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Sample records for standards emission standard

  1. Emission- and product standards

    Jong, P. de

    1988-01-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

  2. Activity and gamma-ray emission standards

    Debertin, K.

    1983-01-01

    The standards made available by PTB are standards defined with regard to their activity A. If standard and measuring sample do not contain the same nuclide, the comparison with the standard is made via the emission rate R of the photons of a given energy. For this comparison, the value recommended by PTB for PTB standards should be used, as this value in many cases has been derived by emission rate measurements on specimens whose activity has been directly correlated with the activity of the standards released. (orig./DG) [de

  3. 40 CFR 205.52 - Vehicle noise emission standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle noise emission standards. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.52 Vehicle noise emission standards. (a) Low Speed Noise Emission Standard. Vehicles which are manufactured after...

  4. Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. 40 CFR 89.120 - Compliance with emission standards.

    2010-07-01

    ...). (c) For each nonroad engine family, except Tier 1 engine families with rated power at or above 37 kW... representing an engine family have emissions less than or equal to each emission standard, that family complies with the emission standards. (b) If any test engine representing an engine family has emissions greater...

  6. 40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... locomotives in the engine family are designed to operate. (1) You must meet the numerical emission standards... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.101... following is true: (i) The same emission controls are applied during the test conditions causing the...

  7. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    2012-03-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards for Hazardous... proposed rule titled, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers...

  8. [Study on emission standard system of air pollutants].

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Ren, Chun

    2012-12-01

    Scientific and reasonable emission standard system of air pollutants helps to systematically control air pollution, enhance the protection of the atmospheric environment effect and improve the overall atmospheric environment quality. Based on the study of development, situation and characteristics of national air pollutants emission standard system, the deficiencies of system were pointed out, which were not supportive, harmonious and perfect, and the improvement measures of emission standard system were suggested.

  9. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  10. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  11. CO2 emission standards and investment in carbon capture

    Eide, Jan; Sisternes, Fernando J. de; Herzog, Howard J.; Webster, Mort D.

    2014-01-01

    Policy makers in a number of countries have proposed or are considering proposing CO 2 emission standards for new fossil fuel-fired power plants. The proposed standards require coal-fired power plants to have approximately the same carbon emissions as an uncontrolled natural gas-fired power plant, effectively mandating the adoption of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for new coal plants. However, given the uncertainty in the capital and operating costs of a commercial scale coal plant with CCS, the impact of such a standard is not apparent a priori. We apply a stochastic generation expansion model to determine the impact of CO 2 emission standards on generation investment decisions, and in particular for coal plants with CCS. Moreover, we demonstrate how the incentive to invest in coal-CCS from emission standards depends on the natural gas price, the CO 2 price, and the enhanced oil recovery price, as well as on the level of the emission standard. This analysis is the first to consider the entire power system and at the same time allow the capture percentage for CCS plants to be chosen from a continuous range to meet the given standard at minimum cost. Previous system level studies have assumed that CCS plants capture 90% of the carbon, while studies of individual units have demonstrated the costs of carbon capture over a continuous range. We show that 1) currently proposed levels of emission standards are more likely to shift fossil fuel generation from coal to natural gas rather than to incentivize investment in CCS; 2) tighter standards that require some carbon reductions from natural gas-fired power plants are more likely than proposed standards to incentivize investments in CCS, especially on natural gas plants, but also on coal plants at high gas prices; and 3) imposing a less strict emission standard (emission rates higher than natural gas but lower than coal; e.g., 1500 lbs/MWh) is more likely than current proposals to incentivize

  12. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    2010-01-01

    ... Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No fuel venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas... include one of the following: (1) Incorporation of an FAA-approved system that recirculates the fuel back...

  13. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    2011-03-14

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali...-5] RIN 2060-AN99 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental...

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Grossman, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A

  15. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    2011-09-15

    ... CFR Parts 523, 534, and 535 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for...-2010-0079; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2060-AP61; 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency... Heavy-Duty National Program that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road...

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal - 1997

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T 2 O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  17. 77 FR 51499 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    2012-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 [NHTSA 2012-0126] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium... purpose of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because the GHG standards fundamentally regulate fuel...

  18. 75 FR 25323 - Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    2010-05-07

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway... reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint Final Rule is consistent with the...

  19. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE's Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP's worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative

  1. Ethylene Oxide Emissions Standards for Sterilization Facilities: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Learn about the NESHAP for ethylene oxide emissions for sterilization facilities. Find the rule history information, federal register citations, legal authority, and related rules as well as a rule summary.

  2. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  3. 1990 INEL national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    1990-05-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency issued on December 15, 1989 final rules governing air emissions of radionuclides. Requirements concerning radionuclide emissions from Department of Energy Facilities are addressed under Title 40, Code Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.'' Section 61.94 of the regulations require that each DOE facility submit on an annual basis a report documenting compliance with the Subpart H requirements. This report addresses the section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for calendar year 1990. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy is the primary contact concerning NESHAPs compliance at the INEL

  4. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  5. Subpart W: National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings

    Subpart W limits the radon-222 emissions rate from uranium tailings piles to 20 picocuries per square meter per second and requires that new tailings impoundments meet certain work practice standards.

  6. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    2011-04-21

    ... Production, Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Production, Polybutadiene Rubber Production, Polysulfide Rubber..., Epichlorohydrin Elastomers, Neoprene Rubber, and NBR source categories will not require additional control to meet... Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber Production, Epichlorohydrin Elastomers...

