central region and the magnetic field most effective in more diffuse, outer regions. Thus, the combination of the two is much more effective at suppressing fragmentation than either one considered in isolation. Our work suggests that typical massive cores, which have mass-to-flux ratios of about 2 relative to critical, likely form a single-star system, but that cores with weaker fields may form a small star cluster. This result helps us understand why the observed relationship between the core mass function and the stellar initial mass function holds even for {approx}100 M{sub Sun} cores with many thermal Jeans masses of material. We also demonstrate that a {approx}40 AU Keplerian disk is able to form in our simulations, despite the braking effect caused by the strong magnetic field.

  4. A Study of THT Cold Cores Population in the Star-Forming Region in Serpens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorellino, Eleonora

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to produce the Core Mass Function (CMF) of the Serpens star-forming region and confront it with the Initial Mass Function (IMF), the statistical distribution of initial star mass. As Testi & Sergent (1998) discovered, the power-law index of the slope of the CMF is very close to the one of the Salpeter's IMF (Salpeter, 1955): dN/dM / M2.35. This strongly suggests that the stellar IMF results from the fragmentation process in turbulent cloud cores rather than from stellar accretion mechanisms and gives a huge contribute to undestanding the star formation. For this work, we started from the data delivered by the European satellite Herschel and produced the maps of the Serpens with Unimap code (Piazzo et al, 2015). Hence we obtained a core catalogue with two different softwares getsources (Men'shchikov et al, 2012) and CuTEx (Molinari et al, 2011) and we eliminated from it any source that is not a core. A full discussion of the cores physical propreties as well as the whole region is under preparation.

  5. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORE MM1 OF W75N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Su, Y.-N.; Liu, S.-Y.; Yan, C.-H.; Chen, H.-R.; Kim, S.-J.

    2010-01-01

    The massive star-forming core MM1 of W75N was observed using the Submillimeter Array with ∼1'' and 2'' spatial resolutions at 217 and 347 GHz, respectively. From the 217 GHz continuum we found that the MM1 core consists of two sources, separated by about 1'': MM1a (∼0.6 M sun ) and MM1b (∼1.4 M sun ), located near the radio continuum sources VLA 2/VLA 3 and VLA 1, respectively. Within MM1b, two gas clumps were found to be expanding away from VLA 1 at about ±3 km s -1 , as a result of the most recent star formation activity in the region. Observed molecular lines show emission peaks at two positions, MM1a and MM1b: sulfur-bearing species have emission peaks toward MM1a, but methanol and saturated species at MM1b. We identified high-temperature (∼200 K) gas toward MM1a and the hot core in MM1b. This segregation may result from the evolution of the massive star-forming core. In the very early phase of star formation, the hot core is seen through the evaporation of dust ice-mantle species. As the mantle species are consumed via evaporation the high-temperature gas species (such as the sulfur-bearing molecules) become bright. The SiO molecule is unique in having an emission peak exactly at the VLA 2 position, probably tracing a shock powered by VLA 2. The observed sulfur-bearing species show similar abundances both in MM1a and MM1b, whereas the methanol and saturated species show significant abundance enhancement toward MM1b, by about an order of magnitude, compared to MM1a.

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION OF STAR-FORMING CORES IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, R. K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kirk, H. M. [Origins Institute, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Shirley, Y. L., E-mail: friesen@di.utoronto.ca [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We have performed a pointed survey of N{sub 2}D{sup +} 2-1 and N{sub 2}D{sup +} 3-2 emission toward 64 N{sub 2}H{sup +}-bright starless and protostellar cores in the Perseus molecular cloud using the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope and Kitt Peak 12 m telescope. We find a mean deuterium fractionation in N{sub 2}H{sup +}, R{sub D} = N(N{sub 2}D{sup +})/N(N{sub 2}H{sup +}), of 0.08, with a maximum R{sub D} = 0.2. In detected sources, we find no significant difference in the deuterium fractionation between starless and protostellar cores, nor between cores in clustered or isolated environments. We compare the deuterium fraction in N{sub 2}H{sup +} with parameters linked to advanced core evolution. We only find significant correlations between the deuterium fraction and increased H{sub 2} column density, as well as with increased central core density, for all cores. Toward protostellar sources, we additionally find a significant anticorrelation between R{sub D} and bolometric temperature. We show that the Perseus cores are characterized by low CO depletion values relative to previous studies of star-forming cores, similar to recent results in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. We suggest that the low average CO depletion is the dominant mechanism that constrains the average deuterium fractionation in the Perseus cores to small values. While current equilibrium and dynamic chemical models are able to reproduce the range of deuterium fractionation values we find in Perseus, reproducing the scatter across the cores requires variation in parameters such as the ionization fraction or the ortho-to-para-H{sub 2} ratio across the cloud, or a range in core evolution timescales.

  7. THE MOLECULAR EMISSION OF THE IRRADIATED STAR-FORMING CORE AHEAD OF HH 80N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masque, Josep M.; Beltran, Maria T.; Estalella, Robert; Girart, Josep M.; Viti, Serena

    2009-01-01

    We present a Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association Array molecular survey of the star-forming core ahead of HH 80N, the optically obscured northern counterpart of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 80/81. Continuum emission at 1.4 mm and 8 μm is detected at the center of the core, which confirms the presence of an embedded very young stellar object in the core. All detected molecular species arise in a ringlike structure, which is most clearly traced by CS (2-1) emission. This molecular ring suggests that strong molecular depletion occurs in the inner part of the core (at a radius of ≅0.1 pc and densities higher than ∼5 x 10 4 cm -3 ). Despite the overall morphology and kinematic similarity between the different species, there is significant molecular differentiation along the ringlike structure. The analysis of the chemistry along the core shows that part of this differentiation may be caused by the UV irradiation of the nearby HH 80N object that illuminates the part of the core facing HH 80N, which results in an abundance enhancement of some of the detected species.

  8. EXTERNALLY HEATED PROTOSTELLAR CORES IN THE OPHIUCHUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Johan E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrochemistry Laboratory, Mail Code 691, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jørgensen, Jes K.; Bjerkeli, Per, E-mail: johan.lindberg@nasa.gov [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2017-01-20

    We present APEX 218 GHz observations of molecular emission in a complete sample of embedded protostars in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. To study the physical properties of the cores, we calculate H{sub 2}CO and c -C{sub 3}H{sub 2} rotational temperatures, both of which are good tracers of the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas. We find that the H{sub 2}CO temperatures range between 16 K and 124 K, with the highest H{sub 2}CO temperatures toward the hot corino source IRAS 16293-2422 (69–124 K) and the sources in the ρ Oph A cloud (23–49 K) located close to the luminous Herbig Be star S1, which externally irradiates the ρ Oph A cores. On the other hand, the c -C{sub 3}H{sub 2} rotational temperature is consistently low (7–17 K) in all sources. Our results indicate that the c -C{sub 3}H{sub 2} emission is primarily tracing more shielded parts of the envelope whereas the H{sub 2}CO emission (at the angular scale of the APEX beam; 3600 au in Ophiuchus) mainly traces the outer irradiated envelopes, apart from in IRAS 16293-2422, where the hot corino emission dominates. In some sources, a secondary velocity component is also seen, possibly tracing the molecular outflow.

  9. CHEMICAL SEGREGATION TOWARD MASSIVE HOT CORES: THE AFGL2591 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Serra, I.; Zhang, Q. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Viti, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Martin-Pintado, J. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC/INTA), Ctra. de Torrejon a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); De Wit, W.-J., E-mail: ijimenez-serra@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: jmartin@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: wdewit@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-07-01

    We present high angular resolution observations (0.''5 Multiplication-Sign 0.''3) carried out with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward the AFGL2591 high-mass star-forming region. Our SMA images reveal a clear chemical segregation within the AFGL2591 VLA 3 hot core, where different molecular species (Types I, II, and III) appear distributed in three concentric shells. This is the first time that such a chemical segregation is ever reported at linear scales {<=}3000 AU within a hot core. While Type I species (H{sub 2}S and {sup 13}CS) peak at the AFGL2591 VLA 3 protostar, Type II molecules (HC{sub 3}N, OCS, SO, and SO{sub 2}) show a double-peaked structure circumventing the continuum peak. Type III species, represented by CH{sub 3}OH, form a ring-like structure surrounding the continuum emission. The excitation temperatures of SO{sub 2}, HC{sub 3}N, and CH{sub 3}OH (185 {+-} 11 K, 150 {+-} 20 K, and 124 {+-} 12 K, respectively) show a temperature gradient within the AFGL2591 VLA 3 envelope, consistent with previous observations and modeling of the source. By combining the H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH images, representative of the three concentric shells, we find that the global kinematics of the molecular gas follow Keplerian-like rotation around a 40 M{sub Sun} star. The chemical segregation observed toward AFGL2591 VLA 3 is explained by the combination of molecular UV photodissociation and a high-temperature ({approx}1000 K) gas-phase chemistry within the low extinction innermost region in the AFGL2591 VLA 3 hot core.

  10. Nitrogen fractionation in high-mass star-forming cores across the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, L.; Fontani, F.; Rivilla, V. M.; Sánchez-Monge, A.; Testi, L.; Beltrán, M. T.; Caselli, P.

    2018-04-01

    The fractionation of nitrogen (N) in star-forming regions is a poorly understood process. To put more stringent observational constraints on the N-fractionation, we have observed with the IRAM-30m telescope a large sample of 66 cores in massive star-forming regions. We targeted the (1-0) rotational transition of HN13C, HC15N, H13CN and HC15N, and derived the 14N/15N ratio for both HCN and HNC. We have completed this sample with that already observed by Colzi et al. (2018), and thus analysed a total sample of 87 sources. The 14N/15N ratios are distributed around the Proto-Solar Nebula value with a lower limit near the terrestrial atmosphere value (˜272). We have also derived the 14N/15N ratio as a function of the Galactocentric distance and deduced a linear trend based on unprecedented statistics. The Galactocentric dependences that we have found are consistent, in the slope, with past works but we have found a new local 14N/15N value of ˜400, i.e. closer to the Prosolar Nebula value. A second analysis was done, and a parabolic Galactocentric trend was found. Comparison with Galactic chemical evolution models shows that the slope until 8 kpc is consistent with the linear analysis, while the flattening trend above 8 kpc is well reproduced by the parabolic analysis.

  11. LOOKING INTO THE HEARTS OF BOK GLOBULES: MILLIMETER AND SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM IMAGES OF ISOLATED STAR-FORMING CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launhardt, R.; Henning, Th.; Khanzadyan, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Wolf, S.; Nutter, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bourke, T. L.; Zylka, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter continuum emission study of isolated low-mass star-forming cores in 32 Bok globules, with the aim to investigate the process of star formation in these regions. The submillimeter and millimeter dust continuum emission maps together with the spectral energy distributions are used to model and derive the physical properties of the star-forming cores, such as luminosities, sizes, masses, densities, etc. Comparisons with ground-based near-infrared and space-based mid- and far-infrared images from Spitzer are used to reveal the stellar content of the Bok globules, association of embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) with the submillimeter dust cores, and the evolutionary stages of the individual sources. Submillimeter dust continuum emission was detected in 26 out of the 32 globule cores observed. For 18 globules with detected (sub)millimeter cores, we derive evolutionary stages and physical parameters of the embedded sources. We identify nine starless cores, most of which are presumably prestellar, nine Class 0 protostars, and twelve Class I YSOs. Specific source properties like bolometric temperature, core size, and central densities are discussed as a function of evolutionary stage. We find that at least two thirds (16 out of 24) of the star-forming globules studied here show evidence of forming multiple stars on scales between 1000 and 50,000 AU. However, we also find that most of these small prototstar and star groups are comprised of sources with different evolutionary stages, suggesting a picture of slow and sequential star formation in isolated globules.

  12. TADPOL: A 1.3 mm Survey of Dust Polarization in Star-forming Cores and Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Kwon, Woojin; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Lamb, James W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    We present λ 1.3 mm Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy observations of dust polarization toward 30 star-forming cores and eight star-forming regions from the TADPOL survey. We show maps of all sources, and compare the ~2".5 resolution TADPOL maps with ~20" resolution polarization maps from single-dish submillimeter telescopes. Here we do not attempt to interpret the detailed B-field morphology of each object. Rather, we use average B-field orientations to derive conclusi...

  13. The unexpectedly large proportion of high-mass star-forming cores in a Galactic mini-starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, F.; Nony, T.; Louvet, F.; Marsh, K. A.; Bontemps, S.; Whitworth, A. P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Nguyáën Luong, Q.; Csengeri, T.; Maury, A. J.; Gusdorf, A.; Chapillon, E.; Könyves, V.; Schilke, P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Didelon, P.; Gaudel, M.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a critical unsolved problem, with profound implications for many areas of astrophysics1. In molecular clouds, stars are formed in cores—gas condensations sufficiently dense that gravitational collapse converts a large fraction of their mass into a star or small clutch of stars. In nearby star-formation regions, the core mass function (CMF) is strikingly similar to the IMF, suggesting that the shape of the IMF may simply be inherited from the CMF2-5. Here, we present 1.3 mm observations, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array telescope, of the active star-formation region W43-MM1, which may be more representative of the Galactic-arm regions where most stars form6,7. The unprecedented resolution of these observations reveals a statistically robust CMF at high masses, with a slope that is markedly shallower than the IMF. This seriously challenges our understanding of the origin of the IMF.

  14. The unexpectedly large proportion of high-mass star-forming cores in a Galactic mini-starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, F.; Nony, T.; Louvet, F.; Marsh, K. A.; Bontemps, S.; Whitworth, A. P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Csengeri, T.; Maury, A. J.; Gusdorf, A.; Chapillon, E.; Könyves, V.; Schilke, P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Didelon, P.; Gaudel, M.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a critical unsolved problem, with profound implications for many areas of astrophysics1. In molecular clouds, stars are formed in cores—gas condensations sufficiently dense that gravitational collapse converts a large fraction of their mass into a star or small clutch of stars. In nearby star-formation regions, the core mass function (CMF) is strikingly similar to the IMF, suggesting that the shape of the IMF may simply be inherited from the CMF2-5. Here, we present 1.3 mm observations, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array telescope, of the active star-formation region W43-MM1, which may be more representative of the Galactic-arm regions where most stars form6,7. The unprecedented resolution of these observations reveals a statistically robust CMF at high masses, with a slope that is markedly shallower than the IMF. This seriously challenges our understanding of the origin of the IMF.

  15. Star-forming Filament Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    New models of star-forming filamentary clouds are presented in order to quantify their properties and to predict their evolution. These 2D axisymmetric models describe filaments that have no core, one low-mass core, and one cluster-forming core. They are based on Plummer-like cylinders and spheroids that are bounded by a constant-density surface of finite extent. In contrast to 1D Plummer-like models, they have specific values of length and mass, they approximate observed column density maps, and their distributions of column density ( N -pdfs) are pole-free. Each model can estimate the star-forming potential of a core-filament system by identifying the zone of gas dense enough to form low-mass stars and by counting the number of enclosed thermal Jeans masses. This analysis suggests that the Musca central filament may be near the start of its star-forming life, with enough dense gas to make its first ∼3 protostars, while the Coronet filament is near the midpoint of its star formation, with enough dense gas to add ∼8 protostars to its ∼20 known stars. In contrast, L43 appears to be near the end of its star-forming life, since it lacks enough dense gas to add any new protostars to the two young stellar objectsalready known.

  16. Star-forming Filament Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    New models of star-forming filamentary clouds are presented in order to quantify their properties and to predict their evolution. These 2D axisymmetric models describe filaments that have no core, one low-mass core, and one cluster-forming core. They are based on Plummer-like cylinders and spheroids that are bounded by a constant-density surface of finite extent. In contrast to 1D Plummer-like models, they have specific values of length and mass, they approximate observed column density maps, and their distributions of column density ( N -pdfs) are pole-free. Each model can estimate the star-forming potential of a core-filament system by identifying the zone of gas dense enough to form low-mass stars and by counting the number of enclosed thermal Jeans masses. This analysis suggests that the Musca central filament may be near the start of its star-forming life, with enough dense gas to make its first ∼3 protostars, while the Coronet filament is near the midpoint of its star formation, with enough dense gas to add ∼8 protostars to its ∼20 known stars. In contrast, L43 appears to be near the end of its star-forming life, since it lacks enough dense gas to add any new protostars to the two young stellar objectsalready known.

  17. INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF NITROGEN-BEARING MOLECULAR SPECIES IN THE STAR-FORMING CORE AHEAD OF HH 80N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5 - parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Beltrán, Maria T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-10-10

    We present Very Large Array NH{sub 3} and Plateau de Bure Interferometer NH{sub 2}D and HN{sup 13}C observations of the star-forming core ahead of HH 80N, the optically obscured northern counterpart of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 80/81. The main goal is to determine the kinematical information of the high density regions of the core (n ∼> 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) missed in previous works due to the depletion of the species observed (e.g., CS). The obtained maps show different kinematical signatures between the eastern and western parts of the core, suggesting a possible dynamical interaction of the core with the HH 80/81/80N outflow. The analysis of the position-velocity (P-V) plots of these species rules out a previous interpretation of having a molecular ring-like structure with a radius of 6 × 10{sup 4} AU traced by CS infalling onto a central protostar found in the core (IRS1). A high degree of NH{sub 3} deuteration, with respect to the central part of the core harboring IRS1, is derived in the eastern part, where a dust condensation (SE) is located. This deuteration trend of NH{sub 3} suggests that SE is in a pre-stellar evolutionary stage, earlier than that of IRS1. Since SE is the closest condensation to the HH 80N/81/80N outflow, in a case of outflow-core dynamical interaction, it should be perturbed first and be the most evolved condensation in the core. Therefore, the derived evolutionary sequence for SE and IRS1 makes outflow triggered star formation on IRS1 unlikely.

  18. Infall toward High-Mass Star-forming Clumps and Cores: The [O I] 63 um Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James

    Although the 63 um line has often been used as a diagnostic of photodissociation regions, toward cold, dense infrared dark cloud clumps it is often seen in absorption. We aim to exploit this high optical depth in IRDCs to probe the infall velocities and mass accretion rates of high-mass star-forming clumps and cores. We will use "blue asymmetric" self-absorbed line profiles or redshifted absorption against the protostellar dust continuum to measure infall rates. We will target 8 IRDC clumps in NGC6334 and "Nessie" to probe how the infall rates may change with evolutionary stage.

  19. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping, E-mail: juarez@ice.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-07-20

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s{sup −1}, converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  20. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M.; Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhang, Qizhou; Qiu, Keping

    2017-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s −1 , converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  1. SN 2008jb: A 'LOST' CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA IN A STAR-FORMING DWARF GALAXY AT ∼10 Mpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, J. L.; Lee, J. C.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; McNaught, R.; Garradd, G.; Beacom, J. F.; Beshore, E.; Catelan, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Stanek, K. Z.; Szczygieł, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery and follow-up observations of SN 2008jb, a core-collapse supernova in the southern dwarf irregular galaxy ESO 302–14 (M B = –15.3 mag) at 9.6 Mpc. This nearby transient was missed by galaxy-targeted surveys and was only found in archival optical images obtained by the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey and the All-Sky Automated Survey. The well-sampled archival photometry shows that SN 2008jb was detected shortly after explosion and reached a bright optical maximum, V max ≅ 13.6 mag (M V,max ≅ –16.5). The shape of the light curve shows a plateau of ∼100 days, followed by a drop of ∼1.4 mag in the V band to a slow decline with an approximate 56 Co decay slope. The late-time light curve is consistent with 0.04 ± 0.01 M ☉ of 56 Ni synthesized in the explosion. A spectrum of the supernova obtained two years after explosion shows a broad, boxy Hα emission line, which is unusual for normal Type II-Plateau supernovae at late times. We detect the supernova in archival Spitzer and WISE images obtained 8-14 months after explosion, which show clear signs of warm (600-700 K) dust emission. The dwarf irregular host galaxy, ESO 302–14, has a low gas-phase oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H) = 8.2 (∼1/5 Z ☉ ), similar to those of the Small Magellanic Cloud and the hosts of long gamma-ray bursts and luminous core-collapse supernovae. This metallicity is one of the lowest among local (∼ 5 M ☉ for the star formation complex, assuming a single-age starburst. These properties are consistent with the expanding Hα supershells observed in many well-studied nearby dwarf galaxies, which are tell-tale signs of feedback from the cumulative effect of massive star winds and supernovae. The age estimated for the star-forming region where SN 2008jb exploded suggests a relatively high-mass progenitor star with an initial mass M ∼ 20 M ☉ and warrants further study. We discuss the implications of these findings in the study of core

  2. Analysis of Hydrogen Cyanide Hyperfine Spectral Components towards Star Forming Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loughnane R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although hydrogen cyanide has become quite a common molecular tracing species for a variety of astrophysical sources, it, however, exhibits dramatic non-LTE behaviour in its hyperfine line structure. Individual hyperfine components can be strongly boosted or suppressed. If these so-called hyperfine line anomalies are present in the HCN rotational spectra towards low or high mass cores, this will affect the interpretation of various physical properties such as the line opacity and excitation temperature in the case of low mass objects and infall velocities in the case of their higher mass counterparts. Anomalous line ratios are present either through the relative strengths of neighboring hyperfine lines or through the varying widths of hyperfine lines belonging to a particular rotational line. This work involves the first observational investigation of these anomalies in two HCN rotational transitions, J=1→0 and J=3→2, towards both low mass starless cores and high mass protostellar objects. The degree of anomaly in these two rotational transitions is considered by computing the ratios of neighboring hyperfine lines in individual spectra. Results indicate some degree of anomaly is present in all cores considered in our survey, the most likely cause being line overlap effects among hyperfine components in higher rotational transitions.

  3. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE STAR-FORMING CORE AHEAD OF HH 80N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masque, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert; Osorio, Mayra; Anglada, Guillem; Girart, Josep M.; Garay, Guido; Calvet, Nuria; Beltran, Maria T.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of continuum emission in the mid-infrared to millimeter wavelength range, complemented with ammonia observations, of the dense core ahead of the radio Herbig-Haro (HH) object HH 80N, found in the GGD 27 region. The continuum emission in all the observed bands peaks at the same position, consistent with the presence of an embedded object, HH 80N-IRS1, within the core. The distribution of the Very Large Array ammonia emission is well correlated with that of the dust, suggesting that photochemical effects caused by the nearby HH object do not play an important role in shaping this particular molecular emission. In order to unveil the nature of HH 80N-IRS1, we analyzed the continuum data of this source, using self-consistent models of protostellar collapse. We find that a young protostar surrounded by a slowly rotating collapsing envelope of radius ∼0.08 pc and 20 M sun plus a circumstellar disk of radius ∼300 AU and 0.6 M sun provide a good fit to the observed spectral energy distribution and to the maps at 350 μm, 1.2 mm, and 3.5 mm of HH 80N-IRS1. Besides, the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment and Plateau de Bure Interferometer continuum maps at 350 μm and 3.5 mm, respectively, reveal additional clumps in the continuum emission. Given the modeling results and the observed morphology of the emission, we propose a scenario consisting of a central embedded Class 0 object, HH 80N-IRS1, with the rest of the material of the HH 80N core possibly undergoing fragmentation that may lead to the formation of several protostars.

  4. TADPOL: A 1.3 mm SURVEY OF DUST POLARIZATION IN STAR-FORMING CORES AND REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Heiles, Carl; Kwon, Woojin; Carpenter, John M.; Lamb, James W.; Pillai, Thushara; Crutcher, Richard M.; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Looney, Leslie W.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Marrone, Daniel P.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Pound, Marc W.; Rahman, Nurur; Sandell, Göran

    2014-01-01

    We present λ 1.3 mm Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy observations of dust polarization toward 30 star-forming cores and eight star-forming regions from the TADPOL survey. We show maps of all sources, and compare the ∼2.''5 resolution TADPOL maps with ∼20'' resolution polarization maps from single-dish submillimeter telescopes. Here we do not attempt to interpret the detailed B-field morphology of each object. Rather, we use average B-field orientations to derive conclusions in a statistical sense from the ensemble of sources, bearing in mind that these average orientations can be quite uncertain. We discuss three main findings. (1) A subset of the sources have consistent magnetic field (B-field) orientations between large (∼20'') and small (∼2.''5) scales. Those same sources also tend to have higher fractional polarizations than the sources with inconsistent large-to-small-scale fields. We interpret this to mean that in at least some cases B-fields play a role in regulating the infall of material all the way down to the ∼1000 AU scales of protostellar envelopes. (2) Outflows appear to be randomly aligned with B-fields; although, in sources with low polarization fractions there is a hint that outflows are preferentially perpendicular to small-scale B-fields, which suggests that in these sources the fields have been wrapped up by envelope rotation. (3) Finally, even at ∼2.''5 resolution we see the so-called polarization hole effect, where the fractional polarization drops significantly near the total intensity peak. All data are publicly available in the electronic edition of this article

  5. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF LOW-MASS STAR-FORMING CORES. I. 7 mm SPECTROSCOPY OF CHAMAELEON MMS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordiner, Martin A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Wirström, Eva S.; Smith, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Observations are presented of emission lines from organic molecules at frequencies 32-50 GHz in the vicinity of Chamaeleon MMS1. This chemically rich dense cloud core harbors an extremely young, very low luminosity protostellar object and is a candidate first hydrostatic core. Column densities are derived and emission maps are presented for species including polyynes, cyanopolyynes, sulphuretted carbon chains, and methanol. The polyyne emission peak lies about 5000 AU from the protostar, whereas methanol peaks about 15,000 AU away. Averaged over the telescope beam, the molecular hydrogen number density is calculated to be 10 6 cm –3 and the gas kinetic temperature is in the range 5-7 K. The abundances of long carbon chains are very large and are indicative of a non-equilibrium carbon chemistry; C 6 H and HC 7 N column densities are 5.9 +2.9 –1.3 × 10 11 cm –2 and 3.3 +8.0 –1.5 × 10 12 cm –2 , respectively, which are similar to the values found in the most carbon-chain-rich protostars and prestellar cores known, and are unusually large for star-forming gas. Column density upper limits were obtained for the carbon-chain anions C 4 H – and C 6 H – , with anion-to-neutral ratios [C 4 H – ]/[C 4 H] 6 H – ]/[C 6 H] 3 N and c-C 3 H 2 were detected. The [DC 3 N]/[HC 3 N] ratio of approximately 4% is consistent with the value typically found in cold interstellar gas.

  6. Organic Chemistry of Low-Mass Star-Forming Cores. I. 7 mm Spectroscopy of Chamaeleon MMSl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martn A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Wirtstroem, Eva S.; Smith, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Observations are presented of emission lines from organic molecules at frequencies 32-50 GHz in the vicinity of Chamaeleon MMS1. This chemically rich dense cloud core harbors an extremely young, very low luminosity protostellar object and is a candidate first hydrostatic core. Column densities are derived and emission maps are presented for species including polyynes, cyanopolyynes, sulphuretted carbon chains, and methanol. The polyyne emission peak lies about 5000 AU from the protostar, whereas methanol peaks about 15,000 AU away. Averaged over the telescope beam, the molecular hydrogen number density is calculated to be 10(exp 6) / cubic cm and the gas kinetic temperature is in the range 5-7 K. The abundances of long carbon chains are very large and are indicative of a nonequilibrium carbon chemistry; C6H and HC7N column densities are 5.9(sup +2.9) (sub -1.3) x 10(exp 11) /cubic cm and 3.3 (sup +8.0)(sub -1.5) x 10(exp 12)/sq cm, respectively, which are similar to the values found in the most carbon-chain-rich protostars and prestellar cores known, and are unusually large for star-forming gas. Column density upper limits were obtained for the carbon chain anions C4H(-) and C6H(-), with anion-to-neutral ratios [C4H(-)]/[C4H] < 0.02% and [C6H(-l)]/[C6H] < 10%, consistent with previous observations in interstellar clouds and low-mass protostars. Deuterated HC,3 and c-C3H2 were detected. The [DC3N]/[HC,N] ratio of approximately 4% is consistent with the value typically found in cold interstellar gas.

  7. Star Forming Dense Cloud Cores in the TeV -ray SNR RX J1713.7-3946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.; Sato, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Torii, K.; Moribe, N.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H.; Inoue, T.; Inutsuka, S.; Tanaka, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Stutzki, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Anderl, S.; Bronfman, L.; Koo, B.C.

    2010-10-27

    RX J1713.7-3946 is one of the TeV {gamma}-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting synchrotron X rays. The SNR is associated with molecular gas located at {approx}1 kpc. We made new molecular observations toward the dense cloud cores, peaks A, C and D, in the SNR in the {sup 12}CO(J=2-1) and {sup 13}CO(J=2-1) transitions at angular resolution of 90 degrees. The most intense core in {sup 13}CO, peak C, was also mapped in the {sup 12}CO(J=4-3) transition at angular resolution of 38 degrees. Peak C shows strong signs of active star formation including bipolar outflow and a far-infrared protostellar source and has a steep gradient with a r{sup -2.2 {+-} 0.4} variation in the average density within radius r. Peak C and the other dense cloud cores are rim-brightened in synchrotron X rays, suggesting that the dense cloud cores are embedded within or on the outer boundary of the SNR shell. This confirms the earlier suggestion that the X rays are physically associated with the molecular gas (Fukui et al. 2003). We present a scenario where the densest molecular core, peak C, survived against the blast wave and is now embedded within the SNR. Numerical simulations of the shock-cloud interaction indicate that a dense clump can indeed survive shock erosion, since shock propagation speed is stalled in the dense clump. Additionally, the shock-cloud interaction induces turbulence and magnetic field amplification around the dense clump that may facilitate particle acceleration in the lower-density inter-clump space leading to the enhanced synchrotron X rays around dense cores.

  8. Are sdAs helium core stars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelisoli Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolved stars with a helium core can be formed by non-conservative mass exchange interaction with a companion or by strong mass loss. Their masses are smaller than 0.5 M⊙. In the database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, there are several thousand stars which were classified by the pipeline as dwarf O, B and A stars. Considering the lifetimes of these classes on the main sequence, and their distance modulus at the SDSS bright saturation, if these were common main sequence stars, there would be a considerable population of young stars very far from the galactic disk. Their spectra are dominated by Balmer lines which suggest effective temperatures around 8 000-10 000 K. Several thousand have significant proper motions, indicative of distances smaller than 1 kpc. Many show surface gravity in intermediate values between main sequence and white dwarf, 4.75 < log g < 6.5, hence they have been called sdA stars. Their physical nature and evolutionary history remains a puzzle. We propose they are not H-core main sequence stars, but helium core stars and the outcomes of binary evolution. We report the discovery of two new extremely-low mass white dwarfs among the sdAs to support this statement.

  9. The star-forming cores in the centre of the Trifid nebula (M 20): from Herschel to the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, M.; Persi, P.; Román-Zúñiga, C.; Elia, D.; Giovannelli, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.

    2018-04-01

    A new detailed infrared (IR) study of eight star-forming dense condensations (TCs) in M 20, the Trifid nebula, is presented. The aim is to determine the physical properties of the dust in such globules and establish the presence and properties of their embedded protostellar and/or young stellar population. For this, we analysed new Herschel far-IR and Calar Alto near-IR images of the region, combined with Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (Spitzer/IRAC) archival observations. We confirm the presence of several young stellar objects (YSOs), most with mid-IR colours of Class II sources in all but one of the observed cores. Five TCs are dominated in the far-IR by Class I sources with bolometric luminosities between 100 and 500 L⊙. We report the discovery of a possible counterjet to HH 399 and its protostellar engine inside the photodissociation region TC2, as well as a bipolar outflow system, signposted by symmetric H2 emission knots, embedded in TC3. The present results are compatible with previous suggestions that star formation has been active in the region for some 3 × 105 yr, and that the most recent events in some of these TCs may have been triggered by the expansion of the H II region. We also obtained a revised value for the distance to M 20 of 2.0 ± 0.1 kpc.

  10. A CATALOG OF LOW-MASS STAR-FORMING CORES OBSERVED WITH SHARC-II AT 350 μ m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, Akshaya; Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Dunham, Michael M.; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); II, Neal J. Evans [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Merello, Manuel [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali-INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Wu, Jingwen, E-mail: mdunham@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-08-01

    We present a catalog of low-mass dense cores observed with the SHARC-II instrument at 350 μ m. Our observations have an effective angular resolution of 10″, approximately 2.5 times higher than observations at the same wavelength obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory , albeit with lower sensitivity, especially to extended emission. The catalog includes 81 maps covering a total of 164 detected sources. For each detected source, we tabulate basic source properties including position, peak intensity, flux density in fixed apertures, and radius. We examine the uncertainties in the pointing model applied to all SHARC-II data and conservatively find that the model corrections are good to within ∼3″, approximately 1/3 of the SHARC-II beam. We examine the differences between two array scan modes and find that the instrument calibration, beam size, and beam shape are similar between the two modes. We also show that the same flux densities are measured when sources are observed in the two different modes, indicating that there are no systematic effects introduced into our catalog by utilizing two different scan patterns during the course of taking observations. We find a detection rate of 95% for protostellar cores but only 45% for starless cores, and demonstrate the existence of a SHARC-II detection bias against all but the most massive and compact starless cores. Finally, we discuss the improvements in protostellar classification enabled by these 350  μ m observations.

  11. VLBA DETERMINATION OF THE DISTANCE TO NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS. IV. A PRELIMINARY DISTANCE TO THE PROTO-HERBIG AeBe STAR EC 95 IN THE SERPENS CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Boden, Andrew F.; Torres, Rosa M.

    2010-01-01

    Using the Very Long Base Array, we observed the young stellar object EC 95 in the Serpens cloud core at eight epochs from 2007 December to 2009 December. Two sources are detected in our field and are shown to form a tight binary system. The primary (EC 95a) is a 4-5 M sun proto-Herbig AeBe object (arguably the youngest such object known), whereas the secondary (EC 95b) is most likely a low-mass T Tauri star. Interestingly, both sources are non-thermal emitters. While T Tauri stars are expected to power a corona because they are convective while they go down the Hayashi track, intermediate-mass stars approach the main sequence on radiative tracks. Thus, they are not expected to have strong superficial magnetic fields, and should not be magnetically active. We review several mechanisms that could produce the non-thermal emission of EC 95a and argue that the observed properties of EC 95a might be most readily interpreted if it possessed a corona powered by a rotation-driven convective layer. Using our observations, we show that the trigonometric parallax of EC 95 is π = 2.41 ± 0.02 mas, corresponding to a distance of 414.9 +4.4 -4.3 pc. We argue that this implies a distance to the Serpens core of 415 ± 5 pc and a mean distance to the Serpens cloud of 415 ± 25 pc. This value is significantly larger than previous estimates (d ∼ 260 pc) based on measurements of the extinction suffered by stars in the direction of Serpens. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is that these previous observations picked out foreground dust clouds associated with the Aquila Rift system rather than Serpens itself.

  12. FIRST MEASUREMENTS OF {sup 15}N FRACTIONATION IN N{sub 2}H{sup +} TOWARD HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontani, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Caselli, P.; Bizzocchi, L. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Palau, A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Ceccarelli, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-08-01

    We report on the first measurements of the isotopic ratio {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N in N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward a statistically significant sample of high-mass star-forming cores. The sources belong to the three main evolutionary categories of the high-mass star formation process: high-mass starless cores, high-mass protostellar objects, and ultracompact H ii regions. Simultaneous measurements of the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio in CN have been made. The {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios derived from N{sub 2}H{sup +} show a large spread (from ∼180 up to ∼1300), while those derived from CN are in between the value measured in the terrestrial atmosphere (∼270) and that of the proto-solar nebula (∼440) for the large majority of the sources within the errors. However, this different spread might be due to the fact that the sources detected in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} isotopologues are more than those detected in the CN ones. The {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio does not change significantly with the source evolutionary stage, which indicates that time seems to be irrelevant for the fractionation of nitrogen. We also find a possible anticorrelation between the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N (as derived from N{sub 2}H{sup +}) and the H/D isotopic ratios. This suggests that {sup 15}N enrichment could not be linked to the parameters that cause D enrichment, in agreement with the prediction by recent chemical models. These models, however, are not able to reproduce the observed large spread in {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N, pointing out that some important routes of nitrogen fractionation could be still missing in the models.

  13. Kinematics of a Young Low-mass Star-forming Core: Understanding the Evolutionary State of the First-core Candidate L1451-mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maureira, María José; Arce, Héctor G. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia, NY 14063 (United States); Pineda, Jaime E. [Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fernández-López, Manuel [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía, CCT-La Plata (CONICET), C.C.5, 1894, Villa Elisa (Argentina); Chen, Xuepeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mardones, Diego, E-mail: mariajose.maureira@yale.edu, E-mail: hector.arce@yale.edu [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-03-20

    We use 3 mm multiline and continuum CARMA observations toward the first hydrostatic core (FHSC) candidate L1451-mm to characterize the envelope kinematics at 1000 au scales and investigate its evolutionary state. We detect evidence of infall and rotation in the NH{sub 2}D(1{sub 1,1}–1{sub 0,1}), N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1–0), and HCN(1–0) molecular lines. We compare the position–velocity diagram of the NH{sub 2}D(1{sub 1,1}–1{sub 0,1}) line with a simple kinematic model and find that it is consistent with an envelope that is both infalling and rotating while conserving angular momentum around a central mass of about 0.06 M {sub ⊙}. The N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1–0) LTE mass of the envelope along with the inferred infall velocity leads to a mass infall rate of approximately 6 × 10{sup −6} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, implying a young age of 10{sup 4} years for this FHSC candidate. Assuming that the accretion onto the central object is the same as the infall rate, we obtain a minimum source size of 1.5–5 au, consistent with the size expected for a first core. We do not see any evidence of outflow motions or signs of outflow–envelope interaction at scales ≳2000 au. This is consistent with previous observations that revealed a very compact outflow (≲500 au). We conclude that L1451-mm is indeed at a very early stage of evolution, either a first core or an extremely young Class 0 protostar. Our results provide strong evidence that L1451-mm is the best candidate for being a bona fide first core.

  14. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY OF CORES WITHIN INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E. T.; Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Simon, R.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) contain compact cores which probably host the early stages of high-mass star formation. Many of these cores contain regions of extended, enhanced 4.5 μm emission, the so-called 'green fuzzies', which indicate shocked gas. Many cores also contain 24 μm emission, presumably from heated dust which indicates embedded protostars. Because 'green fuzzies' and 24 μm point sources both indicate star formation, we have developed an algorithm to identify star-forming cores within IRDCs by searching for the simultaneous presence of these two distinct indicators. We employ this algorithm on a sample of 190 cores found toward IRDCs, and classify the cores as 'active' if they contain a green fuzzy coincident with an embedded 24 μm source, and as 'quiescent' if they contain neither IR signature. We hypothesize that the 'quiescent' cores represent the earliest 'preprotostellar' (starless) core phase, before the development of a warm protostar, and that the 'active' cores represent a later phase, after the development of a protostar. We test this idea by comparing the sizes, densities, and maser activity of the 'active' and 'quiescent' cores. We find that, on average, 'active' cores have smaller sizes, higher densities, and more pronounced water and methanol maser activity than the 'quiescent' cores. This is expected if the 'quiescent' cores are in an earlier evolutionary state than the 'active' cores. The masses of 'active' cores suggest that they may be forming high-mass stars. The highest mass 'quiescent' cores are excellent candidates for the elusive high-mass starless cores.

  15. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, F.

    1988-01-01

    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs

  16. Do All O Stars Form in Star Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    The question whether or not massive stars can form in isolation or only in star clusters is of great importance for the theory of (massive) star formation as well as for the stellar initial mass function of whole galaxies (IGIMF-theory). While a seemingly easy question it is rather difficult to answer. Several physical processes (e.g. star-loss due to stellar dynamics or gas expulsion) and observational limitations (e.g. dust obscuration of young clusters, resolution) pose severe challenges to answer this question. In this contribution we will present the current arguments in favour and against the idea that all O stars form in clusters.

  17. STAR FORMATION IN THE TAURUS FILAMENT L 1495: FROM DENSE CORES TO STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalzl, Markus; Kainulainen, Jouni; Henning, Thomas; Launhardt, Ralf; Quanz, Sascha P.; Alves, Joao; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of dense structures in the L 1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud and examine its star-forming properties. In particular, we construct a dust extinction map of the filament using deep near-infrared observations, exposing its small-scale structure in unprecedented detail. The filament shows highly fragmented substructures and a high mass-per-length value of M line = 17 M sun pc -1 , reflecting star-forming potential in all parts of it. However, a part of the filament, namely B 211, is remarkably devoid of young stellar objects. We argue that in this region the initial filament collapse and fragmentation is still taking place and star formation is yet to occur. In the star-forming part of the filament, we identify 39 cores with masses from 0.4 to 10 M sun and preferred separations in agreement with the local Jeans length. Most of these cores exceed the Bonnor-Ebert critical mass, and are therefore likely to collapse and form stars. The dense core mass function follows a power law with exponent Γ = 1.2 ± 0.2, a form commonly observed in star-forming regions.

  18. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  19. FORMING AN O STAR VIA DISK ACCRETION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Keping; Zhang Qizhou; Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ∼10 5 L ☉ star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ∼80 M ☉ and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 ± 50 K and a mass of ∼13 M ☉ . The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M ☉ and a dynamical timescale of 8 × 10 3 yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH 3 OH and CH 3 CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 × 10 –3 M ☉ yr –1 , is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the 13 CO and C 18 O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass ∼10 M ☉ embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  20. Dark matter that can form dark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondolo, Paolo; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Hyung Do; Scopel, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The first stars to form in the Universe may be powered by the annihilation of weakly interacting dark matter particles. These so-called dark stars, if observed, may give us a clue about the nature of dark matter. Here we examine which models for particle dark matter satisfy the conditions for the formation of dark stars. We find that in general models with thermal dark matter lead to the formation of dark stars, with few notable exceptions: heavy neutralinos in the presence of coannihilations, annihilations that are resonant at dark matter freeze-out but not in dark stars, some models of neutrinophilic dark matter annihilating into neutrinos only and lighter than about 50 GeV. In particular, we find that a thermal DM candidate in standard Cosmology always forms a dark star as long as its mass is heavier than ≅ 50 GeV and the thermal average of its annihilation cross section is the same at the decoupling temperature and during the dark star formation, as for instance in the case of an annihilation cross section with a non-vanishing s-wave contribution

  1. STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE COOL CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher; Rupke, David S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and Hα (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to Hα luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and Hα morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given Hα luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/Hα ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) ∼ 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ∼0.05 M sun yr -1 in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ∼5 M sun yr -1 in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, Hα, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14 +18 -8 %. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  2. Molecular Diagnostics of the Interstellar Medium and Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.

    1996-03-01

    Selected examples of the use of observationally inferred molecular level populations and chemical compositions in the diagnosis of interstellar sources and processes important in them (and in other diffuse astrophysical sources) are given. The sources considered include the interclump medium of a giant molecular cloud, dark cores which are the progenitors of star formation, material responding to recent star formation and which may form further stars, and stellar ejecta (including those of supernovae) about to merge with the interstellar medium. The measurement of the microwave background, mixing of material between different nuclear burning zones in evolved stars and turbulent boundary layers (which are present in and influence the structures and evolution of all diffuse astrophysical sources) are treated.

  3. A necklace of dense cores in the high-mass star forming region G35.20-0.74 N: ALMA observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Etoka, S.; Galli, D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Moscadelli, L.; Stanke, T.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vig, S.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wang, K.-S.; Zinnecker, H.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Schisano, E.

    Context. The formation process of high-mass stars (with masses >8 M⊙) is still poorly understood, and represents a challenge from both the theoretical and observational points of view. The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is expected to provide observational evidence to better

  4. FILAMENTARY STRUCTURE OF STAR-FORMING COMPLEXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    The nearest young stellar groups are associated with 'hubs' of column density exceeding 10 22 cm -2 , according to recent observations. These hubs radiate multiple 'filaments' of parsec length, having lower column density and fewer stars. Systems with many filaments tend to have parallel filaments with similar spacing. Such 'hub-filament structure' is associated with all of the nine young stellar groups within 300 pc, forming low-mass stars. Similar properties are seen in infrared dark clouds forming more massive stars. In a new model, an initial clump in a uniform medium is compressed into a self-gravitating, modulated layer. The outer layer resembles the modulated equilibrium of Schmid-Burgk with nearly parallel filaments. The filaments converge onto the compressed clump, which collapses to form stars with high efficiency. The initial medium and condensations have densities similar to those in nearby star-forming clouds and clumps. The predicted structures resemble observed hub-filament systems in their size, shape, and column density, and in the appearance of their filaments. These results suggest that HFS associated with young stellar groups may arise from compression of clumpy gas in molecular clouds.

  5. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.

    2011-11-01

    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ≲ several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular

  6. Asymmetric core collapse of rapidly rotating massive star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkis, Avishai

    2018-02-01

    Non-axisymmetric features are found in the core collapse of a rapidly rotating massive star, which might have important implications for magnetic field amplification and production of a bipolar outflow that can explode the star, as well as for r-process nucleosynthesis and natal kicks. The collapse of an evolved rapidly rotating MZAMS = 54 M⊙ star is followed in three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the FLASH code with neutrino leakage. A rotating proto-neutron star (PNS) forms with a non-zero linear velocity. This can contribute to the natal kick of the remnant compact object. The PNS is surrounded by a turbulent medium, where high shearing is likely to amplify magnetic fields, which in turn can drive a bipolar outflow. Neutron-rich material in the PNS vicinity might induce strong r-process nucleosynthesis. The rapidly rotating PNS possesses a rotational energy of E_rot ≳ 10^{52} erg. Magnetar formation proceeding in a similar fashion will be able to deposit a portion of this energy later on in the supernova ejecta through a spin-down mechanism. These processes can be important for rare supernovae generated by rapidly rotating progenitors, even though a complete explosion is not simulated in the present study.

  7. Structure and stability of warm cores in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez Cabanell, J M [Departamento de Mecanica y Astronomia, Facultad de Matematicas, Burjasot-Valencia (Spain)

    1981-12-01

    Relativistic equations of structure are solved using Lamb's equations of state for warm neutron degenerate matter. The stability of isothermal cores in neutron stars is discussed and also the possible compatibility of the results obtained with experimental evidence is shown.

  8. Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, P.; Bejger, M.; Fortin, M.; Zdunik, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency (716Hz) and the maximum measured mass (2M {sub CircleDot}). The present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a first-order phase transition, both between pure phases, and into a mixed-phase state, are reviewed. The case of two disjoint families (branches) of rotating neutron stars is discussed and generic features of neutron-star families and of core-quakes triggered by the instabilities are considered. (orig.)

  9. Extreme Variables in Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Peña, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    in two multi-epoch infrared surveys: the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV). In order to further investigate the nature of the selected variable stars, we use photometric information arising from public surveys at near- to far-infrared wavelengths. In addition we have performed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up for a large subset of the samples arising from GPS and VVV. We analyse the widely separated two-epoch K-band photometry in the 5th, 7th and 8th data releases of the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. We find 71 stars with ΔK > 1 mag, including 2 previously known OH/IR stars and a Nova. Even though the mid-plane is mostly excluded from the dataset, we find the majority (66%) of our sample to be within known star forming regions (SFRs), with two large concentrations in the Serpens OB2 association (11 stars) and the Cygnus-X complex (27 stars). The analysis of the multi-epoch K-band photometry of 2010-2012 data from VVV covering the Galactic disc at |b| explained as arising from shock-excited emission caused by molecular outflows. Whether these molecular outflows are related to outbursts events cannot be confirmed from our data. Adding the GPS and VVV spectroscopic results, we find that between 6 and 14 objects are new additions to the FUor class from their close resemblance to the near-infrared spectra of FUors, and at least 23 more objects are new additions to the eruptive variable class. For most of these we are unable to classify them into any of the original definitions for this variable class. In any case, we are adding up to 37 new stars to the eruptive variable class which would double the current number of known objects. We note that most objects are found to be deeply embedded optically invisible stars, thus increasing the number of objects belonging to this subclass by a much larger factor. In general, objects in our samples which are found to be likely eruptive variable stars show a mixture of

  10. Self-assembly of star micelle into vesicle in solvents of variable quality: the star micelle retains its core-shell nanostructure in the vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nijuan; He, Qun; Bu, Weifeng

    2015-03-03

    Intra- and intermolecular interactions of star polymers in dilute solutions are of fundamental importance for both theoretical interest and hierarchical self-assembly into functional nanostructures. Here, star micelles with a polystyrene corona and a small ionic core bearing platinum(II) complexes have been regarded as a model of star polymers to mimic their intra- and interstar interactions and self-assembled behaviors in solvents of weakening quality. In the chloroform/methanol mixture solvents, the star micelles can self-assemble to form vesicles, in which the star micelles shrink significantly and are homogeneously distributed on the vesicle surface. Unlike the morphological evolution of conventional amphiphiles from micellar to vesicular, during which the amphiphilic molecules are commonly reorganized, the star micelles still retain their core-shell nanostructures in the vesicles and the coronal chains of the star micelle between the ionic cores are fully interpenetrated.

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF CLOUD CORES AND THE FORMATION OF STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Keto, Eric

    2010-01-01

    For a number of starless cores, self-absorbed molecular line and column density observations have implied the presence of large-amplitude oscillations. We examine the consequences of these oscillations on the evolution of the cores and the interpretation of their observations. We find that the pulsation energy helps support the cores and that the dissipation of this energy can lead toward instability and star formation. In this picture, the core lifetimes are limited by the pulsation-decay timescales, dominated by non-linear mode-mode coupling, and on the order of ≅ few x 10 5 -10 6 yr. Notably, this is similar to what is required to explain the relatively low rate of conversion of cores into stars. For cores with large-amplitude oscillations, dust continuum observations may appear asymmetric or irregular. As a consequence, some of the cores that would be classified as super-critical may be dynamically stable when oscillations are taken into account. Thus, our investigation motivates a simple hydrodynamic picture, capable of reproducing many of the features of the progenitors of stars without the inclusion of additional physical processes, such as large-scale magnetic fields.

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF CLOUD CORES AND THE FORMATION OF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Keto, Eric [Smithsonian Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-09-20

    For a number of starless cores, self-absorbed molecular line and column density observations have implied the presence of large-amplitude oscillations. We examine the consequences of these oscillations on the evolution of the cores and the interpretation of their observations. We find that the pulsation energy helps support the cores and that the dissipation of this energy can lead toward instability and star formation. In this picture, the core lifetimes are limited by the pulsation-decay timescales, dominated by non-linear mode-mode coupling, and on the order of {approx_equal} few x 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} yr. Notably, this is similar to what is required to explain the relatively low rate of conversion of cores into stars. For cores with large-amplitude oscillations, dust continuum observations may appear asymmetric or irregular. As a consequence, some of the cores that would be classified as super-critical may be dynamically stable when oscillations are taken into account. Thus, our investigation motivates a simple hydrodynamic picture, capable of reproducing many of the features of the progenitors of stars without the inclusion of additional physical processes, such as large-scale magnetic fields.

  13. OH outflows in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, I.F.; Ruiz, A.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Canto, J.; Universidad de Puer; Universidad de Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)

    1987-01-01

    The results from a survey for high-velocity OH in molecular outflows in star-forming regions are reported. High-velocity OH was detected in absorption in nine of these regions. When the telescope beam can resolve the outflows, they show similar anisotropic angular distribution as the redshifted and blueshifted CO. The OH transitions are markedly subthermal since for several sources it is found that the radiation that is being absorbed is a background continuum constituted by the cosmic component plus a small Galactic contribution. The absorbing OH appears to trace gas with higher velocities and lower densities than does the CO and, in some cases, provides information on the structure of the outflows at larger distances from the central source. At scales of 0.1 pc, the outflows are elongated in the direction of the steepest density gradient of the ambient cloud, suggesting that the large-scale collimation of the outflow is produced by the density structure of the ambient cloud. 29 references

  14. Field O stars: formed in situ or as runaways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2012-08-01

    A significant fraction of massive stars in the Milky Way and other galaxies are located far from star clusters and star-forming regions. It is known that some of these stars are runaways, i.e. possess high space velocities (determined through the proper motion and/or radial velocity measurements), and therefore most likely were formed in embedded clusters and then ejected into the field because of dynamical few-body interactions or binary-supernova explosions. However, there exists a group of field O stars whose runaway status is difficult to prove via direct proper motion measurements (e.g. in the Magellanic Clouds) or whose (measured) low space velocities and/or young ages appear to be incompatible with their large separation from known star clusters. The existence of this group led some authors to believe that field O stars can form in situ. Since the question of whether or not O stars can form in isolation is of crucial importance for star formation theory, it is important to thoroughly test candidates of such stars in order to improve the theory. In this paper, we examine the runaway status of the best candidates for isolated formation of massive stars in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds by searching for bow shocks around them, by using the new reduction of the Hipparcos data, and by searching for stellar systems from which they could originate within their lifetimes. We show that most of the known O stars thought to have formed in isolation are instead very likely runaways. We show also that the field must contain a population of O stars whose low space velocities and/or young ages are in apparent contradiction to the large separation of these stars from their parent clusters and/or the ages of these clusters. These stars (the descendants of runaway massive binaries) cannot be traced back to their parent clusters and therefore can be mistakenly considered as having formed in situ. We argue also that some field O stars could be detected in optical

  15. Core Cross-linked Star Polymers for Temperature/pH Controlled Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez-Bustos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAFT polymerization with cross-linking was used to prepare core cross-linked star polymers bearing temperature sensitive arms. The arms consisted of a diblock copolymer containing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm and 4-methacryloyloxy benzoic acid (4MBA in the temperature sensitive block and poly(hexyl acrylate forming the second hydrophobic block, while ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate was used to form the core. The acid comonomer provides pH sensitivity to the arms and also increases the transition temperature of polyNIPAAm to values in the range of 40 to 46°C. Light scattering and atomic force microscopy studies suggest that loose core star polymers were obtained. The star polymers were loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, an anticancer agent, in values of up to 30 w/w%. In vitro release experiments were performed at different temperatures and pH values, as well as with heating and cooling temperature cycles. Faster drug release was obtained at 42°C or pH 6, compared to normal physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.4. The drug carriers prepared acted as nanopumps changing the release kinetics of 5-FU when temperatures cycles were applied, in contrast with release rates at a constant temperature. The prepared core cross-linked star polymers represent advanced drug delivery vehicles optimized for 5-FU with potential application in cancer treatment.