  7. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  8. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS.

  9. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2012-06-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance...

  10. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  11. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    2012-01-23

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production Risk and Technology Review..., Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass...

  12. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  13. 75 FR 68296 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    2010-11-05

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... ``Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... performance standards for new units and emission guidelines for existing units for specific categories of...

  14. 76 FR 18407 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    2011-04-04

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital... performance standards and emissions guidelines for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators by the U.S... amendments to the new source performance standards and emissions guidelines, correcting inadvertent drafting...

  15. 75 FR 63259 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    2010-10-14

    ... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... performance standards for new units and emission guidelines for existing units for specific categories of... standards and emission guidelines for large municipal waste combustion units, small municipal waste...

  16. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    2011-07-18

    ...-AO55 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY... the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now... signed a final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum...

  17. 76 FR 59922 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 [NHTSA 2010-0079; EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel... comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    2010-07-01

    ... emission family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    2010-07-01

    ... emission family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK...

  20. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    2011-02-17

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Primary Lead Smelting to address the results of the...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.107 - What are the not-to-exceed emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the not-to-exceed emission... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.107 What are the not-to-exceed emission standards? Not...) For engines equipped with a catalyst, use NTE multipliers from the following table across the...

  2. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2012-10-03

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on specific issues...

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale 'background levels' or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius

  4. Miscellaneous Coating Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    The national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for miscellaneous coating manufacturing. Includes summary, rule history, compliance and implementation information, federal registry citations.

  5. Industrial Process Cooling Towers: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Standards limiting discharge of chromium compound air emissions from industrial process cooling towers (IPCT's). Includes rule history, Federal Registry citations, implementation information and additional resources.

  6. Reinforced Plastic Composites Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    National emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for reinforced plastic composites production facilities. Regulates production and ancillary processes used to manufacture products with thermoset resins and gel coats.

  7. Standardization in dust emission measurement; Mesure des emissions de poussieres normalisation

    Perret, R. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte, (France)

    1996-12-31

    The European Standardization Committee (CEN TC 264WG5) is developing a new reference method for measuring particulate emissions, suitable for concentrations inferior to 20 mg/m{sup 3} and especially for concentrations around 5 mg/m{sup 3}; the measuring method should be applicable to waste incinerator effluents and more generally to industrial effluents. Testing protocols and data analysis have been examined and repeatability and reproducibility issues are discussed

  8. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.106... streams, including hazardous waste, fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks shall not exceed the...

  9. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.104...) of this section, a boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste must achieve a destruction...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    2010-07-01

    ... designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES...

  11. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines: Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA is amending the existing emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for new commercial aircraft engines. These standards are equivalent to the NOx emission standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  12. Tanning lamps ultraviolet emissions and compliance with technical standards

    Bonino, A.; Facta, S.; Saudino, S.; Anglesio, L.; D'Amore, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the compliance of tanning lamps with technical standards EN 60335-2-27 'Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety. Part 2: Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation' was analysed. Results of this analysis showed that none of the examined technical documentation produced by the lamps manufacturers is fully compliant with the standard technique. Furthermore data reported in the same manuals, such as effective radiant exposure or irradiance, would indicate that these sources may be the cause of undue exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. For this reason a measurement campaign on UV lamps used in tanning salons was organised. The first results of these measurements seem to confirm the doubts raised from the analysis of the lamp manuals: the use of a tanning lamp can lead to UV radiation exposure levels higher than reference maximum values recommended by EN 60335-2-27. (authors)

  13. Standard practice for leaks using bubble emission techniques

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes accepted procedures for and factors that influence laboratory immersion corrosion tests, particularly mass loss tests. These factors include specimen preparation, apparatus, test conditions, methods of cleaning specimens, evaluation of results, and calculation and reporting of corrosion rates. This practice also emphasizes the importance of recording all pertinent data and provides a checklist for reporting test data. Other ASTM procedures for laboratory corrosion tests are tabulated in the Appendix. (Warning-In many cases the corrosion product on the reactive metals titanium and zirconium is a hard and tightly bonded oxide that defies removal by chemical or ordinary mechanical means. In many such cases, corrosion rates are established by mass gain rather than mass loss.) 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, assoc...

  14. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2012-08-03

    ...-AQ93 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was... Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants'' under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR...

  15. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2012-07-18

    ... and 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of... manufacturing plants. Federal government Not affected. State/local/tribal government.... Portland cement...

  16. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2011-05-17

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Response to... by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants...

  17. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    2010-07-01

    ... plants. 61.63 Section 61.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any...

  18. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  19. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  20. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This direct final action amends certain... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  1. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    Rajagopal, D.; Plevin, R.; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2015-01-01

    We compare two types of fuel market regulations — a renewable fuel mandate and a fuel emission standard — that could be employed to simultaneously achieve multiple outcomes such as reduction in fuel prices, fuel imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare these two types of regulations in a global context taking into account heterogeneity in carbon content of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels. We find that although neither the ethanol mandate nor the emission standard is certain to reduce emissions relative to a business-as-usual baseline, at any given level of biofuel consumption in the policy region, a mandate, relative to an emission standard, results in higher GHG emissions, smaller expenditure on fuel imports, lower price of ethanol-blended gasoline and higher domestic fuel market surplus. This result holds over a wide range of values of model parameters. We also discuss the implications of this result to a regulation such as the US Renewable Fuel Standard given recent developments within the US such as increase in shale and tight oil production and large increase in average vehicle fuel economy of the automotive fleet. - Highlights: • Biofuel mandates and fuel GHG emission standards are analyzed from a multiple criteria perspective • An emission-standard always results in lower global emissions while requiring less biofuel relative to a biofuel mandate • An emission-standard results in higher fuel price in the home region relative to a biofuel mandate • Emission standards lead to more shuffling of both fossil fuels and biofuels between home and abroad • The relative impact of the policies on fuel imports depends on the relative cost-effectiveness of domestic & imported biofuel • Recent developments oil production and fuel economy increase the net benefits of an LCFS approach relative to RFS

  2. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  3. 40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033... engine family is considered in compliance with the applicable numerical emission standards in § 1033.101... certify by design without new emission test data. To do this, submit the application for certification...