  16. Exchange of transverse plasmons and electrical conductivity of neutron star cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shternin, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    We study the electrical conductivity in magnetized neutron star cores produced by collisions between charged particles. We take into account the ordinary exchange of longitudinal plasmons and the exchange of transverse plasmons in collisions between particles. The exchange of transverse plasmons is important for collisions between relativistic particles, but it has been disregarded previously when calculating the electrical conductivity. We show that taking this exchange into account changes the electrical conductivity, including its temperature dependence (thus, for example, the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity along the magnetic field in the low-temperature limit takes the form R parallel ∝ T 5/3 instead of the standard dependence R parallel ∝ T 2 for degenerate Fermi systems). We briefly describe the effect of possible neutron and proton superfluidity in neutron star cores on the electrical conductivity and discuss various scenarios for the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields

  17. LAMBDA-hyperon superfluidity in neutron star cores

    CERN Document Server

    Takatsuka, T

    2000-01-01

    Superfluidity of LAMBDA hyperons in neutron star cores is investigated by a realistic approach to use reliable LAMBDA LAMBDA interactions and the effective mass of LAMBDA based on the G-matrix calculations. It is found that LAMBDA superfluid can exist at rho approx = (rho sub t approx rho sub d) with rho sub t approx = 2 rho sub 0 (rho sub 0 being the nuclear density) and rho sub d approx = (3 - 4.5)rho sub 0 , depending on hyperon core models.

  18. Dispersion and decay of collective modes in neutron star cores

    OpenAIRE

    Kobyakov, D. N.; Pethick, C. J.; Reddy, S.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the frequencies of collective modes of neutrons, protons and electrons in the outer core of neutron stars. The neutrons and protons are treated in a hydrodynamic approximation and the electrons are regarded as collisionless. The coupling of the nucleons to the electrons leads to Landau damping of the collective modes and to significant dispersion of the low-lying modes. We investigate the sensitivity of the mode frequencies to the strength of entrainment between neutrons and prot...

  19. Exploring the Dust Content, Metallicity, Star Formation and AGN Activity in Distant Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies Using Cosmic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walth, Gregory; Egami, Eiichi; Clément, Benjamin; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rawle, Tim; Richard, Johan; Dessauges, Miroslava; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Ebeling, Harald; Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley; Cosens, Maren; Herschel Lensing Survey

    2018-01-01

    We present our recent ALMA observations of Herschel-detected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and how they compliment our near-infrared spectroscopic observations of their rest-frame optical nebular emission. This provides the complete picture of star formation; from the molecular gas that fuels star formation, to the dust emission which are the sites of star formation, and the nebular emission which is the gas excited by the young stars. DSFGs undergo the largest starbursts in the Universe, contributing to the bulk of the cosmic star formation rate density between redshifts z = 1 - 4. Internal processes within high-redshift DSFGs remains largely unexplored; such as feedback from star formation, the role of turbulence, gas surface density of molecular gas, AGN activity, and the rates of metal production. Much that is known about DSFGs star formation properties comes from their CO and dust emission. In order to fully understand the star formation history of DSFGs, it is necessary to observe their optical nebular emission. Unfortunately, UV/optical emission is severely attenuated by dust, making it challenging to detect. With the Herschel Lensing Survey, a survey of the cores of almost 600 massive galaxy clusters, we are able to probe faint dust-attenuated nebular emission. We are currently conducting a new survey using Keck/OSIRIS to resolve a sample of gravitationally lensed DSFGs from the Herschel Lensing Survey (>100 mJy, with SFRs >100 Msun/yr) at redshifts z=1-4 with magnifications >10x all with previously detected nebular emission lines. We present the physical and resolved properties of gravitationally lensed DSFGs at unprecedented spatial scales; such as ionization, metallicity, AGN activity, and dust attenuation.

  20. Optical polarimetry of star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, T M

    1987-01-01

    The polarimetric investigation of nebulosity associated with loss-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar objects is detailed. Three regions of on-going star formation are considered, specifically, the Haro 6-5 and the HL/XZ Tau systems - both associated with dark clouds in the Taurus complex - and the PV Cephei nebulosity near NGC7023. In each region the imaging observations suggest bipolarity in the optical structure of the nebulosity, and the polarimetric data are used to determine the locations of the illuminating sources. Evidence is found for the association of circumstellar discs of obscuration with the PMS objects Haro 6-5A (FS Tau), Haro 6-5B, HL Tau, and PV Cephei. In each case the polarimetric data suggest that the local magnetic field has played an important role in the evolution of the star and the circumstellar material. Examination of the source-region polarization maps suggests that at least one of the objects considered is surrounded by a dust grain-aligning magnetic field with a predominantly toroidal geometry in the plane of the circumstellar disc. Implications for current theories of outflow acceleration and cloud evolution are discussed.

  1. NGVLA Observations of Dense Gas Filaments in Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, James; Chen, Mike; Keown, Jared; GAS Team, KEYSTONE Team

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations of continuum emission from nearby star-forming regions with Herschel and JCMT have revealed that filaments are ubiquitous structures within molecular clouds. Such filaments appear to be intimately connected to star formation, with those having column densities of AV > 8 hosting the majority of prestellar cores and young protostars in clouds. Indeed, this “threshold” can be explained simply as the result of supercritical cylinder fragmentation. How specifically star-forming filaments form in molecular clouds, however, remains unclear, though gravity and turbulence are likely involved. Observations of their kinematics are needed to understand how mass flows both onto and through these filaments. We show here results from two recent surveys, the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS) and the K-band Examinations of Young Stellar Object Natal Environments (KEYSTONE) that have used the Green Bank Telescope’s K-band Focal Plane Array instrument to map NH3 (1,1) emission from dense gas in nearby star-forming regions. Data from both surveys show that NH3 emission traces extremely well the high column density gas across these star-forming regions. In particular, the GAS results for NGC 1333 show NH3-based velocity gradients either predominantly parallel or perpendicular to the filament spines. Though the GAS and KEYSTONE data are vital for probing filaments, higher resolutions than possible with the GBT alone are needed to examine the kinematic patterns on the 0.1-pc scales of star-forming cores within filaments. We describe how the Next Generation Very Large Array (NGVLA) will uniquely provide the key wide-field data of high sensitivity needed to explore how ambient gas in molecular clouds forms filaments that evolve toward star formation.

  2. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  3. B- AND A-TYPE STARS IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), τ Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  4. STAR-FORMING OR STARBURSTING? THE ULTRAVIOLET CONUNDRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Hong, S.; Kennicutt, R.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C.; Portouw, J.; Gordon, K. D.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to starburst galaxies, normal star-forming galaxies have been shown to display a much larger dispersion of the dust attenuation at fixed reddening through studies of the IRX-β diagram (the IR/UV ratio 'IRX' versus the UV color 'β'). To investigate the causes of this larger dispersion and attempt to isolate second parameters, we have used GALEX UV, ground-based optical, and Spitzer infrared imaging of eight nearby galaxies, and examined the properties of individual UV and 24 μm selected star-forming regions. We concentrated on star-forming regions, in order to isolate simpler star formation histories than those that characterize whole galaxies. We find that (1) the dispersion is not correlated with the mean age of the stellar populations; (2) a range of dust geometries and dust extinction curves are the most likely causes for the observed dispersion in the IRX-β diagram, (3) together with some potential dilution of the most recent star-forming population by older unrelated bursts, at least in the case of star-forming regions within galaxies; and (4) we also recover some general characteristics of the regions, including a tight positive correlation between the amount of dust attenuation and the metal content. Although generalizing our results to whole galaxies may not be immediate, the possibility of a range of dust extinction laws and geometries should be accounted for in the latter systems as well.

  5. Fast core rotation in red-giant stars as revealed by gravity-dominated mixed modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, P.G.; Montalban, J.; Kallinger, T.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; García, R.A.; Hekker, S.; Dupret, M.-A.; Mosser, B.; Eggenberger, P.; Stello, D.; Elsworth, Y.; Frandsen, S.; Carrier, F.; Hillen, M.; Gruberbauer, M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Miglio, A.; Valentini, M.; Bedding, T.R.; Kjeldsen, H.; Girouard, F.R.; Hall, J.R.; Ibrahim, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    When the core hydrogen is exhausted during stellar evolution, the central region of a star contracts and the outer envelope expands and cools, giving rise to a red giant. Convection takes place over much of the star's radius. Conservation of angular momentum requires that the cores of these stars

  6. CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA EQUATIONS OF STATE BASED ON NEUTRON STAR OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, A. W.; Hempel, M.; Fischer, T.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the currently available equations of state for core-collapse supernova simulations give large neutron star radii and do not provide large enough neutron star masses, both of which are inconsistent with some recent neutron star observations. In addition, one of the critical uncertainties in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the nuclear symmetry energy, is not fully explored by the currently available equations of state. In this article, we construct two new equations of state which match recent neutron star observations and provide more flexibility in studying the dependence on nuclear matter properties. The equations of state are also provided in tabular form, covering a wide range in density, temperature, and asymmetry, suitable for astrophysical simulations. These new equations of state are implemented into our spherically symmetric core-collapse supernova model, which is based on general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics with three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport. The results are compared with commonly used equations of state in supernova simulations of 11.2 and 40 M ☉ progenitors. We consider only equations of state which are fitted to nuclear binding energies and other experimental and observational constraints. We find that central densities at bounce are weakly correlated with L and that there is a moderate influence of the symmetry energy on the evolution of the electron fraction. The new models also obey the previously observed correlation between the time to black hole formation and the maximum mass of an s = 4 neutron star

  7. Spatial and kinematic structure of Monoceros star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costado, M. T.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2018-05-01

    The principal aim of this work is to study the velocity field in the Monoceros star-forming region using the radial velocity data available in the literature, as well as astrometric data from the Gaia first release. This region is a large star-forming complex formed by two associations named Monoceros OB1 and OB2. We have collected radial velocity data for more than 400 stars in the area of 8 × 12 deg2 and distance for more than 200 objects. We apply a clustering analysis in the subspace of the phase space formed by angular coordinates and radial velocity or distance data using the Spectrum of Kinematic Grouping methodology. We found four and three spatial groupings in radial velocity and distance variables, respectively, corresponding to the Local arm, the central clusters forming the associations and the Perseus arm, respectively.

  8. MERGER SIGNATURES IN THE DYNAMICS OF STAR-FORMING GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Martínez-Galarza, Juan R.; Zezas, Andreas; Lanz, Lauranne

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of integral field spectrographs and millimeter interferometers has revealed the internal dynamics of many hundreds of star-forming galaxies. Spatially resolved kinematics have been used to determine the dynamical status of star-forming galaxies with ambiguous morphologies, and constrain the importance of galaxy interactions during the assembly of galaxies. However, measuring the importance of interactions or galaxy merger rates requires knowledge of the systematics in kinematic diagnostics and the visible time with merger indicators. We analyze the dynamics of star-forming gas in a set of binary merger hydrodynamic simulations with stellar mass ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. We find that the evolution of kinematic asymmetries traced by star-forming gas mirrors morphological asymmetries derived from mock optical images, in which both merger indicators show the largest deviation from isolated disks during strong interaction phases. Based on a series of simulations with various initial disk orientations, orbital parameters, gas fractions, and mass ratios, we find that the merger signatures are visible for ∼0.2–0.4 Gyr with kinematic merger indicators but can be approximately twice as long for equal-mass mergers of massive gas-rich disk galaxies designed to be analogs of z ∼ 2–3 submillimeter galaxies. Merger signatures are most apparent after the second passage and before the black holes coalescence, but in some cases they persist up to several hundred Myr after coalescence. About 20%–60% of the simulated galaxies are not identified as mergers during the strong interaction phase, implying that galaxies undergoing violent merging process do not necessarily exhibit highly asymmetric kinematics in their star-forming gas. The lack of identifiable merger signatures in this population can lead to an underestimation of merger abundances in star-forming galaxies, and including them in samples of star-forming disks may bias the measurements of disk

  9. Dispersion and decay of collective modes in neutron star cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyakov, D. N.; Pethick, C. J.; Reddy, S.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-08-01

    We calculate the frequencies of collective modes of neutrons, protons, and electrons in the outer core of neutron stars. The neutrons and protons are treated in a hydrodynamic approximation and the electrons are regarded as collisionless. The coupling of the nucleons to the electrons leads to Landau damping of the collective modes and to significant dispersion of the low-lying modes. We investigate the sensitivity of the mode frequencies to the strength of entrainment between neutrons and protons, which is not well characterized. The contribution of collective modes to the thermal conductivity is evaluated.

  10. Cosmic-ray energy densities in star-forming galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persic Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy density of cosmic ray protons in star forming galaxies can be estimated from π0-decay γ-ray emission, synchrotron radio emission, and supernova rates. To galaxies for which these methods can be applied, the three methods yield consistent energy densities ranging from Up ~ 0.1 − 1 eV cm−3 to Up ~ 102 − 103 eV cm−3 in galaxies with low to high star-formation rates, respectively.

  11. Smashing a Jet into a Cloud to Form Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    What happens when the highly energetic jet from the center of an active galaxy rams into surrounding clouds of gas and dust? A new study explores whether this might be a way to form stars.The authors simulations at an intermediate (top) and final (bottom) stage show the compression in the gas cloud as a jet (red) enters from the left. Undisturbed cloud material is shown in blue, whereas green corresponds to cold, compressed gas actively forming stars. [Fragile et al. 2017]Impacts of FeedbackCorrelation between properties of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest that there is some means of communication between them. For this reason, we suspect that feedback from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the form of jets, for instance controls the size of the galaxy by influencing star formation. But how does this process work?AGN feedback can be either negative or positive. In negative feedback, the gas necessary for forming stars is heated or dispersed by the jet, curbing or halting star formation. In positive feedback, jets propagate through the surrounding gas with energies high enough to create compression in the gas, but not so high that they heat it. The increased density can cause the gas to collapse, thereby triggering star formation.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Chris Fragile (College of Charleston) modeled what happens when an enormous AGN jet slams into a dwarf-galaxy-sized, inactive cloud of gas. In particular, the team explored the possibility of star-forming positive feedback with the goal of reproducing recent observations of something called Minkowskis Object, a stellar nursery located at the endpoint of a radio jet emitted from the active galaxy NGC 541.The star formation rate in the simulated cloud increases dramatically as a result of the jets impact, reaching the rate currently observed for Minkowskis Objects within 20 million years. [Fragile et al. 2017]Triggering Stellar BirthFragile and collaborators used a

  12. HUBBLE'S PANORAMIC PORTRAIT OF A VAST STAR-FORMING REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a panoramic portrait of a vast, sculpted landscape of gas and dust where thousands of stars are being born. This fertile star-forming region, called the 30 Doradus Nebula, has a sparkling stellar centerpiece: the most spectacular cluster of massive stars in our cosmic neighborhood of about 25 galaxies. The mosaic picture shows that ultraviolet radiation and high-speed material unleashed by the stars in the cluster, called R136 [the large blue blob left of center], are weaving a tapestry of creation and destruction, triggering the collapse of looming gas and dust clouds and forming pillar-like structures that are incubators for nascent stars. The photo offers an unprecedented, detailed view of the entire inner region of 30 Doradus, measuring 200 light-years wide by 150 light-years high. The nebula resides in the Large Magellanic Cloud (a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way), 170,000 light-years from Earth. Nebulas like 30 Doradus are the 'signposts' of recent star birth. High-energy ultraviolet radiation from the young, hot, massive stars in R136 causes the surrounding gaseous material to glow. Previous Hubble telescope observations showed that R136 contains several dozen of the most massive stars known, each about 100 times the mass of the Sun and about 10 times as hot. These stellar behemoths all formed at the same time about 2 million years ago. The stars in R136 are producing intense 'stellar winds' (streams of material traveling at several million miles an hour), which are wreaking havoc on the gas and dust in the surrounding neighborhood. The winds are pushing the gas away from the cluster and compressing the inner regions of the surrounding gas and dust clouds [the pinkish material]. The intense pressure is triggering the collapse of parts of the clouds, producing a new generation of star formation around the central cluster. The new stellar nursery is about 30 to 50 light-years from R136. Most of the stars in the

  13. THE STRUCTURE OF THE STAR-FORMING CLUSTER RCW 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, E. [ESA-ESTEC (SRE-SA), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Avenue, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R., E-mail: ewinston@rssd.esa.int [Five Colleges Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01027 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present a study of the structure of the high-mass star-forming region RCW 38 and the spatial distribution of its young stellar population. Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) photometry (3-8 {mu}m) is combined with Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR data to identify young stellar objects (YSOs) by IR-excess emission from their circumstellar material. Chandra X-ray data are used to identify class III pre-main-sequence stars lacking circumstellar material. We identify 624 YSOs: 23 class 0/I and 90 flat spectrum protostars, 437 class II stars, and 74 class III stars. We also identify 29 (27 new) O star candidates over the IRAC field. Seventy-two stars exhibit IR-variability, including 7 class 0/I and 12 flat spectrum YSOs. A further 177 tentative candidates are identified by their location in the IRAC [3.6] versus [3.6]-[5.8] color-magnitude diagram. We find strong evidence of subclustering in the region. Three subclusters were identified surrounding the central cluster, with massive and variable stars in each subcluster. The central region shows evidence of distinct spatial distributions of the protostars and pre-main-sequence stars. A previously detected IR cluster, DB2001{sub O}bj36, has been established as a subcluster of RCW 38. This suggests that star formation in RCW 38 occurs over a more extended area than previously thought. The gas-to-dust ratio is examined using the X-ray derived hydrogen column density, N{sub H} and the K-band extinction, and found to be consistent with the diffuse interstellar medium, in contrast with Serpens and NGC 1333. We posit that the high photoionizing flux of massive stars in RCW 38 affects the agglomeration of the dust grains.

  14. Star Formation Activity Beyond the Outer Arm. I. WISE -selected Candidate Star-forming Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Natsuko; Yasui, Chikako; Saito, Masao [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi, E-mail: natsuko.izumi@nao.ac.jp [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution spectroscopy (LIH), Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    The outer Galaxy beyond the Outer Arm provides a good opportunity to study star formation in an environment significantly different from that in the solar neighborhood. However, star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy have never been comprehensively studied or cataloged because of the difficulties in detecting them at such large distances. We studied 33 known young star-forming regions associated with 13 molecular clouds at R {sub G} ≥ 13.5 kpc in the outer Galaxy with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mid-infrared all-sky survey. From their color distribution, we developed a simple identification criterion of star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy with the WISE color. We applied the criterion to all the WISE sources in the molecular clouds in the outer Galaxy at R {sub G} ≥ 13.5 kpc detected with the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) {sup 12}CO survey of the outer Galaxy, of which the survey region is 102.°49 ≤  l  ≤ 141.°54, −3.°03 ≤  b  ≤ 5.°41, and successfully identified 711 new candidate star-forming regions in 240 molecular clouds. The large number of samples enables us to perform the statistical study of star formation properties in the outer Galaxy for the first time. This study is crucial to investigate the fundamental star formation properties, including star formation rate, star formation efficiency, and initial mass function, in a primordial environment such as the early phase of the Galaxy formation.

  15. Core-to-core dimers forming switchable mesophase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horčic, M.; Svoboda, J.; Novotná, Vladimíra; Pociecha, D.; Gorecka, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 18 (2017), s. 2721-2724 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02843S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * bent- core mesogens * dimers Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 6.319, year: 2016

  16. THE DISK POPULATION OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed nearly all images of the Taurus star-forming region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm that were obtained during the cryogenic mission of the Spitzer Space Telescope (46 deg 2 ) and have measured photometry for all known members of the region that are within these data, corresponding to 348 sources, or 99% of the known stellar population. By combining these measurements with previous observations with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and other facilities, we have classified the members of Taurus according to whether they show evidence of circumstellar disks and envelopes (classes I, II, and III). Through these classifications, we find that the disk fraction in Taurus, N(II)/N(II+III), is ∼75% for solar-mass stars and declines to ∼45% for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (0.01-0.3 M sun ). This dependence on stellar mass is similar to that measured for Chamaeleon I, although the disk fraction in Taurus is slightly higher overall, probably because of its younger age (1 Myr versus 2-3 Myr). In comparison, the disk fraction for solar-mass stars is much lower (∼20%) in IC 348 and σ Ori, which are denser than Taurus and Chamaeleon I and are roughly coeval with the latter. These data indicate that disk lifetimes for solar-mass stars are longer in star-forming regions that have lower stellar densities. Through an analysis of multiple epochs of Spitzer photometry that are available for ∼200 Taurus members, we find that stars with disks exhibit significantly greater mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability than diskless stars, which agrees with the results of similar variability measurements for a smaller sample of stars in Chamaeleon I. The variability fraction for stars with disks is higher in Taurus than in Chamaeleon I, indicating that the IR variability of disks decreases with age. Finally, we have used our data in Taurus to refine the observational criteria for primordial, evolved, and transitional disks. The ratio of the number of evolved and

  17. RAFT Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Free-Base Porphyrin Cored Star Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT synthesis and self-assembly of free-base porphyrin cored star polymers are reported. The polymerization, in the presence of a free-base porphyrin cored chain transfer agent (CTA-FBP, produced porphyrin star polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities for a number of monomers including N, N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA and styrene (St. Well-defined amphiphilic star block copolymers, P-(PS-PDMA4 and P-(PDMA-PS4 (P: porphyrin, were also prepared and used for self-assembly studies. In methanol, a selective solvent for PDMA, spherical micelles were observed for both block copolymers as characterized by TEM. UV-vis studies suggested star-like micelles were formed from P-(PS-PDMA4, while P-(PDMA-PS4 aggregated into flower-like micelles. Spectrophotometric titrations indicated that the optical response of these two micelles to external ions was a function of micellar structures. These structure-related properties will be used for micelle studies and functional material development in the future.

  18. New far infrared images of bright, nearby, star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Cole, David M.; Dowell, C. Darren; Lees, Joanna F.; Lowenstein, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    Broadband imaging in the far infrared is a vital tool for understanding how young stars form, evolve, and interact with their environment. As the sensitivity and size of detector arrays has increased, a richer and more detailed picture has emerged of the nearest and brightest regions of active star formation. We present data on M 17, M 42, and S 106 taken recently on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the Yerkes Observatory 60-channel far infrared camera, which has pixel sizes of 17 in. at 60 microns, 27 in. at 100 microns, and 45 in. at 160 and 200 microns. In addition to providing a clearer view of the complex central cores of the regions, the images reveal new details of the structure and heating of ionization fronts and photodissociation zones where radiation form luminous stars interacts with adjacent molecular clouds.

  19. The Maximum Flux of Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Roland M.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Thompson, Todd A.; Clutterbuck, Julie

    2018-04-01

    The importance of radiation pressure feedback in galaxy formation has been extensively debated over the last decade. The regime of greatest uncertainty is in the most actively star-forming galaxies, where large dust columns can potentially produce a dust-reprocessed infrared radiation field with enough pressure to drive turbulence or eject material. Here we derive the conditions under which a self-gravitating, mixed gas-star disc can remain hydrostatic despite trapped radiation pressure. Consistently taking into account the self-gravity of the medium, the star- and dust-to-gas ratios, and the effects of turbulent motions not driven by radiation, we show that galaxies can achieve a maximum Eddington-limited star formation rate per unit area \\dot{Σ }_*,crit ˜ 10^3 M_{⊙} pc-2 Myr-1, corresponding to a critical flux of F*, crit ˜ 1013L⊙ kpc-2 similar to previous estimates; higher fluxes eject mass in bulk, halting further star formation. Conversely, we show that in galaxies below this limit, our one-dimensional models imply simple vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and that radiation pressure is ineffective at driving turbulence or ejecting matter. Because the vast majority of star-forming galaxies lie below the maximum limit for typical dust-to-gas ratios, we conclude that infrared radiation pressure is likely unimportant for all but the most extreme systems on galaxy-wide scales. Thus, while radiation pressure does not explain the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, it does impose an upper truncation on it. Our predicted truncation is in good agreement with the highest observed gas and star formation rate surface densities found both locally and at high redshift.

  20. Multimolecular studies of Galactic star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, W. A.; Loenen, A. F.; Spaans, M.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular emission-line observations of isolated Galactic star-forming regions are used to model the physical properties of the molecular interstellar medium in these systems. Observed line ratios are compared with the results predicted by models that incorporate gas-phase chemistry and the heating

  1. Diagnostics for mechanical heating in star-forming galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazandjian, Mher V.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the molecular emission of species such as CO, HCN and HNC and HCO+ are used to probe and quantify mechanical heating in star-forming galaxies. In the first part of the thesis photo-dissociation models are used to find a diagnostic of mechanical heating at the level of molecular

  2. Two-component Superfluid Hydrodynamics of Neutron Star Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobyakov, D. N. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Pethick, C. J., E-mail: dmitry.kobyakov@appl.sci-nnov.ru, E-mail: pethick@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2017-02-20

    We consider the hydrodynamics of the outer core of a neutron star under conditions when both neutrons and protons are superfluid. Starting from the equation of motion for the phases of the wave functions of the condensates of neutron pairs and proton pairs, we derive the generalization of the Euler equation for a one-component fluid. These equations are supplemented by the conditions for conservation of neutron number and proton number. Of particular interest is the effect of entrainment, the fact that the current of one nucleon species depends on the momenta per nucleon of both condensates. We find that the nonlinear terms in the Euler-like equation contain contributions that have not always been taken into account in previous applications of superfluid hydrodynamics. We apply the formalism to determine the frequency of oscillations about a state with stationary condensates and states with a spatially uniform counterflow of neutrons and protons. The velocities of the coupled sound-like modes of neutrons and protons are calculated from properties of uniform neutron star matter evaluated on the basis of chiral effective field theory. We also derive the condition for the two-stream instability to occur.

  3. Stellar Feedback in Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jack; Pellegrini, Eric; Ferland, Gary; Murray, Norm; Hanson, Margaret

    2008-02-01

    Star formation rates and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study in the two nearest giant star-forming regions to nail down the physics that produces the 10-20 parsec bubbles seen to surround young massive clusters in the Milky Way. This will determine if and how the clusters disrupt their natal giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Here we request 4 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain dense grids of optical long-slit spectra criss-crossing each nebula. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3000 different spots in each nebula. From this we can determine a number of dynamically important quantities, such as the gas density and temperature, hence pressure in and around these bubbles. These quantities can be compared to the dynamical (gravitationally induced) pressure, and the radiation pressure. All can be employed in dynamical models for the evolution of a GMC under the influence of an embedded massive star cluster. This research will elucidate the detailed workings of the star-forming regions which dominate the star formation rate in the Milky Way, and also will steadily improve our calibration and understanding of more distant, less well-resolved objects such as ULIRGS, Lyman break, and submillimeter galaxies.

  4. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuhn, Michael A. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: edf@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Ave., Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  5. YOUNG STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MYStIX STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CANDIDATE PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, Gregory; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Povich, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star-forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog and Chandra -based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star-forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few “false positives” from contaminating populations. But the limited sensitivity and sparse overlap among the infrared and X-ray subsamples indicate that the sample is very incomplete with many “false negatives.” Maps, tables, and source descriptions are provided to guide further study of star formation in these regions. In particular, the nature of ultrahard X-ray protostellar candidates without known infrared counterparts needs to be elucidated.

  6. THE RELATION BETWEEN COOL CLUSTER CORES AND HERSCHEL-DETECTED STAR FORMATION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Fiedler, A.; Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Portouw, J.; Walth, G. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Smith, G. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I. [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Gonzalez, P. G. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Van der Werf, P. P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Zemcov, M., E-mail: trawle@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) analysis of 68 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at 0.08 < z < 1.0. Deriving total infrared luminosities directly from Spitzer and Herschel photometry spanning the peak of the dust component (24-500 {mu}m), we calculate the obscured star formation rate (SFR). 22{sup +6.2}{sub -5.3}% of the BCGs are detected in the far-infrared, with SFR = 1-150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The infrared luminosity is highly correlated with cluster X-ray gas cooling times for cool-core clusters (gas cooling time <1 Gyr), strongly suggesting that the star formation in these BCGs is influenced by the cluster-scale cooling process. The occurrence of the molecular gas tracing H{alpha} emission is also correlated with obscured star formation. For all but the most luminous BCGs (L{sub TIR} > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), only a small ({approx}<0.4 mag) reddening correction is required for SFR(H{alpha}) to agree with SFR{sub FIR}. The relatively low H{alpha} extinction (dust obscuration), compared to values reported for the general star-forming population, lends further weight to an alternate (external) origin for the cold gas. Finally, we use a stacking analysis of non-cool-core clusters to show that the majority of the fuel for star formation in the FIR-bright BCGs is unlikely to originate from normal stellar mass loss.

  7. Gemini Spectroscopic Survey of Young Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Michael; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2018-01-01

    The majority of stars form in embedded clusters. Current research into star formation has focused on either high-mass star-forming regions or low-mass star-forming regions. We present the results from a Gemini spectroscopic survey of young intermediate-mass star-forming regions. These are star forming regions selected to produce stars up to but not exceeding 8 solar masses. We obtained spectra of these regions with GNIRS on Gemini North and Flamingos-2 on Gemini South. We also combine this with near-infrared imaging from 2MASS, UKIDSS, and VVV to study the stellar content.

  8. VLBA Changes Picture of Famous Star-Forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Using the supersharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), astronomers have made the most precise measurement ever of the distance to a famous star-forming region. The measurement -- to the heavily studied Orion Nebula -- changes scientists' understanding of the characteristics of the young stars in the region. Parallax Diagram Trigonometric Parallax method determines distance to star by measuring its slight shift in apparent position as seen from opposite ends of Earth's orbit. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Star Track Apparent track of star GMR A in the Orion Nebula Cluster, showing shift caused by Earth's orbital motion and star's movement in space. CREDIT: Sandstrom et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on Images for Larger Files "This measurement is four times more precise than previous distance estimates. Because our measurement reduces the distance to this region, it tells us that the stars there are less bright than thought before, and changes the estimates of their ages," said Geoff Bower, an astronomer at the University of California at Berkeley. Bower, along with Karin Sandstrom, J.E.G. Peek, Alberto Bolatto and Richard Plambeck, all of Berkeley, published their findings in the October 10 edition of the Astrophysical Journal. The scientists determined the distance to a star called GMR A, one of a cluster of stars in the Orion Nebula, by measuring the slight shift in the star's apparent position in the sky caused by the Earth's motion around the Sun. Observing the star when the Earth is on opposite sides of its annual orbit allows astronomers to measure the angle of this small shift and thus provides a direct trigonometric calculation of its distance. "By using this technique, called parallax, we get a direct measurement that does not depend on various assumptions that are required to use less-direct methods," Bower said. "Only a telescope with the remarkable ability to see fine detail that is provided by the VLBA is

  9. THE STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF FORMING AND EARLY STAGE STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaehnig, Karl O.; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    We study the degree of angular substructure in the stellar position distribution of young members of Galactic star-forming regions, looking for correlations with distance from cluster center, surface number density of stars, and local dynamical age. To this end we adopt the catalog of members in 18 young (∼1-3 Myr) clusters from the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray Survey and the statistical analysis of the angular dispersion parameter, δ ADP, N . We find statistically significant correlation between δ ADP, N and physical projected distance from the center of the clusters, with the centers appearing smoother than the outskirts, consistent with more rapid dynamical processing on local dynamical, free-fall or orbital timescales. Similarly, smoother distributions are seen in regions of higher surface density, or older dynamical ages. These results indicate that dynamical processing that erases substructure is already well-advanced in young, sometimes still-forming, clusters. Such observations of the dissipation of substructure have the potential to constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of young and forming clusters

  10. On the star-forming ability of Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anathpindika, S.; Burkert, A.; Kuiper, R.

    2018-02-01

    The star-forming ability of a molecular cloud depends on the fraction of gas it can cycle into the dense-phase. Consequently, one of the crucial questions in reconciling star formation in clouds is to understand the factors that control this process. While it is widely accepted that the variation in ambient conditions can alter significantly the ability of a cloud to spawn stars, the observed variation in the star-formation rate in nearby clouds that experience similar ambient conditions, presents an interesting question. In this work, we attempted to reconcile this variation within the paradigm of colliding flows. To this end we develop self-gravitating, hydrodynamic realizations of identical flows, but allowed to collide off-centre. Typical observational diagnostics such as the gas-velocity dispersion, the fraction of dense-gas, the column density distribution (N-PDF), the distribution of gas mass as a function of K-band extinction and the strength of compressional/solenoidal modes in the post-collision cloud were deduced for different choices of the impact parameter of collision. We find that a strongly sheared cloud is terribly inefficient in cycling gas into the dense phase and that such a cloud can possibly reconcile the sluggish nature of star formation reported for some clouds. Within the paradigm of cloud formation via colliding flows this is possible in case of flows colliding with a relatively large impact parameter. We conclude that compressional modes - though probably essential - are insufficient to ensure a relatively higher star-formation efficiency in a cloud.

  11. Nuclear physics: the core of matter, the fuel of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Dramatic progress has been made in all branches of physics since the National Research Council's 1986 decadal survey of the field. The Physics in a New Era series explores these advances and looks ahead to future goals. The series includes assessments of the major subfields and reports on several smaller subfields, and preparation has begun on an overview volume on the unity of physics, its relationships to other fields, and its contributions to national needs. Nuclear Physics is the latest volume of the series. The book describes current activity in understanding nuclear structure and symmetries, the behavior of matter at extreme densities, the role of nuclear physics in astrophysics and cosmology, and the instrumentation and facilities used by the field. It makes recommendations on the resources needed for experimental and theoretical advances in the coming decade. Nuclear physics addresses the nature of matter making up 99.9 percent of the mass of our everyday world. It explores the nuclear reactions that fuel the stars, including our Sun, which provides the energy for all life on Earth. The field of nuclear physics encompasses some 3,000 experimental and theoretical researchers who work at universities and national laboratories across the United States, as well as the experimental facilities and infrastructure that allow these researchers to address the outstanding scientific questions facing us. This report provides an overview of the frontiers of nuclear physics as we enter the next millennium, with special attention to the state of the science in the United States.The current frontiers of nuclear physics involve fundamental and rapidly evolving issues. One is understanding the structure and behavior of strongly interacting matter in terms of its basic constituents, quarks and gluons, over a wide range of conditions - from normal nuclear matter to the dense cores of neutron stars, and to the Big Bang that was the birth of the universe. Another is to describe

  12. Some stars are totally metal: a new mechanism driving dust across star-forming clouds, and consequences for planets, stars, and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains in neutral gas behave as aerodynamic particles, so they can develop large local density fluctuations entirely independent of gas density fluctuations. Specifically, gas turbulence can drive order-of-magnitude 'resonant' fluctuations in the dust density on scales where the gas stopping/drag timescale is comparable to the turbulent eddy turnover time. Here we show that for large grains (size ≳ 0.1 μm, containing most grain mass) in sufficiently large molecular clouds (radii ≳ 1-10 pc, masses ≳ 10 4 M ☉ ), this scale becomes larger than the characteristic sizes of prestellar cores (the sonic length), so large fluctuations in the dust-to-gas ratio are imprinted on cores. As a result, star clusters and protostellar disks formed in large clouds should exhibit significant abundance spreads in the elements preferentially found in large grains (C, O). This naturally predicts populations of carbon-enhanced stars, certain highly unusual stellar populations observed in nearby open clusters, and may explain the 'UV upturn' in early-type galaxies. It will also dramatically change planet formation in the resulting protostellar disks, by preferentially 'seeding' disks with an enhancement in large carbonaceous or silicate grains. The relevant threshold for this behavior scales simply with cloud densities and temperatures, making straightforward predictions for clusters in starbursts and high-redshift galaxies. Because of the selective sorting by size, this process is not necessarily visible in extinction mapping. We also predict the shape of the abundance distribution—when these fluctuations occur, a small fraction of the cores may actually be seeded with abundances Z ∼ 100 (Z) such that they are almost 'totally metal' (Z ∼ 1)! Assuming the cores collapse, these totally metal stars would be rare (1 in ∼10 4 in clusters where this occurs), but represent a fundamentally new stellar evolution channel.

  13. Some stars are totally metal: a new mechanism driving dust across star-forming clouds, and consequences for planets, stars, and galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Philip F., E-mail: phopkins@caltech.edu [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Dust grains in neutral gas behave as aerodynamic particles, so they can develop large local density fluctuations entirely independent of gas density fluctuations. Specifically, gas turbulence can drive order-of-magnitude 'resonant' fluctuations in the dust density on scales where the gas stopping/drag timescale is comparable to the turbulent eddy turnover time. Here we show that for large grains (size ≳ 0.1 μm, containing most grain mass) in sufficiently large molecular clouds (radii ≳ 1-10 pc, masses ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}), this scale becomes larger than the characteristic sizes of prestellar cores (the sonic length), so large fluctuations in the dust-to-gas ratio are imprinted on cores. As a result, star clusters and protostellar disks formed in large clouds should exhibit significant abundance spreads in the elements preferentially found in large grains (C, O). This naturally predicts populations of carbon-enhanced stars, certain highly unusual stellar populations observed in nearby open clusters, and may explain the 'UV upturn' in early-type galaxies. It will also dramatically change planet formation in the resulting protostellar disks, by preferentially 'seeding' disks with an enhancement in large carbonaceous or silicate grains. The relevant threshold for this behavior scales simply with cloud densities and temperatures, making straightforward predictions for clusters in starbursts and high-redshift galaxies. Because of the selective sorting by size, this process is not necessarily visible in extinction mapping. We also predict the shape of the abundance distribution—when these fluctuations occur, a small fraction of the cores may actually be seeded with abundances Z ∼ 100 (Z) such that they are almost 'totally metal' (Z ∼ 1)! Assuming the cores collapse, these totally metal stars would be rare (1 in ∼10{sup 4} in clusters where this occurs), but represent a fundamentally new stellar evolution channel.

  14. Occurrence of hyperson superfluidity in neutron star cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Nishizaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Yasuo; Tamagaki, Ryozo

    2006-01-01

    Superfluidity of Λ and Σ - admixed in neutron star (NS) cores is investigated realistically for hyperon (Y)-mixed NS models obtained using a G-matrix-based effective interaction approach. Numerical results for the equation of state (EOS) with the mixing ratios of the respective components and the hyperon energy gaps including the temperature dependence are presented. These are meant to serve as physical inputs for Y-cooling calculations of NSs. By paying attention to the uncertainties of the EOS and the YY interactions, it is shown that both Λ and Σ - are superfluid as soon as they appear although the magnitude of the critical temperature and the density region where superfluidity exists depend considerably on the YY pairing potential. Considering momentum triangle condition and the occurrence of superfluidity, it is found that a so-called hyperon cooling'' (neutrino-emission from direct Urca process including Y) combined with Y-superfluidity may be able to account for observations of the colder class of NSs. It is remarked that Λ-hyperons play a decisive role in the hyperon cooling scenario. Some comments are given regarding the consequences of the less attractive ΛΛ interaction recently suggested by the ''NAGARA event'' 6 ΛΛ He. (author)

  15. On the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for shell-burning stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Saint Andrews Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Core-mass-shell-luminosity relations for several types of shell-burning star have been calculated using simultaneous differential equations derived from simple homology approximations. The principal objective of obtaining a mass-luminosity relation for helium giants was achieved. This relation gives substantially higher luminosities than the equivalent relation for H-shell stars with core masses greater than 1 solar mass. The algorithm for calculating mass-luminosity relations in this fashion was investigated in detail. Most of the assumptions regarding the physics in the shell do not play a critical role in determining the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation. The behaviour of the core-mass-core-radius relation for a growing degenerate core as a single unique function of mass and growth rate needs to be defined before a single core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for all H-shell stars can be obtained directly from the homology approximations. (author)

  16. Studies of Young, Star-forming Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2017-08-01

    Disks of gas and dust around forming stars - circumstellar disks - last only a few million years. This is a very small fraction of the entire lifetime of Sun-like stars, several billion years. Nevertheless, by the time circumstellar disks dissipate stars complete building up their masses, giant planets finish accreting gas, and terrestrial bodies are nearly fully grown and ready for their final assembly to become planets. Understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks are thus crucial in many contexts. Using numerical simulations as the primary tool, my thesis has focused on the studies of various physical processes that can occur throughout the lifetime of circumstellar disks, from their formation to dispersal. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 emphasize the importance of early evolution, during which time a forming star-disk system obtains mass from its natal cloud: the infall phase. In Chapter 2 and 3, I have modeled episodic outbursts of accretion in protostellar systems resulting from disk instabilities - gravitational instability and magnetorotational instability. I showed that outbursts occur preferentially during the infall phase, because the mass addition provides more favorable conditions for gravitational instability to initiate the outburst cycle, and that forming stars build up a significant fraction of their masses through repeated short-lived, episodic outbursts. The infall phase can also be important for the formation of planets. Recent ALMA observations revealed sets of bright and dark rings in circumstellar disks of young, forming stars, potentially indicating early formation of planets. In Chapter 4, I showed that infall streams can create radial pressure bumps near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk, from which vortices can form, collecting solid particles very efficiently to make initial seeds of planets. The next three chapters highlight the role of planets in setting the observational appearance and the evolution of circumstellar disks

  17. The ionisation parameter of star-forming galaxies evolves with the specific star formation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasinen, Melanie; Kewley, Lisa; Bian, Fuyan; Groves, Brent; Kashino, Daichi; Silverman, John; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of the ionisation parameter of star-forming galaxies using a high-redshift (z ˜ 1.5) sample from the FMOS-COSMOS survey and matched low-redshift samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By constructing samples of low-redshift galaxies for which the stellar mass (M*), star formation rate (SFR) and specific star formation rate (sSFR) are matched to the high-redshift sample we remove the effects of an evolution in these properties. We also account for the effect of metallicity by jointly constraining the metallicity and ionisation parameter of each sample. We find an evolution in the ionisation parameter for main-sequence, star-forming galaxies and show that this evolution is driven by the evolution of sSFR. By analysing the matched samples as well as a larger sample of z physically consistent with the definition of the ionisation parameter, a measure of the hydrogen ionising photon flux relative to the number density of hydrogen atoms.

  18. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF THE STAR-FORMING REGIONS SH2-157 AND SH2-152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yafeng; Yang Ji; Zeng Qin; Yao Yongqiang; Sato, Shuji

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared JHK' and H 2 v = 1-0 S (1) imaging observations of the star-forming regions Sh2-157 and Sh2-152 are presented. The data reveal a cluster of young stars associated with H 2 line emission in each region. Additionally, many IR point sources are found in the dense core of each molecular cloud. Most of these sources exhibit infrared color excesses typical of T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae/Be stars, and protostars. Several display the characteristics of massive stars. We calculate histograms of the K'-magnitude and [H - K'] color for all sources, as well as two-color and color-magnitude diagrams. The stellar populations inside and outside the clusters are similar, suggesting that these systems are rather evolved. Shock-driven H 2 emission knots are also detected, which may be related to evident subclusters in an earlier evolutionary stage.

  19. STAR CLUSTERS IN A NUCLEAR STAR FORMING RING: THE DISAPPEARING STRING OF PEARLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Väisänen, Petri; Barway, Sudhanshu; Randriamanakoto, Zara, E-mail: petri@saao.ac.za [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-12-20

    An analysis of the star cluster population in a low-luminosity early-type galaxy, NGC 2328, is presented. The clusters are found in a tight star forming nuclear spiral/ring pattern and we also identify a bar from structural two-dimensional decomposition. These massive clusters are forming very efficiently in the circumnuclear environment and they are young, possibly all less than 30 Myr of age. The clusters indicate an azimuthal age gradient, consistent with a ''pearls-on-a-string'' formation scenario, suggesting bar-driven gas inflow. The cluster mass function has a robust down turn at low masses at all age bins. Assuming clusters are born with a power-law distribution, this indicates extremely rapid disruption at timescales of just several million years. If found to be typical, it means that clusters born in dense circumnuclear rings do not survive to become old globular clusters in non-interacting systems.

  20. STAR CLUSTERS IN A NUCLEAR STAR FORMING RING: THE DISAPPEARING STRING OF PEARLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Väisänen, Petri; Barway, Sudhanshu; Randriamanakoto, Zara

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the star cluster population in a low-luminosity early-type galaxy, NGC 2328, is presented. The clusters are found in a tight star forming nuclear spiral/ring pattern and we also identify a bar from structural two-dimensional decomposition. These massive clusters are forming very efficiently in the circumnuclear environment and they are young, possibly all less than 30 Myr of age. The clusters indicate an azimuthal age gradient, consistent with a ''pearls-on-a-string'' formation scenario, suggesting bar-driven gas inflow. The cluster mass function has a robust down turn at low masses at all age bins. Assuming clusters are born with a power-law distribution, this indicates extremely rapid disruption at timescales of just several million years. If found to be typical, it means that clusters born in dense circumnuclear rings do not survive to become old globular clusters in non-interacting systems

  1. 76 FR 32227 - Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star Trac and/or Unisen, Inc., DBA STAR TRAC and/or Trac Strength...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,192; TA-W-75,192A] Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star Trac and/or Unisen, Inc., DBA STAR TRAC and/or Trac Strength, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Helpmates, Mattson, and Empire Staffing, Irvine, CA; Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star Trac and/ar Unisen, Inc., DBA Star...

  2. SEQUENTIAL STAR FORMATION IN RCW 34: A SPECTROSCOPIC CENSUS OF THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bik, A.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunina, T.; Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Puga, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Waelkens, Ch.; Horrobin, M.; Kaper, L.; De Koter, A.; Van den Ancker, M.; Comeron, F.; Lenorzer, A.; Churchwell, E.; Kurtz, S.; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Stolte, A.; Thi, W. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy of RCW 34 along with Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the surroundings. RCW 34 consists of three different regions. A large bubble has been detected in the IRAC images in which a cluster of intermediate- and low-mass class II objects is found. At the northern edge of this bubble, an H II region is located, ionized by 3 OB stars, of which the most massive star has spectral type O8.5V. Intermediate-mass stars (2-3 M sun ) are detected of G- and K-spectral type. These stars are still in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. North of the H II region, a photon-dominated region is present, marking the edge of a dense molecular cloud traced by H 2 emission. Several class 0/I objects are associated with this cloud, indicating that star formation is still taking place. The distance to RCW 34 is revised to 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc and an age estimate of 2 ± 1 Myr is derived from the properties of the PMS stars inside the H II region. Between the class II sources in the bubble and the PMS stars in the H II region, no age difference could be detected with the present data. The presence of the class 0/I sources in the molecular cloud, however, suggests that the objects inside the molecular cloud are significantly younger. The most likely scenario for the formation of the three regions is that star formation propagated from south to north. First the bubble is formed, produced by intermediate- and low-mass stars only, after that, the H II region is formed from a dense core at the edge of the molecular cloud, resulting in the expansion similar to a champagne flow. More recently, star formation occurred in the rest of the molecular cloud. Two different formation scenarios are possible. (1) The bubble with the cluster of low- and intermediate-mass stars triggered the formation of the O star at the edge of the molecular cloud, which in its turn induces the current star formation in the molecular cloud. (2) An external triggering is

  3. THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation (Σ gas and Σ-dot * , respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where Σ gas ∼> 10 4 M ☉ pc –2 , we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes (≈1 for the K-S law and ≈0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L TIR ) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L TIR can yield an estimate of the average Σ-dot * that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average Σ gas for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor (α CO ) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of Σ gas that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.

  4. THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J., E-mail: david.ballantyne@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation ({Sigma}{sub gas} and {Sigma}-dot{sub *}, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where {Sigma}{sub gas} {approx}> 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes ( Almost-Equal-To 1 for the K-S law and Almost-Equal-To 0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L{sub TIR}) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L{sub TIR} can yield an estimate of the average {Sigma}-dot{sub *} that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average {Sigma}{sub gas} for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of {Sigma}{sub gas} that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.

  5. YOUNG, ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STARS DOMINATE DUST HEATING IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region-the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  6. Investigation of conspicuous infrared star cluster and star-forming region RCW 38 IR Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A.L.; May, J.

    2008-01-01

    An infrared star cluster RCW 38 IR Cluster, which is also a massive star-forming region, is investigated. The results of observations with SEST (Cerro is Silla, Chile) telescope on 2.6-mm 12 CO spectral line and with SIMBA on 1.2-mm continuum are given. The 12 CO observations revealed the existence of several molecular clouds, two of which (clouds I and 2) are connected with the object RCW 38 IR Cluster. Cloud 1 is a massive cloud, which has a depression in which the investigated object is embedded. It is not excluded that the depression was formed by the wind and/or emission from the young bright stars belonging to the star cluster. Rotation of cloud 2, around the axis having SE-NW direction, with an angular velocity ω 4.6 · 10 -14 s -1 is also found. A red-shifted outflow with velocity ∼+5.6 km/s, in the SE direction and perpendicular to the elongation of cloud 2 has been also found. The investigated cluster is associated with an IR point source IRAS 08573-4718, which has IR colours typical for a, non-evolved embedded (in the cloud) stellar object. The cluster is also connected with a water maser. The SIMBA image shoves the existence of a central bright condensation, coinciding with the cluster itself, and two extensions. One of these extensions (the one with SW-NE direction) coincides, both in place and shape, with cloud 2, so that it is not excluded the possibility that this extension might be also rotating like cloud 2. In the vicinity of these extensions there are condensations resembling HH objects

  7. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Coziol, R.; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Neri-Larios, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We have determined the metallicity (O/H) and nitrogen abundance (N/O) of a sample of 122,751 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For all these galaxies we have also determined their morphology and obtained a comprehensive picture of their star formation history (SFH) using the spectral synthesis code STARLIGHT. The comparison of the chemical abundance with the SFH allows us to describe the chemical evolution of the SFGs in the nearby universe (z ≤ 0.25) in a manner consistent with the formation of their stellar populations and morphologies. A high fraction (45%) of the SFGs in our sample show an excess abundance of nitrogen relative to their metallicity. We also find this excess to be accompanied by a deficiency of oxygen, which suggests that this could be the result of effective starburst winds. However, we find no difference in the mode of star formation of the nitrogen-rich and nitrogen-poor SFGs. Our analysis suggests that they all form their stars through a succession of bursts of star formation extended over a period of few Gyr. What produces the chemical differences between these galaxies seems therefore to be the intensity of the bursts: the galaxies with an excess of nitrogen are those that are presently experiencing more intense bursts or have experienced more intense bursts in their past. We also find evidence relating the chemical evolution process to the formation of the galaxies: the galaxies with an excess of nitrogen are more massive, and have more massive bulges and earlier morphologies than those showing no excess. Contrary to expectation, we find no evidence that the starburst wind efficiency decreases with the mass of the galaxies. As a possible explanation we propose that the loss of metals consistent with starburst winds took place during the formation of the galaxies, when their potential wells were still building up, and consequently were weaker than today, making starburst winds more

  8. One of the most massive stars in the Galaxy may have formed in isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Oskinova, L. M.; Steinke, M.; Hamann, W. -R.; Sander, A.; Todt, H.; Liermann, A.

    2013-01-01

    Very massive stars, 100 times heavier than the sun, are rare. It is not yet known whether such stars can form in isolation or only in star clusters. The answer to this question is of fundamental importance. The central region of our Galaxy is ideal for investigating very massive stars and clusters located in the same environment. We used archival infrared images to investigate the surroundings of apparently isolated massive stars presently known in the Galactic Center. We find that two such i...

  9. Equations of state for neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Micaela; Providência, Constança

    2018-04-01

    Modelling compact stars is a complex task which depends on many ingredients, among others the properties of dense matter. In this contribution models for the equation of state (EoS) of dense matter will be discussed, relevant for the description of core-collapse supernovae, compact stars and compact star mergers. Such EoS models have to cover large ranges in baryon number density, temperature and isospin asymmetry. The characteristics of matter change dramatically within these ranges, from a mixture of nucleons, nuclei, and electrons to uniform, strongly interacting matter containing nucleons, and possibly other particles such as hyperons or quarks. Some implications for compact star astrophysics will be highlighted, too.

  10. Water in Star-forming Regions with Herschel (WISH): recent results and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2012-03-01

    Water is a key molecule in the physics and chemistry of star- and planet-forming regions. In the `Water in Star-forming Regions with Herschel' (WISH) Key Program, we have obtained a comprehensive set of water data toward a large sample of well-characterized protostars, covering a wide range of masses and luminosities --from the lowest to the highest mass protostars--, as well as evolutionary stages --from pre-stellar cores to disks. Lines of both ortho- and para-H_2O and their isotopologues, as well as chemically related hydrides, are observed with the HIFI and PACS instruments. The data elucidate the physical processes responsible for the warm gas, probe dynamical processes associated with forming stars and planets (outflow, infall, expansion), test basic chemical processes and reveal the chemical evolution of water and the oxygen-reservoir into planet-forming disks. In this brief talk a few recent WISH highlights will be presented, including determinations of the water abundance in each of the different physical components (inner and outer envelope, outflow) and constraints on the ortho/para ratio. Special attention will be given to trends found across the sample, especially the similarity in profiles from low to high-mass protostars and the evolution of the gas-phase water abundance from prestellar cores to disks. More details can be found at http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/WISH, whereas overviews are given in van Dishoeck et al. (2011, PASP 123, 138), Kristensen & van Dishoeck (2011, Astronomische Nachrichten 332, 475) and Bergin & van Dishoeck (2012, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. A).

  11. Variations in Canonical Star-Forming Laws at Low Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkiewicz, Jacqueline; Bowman, Judd D.; Scowen, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Empirically-determined star formation relations link observed galaxy luminosities to extrapolated star formation rates at almost every observable wavelength range. These laws are a cornerstone of extragalactic astronomy, and will be critically important for interpreting upcoming observations of early high-redshift protogalaxies with JWST and WFIRST. There are indications at a variety of wavelengths that these canonical relations may become unreliable at the lowest metallicities observed. This potentially complicates interpretation of the earliest protogalaxies, which are expected to be pristine and largely unenriched by stellar nucleosynthesis. Using a sample of 15 local dwarf galaxies with 12+[O/H] dwarf galaxies 1 Zw 18 and SBS 0335-052E suggest that the far-IR/radio relation probably deviates at low metallicities, but the low luminosity end of the relation is not well sampled. The upgraded Jansky Very Large Array has the sensitivity to fill in this gap. I have obtained 45 hours of L- and C-band continuum data of my dwarf galaxy sample. I present radio continuum imaging of an initial sub-sample of Local Group dwarfs, some of which have never before been detected in radio continuum. The H-alpha/UV relationship is likewise known to become unreliable for dwarf galaxies, though this has been attributed to dwarf galaxy "bursty-ness" rather than metallicity effects. I have conducted a parallel survey of emission line imaging to study the underlying astrophysics of the H-alpha/UV relation. Using Balmer decrement imaging, I map out the pixel-to-pixel dust distribution and geometry within the nearest galaxies in my sample. I compare this to GALEX UV imaging. I discuss implications for UV escape fraction, and present initial results of the canonical star-forming relations at low galaxy luminosity and metallicity. THIS IS A POSTER AND WILL BE LOCATED IN THE AAS BOOTH.