  4. 40 CFR 60.562-1 - Standards: Process emissions.

    2010-07-01

    ... operated, or 180 days after initial startup whichever comes first. (1) Continuous emissions. For each vent... reconstructed affected facility 20 to 100 1. If total combined uncontrolled emissions are equal to or greater... maximum production rate at which the affected facility will be operated, or 180 days after initial startup...

  5. Pesticide Active Ingredient Production Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the pesticide active ingredient (PAI) production source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act as amended (CAA or Act).

  6. Primary Aluminum Reduction Industry - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    National emission standards for each new or existing potline, paste production operation, and anode bake furnace associated with a primary aluminum reduction plant. Includes rule history, implementation information and additional resources.

  7. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  8. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2010-12-07

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two petitions for reconsideration... Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power reciprocating internal generation, combustion...

  9. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) -- Questions and Answers

    This November 1998 document of questions and answers are provided as a guide for those subject to the new source performance standards (NSPS) or emission guidelines (EG), as well as those implementing the NSPS or EG.

  11. Cellulose Products Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Read the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Cellulose Products Manufacturing, see the rule history for this Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), and find Compliance help for this source.

  12. Executive Summary: EPA's Waiver Decision on California's Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles

    This letter from EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson to Governor Schwarzenegger denies California's request for a waiver of Federal preemption for motor vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  14. Possibilities of using ISO 1406X standards in the management of greenhouse gas emissions

    Fabian, G.; Priesol, J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to define and describe using of ISO 1406X standards for organization, which production of greenhouse gas emissions represents an important environmental aspect especially in terms of financial benefits accruing from trading with saved / reduced emissions. Following the main aim of this paper, we have set the following sub-objectives and tasks: - Define and describe the algorithm of implementation of program on greenhouse gas emissions according to the requirements and guidelines of the ISO 1406X in the organization; - Create a model of comprehensive management of greenhouse gas emissions standards as described.

  15. 40 CFR 60.24 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    2010-07-01

    ... energy input from all fuel except biomass if the unit is a boiler. Combustion turbine means: (1) An... been demonstrated, States may balance the emission guidelines, compliance times, and other information... energy input” in § 60.4102 of this chapter promulgated on October 19, 2007, provided that the State...

  16. Evolving diesel common rail technology for future low emission standards

    Schoeppe, D.; Bercher, P.; Guerrassi, N.; Spadafora, P. [Delphi Diesel Systems, Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The Diesel fuel injection equipment will remain a key element for Diesel engine technology evolution. Achieving emission targets at competitive prices has been and will continue to be a major technical challenge to the engine manufacturer. Delphi is continously developing its Common Rail System and its components for fulfill future stricter emission legislation while simultaneously improving performance on noise, fuel consumption and power output. The outstanding and unique injector concept combined with innovative control strategies has largely contributed to the improvement of exhaust emission and performance, consumption and NVH over the lifetime of Diesel vehicles. Recently, Euro 4 common rail applications have been introduced on several applications by adding further capability such as multiple injection, small-injected quantity control and improved atomization. This papers will describe the latest Common Rail System developments that Delphi will introduce into the market to comply with future legislative emission targets. Further, a novel common rail injector will be presented, that uses a revolutionary, direct acting operating principle, where the nozzle is directly operated by a piezo actuator, without the use of a servo-hydraulic flow circuit. The superior performance of this injector concept will be shown, especially with regard to it's near square rate injection shape, minimum quantity capability as well as multiple injection performance. The direct acting operating principle allows rapid opening and closing of the injector, without compromising pilot quantity capability. The emission benefit obtained by such opening and closing behavior will be shown. Finally, based on the findings discussed, the papers will conclude on key features of future common rail systems. (orig.)

  17. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    2010-07-01

    ... chloride plants. 61.64 Section 61.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a...

  18. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9756-4] RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule...

  19. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal - 1996

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed

  20. Direct Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    This rule will adopt the current voluntary NOx and CO emissions standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), bringing the United States aircraft standards into alignment with the international standards.

  1. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  2. Additives: The key for automobiles to meet new emission standards

    Friedman, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many cities have been perplexed with automobile emissions causing them to become non-attainment areas. These cities usually resort to such tactics as trying to get people to car pool. In principle the concept is excellent, however, the American public is not ready to give up the independence of using their own automobile. Reformulated gasolines are presently being produced and plans for additional plants are being made to meet EPA gasoline requirements. How much reformulated gasoline is available? Where is the present production going? Who else has needs? Does Gasohol have any possibilities still? What contribution can other additives make and are there any bright spots on the horizon and if so what are they? All this will be revealed in this talk and paper at ETE. There will also be a panel discussion for others to present their ideas and contribute to the program

  3. Decommissioning standards

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  4. 40 CFR 61.62 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride plants.