  12. Simulating Gamma-Ray Emission in Star-forming Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfrommer, Christoph [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Pakmor, Rüdiger; Simpson, Christine M.; Springel, Volker, E-mail: cpfrommer@aip.de [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    Star-forming galaxies emit GeV and TeV gamma-rays that are thought to originate from hadronic interactions of cosmic-ray (CR) nuclei with the interstellar medium. To understand the emission, we have used the moving-mesh code Arepo to perform magnetohydrodynamical galaxy formation simulations with self-consistent CR physics. Our galaxy models exhibit a first burst of star formation that injects CRs at supernovae. Once CRs have sufficiently accumulated in our Milky Way–like galaxy, their buoyancy force overcomes the magnetic tension of the toroidal disk field. As field lines open up, they enable anisotropically diffusing CRs to escape into the halo and to accelerate a bubble-like, CR-dominated outflow. However, these bubbles are invisible in our simulated gamma-ray maps of hadronic pion-decay and secondary inverse-Compton emission because of low gas density in the outflows. By adopting a phenomenological relation between star formation rate (SFR) and far-infrared emission and assuming that gamma-rays mainly originate from decaying pions, our simulated galaxies can reproduce the observed tight relation between far-infrared and gamma-ray emission, independent of whether we account for anisotropic CR diffusion. This demonstrates that uncertainties in modeling active CR transport processes only play a minor role in predicting gamma-ray emission from galaxies. We find that in starbursts, most of the CR energy is “calorimetrically” lost to hadronic interactions. In contrast, the gamma-ray emission deviates from this calorimetric property at low SFRs due to adiabatic losses, which cannot be identified in traditional one-zone models.

  13. Simulating Gamma-Ray Emission in Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrommer, Christoph; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Simpson, Christine M.; Springel, Volker

    2017-10-01

    Star-forming galaxies emit GeV and TeV gamma-rays that are thought to originate from hadronic interactions of cosmic-ray (CR) nuclei with the interstellar medium. To understand the emission, we have used the moving-mesh code Arepo to perform magnetohydrodynamical galaxy formation simulations with self-consistent CR physics. Our galaxy models exhibit a first burst of star formation that injects CRs at supernovae. Once CRs have sufficiently accumulated in our Milky Way-like galaxy, their buoyancy force overcomes the magnetic tension of the toroidal disk field. As field lines open up, they enable anisotropically diffusing CRs to escape into the halo and to accelerate a bubble-like, CR-dominated outflow. However, these bubbles are invisible in our simulated gamma-ray maps of hadronic pion-decay and secondary inverse-Compton emission because of low gas density in the outflows. By adopting a phenomenological relation between star formation rate (SFR) and far-infrared emission and assuming that gamma-rays mainly originate from decaying pions, our simulated galaxies can reproduce the observed tight relation between far-infrared and gamma-ray emission, independent of whether we account for anisotropic CR diffusion. This demonstrates that uncertainties in modeling active CR transport processes only play a minor role in predicting gamma-ray emission from galaxies. We find that in starbursts, most of the CR energy is “calorimetrically” lost to hadronic interactions. In contrast, the gamma-ray emission deviates from this calorimetric property at low SFRs due to adiabatic losses, which cannot be identified in traditional one-zone models.

  14. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Wong, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thompson, K. L., E-mail: ladd@bucknell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star

  15. H2O masers in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, D.

    1985-01-01

    Water vapour near star forming regions was first detected by Cheung et al. (1969) and shortly thereafter was recognised to be maser emission. In spite of this 15 year history of H 2 O observations, the problem of interpreting such strong H 2 O masers as W49 and Orion is still very acute. Not one of the models now available can explain in an unconstrained fashion why a very large maser flux can emanate from clouds of such small size. Whereas some models proposed to explain OH masers have retained their plausibility under the pressure of new observations, H 2 O models have not. The author outlines the background of the H 2 O problem, stating that the strongest of the masers discovered are still not satisfactorily explained today. (Auth.)

  16. Star-Forming Clouds Feed, Churn, and Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Molecular clouds, the birthplaces of stars in galaxies throughout the universe, are complicated and dynamic environments. A new series of simulations has explored how these clouds form, grow, and collapse over their lifetimes.This composite image shows part of the Taurus Molecular Cloud. [ESO/APEX (MPIfR/ESO/OSO)/A. Hacar et al./Digitized Sky Survey]Stellar BirthplacesMolecular clouds form out of the matter in between stars, evolving through constant interactions with their turbulent environments. These interactions taking the form of accretion flows and surface forces, while gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields interplay are thought to drive the properties and evolution of the clouds.Our understanding of the details of this process, however, remains fuzzy. How does mass accretion affect these clouds as they evolve? What happens when nearby supernova explosions blast the outsides of the clouds? What makes the clouds churn, producing the motion within them that prevents them from collapsing? The answers to these questions can tellus about the gas distributed throughout galaxies, revealing information about the environments in which stars form.A still from the simulation results showing the broader population of molecular clouds that formed in the authors simulations, as well as zoom-in panels of three low-mass clouds tracked in high resolution. [Ibez-Meja et al. 2017]Models of TurbulenceIn a new study led by Juan Ibez-Meja (MPI Garching and Universities of Heidelberg and Cologne in Germany, and American Museum of Natural History), scientists have now explored these questions using a series of three-dimensional simulations of a population of molecular clouds forming and evolving in the turbulent interstellar medium.The simulations take into account a whole host of physics, including the effects of nearby supernova explosions, self-gravitation, magnetic fields, diffuse heating, and radiative cooling. After looking at the behavior of the broader population of

  17. Model stars with degenerate dwarf cores and helium-burning shells - A stationary-burning approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iben, I. Jr.; Tutukov, A.V. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA); Astronomicheskii Sovet, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-07-01

    The characteristics of model stars consisting of a degenerate dwarf core and an envelope which is burning a nuclear fuel or fuels in its interior are explored. The models are relevant to stars which are accreting matter from a companion, to single stars in late stages of evolution, to stripped noninteracting remnants of binary star evolution, and to merging and merged degenerate dwarfs. For any given mass and choice of nuclear fuels, a sequence of models is constructed which differ with respect to the mass of the degenerate core and the envelope characteristics. Each sequence has at least three distinct branches: a degenerate dwarf branch along which envelope mass increases with decreasing luminosity, a plateau branch characterized by a very small envelope mass and by a nearly constant luminosity which reaches the maximum achievable value for the sequence, and an asymptotic giant branch which is at the lowest temperatures achievable and along which envelope mass decreases with increasing luminosity. 78 refs.

  18. Model stars with degenerate dwarf cores and helium-burning shells - A stationary-burning approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of model stars consisting of a degenerate dwarf core and an envelope which is burning a nuclear fuel or fuels in its interior are explored. The models are relevant to stars which are accreting matter from a companion, to single stars in late stages of evolution, to stripped noninteracting remnants of binary star evolution, and to merging and merged degenerate dwarfs. For any given mass and choice of nuclear fuels, a sequence of models is constructed which differ with respect to the mass of the degenerate core and the envelope characteristics. Each sequence has at least three distinct branches: a degenerate dwarf branch along which envelope mass increases with decreasing luminosity, a plateau branch characterized by a very small envelope mass and by a nearly constant luminosity which reaches the maximum achievable value for the sequence, and an asymptotic giant branch which is at the lowest temperatures achievable and along which envelope mass decreases with increasing luminosity. 78 refs

  19. Core expansion in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, R.A.W.; Freeman, K.C.; Lauer, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    The core radii of 18 rich star clusters in the LMC with ages from 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. Data for an additional 17 clusters with ages from 1 Myr to 10 Gyr are available in the literature. The combined sample shows that the core radii increase from about 0 to about 5 pc between about 1 Myr and 1 Gyr, and then begin to decrease again. The expansion of the cores is probably driven by mass loss from evolving stars. Models of cluster evolution show that the rate of increase in core radius is sensitive to the slope of the initial mass function. The observed core radius-age relation for the LMC clusters favors an intial mass function with slope slightly flatter than the Salpeter value. 20 refs

  20. Water in massive star-forming regions with Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Jacq, T.; Baudry, A.; Braine, J.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2011-05-01

    High-mass stars formation process is much less understood than the low-mass case: short timescales, high opacities and long distance to the sources challenge the study of young massive stars. The instruments on board the Heschel Space Observatory permit us to investigate molecular species at high spectral resolution in the sub-milimeter wavelengths. Water, one of the most abundant molecules in the Universe, might elucidate key episodes in the process of stellar birth and it may play a major role in the formation of high-mass stars. This contribution presents the first results of the Heschel Space Observatory key-program WISH (Water In Star forming regions with Herschel) concerning high-mass protostars. The program main purpose is to follow the process of star formation during the various stages using the water molecule as a physical diagnostic throughout the evolution. In general, we aim to adress the following questions: How does protostars interact with their environment ? How and where water is formed ? How is it transported from cloud to disk ? When and where water becomes a dominant cooling or heating agent ? We use the HIFI and PACS instruments to obtain maps and spectra of ~20 water lines in ~20 massive protostars spanning a large range in physical parameters, from pre-stellar cores to UCHII regions. I will review the status of the program and focus specifically on the spectroscopic results. I will show how powerful are the HIFI high-resolution spectral observations to resolve different physical source components such as the dense core, the outflows and the extended cold cloud around the high-mass object. We derive water abundances between 10-7 and 10-9 in the outer envelope. The abundance variations derived from our models suggest that different chemical mechanisms are at work on these scales (e.g. evaporation of water-rich icy grain mantles). The detection and derived abundance ratios for rare isotopologues will be discussed. Finally, a comparison in tems

  1. FORMING HABITABLE PLANETS AROUND DWARF STARS: APPLICATION TO OGLE-06-109L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Su; Zhou Jilin

    2011-01-01

    Dwarf stars are believed to have a small protostar disk where planets may grow up. During the planet formation stage, embryos undergoing type I migration are expected to be stalled at an inner edge of the magnetically inactive disk (a crit ∼ 0.2-0.3 AU). This mechanism makes the location around a crit a 'sweet spot' for forming planets. In dwarf stars with masses ∼0.5 M sun , a crit is roughly inside the habitable zone of the system. In this paper, we study the formation of habitable planets due to this mechanism using model system OGLE-06-109L, which has a 0.51 M sun dwarf star with two giant planets in 2.3 and 4.6 AU observed by microlensing. We model the embryos undergoing type I migration in the gas disk with a constant disk-accretion rate ( M-dot ). Giant planets in outside orbits affect the formation of habitable planets through secular perturbations at the early stage and secular resonance at the late stage. We find that the existence and the masses of the habitable planets in the OGLE-06-109L system depend on both M-dot and the speed of type I migration. If planets are formed earlier, so that M-dot is larger (∼10 -7 M sun yr -1 ), terrestrial planets cannot survive unless the type I migration rate is an order of magnitude less. If planets are formed later, so that M-dot is smaller (∼10 -8 M sun yr -1 ), single and high-mass terrestrial planets with high water contents (∼5%) will be formed by inward migration of outer planet cores. A slower-speed migration will result in several planets via collisions of embryos, and thus their water contents will be low (∼2%). Mean motion resonances or apsidal resonances among planets may be observed if multiple planets survive in the inner system.

  2. Asteroseismic measurement of surface-to-core rotation in a main-sequence star*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have discovered rotationally split core g-mode triplets and surface p-mode triplets and quintuplets in a terminal age main-sequence A star, KIC 11145123, that shows both δ Sct p-mode pulsations and γ Dor g-mode pulsations. This gives the first robust determination of the rotation of the deep core and surface of a main-sequence star, essentially model-independently. We find its rotation to be nearly uniform with a period near 100 d, but we show with high confidence that the surface rotates slightly faster than the core. A strong angular momentum transfer mechanism must be operating to produce the nearly rigid rotation, and a mechanism other than viscosity must be operating to produce a more rapidly rotating surface than core. Our asteroseismic result, along with previous asteroseismic constraints on internal rotation in some B stars, and measurements of internal rotation in some subgiant, giant and white dwarf stars, has made angular momentum transport in stars throughout their lifetimes an observational science.

  3. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of binary neutron star mergers forming a long-lived neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, Riccardo; Kastaun, Wolfgang; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Endrizzi, Andrea; Siegel, Daniel M.; Perna, Rosalba

    2017-03-01

    Merging binary neutron stars (BNSs) represent the ultimate targets for multimessenger astronomy, being among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), and, at the same time, likely accompanied by a variety of electromagnetic counterparts across the entire spectrum, possibly including short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) and kilonova/macronova transients. Numerical relativity simulations play a central role in the study of these events. In particular, given the importance of magnetic fields, various aspects of this investigation require general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). So far, most GRMHD simulations focused the attention on BNS mergers leading to the formation of a hypermassive neutron star (NS), which, in turn, collapses within few tens of ms into a black hole surrounded by an accretion disk. However, recent observations suggest that a significant fraction of these systems could form a long-lived NS remnant, which will either collapse on much longer time scales or remain indefinitely stable. Despite the profound implications for the evolution and the emission properties of the system, a detailed investigation of this alternative evolution channel is still missing. Here, we follow this direction and present a first detailed GRMHD study of BNS mergers forming a long-lived NS. We consider magnetized binaries with different mass ratios and equations of state and analyze the structure of the NS remnants, the rotation profiles, the accretion disks, the evolution and amplification of magnetic fields, and the ejection of matter. Moreover, we discuss the connection with the central engine of SGRBs and provide order-of-magnitude estimates for the kilonova/macronova signal. Finally, we study the GW emission, with particular attention to the post-merger phase.

  4. Convective shells and the core He-burning phase of massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Nasi, E [Osservatorio Astronomico, Padova, Italy

    1978-07-01

    In this paper the effect of complete homogenization in the intermediate unstable layers of massive stars is briefly discussed on the effective temperature of the core He-burning models. To this end, a 20 solar masses star of Population I chemical composition (X=0.700, Z=0.020) has been allowed to evolve from the Main Sequence into the core He-exhaustion stage without taking into account semiconvective mixing. The results show that the models are systematically bluer than those computed with the same physical parameters but with the inclusion of semiconvection.

  5. Millimetre wavelength methanol masers survey towards massive star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, T.; Mochizuki, N.; Shibata, K. M.; Roh, D.-G.; Chung, H.-S.

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of a mm wavelength methanol maser survey towards massive star forming regions. We have carried out Class II methanol maser observations at 86.6 GHz, 86.9 GHz and 107.0 GHz, simultaneously, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We selected 108 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources with declinations above -25 degrees and fluxes above 20 Jy. The detection limit of maser observations was ~3 Jy. Of the 93 sources surveyed so far, we detected methanol emission in 25 sources (27%) and “maser” emission in nine sources (10%), of which thre “maser” sources are new detections. The detection rate for maser emission is about half that of a survey of the southern sky (Caswell et al. 2000). There is a correlation between the maser flux of 107 GHz and 6.7 GHz/12 GHz emission, but no correlation with the “thermal” (non maser) emission. From results of other molecular line observations, we found that the sources with methanol emission show higher gas temperatures and twice the detection rate of SiO emission. This may suggest that dust evaporation and destruction by shock are responsible for the high abundance of methanol molecules, one of the required physical conditions for maser emission.

  6. The Universe's Most Extreme Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Caitlin

    2017-06-01

    Dusty star-forming galaxies host the most intense stellar nurseries in the Universe. Their unusual characteristics (SFRs=200-2000Msun/yr, Mstar>1010 Msun) pose a unique challenge for cosmological simulations and galaxy formation theory, particularly at early times. Although rare today, they were factors of 1000 times more prevalent at z~2-5, contributing significantly to the buildup of the Universe's stellar mass and the formation of high-mass galaxies. At even earlier times (within 1Gyr post Big Bang) they could have played a pivotal role in enriching the IGM. However, an ongoing debate lingers as to their evolutionary origins at high-redshift, whether or not they are triggered by major mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies, or if they are solitary galaxies continually fed pristine gas from the intergalactic medium. Furthermore, their presence in early protoclusters, only revealed quite recently, pose intriguing questions regarding the collapse of large scale structure. I will discuss some of the latest observational programs dedicated to understanding dust-obscuration in and gas content of the early Universe, their context in the cosmic web, and future long-term observing campaigns that may reveal their relationship to `normal’ galaxies, thus teaching us valuable lessons on the physical mechanisms of galaxy growth and the collapse of large scale structure in an evolving Universe.

  7. High-energy emission from star-forming galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Rephaeli, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the convection-diffusion model for energetic electron and proton propagation, and accounting for al lthe relevant hadronic and leptonic processes, the steady-state energy distributions of these particles in the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253 can be determined with a detailed numerical treatment. The electron distribution is directly normalized by the measured synchrotron radioemission from the central starburst region; a commonly expected theoretical relationis then used to normalize the proton spectrum in thisr egion, and a radial profile is assumed for the magnetic field. The resulting radiative yields of electrons and protons are calculated: thepredicted > 100MeV and > 100GeV fluxes are in agreement with the corresponding quantities measured with the orbiting Fermite lescope and the ground-based VERITAS and HESS Cherenkov telescopes. The cosmic-rayenergy densities in central regions of starburst galaxies, as inferred from the radioand γ-ray measurements of (respectively) non-thermal synchrotron and π 0 -decay emission, are U p = O(100)eVcm -3 , i.e. at least an order of magnitude larger than near the Galactic center and in other non-very-actively star-forming galaxies. These very different energy density levelsr eflect a similar disparity in the respective supernova rates in the two environments. A L γ proper to SFR 1.4 relationship is then predicted, in agreement with preliminary observational evidence.

  8. Dynamical evolution of star-forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, σ, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, σvir and thus assess the virial state (σ/σvir) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25-50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, σ, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, σvir. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions are never fully relaxed, and that the early non-equilibrium evolution is imprinted in the one-dimensional velocity dispersion at these early epochs. If measured early enough (interquartile range (IQR) dispersion, with measures of spatial structure, places stronger constraints on the dynamical history of a region than using the velocity dispersion in isolation.

  9. Dissecting the intensely star-forming clumps in a z ~ 2 Einstein Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu

    2013-10-01

    Clumps of star formation spreading widely in galactic disks are common features of star-forming galaxies at 1 test cases to study the mechanism that drives intense star formation at z ~ 2. We propose WFC3 near-IR imaging and spatially-resolved spectroscopy of a gravitationally lensed, kinematically ordered, vigorously star-forming galaxy at z = 1.885 with physical resolutions up to 40 pc. This galaxy contains two luminous clumps that are forming stars at the rates of 100 solar mass/yr/clump. Spatially-resolved map of star formation from HST provides the most critical missing piece to interpret our existing observations of this galaxy in far-IR, CO emission lines, and radio continuum. We will probe the frontier research areas in z ~ 2 star formation, particularly the spatially-resolved star formation laws and dynamics of cold and ionized gases, which have never been probed at this spatial resolution. Our proposed observations will provide a benchmark against which to interpret the structures of vigorous star-forming clumps in general. This object can therefore have a unique impact on our understanding of the star-forming modes that dominate at z ~ 2.

  10. The comparison of physical properties derived from gas and dust in a massive star-forming region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battersby, Cara; Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dunham, Miranda [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Longmore, Steve [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We explore the relationship between gas and dust in a massive star-forming region by comparing the physical properties derived from each. We compare the temperatures and column densities in a massive star-forming Infrared Dark Cloud (G32.02+0.05), which shows a range of evolutionary states, from quiescent to active. The gas properties were derived using radiative transfer modeling of the (1,1), (2,2), and (4,4) transitions of NH{sub 3} on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, while the dust temperatures and column densities were calculated using cirrus-subtracted, modified blackbody fits to Herschel data. We compare the derived column densities to calculate an NH{sub 3} abundance, χ{sub NH{sub 3}} = 4.6 × 10{sup –8}. In the coldest star-forming region, we find that the measured dust temperatures are lower than the measured gas temperatures (mean and standard deviations T {sub dust,} {sub avg} ∼ 11.6 ± 0.2 K versus T {sub gas,} {sub avg} ∼ 15.2 ± 1.5 K), which may indicate that the gas and dust are not well-coupled in the youngest regions (∼0.5 Myr) or that these observations probe a regime where the dust and/or gas temperature measurements are unreliable. Finally, we calculate millimeter fluxes based on the temperatures and column densities derived from NH{sub 3}, which suggest that millimeter dust continuum observations of massive star-forming regions, such as the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey or ATLASGAL, can probe hot cores, cold cores, and the dense gas lanes from which they form, and are generally not dominated by the hottest core.

  11. The comparison of physical properties derived from gas and dust in a massive star-forming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battersby, Cara; Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Darling, Jeremy; Dunham, Miranda; Longmore, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between gas and dust in a massive star-forming region by comparing the physical properties derived from each. We compare the temperatures and column densities in a massive star-forming Infrared Dark Cloud (G32.02+0.05), which shows a range of evolutionary states, from quiescent to active. The gas properties were derived using radiative transfer modeling of the (1,1), (2,2), and (4,4) transitions of NH 3 on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, while the dust temperatures and column densities were calculated using cirrus-subtracted, modified blackbody fits to Herschel data. We compare the derived column densities to calculate an NH 3 abundance, χ NH 3 = 4.6 × 10 –8 . In the coldest star-forming region, we find that the measured dust temperatures are lower than the measured gas temperatures (mean and standard deviations T dust, avg ∼ 11.6 ± 0.2 K versus T gas, avg ∼ 15.2 ± 1.5 K), which may indicate that the gas and dust are not well-coupled in the youngest regions (∼0.5 Myr) or that these observations probe a regime where the dust and/or gas temperature measurements are unreliable. Finally, we calculate millimeter fluxes based on the temperatures and column densities derived from NH 3 , which suggest that millimeter dust continuum observations of massive star-forming regions, such as the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey or ATLASGAL, can probe hot cores, cold cores, and the dense gas lanes from which they form, and are generally not dominated by the hottest core.

  12. VARIABILITY AND STAR FORMATION IN LEO T, THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY STAR-FORMING GALAXY KNOWN TODAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementini, Gisella; Cignoni, Michele; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Federici, Luciana; Tosi, Monica [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria, E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: rodrigo.contreras@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: luciana.federici@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: monica.tosi@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: michele.cignoni@unibo.it, E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it, E-mail: marcella@na.astro.it, E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2012-09-10

    We present results from the first combined study of variable stars and star formation history (SFH) of the Milky Way 'ultra-faint' dwarf (UFD) galaxy Leo T, based on F606W and F814W multi-epoch archive observations obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We have detected 14 variable stars in the galaxy. They include one fundamental-mode RR Lyrae star and 11 Anomalous Cepheids with periods shorter than 1 day, thus suggesting the occurrence of multiple star formation episodes in this UFD, of which one about 10 Gyr ago produced the RR Lyrae star. A new estimate of the distance to Leo T of 409{sup +29}{sub -27} kpc (distance modulus of 23.06 {+-} 0.15 mag) was derived from the galaxy's RR Lyrae star. Our V, V - I color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Leo T reaches V {approx} 29 mag and shows features typical of a galaxy in transition between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal types. A quantitative analysis of the SFH, based on the comparison of the observed V, V - I CMD with the expected distribution of stars for different evolutionary scenarios, confirms that Leo T has a complex SFH dominated by two enhanced periods about 1.5 and 9 Gyr ago, respectively. The distribution of stars and gas shows that the galaxy has a fairly asymmetric structure.

  13. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. III. Calibration of Measurement and Techniques of Star Formation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    Through an extensive set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I), we assess in this part of the paper series (Paper III) how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs) in star-forming regions. We test the accuracy of commonly used techniques and construct new methods to extract the SFR, so that these findings can be applied to measure the SFR in real regions throughout the Milky Way. We investigate diffuse infrared SFR tracers such as those using 24 μ m, 70 μ m and total infrared emission, which have been previously calibrated for global galaxy scales. We set up a toy model of a galaxy and show that the infrared emission is consistent with the intrinsic SFR using extra-galactic calibrated laws (although the consistency does not prove their reliability). For local scales, we show that these techniques produce completely unreliable results for single star-forming regions, which are governed by different characteristic timescales. We show how calibration of these techniques can be improved for single star-forming regions by adjusting the characteristic timescale and the scaling factor and give suggestions of new calibrations of the diffuse star formation tracers. We show that star-forming regions that are dominated by high-mass stellar feedback experience a rapid drop in infrared emission once high-mass stellar feedback is turned on, which implies different characteristic timescales. Moreover, we explore the measured SFRs calculated directly from the observed young stellar population. We find that the measured point sources follow the evolutionary pace of star formation more directly than diffuse star formation tracers.

  14. From the crust to the core of neutron stars on a microscopic basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.; Centelles, M.; Sharma, B. K.; Viñas, X.

    2014-09-01

    Within a microscopic approach the structure of Neutron Stars is usually studied by modelling the homogeneous nuclear matter of the core by a suitable Equation of State, based on a many-body theory, and the crust by a functional based on a more phenomenological approach. We present the first calculation of Neutron Star overall structure by adopting for the core an Equation of State derived from the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory and for the crust, including the pasta phase, an Energy Density Functional based on the same Equation of State, and which is able to describe accurately the binding energy of nuclei throughout the mass table. Comparison with other approaches is discussed. The relevance of the crust Equation of State for the Neutron Star radius is particularly emphasised.

  15. Instability of quark matter core in a compact newborn neutron star ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with moderately strong magnetic field strength, which populates only the electron's Landau levels, then in the β-equilibrium condition, the quark core is energetically much more unstable than the neutron matter of identical physical condition. Keywords. Landau diamagnetism; quark matter; quark star. PACS Nos 26.60.

  16. Radio synchrotron spectra of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U.; Lisenfeld, U.; Verley, S.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the radio continuum spectra of 14 star-forming galaxies by fitting nonthermal (synchrotron) and thermal (free-free) radiation laws. The underlying radio continuum measurements cover a frequency range of 325 MHz to 24.5 GHz (32 GHz in case of M 82). It turns out that most of these synchrotron spectra are not simple power-laws, but are best represented by a low-frequency spectrum with a mean slope αnth = 0.59 ± 0.20 (Sν ∝ ν-α), and by a break or an exponential decline in the frequency range of 1-12 GHz. Simple power-laws or mildly curved synchrotron spectra lead to unrealistically low thermal flux densities, and/or to strong deviations from the expected optically thin free-free spectra with slope αth = 0.10 in the fits. The break or cutoff energies are in the range of 1.5-7 GeV. We briefly discuss the possible origin of such a cutoff or break. If the low-frequency spectra obtained here reflect the injection spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons, they comply with the mean spectral index of Galactic supernova remnants. A comparison of the fitted thermal flux densities with the (foreground-corrected) Hα fluxes yields the extinction, which increases with metallicity. The fraction of thermal emission is higher than believed hitherto, especially at high frequencies, and is highest in the dwarf galaxies of our sample, which we interpret in terms of a lack of containment in these low-mass systems, or a time effect caused by a very young starburst.

  17. The distribution of warm gas in the G327.3-0.6 star forming region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurini, S.; Wyrowski, F.; van der Tak, F.; Herpin, F.; Herschel WISH Team, [Unknown

    Water is a key molecule for determining the physical chemical structure of star forming regions because of its large abundance variations between warm and cold regions. As a part of the HIFI-led Key Program WISH (P.I. E. van Dishoeck), we are mapping six massive star forming region in different H2O

  18. A CENSUS OF OXYGEN IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: AN EMPIRICAL MODEL LINKING METALLICITIES, STAR FORMATION RATES, AND OUTFLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Dima, G. I.; Kewley, L. J.; Erb, D. K.; Davé, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the first census of oxygen in star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We examine three samples of galaxies with metallicities and star formation rates (SFRs) at z = 0.07, 0.8, and 2.26, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey. We infer the total mass of oxygen produced and mass of oxygen found in the gas-phase from our local SDSS sample. The star formation history is determined by requiring that galaxies evolve along the relation between stellar mass and SFR observed in our three samples. We show that the observed relation between stellar mass and SFR for our three samples is consistent with other samples in the literature. The mass-metallicity relation is well established for our three samples, and from this we empirically determine the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies. Thus, we are able to simultaneously constrain the SFRs and metallicities of galaxies over cosmic time, allowing us to estimate the mass of oxygen locked up in stars. Combining this work with independent measurements reported in the literature, we conclude that the loss of oxygen from the interstellar medium of local star-forming galaxies is likely to be a ubiquitous process with the oxygen mass loss scaling (almost) linearly with stellar mass. We estimate the total baryonic mass loss and argue that only a small fraction of the baryons inferred from cosmological observations accrete onto galaxies.

  19. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNATURES IN BLACK HOLE FORMING CORE COLLAPSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; DeBrye, Nicolas; Aloy, Miguel A.; Font, José A.; Obergaulinger, Martin, E-mail: pablo.cerda@uv.es [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, c/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100-Burjassot (Spain)

    2013-12-20

    We present general relativistic numerical simulations of collapsing stellar cores. Our initial model consists of a low metallicity rapidly-rotating progenitor which is evolved in axisymmetry with the latest version of our general relativistic code CoCoNuT, which allows for black hole formation and includes the effects of a microphysical equation of state (LS220) and a neutrino leakage scheme to account for radiative losses. The motivation of our study is to analyze in detail the emission of gravitational waves in the collapsar scenario of long gamma-ray bursts. Our simulations show that the phase during which the proto-neutron star (PNS) survives before ultimately collapsing to a black hole is particularly optimal for gravitational wave emission. The high-amplitude waves last for several seconds and show a remarkable quasi-periodicity associated with the violent PNS dynamics, namely during the episodes of convection and the subsequent nonlinear development of the standing-accretion shock instability (SASI). By analyzing the spectrogram of our simulations we are able to identify the frequencies associated with the presence of g-modes and with the SASI motions at the PNS surface. We note that the gravitational waves emitted reach large enough amplitudes to be detected with third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope within a Virgo Cluster volume at rates ≲ 0.1 yr{sup –1}.

  20. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF A HIGH-DENSITY CORE IN TAURUS: DYNAMICAL GAS INTERACTION AT THE POSSIBLE SITE OF A MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Saigo, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Tachihara, Kengo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tomida, Kengo, E-mail: s_k.tokuda@p.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Starless dense cores eventually collapse dynamically, forming protostars inside them, and the physical properties of the cores determine the nature of the forming protostars. We report ALMA observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward MC27 or L1521F, which is considered to be very close to the first protostellar core phase. We found a few starless high-density cores, one of which has a very high density of ∼10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}, within a region of several hundred AU around a very low-luminosity protostar detected by Spitzer. A very compact bipolar outflow with a dynamical timescale of a few hundred years was found toward the protostar. The molecular line observation shows several cores with an arc-like structure, possibly due to the dynamical gas interaction. These complex structures revealed in the present observations suggest that the initial condition of star formation is highly dynamical in nature, which is considered to be a key factor in understanding fundamental issues of star formation such as the formation of multiple stars and the origin of the initial mass function of stars.

  1. Atomic hydrogen in the Orion star-forming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromey, F.R.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale survey of atomic hydrogen in Orion reveals low-density material with a total mass comparable to that in dense molecular clouds. The atomic gas is sufficiently dense that it can shield the molecular material from photodissociative radiation and provide a pressure link to the low-density intercloud medium. An excess of H I emission comes from photodissociation fronts near the bright stars and from a giant shell in the Orion Belt region. This shell may have caused the apparent bifurcation between the Orion A and B clouds, and the associated pressures may have induced peculiar motions and star formation in NGC 2023 and 2024. 49 refs

  2. Gravitational waves from axisymmetric rotating stellar core collapse to a neutron star in full general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Sekiguchi, Yu-ichirou

    2004-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical simulations of rotating stellar core collapse to a neutron star are performed in the framework of full general relativity. The so-called Cartoon method, in which the Einstein field equations are solved in Cartesian coordinates and the axisymmetric condition is imposed around the y=0 plane, is adopted. The hydrodynamic equations are solved in cylindrical coordinates (on the y=0 plane in Cartesian coordinates) using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme with maximum grid size (2500,2500). A parametric equation of state is adopted to model collapsing stellar cores and neutron stars following Dimmelmeier, Font, and Mueller. It is found that the evolution of the central density during the collapse, bounce, and formation of protoneutron stars agrees well with that in the work of Dimmelmeier, Font, and Mueller in which an approximate general relativistic formulation is adopted. This indicates that such an approximation is appropriate for following axisymmetric stellar core collapses and the subsequent formation of protoneutron stars. Gravitational waves are computed using a quadrupole formula. It is found that the waveforms are qualitatively in good agreement with those by Dimmelmeier, Font, and Mueller. However, quantitatively, two waveforms do not agree well. The possible reasons for the disagreement are discussed

  3. THE COMPACT STAR-FORMING COMPLEX AT THE HEART OF NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidge, T. J., E-mail: tim.davidge@nrc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2016-02-20

    We discuss integral field spectra of the compact star-forming complex that is the brightest near-infrared (NIR) source in the central regions of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The spectra cover the H and K passbands and were recorded with the Gemini NIR Spectrograph during subarcsecond seeing conditions. Absorption features in the spectrum of the star-forming complex are weaker than in the surroundings. An absorption feature is found near 1.78 μm that coincides with the location of a C{sub 2} bandhead. If this feature is due to C{sub 2} then the star-forming complex has been in place for at least a few hundred Myr. Emission lines of Brγ, [Fe ii], and He i 2.06 μm do not track the NIR continuum light. Pockets of star-forming activity that do not have associated concentrations of red supergiants, and so likely have ages <8 Myr, are found along the western edge of the complex, and there is evidence that one such pocket contains a rich population of Wolf–Rayet stars. Unless the star-forming complex is significantly more metal-poor than the surroundings, then a significant fraction of its total mass is in stars with ages <8 Myr. If the present-day star formation rate is maintained then the timescale to double its stellar mass ranges from a few Myr to a few tens of Myr, depending on the contribution made by stars older than ∼8 Myr. If—as suggested by some studies—the star-forming complex is centered on the galaxy’s nucleus, which presumably contains a large population of old and intermediate-age stars, then the nucleus of NGC 253 is currently experiencing a phase of rapid growth in its stellar mass.

  4. DISK EVOLUTION IN THE THREE NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS OF TAURUS, CHAMAELEON, AND OPHIUCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Watson, Dan M.; McClure, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze samples of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of T Tauri stars in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions, whose median ages lie in the <1-2 Myr range. The median mid-infrared spectra of objects in these three regions are similar in shape, suggesting, on average, similar disk structures. When normalized to the same stellar luminosity, the medians follow each other closely, implying comparable mid-infrared excess emission from the circumstellar disks. We use the spectral index between 13 and 31 μm and the equivalent width of the 10 μm silicate emission feature to identify objects whose disk configuration departs from that of a continuous, optically thick accretion disk. Transitional disks, whose steep 13-31 μm spectral slope and near-IR flux deficit reveal inner disk clearing, occur with about the same frequency of a few percent in all three regions. Objects with unusually large 10 μm equivalent widths are more common (20%-30%); they could reveal the presence of disk gaps filled with optically thin dust. Based on their medians and fraction of evolved disks, T Tauri stars in Taurus and Chamaeleon I are very alike. Disk evolution sets in early, since already the youngest region, the Ophiuchus core (L1688), has more settled disks with larger grains. Our results indicate that protoplanetary disks show clear signs of dust evolution at an age of a few Myr, even as early as ∼1 Myr, but age is not the only factor determining the degree of evolution during the first few million years of a disk's lifetime.

  5. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Unveiling the Dynamics of the Barnard 59 Star-forming Clump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, E.; Alves, F. O.; Caselli, P.; Pineda, J. E.; Friesen, R. K.; Chacón-Tanarro, A.; Matzner, C. D.; Ginsburg, A.; Rosolowsky, E.; Keown, J.; Offner, S. S. R.; Di Francesco, J.; Kirk, H.; Myers, P. C.; Hacar, A.; Cimatti, A.; Chen, H. H.; Chen, M. C.; Lee, K. I.; Seo, Y. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the early stages of star formation is a research field of ongoing development, both theoretically and observationally. In this context, molecular data have been continuously providing observational constraints on the gas dynamics at different excitation conditions and depths in the sources. We have investigated the Barnard 59 core, the only active site of star formation in the Pipe Nebula, to achieve a comprehensive view of the kinematic properties of the source. This information was derived by simultaneously fitting ammonia inversion transition lines (1, 1) and (2, 2). Our analysis unveils the imprint of protostellar feedback, such as increasing line widths, temperature, and turbulent motions in our molecular data. Combined with complementary observations of dust thermal emission, we estimate that the core is gravitationally bound following a virial analysis. If the core is not contracting, another source of internal pressure, most likely the magnetic field, is supporting it against gravitational collapse and limits its star formation efficiency.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF EPISODIC STAR FORMATION ON THE FUV-NUV COLORS OF STAR FORMING REGIONS IN OUTER DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dowell, Jayce D., E-mail: barneskl@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jdowell@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We run stellar population synthesis models to examine the effects of a recently episodic star formation history (SFH) on UV and Hα colors of star forming regions. Specifically, the SFHs we use are an episodic sampling of an exponentially declining star formation rate (SFR; τ model) and are intended to simulate the SFHs in the outer disks of spiral galaxies. To enable comparison between our models and observational studies of star forming regions in outer disks, we include in our models sensitivity limits that are based on recent deep UV and Hα observations in the literature. We find significant dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of simulated star forming regions with frequencies of star formation episodes of 1 × 10{sup –8} to 4 × 10{sup –9} yr{sup –1}. The dispersion in UV colors is similar to that found in the outer disk of nearby spiral galaxies. As expected, we also find large variations in L{sub H{sub α}}/L{sub FUV}. We interpret our models within the context of inside-out disk growth, and find that a radially increasing τ and decreasing metallicity with an increasing radius will only produce modest FUV-NUV color gradients, which are significantly smaller than what is found for some nearby spiral galaxies. However, including moderate extinction gradients with our models can better match the observations with steeper UV color gradients. We estimate that the SFR at which the number of stars emitting FUV light becomes stochastic is ∼2 × 10{sup –6} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which is substantially lower than the SFR of many star forming regions in outer disks. Therefore, we conclude that stochasticity in the upper end of the initial mass function is not likely to be the dominant cause of dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of star forming regions in outer disks. Finally, we note that if outer disks have had an episodic SFH similar to that used in this study, this should be taken into account when estimating gas depletion timescales and modeling chemical

  7. ASSESSING RADIATION PRESSURE AS A FEEDBACK MECHANISM IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation pressure from the absorption and scattering of starlight by dust grains may be an important feedback mechanism in regulating star-forming galaxies. We compile data from the literature on star clusters, star-forming subregions, normal star-forming galaxies, and starbursts to assess the importance of radiation pressure on dust as a feedback mechanism, by comparing the luminosity and flux of these systems to their dust Eddington limit. This exercise motivates a novel interpretation of the Schmidt law, the L IR -L' CO correlation, and the L IR -L' HCN correlation. In particular, the linear L IR -L' HCN correlation is a natural prediction of radiation pressure regulated star formation. Overall, we find that the Eddington limit sets a hard upper bound to the luminosity of any star-forming region. Importantly, however, many normal star-forming galaxies have luminosities significantly below the Eddington limit. We explore several explanations for this discrepancy, especially the role of 'intermittency' in normal spirals-the tendency for only a small number of subregions within a galaxy to be actively forming stars at any moment because of the time dependence of the feedback process and the luminosity evolution of the stellar population. If radiation pressure regulates star formation in dense gas, then the gas depletion timescale is 6 Myr, in good agreement with observations of the densest starbursts. Finally, we highlight the importance of observational uncertainties, namely, the dust-to-gas ratio and the CO-to-H 2 and HCN-to-H 2 conversion factors, that must be understood before a definitive assessment of radiation pressure as a feedback mechanism in star-forming galaxies.

  8. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTION TO CORE COLLAPSE OF A MASSIVE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, Sean M. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Arnett, W. David [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Timmes, F. X., E-mail: smc@tapir.caltech.edu [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We present the first three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the final minutes of iron core growth in a massive star, up to and including the point of core gravitational instability and collapse. We capture the development of strong convection driven by violent Si burning in the shell surrounding the iron core. This convective burning builds the iron core to its critical mass and collapse ensues, driven by electron capture and photodisintegration. The non-spherical structure and motion generated by 3D convection is substantial at the point of collapse, with convective speeds of several hundreds of km s{sup −1}. We examine the impact of such physically realistic 3D initial conditions on the core-collapse supernova mechanism using 3D simulations including multispecies neutrino leakage and find that the enhanced post-shock turbulence resulting from 3D progenitor structure aids successful explosions. We conclude that non-spherical progenitor structure should not be ignored, and should have a significant and favorable impact on the likelihood for neutrino-driven explosions. In order to make simulating the 3D collapse of an iron core feasible, we were forced to make approximations to the nuclear network making this effort only a first step toward accurate, self-consistent 3D stellar evolution models of the end states of massive stars.

  9. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTION TO CORE COLLAPSE OF A MASSIVE STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couch, Sean M.; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Arnett, W. David; Timmes, F. X.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the final minutes of iron core growth in a massive star, up to and including the point of core gravitational instability and collapse. We capture the development of strong convection driven by violent Si burning in the shell surrounding the iron core. This convective burning builds the iron core to its critical mass and collapse ensues, driven by electron capture and photodisintegration. The non-spherical structure and motion generated by 3D convection is substantial at the point of collapse, with convective speeds of several hundreds of km s −1 . We examine the impact of such physically realistic 3D initial conditions on the core-collapse supernova mechanism using 3D simulations including multispecies neutrino leakage and find that the enhanced post-shock turbulence resulting from 3D progenitor structure aids successful explosions. We conclude that non-spherical progenitor structure should not be ignored, and should have a significant and favorable impact on the likelihood for neutrino-driven explosions. In order to make simulating the 3D collapse of an iron core feasible, we were forced to make approximations to the nuclear network making this effort only a first step toward accurate, self-consistent 3D stellar evolution models of the end states of massive stars

  10. Preferential Pathway for Glycine Formation in Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, S.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Baptista, L.; Santos A. C., F.

    Interstellar clouds, similar to that from which the solar system was formed, contain many organic molecules including aldehydes, acids, ketones, and sugars Ehrenfreund & Charnley (2000). Those organic compounds have important functions in terrestrial biochemistry and could also have been important in prebiotic synthesis. The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), was recently detected in the hot molecular cores Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2 Kuan et al. (2003). The formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid(CH3COOH) have also been detected in those regions Liu et al. (2002), Remijan et al. (2004). The goal of this work is to study experimentally photoionization and photodissociation processes of glycine precursor molecules, acetic acid and formic acid to elucidate a possible preferentially in the glycine synthesis between ice and gas phase. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). The experimental set up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for both molecules were also determined Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos (2005). Due to the high photodissociation cross section of formic acid it is possible that in PDRs regions, just after molecules evaporation from the grains surface, it is almost destructed by soft X-rays, justifying the observed low abundance of HCOOH in gaseous phase Ehrenfreund et al. (2001). Acetic acid have shown to be more stable to the ionizing field, and its main outcomes from dissociation process were the reactive ionic fragments COOH+ and CH3CO+. To

  11. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  12. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIF...

  13. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  14. THE BLUE STRAGGLER STAR POPULATION IN NGC 1261: EVIDENCE FOR A POST-CORE-COLLAPSE BOUNCE STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H.; Sills, Alison

    2014-01-01

    We present a multi-passband photometric study of the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 1261, using available space- and ground-based survey data. The inner BSS population is found to have two distinct sequences in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD), similar to double BSS sequences detected in other GCs. These well defined sequences are presumably linked to single short-lived events such as core collapse, which are expected to boost the formation of BSSs. In agreement with this, we find a BSS sequence in NGC 1261 which can be well reproduced individually by a theoretical model prediction of a 2 Gyr old population of stellar collision products, which are expected to form in the denser inner regions during short-lived core contraction phases. Additionally, we report the occurrence of a group of BSSs with unusually blue colors in the CMD, which are consistent with a corresponding model of a 200 Myr old population of stellar collision products. The properties of the NGC 1261 BSS populations, including their spatial distributions, suggest an advanced dynamical evolutionary state of the cluster, but the core of this GC does not show the classical signatures of core collapse. We argue that these apparent contradictions provide evidence for a post-core-collapse bounce state seen in dynamical simulations of old GCs

  15. The Blue Straggler Star Population in NGC 1261: Evidence for a Post-core-collapse Bounce State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H.; Sills, Alison

    2014-11-01

    We present a multi-passband photometric study of the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 1261, using available space- and ground-based survey data. The inner BSS population is found to have two distinct sequences in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD), similar to double BSS sequences detected in other GCs. These well defined sequences are presumably linked to single short-lived events such as core collapse, which are expected to boost the formation of BSSs. In agreement with this, we find a BSS sequence in NGC 1261 which can be well reproduced individually by a theoretical model prediction of a 2 Gyr old population of stellar collision products, which are expected to form in the denser inner regions during short-lived core contraction phases. Additionally, we report the occurrence of a group of BSSs with unusually blue colors in the CMD, which are consistent with a corresponding model of a 200 Myr old population of stellar collision products. The properties of the NGC 1261 BSS populations, including their spatial distributions, suggest an advanced dynamical evolutionary state of the cluster, but the core of this GC does not show the classical signatures of core collapse. We argue that these apparent contradictions provide evidence for a post-core-collapse bounce state seen in dynamical simulations of old GCs.

  16. THE BLUE STRAGGLER STAR POPULATION IN NGC 1261: EVIDENCE FOR A POST-CORE-COLLAPSE BOUNCE STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H. [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Sills, Alison, E-mail: msimunov@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: tpuzia@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: asills@mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    We present a multi-passband photometric study of the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 1261, using available space- and ground-based survey data. The inner BSS population is found to have two distinct sequences in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD), similar to double BSS sequences detected in other GCs. These well defined sequences are presumably linked to single short-lived events such as core collapse, which are expected to boost the formation of BSSs. In agreement with this, we find a BSS sequence in NGC 1261 which can be well reproduced individually by a theoretical model prediction of a 2 Gyr old population of stellar collision products, which are expected to form in the denser inner regions during short-lived core contraction phases. Additionally, we report the occurrence of a group of BSSs with unusually blue colors in the CMD, which are consistent with a corresponding model of a 200 Myr old population of stellar collision products. The properties of the NGC 1261 BSS populations, including their spatial distributions, suggest an advanced dynamical evolutionary state of the cluster, but the core of this GC does not show the classical signatures of core collapse. We argue that these apparent contradictions provide evidence for a post-core-collapse bounce state seen in dynamical simulations of old GCs.

  17. Star-forming brightest cluster galaxies at 0.25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Stalder, B.; Bayliss, M.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Marrone, D. P.; Miller, E. D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Schrabback, T.; Stanford, S. A.; Stark, A. A.; Vieira, J. D.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-01-22

    We present a multiwavelength study of the 90 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a sample of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect by the South Pole Telescope, utilizing data from various ground- and space-based facilities. We infer the star-formation rate (SFR) for the BCG in each cluster—based on the UV and IR continuum luminosity, as well as the [O ii]λλ3726,3729 emission line luminosity in cases where spectroscopy is available—and find seven systems with SFR > 100 M⊙ yr-1. We find that the BCG SFR exceeds 10 M⊙ yr-1 in 31 of 90 (34%) cases at 0.25 < z < 1.25, compared to ~1%–5% at z ~ 0 from the literature. At z gsim 1, this fraction increases to ${92}_{-31}^{+6}$%, implying a steady decrease in the BCG SFR over the past ~9 Gyr. At low-z, we find that the specific SFR in BCGs is declining more slowly with time than for field or cluster galaxies, which is most likely due to the replenishing fuel from the cooling ICM in relaxed, cool core clusters. At z gsim 0.6, the correlation between the cluster central entropy and BCG star formation—which is well established at z ~ 0—is not present. Instead, we find that the most star-forming BCGs at high-z are found in the cores of dynamically unrelaxed clusters. We use data from the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate the rest-frame near-UV morphology of a subsample of the most star-forming BCGs, and find complex, highly asymmetric UV morphologies on scales as large as ~50–60 kpc. The high fraction of star-forming BCGs hosted in unrelaxed, non-cool core clusters at early times suggests that the dominant mode of fueling star formation in BCGs may have recently transitioned from galaxy–galaxy interactions to ICM cooling.

  18. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  19. Direct URCA-processes in neutron star quark core with strong magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Vasily

    2017-01-01

    In evaluations, the strength of magnetic field corresponds to the case, where the quarks of medium occupy a lot of Landau levels, while the electrons are in ground Landau level. The analytical dependence of neutrino emissivity on chemical potentials of quarks and electrons, temperature and magnetic field strength is obtained and briefly discussed. The result could be important in application to a massive strongly magnetized neutron star with quark core.

  20. 2D dynamics of the radiative core of low mass stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hypolite Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the internal rotation of low mass stars all along their evolution is of primary interest when studying their rotational dynamics, internal mixing and magnetic field generation. In this context, helio- and asteroseismology probe angular velocity gradients deep within solar type stars at different evolutionary stages. Still the rotation close to the center of such stars on the main sequence is hardly detectable and the dynamical interaction of the radiative core with the surface convective envelope is not well understood. For instance, the influence of the differential rotation profile sustained by convection and applied as a boundary condition to the radiation zone is very important in the formation of tachoclines. In this work, we study a 2D hydrodynamical model of a radiative core when an imposed, solar or anti-solar, differential rotation is applied at the upper boundary. This model uses the Boussinesq approximation and we find that the shear induces a cylindrical differential rotation associated with a unique cell of meridional circulation in each hemisphere (counterclockwise when the shear is solar-like and clockwise when it is anti-solar. The results are discussed in the framework of seismic observables (internal rotation rate, core-to-surface rotation ratio while perspectives to improve our modeling by including magnetic field or transport by internal gravity waves will be discussed.

  1. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-Forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from sensitive, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations of the late-type star-forming galaxy M83 (d = 4.6 Mpc). This is the first investigation to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) X-ray emission of this galaxy. The nuclear region and similar to 20 off-nuclear point sources......, including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most...

  2. New Herbig-Haro objects in star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, BO; Graham, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A list of 25 new Herbig-Haro objects, HH 58 to HH 82, in the Orion molecular clouds and in southern molecular cloud complexes has been compiled. CCD images in the S II 6717, 6731 forbidden lines are presented for the objects, together with a few spectra and some IR observations. The individual objects and, when identified, their energy sources are discussed. HH 65 is located in the red lobe of the bipolar outflow associated with the highly variable reflection nebula Re 50. HH 67 is a 22-arcsec long sinusoidal jet. HH 68/69 consists of a long, linear chain of four HH knots. HH 72 emerges from a 120-solar luminosity IRAS source embedded in a Bok globule. HH 79 is the first HH object discovered in the Ophiuchus clouds. HH 80/81 in Sagittarius are among the brightest HH objects known, have complex velocities, high excitation conditions and emerge from a 6000-solar luminosity young B-star. HH 82 is associated with the bright variable star S Coronae Australis.

  3. Star formation: study of the collapse of pre-stellar dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    One of the priorities of contemporary astrophysics remains to understand the mechanisms which lead to star formation. In the dense cores where star formation occurs, temperature, pressure, etc... are such that it is impossible to reproduce them in the laboratory. Numerical calculations remain the only mean to study physical phenomena that are involved in the star formation process. The focus of this thesis has been on the numerical methods that are used in the star formation context to describe highly non-linear and multi-scale phenomena. In particular, I have concentrated my work on the first stages of the pre-stellar dense cores collapse. This work is divided in 4 linked part. In a first study, I use a 1D Lagrangian code in spherical symmetry (Audit et al. 2002) to compare three models that incorporate radiative transfer and matter-radiation interactions. This comparison was based on simple gravitational collapse calculations which lead to the first Larson core formation. It was found that the Flux Limited Diffusion model is appropriate for star formation calculations. I also took benefit from this first work to study the properties of the accretion shock on the first Larson core. We developed a semi-analytic model based on well-known assumptions, which reproduces the jump properties at the shock. The second study consisted in implementing the Flux Limited Diffusion model with the radiation-hydrodynamics equations in the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002). After a first step of numerical tests that validate the scheme, we used RAMSES to perform the first multidimensional collapse calculations that combine magnetic field and radiative transfer effects at small scales with a high numerical resolution. Our results show that the radiative transfer has a significant impact on the fragmentation in the collapse of pre-stellar dense cores. I also present a comparison we made between the RAMSES code (Eulerian approach) and the SPH code DRAGON (Goodwin 2004, Lagrangian approach

  4. Core Cross-Linked Multiarm Star Polymers with Aggregation-Induced Emission and Temperature Responsive Fluorescence Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen; Bilalis, Panagiotis; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active core cross-linked multiarm star polymers, carrying polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), or polyethylene-b-polycaprolactone (PE-b-PCL) arms, have been synthesized through an “arm-first” strategy, by atom

  5. RECONCILING THE OBSERVED STAR-FORMING SEQUENCE WITH THE OBSERVED STELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the connection between the observed star-forming sequence (SFR ∝ M α ) and the observed evolution of the stellar mass function in the range 0.2 < z < 2.5. We find that the star-forming sequence cannot have a slope α ≲ 0.9 at all masses and redshifts because this would result in a much higher number density at 10 < log (M/M ☉ ) < 11 by z = 1 than is observed. We show that a transition in the slope of the star-forming sequence, such that α = 1 at log (M/M ☉ ) < 10.5 and α = 0.7-0.13z (Whitaker et al.) at log (M/M ☉ ) > 10.5, greatly improves agreement with the evolution of the stellar mass function. We then derive a star-forming sequence that reproduces the evolution of the mass function by design. This star-forming sequence is also well described by a broken power law, with a shallow slope at high masses and a steep slope at low masses. At z = 2, it is offset by ∼0.3 dex from the observed star-forming sequence, consistent with the mild disagreement between the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and recent observations of the growth of the stellar mass density. It is unclear whether this problem stems from errors in stellar mass estimates, errors in SFRs, or other effects. We show that a mass-dependent slope is also seen in other self-consistent models of galaxy evolution, including semianalytical, hydrodynamical, and abundance-matching models. As part of the analysis, we demonstrate that neither mergers nor hidden low-mass quiescent galaxies are likely to reconcile the evolution of the mass function and the star-forming sequence. These results are supported by observations from Whitaker et al

  6. Hydrodynamical simulations of the stream-core interaction in the slow merger of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Spruit, H.

    2002-08-01

    We present detailed simulations of the interaction of a stream emanating from a mass-losing secondary with the core of a massive supergiant in the slow merger of two stars inside a common envelope. The dynamics of the stream can be divided into a ballistic phase, starting at the L1 point, and a hydrodynamical phase, where the stream interacts strongly with the core. Considering the merger of a 1- and 5-Msolar star with a 20-Msolar evolved supergiant, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations using the PROMETHEUS code to demonstrate how the penetration depth and post-impact conditions depend on the initial properties of the stream material (e.g. entropy, angular momentum, stream width) and the properties of the core (e.g. density structure and rotation rate). Using these results, we present a fitting formula for the entropy generated in the stream-core interaction and a recipe for the determination of the penetration depth based on a modified Bernoulli integral.

  7. THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION CYGNUS OB2. II. INTEGRATED STELLAR PROPERTIES AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.; Vink, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star-forming region (SFR), containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analyzed the properties of young stars in two fields in Cyg OB2 using the recently published deep catalog of Chandra X-ray point sources with complementary optical and near-IR photometry. Our sample is complete to ∼1 M sun (excluding A- and B-type stars that do not emit X-rays), making this the deepest study of the stellar properties and star formation history in Cyg OB2 to date. From Siess et al. isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, we derive ages of 3.5 +0.75 -1.0 and 5.25 +1.5 -1.0 Myr for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-main-sequence isochrones. The presence of a stellar population somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, also fits in with the low fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) that we find to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ∼5 Myr. We also find that the region lacks a population of highly embedded sources that is often observed in young SFRs, suggesting star formation in the vicinity has declined. We measure the stellar mass functions (MFs) in this limit and find a power-law slope of Γ = -1.09 ± 0.13, in good agreement with the global mean value estimated by Kroupa. A steepening of the slope at higher masses is observed and suggested as due to the presence of the previous generation of stars that have lost their most massive members. Finally, combining our MF and an estimate of the radial density profile of the association suggests a total mass of Cyg OB2 of ∼3 x 10 4 M sun , similar to that of many of our Galaxy's most massive SFRs.

  8. Modelling ultraviolet-line diagnostics of stars, the ionized and the neutral interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-García, A.; Charlot, S.; Bruzual, G.; Hubeny, I.

    2017-09-01

    We combine state-of-the-art models for the production of stellar radiation and its transfer through the interstellar medium (ISM) to investigate ultraviolet-line diagnostics of stars, the ionized and the neutral ISM in star-forming galaxies. We start by assessing the reliability of our stellar population synthesis modelling by fitting absorption-line indices in the ISM-free ultraviolet spectra of 10 Large Magellanic Cloud clusters. In doing so, we find that neglecting stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function in these young (∼10-100 Myr), low-mass clusters affects negligibly ultraviolet-based age and metallicity estimates but can lead to significant overestimates of stellar mass. Then, we proceed and develop a simple approach, based on an idealized description of the main features of the ISM, to compute in a physically consistent way the combined influence of nebular emission and interstellar absorption on ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies. Our model accounts for the transfer of radiation through the ionized interiors and outer neutral envelopes of short-lived stellar birth clouds, as well as for radiative transfer through a diffuse intercloud medium. We use this approach to explore the entangled signatures of stars, the ionized and the neutral ISM in ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies. We find that, aside from a few notable exceptions, most standard ultraviolet indices defined in the spectra of ISM-free stellar populations are prone to significant contamination by the ISM, which increases with metallicity. We also identify several nebular-emission and interstellar-absorption features, which stand out as particularly clean tracers of the different phases of the ISM.

  9. Weak-interaction processes in stars: applications to core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pinedo, G.

    2003-01-01

    The role of weak-interaction processes in core collapse and neutrino nucleosynthesis is reviewed. Recent calculations of the electron capture rates for nuclei with mass numbers A=65-112 show that, contrarily to previous assumptions, during core collapse electron capture is dominated by captures on heavy nuclei. Astrophysical simulations demonstrate that these rates have an important impact on the collapse. Neutrinos emitted by the collapsing core can interact with the overlying shells of the star producing substantial nuclear transmutations. This process known as ν-process seems to be responsible for the production of 138 La by charged current neutrino interactions with 138 Ba. The ν-process is then sensitive to the spectra of different neutrino species and to neutrino oscillations. (orig.)

  10. DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Palau, Aina [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Dpt d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Shepherd, Debra [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Franco, Jose [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garay, Guido, E-mail: asanchez@arcetri.astro.it [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-04-01

    We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40{alpha} and H30{alpha}). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density {approx}3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located {approx}6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located {approx}2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M{sub Sun }. The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 {mu}m and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

  11. DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana; Palau, Aina; Estalella, Robert; Shepherd, Debra; Franco, José; Garay, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H 2 O and CH 3 OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40α and H30α). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density ∼3.7 × 10 4 cm –3 , excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located ∼6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density ∼1.3 × 10 5 cm –3 , and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located ∼2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M ☉ . The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 μm and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

  12. The Core Mass Growth and Stellar Lifetime of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Marigo, Paola; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    We establish new constraints on the intermediate-mass range of the initial-final mass relation, and apply the results to study the evolution of stars on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). These constraints derive from newly discovered (bright) white dwarfs in the nearby Hyades and Praesepe star clusters, including a total of 18 high signal-to-noise ratio measurements with progenitor masses of M initial = 2.8-3.8 M ⊙. We also include a new analysis of existing white dwarfs in the older NGC 6819 and NGC 7789 star clusters, M initial = 1.6 and 2.0 M ⊙. Over this range of initial masses, stellar evolutionary models for metallicity Z initial = 0.02 predict the maximum growth of the core of TP-AGB stars. By comparing the newly measured remnant masses to the robust prediction of the core mass at the first thermal pulse on the AGB (i.e., from stellar interior models), we establish several findings. First, we show that the stellar core mass on the AGB grows rapidly from 10% to 30% for stars with M initial = 1.6 to 2.0 M ⊙. At larger masses, the core-mass growth decreases steadily to ~10% at M initial = 3.4 M ⊙, after which there is a small hint of a upturn out to M initial = 3.8 M ⊙. These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions from the latest TP-AGB evolutionary models in Marigo et al. We also compare to models with varying efficiencies of the third dredge-up and mass loss, and demonstrate that the process governing the growth of the core is largely the stellar wind, while the third dredge-up plays a secondary, but non-negligible role. Based on the new white dwarf measurements, we perform an exploratory calibration of the most popular mass-loss prescriptions in the literature, as well as of the third dredge-up efficiency as a function of the stellar mass. Finally, we estimate the lifetime and the integrated luminosity of stars on the TP-AGB to peak at t ~ 3 Myr and E = 1.2 × 1010 L ⊙ yr for M initial ~ 2 M ⊙ (t ~ 2 Myr

  13. The core mass growth and stellar lifetime of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Marigo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We establish new constraints on the intermediate-mass range of the initial-final mass relation, and apply the results to study the evolution of stars on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). These constraints derive from newly discovered (bright) white dwarfs in the nearby Hyades and Praesepe star clusters, including a total of 18 high signal-to-noise ratio measurements with progenitor masses of M initial = 2.8-3.8 M ☉ . We also include a new analysis of existing white dwarfs in the older NGC 6819 and NGC 7789 star clusters, M initial = 1.6 and 2.0 M ☉ . Over this range of initial masses, stellar evolutionary models for metallicity Z initial = 0.02 predict the maximum growth of the core of TP-AGB stars. By comparing the newly measured remnant masses to the robust prediction of the core mass at the first thermal pulse on the AGB (i.e., from stellar interior models), we establish several findings. First, we show that the stellar core mass on the AGB grows rapidly from 10% to 30% for stars with M initial = 1.6 to 2.0 M ☉ . At larger masses, the core-mass growth decreases steadily to ∼10% at M initial = 3.4 M ☉ , after which there is a small hint of a upturn out to M initial = 3.8 M ☉ . These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions from the latest TP-AGB evolutionary models in Marigo et al. We also compare to models with varying efficiencies of the third dredge-up and mass loss, and demonstrate that the process governing the growth of the core is largely the stellar wind, while the third dredge-up plays a secondary, but non-negligible role. Based on the new white dwarf measurements, we perform an exploratory calibration of the most popular mass-loss prescriptions in the literature, as well as of the third dredge-up efficiency as a function of the stellar mass. Finally, we estimate the lifetime and the integrated luminosity of stars on the TP-AGB to peak at t ∼ 3 Myr and E = 1.2 × 10 10 L ☉ yr for M initial ∼ 2 M

  14. The core mass growth and stellar lifetime of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marigo, Paola, E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu, E-mail: paola.marigo@unipd.it, E-mail: ptremblay@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    We establish new constraints on the intermediate-mass range of the initial-final mass relation, and apply the results to study the evolution of stars on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). These constraints derive from newly discovered (bright) white dwarfs in the nearby Hyades and Praesepe star clusters, including a total of 18 high signal-to-noise ratio measurements with progenitor masses of M {sub initial} = 2.8-3.8 M {sub ☉}. We also include a new analysis of existing white dwarfs in the older NGC 6819 and NGC 7789 star clusters, M {sub initial} = 1.6 and 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Over this range of initial masses, stellar evolutionary models for metallicity Z {sub initial} = 0.02 predict the maximum growth of the core of TP-AGB stars. By comparing the newly measured remnant masses to the robust prediction of the core mass at the first thermal pulse on the AGB (i.e., from stellar interior models), we establish several findings. First, we show that the stellar core mass on the AGB grows rapidly from 10% to 30% for stars with M {sub initial} = 1.6 to 2.0 M {sub ☉}. At larger masses, the core-mass growth decreases steadily to ∼10% at M {sub initial} = 3.4 M {sub ☉}, after which there is a small hint of a upturn out to M {sub initial} = 3.8 M {sub ☉}. These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions from the latest TP-AGB evolutionary models in Marigo et al. We also compare to models with varying efficiencies of the third dredge-up and mass loss, and demonstrate that the process governing the growth of the core is largely the stellar wind, while the third dredge-up plays a secondary, but non-negligible role. Based on the new white dwarf measurements, we perform an exploratory calibration of the most popular mass-loss prescriptions in the literature, as well as of the third dredge-up efficiency as a function of the stellar mass. Finally, we estimate the lifetime and the integrated luminosity of stars on the TP-AGB to peak at t

  15. Observational tests of convective core overshooting in stars of intermediate to high mass in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the results of 14 tests for the presence of convective overshooting in large convecting stellar cores for stars with masses of 4-17 solar masses which are members of detached close binary systems and of open clusters in the Galaxy. A large body of theoretical and observational data is scrutinized and subjected to averaging in order to minimize accidental and systematic errors. A conservative upper limit of d/HP less than 0.4 is found from at least four tests, as well as a tighter upper limit of d/HP less than 0.2 from one good test that is subject to only mild restrictions and is based on the maximum observed effective temperature of evolved blue supergiants. It is concluded that any current uncertainty about the distance scale for these stars is unimportant in conducting the present tests for convective core overshooting. The correct effective temperature scale for the B0.5-B2 stars is almost certainly close to one of the proposed hot scales.

  16. Filament and core formation in nearby molecular clouds: results from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Lee, Katherine I.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Looney, Leslie; Chen, Che-Yu; Classy Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Stars rarely form in isolation, so it is critical to understand how the parsec-scale molecular cloud environment shapes the formation of individual dense cores at the sub-0.1 pc scale. To address the pathway to core formation in a clustered environment, I co-developed the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey, which spectrally imaged dense gas tracer lines across 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular clouds with 7'' angular resolution. There are four key results from initial papers. First, I created a new non-binary dendrogram code that shows correlation between the hierarchical complexity of dense, N2H+ (J=1-0) structures and the amount of star formation activity in a cluster. This may imply that feedback from young protostars changes the structure of dense gas within a cluster and increases the amount of high column density material. Second, we discovered strong radial velocity gradients within filaments that are an order of magnitude larger than detected axial gradients. We see similar radial gradients in filaments formed in numerical simulations of converging, turbulent flows; this suggests that the observed filaments are accreting material from an environment that is flattened at larger scales, and that they are more likely to fragment locally into cores than to support the flow of gas along the filament length. Third, we constructed two size-linewidth relations using the dendrogram-identified gas structures and our high resolution maps of the gas centroid velocity and line-of-sight velocity dispersion. The two relations show distinct behavior, and we developed a theoretical framework based on isotropic turbulence to show that they support the clustered regions being flattened (sheet-like) at parsec scales, with depths on the order 0.1-0.2 pc into the sky. Finally, we found that many filaments seen with Herschel show substructure in our high resolution maps, which implies that measuring the widths of filaments may be more complex than

  17. From clouds to cores to envelopes to disks: a multi-scale view of magnetized star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Charles; Plambeck, R. L.; TADPOL survey Team

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in the formation of stars. However, that importance has been called into question by previous observations showing misalignment between protostellar outflows and magnetic fields (B-fields), as well as inconsistency in field morphology between 10,000 and 1000 AU scales. To investigate these inconsistencies, we used the 1.3 mm full-Stokes polarimeter — which I tested, installed, and calibrated for CARMA, a mm-wave interferometer — to map dust polarization with ~2.5" resolution toward 29 star-forming cores and 8 star-forming regions as part of the TADPOL survey. We find that a subset of the sources have consistent B-field orientations between the large 20") scales measured by single-dish submm bolometers and the small scales measured by CARMA. Those same sources also tend to have higher fractional polarizations (measured by CARMA), presumably because the B-fields are less twisted by dynamic effects. However, even in these sources, which seem to have retained the memory of the global B-field direction, the fields in the cores are misaligned with the disks and outflows in the central protostars — a key result of the TADPOL survey. Furthermore, the cores with lower polarization fractions tend to have B-fields that are perpendicular to outflows, which suggests that in these sources the B-fields have lost the memory of the larger-scale global field, and have been wrapped up by core rotation. This is an important result for disk formation theory, as it suggests that field misalignment may indeed be the solution to the magnetic braking catastrophe. Finally, we find that all sources exhibit the so-called “polarization hole” effect, where the polarization drops significantly near the total intensity peak. When this effect was seen in low-resolution single-dish maps, it was attributed to the averaging of unresolved structure in the plane of the sky. However, the higher resolution maps we present here resolve these

  18. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS: PHYSICAL AND KINEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STARLESS CORE Oph A-N6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, Tyler L.; Myers, Philip C.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, E.C. Stoner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Di Francesco, James [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Belloche, Arnaud [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Plume, Rene, E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    We present high spatial (<300 AU) and spectral (0.07 km s{sup -1}) resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the dense starless cluster core Oph A-N6 in the 1 mm dust continuum and the 3-2 line of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and N{sub 2}D{sup +}. The dust continuum observations reveal a compact source not seen in single-dish observations, of size {approx}1000 AU and mass 0.005-0.01 M{sub Sun }. The combined line and single-dish observations reveal a core of size 3000 Multiplication-Sign 1400 AU elongated in a NW-SE direction, with almost no variation in either line width nor line center velocity across the map, and very small non-thermal motions. The deuterium fraction has a peak value of {approx}0.15 and is >0.05 over much of the core. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} column density profile across the major axis of Oph A-N6 is well represented by an isothermal cylinder, with temperature 20 K, peak density 7.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. The mass of Oph A-N6 is estimated to be 0.29 M{sub Sun }, compared to a value of 0.18 M{sub Sun} from the isothermal cylinder analysis, and 0.63 M{sub Sun} for the critical mass for fragmentation of an isothermal cylinder. Compared to isolated low-mass cores, Oph A-N6 shows similar narrow line widths and small velocity variation, with a deuterium fraction similar to 'evolved' dense cores. It is significantly smaller than isolated cores, with larger peak column and volume density. The available evidence suggests that Oph A-N6 has formed through the fragmentation of the Oph A filament and is the precursor to a low-mass star. The dust continuum emission suggests that it may already have begun to form a star.

  19. Far-infrared investigation of the Taurus star-forming region using the IRAS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Taurus-Auriga complex was selected as the first molecular cloud to be investigated in this study. The Taurus clouds were defined as lying between 04h and 05h in R.A. and +16 to +31 degrees in Dec., then the IRAS point-source catalogue was searched for sources with good or moderate quality fluxes in all three of the shortest IRAS bands. The sources selected were then classified into subgroups according to their IRAS colors. Taurus is generally believed to be an area of low-mass star formation, having no luminous O-B associations within or near to the cloud complex. Once field stars, galaxies and planetary nebulae had been removed from the sample only the molecular cloud cores, T Tauri stars and a few emission-line A and B stars remained. The great majority of these objects are pre-main sequence in nature and, as stated by Chester (1985), main sequence stars without excess far-infrared emission would only be seen in Taurus if their spectral types were earlier than about A5 and then not 25 microns. By choosing our sample in this way we are naturally selecting the hotter and thus more evolved sources. To counteract this, the molecular cloud core-criterion was applied to soruces with good or moderate quality flux at 25, 60 and 100 microns, increasing the core sample by about one third. The candidate protostar B335 is only detected by IRAS at 60 and 100 microns while Taurus is heavily contaminated by cirrus at 100 microns. This means that detection at 25 microns is also required with those at 60 and 100 microns to avoid confusing a ridge of cirrus with a genuine protostar. The far-infrared luminosity function of these sources is then calculated and converted to the visual band by a standard method to compare with the field star luminosity function of Miller and Scalo

  20. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Adamo, A.; Messa, M. [Dept. of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, H. [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, D. A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Fumagalli, M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology and Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Grebel, E. K.; Shabani, F. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Johnson, K. E. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Kahre, L. [Dept. of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pellerin, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo NY (United States); Ryon, J. E.; Ubeda, L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Smith, L. J. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thilker, D., E-mail: kgrasha@astro.umass.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3–15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ∼40–60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  1. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION W49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saral, G.; Hora, J. L.; Willis, S. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koenig, X. P. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Saygac, A. T., E-mail: gsaral@cfa.harvard.edu [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Istanbul-Turkey (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    We present the initial results of our investigation of the star-forming complex W49, one of the youngest and most luminous massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data to investigate massive star formation with the primary objective of locating a representative set of protostars and the clusters of young stars that are forming around them. We present our source catalog with the mosaics from the IRAC data. In this study we used a combination of IRAC, MIPS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) data to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs). We identified 232 Class 0/I YSOs, 907 Class II YSOs, and 74 transition disk candidate objects using color–color and color–magnitude diagrams. In addition, to understand the evolution of star formation in W49, we analyzed the distribution of YSOs in the region to identify clusters using a minimal spanning tree method. The fraction of YSOs that belong to clusters with ≥7 members is found to be 52% for a cutoff distance of 96″, and the ratio of Class II/I objects is 2.1. We compared the W49 region to the G305 and G333 star-forming regions and concluded that W49 has the richest population, with seven subclusters of YSOs.

  2. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Dale, D. A.; Fumagalli, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Kahre, L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Messa, M.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Shabani, F.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3-15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ˜40-60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  3. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Dale, D. A.; Fumagalli, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Shabani, F.; Johnson, K. E.; Kahre, L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3–15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ∼40–60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  4. EFFECTS OF FOSSIL MAGNETIC FIELDS ON CONVECTIVE CORE DYNAMOS IN A-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Toomre, Juri; Browning, Matthew K.; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2009-01-01

    The vigorous magnetic dynamo action achieved within the convective cores of A-type stars may be influenced by fossil magnetic fields within their radiative envelopes. We study such effects through three-dimensional simulations that model the inner 30% by radius of a 2 M sun A-type star, capturing the convective core and a portion of the overlying radiative envelope within our computational domain. We employ the three-dimensional anelastic spherical harmonic code to model turbulent dynamics within a deep rotating spherical shell. The interaction between a fossil field and the core dynamo is examined by introducing a large-scale magnetic field into the radiative envelope of a mature A star dynamo simulation. We find that the inclusion of a twisted toroidal fossil field can lead to a remarkable transition in the core dynamo behavior. Namely, a super-equipartition state can be realized in which the magnetic energy built by dynamo action is 10-fold greater than the kinetic energy of the convection itself. Such strong-field states may suggest that the resulting Lorentz forces should seek to quench the flows, yet we have achieved super-equipartition dynamo action that persists for multiple diffusion times. This is achieved by the relative co-alignment of the flows and magnetic fields in much of the domain, along with some lateral displacements of the fastest flows from the strongest fields. Convection in the presence of such strong magnetic fields typically manifests as 4-6 cylindrical rolls aligned with the rotation axis, each possessing central axial flows that imbue the rolls with a helical nature. The roll system also possesses core-crossing flows that couple distant regions of the core. We find that the magnetic fields exhibit a comparable global topology with broad, continuous swathes of magnetic field linking opposite sides of the convective core. We have explored several poloidal and toroidal fossil field geometries, finding that a poloidal component is essential

  5. The HNC/HCN ratio in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graninger, Dawn M.; Öberg, Karin I.; Herbst, Eric; Vasyunin, Anton I.

    2014-01-01

    HNC and HCN, typically used as dense gas tracers in molecular clouds, are a pair of isomers that have great potential as a temperature probe because of temperature dependent, isomer-specific formation and destruction pathways. Previous observations of the HNC/HCN abundance ratio show that the ratio decreases with increasing temperature, something that standard astrochemical models cannot reproduce. We have undertaken a detailed parameter study on which environmental characteristics and chemical reactions affect the HNC/HCN ratio and can thus contribute to the observed dependence. Using existing gas and gas-grain models updated with new reactions and reaction barriers, we find that in static models the H + HNC gas-phase reaction regulates the HNC/HCN ratio under all conditions, except for very early times. We quantitatively constrain the combinations of H abundance and H + HNC reaction barrier that can explain the observed HNC/HCN temperature dependence and discuss the implications in light of new quantum chemical calculations. In warm-up models, gas-grain chemistry contributes significantly to the predicted HNC/HCN ratio and understanding the dynamics of star formation is therefore key to model the HNC/HCN system.

  6. Overview of JSPS Core-to-Core Program: Forming Research and Educational Hubs of Medical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki

    To foster medical physicists, we introduce the achievement we made since 2011 under the national research project of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Core-to-Core program; 'Forming Research and Educational Hubs of Medical Physics.' On this basis and under the JSPS program, we promoted research and educational exchange with Indiana University (IU) in USA, University of Groningen (The UG) in the Netherland and other cooperating institutions such as University of Minnesota (UM).A total of 23 students and researchers were sent. UG accepted the most among three institutions. In turn, 12 foreign researchers including post-doctor fellows came to Japan for academic seminars or educational lectures.Fifteen international seminars were held; 8 in Japan, 4 in USA, and 3 in the Netherland.Lots of achievement were made through these activities in 5 years. Total of 23 research topics at the international conferences were presented. Total of 12 articles were published in international journals.This program clearly promoted the establishment of international collaboration, and many young researchers and graduate students were exchanged and collaborated with foreign researchers.

  7. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-forming Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from th...

  8. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Probst, Ron [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S., E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: aginsburg@eso.org, E-mail: probst@noao.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: Guy.Stringfellow@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  9. Red Misfits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: properties of star-forming red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Fraser A.; Parker, Laura C.; Roberts, Ian D.

    2018-06-01

    We study Red Misfits, a population of red, star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. We classify galaxies based on inclination-corrected optical colours and specific star formation rates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Although the majority of blue galaxies are star-forming and most red galaxies exhibit little to no ongoing star formation, a small but significant population of galaxies (˜11 per cent at all stellar masses) are classified as red in colour yet actively star-forming. We explore a number of properties of these galaxies and demonstrate that Red Misfits are not simply dusty or highly inclined blue cloud galaxies or quiescent red galaxies with poorly constrained star formation. The proportion of Red Misfits is nearly independent of environment, and this population exhibits both intermediate morphologies and an enhanced likelihood of hosting an active galactic nucleus. We conclude that Red Misfits are a transition population, gradually quenching on their way to the red sequence and this quenching is dominated by internal processes rather than environmentally driven processes. We discuss the connection between Red Misfits and other transition galaxy populations, namely S0s, red spirals, and green valley galaxies.

  10. The Star-forming Main Sequence of Dwarf Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.; Lelli, Federico

    2017-12-01

    We explore the star-forming properties of late-type, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. The star-forming main sequence ({SFR}-{M}* ) of LSB dwarfs has a steep slope, indistinguishable from unity (1.04 ± 0.06). They form a distinct sequence from more massive spirals, which exhibit a shallower slope. The break occurs around {M}* ≈ {10}10 {M}⊙ , and can also be seen in the gas mass—stellar mass plane. The global Kennicutt-Schmidt law ({SFR}-{M}g) has a slope of 1.47 ± 0.11 without the break seen in the main sequence. There is an ample supply of gas in LSB galaxies, which have gas depletion times well in excess of a Hubble time, and often tens of Hubble times. Only ˜ 3 % of this cold gas needs be in the form of molecular gas to sustain the observed star formation. In analogy with the faint, long-lived stars of the lower stellar main sequence, it may be appropriate to consider the main sequence of star-forming galaxies to be defined by thriving dwarfs (with {M}* {10}10 {M}⊙ ) are weary giants that constitute more of a turn-off population.

  11. Transport coefficients in neutron star cores in BHF approach. Comparison of different nucleon potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternin, P. S.; Baldo, M.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal conductivity and shear viscosity of npeµ matter in non-superfluid neutron star cores are considered in the framework of Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory. We extend our previous work (Shternin et al 2013 PRC 88 065803) by analysing different nucleon-nucleon potentials and different three-body forces. We find that the use of different potentials leads up to one order of magnitude variations in the values of the nucleon contribution to transport coefficients. The nucleon contribution dominates the thermal conductivity, but for all considered models the shear viscosity is dominated by leptons.

  12. Synthesis and properties of novel star-shaped oligofluorene conjugated systems with BODIPY cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Orofino-Pena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Star-shaped conjugated systems with varying oligofluorene arm length and substitution patterns of the central BODIPY core have been synthesised, leading to two families of compounds, T-B1–T-B4 and Y-B1–Y-B4, with T- and Y-shaped motifs, respectively. Thermal stability, cyclic voltammetry, absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of each member of these two families were studied in order to determine their suitability as emissive materials in photonic applications.

  13. Not all stars form in clusters - measuring the kinematics of OB associations with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jacob L.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik

    2018-04-01

    It is often stated that star clusters are the fundamental units of star formation and that most (if not all) stars form in dense stellar clusters. In this monolithic formation scenario, low-density OB associations are formed from the expansion of gravitationally bound clusters following gas expulsion due to stellar feedback. N-body simulations of this process show that OB associations formed this way retain signs of expansion and elevated radial anisotropy over tens of Myr. However, recent theoretical and observational studies suggest that star formation is a hierarchical process, following the fractal nature of natal molecular clouds and allowing the formation of large-scale associations in situ. We distinguish between these two scenarios by characterizing the kinematics of OB associations using the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution catalogue. To this end, we quantify four key kinematic diagnostics: the number ratio of stars with positive radial velocities to those with negative radial velocities, the median radial velocity, the median radial velocity normalized by the tangential velocity, and the radial anisotropy parameter. Each quantity presents a useful diagnostic of whether the association was more compact in the past. We compare these diagnostics to models representing random motion and the expanding products of monolithic cluster formation. None of these diagnostics show evidence of expansion, either from a single cluster or multiple clusters, and the observed kinematics are better represented by a random velocity distribution. This result favours the hierarchical star formation model in which a minority of stars forms in bound clusters and large-scale, hierarchically structured associations are formed in situ.

  14. GEOMETRY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM SDSS, 3D-HST, AND CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wel, A.; Chang, Yu-Yen; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Bell, E. F.; Holden, B. P.; Koo, D. C.; Mozena, M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Brammer, G.; Kassin, S. A.; Giavalisco, M.; Skelton, R.; Whitaker, K.; Momcheva, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Dekel, A.; Ceverino, D.; Franx, M.

    2014-01-01

    We determine the intrinsic, three-dimensional shape distribution of star-forming galaxies at 0 < z < 2.5, as inferred from their observed projected axis ratios. In the present-day universe, star-forming galaxies of all masses 10 9 -10 11 M ☉ are predominantly thin, nearly oblate disks, in line with previous studies. We now extend this to higher redshifts, and find that among massive galaxies (M * > 10 10 M ☉ ) disks are the most common geometric shape at all z ≲ 2. Lower-mass galaxies at z > 1 possess a broad range of geometric shapes: the fraction of elongated (prolate) galaxies increases toward higher redshifts and lower masses. Galaxies with stellar mass 10 9 M ☉ (10 10 M ☉ ) are a mix of roughly equal numbers of elongated and disk galaxies at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2). This suggests that galaxies in this mass range do not yet have disks that are sustained over many orbital periods, implying that galaxies with present-day stellar mass comparable to that of the Milky Way typically first formed such sustained stellar disks at redshift z ∼ 1.5-2. Combined with constraints on the evolution of the star formation rate density and the distribution of star formation over galaxies with different masses, our findings imply that, averaged over cosmic time, the majority of stars formed in disks

  15. Molecular line study of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we have selected a sample of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey, in order to study star formation activities (mainly outflow and inflow signatures). We have focused on three molecular lines from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz: HCO+(1-0), H13CO+(1-0) and SiO(2-1). According to previous observations, our sources can be divided into two groups: nine massive young stellar object candidates (radio-quiet) and 10 H II regions (which have spherical or unresolved radio emissions). Outflow activities have been found in 11 sources, while only three show inflow signatures in all. The high outflow detection rate means that outflows are common in massive star-forming regions. The inflow detection rate was relatively low. We suggest that this was because of the beam dilution of the telescope. All three inflow candidates have outflow(s). The outward radiation and thermal pressure from the central massive star(s) do not seem to be strong enough to halt accretion in G345.0034-00.2240. Our simple model of G318.9480-00.1969 shows that it has an infall velocity of about 1.8 km s-1. The spectral energy distribution analysis agrees our sources are massive and intermediate-massive star formation regions.

  16. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Emily M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Leitherer, Claus, E-mail: Emily.Levesque@colorado.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the Hβ, Hα, and Brγ recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  17. DARK MATTER CORES IN THE FORNAX AND SCULPTOR DWARF GALAXIES: JOINING HALO ASSEMBLY AND DETAILED STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorisco, N. C.; Zavala, J.; De Boer, T. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We combine the detailed star formation histories of the Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals with the mass assembly history of their dark matter (DM) halo progenitors to estimate if the energy deposited by Type II supernovae (SNe II) is sufficient to create a substantial DM core. Assuming the efficiency of energy injection of the SNe II into DM particles is ε gc = 0.05, we find that a single early episode, z ≳ z infall , that combines the energy of all SNe II due to explode over 0.5 Gyr is sufficient to create a core of several hundred parsecs in both Sculptor and Fornax. Therefore, our results suggest that it is energetically plausible to form cores in cold dark matter (CDM) halos via early episodic gas outflows triggered by SNe II. Furthermore, based on CDM merger rates and phase-space density considerations, we argue that the probability of a subsequent complete regeneration of the cusp is small for a substantial fraction of dwarf-size halos

  18. A GLOBAL STAR-FORMING EPISODE IN M31 2–4 GYR AGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Lewis, Alexia R., E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: dweisz@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We have identified a major global enhancement of star formation in the inner M31 disk that occurred between 2–4 Gyr ago, producing ∼60% of the stellar mass formed in the past 5 Gyr. The presence of this episode in the inner disk was discovered by modeling the optical resolved star color–magnitude diagrams of low extinction regions in the main disk of M31 (3 < R < 20 kpc) as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. This measurement confirms and extends recent measurements of a widespread star formation enhancement of similar age in the outer disk, suggesting that this burst was both massive and global. Following the galaxy-wide burst, the star formation rate of M31 has significantly declined. We briefly discuss possible causes for these features of the M31 evolutionary history, including interactions with M32, M33, and/or a merger.

  19. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M ∼ 4-7 M Jup ). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M sun ) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  20. Roles of nuclear weak rates on the evolution of degenerate cores in stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron-capture and β-decay rates in stellar environments are evaluated with the use of new shell-model Hamiltonians for sd-shell and pf-shell nuclei as well as for nuclei belonging to the island of inversion. Important role of the nuclear weak rates on the final evolution of stellar degenerate cores is presented. The weak interaction rates for sd-shell nuclei are calculated to study nuclear Urca processes in O-Ne-Mg cores of stars with 8-10 M⊙ (solar mass and their effects on the final fate of the stars. Nucleosynthesis of iron-group elements in Type Ia supernova explosions are studied with the weak rates for pf-shell nuclei. The problem of the neutron-rich iron-group isotope over-production compared to the solar abundances is shown to be nearly solved with the use of the new rates and explosion model of slow defraglation with delayed detonation. Evaluation of the weak rates is extended to the island of inversion and the region of neutron-rich nuclei near 78Ni, where two major shells contribute to their configurations.

  1. Evolution of helium stars: a self-consistent determination of the boundary of a helium burning convective core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savonije, G.J.; Takens, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of the Henyey-scheme is given that introduces the mass of the convective core and the density at the outer edge of the convective core boundary as unknowns which have to be solved simultaneously with the other unknowns. As a result, this boundary is determined in a physically self-consistent way for expanding as well as contracting cores, i.e. during the Henyey iterative cycle; its position becomes consistent with the overall physical structure of the star, including the run of the chemical abundances throughout the star. Using this scheme, the evolution of helium stars was followed up to carbon ignition for a number of stellar masses. As compared with some earlier investigations, the calculations show a rather large increase in mass of the convective cores during core helium burning. Evolutionary calculations for a 2M(sun) helium star show that the critical mass for which a helium star ignites carbon non-degenerately lies near 2M(sun). (orig.) [de

  2. C III] EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES NEAR AND FAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, J. R. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bayliss, M. B. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gladders, M. D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Sharon, K.; Johnson, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wuyts, E. [Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dahle, H. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Peña-Guerrero, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We measure [C iii] 1907, C iii] 1909 Å emission lines in 11 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6–3, finding much lower equivalent widths than previously reported for fainter lensed galaxies. While it is not yet clear what causes some galaxies to be strong C iii] emitters, C iii] emission is not a universal property of distant star-forming galaxies. We also examine C iii] emission in 46 star-forming galaxies in the local universe, using archival spectra from GHRS, FOS, and STIS on HST and IUE. Twenty percent of these local galaxies show strong C iii] emission, with equivalent widths < −5 Å. Three nearby galaxies show C iii] emission equivalent widths as large as the most extreme emitters yet observed in the distant universe; all three are Wolf–Rayet galaxies. At all redshifts, strong C iii] emission may pick out low-metallicity galaxies experiencing intense bursts of star formation. Such local C iii] emitters may shed light on the conditions of star formation in certain extreme high-redshift galaxies.

  3. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Combes, F.; Freundlich, J. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Neri, R. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Nordon, R. [Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burkert, A. [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximiliansuniversitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Comerford, J. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Cox, P. [Department of Physics, Le Conte Hall, University of California, 94720 Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, M. [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional-OAN, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Naab, T. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lutz, D., E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H{alpha} line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the ''Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey'' (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a ''mixed'' extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlog{Sigma}{sub starform}/dlog{Sigma}{sub molgas}, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 {+-} 0.1.

  4. Variations of the ISM conditions accross the Main Sequence of star forming galaxies: observations and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Galarza, Juan R.; Smith, Howard Alan; Lanz, Lauranne; Hayward, Christopher C.; Zezas, Andreas; Hung, Chao-Ling; Rosenthal, Lee; Weiner, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of evidence has been gathered that leads to the existence of a main sequence (MS) of star formation in galaxies. This MS is expressed in terms of a correlation between the SFR and the stellar mass of the form SFR ∝ M* and spans a few orders of magnitude in both quantities. Several ideas have been suggested to explain fundamental properties of the MS, such as its slope, its dispersion, and its evolution with redshift, but no consensus has been reached regarding its true nature, and whether the membership or not of particular galaxies to this MS underlies the existence of two different modes of star formation. In order to advance in the understanding of the MS, here we use a statistically robust Bayesian SED analysis method (CHIBURST) to consistently analyze the star-forming properties of a set of hydro-dynamical simulations of mergers, as well as observations of real mergers, both local and at intermediate redshift. We find a remarkable, very tight correlation between the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of galaxies, and the typical ISM conditions near their inernal star-forming regions, parametrized via a novel quantity: the compactness parameter (C). The evolution of mergers along this correlation explains the spread of the MS, and implies that the physical conditions of the ISM smoothly evolve between on-MS (secular) conditions and off-MS (coalescence/starburst) conditions. Furthermore, we show that the slope of the correlation can be interpreted in terms of the efficiency in the conversion of gas into stars, and that this efficiency remains unchanged along and across the MS. Finally, we discuss differences in the normalization of the correlation as a function of merger mass and redshift, and conclude that these differences imply the existence of two different modes of star formation, unrelated to the smooth evolution across the MS: a disk-like, low pressure mode and a compact nuclear-starburst mode.

  5. The luminosity function of star clusters in 20 star-forming galaxies based on Hubble legacy archive photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bowers, Ariel S.; Lindsay, Kevin; Ansari, Asna; Evans, Jessica; Chandar, Rupali; Larsen, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity functions (LFs) have been determined for star cluster populations in 20 nearby (4-30 Mpc), star-forming galaxies based on Advanced Camera for Surveys source lists generated by the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA). These cluster catalogs provide one of the largest sets of uniform, automatically generated cluster candidates available in the literature at present. Comparisons are made with other recently generated cluster catalogs demonstrating that the HLA-generated catalogs are of similar quality, but in general do not go as deep. A typical cluster LF can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL∝L α , with an average value for α of –2.37 and rms scatter = 0.18 when using the F814W ('I') band. A comparison of fitting results based on methods that use binned and unbinned data shows good agreement, although there may be a systematic tendency for the unbinned (maximum likelihood) method to give slightly more negative values of α for galaxies with steeper LFs. We find that galaxies with high rates of star formation (or equivalently, with the brightest or largest numbers of clusters) have a slight tendency to have shallower values of α. In particular, the Antennae galaxy (NGC 4038/39), a merging system with a relatively high star formation rate (SFR), has the second flattest LF in the sample. A tentative correlation may also be present between Hubble type and values of α, in the sense that later type galaxies (i.e., Sd and Sm) appear to have flatter LFs. Hence, while there do appear to be some weak correlations, the relative similarity in the values of α for a large number of star-forming galaxies suggests that, to first order, the LFs are fairly universal. We examine the bright end of the LFs and find evidence for a downturn, although it only pertains to about 1% of the clusters. Our uniform database results in a small scatter (≈0.4 to 0.5 mag) in the correlation between the magnitude of the brightest cluster (M brightest ) and log of the number

  6. THE PRESSURE OF THE STAR-FORMING INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Ferah; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio; Christensen, Charlotte; Wadsley, James; Loebman, Sarah; Shen, Sijing

    2014-01-01

    We examine the pressure of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) of Milky-Way-sized disk galaxies using fully cosmological SPH+N-body, high-resolution simulations. These simulations include explicit treatment of metal-line cooling in addition to dust and self-shielding, H 2 -based star formation. The four simulated halos have masses ranging from a few times 10 10 to nearly 10 12 solar masses. Using a kinematic decomposition of these galaxies into present-day bulge and disk components, we find that the typical pressure of the star-forming ISM in the present-day bulge is higher than that in the present-day disk by an order of magnitude. We also find that the pressure of the star-forming ISM at high redshift is, on average, higher than ISM pressures at low redshift. This explains why the bulge forms at higher pressures: the disk assembles at lower redshift when the ISM exhibits lower pressure and the bulge forms at high redshift when the ISM has higher pressure. If ISM pressure and IMF variation are tied together, these results could indicate a time-dependent IMF in Milky-Way-like systems as well as a different IMF in the bulge and the disk

  7. Diffuse Matter from Star Forming Regions to Active Galaxies A Volume Honouring John Dyson

    CERN Document Server

    Hartquist, T W

    2006-01-01

    John Dyson has contributed to the study of the hydrodynamic processes that govern a wide variety of astrophysical sources which he has helped explain. In this volume dedicated to him, introductory reviews to a number of the key processes and to the sources themselves are given by leading experts. The mechanisms in which the multi-component natures of media affect their dynamics receive particular attention, but the roles of hydromagnetic effects are also highlighted. The importance of cosmic ray moderation and mass transfer between different thermal phases for cosmic ray moderation and mass transfer between different thermal phases for the evolution of flows are amongst the topics treated. The main types of regions considered include those where stars form, the circumstellar environments of evolved stars, the larger scale interstellar structures caused by the mass loss of stars, and those where the lines of AGNs form. The reviews complement one another and together provide a coherent introduction to the astro...

  8. Orion star-forming region - far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Harper, D.A.; Bally, J.; Dragovan, M.; Mozurkewich, D.; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI; ATandT Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ; Chicago Uni., IL; E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC)

    1986-01-01

    New J = 1-0 CO and far-infrared maps of the Orion star-forming region are presented and discussed. The total infrared luminosity of the Orion star-forming ridge is 250,000 solar luminosities. The material that is emitting strongly at 60 microns is traced and found to be highly centrally concentrated. However, the majority of the extended emission from this region comes from dust that is ultimately heated by the visible Trapezium cluster stars. The luminosity of IRc 2, the most luminous member of the infrared cluster, is estimated to be 40,000-50,000 solar luminosities. A schematic drawing of the Ori MC 1 region is presented. 30 references

  9. Supernovae from massive AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The

  10. A soluble star-shaped silsesquioxane-cored polymer-towards novel stabilization of pH-dependent high internal phase emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuxiu; Peng, Jun; Xu, Kai; Gao, Shuxi; Gui, Xuefeng; Liang, Shengyuan; Sun, Longfeng; Chen, Mingcai

    2017-08-30

    A well-defined pH-responsive star-shaped polymer containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMA) arms and a cage-like methacryloxypropyl silsesquioxane (CMSQ-T 10 ) core was used as an interfacial stabilizer for emulsions consisting of m-xylene and water. We explored the properties of the CMSQ/PDMA star-shaped polymer using the characteristic results of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential and conductivity measurements. The interfacial tension results showed that the CMSQ/PDMA star-shaped polymer reduced the interfacial tension between water and oil in a pH-dependent manner. Gelled high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) including o/w and w/o types were formed in the pH ranges of 1.2-5.8 and 9.1-12.3 with the CMSQ/PDMA star-shaped polymer as a stabilizer, when the oil fractions were 80-90 vol% and 10-20 vol%, respectively. The soluble star-shaped polymer aggregated spontaneously to form a microgel that adsorbed to the two immiscible phases. Images of the fluorescently labeled polymers demonstrated that there was a star-shaped polymer in the continuous phase, and the non-Pickering stabilization based on the percolating network of the star-shaped polymer also contributed to the stabilization of the HIPE. This pH-dependent HIPE was prepared with a novel stabilization mechanism consisting of microgel adsorption and non-Pickering stabilization. Moreover, the preparation of HIPEs provided the possibility of their application in porous materials and responsive materials.

  11. Photoisomers of Azobenzene Star with a Flat Core: Theoretical Insights into Multiple States from DFT and MD Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Markus; Saphiannikova, Marina; Santer, Svetlana; Guskova, Olga

    2017-09-21

    This study focuses on comparing physical properties of photoisomers of an azobenzene star with benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide core. Three azobenzene arms of the molecule undergo a reversible trans-cis isomerization upon UV-vis light illumination giving rise to multiple states from the planar all-trans one, via two mixed states to the kinked all-cis isomer. Employing density functional theory, we characterize the structural and photophysical properties of each state indicating a role the planar core plays in the coupling between azobenzene chromophores. To characterize the light-triggered switching of solvophilicity/solvophobicity of the star, the difference in solvation free energy is calculated for the transfer of an azobenzene star from its gas phase to implicit or explicit solvents. For the latter case, classical all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous solutions of azobenzene star are performed employing the polymer consistent force field to shed light on the thermodynamics of explicit hydration as a function of the isomerization state and on the structuring of water around the star. From the analysis of two contributions to the free energy of hydration, the nonpolar van der Waals and the electrostatic terms, it is concluded that isomerization specificity largely determines the polarity of the molecule and the solute-solvent electrostatic interactions. This convertible hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity together with readjustable occupied volume and the surface area accessible to water, affects the self-assembly/disassembly of the azobenzene star with a flat core triggered by light.

  12. STELLAR MASSES AND STAR FORMATION RATES OF LENSED, DUSTY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM THE SPT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Strandet, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69 D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Saliwanchik, B. R., E-mail: jingzhema@ufl.edu [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); and others

    2015-10-10

    To understand cosmic mass assembly in the universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of the stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and SFRs of six high-redshift (2.8 ≤ z ≤ 5.7) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations. We have conducted follow-up observations to obtain multi-wavelength imaging data using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment. We use the high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in Spitzer/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and SFRs. The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value ∼5 ×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙} to 4 × 10{sup 13} L{sub ⊙}. They all have prodigious intrinsic SFRs of 510–4800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers.

  13. Where are the massive stars of the bar of NGC 1530 forming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurita, A.

    2008-01-01

    NGC 1530 has one of the strongest bars ever observed and recent star formation sites are distributed across its bar. Our aim is to study the photometric properties of the bar and its Hii regions, to elucidate the conditions under which Hii regions form and their spatial relation to the principal

  14. Where are the stars of the bar of NGC 1530 forming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurita, A.; Perez, I.

    Aims. NGC 1530 has one of the strongest bars ever observed and recent star formation sites are distributed across its bar. Our aim is to study the photometric properties of the bar and its H II regions, to elucidate the conditions under which H II regions form and their spatial relation to the

  15. Anomalou OH emission in galactic star-forming regions - A clue to the megamaser phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, I.F.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Ruiz, A.

    1989-01-01

    The detection of spatially extended, anomalous OH emission in galactic star-forming regions is reported. This OH emission is similar to, although much weaker than, that produced by extragalactic megamasers. This new type of galactic emission may provide clues to elucidate the nature of the extragalactic OH megamaser phenomenon observed in luminous IR galaxies. 10 refs

  16. Neutral and Ionized Hydrides in Star-forming Regions. Observations with Herschel/HIFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Benz, Arnold; Bruderer, Simon; F. van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2013-01-01

    of OH, CH, NH, SH and their ions OH+, CH+, NH+, SH+, H2O+, and H3O+ were observed in star-forming regions by the HIFI spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Molecular column densities are derived from observed ground-state lines, models, or rotational diagrams. We report here on two...

  17. Star-Forming Galaxies at the Cosmic Dawn = Stervormende sterrenstelsels tijdens het kosmische ochtendgloren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renske

    2015-01-01

    The question of how the first stars formed and assembled into galaxies lies at the frontier of modern astrophysics. The study of these first sources of cosmic illumination was transformed by the installation of new instrumentation aboard the Hubble Space Telescope during one of the final Space

  18. Chandra Sees Wealth Of Black Holes In Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found new populations of suspected mid-mass black holes in several starburst galaxies, where stars form and explode at an unusually high rate. Although a few of these objects had been found previously, this is the first time they have been detected in such large numbers and could help explain their relationship to star formation and the production of even more massive black holes. At the 198th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Pasadena, California, three independent teams of scientists reported finding dozens of X-ray sources in galaxies aglow with star formation. These X-ray objects appear point-like and are ten to a thousand times more luminous in X-rays than similar sources found in our Milky Way and the M81 galaxy. "Chandra gives us the ability to study the populations of individual bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies in extraordinary detail," said Andreas Zezas, lead author from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics team that observed The Antennae, a pair of colliding galaxies, and M82, a well-known starburst galaxy. "This allows us to build on earlier detections of these objects and better understand their relationship to starburst galaxies." Antennae-True Color Image True Color Image of Antennae Credit: NASA/SAO/G.Fabbiano et al. Press Image and Caption Kimberly Weaver, of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, lead scientist of the team that studied the starburst galaxy NGC 253, discussed the importance of the unusual concentration of these very luminous X-ray sources near the center of that galaxy. Four sources, which are tens to thousands of times more massive than the Sun, are located within 3,000 light years of the galaxy core. "This may imply that these black holes are gravitating toward the center of the galaxy where they could coalesce to form a single supermassive black hole," Weaver suggested. "It could be that this starburst galaxy is transforming itself into a quasar

  19. Radiative transfer modelling of W33A MM1: 3-D structure and dynamics of a complex massive star forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Andrés F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Maud, Luke T.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Johnston, Katharine G.; Keto, Eric R.; Zhang, Qizhou; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2018-05-01

    We present a composite model and radiative transfer simulations of the massive star forming core W33A MM1. The model was tailored to reproduce the complex features observed with ALMA at ≈0.2 arcsec resolution in CH3CN and dust emission. The MM1 core is fragmented into six compact sources coexisting within ˜1000 au. In our models, three of these compact sources are better represented as disc-envelope systems around a central (proto)star, two as envelopes with a central object, and one as a pure envelope. The model of the most prominent object (Main) contains the most massive (proto)star (M⋆ ≈ 7 M⊙) and disc+envelope (Mgas ≈ 0.4 M⊙), and is the most luminous (LMain ˜ 104 L⊙). The model discs are small (a few hundred au) for all sources. The composite model shows that the elongated spiral-like feature converging to the MM1 core can be convincingly interpreted as a filamentary accretion flow that feeds the rising stellar system. The kinematics of this filament is reproduced by a parabolic trajectory with focus at the center of mass of the region. Radial collapse and fragmentation within this filament, as well as smaller filamentary flows between pairs of sources are proposed to exist. Our modelling supports an interpretation where what was once considered as a single massive star with a ˜103 au disc and envelope, is instead a forming stellar association which appears to be virialized and to form several low-mass stars per high-mass object.

  20. Surface density: a new parameter in the fundamental metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Goto, Tomotsugu; Momose, Rieko

    2018-04-01

    Star-forming galaxies display a close relation among stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rate (or molecular-gas mass). This is known as the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) (or molecular-gas FMR), and it has a profound implication on models of galaxy evolution. However, there still remains a significant residual scatter around the FMR. We show here that a fourth parameter, the surface density of stellar mass, reduces the dispersion around the molecular-gas FMR. In a principal component analysis of 29 physical parameters of 41 338 star-forming galaxies, the surface density of stellar mass is found to be the fourth most important parameter. The new 4D fundamental relation forms a tighter hypersurface that reduces the metallicity dispersion to 50 per cent of that of the molecular-gas FMR. We suggest that future analyses and models of galaxy evolution should consider the FMR in a 4D space that includes surface density. The dilution time-scale of gas inflow and the star-formation efficiency could explain the observational dependence on surface density of stellar mass.

  1. The mass-metallicity relations for gas and stars in star-forming galaxies: strong outflow versus variable IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Comparat, Johan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Ventura, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the mass-metallicity relations for the gaseous (MZRgas) and stellar components (MZRstar) of local star-forming galaxies based on a representative sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. The mass-weighted average stellar metallicities are systematically lower than the gas metallicities. This difference in metallicity increases towards galaxies with lower masses and reaches 0.4-0.8 dex at 109 M⊙ (depending on the gas metallicity calibration). As a result, the MZRstar is much steeper than the MZRgas. The much lower metallicities in stars compared to the gas in low-mass galaxies imply dramatic metallicity evolution with suppressed metal enrichment at early times. The aim of this paper is to explain the observed large difference in gas and stellar metallicity and to infer the origin of the mass-metallicity relations. To this end we develop a galactic chemical evolution model accounting for star formation, gas inflow and outflow. By combining the observed mass-metallicity relation for both gas and stellar components to constrain the models, we find that only two scenarios are able to reproduce the observations. Either strong metal outflow or a steep initial mass function (IMF) slope at early epochs of galaxy evolution is needed. Based on these two scenarios, for the first time we successfully reproduce the observed MZRgas and MZRstar simultaneously, together with other independent observational constraints in the local Universe. Our model also naturally reproduces the flattening of the MZRgas at the high-mass end leaving the MZRstar intact, as seen in observational data.

  2. The whiteStar development project: Westinghouse's next generation core design simulator and core monitoring software to power the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W. A.; Mayhue, L. T.; Penkrot, V. S.; Zhang, B.

    2009-01-01

    The WhiteStar project has undertaken the development of the next generation core analysis and monitoring system for Westinghouse Electric Company. This on-going project focuses on the development of the ANC core simulator, BEACON core monitoring system and NEXUS nuclear data generation system. This system contains many functional upgrades to the ANC core simulator and BEACON core monitoring products as well as the release of the NEXUS family of codes. The NEXUS family of codes is an automated once-through cross section generation system designed for use in both PWR and BWR applications. ANC is a multi-dimensional nodal code for all nuclear core design calculations at a given condition. ANC predicts core reactivity, assembly power, rod power, detector thimble flux, and other relevant core characteristics. BEACON is an advanced core monitoring and support system which uses existing instrumentation data in conjunction with an analytical methodology for on-line generation and evaluation of 3D core power distributions. This new system is needed to design and monitor the Westinghouse AP1000 PWR. This paper describes provides an overview of the software system, software development methodologies used as well some initial results. (authors)

  3. Study of the core gaps formed accidentally during wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, S. I.; Khattatov, T. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    During wire explosion, along with striations (a regular structure with alternating lower and higher density bands), low-density regions the characteristic axial size of which differs substantially from that of striations and can reach 1–2 mm are also observed in the discharge channel. Such irregular structures came to be known as “gaps” (D. B. Sinars et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 216 (2001)). In the present study, the mechanism of the formation of core gaps during explosions of 25- and 50-μm-diameter copper and nickel wires in air is investigated. It is shown that the specific energy deposited in the gap region substantially exceeds the average specific energy deposited in the wire material.

  4. Experience in forming and core mixtures by Alphaset technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vasková

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemically bound mixtures have had the evolution effect upon the economical and quality aspects of the foundry operations since they presentation at the market. The higher output and significantly increased production efficiency of moulds and cores has lead to the material increase in the quality and profit of the foundries. It can be seen that in last several years the knowledge of bounds based on the organic resins has made enormous advances. The higher strength, improved properties under elevated temperatures, the reduction of the environmental impacts of the organic bounds and at the same their highly improved regenerationability ensure that these systems will be still more significant binding system. The organic binding systems are predominantly being developed recemtly. The technology AlpHaset is ranked among the alkali binding systems. This technology has certain disadvantages – lower strength, speed of hardening- which have been gradually eliminated.

  5. Large Binocular Telescope and Sptizer Spectroscopy of Star-forming Galaxies at 1 Extinction and Star Formation Rate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Rieke, G. H.; Papovich, C. J.; Weiner, B. J.; Rigby, Jane; Rex, M.; Bian, F.; Kuhn, O. P.; Thompson, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the rest-frame optical and near- to mid-infrared wavelengths of four gravitationally lensed infrared (IR) luminous star-forming galaxies at redshift 1 extinction, Av, of these systems, as well as testing star formation rate (SFR) indicators against the SFR measured by fitting spectral energy distributions to far-IR photometry. Our galaxies occupy a range of Av from 0 to 5.9 mag, larger than previously known for a similar range of IR luminosities at these redshifts. Thus, estimates of SFR even at z 2 must take careful count of extinction in the most IR luminous galaxies.We also measure extinction by comparing SFR estimates from optical emission lines with those from far- IR measurements. The comparison of results from these two independent methods indicates a large variety of dust distribution scenarios at 1 extinction, the Ha SFR indicator underestimates the SFR; the size of the necessary correction depends on the IR luminosity and dust distribution scenario. Individual SFR estimates based on the 6.2µm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission line luminosity do not show a systematic discrepancy with extinction, although a considerable, 0.2 dex, scatter is observed.