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission... dichloride purification. The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in ethylene dichloride purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for 3-hour period), except as...

  5. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    2010-05-20

    ...-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production... published a proposed rule for mercury emissions from the gold mine ore processing and production area source... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Incorporations by reference, Reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 91.207 - Credit calculation and manufacturer compliance with emission standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... engine family in kW (sales weighted). The power of each configuration is the rated output in kilowatts as... emission standards. (a) For each engine family, certification emission credits (positive or negative) are... of nitrogen credit status for an engine family, whether generating positive credits or negative...

  7. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a) of this section. See... specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION... the fuel type on which the engines in the engine family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based on the following types of hydrocarbon...

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  12. Accounting standards

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  13. Standardization Documents

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  14. EU effect: Exporting emission standards for vehicles through the global market economy.

    Crippa, M; Janssens-Maenhout, G; Guizzardi, D; Galmarini, S

    2016-12-01

    Emission data from EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), rather than economic data, are used to estimate the effect of policies and of the global exports of policy-regulated goods, such as vehicles, on global emissions. The results clearly show that the adoption of emission standards for the road transport sector in the two main global markets (Europe and North America) has led to the global proliferation of emission-regulated vehicles through exports, regardless the domestic regulation in the country of destination. It is in fact more economically convenient for vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell a standard product to the widest possible market and in the greatest possible amounts. The EU effect (European Union effect) is introduced as a global counterpart to the California effect. The former is a direct consequence of the penetration of the EURO standards in the global markets by European and Japanese manufacturers, which effectively export the standard worldwide. We analyze the effect on PM 2.5 emissions by comparing a scenario of non-EURO standards against the current estimates provided by EDGAR. We find that PM 2.5 emissions were reduced by more than 60% since the 1990s worldwide. Similar investigations on other pollutants confirm the hypothesis that the combined effect of technological regulations and their diffusion through global markets can also produce a positive effect on the global environment. While we acknowledge the positive feedback, we also demonstrate that current efforts and standards will be totally insufficient should the passenger car fleets in emerging markets reach Western per capita figures. If emerging countries reach the per capita vehicle number of the USA and Europe under current technological conditions, then the world will suffer pre-1990 emission levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction of CO/sub 2/ emissions through fuel economy standards for diesel cars in pakistan

    Memon, L.A.; Mehlia, T.M.I.; Hassan, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In Pakistan, like many developing countries, the increasing prosperity and population growth are resulting in accelerated growth in vehicle population and vehicle kilometers traveled. This causes air pollution due to huge CO/sub 2/ emissions. Automobile fuel economy standards have proven to be one of the most effective tools to control oil demand thereby reducing the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions like CO/sub 2/, This study presents the investigation to apply fuel economy standards in Pakistan, in order to predict the potential reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions and saving in fuel demand. The study is focused on only diesel cars and the data of diesel car owners for previous fifteen years is obtained from the related sources in Pakistan. A growth trend of diesel car owners was analyzed and the number of diesel car owners in future was predicted by applying database computer software. Calculations were made to study the effect of fuel economy standards in terms of saving in fuel demand and the reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions. The results reveal the potential application of fuel economy standards and it was found that a cumulative amount of fuel 39266775 liters can be saved and CO/sub 2/ emissions can be reduced by 106021 tons at the end of 2011-2012, if fuel economy standards are implemented in 2008-2009. (author)

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  17. Evaluation of emission characteristics and compliance of emission standards for in-use petrol driven vehicles in Delhi.

    Sarin, S M; Singh, A; Sharma, N; Sharma, K; Shanmugum, P

    2001-01-01

    The tail pipe CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emission characteristics of in-use petrol driven vehicles were evaluated between November 1996 through September 1997 in Delhi. A total of 4300 vehicles were checked at CRRI Pollution Checking Centre. Approximately 90% of the total vehicles meet the prescribed CO emission standards even without following routine I/M practices. The age of the vehicles appeared to have influence on the emission characteristics. The non-compliance level was found to be higher for older vehicles. Insignificant correlation was observed between CO and HC emissions for all categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles. The emission reduction (gain) in CO and HC emissions was observed for two wheelers equipped with four-stroke engines and four wheelers fitted with catalytic converters over their respective conventional vehicles. The observed high compliance levels indicate that existing tail pipe emission standards are lenient and need to be reviewed. The emission standards are proposed for different categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles.

  18. Implementation of sum-peak method for standardization of positron emission radionuclides

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly recognized as an important quantitative imaging tool for diagnosis and assessing response to therapy. As correct dose administration plays a crucial part in nuclear medicine, it is important that the instruments used to assay the activity of the short-lived radionuclides are calibrated accurately, with traceability to the national or international standards. The sum-peak method has been widely used for radionuclide standardization. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of PET radiopharmaceuticals at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE). (author)

  19. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  20. Communications standards

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  5. Training Standardization

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  6. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2008

    Warren, Ronald; Grossman, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  7. Estimation of light duty vehicle emissions in Islamabad and climate co-benefits of improved emission standards implementation