  6. A HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONVERTING GAS TO STARS PUSHES GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6 WELL ABOVE THE STAR-FORMING MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Rujopakarn, W. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Daddi, E.; Liu, D. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Feruglio, C. [IRAM—Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Berta, S.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Béthermin, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-10-20

    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high redshift. To address this issue, we measure the molecular gas content of seven high-redshift (z ∼ 1.6) starburst galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our targets are selected from the sample of Herschel far-infrared-detected galaxies having star formation rates (∼300–800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) elevated (≳4×) above the star-forming main sequence (MS) and included in the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 with Subaru. We detect CO emission in all cases at high levels of significance, indicative of high gas fractions (∼30%–50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish with a clean and systematic selection that starbursts, identified as MS outliers, at high redshift generally have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared luminosity as compared to typical MS star-forming galaxies, although with a smaller offset than expected based on past studies of local starbursts. We put forward a hypothesis that there exists a continuous increase in star formation efficiency with elevation from the MS with galaxy mergers as a possible physical driver. Along with a heightened star formation efficiency, our high-redshift sample is similar in other respects to local starbursts, such as being metal rich and having a higher ionization state of the interstellar medium.

  7. Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in Star-forming Galaxies at z1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Ly, Chun; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Malkan, Matthew A.; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Goto, Ryosuke; Naito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    We present results from Subaru/FMOS near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of 118 star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5 in the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies are selected as [O II] lambda 3727 emitters at z approximately equal to 1.47 and 1.62 from narrow-band imaging. We detect H alpha emission line in 115 galaxies, [O III] lambda 5007 emission line in 45 galaxies, and H Beta, [N II] lambda 6584, and [S II]lambda lambda 6716, 6731 in 13, 16, and 6 galaxies, respectively. Including the [O II] emission line, we use the six strong nebular emission lines in the individual and composite rest-frame optical spectra to investigate physical conditions of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. We find a tight correlation between H alpha and [O II], which suggests that [O II] can be a good star formation rate (SFR) indicator for galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. The line ratios of H alpha / [O II] are consistent with those of local galaxies. We also find that [O II] emitters have strong [O III] emission lines. The [O III]/[O II] ratios are larger than normal star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, suggesting a higher ionization parameter. Less massive galaxies have larger [O III]/[O II] ratios. With evidence that the electron density is consistent with local galaxies, the high ionization of galaxies at high redshifts may be attributed to a harder radiation field by a young stellar population and/or an increase in the number of ionizing photons from each massive star.

  8. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabran Zahid, H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting; Conroy, Charlie; Andrews, Brett

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.

  9. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabran Zahid, H. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Andrews, Brett, E-mail: zahid@cfa.harvard.edu [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.

  10. Constraining the near-core rotation of the γ Doradus star 43 Cygni using BRITE-Constellation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwintz, K.; Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Gössl, S.; Pigulski, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Handler, G.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Popowicz, A.; Wade, G.; Weiss, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Photometric time series of the γ Doradus star 43 Cyg obtained with the BRITE-Constellation nano-satellites allow us to study its pulsational properties in detail and to constrain its interior structure. Aims: We aim to find a g-mode period-spacing pattern that allows us to determine the near-core rotation rate of 43 Cyg and redetermine the star's fundamental atmospheric parameters and chemical composition. Methods: We conducted a frequency analysis using the 156-day long data set obtained with the BRITE-Toronto satellite and employed a suite of MESA/GYRE models to derive the mode identification, asymptotic period-spacing, and near-core rotation rate. We also used high-resolution spectroscopic data with high signal-to-noise ratio obtained at the 1.2 m Mercator telescope with the HERMES spectrograph to redetermine the fundamental atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of 43 Cyg using the software Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME). Results: We detected 43 intrinsic pulsation frequencies and identified 18 of them to be part of a period-spacing pattern consisting of prograde dipole modes with an asymptotic period-spacing ΔΠl = 1 of 2970-570+700 s. The near-core rotation rate was determined to be frot = 0.56-0.14+0.12 d-1. The atmosphere of 43 Cyg shows solar chemical composition at an effective temperature, Teff, of 7150 ± 150 K, a log g of 4.2 ± 0.6 dex, and a projected rotational velocity, υsini, of 44 ± 4 km s-1. Conclusions: The morphology of the observed period-spacing patterns shows indications of a significant chemical gradient in the stellar interior. Based on data collected by the BRITE Constellation satellite mission, designed, built, launched, operated and supported by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), the University of Vienna, the Technical University of Graz, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), the Foundation for Polish Science & Technology (FNiTP MNiSW), and

  11. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Janson, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M ☉ and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M ☉ . We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M Jup . The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3 −4.9 +6.6 %. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M ☉ appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8 −1.5 +4.2 % of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively

  12. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemgen, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5H 3H4 (Canada); Bonavita, Mariangela [The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jayawardhana, Ray [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada); Lafrenière, David [Department of Physics, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Janson, Markus, E-mail: daemgen@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.

  13. FROM BLUE STAR-FORMING TO RED PASSIVE: GALAXIES IN TRANSITION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Poggianti, Bianca M.; Fasano, Giovanni; Moretti, Alessia [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Fritz, Jacopo [Sterrenkundig Observatorium Vakgroep Fysica en Sterrenkunde Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9 B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Calvi, Rosa; Paccagnella, Angela [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting a mass-complete (M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.25} M {sub ☉}) sample at 0.03 star-formation activity and/or morphology: green galaxies, red passive late types, and blue star-forming early types. Color fractions depend on mass and only for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ☉} on environment. The incidence of red galaxies increases with increasing mass, and, for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ☉}, decreases toward the group outskirts and in binary and single galaxies. The relative abundance of green and blue galaxies is independent of environment and increases monotonically with galaxy mass. We also inspect galaxy structural parameters, star-formation properties, histories, and ages and propose an evolutionary scenario for the different subpopulations. Color transformations are due to a reduction and suppression of the star-formation rate in both bulges and disks that does not noticeably affect galaxy structure. Morphological transitions are linked to an enhanced bulge-to-disk ratio that is due to the removal of the disk, not to an increase of the bulge. Our modeling suggests that green colors might be due to star-formation histories declining with long timescales, as an alternative scenario to the classical ''quenching'' processes. Our results suggest that galaxy transformations in star-formation activity and morphology depend neither on the environment nor on being a satellite or the most massive galaxy of a halo. The only environmental dependence we find is the higher fast quenching efficiency in groups giving origin to poststarburst signatures.

  14. SHOCKED SUPERWINDS FROM THE z {approx} 2 CLUMPY STAR-FORMING GALAXY, ZC406690

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shapiro Griffin, Kristen [Aerospace Research Laboratories, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Davies, Ric; Foerster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Kurk, Jaron; Wuyts, Stijn; Genel, Shy; Buschkamp, Peter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, ETH Zuerich CH-8093 (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio; Mancini, Chiara [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova I-35122 (Italy); Bouche, Nicolas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Burkert, Andreas [Department fuer Physik, Universitaets-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, Muenchen, D-81679 (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di AstrofisicaOsservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I 50125 Firenze (Italy); Hicks, Erin, E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2012-06-20

    We have obtained high-resolution data of the z {approx} 2 ring-like, clumpy star-forming galaxy (SFG) ZC406690 using the VLT/SINFONI with adaptive optics (in K band) and in seeing-limited mode (in H and J bands). Our data include all of the main strong optical emission lines: [O II], [O III], H{alpha}, H{beta}, [N II], and [S II]. We find broad, blueshifted H{alpha} and [O III] emission line wings in the spectra of the galaxy's massive, star-forming clumps ({sigma} {approx} 85 km s{sup -1}) and even broader wings (up to 70% of the total H{alpha} flux, with {sigma} {approx} 290 km s{sup -1}) in regions spatially offset from the clumps by {approx}2 kpc. The broad emission likely originates from large-scale outflows with mass outflow rates from individual clumps that are 1-8 Multiplication-Sign the star formation rate (SFR) of the clumps. Based on emission line ratio diagnostics ([N II]/H{alpha} and [S II]/H{alpha}) and photoionization and shock models, we find that the emission from the clumps is due to a combination of photoionization from the star-forming regions and shocks generated in the outflowing component, with 5%-30% of the emission deriving from shocks. In terms of the ionization parameter (6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1}, based on both the SFR and the O{sub 32} ratio), density (local electron densities of 300-1800 cm{sup -3} in and around the clumps, and ionized gas column densities of 1200-8000 M{sub Sun }pc{sup -2}), and SFR (10-40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), these clumps more closely resemble nuclear starburst regions of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies and dwarf irregulars than H II regions in local galaxies. However, the star-forming clumps are not located in the nucleus as in local starburst galaxies but instead are situated in a ring several kpc from the center of their high-redshift host galaxy, and have an overall disk-like morphology. The two brightest clumps are quite different in terms of their internal

  15. Direct Measurements of Dust Attenuation in z ~ 1.5 Star-forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Conroy, Charlie; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-06-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A V, H II ) and the integrated dust content (A V, star). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 =5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A V, H II . First, we stack spectra in bins of A V, star, and find that A V, H II = 1.86 A V, star, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M *). We find that on average A V, H II increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  16. Direct measurements of dust attenuation in z ∼ 1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A V, H II ) and the integrated dust content (A V, star ). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A V, H II . First, we stack spectra in bins of A V, star , and find that A V, H II = 1.86 A V, star , with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M * ). We find that on average A V, H II increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  17. Structure of massive star forming clumps from the Red MSX Source Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, J. S.; Morgan, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) emission maps of 61 high-mass star forming regions drawn from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey and observed with the Green Bank Telescope's K-Band Focal Plane Array. We use these observations to investigate the spatial distribution of the environmental conditions associated with this sample of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). Ammonia is an excellent high-density tracer of star-forming regions as its hyperfine structure allows relatively simple characterisation of the molecular environment. These maps are used to measure the column density, kinetic gas temperature distributions and velocity structure across these regions. We compare the distribution of these properties to that of the associated dust and mid-infrared emission traced by the ATLASGAL 870 micron emission maps and the Spitzer GLIMPSE IRAC images. We present a summary of these results and highlight some of more interesting finds.

  18. The KMOS Deep Survey: Dynamical Measurements of Star-Forming Galaxies at z 3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Owen; Cirasuolo, Michele; Harrison, Chris; McLure, Ross; Dunlop, James; Swinbank, Mark; Johnson, Helen; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Sharples, Ray

    2017-07-01

    This poster present dynamical measurements from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Deep Survey (KDS), which is comprised of 78 typical star-forming galaxies at z = 3.5 in the mass range 9.0 isolated. The results suggest that the rotation-dominated galaxies in the sample are offset to lower velocities at fixed stellar mass and have higher velocity dispersions than star-forming galaxies in the local and intermediate redshift universe. Only 1/3 of the galaxies in the sample are dominated by rotation, which hints that random motions are playing an increasingly significant role in supporting the dynamical mass in the systems. When searching for evolution in scaling relations, such as the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation, it is important to take these random motions into account.

  19. Characterizing filaments in regions of high-mass star formation: High-resolution submilimeter imaging of the massive star-forming complex NGC 6334 with ArTéMiS

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ph.; Revéret, V.; Könyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tigé, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Herschel observations of nearby molecular clouds suggest that interstellar filaments and prestellar cores represent two fundamental steps in the star formation process. The observations support a picture of low-mass star formation according to which filaments of ~0.1 pc width form first in the cold interstellar medium, probably as a result of large-scale compression of interstellar matter by supersonic turbulent flows, and then prestellar cores arise from gravitational fragmentation of the densest filaments. Whether this scenario also applies to regions of high-mass star formation is an open question, in part because the resolution of Herschel is insufficient to resolve the inner width of filaments in the nearest regions of massive star formation. Aims: In an effort to characterize the inner width of filaments in high-mass star-forming regions, we imaged the central part of the NGC 6334 complex at a resolution higher by a factor of >3 than Herschel at 350 μm. Methods: We used the large-format bolometer camera ArTéMiS on the APEX telescope and combined the high-resolution ArTéMiS data at 350 μm with Herschel/HOBYS data at 70-500 μm to ensure good sensitivity to a broad range of spatial scales. This allowed us to study the structure of the main narrow filament of the complex with a resolution of 8″ or Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.The final ArTéMiS+SPIRE 350 μm map (Fig. 1b) is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A54

  20. Observations of star-forming regions with the Midcourse Space Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraemer, KE; Shipman, RF; Price, SD; Mizuno, DR; Kuchar, T; Carey, SJ

    We have imaged seven nearby star-forming regions, the Rosette Nebula, the Orion Nebula, W3, the Pleiades, G300.2-16.8, S263, and G159.6-18.5, with the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite at 1800 resolution at 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and 21.3 mum. The large

  1. Direct Detection of The Lyman Continuum of Star-forming Galaxies at z~3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasei, Kaveh; Siana, Brian; Shapley, Alice; Alavi, Anahita; Rafelski, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies are widely believed to be responsible for the reionization of the Universe and much of the ionizing background at z>3. Therefore, there has been much interest in quantifying the escape fraction of the Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of the star-forming galaxies. Yet direct detection of LyC has proven to be exceptionally challenging. Despite numerous efforts only 7 galaxies at z2 have been robustly confirmed as LyC leakers. To avoid these challenges many studies use indirect methods to infer the LyC escape fraction. We tested these indirect methods by attempting to detect escaping LyC with a 10-orbit Hubble near-UV (F275W) image that is just below the Lyman limit at the redshift of the Cosmic Horseshoe (a lensed galaxy at z=2.4). We concluded that the measured escape fraction is lower, by more than a factor of five, than the expected escape fraction based on the indirect methods. This emphasizes that indirect determinations should only be interpreted as upper-limits. We also investigated the deepest near-UV Hubble images of the SSA22 field to detect LyC leakage from a large sample of candidate star-forming galaxies at z~3.1, whose redshift was obtained by deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy and for which Keck narrow-band imaging was showing possible LyC leakage. The high spatial resolution of Hubble images is crucial to confirm our detections are clean from foreground contaminating galaxies, and also to ascertain the escape fraction of our final candidates. We identify five clean LyC emitting star-forming galaxies. The follow up investigation of these galaxies will significantly increase our knowledge of the LyC escape fraction and the mechanisms allowing for LyC escape.

  2. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. I. Reliable Mock Observations from SPH Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Biscani, Francesco [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    Through synthetic observations of a hydrodynamical simulation of an evolving star-forming region, we assess how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurements of properties that trace star formation. Testing and calibrating observational measurements requires synthetic observations that are as realistic as possible. In this part of the series (Paper I), we explore different techniques for mapping the distributions of densities and temperatures from the particle-based simulations onto a Voronoi mesh suitable for radiative transfer and consequently explore their accuracy. We further test different ways to set up the radiative transfer in order to produce realistic synthetic observations. We give a detailed description of all methods and ultimately recommend techniques. We have found that the flux around 20 μ m is strongly overestimated when blindly coupling the dust radiative transfer temperature with the hydrodynamical gas temperature. We find that when instead assuming a constant background dust temperature in addition to the radiative transfer heating, the recovered flux is consistent with actual observations. We present around 5800 realistic synthetic observations for Spitzer and Herschel bands, at different evolutionary time-steps, distances, and orientations. In the upcoming papers of this series (Papers II, III, and IV), we will test and calibrate measurements of the star formation rate, gas mass, and the star formation efficiency using our realistic synthetic observations.

  3. CONTINUOUS MID-INFRARED STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATORS: DIAGNOSTICS FOR 0 < z < 3 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, A. J.; Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Johnson, B. D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Elbaz, D., E-mail: abattist@astro.umass.edu [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-02-20

    We present continuous, monochromatic star formation rate (SFR) indicators over the mid-infrared wavelength range of 6–70 μm. We use a sample of 58 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the Spitzer–SDSS–GALEX Spectroscopic Survey at z < 0.2, for which there is a rich suite of multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet through to the infrared. The data from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of these galaxies, which spans 5–40 μm, is anchored to their photometric counterparts. The spectral region between 40–70 μm is interpolated using dust model fits to the IRS spectrum and Spitzer 70 and 160 μm photometry. Since there are no sharp spectral features in this region, we expect these interpolations to be robust. This spectral range is calibrated as a SFR diagnostic using several reference SFR indicators to mitigate potential bias. Our band-specific continuous SFR indicators are found to be consistent with monochromatic calibrations in the local universe, as derived from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel photometry. Our local composite template and continuous SFR diagnostics are made available for public use through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) and have typical dispersions of 30% or less. We discuss the validity and range of applicability for our SFR indicators in the context of unveiling the formation and evolution of galaxies. Additionally, in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope this will become a flexible tool, applicable to any SFG up to z ∼ 3.

  4. NEAR-INFRARED PERIODIC AND OTHER VARIABLE FIELD STARS IN THE FIELD OF THE CYGNUS OB7 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We present a subset of the results of a three-season, 124 night, near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark clouds Lynds 1003 and Lynds 1004 in the Cygnus OB7 star-forming region. In this paper, we focus on the field star population. Using three seasons of UKIRT J, H, and K-band observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. After excluding known disk-bearing stars we identify 149 variables-1.6% of the sample. Of these, about 60 are strictly periodic, with periods predominantly <2 days. We conclude this group is dominated by eclipsing binaries. A few stars have long period signals of between 20 and 60 days. About 25 stars have weak modulated signals, but it was not clear if these were periodic. Some of the stars in this group may be diskless young stellar objects with relatively large variability due to cool starspots. The remaining {approx}60 stars showed variations which appear to be purely stochastic.

  5. Characterizing the Interstellar and Circumgalactic Medium in Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinnan; Shapley, Alice; Crystal Martin, Alison Coil, Charles Steidel, Tucker Jones, Daniel Stark, Allison Strom

    2018-01-01

    Rest-frame UV and optical spectroscopy provide valuable information on the physical properties of the neutral and ionized interstellar medium (ISM) in star-forming galaxies, including both the systemic interstellar component originating from HII regions, and the multi-phase outflowing component associated with star-formation feedback. My thesis focuses on both the systemic and outflowing ISM in star-forming galaxies at redshift z ~ 1-4. With an unprecedented sample at z~1 with the rest-frame near-UV coverage, we examined how the kinematics of the warm and cool phrases of gas, probed by the interstellar CIV and low-ionization features, respectively, relate to each other. The spectral properties of CIV strongly correlate with the current star-formation rate, indicating a distinct nature of highly-ionized outflowing gas being driven by massive star formation. Additionally, we used the same set of z~1 galaxies to study the properties of the systemic ISM in HII regions by analyzing the nebular CIII] emission. CIII] emission tends to be stronger in lower-mass, bluer, and fainter galaxies with lower metallicity, suggesting that the strong CIII] emitters at lower redshifts can be ideal analogs of young, bursty galaxies at z > 6, which are possibly responsible for reionizing the universe. We are currently investigating the redshift evolution of the neutral, circumgalactic gas in a sample of ~1100 Lyman Break Galaxies at z ~ 2-4. The negative correlation between Lya emission and low-ionization interstellar absorption line strengths appears to be universal across different redshifts, but the fine-structure line emitting regions are found to be more compact for higher-redshift galaxies. With the detailed observational constraints provided by the rest-UV and rest-optical spectroscopy, our study sheds light on how the interstellar and circumgalactic gas components and different phases of gas connect to each other, and therefore provides a comprehensive picture of the overall

  6. EVOLUTION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATIONS IN PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM SPH-COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeo Velonà, A. D.; Gavignaud, I.; Meza, A.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Napolitano, N. R.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Cielo, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided that the highest mass bin of the brightest central galaxies is excluded. Its slope shows irrelevant evolution in the passive sample, being steeper in groups than in clusters. However, the subsample of high-mass passive galaxies only is characterized by a steep increase of the slope with redshift, from which it can be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M * plane at high redshift, whose scatter increases with time alongside the consolidation of the passive sequence. We also confirm the anti-correlation between sSFR and stellar mass, pointing at a key role of the former in determining the galaxy downsizing, as the most significant means of diagnostics of the star formation efficiency. Likewise, an anti-correlation between sSFR and metallicity can be established for the SF galaxies, while on the contrary more active galaxies

  7. THE STAR-FORMATION-RATE-DENSITY RELATION AT 0.6 < z < 0.9 AND THE ROLE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Holden, Bradford P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Franx, Marijn

    2011-01-01

    We study the star formation rates (SFRs) of galaxies as a function of local galaxy density at 0.6 z /(1 + z) ∼ 1% for galaxies with z AB 1.8 x 10 10 M sun (log M/M sun >10.25) to conduct our main analysis. With three different SFR indicators, (1) Spitzer MIPS 24 μm imaging, (2) spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, and (3) [O II]λ3727 emission, we find the median specific SFR (SSFR) and SFR to decline from the low-density field to the cores of groups and a rich cluster. For the SED- and [O II]-based SFRs, the decline in SSFR is roughly an order of magnitude while for the MIPS-based SFRs, the decline is a factor of ∼4. We find approximately the same magnitude of decline in SSFR even after removing the sample of galaxies near the cluster. Galaxies in groups and a cluster at these redshifts therefore have lower star formation (SF) activity than galaxies in the field, as is the case at z ∼ 0. We investigated whether the decline in SFR with increasing density is caused by a change in the proportion of quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs) or by a decline in the SFRs of SFGs. Using the rest-frame U - V and V - J colors to distinguish quiescent galaxies from SFGs (including both unattenuated blue galaxies and reddened ones), we find that the fraction of quiescent galaxies increases from ∼32% to 79% from low to high density. In addition, we find the SSFRs of SFGs, selected based on U - V and V - J colors, to decline with increasing density by factors of ∼5-6 for the SED- and [O II]-based SFRs. The MIPS-based SSFRs for SFGs decline with a shallower slope. The declining SFRs of SFGs with density are paralleled by a decline in the median A V , providing indirect evidence that the cold gas content that fuels future SF is diminished in higher density environments. The order of magnitude decline in the SSFR-density relation at 0.6 < z < 0.9 is therefore driven by both a combination of declining SFRs of SFGs as well as a changing mix of SFGs and quiescent

  8. DO R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS FORM FROM DOUBLE WHITE DWARF MERGERS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff, Jan. E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tohline, Joel E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P5C2 (Canada); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Motl, Patrick M. [Department of Science, Mathematics and Informatics, Indiana University Kokomo, Kokomo, IN 46904-9003 (United States); Geballe, Tom [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Pignatari, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-09-20

    A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WDs) in a binary. The observed ratio of {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of {approx}500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We present the results of five three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double WD system where the total mass is 0.9 M{sub Sun} and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with q {approx}< 0.7 a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming {sup 18}O. However, more {sup 16}O is being dredged up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of {sup 18}O that is produced. Therefore, on the dynamical timescale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, an {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio of {approx}2000 in the 'best' case is found. If the conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations persist for 10{sup 6} s the oxygen ratio drops to 16 in one case studied, while in a hundred years it drops to {approx}4 in another case studied, consistent with the observed values in RCB stars. Therefore, the merger of two WDs remains a strong candidate for the formation of these enigmatic stars.

  9. Global Infrared–Radio Spectral Energy Distributions of Galactic Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene

    2018-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of 30 Galactic massive star-forming regions. We fit multicomponent dust, blackbody, and power-law continuum models to 3.6 µm through 10 mm spectral energy distributions obtained from Spitzer, MSX, IRAS, Herschel, and Planck archival survey data. Averaged across our sample, ~20% of Lyman continuum photons emitted by massive stars are absorbed by dust before contributing to the ionization of H II regions, while ~50% of the stellar bolometric luminosity is absorbed and reprocessed by dust in the H II regions and surrounding photodissociation regions. The most luminous, infrared-bright regions that fully sample the upper stellar initial mass function (ionizing photon rates NC ≥ 1050 s–1 and total infrared luminosity LTIR ≥ 106.8 L⊙) have higher percentages of absorbed Lyman continuum photons (~40%) and dust-reprocessed starlight (~80%). The monochromatic 70-µm luminosity L70 is linearly correlated with LTIR, and on average L70/LTIR = 50%, in good agreement with extragalactic studies. Calibrated against the known massive stellar content in our sampled H II regions, we find that star formation rates based on L70 are in reasonably good agreement with extragalactic calibrations, when corrected for the smaller physical sizes of the Galactic regions. We caution that absorption of Lyman continuum photons prior to contributing to the observed ionizing photon rate may reduce the attenuation-corrected Hα emission, systematically biasing extragalactic calibrations toward lower star formation rates when applied to spatially-resolved studies of obscured star formation.This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under award CAREER-1454333.

  10. REVIVAL OF THE STALLED CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SHOCK TRIGGERED BY PRECOLLAPSE ASPHERICITY IN THE PROGENITOR STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couch, Sean M.; Ott, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-dimensional simulations of advanced nuclear burning stages of massive stars suggest that the Si/O layers of presupernova stars harbor large deviations from the spherical symmetry typically assumed for presupernova stellar structure. We carry out three-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations with and without aspherical velocity perturbations to assess their potential impact on the supernova hydrodynamics in the stalled-shock phase. Our results show that realistic perturbations can qualitatively alter the postbounce evolution, triggering an explosion in a model that fails to explode without them. This finding underlines the need for a multi-dimensional treatment of the presupernova stage of stellar evolution

  11. REVIVAL OF THE STALLED CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SHOCK TRIGGERED BY PRECOLLAPSE ASPHERICITY IN THE PROGENITOR STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, Sean M. [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ott, Christian D., E-mail: smc@flash.uchichago.edu, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Multi-dimensional simulations of advanced nuclear burning stages of massive stars suggest that the Si/O layers of presupernova stars harbor large deviations from the spherical symmetry typically assumed for presupernova stellar structure. We carry out three-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations with and without aspherical velocity perturbations to assess their potential impact on the supernova hydrodynamics in the stalled-shock phase. Our results show that realistic perturbations can qualitatively alter the postbounce evolution, triggering an explosion in a model that fails to explode without them. This finding underlines the need for a multi-dimensional treatment of the presupernova stage of stellar evolution.

  12. The Structure of the Nearby Giant Star-Forming Region 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Eric; Baldwin, Jack; Hanson, Margaret; Ferland, Gary; Troland, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The rates of star formation and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study of these processes in the two nearest giant star-forming regions, 30 Doradus and NGC 3603, as an aide in understanding the nature of Giant Extragalactic H II Regions, starbursts, and Ultra-Luminous IR Galaxies. We recently completed our observations of NGC 3603. Here we request 2 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain a dense grid of optical long-slit spectra criss- crossing 30 Dor. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3800 different spots in the nebula. We also request 3 nights on SOAR to take K-band long slit spectra covering H^+ Br(gamma) and several H_2 lines across three representative edge-on ionization fronts in 30 Dor. The IR spectra will be taken in locations also covered by the optical spectra, and will tell us about the structure, pressure support and heating mechanisms in the photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) at these points. Either half of this project can stand on its own, but both parts together will permit the PI to complete his PhD thesis.

  13. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: EVIDENCE FOR DUST GRAIN EVOLUTION IN PERSEUS STAR-FORMING CLUMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Mottram, J. C.; Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kirk, H. [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Buckle, J.; Salji, C. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Fich, M.; Tisi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nutter, D.; Quinn, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Pattle, K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Pineda, J. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-07-20

    The dust emissivity spectral index, β , is a critical parameter for deriving the mass and temperature of star-forming structures and, consequently, their gravitational stability. The β value is dependent on various dust grain properties, such as size, porosity, and surface composition, and is expected to vary as dust grains evolve. Here we present β , dust temperature, and optical depth maps of the star-forming clumps in the Perseus Molecular Cloud determined from fitting spectral energy distributions to combined Herschel and JCMT observations in the 160, 250, 350, 500, and 850 μ m bands. Most of the derived β and dust temperature values fall within the ranges of 1.0–2.7 and 8–20 K, respectively. In Perseus, we find the β distribution differs significantly from clump to clump, indicative of grain growth. Furthermore, we also see significant localized β variations within individual clumps and find low- β regions correlate with local temperature peaks, hinting at the possible origins of low- β grains. Throughout Perseus, we also see indications of heating from B stars and embedded protostars, as well evidence of outflows shaping the local landscape.

  14. The Origin of the Relation between Metallicity and Size in Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2018-06-01

    For the same stellar mass, physically smaller star-forming galaxies are also metal richer. What causes the relation remains unclear. The central star-forming galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological numerical simulation reproduce the observed trend. We use them to explore the origin of the relation assuming that the physical mechanism responsible for the anticorrelation between size and gas-phase metallicity is the same in the simulated and the observed galaxies. We consider the three most likely causes: (1) metal-poor gas inflows feeding the star formation (SF) process, (2) metal-rich gas outflows particularly efficient in shallow gravitational potentials, and (3) enhanced efficiency of the SF process in compact galaxies. Outflows (cause 2) and enhanced SF efficiency (cause 3) can be discarded. Metal-poor gas inflows (cause 1) produce the correlation in the simulated galaxies. Galaxies grow in size with time, so those that receive gas later are both metal poorer and larger, giving rise to the observed anticorrelation. As expected within this explanation, larger galaxies have younger stellar populations. We explore the variation with redshift of the relation, which is maintained up to, at least, redshift 8.

  15. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  16. Molecular Hydrogen Images of Star Forming Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Ronald G.; Barba, R.; Bolatto, A.; Chu, Y.; Points, S.; Rubio, M.; Smith, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds exhibit a variety of star formation physics with multiple phase components in low metallicity, gas rich environments. The 10 K, 100 K, and 104 K regimes are well explored. We are imaging LMC and SMC star forming regions in 2.12 micron H2 emission which arises in the 1000 K transition zone of molecular clouds. This is an NOAO Survey program using the widefield IR camera NEWFIRM on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope during its limited southern deployment. The data set will have immediate morphological applications and will provide target selection for followup infrared spectroscopy. We will provide a public archive of fully calibrated images with no proprietary period. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  17. Mid-Infrared Observations of Possible Intergalactic Star Forming Regions in the Leo Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Mark; Smith, B.; Struck, C.

    2011-05-01

    Within the Leo group of galaxies lies a gigantic loop of intergalactic gas known as the Leo Ring. Not clearly associated with any particular galaxy, its origin remains uncertain. It may be a primordial intergalactic cloud alternatively, it may be a collision ring, or have a tidal origin. Combining archival Spitzer images of this structure with published UV and optical data, we investigate the mid-infrared properties of possible knots of star formation in the ring. These sources are very faint in the mid-infrared compared to star forming regions in the tidal features of interacting galaxies. This suggests they are either deficient in dust, or they may not be associated with the ring.

  18. On the Onset of Secondary Stellar Generations in Giant Star-forming Regions and Massive Star Clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 792, č. 2 (2014), 105/1-105/10 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies: ISM * star clusters: general * galaxies: star formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014

  19. THE CLUSTERED NATURE OF STAR FORMATION. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLUSTERS IN THE STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 602/N90 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario; Schmeja, Stefan; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction (∼60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of ∼2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last ∼5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was formed first

  20. MAXIMALLY STAR-FORMING GALACTIC DISKS. II. VERTICALLY RESOLVED HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF STARBURST REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Rahul [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: R.Shetty@.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: ostriker@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We explore the self-regulation of star formation using a large suite of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on molecule-dominated regions (galactic centers and [U]LIRGS) where feedback from star formation drives highly supersonic turbulence. In equilibrium, the total midplane pressure, dominated by turbulence, must balance the vertical weight of the interstellar medium. Under self-regulation, the momentum flux injected by feedback evolves until it matches the vertical weight. We test this flux balance in simulations spanning a wide range of parameters, including surface density {Sigma}, momentum injected per stellar mass formed (p{sub *}/m{sub *}), and angular velocity. The simulations are two-dimensional radial-vertical slices, and include both self-gravity and an external potential that helps to confine gas to the disk midplane. After the simulations reach a steady state in all relevant quantities, including the star formation rate {Sigma}{sub SFR}, there is remarkably good agreement between the vertical weight, the turbulent pressure, and the momentum injection rate from supernovae. Gas velocity dispersions and disk thicknesses increase with p{sub *}/m{sub *}. The efficiency of star formation per free-fall time at the midplane density, {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}), is insensitive to the local conditions and to the star formation prescription in very dense gas. We measure {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}) {approx} 0.004-0.01, consistent with low and approximately constant efficiencies inferred from observations. For {Sigma} in (100-1000) M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we find {Sigma}{sub SFR} in (0.1-4) M{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, generally following a {Sigma}{sub SFR} {proportional_to} {Sigma}{sup 2} relationship. The measured relationships agree very well with vertical equilibrium and with turbulent energy replenishment by feedback within a vertical crossing time. These results, along with the observed {Sigma}-{Sigma}{sub SFR} relation in high

  1. How astronomers watch the birth of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, L.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the recent progress in stellar evolution, due to the new techniques in infrared and radio astronomy. The latter techniques have revealed where the stars are born, and the way the stars actually form. The nature of the molecular clouds where the stars form, star formation regions, collapse in molecular clouds, gas flows within clouds and cores of clouds have also been investigated using the new techniques and new telescopes. (U.K.)

  2. The Infrared-Radio Correlation of Dusty Star Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Sidney; Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Jarugula, Sreevani

    2018-01-01

    Far-infrared (FIR) and radio continuum emission in galaxies are related by a common origin: massive stars and the processes triggered during their birth, lifetime, and death. FIR emission is produced by cool dust, heated by the absorption of UV emission from massive stars, which is then re-emitted in the FIR. Thermal free-free radiation emitted from HII regions dominates the spectral energy density (SED) of galaxies at roughly 30 GHz, while non-thermal synchrotron radiation dominates at lower frequencies. At low redshift, the infrared radio correlation (IRC, or qIR) holds as a tight empirical relation for many star forming galaxy types, but until recently, there has not been sensitive enough radio observations to extend this relation to higher redshifts. Many selection biases cloud the results of these analyses, leaving the evolution of the IRC with redshift ambiguous. In this poster, I present CIGALE fitted spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 24 gravitationally-lensed sources selected in the mm-wave from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. I fit the IRC from infrared and submillimeter fluxes obtained with Herschel, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and SPT and radio fluxes obtained with ATCA at 2.1, 5.5, 9, and 30 GHz. This sample of SPT sources has a spectroscopic redshift range of 2.1poster, I will present the results of this study and compare our results to various results in the literature.

  3. Subsonic islands within a high-mass star-forming infrared dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Vlas; Wang, Ke; Pineda, Jaime E.; Caselli, Paola; Henshaw, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Ashley T.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Fontani, Francesco; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Zhang, Qizhou

    2018-03-01

    High-mass star forming regions are typically thought to be dominated by supersonic motions. We present combined Very Large Array and Green Bank Telescope (VLA+GBT) observations of NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G035.39-00.33, tracing cold and dense gas down to scales of 0.07 pc. We find that, in contrast to previous, similar studies of IRDCs, more than a third of the fitted ammonia spectra show subsonic non-thermal motions (mean line width of 0.71 km s-1), and sonic Mach number distribution peaks around ℳ = 1. As possible observational and instrumental biases would only broaden the line profiles, our results provide strong upper limits to the actual value of ℳ, further strengthening our findings of narrow line widths. This finding calls for a re-evaluation of the role of turbulent dissipation and subsonic regions in massive-star and cluster formation. Based on our findings in G035.39, we further speculate that the coarser spectral resolution used in the previous VLA NH3 studies may have inhibited the detection of subsonic turbulence in IRDCs. The reduced turbulent support suggests that dynamically important magnetic fields of the 1 mG order would be required to support against possible gravitational collapse. Our results offer valuable input into the theories and simulations that aim to recreate the initial conditions of high-mass star and cluster formation.

  4. Galaxy formation hydrodynamics: From cosmic flows to star-forming clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bournaud, F.

    2011-01-01

    Major progress has been made over the last few years in understanding hydrodynamical processes on cosmological scales, in particular how galaxies get their baryons. There is increasing recognition that a large part of the baryons accrete smoothly onto galaxies, and that internal evolution processes play a major role in shaping galaxies mergers are not necessarily the dominant process. However, predictions from the various assembly mechanisms are still in large disagreement with the observed properties of galaxies in the nearby Universe. Small-scale processes have a major impact on the global evolution of galaxies over a Hubble time and the usual sub-grid models account for them in a far too uncertain way. Understanding when, where and at which rate galaxies formed their stars becomes crucial to understand the formation of galaxy populations. I discuss recent improvements and current limitations in 'resolved' modeling of star formation, aiming at explicitly capturing star-foul-ling instabilities, in cosmological and galaxy-sized simulations. Such models need to develop three-dimensional turbulence in the ISM, which requires parsec-scale resolution at redshift zero. (authors)

  5. Probing dark matter with star clusters: a dark matter core in the ultra-faint dwarf Eridanus II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contenta, Filippo; Balbinot, Eduardo; Petts, James A.; Read, Justin I.; Gieles, Mark; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Delorme, Maxime; Gualandris, Alessia

    2018-05-01

    We present a new technique to probe the central dark matter (DM) density profile of galaxies that harnesses both the survival and observed properties of star clusters. As a first application, we apply our method to the `ultra-faint' dwarf Eridanus II (Eri II) that has a lone star cluster ˜45 pc from its centre. Using a grid of collisional N-body simulations, incorporating the effects of stellar evolution, external tides and dynamical friction, we show that a DM core for Eri II naturally reproduces the size and the projected position of its star cluster. By contrast, a dense cusped galaxy requires the cluster to lie implausibly far from the centre of Eri II (>1 kpc), with a high inclination orbit that must be observed at a particular orbital phase. Our results, therefore, favour a DM core. This implies that either a cold DM cusp was `heated up' at the centre of Eri II by bursty star formation or we are seeing an evidence for physics beyond cold DM.

  6. Gravitational wave sources from Pop III stars are preferentially located within the cores of their host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Loeb, Abraham; Salvadori, Stefania

    2017-10-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) generated by merging black holes has recently opened up a new observational window into the Universe. The mass of the black holes in the first and third Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) detections (36-29 M⊙ and 32-19 M⊙) suggests low-metallicity stars as their most likely progenitors. Based on high-resolution N-body simulations, coupled with state-of-the-art metal enrichment models, we find that the remnants of Pop III stars are preferentially located within the cores of galaxies. The probability of a GW signal to be generated by Pop III stars reaches ∼90 per cent at ∼0.5 kpc from the galaxy centre, compared to a benchmark value of ∼5 per cent outside the core. The predicted merger rates inside bulges is ∼60 × βIII Gpc-3 yr-1 (βIII is the Pop III binarity fraction). To match the 90 per cent credible range of LIGO merger rates, we obtain: 0.03 proof for the existence of Pop III stars.

  7. Core Cross-Linked Multiarm Star Polymers with Aggregation-Induced Emission and Temperature Responsive Fluorescence Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2017-05-19

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active core cross-linked multiarm star polymers, carrying polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), or polyethylene-b-polycaprolactone (PE-b-PCL) arms, have been synthesized through an “arm-first” strategy, by atom transfer radical copolymerization (ATRP) of a double styrene-functionalized tetraphenylethene (TPE-2St) used as a cross-linker with linear arm precursors possessing terminal ATRP initiating moieties. Polyethylene macroinitiator (PE–Br) was prepared via the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide with triethylborane followed by oxidation/hydrolysis and esterification of the produced PE–OH with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide; polyethylene-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) diblock macroinitiator was derived by combining polyhomologation with ring-opening polymerization (ROP). All synthesized star polymers showed AIE-behavior either in solution or in bulk. At high concentration in good solvents (e.g., THF, or toluene) they exhibited low photoluminescence (PL) intensity due to the inner filter effect. In sharp contrast to the small molecule TPE-2St, the star polymers were highly emissive in dilute THF solutions. This can be attributed to the cross-linked structure of poly(TPE-2St) core which restricts the intramolecular rotation and thus induces emission. In addition, the PL intensity of PE star polymers in THF(solvent)/n-hexane(nonsolvent) mixtures, due to their nearly spherical shape, increased when the temperature decreased from 55 to 5 °C with a linear response in the range 40–5 °C.

  8. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN A STAR-FORMING GASEOUS CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valle, L.; Escala, A.; Molina, J. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Maureira-Fredes, C.; Amaro-Seoane, P. [Max Planck Institut fur Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Cuadra, J., E-mail: ldelvalleb@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2015-09-20

    Using N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations we study the evolution of the separation of a pair of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) embedded in a star-forming circumnuclear disk (CND). This type of disk is expected to be formed in the central kiloparsec of the remnant of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Our simulations indicate that orbital decay of the SMBHs occurs more quickly when the mean density of the CND is higher, due to increased dynamical friction. However, in simulations where the CND is fragmented in high-density gaseous clumps (clumpy CND), the orbits of the SMBHs are erratically perturbed by the gravitational interaction with these clumps, delaying, in some cases, the orbital decay of the SMBHs. The densities of these gaseous clumps in our simulations and in recent studies of clumpy CNDs are two orders of magnitude higher than the observed density of molecular clouds in isolated galaxies or ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), thus, we expect that SMBH orbits are perturbed less in real CNDs than in the simulated CNDs of this study and other recent studies. We also find that the migration timescale has a weak dependence on the star formation rate of the CND. Furthermore, the migration timescale of an SMBH pair in a star-forming clumpy CND is at most a factor of three longer than the migration timescale of a pair of SMBHs in a CND modeled with more simple gas physics. Therefore, we estimate that the migration timescale of the SMBHs in a clumpy CND is on the order of 10{sup 7} years.

  9. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Holzapfel, W. L., E-mail: jspilker@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  10. Young Stellar Objects in the Massive Star-forming Regions W51 and W43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saral, G.; Audard, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Ch. d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Hora, J. L.; Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koenig, X. P. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Motte, F. [Institut de Plantologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, Univ. Grenoble Alpes—CNRS-INSU, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Nguyen-Luong, Q. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Chile Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saygac, A. T. [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Istanbul-Turkey (Turkey)

    2017-04-20

    We present the results of our investigation of the star-forming complexes W51 and W43, two of the brightest in the first Galactic quadrant. In order to determine the young stellar object (YSO) populations in W51 and W43 we used color–magnitude relations based on Spitzer mid-infrared and 2MASS/UKIDSS near-infrared data. We identified 302 Class I YSOs and 1178 Class II/transition disk candidates in W51, and 917 Class I YSOs and 5187 Class II/transition disk candidates in W43. We also identified tens of groups of YSOs in both regions using the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. We found similar cluster densities in both regions, even though Spitzer was not able to probe the densest part of W43. By using the Class II/I ratios, we traced the relative ages within the regions and, based on the morphology of the clusters, we argue that several sites of star formation are independent of one another in terms of their ages and physical conditions. We used spectral energy distribution-fitting to identify the massive YSO (MYSO) candidates since they play a vital role in the star formation process, and then examined them to see if they are related to any massive star formation tracers such as UCH ii regions, masers, or dense fragments. We identified 17 MYSO candidates in W51, and 14 in W43, respectively, and found that groups of YSOs hosting MYSO candidates are positionally associated with H ii regions in W51, though we do not see any MYSO candidates associated with previously identified massive dense fragments in W43.

  11. A MATURE DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXY HOSTING GRB 080607 AT z = 3.036

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Perley, Daniel A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Wilson, Christine D.; Levan, Andrew J.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Pettini, Max

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of the host galaxy of Swift dark burst GRB 080607 at z GRB = 3.036. GRB 080607 is a unique case of a highly extinguished (A V ∼ 3 mag) afterglow that was yet sufficiently bright for high-quality absorption-line spectroscopy. The host galaxy is clearly resolved in deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WF3/IR F160W images and well detected in the Spitzer IRAC 3.5 μm and 4.5 μm channels, while displaying little/no fluxes in deep optical images from Keck and Magellan. The extremely red optical-infrared colors are consistent with the large extinction seen in the afterglow light, suggesting that the large amount of dust and gas surface mass density seen along the afterglow sight line is not merely local but likely reflects the global dust content across the entire host galaxy. Adopting the dust properties and metallicity of the host interstellar medium derived from studies of early-time afterglow light and absorption-line spectroscopy, we perform a stellar population synthesis analysis of the observed spectral energy distribution to constrain the intrinsic luminosity and stellar population of this dark burst host. The host galaxy is best described by an exponentially declining star formation rate of e-folding time τ = 2 Gyr and an age of ∼2 Gyr. We also derive an extinction-corrected star formation rate of SFR ∼ 125 h -2 M sun yr -1 and a total stellar mass of M * ∼ 4 x 10 11 h -2 M sun . Our study provides an example of massive, dusty star-forming galaxies contributing to the γ-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy population, supporting the notion that long-duration GRBs trace the bulk of cosmic star formation.

  12. PREDICTIONS FOR ULTRA-DEEP RADIO COUNTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, Claudia; Lapi, Andrea; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Bressan, Alessandro; Perrotta, Francesca; Danese, Luigi [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Cai, Zhen-Yi [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Negrello, Mattia; Bonato, Matteo, E-mail: cmancuso@sissa.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    We have worked outty predictions for the radio counts of star-forming galaxies down to nJy levels, along with redshift distributions down to the detection limits of the phase 1 Square Kilometer Array MID telescope (SKA1-MID) and of its precursors. Such predictions were obtained by coupling epoch-dependent star formation rate (SFR) functions with relations between SFR and radio (synchrotron and free–free) emission. The SFR functions were derived taking into account both the dust-obscured and the unobscured star formation, by combining far-infrared, ultraviolet, and Hα luminosity functions up to high redshifts. We have also revisited the South Pole Telescope counts of dusty galaxies at 95 GHz, performing a detailed analysis of the Spectral Energy Distributions. Our results show that the deepest SKA1-MID surveys will detect high-z galaxies with SFRs two orders of magnitude lower compared to Herschel surveys. The highest redshift tails of the distributions at the detection limits of planned SKA1-MID surveys comprise a substantial fraction of strongly lensed galaxies. We predict that a survey down to 0.25 μJy at 1.4 GHz will detect about 1200 strongly lensed galaxies per square degree, at redshifts of up to 10. For about 30% of them the SKA1-MID will detect at least 2 images. The SKA1-MID will thus provide a comprehensive view of the star formation history throughout the re-ionization epoch, unaffected by dust extinction. We have also provided specific predictions for the EMU/ASKAP and MIGHTEE/MeerKAT surveys.

  13. Clustering of Star-forming Galaxies Near a Radio Galaxy at z=5.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Miley, G. K.; Bouwens, R. J.; Cross, N. J. G.; Zirm, A. W.; Benítez, N.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Clampin, M.; Demarco, R.; Ford, H. C.; Hartig, G. F.; Illingworth, G. D.; Martel, A. R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Venemans, B.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Bradley, L. D.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Coe, D.; Feldman, P. D.; Franx, M.; Golimowski, D. A.; Goto, T.; Gronwall, C.; Holden, B.; Homeier, N.; Infante, L.; Kimble, R. A.; Krist, J. E.; Mei, S.; Menanteau, F.; Meurer, G. R.; Motta, V.; Postman, M.; Rosati, P.; Sirianni, M.; Sparks, W. B.; Tran, H. D.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2006-01-01

    We present HST ACS observations of the most distant radio galaxy known, TN J0924-2201 at z=5.2. This radio galaxy has six spectroscopically confirmed Lyα-emitting companion galaxies and appears to lie within an overdense region. The radio galaxy is marginally resolved in i775 and z850, showing continuum emission aligned with the radio axis, similar to what is observed for lower redshift radio galaxies. Both the half-light radius and the UV star formation rate are comparable to the typical values found for Lyman break galaxies at z~4-5. The Lyα emitters are sub-L* galaxies, with deduced star formation rates of 1-10 Msolar yr-1. One of the Lyα emitters is only detected in Lyα. Based on the star formation rate of ~3 Msolar yr-1 calculated from Lyα, the lack of continuum emission could be explained if the galaxy is younger than ~2 Myr and is producing its first stars. Observations in V606i775z850 were used to identify additional Lyman break galaxies associated with this structure. In addition to the radio galaxy, there are 22 V606 break (z~5) galaxies with z850dropouts extracted from GOODS and the UDF parallel fields. We find evidence for an overdensity to very high confidence (>99%), based on a counts-in-cells analysis applied to the control field. The excess suggests that the V606 break objects are associated with a forming cluster around the radio galaxy. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 9291.

  14. How Do Multiple-Star Systems Form? VLA Study Reveals "Smoking Gun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to image a young, multiple-star system with unprecedented detail, yielding important clues about how such systems are formed. Most Sun-sized or larger stars in the Universe are not single, like our Sun, but are members of multiple-star systems. Astronomers have been divided on how such systems can form, producing competing theoretical models for this process. Multiple Star Formation Graphic Proposed Formation Process for L1551 IRS5 CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information The new VLA study produced a "smoking gun" supporting one of the competing models, said Jeremy Lim, of the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan, whose study, done with Shigehisa Takakuwa of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, is published in the December 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Ironically, their discovery of a third, previously-unknown, young star in the system may support a second theoretical model. "There may be more than one way to make a multiple-star system," Lim explained. The astronomers observed an object called L1551 IRS5, young, still-forming protostars enshrouded in a cloud of gas and dust, some 450 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Taurus. Invisible to optical telescopes because of the gas and dust, this object was discovered in 1976 by astronomers using infrared telescopes. A VLA study in 1998 showed two young stars orbiting each other, each surrounded by a disk of dust that may, in time, congeal into a system of planets. Lim and Takakuwa re-examined the system, using improved technical capabilities that greatly boosted the quality of their images. "In the earlier VLA study, only half of the VLA's 27 antennas had receivers that could collect the radio waves, at a frequency of 43 GigaHertz (GHz), coming from the dusty disks. When we re-observed this

  15. SPITZER IMAGING OF STRONGLY LENSED HERSCHEL-SELECTED DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Da Cunha, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Magdis, G. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Riechers, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 10{sup 10}–4 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates of around 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  16. Study on the crystallization of multiarm stars with a poly(ethyleneimine) core and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) arms of different length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Angélica; Bacaicoa, Anna; Casas, Maria Teresa; Franco, Lourdes [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Serra, Angels [Departament de Química Analítica i Química Orgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. C. Marcel.lí Domingo, s/n. Campus Sescelades, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Puiggalí, Jordi, E-mail: Jordi.Puiggali@upc.edu [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)

    2015-05-10

    Highlights: • Isothermal crystallization kinetics of multiarm stars. • Influence of the length of poly(ϵ-caprolactone) arms on crystallization kinetics. • Influence of the length of poly(ϵ-caprolactone) arms on secondary nucleation constant. • Crystallization of mixtures of stars having different arm lengths. - Abstract: Crystallization of multiarm star systems constituted by a core of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and arms of poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) was studied by transmission electron microscopy, calorimetry and optical microscopy techniques. Three systems differing on the degree of polymerization of PCL were studied as well as binary mixtures constituted by systems differing on the length of PCL arms. Samples were able to crystallize from both diluted solutions and the melt state giving rise to well-formed lamellae and spherulites, respectively. Lamellae of samples with large PCL arms were highly regular and corresponded to elongated hexagonal crystals with an aspect ratio that decreased with the length of PCL arms. A significant decrease on equilibrium melting temperatures, degree of crystallinity and glass transition temperature was detected for samples having short PCL arms. Crystallization kinetics were also highly influenced by the length of PCL arms, being both nucleation density and secondary nucleation constant increased as the length of PCL arms decreased. Crystallization of star mixtures having different PCL lengths was determined by the larger arms since they initiated the process and subsequently shorter arms were progressively incorporated. A thermal nucleation was characteristic of multiarm star mixtures due to the different crystallization temperature ranges of samples with large and short PCL arms, whereas samples with a homogeneous arm length rendered an athermal nucleation.

  17. Halo Histories vs. Galaxy Properties at z=0, III: The Properties of Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Hahn, ChangHoon; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wetzel, Andrew R.

    2018-05-01

    We measure how the properties of star-forming central galaxies correlate with large-scale environment, δ, measured on 10 h-1Mpc scales. We use galaxy group catalogs to isolate a robust sample of central galaxies with high purity and completeness. The galaxy properties we investigate are star formation rate (SFR), exponential disk scale length Rexp, and Sersic index of the galaxy light profile, nS. We find that, at all stellar masses, there is an inverse correlation between SFR and δ, meaning that above-average star forming centrals live in underdense regions. For nS and Rexp, there is no correlation with δ at M_\\ast ≲ 10^{10.5} M⊙, but at higher masses there are positive correlations; a weak correlation with Rexp and a strong correlation with nS. These data are evidence of assembly bias within the star-forming population. The results for SFR are consistent with a model in which SFR correlates with present-day halo accretion rate, \\dot{M}_h. In this model, galaxies are assigned to halos using the abundance matching ansatz, which maps galaxy stellar mass onto halo mass. At fixed halo mass, SFR is then assigned to galaxies using the same approach, but \\dot{M}_h is used to map onto SFR. The best-fit model requires some scatter in the \\dot{M}_h-SFR relation. The Rexp and nS measurements are consistent with a model in which both of these quantities are correlated with the spin parameter of the halo, λ. Halo spin does not correlate with δ at low halo masses, but for higher mass halos, high-spin halos live in higher density environments at fixed Mh. Put together with the earlier installments of this series, these data demonstrate that quenching processes have limited correlation with halo formation history, but the growth of active galaxies, as well as other detailed galaxies properties, are influenced by the details of halo assembly.

  18. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide. A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims: We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods: We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (I.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results: An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N,J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N,J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N,J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. The complete list of measured Zeeman components is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  19. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS FOR THE SEMI-FORBIDDEN C iii] 1909 EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Ravindranath, S.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing neutrality of the intergalactic medium at z  > 6 suppresses Ly α emission, and spectroscopic confirmation of galaxy redshifts requires the detection of alternative ultraviolet lines. The strong [C iii]  λ 1907+C iii]  λ 1909 doublet frequently observed in low-metallicity, actively star-forming galaxies is a promising emission feature. We present CLOUDY photoionization model predictions for C iii] equivalent widths (EWs) and line ratios as a function of starburst age, metallicity, and ionization parameter. Our models include a range of C/O abundances, dust content, and gas density. We also examine the effects of varying the nebular geometry and optical depth. Only the stellar models that incorporate binary interaction effects reproduce the highest observed C iii] EWs. The spectral energy distributions from the binary stellar population models also generate observable C iii] over a longer timescale relative to single-star models. We show that diagnostics using C iii] and nebular He ii  λ 1640 can separate star-forming regions from shock-ionized gas. We also find that density-bounded systems should exhibit weaker C iii] EWs at a given ionization parameter, and C iii] EWs could, therefore, select candidate Lyman continuum-leaking systems. In almost all models, C iii] is the next strongest line at <2700 Å after Ly α , and C iii] reaches detectable levels for a wide range of conditions at low metallicity. C iii] may therefore serve as an important diagnostic for characterizing galaxies at z  > 6.