    Shah, Izhar Hussain; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) hold a major share in Islamabad's vehicle fleet and their contribution towards air pollution has not been analyzed previously. Emissions for the base year (2014) and two optimistic 'what-if' scenarios were estimated by using the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model. Considering the recent implementation of Euro II as emission standard in Pakistan, scenario 1 assumed entire LDV fleet meeting at least Euro II standards while scenario 2 assumed all LDVs meeting Euro IV standards except motorcycles which would be meeting Euro III emission standards. Higher average age for all vehicles and lower share of Euro compliant vehicles was found in the base case. Low engine stress mode (lower speeds with frequent decelerations) was observed for all vehicles especially on arterials and residential roads. Highest overall emissions (59%) were observed on arterials, followed by residential roads (24%) and highways (17%) with higher emissions observed during morning (8-10 am) and evening (4-6 pm) rush hours. Composite emission factors were also calculated. Results reveal that 1094, 147, 11.1, 0.2 and 0.4 kt of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively were emitted in 2014 by LDVs. Compared with the base year, scenario 1 showed a reduction of 9%, 69%, 73%, 13% and 31%, while scenario 2 exhibited a reduction of 5%, 92%, 90%, 92% and 81% for CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively. As compared to the base year, a 20 year CO2-equivalent Global Warming Potential (GWP) reduced by 55% and 64% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively, while a 100 year GWP reduced by 40% and 44% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively. Our results demonstrated significant co-benefits that could be achieved in emission reduction and air quality improvement in the city by vehicle technology implementation.

  8. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less...

  9. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    2011-06-20

    ...., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST... parties interested in commenting must do so at this time. For further information, please see the... chromium anodizing sources, as those sources are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart N, ``Chromium Emissions...

  10. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    2012-03-21

    ... Construction Approval to Energy Fuels for Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds at the proposed Pi[ntilde]on Ridge Uranium Mill. Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds are regulated under 40... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9649-9] Radionuclide National Emission Standards for...

  11. 77 FR 73968 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    2012-12-12

    ...; FRL-9762-1] RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National... Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Coal... November 30, 2012, proposed ``Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National...

  12. 77 FR 72294 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    2012-12-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0234; EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0044; FRL-9733-2] RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDDDD... the following applicable emission limits and work practice standards: If your boiler or process heater.... Hydrogen Chloride 0.02 lb per MMBtu of heat input. c. Mercury 0.000003 lb per MMBtu of heat input. d...

  14. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    2012-03-23

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production AGENCY... for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the deadline for written comments... from the Aluminum Association. The Aluminum Association has requested the extension in order to allow...

  15. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2010-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9244-2] RIN 2060-AP36 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue arising from the final rule. Specifically, EPA...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1105-87 - Emission standards for which nonconformance penalties are available.

    2010-07-01

    ... development component of the NCP in accordance with § 86.1113-87(h): 0.12. (ii) For petroleum-fueled medium... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for which nonconformance penalties are available. 86.1105-87 Section 86.1105-87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  17. Viewpoint Mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances including room air conditioners. The number of users of air conditioners is predicted to grow dramatically in Malaysian households in the future. To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, the Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in early 2004. This paper attempts to predict the potential mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia. The calculations were based on the growth of room air conditioners ownership data in Malaysian households. The study found that the energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners would mitigate a significant amount of emissions in this country

  18. Effluent standards

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  19. Nuclear standards

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  20. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions-weighted clean energy standards

    Coffman, Makena; Griffin, James P.; Bernstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative cost-savings of utilizing a greenhouse gas emissions-weighted Clean Energy Standard (CES) in comparison to a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). Using a bottom-up electricity sector model for Hawaii, this paper demonstrates that a policy that gives “clean energy” credit to electricity technologies based on their cardinal ranking of lifecycle GHG emissions, normalizing the highest-emitting unit to zero credit, can reduce the costs of emissions abatement by up to 90% in comparison to a typical RPS. A GHG emissions-weighted CES provides incentive to not only pursue renewable sources of electricity, but also promotes fuel-switching among fossil fuels and improved generation efficiencies at fossil-fired units. CES is found to be particularly cost-effective when projected fossil fuel prices are relatively low. - Highlights: ► Proposes a GHG Emissions-Weighted Clean Energy Standard (CES) mechanism. ► Compares CES to RPS using a case study of Hawaii. ► Finds CES is up to 90% more cost-effective as a GHG abatement tool.

  1. Modeling a clean energy standard for electricity: Policy design implications for emissions, supply, prices, and regions

    Paul, Anthony; Palmer, Karen; Woerman, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The electricity sector is responsible for roughly 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and a reduction in CO 2 emissions from electricity generation is an important component of the U.S. strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Toward that goal, several proposals for a clean energy standard (CES) have been put forth, including one espoused by the Obama administration that calls for 80% clean electricity by 2035 phased in from current levels of roughly 40%. This paper looks at the effects of such a policy on CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector, the mix of technologies used to supply electricity, electricity prices, and regional flows of clean energy credits. The CES leads to a 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions between 2013 and 2035 and results in dramatic reductions in generation from conventional coal. The policy also results in fairly modest increases on national electricity prices, but this masks a wide variety of effects across regions. - Highlights: ► We model a clean energy standard (CES) for electricity at 80% by 2035. ► We analyze effects on CO 2 emissions, investment, prices, and credit trading. ► 80% CES leads to 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions by 2035. ► Modest national average electricity price increase masks regional heterogeneity

  2. MATE standardization

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  3. Developing a 'Research Test Bed' to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    Cox, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's 'clean and green' image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal 'vehicle emissions research environment' supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  4. Implementation of NOx emissions standard in the Gas Transmission Company in the Netherlands

    Veenstra, T.; Coors, P.; Rosmalen, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 and 1990 new NO x emission standards came in force for firing installations (boilers, gas turbines and engines). Gasunie (the gas transportation company in The Netherlands) owns 55 gas turbines and 10 gas engines for the gastransport system, with a total capacity of about 570 MW, installed in 8 compressor stations. Having the most stringent emission levels of Europe (together with Germany) Gasunie reduced the total NO x amount from 3600 tons of NO x in 1987 to 630 tons of NO x in 1990. This reduction was mostly based on our own development of a new precombustion chamber for the lean burn gas engines. Besides that studies and research were carried out for NO x reduction on the gas turbine to meet the current legislation (115 ppm NO x ) and a strategy is made to meet future emission standards. This is necessary because the expected future NO x standards for stand alone gas turbines will be about half of the present standards

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Background Information Document (BID): Public Comments and Responses

    On December 20, 2002, the EPA proposed national emission standards for HAP emissions from lime manufacturing plants located at major source facilities (67 FR 78046). Summaries of the comments, and the EPA's responses, are presented in this BID.

  6. 40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?

    2010-07-01

    ... engines in the engine family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  7. Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma

    Moore, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

  8. Frequency standards

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  9. Standardization of proton-induced x-ray emission technique for analysis of thick samples

    Ali, Shad; Zeb, Johar; Ahad, Abdul; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Haneef, M.; Akbar, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the standardization of the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique for finding the elemental composition of thick samples. For the standardization, three different samples of standard reference materials (SRMs) were analyzed using this technique and the data were compared with the already known data of these certified SRMs. These samples were selected in order to cover the maximum range of elements in the periodic table. Each sample was irradiated for three different values of collected beam charges at three different times. A proton beam of 2.57 MeV obtained using 5UDH-II Pelletron accelerator was used for excitation of x-rays from the sample. The acquired experimental data were analyzed using the GUPIXWIN software. The results show that the SRM data and the data obtained using the PIXE technique are in good agreement.

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Transfer Racks

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Transfer Racks 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Limits and Work Practice Standards for Transfer Racks As required in § 63.2475, you must meet each emission limit and work practice standard in the following table that applies to your transfer racks: For...

  11. 75 FR 62739 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent

    2010-10-13

    ... Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent AGENCIES: Environmental... fuel economy (CAFE) standards in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as... FR 49454, 49460 (September 28, 2009). The NHTSA CAFE standards are only based on technologies that...

  12. Relevant Standards

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  13. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  14. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  15. Standard Fortran

    Marshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its vast software investment in Fortran programs, the nuclear community has an inherent interest in the evolution of Fortran. This paper reviews the impact of the new Fortran 77 standard and discusses the projected changes which can be expected in the future

  16. 40 CFR Table 36 to Subpart Uuu of... - Work Practice Standards for HAP Emissions From Bypass Lines

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Work Practice Standards for HAP Emissions From Bypass Lines 36 Table 36 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Table 36 Table 36 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Work Practice Standards for HAP Emissions From Bypass Lines...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7925 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for closed vent systems and...

    2010-07-01

    ... What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for closed vent systems and control... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for closed vent systems and control devices? 63.7925 Section 63.7925...

  18. How best management practices affect emissions in gas turbine power plants - an important factor to consider when strengthening emission standards.

    Zeng, Jinghai; Xing, Min; Hou, Min; England, Glenn C; Yan, Jing

    2018-04-27

    The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) is considering strengthening the Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Stationary Gas Turbines, originally published in 2011 (DB11/847-2011), with a focus on reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the current operation of twelve (12) existing combined-cycle gas turbine power plants and the design of two (2) new plants in Beijing and their emission reduction potential, in comparison with a state-of-the-art power plant in California, United States. The study found that Best Management Practices (BMPs) could potentially improve the emission level of the power plants, and should be implemented to minimize emissions under current design characteristics. These BMPs include (1) more frequent tuning of turbine combustors; (2) onsite testing of natural gas characteristics in comparison to turbine manufacturer's specifics and tuning of turbine to natural gas quality; (3) onsite testing of aqueous ammonia to ensure adequate ammonia concentration in the mixed solution, and the purity of the solution; (4) more careful inspection of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) during operation and maintenance; (5) annual testing of the catalyst coupon on the SCR to ensure catalyst effectiveness; and (6) annual ammonia injection grid (AIG) tuning. The study found that without major modification to the plants, improving the management of the Beijing gas turbine power plants may potentially reduce the current hourly-average NOx emission level of 5-10 parts per million (ppm, ranges reflects plant variation) by up to 20%. The exact improvement associated with each BMP for each facility requires more detailed analysis, and requires engagement of turbine, HRSG, and SCR manufacturers. This potential improvement is an important factor to consider when strengthening the emission standard. However it is to be noted that with the continuous

  19. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  20. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    2012-09-19

    ... for public health and the environment by reducing emissions of hexavalent chromium (a known human... alternatives to PFOS-based WAFS had been successfully used in the hard and decorative chrome source categories... the number of people exposed to risks greater than 1-in-1 million due to emissions of hexavalent...