  20. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS: RESULTS FROM THE MALT90 SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoq, Sadia; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Guzmán, Andrés [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Whitaker, J. Scott [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rathborne, Jill M. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW (Australia); Vasyunina, Tatiana; Vasyunin, Anton, E-mail: shoq@bu.edu, E-mail: jackson@bu.edu, E-mail: patricio@bu.edu, E-mail: claysmit@bu.edu, E-mail: jonathan.b.foster@yale.edu, E-mail: aguzmanf@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: scott@bu.edu, E-mail: rathborne@csiro.au, E-mail: tv3h@virginia.edu, E-mail: aiv3f@virginia.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    The chemical changes of high-mass star-forming regions provide a potential method for classifying their evolutionary stages and, ultimately, ages. In this study, we search for correlations between molecular abundances and the evolutionary stages of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. We use the molecular line maps from Year 1 of the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey. The survey mapped several hundred individual star-forming clumps chosen from the ATLASGAL survey to span the complete range of evolution, from prestellar to protostellar to H II regions. The evolutionary stage of each clump is classified using the Spitzer GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL mid-IR surveys. Where possible, we determine the dust temperatures and H{sub 2} column densities for each clump from Herschel/Hi-GAL continuum data. From MALT90 data, we measure the integrated intensities of the N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, HCN and HNC (1-0) lines, and derive the column densities and abundances of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +}. The Herschel dust temperatures increase as a function of the IR-based Spitzer evolutionary classification scheme, with the youngest clumps being the coldest, which gives confidence that this classification method provides a reliable way to assign evolutionary stages to clumps. Both N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +} abundances increase as a function of evolutionary stage, whereas the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1-0) to HCO{sup +} (1-0) integrated intensity ratios show no discernable trend. The HCN (1-0) to HNC(1-0) integrated intensity ratios show marginal evidence of an increase as the clumps evolve.

  1. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS FOR THE SEMI-FORBIDDEN C iii] 1909 EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskot, A. E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Ravindranath, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The increasing neutrality of the intergalactic medium at z  > 6 suppresses Ly α emission, and spectroscopic confirmation of galaxy redshifts requires the detection of alternative ultraviolet lines. The strong [C iii]  λ 1907+C iii]  λ 1909 doublet frequently observed in low-metallicity, actively star-forming galaxies is a promising emission feature. We present CLOUDY photoionization model predictions for C iii] equivalent widths (EWs) and line ratios as a function of starburst age, metallicity, and ionization parameter. Our models include a range of C/O abundances, dust content, and gas density. We also examine the effects of varying the nebular geometry and optical depth. Only the stellar models that incorporate binary interaction effects reproduce the highest observed C iii] EWs. The spectral energy distributions from the binary stellar population models also generate observable C iii] over a longer timescale relative to single-star models. We show that diagnostics using C iii] and nebular He ii  λ 1640 can separate star-forming regions from shock-ionized gas. We also find that density-bounded systems should exhibit weaker C iii] EWs at a given ionization parameter, and C iii] EWs could, therefore, select candidate Lyman continuum-leaking systems. In almost all models, C iii] is the next strongest line at <2700 Å after Ly α , and C iii] reaches detectable levels for a wide range of conditions at low metallicity. C iii] may therefore serve as an important diagnostic for characterizing galaxies at z  > 6.

  2. The VANDELS survey: dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies at z = 3-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, F.; McLure, R. J.; Khochfar, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Carnall, A. C.; Bourne, N.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cirasuolo, M.; Elbaz, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Garilli, B.; Koekemoer, A.; Marchi, F.; Pentericci, L.; Talia, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a new study of dust attenuation at redshifts 3 Motivated by results from the First Billion Years (FiBY) simulation project, we argue that the intrinsic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of star-forming galaxies at these redshifts have a self-similar shape across the mass range 8.2 ≤ log (M⋆/M⊙) ≤ 10.6 probed by our sample. Using FiBY data, we construct a set of intrinsic SED templates which incorporate both detailed star formation and chemical abundance histories, and a variety of stellar population synthesis (SPS) model assumptions. With this set of intrinsic SEDs, we present a novel approach for directly recovering the shape and normalization of the dust attenuation curve. We find, across all of the intrinsic templates considered, that the average attenuation curve for star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 3.5 is similar in shape to the commonly adopted Calzetti starburst law, with an average total-to-selective attenuation ratio of RV = 4.18 ± 0.29. In contrast, we find that an average attenuation curve as steep as the SMC extinction law is strongly disfavoured. We show that the optical attenuation (AV) versus stellar mass (M⋆) relation predicted using our method is consistent with recent ALMA observations of galaxies at 2 < z < 3 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), as well as empirical AV - M⋆ relations predicted by a Calzetti-like law. In fact, our results, combined with other literature data, suggest that the AV-M⋆ relation does not evolve over the redshift range 0 < z < 5, at least for galaxies with log(M⋆/M⊙) ≳ 9.5. Finally, we present tentative evidence which suggests that the attenuation curve may become steeper at lower masses log(M⋆/M⊙) ≲ 9.0.

  3. J0811+4730: the most metal-poor star-forming dwarf galaxy known

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Thuan, T. X.; Guseva, N. G.; Liss, S. E.

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of the most metal-poor dwarf star-forming galaxy (SFG) known to date, J0811+4730. This galaxy, at a redshift z = 0.04444, has a Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g-band absolute magnitude Mg = -15.41 mag. It was selected by inspecting the spectroscopic data base in the Data Release 13 (DR13) of the SDSS. Large Binocular Telescope/Multi-Object Double spectrograph (LBT/MODS) spectroscopic observations reveal its oxygen abundance to be 12 + log O/H = 6.98 ± 0.02, the lowest ever observed for an SFG. J0811+4730 strongly deviates from the main sequence defined by SFGs in the emission line diagnostic diagrams and the metallicity-luminosity diagram. These differences are caused mainly by the extremely low oxygen abundance in J0811+4730, which is ∼10 times lower than that in main-sequence SFGs with similar luminosities. By fitting the spectral energy distributions of the SDSS and LBT spectra, we derive a stellar mass of M⋆ = 106.24-106.29 M⊙, and we find that a considerable fraction of the galaxy stellar mass was formed during the most recent burst of star formation.

  4. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y I; Orlitová, I; Schaerer, D; Thuan, T X; Verhamme, A; Guseva, N G; Worseck, G

    2016-01-14

    One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionization of the Universe after the cosmic 'Dark Ages', when the baryonic matter was neutral. The currently identified distant galaxies are insufficient to fully reionize the Universe by redshift z ≈ 6 (refs 1-3), but low-mass, star-forming galaxies are thought to be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing radiation. As direct observations at high redshift are difficult for a variety of reasons, one solution is to identify local proxies of this galaxy population. Starburst galaxies at low redshifts, however, generally are opaque to Lyman continuum photons. Small escape fractions of about 1 to 3 per cent, insufficient to ionize much surrounding gas, have been detected only in three low-redshift galaxies. Here we report far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403. The galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent. The total number of photons emitted during the starburst phase is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

  5. GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Schreiber, C.; Strazzullo, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Cibinel, A.; Juneau, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Leiton, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Buat, V. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Charmandaris, V.; Magdis, G. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236, Penteli (Greece); Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borgne, D. Le [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75005 Paris (France); Lin, L. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Morrison, G. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI-96822 (United States); and others

    2015-07-10

    We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate–M{sub *} correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR–radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5–4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts.

  6. WEAK AND COMPACT RADIO EMISSION IN EARLY HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS. I. VLA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  7. Complex organic molecules toward low-mass and high-mass star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bergin, E.; Carvajal, M.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Jørgensen, J.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important questions in molecular astrophysics is how, when, and where complex organic molecules, COMs (≥ 6 atoms) are formed. In the Interstellar-Earth connection context, could this have a bearing on the origin of life on Earth? Formation mechanisms of COMs, which include potentially prebiotic molecules, are still debated and may include grain-mantle and/or gas-phase chemistry. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the interstellar molecular complexification, along with the involved physicochemical processes, is mandatory to answer the above questions. In that context, active researches are ongoing in theory, laboratory experiment, chemical modeling and observations. Thanks to recent progress in radioastronomy instrumentation for both single-dish and millimeter array (e.g. Herschel, NOEMA, ALMA), new results have been obtained. I will review some notable results on the detection of COMs, including prebiotic molecules, towards star forming regions.

  8. Chandra and ALMA observations of the nuclear activity in two strongly lensed star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massardi, M.; Enia, A. F. M.; Negrello, M.; Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Burkutean, S.; Danese, L.; Zotti, G. De

    2018-02-01

    -z galaxies with high star formation rates. This is useful to extend the investigation of the relationship between star formation and nuclear activity to two intrinsically less luminous high-z star-forming galaxies than was possible so far. Given our results for only two objects, they alone cannot constrain the evolutionary models, but provide us with interesting hints and set an observational path toward addressing the role of star formation and nuclear activity in forming galaxies. The reduced images and data cubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A53

  9. Galaxy Evolution in the Radio Band: The Role of Star-forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.; Prandoni, I. [INAF-IRA, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lapi, A.; Obi, I.; Perrotta, F.; Bressan, A.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2017-06-20

    We investigate the astrophysics of radio-emitting star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and elucidate their statistical properties in the radio band, including luminosity functions, redshift distributions, and number counts at sub-mJy flux levels, which will be crucially probed by next-generation radio continuum surveys. Specifically, we exploit the model-independent approach by Mancuso et al. to compute the star formation rate functions, the AGN duty cycles, and the conditional probability of a star-forming galaxy to host an AGN with given bolometric luminosity. Coupling these ingredients with the radio emission properties associated with star formation and nuclear activity, we compute relevant statistics at different radio frequencies and disentangle the relative contribution of star-forming galaxies and AGNs in different radio luminosity, radio flux, and redshift ranges. Finally, we highlight that radio-emitting star-forming galaxies and AGNs are expected to host supermassive black holes accreting with different Eddington ratio distributions and to occupy different loci in the galaxy main-sequence diagrams. These specific predictions are consistent with current data sets but need to be tested with larger statistics via future radio data with multiband coverage on wide areas, as will become routinely achievable with the advent of the Square Kilometre Array and its precursors.

  10. Tomography of massive stars from core collapse to supernova shock breakout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Haxton, W. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yüksel, Hasan [Theoretical Division, MS B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Neutrinos and gravitational waves are the only direct probes of the inner dynamics of a stellar core collapse. They are also the first signals to arrive from a supernova (SN) and, if detected, establish the moment when the shock wave is formed that unbinds the stellar envelope and later initiates the optical display upon reaching the stellar surface with a burst of UV and X-ray photons, the shock breakout (SBO). We discuss how neutrino observations can be used to trigger searches to detect the elusive SBO event. Observation of the SBO would provide several important constraints on progenitor structure and the explosion, including the shock propagation time (the duration between the neutrino burst and SBO), an observable that is important in distinguishing progenitor types. Our estimates suggest that next-generation neutrino detectors could exploit the overdensity of nearby SNe to provide several such triggers per decade, more than an order-of-magnitude improvement over the present.

  11. Tomography of massive stars from core collapse to supernova shock breakout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Haxton, W. C.; Yüksel, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Neutrinos and gravitational waves are the only direct probes of the inner dynamics of a stellar core collapse. They are also the first signals to arrive from a supernova (SN) and, if detected, establish the moment when the shock wave is formed that unbinds the stellar envelope and later initiates the optical display upon reaching the stellar surface with a burst of UV and X-ray photons, the shock breakout (SBO). We discuss how neutrino observations can be used to trigger searches to detect the elusive SBO event. Observation of the SBO would provide several important constraints on progenitor structure and the explosion, including the shock propagation time (the duration between the neutrino burst and SBO), an observable that is important in distinguishing progenitor types. Our estimates suggest that next-generation neutrino detectors could exploit the overdensity of nearby SNe to provide several such triggers per decade, more than an order-of-magnitude improvement over the present.

  12. THE QUEST FOR DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT z ≳ 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Aversa, R.; Danese, L.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and “main-sequence” star formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≳ a few 10 10 M ⊙ at redshift z ≳ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≳ 10 2 M ⊙ yr −1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≲ 3 in the far-IR band by the Herschel Space Observatory . We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼ 10, determining that the number density at z ≲ 8 for SFRs ψ ≳ 30 M ⊙ yr −1 cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from the AzTEC - LABOCA , SCUBA-2 , and ALMA - SPT surveys are already addressing it. We demonstrate how an observational strategy based on color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)millimeter band with Herschel and SCUBA-2 , supplemented by photometric data from on-source observations with ALMA , can allow us to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≲ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)millimeter observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  13. The Diversity of Diffuse Ly α Nebulae around Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Rui; Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Hong, Sungryong [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88001 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    We report the detection of diffuse Ly α emission, or Ly α halos (LAHs), around star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 3.78 and 2.66 in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. Our samples consist of a total of ∼1400 galaxies, within two separate regions containing spectroscopically confirmed galaxy overdensities. They provide a unique opportunity to investigate how the LAH characteristics vary with host galaxy large-scale environment and physical properties. We stack Ly α images of different samples defined by these properties and measure their median LAH sizes by decomposing the stacked Ly α radial profile into a compact galaxy-like and an extended halo-like component. We find that the exponential scale-length of LAHs depends on UV continuum and Ly α luminosities, but not on Ly α equivalent widths or galaxy overdensity parameters. The full samples, which are dominated by low UV-continuum luminosity Ly α emitters ( M {sub UV} ≳ −21), exhibit LAH sizes of 5–6 kpc. However, the most UV- or Ly α- luminous galaxies have more extended halos with scale-lengths of 7–9 kpc. The stacked Ly α radial profiles decline more steeply than recent theoretical predictions that include the contributions from gravitational cooling of infalling gas and from low-level star formation in satellites. However, the LAH extent matches what one would expect for photons produced in the galaxy and then resonantly scattered by gas in an outflowing envelope. The observed trends of LAH sizes with host galaxy properties suggest that the physical conditions of the circumgalactic medium (covering fraction, H i column density, and outflow velocity) change with halo mass and/or star formation rates.

  14. THE QUEST FOR DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT z ≳ 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Aversa, R.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and “main-sequence” star formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≳ a few 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} at redshift z ≳ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≳ 10{sup 2} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≲ 3 in the far-IR band by the Herschel Space Observatory . We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼ 10, determining that the number density at z ≲ 8 for SFRs ψ ≳ 30 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from the AzTEC - LABOCA , SCUBA-2 , and ALMA - SPT surveys are already addressing it. We demonstrate how an observational strategy based on color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)millimeter band with Herschel and SCUBA-2 , supplemented by photometric data from on-source observations with ALMA , can allow us to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≲ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)millimeter observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  15. Semi-Analytic Galaxies - I. Synthesis of environmental and star-forming regulation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, Sofía A.; Vega-Martínez, Cristian A.; Hough, Tomás; Ruiz, Andrés N.; Orsi, Álvaro; Muñoz Arancibia, Alejandra M.; Gargiulo, Ignacio D.; Collacchioni, Florencia; Padilla, Nelson D.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo

    2018-05-01

    We present results from the semi-analytic model of galaxy formation SAG applied on the MULTIDARK simulation MDPL2. SAG features an updated supernova (SN) feedback scheme and a robust modelling of the environmental effects on satellite galaxies. This incorporates a gradual starvation of the hot gas halo driven by the action of ram pressure stripping (RPS), that can affect the cold gas disc, and tidal stripping (TS), which can act on all baryonic components. Galaxy orbits of orphan satellites are integrated providing adequate positions and velocities for the estimation of RPS and TS. The star formation history and stellar mass assembly of galaxies are sensitive to the redshift dependence implemented in the SN feedback model. We discuss a variant of our model that allows to reconcile the predicted star formation rate density at z ≳ 3 with the observed one, at the expense of an excess in the faint end of the stellar mass function at z = 2. The fractions of passive galaxies as a function of stellar mass, halo mass and the halo-centric distances are consistent with observational measurements. The model also reproduces the evolution of the main sequence of star forming central and satellite galaxies. The similarity between them is a result of the gradual starvation of the hot gas halo suffered by satellites, in which RPS plays a dominant role. RPS of the cold gas does not affect the fraction of quenched satellites but it contributes to reach the right atomic hydrogen gas content for more massive satellites (M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙).

  16. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  17. Sol-gel processing to form doped sol-gel monoliths inside hollow core optical fiber and sol-gel core fiber devices made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry C. (Inventor); Ott, Melanie N. (Inventor); Manuel, Michele V. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A process of fabricating a fiber device includes providing a hollow core fiber, and forming a sol-gel material inside the hollow core fiber. The hollow core fiber is preferably an optical fiber, and the sol-gel material is doped with a dopant. Devices made in this manner includes a wide variety of sensors.

  18. An optical-near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoquette, M. S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Bastian, N. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, A. C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; González, D. Rosa [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, C.P. 72840, Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, C., E-mail: westmoquette@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-07-10

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ∼6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, and their sizes are R{sub eff} = 159, 104, 59 mas (∼2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s{sup –1} for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x{sub 2} orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm{sup –3}) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x{sub 2} orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ∼25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing.

  19. New aspects of the QCD phase transition in proto-neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Matthias; Heinimann, Oliver; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Friedrich-Karl, Thielemann; Yudin, Andrey; Iosilevskiy, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The QCD phase transition from hadronic to deconfined quark matter is found to be a so-called “entropic” phase transition, characterized, e.g., by a negative slope of the phase transition line in the pressure-temperature phase diagram. In a first part of the present proceedings it is discussed that entropic phase transitions lead to unusual thermal properties of the equation of state (EoS). For example one finds a loss of pressure (a “softening”) of the proto-neutron star EoS with increasing entropy. This can lead to a novel, hot third family of compact stars, which exists only in the early proto-neutron star phase. Such a hot third family can trigger explosions of core-collapse supernovae. However, so far this special explosion mechanism was found to be working only for EoSs which are not compatible with the 2 M ⊙ constraint for the neutron star maximum mass. In a second part of the proceeding it is discussed which quark matter parameters could be favorable for this explosion mechanism, and have sufficiently high maximum masses at the same time. (paper)

  20. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR-FORMING REGION N206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romita, Krista Alexandra; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Carlson, Lynn Redding; Whitney, B.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present analysis of the energetic star-forming region Henize 206 (N206) located near the southern edge of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on photometric data from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-LMC; IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 μm and MIPS 24 μm), Infrared Survey Facility near-infrared survey (J, H, K s ), and the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS UBVI) covering a wavelength range of 0.36-24 μm. Young stellar object (YSO) candidates are identified based upon their location in infrared color-magnitude space and classified by the shapes of their spectral energy distributions in comparison with a pre-computed grid of YSO models. We identify 116 YSO candidates: 102 are well characterized by the YSO models, predominately Stage I, and 14 may be multiple sources or young sources with transition disks. Careful examination of the individual sources and their surrounding environment allows us to identify a factor of ∼14.5 more YSO candidates than have already been identified. The total mass of these well-fit YSO candidates is ∼520 M sun . We calculate a current star formation rate of 0.27 x 10 -1 M sun yr -1 kpc -2 . The distribution of YSO candidates appears to follow shells of neutral material in the interstellar medium.

  1. The star-forming content of the W3 giant molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Bretherton, D. E.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Ridge, N. A.; Allsopp, J.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Richer, J. S.

    2007-08-01

    We have surveyed a ˜0.9 square degree area of the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) and star-forming region in the 850-μm continuum, using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. A complete sample of 316 dense clumps were detected with a mass range from around 13 to 2500 M⊙. Part of the W3 GMC is subject to an interaction with the H ii region and fast stellar winds generated by the nearby W4 OB association. We find that the fraction of total gas mass in dense, 850-μm traced structures is significantly altered by this interaction, being around 5-13 per cent in the undisturbed cloud but ˜25-37 per cent in the feedback-affected region. The mass distribution in the detected clump sample depends somewhat on assumptions of dust temperature and is not a simple, single power law but contains significant structure at intermediate masses. This structure is likely to be due to crowding of sources near or below the spatial resolution of the observations. There is little evidence of any difference between the index of the high-mass end of the clump mass function in the compressed region and in the unaffected cloud. The consequences of these results are discussed in terms of current models of triggered star formation.

  2. The Origins of [C ii] Emission in Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croxall, K. V. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pellegrini, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Groves, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bolatto, A.; Wolfire, M. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Herrera-Camus, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessen-bachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sandstrom, K. M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Draine, B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boquien, M. [Unidad de Astronomía, Fac. Cs. Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. U. de Antofagasta 02800, Antofagasta (Chile); Brandl, B. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dale, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Galametz, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hunt, L., E-mail: jd.smith@utoledo.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); and others

    2017-08-20

    The [C ii] 158 μ m fine-structure line is the brightest emission line observed in local star-forming galaxies. As a major coolant of the gas-phase interstellar medium, [C ii] balances the heating, including that due to far-ultraviolet photons, which heat the gas via the photoelectric effect. However, the origin of [C ii] emission remains unclear because C{sup +} can be found in multiple phases of the interstellar medium. Here we measure the fractions of [C ii] emission originating in the ionized and neutral gas phases of a sample of nearby galaxies. We use the [N ii] 205 μ m fine-structure line to trace the ionized medium, thereby eliminating the strong density dependence that exists in the ratio of [C ii]/[N ii] 122 μ m. Using the FIR [C ii] and [N ii] emission detected by the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far- Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and Beyond the Peak Herschel programs, we show that 60%–80% of [C ii] emission originates from neutral gas. We find that the fraction of [C ii] originating in the neutral medium has a weak dependence on dust temperature and the surface density of star formation, and has a stronger dependence on the gas-phase metallicity. In metal-rich environments, the relatively cooler ionized gas makes substantially larger contributions to total [C ii] emission than at low abundance, contrary to prior expectations. Approximate calibrations of this metallicity trend are provided.

  3. KMOS LENsing Survey (KLENS): Morpho-kinematic analysis of star-forming galaxies at z 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, M.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Schaerer, D.; Cirasuolo, M.; Turner, O. J.; Cava, A.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Richard, J.; Pérez-González, P. G.

    2018-06-01

    We present results from the KMOS LENsing Survey (KLENS), which is exploiting gravitational lensing to study the kinematics of 24 star-forming galaxies at 1.4 10). We derive a M⋆ - σ0 relation, using the Tully-Fisher relation, which highlights that a different evolution of the velocity dispersion is expected depending on the stellar mass, with lower velocity dispersions for lower masses, and an increase for higher masses, stronger at higher redshift. The observed velocity dispersions from this work and from comparison samples spanning 0 2), where we observe higher velocity dispersions for low masses (log(M⋆/M⊙) 9.6) and lower velocity dispersions for high masses (log(M⋆/M⊙) 10.9) than expected. This discrepancy could, for instance, suggest that galaxies at high redshift do not satisfy the stability criterion, or that the adopted parametrization of the specific star formation rate and molecular properties fail at high redshift. Based on KMOS observations made with the European Southern Observatory VLT/Antu telescope, Paranal, Chile, collected under the program ID No. 095.A-0962(A)+(B).The reduced datacubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/613/A72

  4. AN OBJECTIVE DEFINITION FOR THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renzini, Alvio [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Peng, Ying-jie, E-mail: alvio.renzini@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: y.peng@mrao.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-10

    The main sequence (MS) of star-forming (SF) galaxies plays a fundamental role in driving galaxy evolution and our efforts to understand it. However, different studies find significant differences in the normalization, slope, and shape of the MS. These discrepancies arise mainly from the different selection criteria adopted to isolate SF galaxies, which may include or exclude galaxies with a specific star formation rate (SFR) substantially below the MS value. To obviate this limitation of all current criteria, we propose an objective definition of the MS that does not rely at all on a pre-selection of SF galaxies. Constructing the 3D SFR–mass–number plot, the MS is then defined as the ridge line of the SF peak, as illustrated with various figures. The advantages of such a definition are manifold. If generally adopted, it will facilitate the inter-comparison of results from different groups using the same SFR and stellar mass diagnostics, or it will highlight the relative systematics of different diagnostics. All of this could help to understand MS galaxies as systems in a quasi-steady state equilibrium and would also provide a more objective criterion for identifying quenching galaxies.

  5. AN OBJECTIVE DEFINITION FOR THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, Alvio; Peng, Ying-jie

    2015-01-01

    The main sequence (MS) of star-forming (SF) galaxies plays a fundamental role in driving galaxy evolution and our efforts to understand it. However, different studies find significant differences in the normalization, slope, and shape of the MS. These discrepancies arise mainly from the different selection criteria adopted to isolate SF galaxies, which may include or exclude galaxies with a specific star formation rate (SFR) substantially below the MS value. To obviate this limitation of all current criteria, we propose an objective definition of the MS that does not rely at all on a pre-selection of SF galaxies. Constructing the 3D SFR–mass–number plot, the MS is then defined as the ridge line of the SF peak, as illustrated with various figures. The advantages of such a definition are manifold. If generally adopted, it will facilitate the inter-comparison of results from different groups using the same SFR and stellar mass diagnostics, or it will highlight the relative systematics of different diagnostics. All of this could help to understand MS galaxies as systems in a quasi-steady state equilibrium and would also provide a more objective criterion for identifying quenching galaxies

  6. A UKIDSS-based search for low-mass stars and small stellar clumps in off-cloud parts of young star-forming regions* **

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrado y Navascués D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The form and universality of the mass function of young and nearby star-forming regions is still under debate. Its relation to the stellar density, its mass peak and the dependency on most recent models shows significant differencies for the various regions and remains unclear up to date. We aim to get a more complete census of two of such regions. We investigate yet unexplored areas of Orion and Taurus-Auriga, observed by the UKIDSS survey. In the latter, we search for low-mass stars via photometric and proper motion criteria and signs for variability. In Orion, we search for small stellar clumps via nearest-neighbor methods. Highlights in Taurus would be the finding of the missing low-mass stars and the detection of a young cluster T dwarf. In Orion, we discovered small stellar associations of its OB1b and OB1c populations. Combined with what is known in literature, we will provide by this investigations a general picture of the results of the star-forming processes in large areas of Taurus and Orion and probe the most recent models.

  7. Polarization Properties and Magnetic Field Structures in the High-mass Star-forming Region W51 Observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Su, Yu-Nung; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2018-03-01

    We present the first ALMA dust polarization observations toward the high-mass star-forming regions W51 e2, e8, and W51 North in Band 6 (230 GHz) with a resolution of about 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 26 (∼5 mpc). Polarized emission in all three sources is clearly detected and resolved. Measured relative polarization levels are between 0.1% and 10%. While the absolute polarization shows complicated structures, the relative polarization displays the typical anticorrelation with Stokes I, although with a large scatter. Inferred magnetic (B) field morphologies are organized and connected. Detailed substructures are resolved, revealing new features such as comet-shaped B-field morphologies in satellite cores, symmetrically converging B-field zones, and possibly streamlined morphologies. The local B-field dispersion shows some anticorrelation with the relative polarization. Moreover, the lowest polarization percentages together with largest dispersions coincide with B-field convergence zones. We put forward \\sin ω , where ω is the measurable angle between a local B-field orientation and local gravity, as a measure of how effectively the B field can oppose gravity. Maps of \\sin ω for all three sources show organized structures that suggest a locally varying role of the B field, with some regions where gravity can largely act unaffectedly, possibly in a network of narrow magnetic channels, and other regions where the B field can work maximally against gravity.

  8. Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precatalyst Site Isolated in the Core of a Star Polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhriakov, Konstantin; Mugemana, Clement; Vu, Khanh B.; Rodionov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    An approach for supporting a Pd-NHC complex on a soluble star polymer with nanoscale dimensions is described. The resulting star polymer catalyst exhibits excellent activity in cross-coupling reactions, is stable in air and moisture, and is easily recoverable and recyclable. These properties are distinct and unattainable with the small-molecule version of the same catalyst. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  9. Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precatalyst Site Isolated in the Core of a Star Polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhriakov, Konstantin

    2015-10-02

    An approach for supporting a Pd-NHC complex on a soluble star polymer with nanoscale dimensions is described. The resulting star polymer catalyst exhibits excellent activity in cross-coupling reactions, is stable in air and moisture, and is easily recoverable and recyclable. These properties are distinct and unattainable with the small-molecule version of the same catalyst. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  10. TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS. II. CEP A AND NGC 7538

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscadelli, L.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Xu, Y.; Zheng, X. W.

    2009-01-01

    We report trigonometric parallaxes for the sources NGC 7538 and Cep A, corresponding to distances of 2.65 +0.12 -0.11 and 0.70 +0.04 -0.04 kpc, respectively. The distance to NGC 7538 is considerably smaller than its kinematic distance and places it in the Perseus spiral arm. The distance to Cep A is also smaller than its kinematic distance and places it in the L ocalarm or spur. Combining the distance and proper motions with observed radial velocities gives the location and full space motion of the star-forming regions. We find significant deviations from circular galactic orbits for these sources: both sources show large peculiar motions (greater than 10 km s -1 ) counter to galactic rotation and NGC 7538 has a comparable peculiar motion toward the Galactic center.

  11. The extent of chemically enriched gas around star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Supernovae driven winds are often invoked to remove chemically enriched gas from galaxies to match the low metallicities of dwarf galaxies. In such shallow potential wells, outflows may produce massive amounts of enriched halo gas (circum-galactic medium or CGM) and pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM). I will present a survey of the CGM and IGM around 18 star-forming field dwarf galaxies with stellar masses of log M*/M⊙ ≈ 8 ‑ 9 at z ≈ 0.2. Eight of these have CGM probed by quasar absorption spectra at projected distances, d, less than the host virial radius, Rh. Ten are probed at d/Rh = 1 ‑ 3 to study the surrounding IGM. The absorption measurements include neutral hydrogen (H I), the dominant silicon ions for diffuse cool gas (T ∼ 104 K; Si II, Si III, and Si IV), more highly ionized carbon (C IV), and highly ionized oxygen (O VI). The metal absorption from the CGM of the dwarf galaxies is less common and ≈ 4× weaker compared to massive star-forming galaxies though O VI absorption is still common. None of the dwarfs probed at d/Rh = 1 ‑ 3 have definitive metal-line detections. Combining the available silicon ions, we estimate that the cool CGM accounts for only 2 ‑ 6% of the expected silicon budget. CGM absorption from O VI can account for ≈ 8% of the expected oxygen budget. As O VI traces an ion with expected equilibrium ion fractions of 0.2, this highly ionized phase of the CGM may represent a significant metal reservoir even for dwarf galaxies not expected to maintain gravitationally shock heated hot halos.

  12. VERY LARGE ARRAY OH ZEEMAN OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR-FORMING REGION S88B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, A. P.; Eftimova, M. [Physics Department, DePaul University, 2219 N. Kenmore Ave., Byrne Hall 211, Chicago, IL 60614 (United States); Brogan, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Troland, T. H., E-mail: asarma@depaul.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We present observations of the Zeeman effect in OH thermal absorption main lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz taken with the Very Large Array toward the star-forming region S88B. The OH absorption profiles toward this source are complicated, and contain several blended components toward a number of positions. Almost all of the OH absorbing gas is located in the eastern parts of S88B, toward the compact continuum source S88B-2 and the eastern parts of the extended continuum source S88B-1. The ratio of 1665/1667 MHz OH line intensities indicates the gas is likely highly clumped, in agreement with other molecular emission line observations in the literature. S88-B appears to present a similar geometry to the well-known star-forming region M17, in that there is an edge-on eastward progression from ionized to molecular gas. The detected magnetic fields appear to mirror this eastward transition; we detected line-of-sight magnetic fields ranging from 90 to 400 {mu}G, with the lowest values of the field to the southwest of the S88B-1 continuum peak, and the highest values to its northeast. We used the detected fields to assess the importance of the magnetic field in S88B by a number of methods; we calculated the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressures, we calculated the critical field necessary to completely support the cloud against self-gravity and compared it to the observed field, and we calculated the ratio of mass to magnetic flux in terms of the critical value of this parameter. All these methods indicated that the magnetic field in S88B is dynamically significant, and should provide an important source of support against gravity. Moreover, the magnetic energy density is in approximate equipartition with the turbulent energy density, again pointing to the importance of the magnetic field in this region.

  13. VERY LARGE ARRAY OH ZEEMAN OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR-FORMING REGION S88B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, A. P.; Eftimova, M.; Brogan, C. L.; Bourke, T. L.; Troland, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the Zeeman effect in OH thermal absorption main lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz taken with the Very Large Array toward the star-forming region S88B. The OH absorption profiles toward this source are complicated, and contain several blended components toward a number of positions. Almost all of the OH absorbing gas is located in the eastern parts of S88B, toward the compact continuum source S88B-2 and the eastern parts of the extended continuum source S88B-1. The ratio of 1665/1667 MHz OH line intensities indicates the gas is likely highly clumped, in agreement with other molecular emission line observations in the literature. S88-B appears to present a similar geometry to the well-known star-forming region M17, in that there is an edge-on eastward progression from ionized to molecular gas. The detected magnetic fields appear to mirror this eastward transition; we detected line-of-sight magnetic fields ranging from 90 to 400 μG, with the lowest values of the field to the southwest of the S88B-1 continuum peak, and the highest values to its northeast. We used the detected fields to assess the importance of the magnetic field in S88B by a number of methods; we calculated the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressures, we calculated the critical field necessary to completely support the cloud against self-gravity and compared it to the observed field, and we calculated the ratio of mass to magnetic flux in terms of the critical value of this parameter. All these methods indicated that the magnetic field in S88B is dynamically significant, and should provide an important source of support against gravity. Moreover, the magnetic energy density is in approximate equipartition with the turbulent energy density, again pointing to the importance of the magnetic field in this region.

  14. Effects of core polarization and meson exchange currents on electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, Akito [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, Hidetsugu; Muraoka, Mitsuo [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic form factors observed by electron scattering provide good evidence for core polarization and meson exchange currents. Their effects are discussed by taking /sup 17/O, /sup 51/V, /sup 207/Pb /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi and /sup 12/C.

  15. GeV Observations of star-forming glaxies with the FERMI Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /DESY, Zeuthen; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /AIM, Saclay; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Caliandro, G.A.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Cameron, R.A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Caraveo, P.A.; /Brera Observ. /AIM, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /George Mason U. /Artep Inc. /Natl. Res. Coun., Wash., D.C. /Artep Inc. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Buenos Aires, IAFE /NASA, Goddard /Perugia U. /ASDC, Frascati /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Swedish Acad. Sci. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /AIM, Saclay /Alabama U., Huntsville /INFN, Padua /CSIC, Catalunya /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Kyoto U. /NASA, Goddard /Ohio State U., CCAPP /Iceland U.; /more authors..

    2012-08-07

    Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3 years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values lesssim 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = –4.3 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M ⊙ yr–1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10–6 ph cm–2 s–1 sr–1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that ~10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.

  16. HerMES: COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES AND THE CLUSTERING OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viero, M. P.; Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wang, L. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Addison, G. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Amblard, A. [NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Arumugam, V. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille - LAM, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Casey, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Conversi, L. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); De Zotti, G. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Farrah, D., E-mail: marco.viero@caltech.edu [Astronomy Centre, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-20

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations totaling {approx}70 deg{sup 2} made with the SPIRE instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. We measure a fractional anisotropy {delta}I/I = 14% {+-} 4%, detecting signatures arising from the clustering of dusty star-forming galaxies in both the linear (2-halo) and nonlinear (1-halo) regimes; and that the transition from the 2- to 1-halo terms, below which power originates predominantly from multiple galaxies within dark matter halos, occurs at k{sub {theta}} {approx} 0.10-0.12 arcmin{sup -1} (l {approx} 2160-2380), from 250 to 500 {mu}m. New to this paper is clear evidence of a dependence of the Poisson and 1-halo power on the flux-cut level of masked sources-suggesting that some fraction of the more luminous sources occupy more massive halos as satellites, or are possibly close pairs. We measure the cross-correlation power spectra between bands, finding that bands which are farthest apart are the least correlated, as well as hints of a reduction in the correlation between bands when resolved sources are more aggressively masked. In the second part of the paper, we attempt to interpret the measurements in the framework of the halo model. With the aim of fitting simultaneously with one model the power spectra, number counts, and absolute CIB level in all bands, we find that this is achievable by invoking a luminosity-mass relationship, such that the luminosity-to-mass ratio peaks at a particular halo mass scale and declines toward lower and higher mass halos. Our best-fit model finds that the halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation in the redshift range of peak star-forming activity, z {approx} 1-3, is log(M{sub peak}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 12.1 {+-} 0.5, and that the minimum halo mass to host infrared galaxies is log(M{sub min}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10

  17. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  18. The Tarantula Nebula as a template for extragalactic star forming regions from VLT/MUSE and HST/STIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul A.; Caballero-Nieves, Saida M.; Castro, Norberto; Evans, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    We present VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 2070, the dominant ionizing nebula of 30 Doradus in the LMC, plus HST/STIS spectroscopy of its central star cluster R136. Integral Field Spectroscopy (MUSE) and pseudo IFS (STIS) together provides a complete census of all massive stars within the central 30×30 parsec2 of the Tarantula. We discuss the integrated far-UV spectrum of R136, of particular interest for UV studies of young extragalactic star clusters. Strong He iiλ1640 emission at very early ages (1-2 Myr) from very massive stars cannot be reproduced by current population synthesis models, even those incorporating binary evolution and very massive stars. A nebular analysis of the integrated MUSE dataset implies an age of ~4.5 Myr for NGC 2070. Wolf-Rayet features provide alternative age diagnostics, with the primary contribution to the integrated Wolf-Rayet bumps arising from R140 rather than the more numerous H-rich WN stars in R136. Caution should be used when interpreting spatially extended observations of extragalactic star-forming regions.

  19. Abundances and Excitation of H2, H3+ & CO in Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Craig A.

    Although most of the 123 reported interstellar molecules to date have been detected through millimeter-wave emission-line spectroscopy, this technique is inapplicable to non-polar molecules like H2 and H3+, which are central to our understanding of interstellar chemistry. Thus high resolution infrared absorption-line spectroscopy bears an important role in interstellar studies: chemically important non-polar molecules can be observed, and their abundances and excitation conditions can be referred to the same ``pencil beam'' absorbing column. In particular, through a weak quadrupole absorption line spectrum at near-infrared wavelengths, the abundance of cold H2 in dark molecular clouds and star forming regions can now be accurately measured and compared along the same ``pencil beam'' line of sight with the abundance of its most commonly cited surrogate, CO, and its rare isotopomers. Also detected via infrared line absorption is the pivotal molecular ion H3+, whose abundance provides the most direct measurement of the cosmic ray ionization rate in dark molecular clouds, a process that initiates the formation of many other observed molecules there. Our growing sample of H2 and CO detections now includes detailed multi-beam studies of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud and NGC 2024 in Orion. We explore the excitation and degree of ortho- and para-H2 thermalization in dark clouds, variation of the CO abundance over a cloud, and the relation of H2 column density to infrared extinction mapping, far-infrared/submillimeter dust continuum emission, and large scale submillimeter CO, [C I] and HCO+ line emission -- all commonly invoked to indirectly trace H2 during the past 30+ years. For each of the distinct velocity components seen toward some embedded young stellar objects, we are also able to determine the temperature, density, and a CO/H2 abundance ratio, thus unraveling some of the internal structure of a star-forming cloud. H2 and H3+ continue to surprise and delight us

  20. Introduction to neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattimer, James M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  1. Glitches as probes of neutron star internal structure and dynamics: Effects of the superfluid-superconducting core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gügercinoğlu, Erbil

    2017-12-01

    Glitches, sudden spin-up of pulsars with subsequent recovery, provide us with a unique opportunity to investigate various physical processes, including the crust-core coupling, distribution of reservoir angular momentum within different internal layers, spin-up in neutral and charged superfluids and constraining the equation of state of the neutron star (NS) matter. In this work, depending on the dynamic interaction between the vortex lines and the nuclei in the inner crust, and between the vortex lines and the magnetic flux tubes in the outer core, various types of relaxation behavior are obtained and confronted with the observations. It is shown that the glitches have strong potential to deduce information about the cooling behavior and interior magnetic field configuration of NSs. Some implications of the relative importance of the external spin-down torques and the superfluid internal torques for recently observed unusual glitches are also discussed.

  2. Gamma ray heating rates due to chromium isotopes in stellar core during late stages of high mass stars (>10M⊙

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Jameel-Un

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray heating rates are thought to play a crucial role during the pre-supernova stage of high mass stars. Gamma ray heating rates, due to β±-decay and electron (positron capture on chromium isotopes, are calculated using proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation theory. The electron capture significantly affects the lepton fraction (Ye and accelerates the core contraction. The gamma rays emitted as a result of weak processes heat the core and tend to hinder the cooling and contraction due to electron capture and neutrino emission. The emitted gamma rays tend to produce enormous entropy and set the convection to play its role at this stage. The gamma heating rates, on 50-60Cr, are calculated for the density range 10 < ρ (g.cm-3 < 1011 and temperature range 107 < T (K < 3.0×1010.

  3. MILKY WAY STAR-FORMING COMPLEXES AND THE TURBULENT MOTION OF THE GALAXY'S MOLECULAR GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Rahman, Mubdi; Murray, Norman

    2012-01-01

    We analyze Spitzer GLIMPSE, Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) images of the Milky Way to identify 8 μm and free-free sources in the Galaxy. Seventy-two of the 88 WMAP sources have coverage in the GLIMPSE and MSX surveys suitable for identifying massive star-forming complexes (SFCs). We measure the ionizing luminosity functions of the SFCs and study their role in the turbulent motion of the Galaxy's molecular gas. We find a total Galactic free-free flux f ν = 46,177.6 Jy; the 72 WMAP sources with full 8 μm coverage account for 34,263.5 Jy (∼75%), with both measurements made at ν = 94 GHz (W band). We find a total of 280 SFCs, of which 168 have unique kinematic distances and free-free luminosities. We use a simple model for the radial distribution of star formation to estimate the free-free and ionizing luminosity for the sources lacking distance determinations. The total dust-corrected ionizing luminosity is Q = (2.9 ± 0.5) × 10 53 photons s –1 , which implies a Galactic star formation rate of M-dot * = 1.2±0.2 M ☉ yr -1 . We present the (ionizing) luminosity function of the SFCs and show that 24 sources emit half the ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy. The SFCs appear as bubbles in GLIMPSE or MSX images; the radial velocities associated with the bubble walls allow us to infer the expansion velocity of the bubbles. We calculate the kinetic luminosity of the bubble expansion and compare it to the turbulent luminosity of the inner molecular disk. SFCs emitting 80% of the total Galactic free-free luminosity produce a kinetic luminosity equal to 65% of the turbulent luminosity in the inner molecular disk. This suggests that the expansion of the bubbles is a major driver of the turbulent motion of the inner Milky Way molecular gas.

  4. THE LANDSCAPE OF THE NEUTRINO MECHANISM OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: NEUTRON STAR AND BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS, EXPLOSION ENERGIES, AND NICKEL YIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Thompson, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    If the neutrino luminosity from the proto-neutron star formed during a massive star core collapse exceeds a critical threshold, a supernova (SN) results. Using spherical quasi-static evolutionary sequences for hundreds of progenitors over a range of metallicities, we study how the explosion threshold maps onto observables, including the fraction of successful explosions, the neutron star (NS) and black hole (BH) mass functions, the explosion energies (E SN ) and nickel yields (M Ni ), and their mutual correlations. Successful explosions are intertwined with failures in a complex pattern that is not simply related to initial progenitor mass or compactness. We predict that progenitors with initial masses of 15 ± 1, 19 ± 1, and ∼21-26 M ☉ are most likely to form BHs, that the BH formation probability is non-zero at solar-metallicity and increases significantly at low metallicity, and that low luminosity, low Ni-yield SNe come from progenitors close to success/failure interfaces. We qualitatively reproduce the observed E SN -M Ni correlation, we predict a correlation between the mean and width of the NS mass and E SN distributions, and that the means of the NS and BH mass distributions are correlated. We show that the observed mean NS mass of ≅ 1.33 M ☉ implies that the successful explosion fraction is higher than 0.35. Overall, we show that the neutrino mechanism can in principle explain the observed properties of SNe and their compact objects. We argue that the rugged landscape of progenitors and outcomes mandates that SN theory should focus on reproducing the wide ranging distributions of observed SN properties

  5. METAL DEFICIENCY IN CLUSTER STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT Z = 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, F.; Daddi, E.; Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Bournaud, F.; Juneau, S.; Zanella, A. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N., E-mail: francesco.valentino@cea.fr [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the environmental effect on the metal enrichment of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the farthest spectroscopically confirmed and X-ray-detected cluster, CL J1449+0856 at z = 1.99. We combined Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 G141 slitless spectroscopic data, our thirteen-band photometry, and a recent Subaru/Multi-object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up to constrain the physical properties of SFGs in CL J1449+0856 and in a mass-matched field sample. After a conservative removal of active galactic nuclei, stacking individual MOIRCS spectra of 6 (31) sources in the cluster (field) in the mass range 10 ≤ log(M/M{sub ⊙}) ≤ 11, we find a ∼4σ lower [N ii]/Hα ratio in the cluster than in the field. Stacking a subsample of 16 field galaxies with Hβ and [O iii] in the observed range, we measure an [O iii]/Hβ ratio fully compatible with the cluster value. Converting these ratios into metallicities, we find that the cluster SFGs are up to 0.25 dex poorer in metals than their field counterparts, depending on the adopted calibration. The low metallicity in cluster sources is confirmed using alternative indicators. Furthermore, we observe a significantly higher Hα luminosity and equivalent width in the average cluster spectrum than in the field. This is likely due to the enhanced specific star formation rate; even if lower dust reddening and/or an uncertain environmental dependence on the continuum-to-nebular emission differential reddening may play a role. Our findings might be explained by the accretion of pristine gas around galaxies at z = 2 and from cluster-scale reservoirs, possibly connected with a phase of rapid halo mass assembly at z > 2 and of a high galaxy merging rate.

  6. COMPLEX GAS KINEMATICS IN COMPACT, RAPIDLY ASSEMBLING STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorin, R.; Vilchez, J. M.; Perez-Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Haegele, G. F.; Firpo, V. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad de la Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Papaderos, P., E-mail: amorin@iaa.es [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-08-01

    Deep, high-resolution spectroscopic observations have been obtained for six compact, strongly star-forming galaxies at redshift z {approx} 0.1-0.3, most of them also known as green peas. Remarkably, these galaxies show complex emission-line profiles in the spectral region including H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6584, and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6717, 6731, consisting of the superposition of different kinematical components on a spatial extent of few kiloparsecs: a very broad line emission underlying more than one narrower component. For at least two of the observed galaxies some of these multiple components are resolved spatially in their two-dimensional spectra, whereas for another one a faint detached H{alpha} blob lacking stellar continuum is detected at the same recessional velocity {approx}7 kpc away from the galaxy. The individual narrower H{alpha} components show high intrinsic velocity dispersion ({sigma} {approx} 30-80 km s{sup -1}), suggesting together with unsharped masking Hubble Space Telescope images that star formation proceeds in an ensemble of several compact and turbulent clumps, with relative velocities of up to {approx}500 km s{sup -1}. The broad underlying H{alpha} components indicate in all cases large expansion velocities (full width zero intensity {>=}1000 km s{sup -1}) and very high luminosities (up to {approx}10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}), probably showing the imprint of energetic outflows from supernovae. These intriguing results underline the importance of green peas for studying the assembly of low-mass galaxies near and far.

  7. Environmental impacts on dust temperature of star-forming galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Yusei; Nakagawa, Takao; Takita, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    We present infrared views of the environmental effects on the dust properties in star-forming (SF) galaxies at z ˜ 0, using the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor all-sky map and the large spectroscopic galaxy sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). We restrict the sample to those within the redshift range of 0.05 4 Å) and emission line flux ratios. We perform far-infrared (FIR) stacking analyses by splitting the SDSS SF galaxy sample according to their stellar mass, specific star formation rate (SSFRSDSS), and environment. We derive total infrared luminosity (LIR) for each subsample using the average flux densities at WIDE-S (90 μm) and WIDE-L (140 μm) bands, and then compute infrared (IR)-based SFR (SFRIR) from LIR. We find a mild decrease of IR-based SSFR (SSFRIR) amongst SF galaxies with increasing local density (˜0.1-dex level at maximum), which suggests that environmental effects do not instantly shut down the SF activity in galaxies. We also derive average dust temperature (Tdust) using the flux densities at 90 and 140 μm bands. We confirm a strong positive correlation between Tdust and SSFRIR, consistent with recent studies. The most important finding of this study is that we find a marginal trend that Tdust increases with increasing environmental galaxy density. Although the environmental trend is much milder than the SSFR-Tdust correlation, our results suggest that the environmental density may affect the dust temperature in SF galaxies, and that the physical mechanism which is responsible for this phenomenon is not necessarily specific to cluster environments because the environmental dependence of Tdust holds down to relatively low-density environments.

  8. EXTINCTION IN STAR-FORMING DISK GALAXIES FROM INCLINATION-DEPENDENT COMPOSITE SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alex S.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Budavari, Tamas; Dobos, Laszlo; Csabai, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    Extinction in galaxies affects their observed properties. In scenarios describing the distribution of dust and stars in individual disk galaxies, the amplitude of the extinction can be modulated by the inclination of the galaxies. In this work, we investigate the inclination dependency in composite spectra of star-forming disk galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. In a volume-limited sample within a redshift range 0.065-0.075 and a r-band Petrosian absolute magnitude range -19.5 to -22 mag which exhibits a flat distribution of inclination, the inclined relative to face-on extinction in the stellar continuum is found empirically to increase with inclination in the g, r, and i bands. Within the central 0.5 intrinsic half-light radius of the galaxies, the g-band relative extinction in the stellar continuum for the highly inclined objects (axis ratio b/a = 0.1) is 1.2 mag, agreeing with previous studies. The extinction curve of the disk galaxies is given in the rest-frame wavelengths 3700-8000 A, identified with major optical emission and absorption lines in diagnostics. The Balmer decrement, Hα/Hβ, remains constant with inclination, suggesting a different kind of dust configuration and/or reddening mechanism in the H II region from that in the stellar continuum. One factor is shown to be the presence of spatially non-uniform interstellar extinction, presumably caused by clumped dust in the vicinity of the H II region.

  9. The Properties of the Massive Star-forming Galaxies with an Outside-in Assembly Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enci; Kong, Xu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lixin; Lin, Lin; Gao, Yulong; Liu, Qing

    2017-08-01

    Previous findings show that massive ({M}* > {10}10 {M}⊙ ) star-forming (SF) galaxies usually have an “inside-out” stellar mass assembly mode. In this paper, we have for the first time selected a sample of 77 massive SF galaxies with an “outside-in” assembly mode (called the “targeted sample”) from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. For comparison, two control samples are constructed from the MaNGA sample matched in stellar mass: a sample of 154 normal SF galaxies and a sample of 62 quiescent galaxies. In contrast to normal SF galaxies, the targeted galaxies appear to be smoother and more bulge-dominated and have a smaller size and higher concentration, star formation rate, and gas-phase metallicity as a whole. However, they have a larger size and lower concentration than quiescent galaxies. Unlike the normal SF sample, the targeted sample exhibits a slightly positive gradient of the 4000 Å break and a pronounced negative gradient of Hα equivalent width. Furthermore, the median surface mass density profile is between those of the normal SF and quiescent samples, indicating that the gas accretion of quiescent galaxies is not likely to be the main approach for the outside-in assembly mode. Our results suggest that the targeted galaxies are likely in the transitional phase from normal SF galaxies to quiescent galaxies, with rapid ongoing central stellar mass assembly (or bulge growth). We discuss several possible formation mechanisms for the outside-in mass assembly mode.

  10. Kennicutt-Schmidt Relation Variety and Star-forming Cloud Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morokuma-Matsui, Kana [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Muraoka, Kazuyuki, E-mail: kana.matsui@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    The observationally derived Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation slopes differ from study to study, ranging from sublinear to superlinear. We investigate the KS-relation variety (slope and normalization) as a function of integrated intensity ratio, R {sub 31} = CO( J = 3–2)/CO( J = 1–0) using spatially resolved CO( J = 1–0), CO( J = 3–2), H i, H α, and 24 μ m data of three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 3627, NGC 5055, and M83). We find that (1) the slopes for each subsample with a fixed R {sub 31} are shallower, but the slope for all data sets combined becomes steeper, (2) normalizations for high R {sub 31} subsamples tend to be high, (3) R {sub 31} correlates with star formation efficiency, therefore the KS relation depends on the distribution in R {sub 31}–Σ{sub gas} space of the samples: no Σ{sub gas} dependence of R {sub 31} results in a linear slope of the KS relation, whereas a positive correlation between Σ{sub gas} and R {sub 31} results in a superlinear slope of the KS relation, and (4) R {sub 31}–Σ{sub gas} distributions are different from galaxy to galaxy and within a galaxy: galaxies with prominent galactic structure tend to have large R {sub 31} and Σ{sub gas}. Our results suggest that the formation efficiency of a star-forming cloud from molecular gas is different among galaxies as well as within a galaxy, and it is one of the key factors inducing the variety in galactic KS relation.

  11. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  12. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Qin Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10 3 cm –3 and kinematic temperature ∼20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  13. Trigonometric parallaxes of high mass star forming regions: the structure and kinematics of the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Sato, M.; Choi, Y. K.; Immer, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zheng, X. W. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hachisuka, K. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Rd., Shanghai (China); Moscadelli, L. [Arcetri Observatory, Firenze (Italy); Rygl, K. L. J. [European Space Agency (ESA-ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Bartkiewicz, A. [Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2014-03-10

    Over 100 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for masers associated with young, high-mass stars have been measured with the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey, a Very Long Baseline Array key science project, the European VLBI Network, and the Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry project. These measurements provide strong evidence for the existence of spiral arms in the Milky Way, accurately locating many arm segments and yielding spiral pitch angles ranging from about 7° to 20°. The widths of spiral arms increase with distance from the Galactic center. Fitting axially symmetric models of the Milky Way with the three-dimensional position and velocity information and conservative priors for the solar and average source peculiar motions, we estimate the distance to the Galactic center, R {sub 0}, to be 8.34 ± 0.16 kpc, a circular rotation speed at the Sun, Θ{sub 0}, to be 240 ± 8 km s{sup –1}, and a rotation curve that is nearly flat (i.e., a slope of –0.2 ± 0.4 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}) between Galactocentric radii of ≈5 and 16 kpc. Assuming a 'universal' spiral galaxy form for the rotation curve, we estimate the thin disk scale length to be 2.44 ± 0.16 kpc. With this large data set, the parameters R {sub 0} and Θ{sub 0} are no longer highly correlated and are relatively insensitive to different forms of the rotation curve. If one adopts a theoretically motivated prior that high-mass star forming regions are in nearly circular Galactic orbits, we estimate a global solar motion component in the direction of Galactic rotation, V {sub ☉} = 14.6 ± 5.0 km s{sup –1}. While Θ{sub 0} and V {sub ☉} are significantly correlated, the sum of these parameters is well constrained, Θ{sub 0} + V {sub ☉} = 255.2 ± 5.1 km s{sup –1}, as is the angular speed of the Sun in its orbit about the Galactic center, (Θ{sub 0} + V {sub ☉})/R {sub 0} = 30.57 ± 0.43 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}. These parameters improve the accuracy

  14. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  15. The impact of galactic disc environment on star-forming clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngan K.; Pettitt, Alex R.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Okamoto, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    We explore the effect of different galactic disc environments on the properties of star-forming clouds through variations in the background potential in a set of isolated galaxy simulations. Rising, falling, and flat rotation curves expected in halo-dominated, disc-dominated, and Milky Way-like galaxies were considered, with and without an additional two-arm spiral potential. The evolution of each disc displayed notable variations that are attributed to different regimes of stability, determined by shear and gravitational collapse. The properties of a typical cloud were largely unaffected by the changes in rotation curve, but the production of small and large cloud associations was strongly dependent on this environment. This suggests that while differing rotation curves can influence where clouds are initially formed, the average bulk properties are effectively independent of the global environment. The addition of a spiral perturbation made the greatest difference to cloud properties, successfully sweeping the gas into larger, seemingly unbound, extended structures and creating large arm-interarm contrasts.

  16. Hybrid gas separation membranes containing star-shaped polystyrene with the fullerene (C60) core

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulyalina, A. Y.; Rostovtseva, V. A.; Pientka, Zbyněk; Vinogradova, L. V.; Polotskaya, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2018), s. 296-303 ISSN 0965-5441 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gas separation * hybrid membranes * star-shaped macromolecules Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2016

  17. Synthesis and Linear Viscoelasticity of Polystyrene Stars with a Polyketone Core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, L. M.; Lentzakis, H.; Collias, D.; Snijkers, F.; Lee, S.; Chang, T.; Sakellariou, G.; Wever, D. A. Z.; Toncelli, C.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.; Gotsis, A. D.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a novel synthetic route to synthesize relatively large quantities of polystyrene (PS) star polymers with targeted arm functionality and molar mass and their theological properties in the molten state. The synthetic route involves grafting styrene monomers onto a modified (aliphatic,

  18. STELLAR AGES AND CONVECTIVE CORES IN FIELD MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: FIRST ASTEROSEISMIC APPLICATION TO TWO KEPLER TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Chaplin, W. J. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Basu, S.; Deheuvels, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Brandao, I. M.; Cunha, M. S.; Sousa, S. G. [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Dogan, G. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Metcalfe, T. S. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Serenelli, A. M.; Garcia, R. A. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Ballot, J. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, CNRS, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Weiss, A. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris Sud-CNRS (UMR8617) Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Casagrande, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Cassisi, S. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Teramo, Via M. Maggini sn, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Creevey, O. L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, I-06300 Nice, France. (France); Lebreton, Y. [Observatoire de Paris, GEPI, CNRS UMR 8111, F-92195 Meudon (France); Noels, A. [Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); and others

    2013-06-01

    Using asteroseismic data and stellar evolution models we obtain the first detection of a convective core in a Kepler field main-sequence star, putting a stringent constraint on the total size of the mixed zone and showing that extra mixing beyond the formal convective boundary exists. In a slightly less massive target the presence of a convective core cannot be conclusively discarded, and thus its remaining main-sequence lifetime is uncertain. Our results reveal that best-fit models found solely by matching individual frequencies of oscillations corrected for surface effects do not always properly reproduce frequency combinations. Moreover, slightly different criteria to define what the best-fit model is can lead to solutions with similar global properties but very different interior structures. We argue that the use of frequency ratios is a more reliable way to obtain accurate stellar parameters, and show that our analysis in field main-sequence stars can yield an overall precision of 1.5%, 4%, and 10% in radius, mass, and age, respectively. We compare our results with those obtained from global oscillation properties, and discuss the possible sources of uncertainties in asteroseismic stellar modeling where further studies are still needed.

  19. White polymer light-emitting diodes based on star-shaped polymers with an orange dendritic phosphorescent core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minrong; Li, Yanhu; Cao, Xiaosong; Jiang, Bei; Wu, Hongbin; Qin, Jingui; Cao, Yong; Yang, Chuluo

    2014-12-01

    A series of new star-shaped polymers with a triphenylamine-based iridium(III) dendritic complex as the orange-emitting core and poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PFH) chains as the blue-emitting arms is developed towards white polymer light-emitting diodes (WPLEDs). By fine-tuning the content of the orange phosphor, partial energy transfer and charge trapping from the blue backbone to the orange core is realized to achieve white light emission. Single-layer WPLEDs with the configuration of ITO (indium-tin oxide)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/polymer/CsF/Al exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 1.69 cd A(-1) and CIE coordinates of (0.35, 0.33), which is very close to the pure white-light point of (0.33, 0.33). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on star-shaped white-emitting single polymers that simultaneously consist of fluorescent and phosphorescent species. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Reconciling mass functions with the star-forming main sequence via mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Yurk, Dominic; Capak, Peter

    2017-06-01

    We combine star formation along the 'main sequence', quiescence and clustering and merging to produce an empirical model for the evolution of individual galaxies. Main-sequence star formation alone would significantly steepen the stellar mass function towards low redshift, in sharp conflict with observation. However, a combination of star formation and merging produces a consistent result for correct choice of the merger rate function. As a result, we are motivated to propose a model in which hierarchical merging is disconnected from environmentally independent star formation. This model can be tested via correlation functions and would produce new constraints on clustering and merging.

  1. Occurrence and core-envelope structure of 1-4× Earth-size planets around Sun-like stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W; Weiss, Lauren M; Petigura, Erik A; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W; Buchhave, Lars A

    2014-09-02

    Small planets, 1-4× the size of Earth, are extremely common around Sun-like stars, and surprisingly so, as they are missing in our solar system. Recent detections have yielded enough information about this class of exoplanets to begin characterizing their occurrence rates, orbits, masses, densities, and internal structures. The Kepler mission finds the smallest planets to be most common, as 26% of Sun-like stars have small, 1-2 R⊕ planets with orbital periods under 100 d, and 11% have 1-2 R⊕ planets that receive 1-4× the incident stellar flux that warms our Earth. These Earth-size planets are sprinkled uniformly with orbital distance (logarithmically) out to 0.4 the Earth-Sun distance, and probably beyond. Mass measurements for 33 transiting planets of 1-4 R⊕ show that the smallest of them, R planets. Their densities increase with increasing radius, likely caused by gravitational compression. Including solar system planets yields a relation: ρ = 2:32 + 3:19 R=R ⊕ [g cm(-3)]. Larger planets, in the radius range 1.5-4.0 R⊕, have densities that decline with increasing radius, revealing increasing amounts of low-density material (H and He or ices) in an envelope surrounding a rocky core, befitting the appellation ''mini-Neptunes.'' The gas giant planets occur preferentially around stars that are rich in heavy elements, while rocky planets occur around stars having a range of heavy element abundances. Defining habitable zones remains difficult, without benefit of either detections of life elsewhere or an understanding of life's biochemical origins.

  2. Occurrence and core-envelope structure of 1–4× Earth-size planets around Sun-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Weiss, Lauren M.; Petigura, Erik A.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Buchhave, Lars A.

    2014-01-01

    Small planets, 1–4× the size of Earth, are extremely common around Sun-like stars, and surprisingly so, as they are missing in our solar system. Recent detections have yielded enough information about this class of exoplanets to begin characterizing their occurrence rates, orbits, masses, densities, and internal structures. The Kepler mission finds the smallest planets to be most common, as 26% of Sun-like stars have small, 1–2 R⊕ planets with orbital periods under 100 d, and 11% have 1–2 R⊕ planets that receive 1–4× the incident stellar flux that warms our Earth. These Earth-size planets are sprinkled uniformly with orbital distance (logarithmically) out to 0.4 the Earth–Sun distance, and probably beyond. Mass measurements for 33 transiting planets of 1–4 R⊕ show that the smallest of them, R planets. Their densities increase with increasing radius, likely caused by gravitational compression. Including solar system planets yields a relation: ρ=2.32+3.19R/R⊕ [g cm−3]. Larger planets, in the radius range 1.5–4.0 R⊕, have densities that decline with increasing radius, revealing increasing amounts of low-density material (H and He or ices) in an envelope surrounding a rocky core, befitting the appellation ‘‘mini-Neptunes.’’ The gas giant planets occur preferentially around stars that are rich in heavy elements, while rocky planets occur around stars having a range of heavy element abundances. Defining habitable zones remains difficult, without benefit of either detections of life elsewhere or an understanding of life’s biochemical origins. PMID:24912169

  3. STRUCTURES OF LOCAL GALAXIES COMPARED TO HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, Sara M.; De Mello, DuIlia F.; Gallagher, John S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Matt Mountain, C.; Smith, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    The rest-frame far-ultraviolet morphologies of eight nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 8, NGC 520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, and NGC 7673) are compared with 54 galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 and 46 galaxies at z ∼ 4 observed in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The nearby sample is artificially redshifted to z ∼ 1.5 and 4 by applying luminosity and size scaling. We compare the simulated galaxy morphologies to real z ∼ 1.5 and 4 UV-bright galaxy morphologies. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M 20 ), and the Sersic index (n). We explore the use of nonparametric methods with two-dimensional profile fitting and find the combination of M 20 with n an efficient method to classify galaxies as having merger, exponential disk, or bulge-like morphologies. When classified according to G and M 20 20/30% of real/simulated galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 and 37/12% at z ∼ 4 have bulge-like morphologies. The rest have merger-like or intermediate distributions. Alternatively, when classified according to the Sersic index, 70% of the z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 4 real galaxies are exponential disks or bulge-like with n>0.8, and ∼ 30% of the real galaxies are classified as mergers. The artificially redshifted galaxies have n values with ∼ 35% bulge or exponential at z ∼ 1.5 and 4. Therefore, ∼ 20%-30% of Lyman-break galaxies have structures similar to local starburst mergers, and may be driven by similar processes. We assume merger-like or clumpy star-forming galaxies in the GOODS field have morphological structure with values n 20 > - 1.7. We conclude that Mrk 8, NGC 3079, and NGC 7673 have structures similar to those of merger-like and clumpy star-forming galaxies observed at z ∼ 1.5 and 4.

  4. THE 'TRUE' COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN STAR-FORMING MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Schnee, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    We use the COMPLETE Survey's observations of the Perseus star-forming region to assess and intercompare the three methods used for measuring column density in molecular clouds: near-infrared (NIR) extinction mapping; thermal emission mapping in the far-IR; and mapping the intensity of CO isotopologues. Overall, the structures shown by all three tracers are morphologically similar, but important differences exist among the tracers. We find that the dust-based measures (NIR extinction and thermal emission) give similar, log-normal, distributions for the full (∼20 pc scale) Perseus region, once careful calibration corrections are made. We also compare dust- and gas-based column density distributions for physically meaningful subregions of Perseus, and we find significant variations in the distributions for those (smaller, ∼few pc scale) regions. Even though we have used 12 CO data to estimate excitation temperatures, and we have corrected for opacity, the 13 CO maps seem unable to give column distributions that consistently resemble those from dust measures. We have edited out the effects of the shell around the B-star HD 278942 from the column density distribution comparisons. In that shell's interior and in the parts where it overlaps the molecular cloud, there appears to be a dearth of 13 CO, which is likely due either to 13 CO not yet having had time to form in this young structure and/or destruction of 13 CO in the molecular cloud by the HD 278942's wind and/or radiation. We conclude that the use of either dust or gas measures of column density without extreme attention to calibration (e.g., of thermal emission zero-levels) and artifacts (e.g., the shell) is more perilous than even experts might normally admit. And, the use of 13 CO data to trace total column density in detail, even after proper calibration, is unavoidably limited in utility due to threshold, depletion, and opacity effects. If one's main aim is to map column density (rather than temperature

  5. Dusty Cloud Acceleration by Radiation Pressure in Rapidly Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Davis, Shane W.; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.

    2018-02-01

    We perform two-dimensional and three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study cold clouds accelerated by radiation pressure on dust in the environment of rapidly star-forming galaxies dominated by infrared flux. We utilize the reduced speed of light approximation to solve the frequency-averaged, time-dependent radiative transfer equation. We find that radiation pressure is capable of accelerating the clouds to hundreds of kilometers per second while remaining dense and cold, consistent with observations. We compare these results to simulations where acceleration is provided by entrainment in a hot wind, where the momentum injection of the hot flow is comparable to the momentum in the radiation field. We find that the survival time of the cloud accelerated by the radiation field is significantly longer than that of a cloud entrained in a hot outflow. We show that the dynamics of the irradiated cloud depends on the initial optical depth, temperature of the cloud, and intensity of the flux. Additionally, gas pressure from the background may limit cloud acceleration if the density ratio between the cloud and background is ≲ {10}2. In general, a 10 pc-scale optically thin cloud forms a pancake structure elongated perpendicular to the direction of motion, while optically thick clouds form a filamentary structure elongated parallel to the direction of motion. The details of accelerated cloud morphology and geometry can also be affected by other factors, such as the cloud lengthscale, reduced speed of light approximation, spatial resolution, initial cloud structure, and dimensionality of the run, but these have relatively little affect on the cloud velocity or survival time.

  6. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be eectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate...... in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates....

  7. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VI. THE ANCIENT STAR-FORMING DISK OF NGC 404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Stilp, Adrienne; Dolphin, Andrew; Seth, Anil C.; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations across the disk of the nearby isolated dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. The locations of our fields contain a roughly equal mixture of bulge and disk stars. All of our resolved stellar photometry reaches m F814W = 26 (M F814W = -1.4), which covers 2.5 mag of the red giant branch and main-sequence stars with ages F814W = 27.2 (M F814W = -0.2), sufficient to resolve the red clump and main-sequence stars with ages 10 Gyr) population. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagram suggests that ∼70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z ∼ 2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least ∼90% formed prior to z ∼ 1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on average significantly older than those of other nearby disk galaxies, suggesting that early- and late-type disks may have different long-term evolutionary histories, not simply differences in their recent star formation rates. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of the young stellar mass and FUV emission in Galaxy Evolution Explorer images show that the brightest FUV regions contain the youngest stars, but that some young stars (<160 Myr) lie outside of these regions. FUV luminosity appears to be strongly affected by both age and stellar mass within individual regions. Finally, we use our measurements to infer the relationship between the star formation rate and the gas density of the disk at previous epochs. We find that most of the history of the NGC 404 disk is consistent with star formation that has decreased with the gas density according to the Schmidt law. However, ∼ 0.5-1 Gyr ago, the star formation rate was unusually low for the inferred gas density, consistent with the possibility that there was a gas accretion event that reignited star formation ∼0.5 Gyr ago. Such an event could explain why this S0 galaxy hosts an extended gas disk.

  8. Black hole variability and the star formation-active galactic nucleus connection: Do all star-forming galaxies host an active galactic nucleus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Civano, Francesca M.; Hainline, Kevin N.; Mullaney, James R.; Alexander, David M.; Goulding, Andy D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability on the observed connection between star formation and black hole accretion in extragalactic surveys. Recent studies have reported relatively weak correlations between observed AGN luminosities and the properties of AGN hosts, which has been interpreted to imply that there is no direct connection between AGN activity and star formation. However, AGNs may be expected to vary significantly on a wide range of timescales (from hours to Myr) that are far shorter than the typical timescale for star formation (≳100 Myr). This variability can have important consequences for observed correlations. We present a simple model in which all star-forming galaxies host an AGN when averaged over ∼100 Myr timescales, with long-term average AGN accretion rates that are perfectly correlated with the star formation rate (SFR). We show that reasonable prescriptions for AGN variability reproduce the observed weak correlations between SFR and L AGN in typical AGN host galaxies, as well as the general trends in the observed AGN luminosity functions, merger fractions, and measurements of the average AGN luminosity as a function of SFR. These results imply that there may be a tight connection between AGN activity and SFR over galaxy evolution timescales, and that the apparent similarities in rest-frame colors, merger rates, and clustering of AGNs compared to 'inactive' galaxies may be due primarily to AGN variability. The results provide motivation for future deep, wide extragalactic surveys that can measure the distribution of AGN accretion rates as a function of SFR.

  9. SUB-MILLIMETER TELESCOPE CO (2-1) OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Zhong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 66, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junzhi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu, E-mail: xjjiang@nju.edu.cn [The UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We present CO J = 2-1 observations toward 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT). Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies. The scaling relations between molecular gas, atomic gas, and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV – r, and WISE color W3 – W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show the following. (1) In the galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≤10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the H I fraction (f {sub H} {sub I} ≡ M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while the H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}} ≡ M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *}) remains nearly unchanged. (2) Compared to f{sub H{sub 2}}, f {sub H} {sub I} correlates better with both M {sub *} and NUV – r. (3) A new parameter, WISE color W3 – W2 (12-4.6 μm), is introduced, which is similar to NUV – r in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3 – W2 has a tighter anti-correlation with log f{sub H{sub 2}} than the anti-correlation of (NUV – r)-f {sub H} {sub I}, (NUV – r)-f{sub H{sub 2}}, and (W3 – W2)-f {sub H} {sub I}. This indicates that W3 – W2 can trace the H{sub 2} fraction in galaxies. For the gas ratio M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub H} {sub I} , only in the intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies it appears to depend on M {sub *} and NUV – r. We find a tight correlation between the molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}} and 12 μm (W3) luminosities (L {sub 12} {sub μm}), and the slope is close to unity (1.03 ± 0.06) for the SMT sample. This correlation may reflect that the cold gas and dust are well mixed on a global galactic scale. Using the all-sky 12 μm (W3) data available in WISE, this correlation can be used to estimate CO flux for molecular gas observations and can even predict H{sub 2} mass for star-forming galaxies.

  10. An Interconnected Network of Core-Forming Melts Produced by Shear Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, D.; Groebner, N.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The formation mechanism of terrestrial planetary is still poorly understood, and has been the subject of numerous experimental studies. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which metal-mainly iron with some nickel-could have been extracted from a silicate mantle to form the core. Most recent models involve gravitational sinking of molten metal or metal sulphide through a partially or fully molten mantle that is often referred to as a'magma ocean. Alternative models invoke percolation of molten metal along an interconnected network (that is, porous flow) through a solid silicate matrix. But experimental studies performed at high pressures have shown that, under hydrostatic conditions, these melts do not form an interconnected network, leading to the widespread assumption that formation of metallic cores requires a magma ocean. In contrast, here we present experiments which demonstrate that shear deformation to large strains can interconnect a significant fraction of initially isolated pockets of metal and metal sulphide melts in a solid matrix of polycrystalline olivine. Therefore, in a dynamic (nonhydrostatic) environment, percolation remains a viable mechanism for the segregation and migration of core-forming melts in a solid silicate mantle.

  11. Playing with Positive Feedback: External Pressure-triggering of a Star-forming Disk Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Rebekka; Dubois, Yohan; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.

    2015-10-01

    In massive galaxies, the currently favored method for quenching star formation is via active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, which ejects gas from the galaxy using a central supermassive black hole. At high redshifts however, explanation of the huge rates of star formation often found in galaxies containing AGNs may require a more vigorous mode of star formation than is attainable by simply enriching the gas content of galaxies in the usual gravitationally driven mode that is associated with the nearby universe. Using idealized hydrodynamical simulations, we show that AGN-pressure-driven star formation potentially provides the positive feedback that may be required to generate the accelerated star formation rates observed in the distant universe.

  12. Trigonometric parallaxes of star forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.; Wu, Y. W.; Immer, K.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of trigonometric parallaxes for six high-mass star-forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm of the Milky Way as part of the BeSSeL Survey. Combining our measurements with 10 previous measurements from the BeSSeL Survey yields a total sample of 16 sources in the Scutum arm with trigonometric parallaxes in the Galactic longitude range from 5° to 32°. Assuming a logarithmic spiral model, we estimate a pitch angle of 19.°8 ± 3.°1 for the Scutum arm, which is larger than pitch angles reported for other spiral arms. The high pitch angle of the arm may be due to the arm's proximity to the Galactic bar. The Scutum arm sources show an average peculiar motion of 4 km s –1 slower than the Galactic rotation and 8 km s –1 toward the Galactic center. While the direction of this non-circular motion has the same sign as determined for sources in other spiral arms, the motion toward the Galactic center is greater for the Scutum arm sources.

  13. HD 140283: A STAR IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD THAT FORMED SHORTLY AFTER THE BIG BANG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); VandenBerg, Don A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Harmer, Dianne, E-mail: bond@stsci.edu, E-mail: nelan@stsci.edu, E-mail: vandenbe@uvic.ca, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org, E-mail: diharmer@noao.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    HD 140283 is an extremely metal-deficient and high-velocity subgiant in the solar neighborhood, having a location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where absolute magnitude is most sensitive to stellar age. Because it is bright, nearby, unreddened, and has a well-determined chemical composition, this star avoids most of the issues involved in age determinations for globular clusters. Using the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured a trigonometric parallax of 17.15 {+-} 0.14 mas for HD 140283, with an error one-fifth of that determined by the Hipparcos mission. Employing modern theoretical isochrones, which include effects of helium diffusion, revised nuclear reaction rates, and enhanced oxygen abundance, we use the precise distance to infer an age of 14.46 {+-} 0.31 Gyr. The quoted error includes only the uncertainty in the parallax, and is for adopted surface oxygen and iron abundances of [O/H] = -1.67 and [Fe/H] = -2.40. Uncertainties in the stellar parameters and chemical composition, especially the oxygen content, now contribute more to the error budget for the age of HD 140283 than does its distance, increasing the total uncertainty to about {+-}0.8 Gyr. Within the errors, the age of HD 140283 does not conflict with the age of the Universe, 13.77 {+-} 0.06 Gyr, based on the microwave background and Hubble constant, but it must have formed soon after the big bang.

  14. Gas Content and Kinematics in Clumpy, Turbulent Star-forming Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Heidi A.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Fisher, David B.; Glazebrook, Karl; Murray, Norman; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Green, Andrew W.; Mentuch Cooper, Erin; Obreschkow, Danail

    2017-01-01

    We present molecular gas-mass estimates for a sample of 13 local galaxies whose kinematic and star-forming properties closely resemble those observed in z ≈ 1.5 main-sequence galaxies. Plateau de Bure observations of the CO[1-0] emission line and Herschel Space Observatory observations of the dust emission both suggest molecular gas-mass fractions of ∼20%. Moreover, dust emission modeling finds T dust < 30 K, suggesting a cold dust distribution compared to their high infrared luminosity. The gas-mass estimates argue that z ∼ 0.1 DYNAMO galaxies not only share similar kinematic properties with high- z disks, but they are also similarly rich in molecular material. Pairing the gas-mass fractions with existing kinematics reveals a linear relationship between f gas and σ / v c , consistent with predictions from stability theory of a self-gravitating disk. It thus follows that high gas-velocity dispersions are a natural consequence of large gas fractions. We also find that the systems with the lowest t dep (∼0.5 Gyr) have the highest ratios of σ / v c and more pronounced clumps, even at the same high molecular gas fraction.

  15. SHARDS: constraints on the dust attenuation law of star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tress, Mónica; Mármol-Queraltó, Esther; Ferreras, Ignacio; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Barro, Guillermo; Pampliega, Belén Alcalde; Cava, Antonio; Domínguez-Sánchez, Helena; Eliche-Moral, Carmen; Espino-Briones, Néstor; Esquej, Pilar; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rodighiero, Giulia; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Lucía

    2018-04-01

    We make use of the Survey of High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources, an ultradeep (sample of 1753 galaxies. By comparing the data with a set of population synthesis models coupled to a parametric dust attenuation law, we constrain RV and B, as well as the colour excess, E(B - V). We find a correlation between RV and B, which can be interpreted either as a result of the grain size distribution, or a variation of the dust geometry among galaxies. According to the former, small dust grains are associated with a stronger NUV bump. The latter would lead to a range of clumpiness in the distribution of dust within the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies. The observed wide range of NUV bump strengths can lead to a systematic in the interpretation of the UV slope β typically used to characterize the dust content. In this study, we quantify these variations, concluding that the effects are Δβ ˜ 0.4.

  16. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared variability in the star-forming region Lynds 1688

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Meng, H. Y. A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Parks, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place South, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present IR data from the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) survey of ∼800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star-forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 yr using the Spitzer Space Telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all light curves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the light curves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 yr. Nonperiodic light curves often still show a preferred timescale of variability that is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhibit redder colors in a fainter state. This is compatible with time-variable absorption toward the YSO. The other half becomes bluer when fainter. These colors can only be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. No relation between mid-IR variability and stellar effective temperature or X-ray spectrum is found.

  17. MODELING THE ATOMIC-TO-MOLECULAR TRANSITION AND CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF TURBULENT STAR-FORMING CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bisbas, Thomas G.; Viti, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6B (United Kingdom); Bell, Tom A., E-mail: stella.offner@yale.edu [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-10

    We use 3D-PDR, a three-dimensional astrochemistry code for modeling photodissociation regions (PDRs), to post-process hydrodynamic simulations of turbulent, star-forming clouds. We focus on the transition from atomic to molecular gas, with specific attention to the formation and distribution of H, C{sup +}, C, H{sub 2}, and CO. First, we demonstrate that the details of the cloud chemistry and our conclusions are insensitive to the simulation spatial resolution, to the resolution at the cloud edge, and to the ray angular resolution. We then investigate the effect of geometry and simulation parameters on chemical abundances and find weak dependence on cloud morphology as dictated by gravity and turbulent Mach number. For a uniform external radiation field, we find similar distributions to those derived using a one-dimensional PDR code. However, we demonstrate that a three-dimensional treatment is necessary for a spatially varying external field, and we caution against using one-dimensional treatments for non-symmetric problems. We compare our results with the work of Glover et al., who self-consistently followed the time evolution of molecule formation in hydrodynamic simulations using a reduced chemical network. In general, we find good agreement with this in situ approach for C and CO abundances. However, the temperature and H{sub 2} abundances are discrepant in the boundary regions (A{sub v} {<=} 5), which is due to the different number of rays used by the two approaches.

  18. Gas Content and Kinematics in Clumpy, Turbulent Star-forming Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Heidi A.; Abraham, Roberto G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Fisher, David B.; Glazebrook, Karl [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Murray, Norman [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20642 (United States); Green, Andrew W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 970, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Mentuch Cooper, Erin [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Obreschkow, Danail [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, M468, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2017-09-01

    We present molecular gas-mass estimates for a sample of 13 local galaxies whose kinematic and star-forming properties closely resemble those observed in z ≈ 1.5 main-sequence galaxies. Plateau de Bure observations of the CO[1-0] emission line and Herschel Space Observatory observations of the dust emission both suggest molecular gas-mass fractions of ∼20%. Moreover, dust emission modeling finds T {sub dust} < 30 K, suggesting a cold dust distribution compared to their high infrared luminosity. The gas-mass estimates argue that z ∼ 0.1 DYNAMO galaxies not only share similar kinematic properties with high- z disks, but they are also similarly rich in molecular material. Pairing the gas-mass fractions with existing kinematics reveals a linear relationship between f {sub gas} and σ / v {sub c}, consistent with predictions from stability theory of a self-gravitating disk. It thus follows that high gas-velocity dispersions are a natural consequence of large gas fractions. We also find that the systems with the lowest t {sub dep} (∼0.5 Gyr) have the highest ratios of σ / v{sub c} and more pronounced clumps, even at the same high molecular gas fraction.

  19. THE AVERAGE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF THE UV-BRIGHTEST STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 3.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Glikman, Eilat; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Cooper, Michael C.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Cooray, Asantha

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the average physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 3.7. Our results are based on the average spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed from stacked optical-to-infrared photometry, of a sample of the 1913 most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies found in 5.3 deg 2 of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. We find that the shape of the average SED in the rest optical and infrared is fairly constant with UV luminosity, i.e., more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more luminous at longer wavelengths. In the rest UV, however, the spectral slope β (≡ dlogF λ /dlogλ; measured at 0.13 μm rest UV and thus star formation rates (SFRs) scale closely with stellar mass such that more UV-luminous galaxies are also more massive, (2) the median ages indicate that the stellar populations are relatively young (200-400 Myr) and show little correlation with UV luminosity, and (3) more UV-luminous galaxies are dustier than their less-luminous counterparts, such that L ∼ 4-5L* galaxies are extincted up to A(1600) = 2 mag while L ∼ L* galaxies have A(1600) = 0.7-1.5 mag. We argue that the average SFHs of UV-luminous galaxies are better described by models in which SFR increases with time in order to simultaneously reproduce the tight correlation between the UV-derived SFR and stellar mass and their universally young ages. We demonstrate the potential of measurements of the SFR-M * relation at multiple redshifts to discriminate between simple models of SFHs. Finally, we discuss the fate of these UV-brightest galaxies in the next 1-2 Gyr and their possible connection to the most massive galaxies at z ∼ 2.

  20. GW170817 and the Prospect of Forming Supramassive Remnants in Neutron Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Xiong; Jiang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hao; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2018-05-01

    The gravitational wave data of GW170817 favor the equation of state (EoS) models that predict compact neutron stars (NSs), consistent with the radius constraints from X-ray observations. Motivated by such remarkable progress, we examine the fate of the remnants formed in NS mergers and focus on the roles of the angular momentum and the mass distribution of the binary NSs. In the mass-shedding limit (for which the dimensionless angular momentum equals the Keplerian value, i.e., j = j Kep), the adopted seven EoS models, except for H4 and ALF2, yield supramassive NSs in more than half of the mergers. However, for j ≲ 0.7 j Kep, the presence or absence of a non-negligible fraction of supramassive NSs formed in the mergers depends sensitively on both the EoS and the mass distribution of the binary systems. The NS mergers with a total gravitational mass ≤ 2.6 M ⊙ are found to be able to shed valuable light on both the EoS model and the angular momentum of the remnants if supramassive NSs are still absent. We have also discussed the uncertainty on estimating the maximum gravitational mass of nonrotating NSs (M max) due to the unknown j of the precollapse remnants. With the data of GW170817 and the assumption of the mass loss of 0.03 M ⊙, we have M max < (2.19, 2.32) M ⊙ (90% confidence level) for j = (1.0, 0.8) j Kep, respectively.

  1. A novel vector-based method for exclusive overexpression of star-form microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qu

    Full Text Available The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs as important regulators of gene expression have been studied intensively. Although most of these investigations have involved the highly expressed form of the two mature miRNA species, increasing evidence points to essential roles for star-form microRNAs (miRNA*, which are usually expressed at much lower levels. Owing to the nature of miRNA biogenesis, it is challenging to use plasmids containing miRNA coding sequences for gain-of-function experiments concerning the roles of microRNA* species. Synthetic microRNA mimics could introduce specific miRNA* species into cells, but this transient overexpression system has many shortcomings. Here, we report that specific miRNA* species can be overexpressed by introducing artificially designed stem-loop sequences into short hairpin RNA (shRNA overexpression vectors. By our prototypic plasmid, designed to overexpress hsa-miR-146b-3p, we successfully expressed high levels of hsa-miR-146b-3p without detectable change of hsa-miR-146b-5p. Functional analysis involving luciferase reporter assays showed that, like natural miRNAs, the overexpressed hsa-miR-146b-3p inhibited target gene expression by 3'UTR seed pairing. Our demonstration that this method could overexpress two other miRNAs suggests that the approach should be broadly applicable. Our novel strategy opens the way for exclusively stable overexpression of miRNA* species and analyzing their unique functions both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Water deuteration in star-forming regions: Contribution of Herschel/HIFI spectroscopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutens, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Water (H_2O) is one of the most abundant molecules in the interstellar medium. In addition to being a primordial ingredient in the emergence of life, this species plays an essential role in the process of star formation through the cooling of warm gas. It also controls the chemistry for many species, either in the gas phase or on the grain surfaces. Studying its deuterated form HDO is a unique opportunity, through the estimation of the HDO/H_2O ratio, to constrain the mechanisms of water formation and to better understand the origin of water contained in terrestrial oceans. Indeed, recent results obtained with the Herschel satellite show that the HDO/H_2O ratio observed in comets is similar to the value measured in oceans (∼1.5 10"-"4), which suggests that comets could have brought a large fraction to Earth to form the oceans during heavy bombardments (Hartogh et al. 2011). In this thesis, I was interested in the study of deuterated water in the first stages of star formation, the Class 0 stage, which precede the formation of the protoplanetary disk leading to the birth of comets and planets. Through a 1D non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium radiative transfer modeling of the line profiles of the numerous HDO and H_2"1"8O transitions detected with the HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for Far-Infrared) instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory and ground-based telescopes (IRAM, JCMT), I determined that the HDO/H_2O ratios of the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422 was about 2% in the hot corino, the inner part of the protostellar envelope sufficiently warm (T ≥ 100 K) to desorb in gas phase the water molecules trapped in the icy grain mantles, and about 0.5% in the colder part of the envelope. This study (Coutens et al. 2012) also allowed me to show that an absorbing layer rich in water surrounds the protostar. This layer could be produced by the photo-desorption through the UV field of the water molecules frozen on the grains, on the edges of the molecular

  3. Production of gamma ray bursts from asymmetric core combustion of magnetized young neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.; Ghezzi, C. R.

    2005-09-01

    Many works in the past have explored the idea that the conversion of hadronic matter into strange quark matter in neutron stars may be an energy source for GRBs (see references in Lugones et al. 2002, Lugones and Horvath 2003). These models addressed essentially spherically symmetric conversions of the whole neutron star rendering isotropic gamma emission. Accumulating observational evidence suggests that at least ''long'' GRBs are strongly asymmetric, jet-like outflows. The ''short'' burst subclass is not obviously asymmetric, and they may actually be spherically symmetric if the sources are close enough. A new potentially important feature recently recognized (Lugones et al. 2002) is that if a conversion to strange quark matter actually begins near the center of a neutron star, the presence of a magnetic field with intensity B ˜ 1013 G (see also Ghezi, de Gouveia Dal Pino & Horvath 2004) will originate a prompt collimated gamma emission, which may be observed as a short, beamed GRB after the recovery of a fraction of the neutrino energy via ν {barν} → e+e- → γγ. The calculations show that the neutrino luminosity is ˜ 1053 erg/sec and that the e+e- luminosity is about two orders of magnitude smaller ( tet{Lugones2002grb}). We find that 90 % of the e+e- pairs are injected inside small cylinders located just above the polar caps (with radius δ and height 0.4 R) in a timescale of τi ≃ 0.2 s almost independently of the initial temperature. This provides an interesting suitable explanation for the inner engine of short gamma ray bursts.

  4. Synthesis and Performance of Highly Stable Star-Shaped Polyaniline Electrochromic Materials with Triphenylamine Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Li, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Xiangkai; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Runlan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wu, Bohua; Gong, Ming; Chu, Jia

    2018-02-01

    The molecular architecture of conducting polymers has a significant impact on their conjugated structure and electrochemical properties. We have investigated the influence of star-shaped structure on the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polyaniline (PANI). Star-shaped PANI (SPANI) was prepared by copolymerization of aniline with triphenylamine (TPA) using an emulsion polymerization method. With addition of less than 4.0 mol.% TPA, the resulting SPANI exhibited good solubility in xylene with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as doping acid. The structure and thermal stability of the SPANI were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the electrochemical behavior was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochromic properties of SPANI were tested using an electrochemical workstation combined with an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The results show that, with increasing TPA loading, the thermal stability of SPANI increased. With addition of 4.0 mol.% TPA, the weight loss of SPANI was 36.9% at 700°C, much lower than the value of 71.2% for PANI at the same temperature. The low oxidation potential and large enclosed area of the CV curves indicate that SPANI possesses higher electrochemical activity than PANI. Enhanced electrochromic properties including higher optical contrast and better electrochromic stability of SPANI were also obtained. SPANI with 1.6 mol.% TPA loading exhibited the highest optical contrast of 0.71, higher than the values of 0.58 for PANI, 0.66 for SPANI-0.4%, or 0.63 for SPANI-4.0%. Overdosing of TPA resulted in slow switching speed due to slow ion transport in short branched chains of star-shaped PANI electrochromic material. Long-term stability testing confirmed that all the SPANI-based devices exhibited better stability than the PANI-based device.

  5. Age gradients in the stellar populations of massive star forming regions based on a new stellar chronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Broos, Patrick S.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Luhman, Kevin L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Naylor, Tim [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Povich, Matthew S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A major impediment to understanding star formation in massive star-forming regions (MSFRs) is the absence of a reliable stellar chronometer to unravel their complex star formation histories. We present a new estimation of stellar ages using a new method that employs near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray photometry, Age {sub JX} . Stellar masses are derived from X-ray luminosities using the L{sub X} -M relation from the Taurus cloud. J-band luminosities are compared to mass-dependent pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models to estimate ages. Age {sub JX} is sensitive to a wide range of evolutionary stages, from disk-bearing stars embedded in a cloud to widely dispersed older PMS stars. The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project characterizes 20 OB-dominated MSFRs using X-ray, mid-infrared, and NIR catalogs. The Age {sub JX} method has been applied to 5525 out of 31,784 MYStIX Probable Complex Members. We provide a homogeneous set of median ages for over 100 subclusters in 15 MSFRs; median subcluster ages range between 0.5 Myr and 5 Myr. The important science result is the discovery of age gradients across MYStIX regions. The wide MSFR age distribution appears as spatially segregated structures with different ages. The Age {sub JX} ages are youngest in obscured locations in molecular clouds, intermediate in revealed stellar clusters, and oldest in distributed populations. The NIR color index J – H, a surrogate measure of extinction, can serve as an approximate age predictor for young embedded clusters.

  6. Simulant - water experiments to characterize the debris bed formed in severe core melt accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathai, Amala M.; Anandan, J.; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Murthy, S.S.; Malarvizhi, B.; Lydia, G.; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Nashine, B.K.; Selvaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (WO) and debris bed configuration on the core catcher plate assumes importance in assessing the Post Accident Heat Removal (PARR) of a heat generating debris bed. The key factors affecting the coolability of the debris bed are the bed porosity, morphology of the fragmented particles, degree of spreading/heaping of the debris on the core catcher and the fraction of lump formed. Experiments are conducted to understand the fragmentation kinetics and subsequent debris bed formation of molten woods metal in water at interface temperatures near the spontaneous nucleation temperature of water. Morphology of the debris particles is investigated to understand the fragmentation mechanisms involved. The spreading behavior of the debris on the catcher plate and the particle size distribution are presented for 5 kg and 10 kg melt inventories. Porosity of the undisturbed bed on the catcher plate is evaluated using a LASER sensor technique. (author)

  7. Distant galaxy formed stars only 250 million years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the star-birth activity of the earliest galaxies. Observations of a particularly distant galaxy provide evidence for such activity when the Universe was just 2% of its current age.

  8. INTRINSIC SHAPE OF STAR-FORMING BzK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2 IN GOODS-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuma, Suraphong; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Kajisawa, Masaru; Ichikawa, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We study the structure of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2 in a Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North field selected as star-forming BzK (sBzK) galaxies down to K AB B > C, we find that the mean B/A ratio is 0.61 +0.05 -0.08 and disk thickness C/A is 0.28 +0.03 -0.04 . This indicates that the single-component sBzK galaxies at z ∼ 2 have a bar-like or oval shape rather than a round disk shape. The shape seems to resemble a bar/oval structure that forms through bar instability; if this is the case, the intrinsic shape may give us a clue to understand dynamical evolution of baryonic matter in a dark matter halo.

  9. The coupling of the Star-Cd software to a whole-core neutron transport code Decart for PWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.; Lee, H.C.; Downar, T.J.; Sofu, T.; Weber, D.P.; Joo, H.G.; Cho, J.Y.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a U.S.- Korea collaborative U.S. Department of Energy INERI project, a comprehensive high-fidelity reactor-core modeling capability is being developed for detailed analysis of existing and advanced PWR reactor designs. An essential element of the project has been the development of an interface between the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) module, STAR-CD, and the neutronics module, DeCART. Since the computational mesh for CFD and neutronics calculations are generally different, the capability to average and decompose data on these different meshes has been an important part of code coupling activities. An averaging process has been developed to extract neutronics zone temperatures in the fuel and coolant and to generate appropriate multi group cross sections and densities. Similar procedures have also been established to map the power distribution from the neutronics zones to the mesh structure used in the CFD module. Since MPI is used as the parallel model in STAR-CD and conflicts arise during initiation of a second level of MPI, the interface developed here is based on using TCP/IP protocol sockets to establish communication between the CFD and neutronics modules. Preliminary coupled calculations have been performed for PWR fuel assembly size problems and converged solutions have been achieved for a series of steady-state problems ranging from a single pin to a 1/8 model of a 17 x 17 PWR fuel assembly. (authors)

  10. Three-dimensional Boltzmann-Hydro Code for Core-collapse in Massive Stars. II. The Implementation of Moving-mesh for Neutron Star Kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagakura, Hiroki [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Iwakami, Wakana [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Furusawa, Shun [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronimical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Matsufuru, Hideo [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 308-0801 (Japan); Imakura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    We present a newly developed moving-mesh technique for the multi-dimensional Boltzmann-Hydro code for the simulation of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). What makes this technique different from others is the fact that it treats not only hydrodynamics but also neutrino transfer in the language of the 3 + 1 formalism of general relativity (GR), making use of the shift vector to specify the time evolution of the coordinate system. This means that the transport part of our code is essentially general relativistic, although in this paper it is applied only to the moving curvilinear coordinates in the flat Minknowski spacetime, since the gravity part is still Newtonian. The numerical aspect of the implementation is also described in detail. Employing the axisymmetric two-dimensional version of the code, we conduct two test computations: oscillations and runaways of proto-neutron star (PNS). We show that our new method works fine, tracking the motions of PNS correctly. We believe that this is a major advancement toward the realistic simulation of CCSNe.

  11. Three-dimensional Boltzmann-Hydro Code for Core-collapse in Massive Stars. II. The Implementation of Moving-mesh for Neutron Star Kicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Iwakami, Wakana; Furusawa, Shun; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Matsufuru, Hideo; Imakura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We present a newly developed moving-mesh technique for the multi-dimensional Boltzmann-Hydro code for the simulation of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). What makes this technique different from others is the fact that it treats not only hydrodynamics but also neutrino transfer in the language of the 3 + 1 formalism of general relativity (GR), making use of the shift vector to specify the time evolution of the coordinate system. This means that the transport part of our code is essentially general relativistic, although in this paper it is applied only to the moving curvilinear coordinates in the flat Minknowski spacetime, since the gravity part is still Newtonian. The numerical aspect of the implementation is also described in detail. Employing the axisymmetric two-dimensional version of the code, we conduct two test computations: oscillations and runaways of proto-neutron star (PNS). We show that our new method works fine, tracking the motions of PNS correctly. We believe that this is a major advancement toward the realistic simulation of CCSNe.

  12. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM THE SPT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandet, M. L.; Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69 D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Vieira, J. D.; Furstenau, R. M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); De Breuck, C.; Béthermin, M.; Gullberg, B. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Everett, W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); and others

    2016-05-10

    We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Cycle 1 to determine spectroscopic redshifts of high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected by their 1.4 mm continuum emission in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. We present ALMA 3 mm spectral scans between 84 and 114 GHz for 15 galaxies and targeted ALMA 1 mm observations for an additional eight sources. Our observations yield 30 new line detections from CO, [C i], [N ii], H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3}. We further present Atacama Pathfinder Experiment [C ii] and CO mid- J observations for seven sources for which only a single line was detected in spectral-scan data from ALMA Cycle 0 or Cycle 1. We combine the new observations with previously published and new millimeter/submillimeter line and photometric data of the SPT-selected DSFGs to study their redshift distribution. The combined data yield 39 spectroscopic redshifts from molecular lines, a success rate of >85%. Our sample represents the largest data set of its kind today and has the highest spectroscopic completeness among all redshift surveys of high- z DSFGs. The median of the redshift distribution is z = 3.9 ± 0.4, and the highest-redshift source in our sample is at z = 5.8. We discuss how the selection of our sources affects the redshift distribution, focusing on source brightness, selection wavelength, and strong gravitational lensing. We correct for the effect of gravitational lensing and find the redshift distribution for 1.4 mm selected sources with a median redshift of z = 3.1 ± 0.3. Comparing to redshift distributions selected at shorter wavelengths from the literature, we show that selection wavelength affects the shape of the redshift distribution.

  13. MULTIPLICITY, DISKS, AND JETS IN THE NGC 2071 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Osorio, Mayra; Anglada, Guillem; Gomez, Jose F. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); D' Alessio, Paola; Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torrelles, Jose M., E-mail: carrasco@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (CSIC)-UB/IEEC, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-02-10

    We present centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm) observations of the NGC 2071 star-forming region performed with the Very Large Array (VLA) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detected counterparts at 3.6 cm and 3 mm for the previously known sources IRS 1, IRS 2, IRS 3, and VLA 1. All these sources show spectral energy distributions (SEDs) dominated by free-free thermal emission at cm wavelengths and thermal dust emission at mm wavelengths, suggesting that all of them are associated with young stellar objects (YSOs). IRS 1 shows a complex morphology at 3.6 cm, with changes in the direction of its elongation. We discuss two possible explanations to this morphology: the result of changes in the direction of a jet due to interactions with a dense ambient medium, or that we are actually observing the superposition of two jets arising from two components of a binary system. Higher angular resolution observations at 1.3 cm support the second possibility, since a double source is inferred at this wavelength. IRS 3 shows a clear jet-like morphology at 3.6 cm. Over a timespan of four years, we observed changes in the morphology of this source that we interpret as due to ejection of ionized material in a jet. The emission at 3 mm of IRS 3 is angularly resolved, with a deconvolved size (FWHM) of {approx}120 AU, and seems to be tracing a dusty circumstellar disk perpendicular to the radio jet. An irradiated accretion disk model around an intermediate-mass YSO can account for the observed SED and spatial intensity profile at 3 mm, supporting this interpretation.

  14. Addressing Ionization and Depletion in the ISM of Nearby Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    Measuring galaxy metallicity with cosmic time is of paramount importance to understand galaxy formation. ISM abundances are typically determined using emission-line spectroscopy of HII regions. However, HII regions may be self-enriched and not typical of the whole galaxy. This is particularly true for star-forming galaxies (SFGs) where the bulk of metals may be in the neutral gas. Quantifying metals in the ISM is thus important to assess how reliably HII regions trace galaxy abundances at any redshift. We were awarded 34 HST orbits (Cycle 17) to measure abundances in the neutral ISM of 9 nearby SFGs using absorption lines in the COS G130M/1291 spectra of bright UV background sources within the galaxy itself. We found metallicities that differ by up to 2 dex depending on the element. These variations could be real or due to observational effects. Here we request 22 orbits in the new G130M/1222 and in G160M/1623 to access new FUV spectral transitions that will help us characterize ionized-gas contamination and dust depletion, and ultimately nail down the abundances of the different elements. These new data will nicely complement our Cycle 17 COS and Gemini/GMOS IFU programs, the latter aimed at deriving nebular abundances along the same COS sightlines. This first detailed and spatially-accurate comparison between neutral- and ionized-gas abundances in local (z 0) SFGs will provide crucial insights into the metallicity of galaxies at any redshift. If this UV spectroscopic study is not undertaken before HST ceases operation, the (in)homogeneity of the ISM in galaxies of the local Universe will continue to remain uncertain for at least another decade.

  15. MULTIPLICITY, DISKS, AND JETS IN THE NGC 2071 STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Osorio, Mayra; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F.; D'Alessio, Paola; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Torrelles, José M.

    2012-01-01

    We present centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm) observations of the NGC 2071 star-forming region performed with the Very Large Array (VLA) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detected counterparts at 3.6 cm and 3 mm for the previously known sources IRS 1, IRS 2, IRS 3, and VLA 1. All these sources show spectral energy distributions (SEDs) dominated by free-free thermal emission at cm wavelengths and thermal dust emission at mm wavelengths, suggesting that all of them are associated with young stellar objects (YSOs). IRS 1 shows a complex morphology at 3.6 cm, with changes in the direction of its elongation. We discuss two possible explanations to this morphology: the result of changes in the direction of a jet due to interactions with a dense ambient medium, or that we are actually observing the superposition of two jets arising from two components of a binary system. Higher angular resolution observations at 1.3 cm support the second possibility, since a double source is inferred at this wavelength. IRS 3 shows a clear jet-like morphology at 3.6 cm. Over a timespan of four years, we observed changes in the morphology of this source that we interpret as due to ejection of ionized material in a jet. The emission at 3 mm of IRS 3 is angularly resolved, with a deconvolved size (FWHM) of ∼120 AU, and seems to be tracing a dusty circumstellar disk perpendicular to the radio jet. An irradiated accretion disk model around an intermediate-mass YSO can account for the observed SED and spatial intensity profile at 3 mm, supporting this interpretation.

  16. HD 140283: A Star in the Solar Neighborhood that Formed Shortly after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Harmer, Dianne

    2013-03-01

    HD 140283 is an extremely metal-deficient and high-velocity subgiant in the solar neighborhood, having a location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where absolute magnitude is most sensitive to stellar age. Because it is bright, nearby, unreddened, and has a well-determined chemical composition, this star avoids most of the issues involved in age determinations for globular clusters. Using the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured a trigonometric parallax of 17.15 ± 0.14 mas for HD 140283, with an error one-fifth of that determined by the Hipparcos mission. Employing modern theoretical isochrones, which include effects of helium diffusion, revised nuclear reaction rates, and enhanced oxygen abundance, we use the precise distance to infer an age of 14.46 ± 0.31 Gyr. The quoted error includes only the uncertainty in the parallax, and is for adopted surface oxygen and iron abundances of [O/H] = -1.67 and [Fe/H] = -2.40. Uncertainties in the stellar parameters and chemical composition, especially the oxygen content, now contribute more to the error budget for the age of HD 140283 than does its distance, increasing the total uncertainty to about ±0.8 Gyr. Within the errors, the age of HD 140283 does not conflict with the age of the Universe, 13.77 ± 0.06 Gyr, based on the microwave background and Hubble constant, but it must have formed soon after the big bang. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  17. Long-term Variability of H2CO Masers in Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N.; Araya, E. D.; Hoffman, I. M.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.; Lorran-Costa, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present results of a multi-epoch monitoring program on variability of 6 cm formaldehyde (H2CO) masers in the massive star-forming region NGC 7538 IRS 1 from 2008 to 2015, conducted with the Green Bank Telescope, the Westerbork Radio Telescope , and the Very Large Array. We found that the similar variability behaviors of the two formaldehyde maser velocity components in NGC 7538 IRS 1 (which was pointed out by Araya and collaborators in 2007) have continued. The possibility that the variability is caused by changes in the maser amplification path in regions with similar morphology and kinematics is discussed. We also observed 12.2 GHz methanol and 22.2 GHz water masers toward NGC 7538 IRS 1. The brightest maser components of CH3OH and H2O species show a decrease in flux density as a function of time. The brightest H2CO maser component also shows a decrease in flux density and has a similar LSR velocity to the brightest H2O and 12.2 GHz CH3OH masers. The line parameters of radio recombination lines and the 20.17 and 20.97 GHz CH3OH transitions in NGC 7538 IRS 1 are also reported. In addition, we observed five other 6 cm formaldehyde maser regions. We found no evidence of significant variability of the 6 cm masers in these regions with respect to previous observations, the only possible exception being the maser in G29.96-0.02. All six sources were also observed in the {{{H}}}213{CO} isotopologue transition of the 6 cm H2CO line; {{{H}}}213{CO} absorption was detected in five of the sources. Estimated column density ratios [{{{H}}}212{CO}]/[{{{H}}}213{CO}] are reported.

  18. Neutron star formation in theoretical supernovae. Low mass stars and white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    The presupernova evolution of stars that form semi-degenerate or strongly degenerate O + Ne + Mg cores is discussed. For the 10 to 13 Msub solar stars, behavior of off-center neon flashes is crucial. The 8 to 10 m/sub solar stars do not ignite neon and eventually collapse due to electron captures. Properties of supernova explosions and neutron stars expected from these low mass progenitors are compared with the Crab nebula. The conditions for which neutron stars form from accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs in clsoe binary systems is also examined

  19. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically ∼1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of ∼2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  20. Thermally activated post-glitch response of the neutron star inner crust and core. I. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Bennett, E-mail: link@physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Pinning of superfluid vortices is predicted to prevail throughout much of a neutron star. Based on the idea of Alpar et al., I develop a description of the coupling between the solid and liquid components of a neutron star through thermally activated vortex slippage, and calculate the response to a spin glitch. The treatment begins with a derivation of the vortex velocity from the vorticity equations of motion. The activation energy for vortex slippage is obtained from a detailed study of the mechanics and energetics of vortex motion. I show that the 'linear creep' regime introduced by Alpar et al. and invoked in fits to post-glitch response is not realized for physically reasonable parameters, a conclusion that strongly constrains the physics of a post-glitch response through thermal activation. Moreover, a regime of 'superweak pinning', crucial to the theory of Alpar et al. and its extensions, is probably precluded by thermal fluctuations. The theory given here has a robust conclusion that can be tested by observations: for a glitch in the spin rate of magnitude Δν, pinning introduces a delay in the post-glitch response time. The delay time is t{sub d} = 7(t{sub sd}/10{sup 4} yr)((Δν/ν)/10{sup –6}) d, where t{sub sd} is the spin-down age; t{sub d} is typically weeks for the Vela pulsar and months in older pulsars, and is independent of the details of vortex pinning. Post-glitch response through thermal activation cannot occur more quickly than this timescale. Quicker components of post-glitch response, as have been observed in some pulsars, notably, the Vela pulsar, cannot be due to thermally activated vortex motion but must represent a different process, such as drag on vortices in regions where there is no pinning. I also derive the mutual friction force for a pinned superfluid at finite temperature for use in other studies of neutron star hydrodynamics.

  1. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ghez, A. M.; Robberto, M.

    2014-01-01

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M ☉ ). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15 −0.03 +0.05 for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M ☉ ) and 4/108 = 0.04 −0.01 +0.03 for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M ☉ ) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  2. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Konopacky, Q. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McLeod, K. K. [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Apai, D.; Pascucci, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Robberto, M., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  3. THE SCHMIDT-KENNICUTT LAW OF MATCHED-AGE STAR-FORMING REGIONS; Paα OBSERVATIONS OF THE EARLY-PHASE INTERACTING GALAXY TAFFY I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komugi, S.; Tateuchi, K.; Motohara, K.; Kato, N.; Konishi, M.; Koshida, S.; Morokuma, T.; Takahashi, H.; Tanabé, T.; Yoshii, Y.; Takagi, T.; Iono, D.; Kaneko, H.; Ueda, J.; Saitoh, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to test a recent hypothesis that the dispersion in the Schmidt-Kennicutt law arises from variations in the evolutionary stage of star-forming molecular clouds, we compared molecular gas and recent star formation in an early-phase merger galaxy pair, Taffy I (UGC 12915/UGC 12914, VV 254) which went through a direct collision 20 Myr ago and whose star-forming regions are expected to have similar ages. Narrowband Paα image is obtained using the ANIR near-infrared camera on the mini-TAO 1 m telescope. The image enables us to derive accurate star formation rates within the galaxy directly. The total star formation rate, 22.2 M ☉ yr –1 , was found to be much higher than previous estimates. Ages of individual star-forming blobs estimated from equivalent widths indicate that most star-forming regions are ∼7 Myr old, except for a giant H II region at the bridge which is much younger. Comparison between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for the regions with the same age exhibits a surprisingly tight correlation, a slope of unity, and star formation efficiencies comparable to those of starburst galaxies. These results suggest that Taffy I has just evolved into a starburst system after the collision, and the star-forming sites are at a similar stage in their evolution from natal molecular clouds except for the bridge region. The tight Schmidt-Kennicutt law supports the scenario that dispersion in the star formation law is in large part due to differences in evolutionary stage of star-forming regions.