  1. Compliance with future emission standards of mobile machines by developing a monovalent natural gas combustion process

    Prehn, Sascha; Wichmann, Volker; Harndorf, Horst; Beberdick, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Within the presented project a monovalent natural gas engine is being developed. Based on a serial diesel engine the operation mode of this prototype is changed to a spark ignition concept. The long term purpose of this new engine is an agricultural application. One major objective of the project is the investigation and evaluation of a combustion process, able to fulfil the performance requests as well as the European emission limits for nitrogen oxides NO x , and carbon monoxide CO of mobile machinery, which become into law in October 2014 (EU stage IV). At the time there are no legislative regulations existing regarding the methane emissions of the observed engines. To get a benefit in greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel or gasoline engines the methane emissions have to be minimized while operating in natural gas mode. In the course of the current project an engine operation with a methane emission less than 0.5 g/kWh (representing the EURO VI limit for heavy duty vehicles) could be demonstrated. In contrast to diesel engines for agricultural applications it is possible to comply with the emission standards without using a high sophisticated after treatment system consisting of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), particulate filter (DPF) and SCR catalyst. The usage of a three way catalyst optimized for high methane conversions is sufficient for a stoichiometry gas operation with exhaust gas recirculation. Therefore a significant cost advantage is given.

  2. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard photoelectron emission microscope set-up

    Benka, Oswald; Zeppenfeld, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The first results of secondary electron images excited by 3-4.3 keV electrons are presented. The images are obtained with a standard FOCUS-PEEM set-up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 deg. with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼-(V 1 +5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The material contrast obtained in these difference images is discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer

  3. Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants. An efficiency analysis perspective

    Hampf, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften; Roedseth, Kenneth Loevold [Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Economics and Logistics

    2013-07-01

    On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced his plan to introduce carbon dioxide emission standards for electricity generation. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis approach that addresses which mission rates (and standards) would be feasible if the existing generating units adopt best practices. A new efficiency measure is introduced and further decomposed to identify different sources' contributions to emission rate improvements. Estimating two Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models - the well-known joint production model and the new materials balance model - on a dataset consisting of 160 bituminous-fired generating units, we find that the average generating unit's electricity-to-carbon dioxide ratio is 15.3 percent below the corresponding best-practice ratio. Further examinations reveal that this discrepancy can largely be attributed to non-discretionary factors and not to managerial inefficiency. Moreover, even if the best practice ratios could be implemented, the generating units would not be able to comply with the EPA's recently proposed carbon dioxide standard.

  4. Interpretation of Series National Standards of China on “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting and Reporting for Enterprises”

    Chen, Liang; Zong, Jianfang; Guo, Huiting; Sun, Liang; Liu, Mei

    2018-05-01

    Standardization is playing an increasingly important role in reducing greenhouse gas emission and in climatic change adaptation, especially in the “three” greenhouse gas emission aspects (measurement, report, verification). Standardization has become one of the most important ways in mitigating the global climate change. Standardization Administration of China (SAC) has taken many productive measures in actively promoting standardization work to cope with climate change. In April 2014, SAC officially approved the establishment of “National Carbon Emission Management Standardization Technical Committee” In November 2015, SAC officially issued the first 11 national standards on carbon management including > and the requirements of the greenhouse gas emissions accounting and reporting in 10 sectors including power generation, power grid, iron and steel, chemical engineering, electrolytic aluminum, magnesium smelting, plate glass, cement, ceramics and civil aviation, which proposes unified requirements of “what to calculate and how to calculate” the greenhouse gas emission for enterprises. This paper focuses on the detailed interpretation of the main contents of the first 11 national standards, so as to provide technical supports for users of the standards and to comprehensively promote the emission reduction of greenhouse gas at the enterprise level.

  5. Standard audit procedure for continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring instruments

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The instruments were published in an operational policy manual in 2009. This policy aims to introduce standard audit criteria that can be used to determine if continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring devices are operating within acceptable parameters. Before delivering upscale points of the instrument to be audited, each one of the audit equipment used in the field is required to be at normal operating conditions. Before the beginning of the audit, each one of the meteorological and flow measurement equipment is required to be conditioned to current conditions. If the audit fails, the instrument will have to be audited quarterly. The establishment of specific procedures based on instrument manufacturer or certifying body operational standards is required in the case of non-continuous monitoring instruments presenting operational principles outside of the audit procedures listed in the document.

  6. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2010-09-09

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of... (NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS...

  7. 77 FR 49489 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    2012-08-16

    ..., centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors, pneumatic controllers and storage vessels. This action... organic compound (VOC) emissions from gas wells, centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors... emissions from wet seal centrifugal compressors located between the wellhead and the point at which the gas...

  8. Air Emissions Damages from Municipal Drinking Water Treatment Under Current and Proposed Regulatory Standards.

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2017-09-19

    Water treatment processes present intersectoral and cross-media risk trade-offs that are not presently considered in Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory analyses. This paper develops a method for assessing the air emission implications of common municipal water treatment processes used to comply with recently promulgated and proposed regulatory standards, including concentration limits for, lead and copper, disinfection byproducts, chromium(VI), strontium, and PFOA/PFOS. Life-cycle models of electricity and chemical consumption for individual drinking water unit processes are used to estimate embedded NO x , SO 2 , PM 2.5 , and CO 2 emissions on a cubic meter basis. We estimate air emission damages from currently installed treatment processes at U.S. drinking water facilities to be on the order of $500 million USD annually. Fully complying with six promulgated and proposed rules would increase baseline air emission damages by approximately 50%, with three-quarters of these damages originating from chemical manufacturing. Despite the magnitude of these air emission damages, the net benefit of currently implemented rules remains positive. For some proposed rules, however, the promise of net benefits remains contingent on technology choice.

  9. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    2010-12-29

    ...-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9219-4; NHTSA 2010-0079] RIN 2060-AP61; RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty vehicles...-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on...