  4. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN G240.31+0.07: AN HOURGLASS IN A MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Liu, Hauyu B.; Tang, Ya-Wen [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Girart, Josep M., E-mail: kpqiu@nju.edu.cn [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-10-10

    We report the first detection of an hourglass magnetic field aligned with a well-defined outflow rotation system in a high-mass, star-forming region. The observations were performed with the Submillimeter Array toward G240.31+0.07, which harbors a massive, flattened, and fragmenting molecular cloud core and a wide-angle bipolar outflow. The polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm reveals a clear hourglass-shaped magnetic field aligned within 20° of the outflow axis. Maps of high-density tracing spectral lines, e.g., H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (4-3), show that the core is rotating about its minor axis, which is also aligned with the magnetic field axis. Therefore, both the magnetic field and kinematic properties observed in this region are surprisingly consistent with the theoretical predictions of the classic paradigm of isolated low-mass star formation. The strength of the magnetic field in the plane of sky is estimated to be ∼1.1 mG, resulting in a mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of 1.4 times the critical value and a turbulent-to-ordered magnetic energy ratio of 0.4. We also find that the specific angular momentum almost linearly decreases from r ∼ 0.6 pc to 0.03 pc scales, which is most likely attributed to magnetic braking.

  5. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN G240.31+0.07: AN HOURGLASS IN A MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Keping; Zhang, Qizhou; Menten, Karl M.; Liu, Hauyu B.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Girart, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of an hourglass magnetic field aligned with a well-defined outflow rotation system in a high-mass, star-forming region. The observations were performed with the Submillimeter Array toward G240.31+0.07, which harbors a massive, flattened, and fragmenting molecular cloud core and a wide-angle bipolar outflow. The polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm reveals a clear hourglass-shaped magnetic field aligned within 20° of the outflow axis. Maps of high-density tracing spectral lines, e.g., H 13 CO + (4-3), show that the core is rotating about its minor axis, which is also aligned with the magnetic field axis. Therefore, both the magnetic field and kinematic properties observed in this region are surprisingly consistent with the theoretical predictions of the classic paradigm of isolated low-mass star formation. The strength of the magnetic field in the plane of sky is estimated to be ∼1.1 mG, resulting in a mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of 1.4 times the critical value and a turbulent-to-ordered magnetic energy ratio of 0.4. We also find that the specific angular momentum almost linearly decreases from r ∼ 0.6 pc to 0.03 pc scales, which is most likely attributed to magnetic braking

  6. THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOLTZMANN HYDRO CODE FOR CORE COLLAPSE IN MASSIVE STARS. I. SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC TREATMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel numerical method for solving multi-dimensional, special relativistic Boltzmann equations for neutrinos coupled with hydrodynamics equations. This method is meant to be applied to simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We handle special relativity in a non-conventional way, taking account of all orders of v/c. Consistent treatment of the advection and collision terms in the Boltzmann equations has been a challenge, which we overcome by employing two different energy grids: Lagrangian remapped and laboratory fixed grids. We conduct a series of basic tests and perform a one-dimensional simulation of core-collapse, bounce, and shock-stall for a 15 M ☉ progenitor model with a minimum but essential set of microphysics. We demonstrate in the latter simulation that our new code is capable of handling all phases in core-collapse supernova. For comparison, a non-relativistic simulation is also conducted with the same code, and we show that they produce qualitatively wrong results in neutrino transfer. Finally, we discuss a possible incorporation of general relativistic effects into our method

  7. Epoxy/anhydride thermosets modified with end-capped star polymers with poly(ethyleneimine cores of different molecular weight and poly(ε–caprolactone arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Acebo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiarm star polymers, with a hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine (PEI core and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL arms end-capped with acetyl groups were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone from PEI cores of different molecular weight. These star polymers were used as toughening agents for epoxy/anhydride thermosets. The curing process was studied by calorimetry, thermomechanical analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The final properties of the resulting materials were determined by thermal and mechanical tests. The addition of the star polymers led to an improvement up to 130% on impact strength and a reduction in the thermal stresses up to 55%. The structure and molecular weight of the modifier used affected the morphology of the resulting materials. Electron microscopy showed phase-separated morphologies with nano-sized fine particles well adhered to the epoxy/anhydride matrix when the higher molecular weight modifier was used.

  8. A Versatile Approach to Unimolecular Water-Soluble Carriers: ATRP of PEGMA with Hydrophobic Star-Shaped Polymeric Core Molecules as an Alternative for PEGylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramm, O.G.; Pavlov, G.M.; Erp, van H.H.P; Meier, M.A.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    New amphiphilic star-shaped architectures with dense hydrophilic shells were synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of e-caprolactone (CL) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of different poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylates (PEGMAs). The PCL hydrophobic cores

  9. Effects of electron-withdrawing group and electron-donating core combinations on physical properties and photovoltaic performance in D-pi-A star-shaped small molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luponosov, Yuriy N.; Min, Jie; Solodukhin, Alexander N.; Kozlov, Oleg V.; Obrezkova, Marina A.; Peregudova, Svetlana M.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Chvalun, Sergei N.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.

    The first representatives of star-shaped molecules having 3-alkylrhodanine (alkyl-Rh) electron-withdrawing groups, linked through bithiophene pi-spacer with electron-donating either triphenylamine (TPA) or tris(2-methoxyphenyl)amine (m-TPA) core were synthesized. The physical properties and

  10. TOWARD HIGH-PRECISION SEISMIC STUDIES OF WHITE DWARF STARS: PARAMETRIZATION OF THE CORE AND TESTS OF ACCURACY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Charpinet, S. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse F-31400 (France)

    2017-01-10

    We present a prescription for parametrizing the chemical profile in the core of white dwarfs in light of the recent discovery that pulsation modes may sometimes be deeply confined in some cool pulsating white dwarfs. Such modes may be used as unique probes of the complicated chemical stratification that results from several processes that occurred in previous evolutionary phases of intermediate-mass stars. This effort is part of our ongoing quest for more credible and realistic seismic models of white dwarfs using static, parametrized equilibrium structures. Inspired by successful techniques developed in design optimization fields (such as aerodynamics), we exploit Akima splines for the tracing of the chemical profile of oxygen (carbon) in the core of a white dwarf model. A series of tests are then presented to better seize the precision and significance of the results that can be obtained in an asteroseismological context. We also show that the new parametrization passes an essential basic test, as it successfully reproduces the chemical stratification of a full evolutionary model.

  11. TOWARD HIGH-PRECISION SEISMIC STUDIES OF WHITE DWARF STARS: PARAMETRIZATION OF THE CORE AND TESTS OF ACCURACY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a prescription for parametrizing the chemical profile in the core of white dwarfs in light of the recent discovery that pulsation modes may sometimes be deeply confined in some cool pulsating white dwarfs. Such modes may be used as unique probes of the complicated chemical stratification that results from several processes that occurred in previous evolutionary phases of intermediate-mass stars. This effort is part of our ongoing quest for more credible and realistic seismic models of white dwarfs using static, parametrized equilibrium structures. Inspired by successful techniques developed in design optimization fields (such as aerodynamics), we exploit Akima splines for the tracing of the chemical profile of oxygen (carbon) in the core of a white dwarf model. A series of tests are then presented to better seize the precision and significance of the results that can be obtained in an asteroseismological context. We also show that the new parametrization passes an essential basic test, as it successfully reproduces the chemical stratification of a full evolutionary model.

  12. X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG STARS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C. N.; Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Shepherd, D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 40 ks Chandra observation of the IRAS 20126+4104 core region. In the inner 6'' two X-ray sources were detected, which are coincident with the radio jet source I20S and the variable radio source I20Var. No X-ray emission was detected from the nearby massive protostar I20N. The spectra of both detected sources are hard and highly absorbed, with no emission below 3 keV. For I20S, the measured 0.5-8 keV count rate was 4.3 counts ks -1 . The X-ray spectrum was fitted with an absorbed 1T APEC model with an energy of kT =10 keV and an absorbing column of N H = 1.2 x 10 23 cm -2 . An unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of about 1.4 x 10 32 erg s -1 was estimated. The spectrum shows broad line emission between 6.4 and 6.7 keV, indicative of emission from both neutral and highly ionized iron. The X-ray light curve indicates that I20S is marginally variable; however, no flare emission was observed. The variable radio source I20Var was detected with a count rate of 0.9 counts ks -1 but there was no evidence of X-ray variability. The best-fit spectral model is a 1T APEC model with an absorbing hydrogen column of N H = 1.1 x 10 23 cm -2 and a plasma energy of kT = 6.0 keV. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity is about 3 x 10 31 erg s -1 .

  13. A Comparative Observational Study of YSO Classification in Four Small Star-forming H ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung-Ju; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kerton, C. R., E-mail: sjkang@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We have developed a new young stellar object (YSO) identification and classification technique using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We compare this new technique with previous WISE YSO detection and classification methods that used either infrared colors or spectral energy distribution slopes. In this study, we also use the new technique to detect and examine the YSO population associated with four small H ii regions: KR 7, KR 81, KR 120, and KR 140. The relatively simple structure of these regions allows us to effectively use both spatial and temporal constraints to identify YSOs that are potential products of triggered star formation. We are also able to identify regions of active star formation around these H ii regions that are clearly not influenced by the H ii region expansion, and thus demonstrate that star formation is on-going on megayear timescales in some of these molecular clouds.

  14. Multi-core and GPU accelerated simulation of a radial star target imaged with equivalent t-number circular and Gaussian pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greynolds, Alan W.

    2013-09-01

    Results from the GelOE optical engineering software are presented for the through-focus, monochromatic coherent and polychromatic incoherent imaging of a radial "star" target for equivalent t-number circular and Gaussian pupils. The FFT-based simulations are carried out using OpenMP threading on a multi-core desktop computer, with and without the aid of a many-core NVIDIA GPU accessing its cuFFT library. It is found that a custom FFT optimized for the 12-core host has similar performance to a simply implemented 256-core GPU FFT. A more sophisticated version of the latter but tuned to reduce overhead on a 448-core GPU is 20 to 28 times faster than a basic FFT implementation running on one CPU core.

  15. On the origin of phosphorus nitride in star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, C.; Fontani, F.; Rivilla, V. M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Caselli, P.; Vasyunin, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present multitransition observations of phosphorus nitride (PN) towards a sample of nine massive dense cores in different evolutionary stages. Using transitions with different excitation conditions, we have found for the first time that the excitation temperatures of PN are in the range ˜5-30 K. To investigate the main chemical route for the PN formation (surface-chemistry versus gas-phase chemistry), and the dominant desorption mechanism (thermal versus shock), we have compared our results with those obtained from molecules tracing different chemical and physical conditions (SiO, SO, CH3OH, and N2H+). We have found that the PN line profiles are very well correlated with those of SiO and SO in six out of the nine targets, which indicate that PN may be released by sputtering of dust grains due to shocks. This finding is corroborated by a faint but statistically significant positive trend between the PN abundance and those of SiO and SO. However, in three objects the PN lines have no hints of high-velocity wings, which indicates an alternative origin of PN. Overall, our results indicate that the origin of PN is not unique, as it can be formed not only in protostellar shocks, but also in colder and more quiescent gas through alternative pathways.

  16. New Insights into the Nature of Transition Disks from a Complete Disk Survey of the Lupus Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, Nienke; Williams, Jonathan P.; Ansdell, M.; Manara, Carlo F.; Miotello, Anna; Tazzari, Marco; Testi, Leonardo; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Bruderer, Simon; van Terwisga, Sierk E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2018-02-01

    Transition disks with large dust cavities around young stars are promising targets for studying planet formation. Previous studies have revealed the presence of gas cavities inside the dust cavities, hinting at recently formed, giant planets. However, many of these studies are biased toward the brightest disks in the nearby star-forming regions, and it is not possible to derive reliable statistics that can be compared with exoplanet populations. We present the analysis of 11 transition disks with large cavities (≥20 au radius) from a complete disk survey of the Lupus star-forming region, using ALMA Band 7 observations at 0.″3 (22–30 au radius) resolution of the 345 GHz continuum, 13CO and C18O 3–2 observations, and the spectral energy distribution of each source. Gas and dust surface density profiles are derived using the physical–chemical modeling code DALI. This is the first study of transition disks of large cavities within a complete disk survey within a star-forming region. The dust cavity sizes range from 20 to 90 au radius, and in three cases, a gas cavity is resolved as well. The deep drops in gas density and large dust cavity sizes are consistent with clearing by giant planets. The fraction of transition disks with large cavities in Lupus is ≳ 11 % , which is inconsistent with exoplanet population studies of giant planets at wide orbits. Furthermore, we present a hypothesis of an evolutionary path for large massive disks evolving into transition disks with large cavities.

  17. Dust attenuation in 2 < z < 3 star-forming galaxies from deep ALMA observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Cullen, F.; Bourne, N.; Best, P. N.; Khochfar, S.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Biggs, A. D.; Geach, J. E.; Scott, D.; Michałowski, M. J.; Rujopakarn, W.; van Kampen, E.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Pope, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a new study of the relationship between infrared excess (IRX ≡ LIR/LUV), ultraviolet (UV) spectral slope (β) and stellar mass at redshifts 2 grey attenuation curve, similar to the commonly adopted Calzetti law. Based on a large, mass-complete sample of 2 ≤ z ≤ 3 star-forming galaxies drawn from multiple surveys, we proceed to derive a new empirical relationship between β and stellar mass, making it possible to predict UV attenuation (A1600) and IRX as a function of stellar mass, for any assumed attenuation law. Once again, we find that z ≃ 2.5 star-forming galaxies follow A1600-M* and IRX-M* relations consistent with a relatively grey attenuation law, and find no compelling evidence that star-forming galaxies at this epoch follow a reddening law as steep as the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) extinction curve. In fact, we use a simple simulation to demonstrate that previous determinations of the IRX-β relation may have been biased towards low values of IRX at red values of β, mimicking the signature expected for an SMC-like dust law. We show that this provides a plausible mechanism for reconciling apparently contradictory results in the literature and that, based on typical measurement uncertainties, stellar mass provides a cleaner prediction of UV attenuation than β. Although the situation at lower stellar masses remains uncertain, we conclude that for 2 < z < 3 star-forming galaxies with log (M_{\\ast }/M_{⊙}) ≥ 9.75, both the IRX-β and IRX-M* relations are well described by a Calzetti-like attenuation law.

  18. New Wolf-Rayet stars in Galactic open clusters - Sher 1 and the giant H II region core Westerlund 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shara, Michael M.; Potter, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars were found in open clusters: a WN4 star in the O9 cluster Sher 1 and a WN7 star in the O7 cluster Westerlund 2. This confirms a previous trend, namely that fainter, hotter WN stars tend to be older than brighter, cooler WN stars. This may be a consequence of evolution via extreme mass loss.

  19. Study of the Molecular Dynamics of Multiarm Star Polymers with a Poly(ethyleneimine Core and Poly(lactide Multiarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Román

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiarm star polymers, denoted PEIx-PLAy and containing a hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine (PEI core of different molecular weights x and poly(lactide (PLA arms with y ratio of lactide repeat units to N links were used in this work. Samples were preconditioned to remove the moisture content and then characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS. The glass transition temperature, Tg, is between 48 and 50 °C for all the PEIx-PLAy samples. The dielectric curves show four dipolar relaxations: γ, β, α, and α′ in order of increasing temperature. The temperatures at which these relaxations appear, together with their dependence on the frequency, allows relaxation maps to be drawn, from which the activation energies of the sub-Tg γ- and β-relaxations and the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann parameters of the α-relaxation glass transition are obtained. The dependence of the characteristic features of these relaxations on the molecular weight of the PEI core and on the ratio of lactide repeat units to N links permits the assignation of molecular motions to each relaxation. The γ-relaxation is associated with local motions of the –OH groups of the poly(lactide chains, the β-relaxation with motions of the main chain of poly(lactide, the α-relaxation with global motions of the complete assembly of PEI core and PLA arms, and the α′-relaxation is related to the normal mode relaxation due to fluctuations of the end-to-end vector in the PLA arms, without excluding the possibility that it could be a Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars type ionic peak because the material may have nano-regions of different conductivity.

  20. Study of the Molecular Dynamics of Multiarm Star Polymers with a Poly(ethyleneimine) Core and Poly(lactide) Multiarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Frida; Colomer, Pere; Calventus, Yolanda; Hutchinson, John M

    2017-02-04

    Multiarm star polymers, denoted PEI x -PLA y and containing a hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) core of different molecular weights x and poly(lactide) (PLA) arms with y ratio of lactide repeat units to N links were used in this work. Samples were preconditioned to remove the moisture content and then characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). The glass transition temperature, T g , is between 48 and 50 °C for all the PEI x -PLA y samples. The dielectric curves show four dipolar relaxations: γ, β, α, and α' in order of increasing temperature. The temperatures at which these relaxations appear, together with their dependence on the frequency, allows relaxation maps to be drawn, from which the activation energies of the sub- T g γ- and β-relaxations and the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann parameters of the α-relaxation glass transition are obtained. The dependence of the characteristic features of these relaxations on the molecular weight of the PEI core and on the ratio of lactide repeat units to N links permits the assignation of molecular motions to each relaxation. The γ-relaxation is associated with local motions of the -OH groups of the poly(lactide) chains, the β-relaxation with motions of the main chain of poly(lactide), the α-relaxation with global motions of the complete assembly of PEI core and PLA arms, and the α'-relaxation is related to the normal mode relaxation due to fluctuations of the end-to-end vector in the PLA arms, without excluding the possibility that it could be a Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars type ionic peak because the material may have nano-regions of different conductivity.

  1. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM MASSIVE MAGNETARS FORMED IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Osso, Simone [Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, auf der Morgenstelle 10 D-72076 (Germany); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Stella, Luigi, E-mail: simone.dallosso@uni-tuebingen.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    Binary neutron star (NS) mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), as well as candidate progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Depending on the total initial mass of the system and the NS equation of state (EOS), the post-merger phase can be characterized by a prompt collapse to a black hole or by the formation of a supramassive NS, or even a stable NS. In the latter cases of post-merger NS (PMNS) formation, magnetic field amplification during the merger will produce a magnetar and induce a mass quadrupole moment in the newly formed NS. If the timescale for orthogonalization of the magnetic symmetry axis with the spin axis is smaller than the spindown time, the NS will radiate its spin down energy primarily via GWs. Here we study this scenario for the various outcomes of NS formation: we generalize the set of equilibrium states for a twisted torus magnetic configuration to include solutions that, for the same external dipolar field, carry a larger magnetic energy reservoir; we hence compute the magnetic ellipticity for such configurations, and the corresponding strength of the expected GW signal as a function of the relative magnitude of the dipolar and toroidal field components. The relative number of GW detections from PMNSs and from binary NSs is a very strong function of the NS EOS, being higher (∼1%) for the stiffest EOSs and negligibly small for the softest ones. For intermediate-stiffness EOSs, such as the n = 4/7 polytrope recently used by Giacomazzo and Perna or the GM1 used by Lasky et al., the relative fraction is ∼0.3%; correspondingly, we estimate a GW detection rate from stable PMNSs of ∼0.1-1 yr{sup –1} with advanced detectors, and of ∼100-1000 yr{sup –1} with detectors of third generation such as the Einstein Telescope. Measurement of such GW signals would provide constraints on the NS EOS and, in connection with an SGRB, on the nature of the binary progenitors giving rise to these events.

  2. HIFI Spectroscopy of H2O Submillimeter Lines in Nuclei of Actively Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Weiß, A.; Perez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Güsten, R.; Liu, D.; Gao, Y.; Menten, K. M.; van der Werf, P.; Israel, F. P.; Harris, A.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a systematic survey of multiple velocity-resolved H2O spectra using Herschel/Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) toward nine nearby actively star-forming galaxies. The ground-state and low-excitation lines (E up ≤ 130 K) show profiles with emission and absorption blended together, while absorption-free medium-excitation lines (130 K ≤ E up ≤ 350 K) typically display line shapes similar to CO. We analyze the HIFI observation together with archival SPIRE/PACS H2O data using a state-of-the-art 3D radiative transfer code that includes the interaction between continuum and line emission. The water excitation models are combined with information on the dust and CO spectral line energy distribution to determine the physical structure of the interstellar medium (ISM). We identify two ISM components that are common to all galaxies: a warm ({T}{dust}˜ 40{--}70 K), dense (n({{H}})˜ {10}5{--}{10}6 {{cm}}-3) phase that dominates the emission of medium-excitation H2O lines. This gas phase also dominates the far-IR emission and the CO intensities for {J}{up}> 8. In addition, a cold ({T}{dust}˜ 20{--}30 K), dense (n({{H}})˜ {10}4{--}{10}5 {{cm}}-3), more extended phase is present. It outputs the emission in the low-excitation H2O lines and typically also produces the prominent line absorption features. For the two ULIRGs in our sample (Arp 220 and Mrk 231) an even hotter and more compact (R s ≤ 100 pc) region is present, which is possibly linked to AGN activity. We find that collisions dominate the water excitation in the cold gas and for lines with {E}{up}≤slant 300 K and {E}{up}≤slant 800 K in the warm and hot component, respectively. Higher-energy levels are mainly excited by IR pumping.

  3. UV-luminous, star-forming hosts of z ˜ 2 reddened quasars in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethers, C. F.; Banerji, M.; Hewett, P. C.; Lemon, C. A.; McMahon, R. G.; Reed, S. L.; Shen, Y.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; CarrascoKind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first rest-frame UV population study of 17 heavily reddened, high-luminosity [E(B - V)QSO ≳ 0.5; Lbol > 1046 erg s-1] broad-line quasars at 1.5 VISTA Hemisphere Survey and UKIDSS Large Area Survey data, from which the reddened quasars were initially identified. We demonstrate that the significant dust reddening towards the quasar in our sample allows host galaxy emission to be detected at the rest-frame UV wavelengths probed by the DES photometry. By exploiting this reddening effect, we disentangle the quasar emission from that of the host galaxy via spectral energy distribution fitting. We find evidence for a relatively unobscured, star-forming host galaxy in at least 10 quasars, with a further three quasars exhibiting emission consistent with either star formation or scattered light. From the rest-frame UV emission, we derive instantaneous, dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) in the range 25 < SFRUV < 365 M⊙ yr-1, with an average SFRUV = 130 ± 95 M⊙ yr-1. We find a broad correlation between SFRUV and the bolometric quasar luminosity. Overall, our results show evidence for coeval star formation and black hole accretion occurring in luminous, reddened quasars at the peak epoch of galaxy formation.

  4. A SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.; Shukla, S. J.; Loutrel, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg 2 fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg 2 ) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types.

  5. A measurement of the turbulence-driven density distribution in a non-star-forming molecular cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, Adam; Darling, Jeremy [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Federrath, Christoph, E-mail: Adam.G.Ginsburg@gmail.com [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2013-12-10

    Molecular clouds are supersonically turbulent. This turbulence governs the initial mass function and the star formation rate. In order to understand the details of star formation, it is therefore essential to understand the properties of turbulence, in particular the probability distribution of density in turbulent clouds. We present H{sub 2}CO volume density measurements of a non-star-forming cloud along the line of sight toward W49A. We use these measurements in conjunction with total mass estimates from {sup 13}CO to infer the shape of the density probability distribution function. This method is complementary to measurements of turbulence via the column density distribution and should be applicable to any molecular cloud with detected CO. We show that turbulence in this cloud is probably compressively driven, with a compressive-to-total Mach number ratio b=M{sub C}/M>0.4. We measure the standard deviation of the density distribution, constraining it to the range 1.5 < σ {sub s} < 1.9, assuming that the density is lognormally distributed. This measurement represents an essential input into star formation laws. The method of averaging over different excitation conditions to produce a model of emission from a turbulent cloud is generally applicable to optically thin line observations.

  6. A SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Shukla, S. J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Loutrel, N. P., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [eXtreme Gravity Institute, Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg{sup 2} fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg{sup 2}) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types.

  7. Compartmentalization in hybrid metallacarborane nanoparticles formed by block copolymers with star-like architecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďorďovič, V.; Uchman, M.; Zhigunov, Alexander; Nykänen, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Matějíček, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 11 (2014), s. 1151-1155 ISSN 2161-1653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-14608S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanoparticles * block copolymers * star-like architecture Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.764, year: 2014

  8. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: a tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challengi...

  9. Presupernova evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Woosley, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    Population I stars of 15 M/sub mass/ and 25 M/sub mass/ have been evolved from the zero-age main sequence through iron core collapse utilizing a numerical model that incorporates both implicit hydrodynamics and a detailed treatment of nuclear reactions. The stars end their presupernova evolution as red supergiants with photospheric radii of 3.9 x 10 13 cm and 6.7 x 10 13 cm, respectively, and density structures similar to those invoked to explain Type II supernova light curves on a strictly hydrodynamic basis. Both stars are found to form substantially neutronized ''iron'' cores of 1.56 M/sub mass/ and 1.61 M/sub mass/, and central electron abundances of 0.427 and 0.439 moles/g, respectively, during hydrostatic silicon burning. Just prior to collapse, the abundances of the elements in the 25 M/sub mass/ star (excluding the neutronized iron core) have ratios strikingly close to their solar system values over the mass range from oxygen to calcium, while the 15 M/sub mass/ star is characterized by large enhancements of Ne, Mg, and Si. It is pointed out on nucleosynthetic grounds that the mass of the neutronized core must represent a lower limit to the mass of the neutron star or black hole remnant that stars in this mass range can normally produce

  10. Challenges in forming the solar system's giant planet cores via pebble accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretke, K. A.; Levison, H. F.

    2014-01-01

    Though ∼10 M ⊕ mass rocky/icy cores are commonly held as a prerequisite for the formation of gas giants, theoretical models still struggle to explain how these embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. In recent years, aerodynamic-aided accretion of 'pebbles', objects ranging from centimeters to meters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. While pebble accretion has been demonstrated to be extremely effective in local simulations that look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a single planetary embryo, to date there have been no global simulations demonstrating the effectiveness of pebble accretion in a more complicated, multi-planet environment. Therefore, we have incorporated the aerodynamic-aided accretion physics into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code that can follow the collisional/accretional/dynamical evolution of a protoplanetary system, to investigate how pebble accretion manifests itself in the larger planet formation picture. We find that under generic circumstances, pebble accretion naturally leads to an 'oligarchic' type of growth in which a large number of planetesimals grow to similar-sized planets. In particular, our simulations tend to form hundreds of Mars- and Earth-mass objects between 4 and 10 AU. While merging of some oligarchs may grow massive enough to form giant planet cores, leftover oligarchs lead to planetary systems that cannot be consistent with our own solar system. We investigate various ideas presented in the literature (including evaporation fronts and planet traps) and find that none easily overcome this tendency toward oligarchic growth.

  11. GOODS-HERSCHEL: SEPARATING HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES USING INFRARED COLOR DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Leiton, Roger [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scott, Douglas; Magnelli, Benjamin; Popesso, Paola [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Valtchanov, Ivan [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Dannerbauer, Helmut [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astrophysik, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC color diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.

  12. THE FMOS-COSMOS SURVEY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6. I. Hα-BASED STAR FORMATION RATES AND DUST EXTINCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashino, D.; Sugiyama, N. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Daddi, E. [CEA-Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Sanders, D. B.; Zahid, H. J.; Chu, J.; Hasinger, G.; Kewley, L. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Capak, P. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Kajisawa, M. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Koekemoer, A. M., E-mail: daichi@nagoya-u.jp [HST and JWST Instruments/Science Division, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-11-01

    We present the first results from a near-IR spectroscopic survey of the COSMOS field, using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope, designed to characterize the star-forming galaxy population at 1.4 < z < 1.7. The high-resolution mode is implemented to detect Hα in emission between 1.6-1.8 μm with f {sub Hα} ∼> 4 × 10{sup –17} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. Here, we specifically focus on 271 sBzK-selected galaxies that yield a Hα detection thus providing a redshift and emission line luminosity to establish the relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. With further J-band spectroscopy for 89 of these, the level of dust extinction is assessed by measuring the Balmer decrement using co-added spectra. We find that the extinction (0.6 ∼< A {sub Hα} ∼< 2.5) rises with stellar mass and is elevated at high masses compared to low-redshift galaxies. Using this subset of the spectroscopic sample, we further find that the differential extinction between stellar and nebular emission E {sub star}(B – V)/E {sub neb}(B – V) is 0.7-0.8, dissimilar to that typically seen at low redshift. After correcting for extinction, we derive an Hα-based main sequence with a slope (0.81 ± 0.04) and normalization similar to previous studies at these redshifts.

  13. Evolution of a 1 M(sun) star with a periodically mixed core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, M; Noels, A; Scuflaire, R; Boury, A [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Inst. d' Astrophysique

    1976-02-01

    To solve the neutrino problem, Dilke and Gough have suggested that the vibrational instability of g/sup +/ modes of non radial oscillation may be the cause of recurrent mixing in the sun. Supposing this to be correct, the evolution of the sun is completely different from the standard one. Unmixed solar models are stable when older than 3 x 10/sup 9/ years. It is therefore necessary to check whether in the modified evolution, instabilities still exist at the solar age. They do, provided that the mass fraction of the mixed core is large enough. However, the neutrino flux at its minimum during a thermal pulse occurring at the solar age remains too high. Constraints imposed by ice age records are also discussed.

  14. WHAT TURNS GALAXIES OFF? THE DIFFERENT MORPHOLOGIES OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 2 FROM CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Eric F.; Herrington, Jessica [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kocevski, Dale; Faber, S. M.; Cheung, Edmond; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth J. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lotz, Jennifer; Ferguson, Harry; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); McIntosh, Daniel H. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [NOAO-Tucson, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Conselice, Christopher J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dunlop, James S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Giavalisco, Mauro, E-mail: ericbell@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    We use HST/WFC3 imaging from the CANDELS Multi-Cycle Treasury Survey, in conjunction with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to explore the evolution of galactic structure for galaxies with stellar masses >3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} from z = 2.2 to the present epoch, a time span of 10 Gyr. We explore the relationship between rest-frame optical color, stellar mass, star formation activity, and galaxy structure. We confirm the dramatic increase from z = 2.2 to the present day in the number density of non-star-forming galaxies above 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} reported by others. We further find that the vast majority of these quiescent systems have concentrated light profiles, as parameterized by the Sersic index, and the population of concentrated galaxies grows similarly rapidly. We examine the joint distribution of star formation activity, Sersic index, stellar mass, inferred velocity dispersion, and stellar surface density. Quiescence correlates poorly with stellar mass at all z < 2.2. Quiescence correlates well with Sersic index at all redshifts. Quiescence correlates well with 'velocity dispersion' and stellar surface density at z > 1.3, and somewhat less well at lower redshifts. Yet, there is significant scatter between quiescence and galaxy structure: while the vast majority of quiescent galaxies have prominent bulges, many of them have significant disks, and a number of bulge-dominated galaxies have significant star formation. Noting the rarity of quiescent galaxies without prominent bulges, we argue that a prominent bulge (and perhaps, by association, a supermassive black hole) is an important condition for quenching star formation on galactic scales over the last 10 Gyr, in qualitative agreement with the active galactic nucleus feedback paradigm.

  15. WHAT TURNS GALAXIES OFF? THE DIFFERENT MORPHOLOGIES OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES SINCE z ∼ 2 FROM CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Eric F.; Herrington, Jessica; Van der Wel, Arjen; Papovich, Casey; Kocevski, Dale; Faber, S. M.; Cheung, Edmond; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Lotz, Jennifer; Ferguson, Harry; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Wuyts, Stijn; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dekel, Avishai; Dunlop, James S.; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We use HST/WFC3 imaging from the CANDELS Multi-Cycle Treasury Survey, in conjunction with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to explore the evolution of galactic structure for galaxies with stellar masses >3 × 10 10 M ☉ from z = 2.2 to the present epoch, a time span of 10 Gyr. We explore the relationship between rest-frame optical color, stellar mass, star formation activity, and galaxy structure. We confirm the dramatic increase from z = 2.2 to the present day in the number density of non-star-forming galaxies above 3 × 10 10 M ☉ reported by others. We further find that the vast majority of these quiescent systems have concentrated light profiles, as parameterized by the Sérsic index, and the population of concentrated galaxies grows similarly rapidly. We examine the joint distribution of star formation activity, Sérsic index, stellar mass, inferred velocity dispersion, and stellar surface density. Quiescence correlates poorly with stellar mass at all z 1.3, and somewhat less well at lower redshifts. Yet, there is significant scatter between quiescence and galaxy structure: while the vast majority of quiescent galaxies have prominent bulges, many of them have significant disks, and a number of bulge-dominated galaxies have significant star formation. Noting the rarity of quiescent galaxies without prominent bulges, we argue that a prominent bulge (and perhaps, by association, a supermassive black hole) is an important condition for quenching star formation on galactic scales over the last 10 Gyr, in qualitative agreement with the active galactic nucleus feedback paradigm.

  16. Radio continuum observations of local star-forming galaxies using the Caltech Continuum Backend on the green bank telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabidoux, Katie; Pisano, D. J.; Kepley, Amanda A.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Balser, Dana S.

    2014-01-01

    We observed radio continuum emission in 27 local (D < 70 Mpc) star-forming galaxies with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 26 GHz and 40 GHz using the Caltech Continuum Backend. We obtained detections for 22 of these galaxies at all four sub-bands and four more marginal detections by taking the average flux across the entire bandwidth. This is the first detection (full or marginal) at these frequencies for 22 of these galaxies. We fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all of the four sub-band detections. For 14 of the galaxies, SEDs were best fit by a combination of thermal free-free and nonthermal synchrotron components. Eight galaxies with four sub-band detections had steep spectra that were only fit by a single nonthermal component. Using these fits, we calculated supernova rates, total number of equivalent O stars, and star formation rates within each ∼23'' beam. For unresolved galaxies, these physical properties characterize the galaxies' recent star formation on a global scale. We confirm that the radio-far-infrared correlation holds for the unresolved galaxies' total 33 GHz flux regardless of their thermal fractions, though the scatter on this correlation is larger than that at 1.4 GHz. In addition, we found that for the unresolved galaxies, there is an inverse relationship between the ratio of 33 GHz flux to total far-infrared flux and the steepness of the galaxy's spectral index between 1.4 GHz and 33 GHz. This relationship could be an indicator of the timescale of the observed episode of star formation.

  17. The Star Formation Rate Efficiency of Neutral Atomic-Dominated Hydrogen Gas in the Ooutskirts of Star-Forming Galaxies From z approx. 1 to z approx. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Fumagalli, Michele; Neeleman, Marcel; Teplitz, Harry I.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Scarlata, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Current observational evidence suggests that the star formation rate (SFR)efficiency of neutral atomic hydrogen gas measured in damped Ly(alpha) systems (DLAs) at z approx. 3 is more than 10 times lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS)relation. To understand the origin of this deficit, and to investigate possible evolution with redshift and galaxy properties, we measure the SFR efficiency of atomic gas at z approx. 1, z approx. 2, and z approx. 3 around star-forming galaxies. We use new robust photometric redshifts in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to create galaxy stacks in these three redshift bins, and measure the SFR efficiency by combining DLA absorber statistics with the observed rest-frame UV emission in the galaxies' outskirts. We find that the SFR efficiency of H I gas at z > 1 is approx. 1%-3% of that predicted by the KS relation. Contrary to simulations and models that predict a reduced SFR efficiency with decreasing metallicity and thus with increasing redshift, we find no significant evolution in the SFR efficiency with redshift. Our analysis instead suggests that the reduced SFR efficiency is driven by the low molecular content of this atomic-dominated phase, with metallicity playing a secondary effect in regulating the conversion between atomic and molecular gas. This interpretation is supported by the similarity between the observed SFR efficiency and that observed in local atomic-dominated gas, such as in the outskirts of local spiral galaxies and local dwarf galaxies.

  18. Relations between stellar mass and electron temperature-based metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a wide mass range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Wei-Bin; Zhao Gang; Ruan Gui-Ping; Zhou Li; Liang Yan-Chun; Shao Xu; Liu Xiao-Wei; Hammer Francois; Flores Hector; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O III]λ4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5σ. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are then determined. We compare the results from different methods. t 2 , the electron temperature in the low ionization region, estimated from t 3 , that in the high ionization region, is compared using three analysis relations between t 2 – t 3 . These show obvious differences, which result in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of t 3 , t 2 , O ++ /H + and O + /H + derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances O ++ /H + are higher than O + /H + for most cases. The different oxygen abundances derived from T e and the strong-line ratios show a clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio R 23 . The sample of galaxies from SDSS with detected [O III]λ4363 have lower metallicites and higher star formation rates, so they may not be typical representatives of the whole population of galaxies. Adopting data objects from Andrews and Martini, Liang et al. and Lee et al. data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from 10 6 M ⊙ to 10 11 M ⊙ . (research papers)

  19. ALMA Shows that Gas Reservoirs of Star-forming Disks over the Past 3 Billion Years Are Not Predominantly Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, Luca; Catinella, Barbara; Janowiecki, Steven, E-mail: luca.cortese@uwa.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2017-10-10

    Cold hydrogen gas is the raw fuel for star formation in galaxies, and its partition into atomic and molecular phases is a key quantity for galaxy evolution. In this Letter, we combine Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Arecibo single-dish observations to estimate the molecular-to-atomic hydrogen mass ratio for massive star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.2 extracted from the HIGHz survey, i.e., some of the most massive gas-rich systems currently known. We show that the balance between atomic and molecular hydrogen in these galaxies is similar to that of local main-sequence disks, implying that atomic hydrogen has been dominating the cold gas mass budget of star-forming galaxies for at least the past three billion years. In addition, despite harboring gas reservoirs that are more typical of objects at the cosmic noon, HIGHz galaxies host regular rotating disks with low gas velocity dispersions suggesting that high total gas fractions do not necessarily drive high turbulence in the interstellar medium.

  20. The Star Formation in Radio Survey: Jansky Very Large Array 33 GHz Observations of Nearby Galaxy Nuclei and Extranuclear Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Dong, D.; Momjian, E.; Linden, S.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Meier, D. S.; Schinnerer, E.; Turner, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present 33 GHz imaging for 112 pointings toward galaxy nuclei and extranuclear star-forming regions at ≈2″ resolution using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) as part of the Star Formation in Radio Survey. A comparison with 33 GHz Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope single-dish observations indicates that the interferometric VLA observations recover 78% ± 4% of the total flux density over 25″ regions (≈kpc scales) among all fields. On these scales, the emission being resolved out is most likely diffuse non-thermal synchrotron emission. Consequently, on the ≈30–300 pc scales sampled by our VLA observations, the bulk of the 33 GHz emission is recovered and primarily powered by free–free emission from discrete H II regions, making it an excellent tracer of massive star formation. Of the 225 discrete regions used for aperture photometry, 162 are extranuclear (i.e., having galactocentric radii r G ≥ 250 pc) and detected at >3σ significance at 33 GHz and in Hα. Assuming a typical 33 GHz thermal fraction of 90%, the ratio of optically-thin 33 GHz to uncorrected Hα star formation rates indicates a median extinction value on ≈30–300 pc scales of A Hα ≈ 1.26 ± 0.09 mag, with an associated median absolute deviation of 0.87 mag. We find that 10% of these sources are “highly embedded” (i.e., A Hα ≳ 3.3 mag), suggesting that on average, H II regions remain embedded for ≲1 Myr. Finally, we find the median 33 GHz continuum-to-Hα line flux ratio to be statistically larger within r G < 250 pc relative to the outer disk regions by a factor of 1.82 ± 0.39, while the ratio of 33 GHz to 24 μm flux densities is lower by a factor of 0.45 ± 0.08, which may suggest increased extinction in the central regions.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Monoceros star-forming region radial velocities (Costado+ 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costado, M. T.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2018-03-01

    The compiled data of each star. The columns RV + catalogue number are taken from VizieR (references below) and the column WEBDA is the median value calculated using all measurements taken from WEBDA database (references below for each cluster). We also show our identification number (ID), HD and HIP number, the Equatorial coordinates, the RV median value, which we will use in the kinematic analysis, and the distance calculated by Astraatmadja & Bailer-Jones (2017) using Gaia parallax. (1 data file).

  2. URCA neutrino-loss rates under conditions found in the carbon-oxygen cores of intermediate-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In the hope of uncovering additional Urca-active nuclei that might appear during carbon burning in the electron-degenerate carbon-oxygen core of an asymptotic-branch star and avert a thermonuclear runaway, a nuclear-reaction matrix connecting 244 nuclear species has been constructed. Analytic expressions for rates of all relevant β-transitions are also presented and used. It is shown that in matter which is composed initially of elements in a solar-system distribution and which has undergone first complete hydrogen burning and then complete helium burning, neutrino-loss rates due to 11 Urca pairs either rival or exceed neutrino losses predicted by the charge- and neutral-current theories of weak interactions. Most remarkably, no new Urca pairs of any consequence appear as a result of several thousand reactions that are allowed to occur during carbon burning. The dominant Urca-loss rates are still due to the pairs 21 F- 21 Ne, 23 Ne- 23 Na, 25 Na- 25 Mg, and 25 Ne- 25 Na, as in matter containing a solar-system distribution of elements that has undergone prior processing during hydrogen- and helium-burning phases. The abundances of these Urca-active pairs are enhanced by one to three orders of magnitude as a consequence of carbon-burning reactions

  3. The Light and Dark Face of a Star-Forming Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Today, ESO is unveiling an image of the little known Gum 19, a faint nebula that, in the infrared, appears dark on one half and bright on the other. On one side hot hydrogen gas is illuminated by a supergiant blue star called V391 Velorum. New star formation is taking place within the ribbon of luminous and dark material that brackets V391 Velorum's left in this perspective. After many millennia, these fledgling stars, coupled with the explosive demise of V391 Velorum as a supernova, will likely alter Gum 19's present Janus-like appearance. Gum 19 is located in the direction of the constellation Vela (the Sail) at a distance of approximately 22 000 light years. The Gum 19 moniker derives from a 1955 publication by the Australian astrophysicist Colin S. Gum that served as the first significant survey of so-called HII (read "H-two") regions in the southern sky. HII refers to hydrogen gas that is ionised, or energised to the extent that the hydrogen atoms lose their electrons. Such regions emit light at well-defined wavelengths (or colours), thereby giving these cosmic clouds their characteristic glow. And indeed, much like terrestrial clouds, the shapes and textures of these HII regions change as time passes, though over the course of eons rather than before our eyes. For now, Gum 19 has somewhat of a science fiction-esque, "rip in spacetime" look to it in this image, with a narrow, near-vertical bright region slashing across the nebula. Looking at it, you could possibly see a resemblance to a two-toned angelfish or an arrow with a darkened point. This new image of the evocative Gum 19 object was captured by an infrared instrument called SOFI, mounted on ESO's New Technology Telescope (NTT) that operates at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. SOFI stands for Son of ISAAC, after the "father" instrument, ISAAC, that is located at ESO's Very Large Telescope observatory at Paranal to the north of La Silla. Observing this nebula in the infrared allows astronomers to see

  4. Cluster form factor calculation in the ab initio no-core shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, Petr

    2004-01-01

    We derive expressions for cluster overlap integrals or channel cluster form factors for ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) wave functions. These are used to obtain the spectroscopic factors and can serve as a starting point for the description of low-energy nuclear reactions. We consider the composite system and the target nucleus to be described in the Slater determinant (SD) harmonic oscillator (HO) basis while the projectile eigenstate to be expanded in the Jacobi coordinate HO basis. This is the most practical case. The spurious center of mass components present in the SD bases are removed exactly. The calculated cluster overlap integrals are translationally invariant. As an illustration, we present results of cluster form factor calculations for 5 He vertical bar 4 He+n>, 5 He vertical bar 3 H+d>, 6 Li vertical bar 4 He+d>, 6 Be vertical bar 3 He+ 3 He>, 7 Li vertical bar 4 He+ 3 H>, 7 Li vertical bar 6 Li+n>, 8 Be vertical bar 6 Li+d>, 8 Be vertical bar 7 Li+p>, 9 Li vertical bar 8 Li+n>, and 13 C vertical bar 12 C+n>, with all the nuclei described by multi-(ℎ/2π)Ω NCSM wave functions

  5. The KMOS Redshift One Spectroscopic Survey (KROSS): the origin of disc turbulence in z ≈ 1 star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. L.; Harrison, C. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Tiley, A. L.; Stott, J. P.; Bower, R. G.; Smail, Ian; Bunker, A. J.; Sobral, D.; Turner, O. J.; Best, P.; Bureau, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Magdis, G.; Sharples, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Croom, S. M.; Federrath, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Sweet, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.; Goodwin, M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S.

    2018-03-01

    We analyse the velocity dispersion properties of 472 z ˜ 0.9 star-forming galaxies observed as part of the KMOS Redshift One Spectroscopic Survey (KROSS). The majority of this sample is rotationally dominated (83 ± 5 per cent with vC/σ0 > 1) but also dynamically hot and highly turbulent. After correcting for beam smearing effects, the median intrinsic velocity dispersion for the final sample is σ0 = 43.2 ± 0.8 km s-1 with a rotational velocity to dispersion ratio of vC/σ0 = 2.6 ± 0.1. To explore the relationship between velocity dispersion, stellar mass, star formation rate, and redshift, we combine KROSS with data from the SAMI survey (z ˜ 0.05) and an intermediate redshift MUSE sample (z ˜ 0.5). Whilst there is, at most, a weak trend between velocity dispersion and stellar mass, at fixed mass there is a strong increase with redshift. At all redshifts, galaxies appear to follow the same weak trend of increasing velocity dispersion with star formation rate. Our results are consistent with an evolution of galaxy dynamics driven by discs that are more gas rich, and increasingly gravitationally unstable, as a function of increasing redshift. Finally, we test two analytic models that predict turbulence is driven by either gravitational instabilities or stellar feedback. Both provide an adequate description of the data, and further observations are required to rule out either model.

  6. Rapidly star-forming galaxies adjacent to quasars at redshifts exceeding 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarli, R; Walter, F; Venemans, B P; Bañados, E; Bertoldi, F; Carilli, C; Fan, X; Farina, E P; Mazzucchelli, C; Riechers, D; Rix, H-W; Strauss, M A; Wang, R; Yang, Y

    2017-05-24

    The existence of massive (10 11 solar masses) elliptical galaxies by redshift z ≈ 4 (refs 1, 2, 3; when the Universe was 1.5 billion years old) necessitates the presence of galaxies with star-formation rates exceeding 100 solar masses per year at z > 6 (corresponding to an age of the Universe of less than 1 billion years). Surveys have discovered hundreds of galaxies at these early cosmic epochs, but their star-formation rates are more than an order of magnitude lower. The only known galaxies with very high star-formation rates at z > 6 are, with one exception, the host galaxies of quasars, but these galaxies also host accreting supermassive (more than 10 9 solar masses) black holes, which probably affect the properties of the galaxies. Here we report observations of an emission line of singly ionized carbon ([C ii] at a wavelength of 158 micrometres) in four galaxies at z > 6 that are companions of quasars, with velocity offsets of less than 600 kilometres per second and linear offsets of less than 100 kiloparsecs. The discovery of these four galaxies was serendipitous; they are close to their companion quasars and appear bright in the far-infrared. On the basis of the [C ii] measurements, we estimate star-formation rates in the companions of more than 100 solar masses per year. These sources are similar to the host galaxies of the quasars in [C ii] brightness, linewidth and implied dynamical mass, but do not show evidence for accreting supermassive black holes. Similar systems have previously been found at lower redshift. We find such close companions in four out of the twenty-five z > 6 quasars surveyed, a fraction that needs to be accounted for in simulations. If they are representative of the bright end of the [C ii] luminosity function, then they can account for the population of massive elliptical galaxies at z ≈ 4 in terms of the density of cosmic space.

  7. Ultra-dense neutron star matter, strange quark stars, and the nuclear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.; Meixner, M.; Negreiros, R.P.; Malheiro, M.

    2007-01-01

    With central densities way above the density of atomic nuclei, neutron stars contain matter in one of the densest forms found in the universe. Depending of the density reached in the cores of neutron stars, they may contain stable phases of exotic matter found nowhere else in space. This article gives a brief overview of the phases of ultra-dense matter predicted to exist deep inside neutron stars and discusses the equation of state (EoS) associated with such matter. (author)

  8. The GOODS UV Legacy Fields: A Full Census of Faint Star-Forming Galaxies at z~0.5-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Deep HST imaging has shown that the overall star formation density and UV light density at z>3 is dominated by faint, blue galaxies. Remarkably, very little is known about the equivalent galaxy population at lower redshifts. Understanding how these galaxies evolve across the epoch of peak cosmic star-formation is key to a complete picture of galaxy evolution. While we and others have been making every effort to use existing UV imaging data, a large fraction of the prior data were taken without post-flash and are not photometric. We now propose to obtain a robust legacy dataset for a complete census of faint star-forming galaxies at z~0.5-2, akin to what is achieved at z>3, using the unique capabilities of the WFC3/UVIS camera to obtain very deep UV imaging to 27.5-28.0 mag over the CANDELS Deep fields in GOODS North and South. We directly sample the FUV at z>~0.5 and we make these prime legacy fields for JWST with unique and essential UV/blue HST coverage. Together with the exquisite ancillary multi-wavelength data at high spatial resolution from ACS and WFC3/IR our program will result in accurate photometric redshifts for very faint sources and will enable a wealth of research by the community. This includes tracing the evolution of the FUV luminosity function over the peak of the star formation rate density from z~3 down to z~0.5, measuring the physical properties of sub-L* galaxies, and characterizing resolved stellar populations to decipher the build-up of the Hubble sequence from sub-galactic clumps. The lack of a future UV space telescope makes the acquisition of such legacy data imperative for the JWST era and beyond.

  9. The dynamics of z = 0.8 Hα-selected star-forming galaxies from KMOS/CF-HiZELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobral, D.; Matthee, J.; Swinbank, A. M.; Stott, J. P.; Bower, R. G.; Smail, Ian; Sharples, R. M.; Best, P.; Geach, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present the spatially resolved Hα dynamics of 16 star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.81 using the new KMOS multi-object integral field spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope. These galaxies, selected using 1.18 μm narrowband imaging from the 10 deg 2 CFHT-HiZELS survey of the SA 22 hr field, are found in a ∼4 Mpc overdensity of Hα emitters and likely reside in a group/intermediate environment, but not a cluster. We confirm and identify a rich group of star-forming galaxies at z = 0.813 ± 0.003, with 13 galaxies within 1000 km s –1 of each other, and seven within a diameter of 3 Mpc. All of our galaxies are 'typical' star-forming galaxies at their redshift, 0.8 ± 0.4 SFR z=0.8 ∗ , spanning a range of specific star formation rates (sSFRs) of 0.2-1.1 Gyr –1 and have a median metallicity very close to solar of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.62 ± 0.06. We measure the spatially resolved Hα dynamics of the galaxies in our sample and show that 13 out of 16 galaxies can be described by rotating disks and use the data to derive inclination corrected rotation speeds of 50-275 km s –1 . The fraction of disks within our sample is 75% ± 8%, consistent with previous results based on Hubble Space Telescope morphologies of Hα-selected galaxies at z ∼ 1 and confirming that disks dominate the SFR density at z ∼ 1. Our Hα galaxies are well fitted by the z ∼ 1-2 Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, confirming the evolution seen in the zero point. Apart from having, on average, higher stellar masses and lower sSFRs, our group galaxies at z = 0.81 present the same mass-metallicity and TF relation as z ∼ 1 field galaxies and are all disk galaxies.

  10. NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM eBOSS: SIGNATURES OF UBIQUITOUS GALACTIC-SCALE OUTFLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Comparat, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Delubac, Timothée; Raichoor, Anand; Yèche, Christophe; Dawson, Kyle S.; Newman, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xu; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    We present rest-frame near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectroscopy of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.6 < z < 1.2 from the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) in SDSS-IV. One of the eBOSS programs is to obtain 2″ (about 15 kpc) fiber spectra of about 200,000 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at redshift z ≳ 0.6. We use the data from the pilot observations of this program, including 8620 spectra of SFGs at 0.6 < z < 1.2. The median composite spectra of these SFGs at 2200 Å < λ < 4000 Å feature asymmetric, preferentially blueshifted non-resonant emission, Fe ii*, and blueshifted resonant absorption, e.g., Fe ii and Mg ii, indicating ubiquitous outflows driven by star formation at these redshifts. For the absorption lines, we find a variety of velocity profiles with different degrees of blueshift. Comparing our new observations with the literature, we do not observe the non-resonant emission in the small-aperture (<40 pc) spectra of local star-forming regions with the Hubble Space Telescope, and find the observed line ratios in the SFG spectra to be different from those in the spectra of local star-forming regions, as well as those of quasar absorption-line systems in the same redshift range. We introduce an outflow model that can simultaneously explain the multiple observed properties and suggest that the variety of absorption velocity profiles and the line ratio differences are caused by scattered fluorescent emission filling in on top of the absorption in the large-aperture eBOSS spectra. We develop an observation-driven, model-independent method to correct the emission infill to reveal the true absorption profiles. Finally, we show that the strengths of both the non-resonant emission and the emission-corrected resonant absorption increase with [O ii] λλ3727, 3730 rest equivalent width and luminosity, with a slightly larger dependence on the former. Our results show that the eBOSS and future dark-energy surveys (e.g., Dark Energy Spectroscopic

  11. SUB-KILOPARSEC IMAGING OF COOL MOLECULAR GAS IN TWO STRONGLY LENSED DUSTY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Carlstrom, J. E. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C.; Rotermund, K. M. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Collier, J. D.; Galvin, T.; Grieve, K.; O’Brien, A. [University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 (Australia); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H.; Ma, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); González-López, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Malkan, M., E-mail: jspilker@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); and others

    2015-10-01

    We present spatially resolved imaging obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) of three CO lines in two high-redshift gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies, discovered by the South Pole Telescope. Strong lensing allows us to probe the structure and dynamics of the molecular gas in