  10. Towards better GHG emissions savings with use of ISO GHG standards

    Chan Kook Weng

    2010-01-01

    The 15th Conference of Parties (COP 15) at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009 highlighted the need to combat climate change by facing the challenge of committing to reducing our emissions at all three levels with locally appropriate mitigation actions (LAMAs) at the local level to be linked to the nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and then contribute onwards to globally appropriate mitigation actions (GAMAs). The aim is to find solutions for both adaptation and mitigation by ensuring sufficient means are made available to support such efforts. This is because the world in entering a new phase that will be characterised by green growth in business. Thus be it agriculture that uses local knowledge of specific crop and livestock varieties to help in secure food supply, bio-energy, transport, industries, there must be policies to understand ecosystem-based to link people, biodiversity, energy, water and carbon so as to be more resilient and adaptable to the need for a low carbon economy in todays society.Climate change therefore affects organisations in many areas and they include legal compliance, carbon market, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. Promoting sustainability requires making efficient use of energy, water and natural resources, decrease in waste load through recycling and streamlining the processes leading to everything that decreases their CO 2 and water footprints. Currently there are many GHG schemes and programmes and the issues centres around compatibility, costs and most importantly credibility. Achieving real GHG emissions reduction requires controlled and verified emissions reductions and quantification that are sound and verifiable. Thanks to the development of the ISO suite of standards on GHG and related matters, the use of these harmonised standards has given the assurance that a tonne of carbon is a tonne of carbon be it in Malaysia, Mali or Mongolia.The use of these standards like ISO 14064 Part 1

  11. 76 FR 70833 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Primary Lead Processing

    2011-11-15

    ... INFORMATION: For specific information regarding the modeling methodology, contact Dr. Michael Stewart, Office... there is a malfunction, the emission limitation is still enforceable through injunctive relief. While... (GEP) stack height of 330 feet (as was done in the SIP and in modeling submitted by the Doe Run Company...

  12. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  13. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-01-01

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information

  14. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 523 and 535 [NHTSA 2010-0079; EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty vehicles, responding to the...

  15. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    Pilot, G.; Noel, J.P.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1992-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser-cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air, and by laser beam in air. The same team was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick, grade 304 stainless-steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and in some cases 20 mm thick, grade 304, stainless-steel plates were cut by laser beam in five different facilities: CEA-CEN Fontenay, CEA-CEN Saclay, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and ENEA/Frascati. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, and the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the involved facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory) and by some particularities in the cutting parameters (an additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Universitaet Hannover, for example)

  16. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    Pilot, G.; Noel, M.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma-arc and laser cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air and laser beam in air. The same team, CEA/DPT/SPIN, was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and sometimes 20 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by laser beam in four different facilities: CEA/CEN Fontenay, CEA/CEN Saclay, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and ENEA/FRASCATI. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory scale) and by some particularity in the cutting parameters (additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Hannover for example). Some supplementary experiments show the importance of some cutting parameters. (author)

  17. Waterberg coal characteristics and SO2 minimum emissions standards in South African power plants.

    Makgato, Stanford S; Chirwa, Evans M Nkhalambayausi

    2017-10-01

    Key characteristics of coal samples from the supply stock to the newly commissioned South African National Power Utility's (Eskom's) Medupi Power Station - which receives its supply coal from the Waterberg coalfield in Lephalale (Limpopo Province, South Africa) - were evaluated. Conventional coal characterisation such as proximate and ultimate analysis as well as determination of sulphur forms in coal samples were carried out following the ASTM and ISO standards. Coal was classified as medium sulphur coal when the sulphur content was detected in the range 1.15-1.49 wt.% with pyritic sulphur (≥0.51 wt.%) and organic sulphur (≥0.49 wt.%) accounted for the bulk of the total sulphur in coal. Maceral analyses of coal showed that vitrinite was the dominant maceral (up to 51.8 vol.%), whereas inertinite, liptinite, reactive semifusinite and visible minerals occurred in proportions of 22.6 vol.%, 2.9 vol.%, 5.3 vol.% and 17.5 vol.%, respectively. Theoretical calculations were developed and used to predict the resultant SO 2 emissions from the combustion of the Waterberg coal in a typical power plant. The sulphur content requirements to comply with the minimum emissions standards of 3500 mg/Nm 3 and 500 mg/Nm 3 were found to be ≤1.37 wt.% and ≤0.20 wt.%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (CISWI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) for Existing Sources

    Learn about the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for commercial and industrial solid waste incineration (CISWI) units including emission guidelines and compliance times for the rule. Read the rule history and summary, and find supporting documents

  19. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  20. 40 CFR 266.107 - Standards to control hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control hydrogen chloride... WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.107 Standards to control hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions...

  1. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    2013-09-05

    ... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY... hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for...

  2. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2011-01-18

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY...) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No...

  3. 76 FR 52737 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    2011-08-23

    ... quality impacts? D. What are the water quality and solid waste impacts? E. What are the secondary impacts... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J... Achievable Emission Rate lb Pounds LDAR Leak Detection and Repair MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4203 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by...

  5. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  6. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    2010-07-01

    ... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and... are incorporated by reference (see § 86.1). (v) Hybrid electric vehicle requirements. Deterioration factors for hybrid electric vehicles shall be based on the emissions and mileage accumulation of the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall be not.... Both the projected emissions and the Highway Fuel Economy Test standard shall be rounded to the nearest... effectiveness. A/C-on specific “open-loop” or “commanded enrichment” air-fuel enrichment strategies (as defined...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ...-line engines fails to meet emission standards? 1045.320 Section 1045.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.320 What happens if one of my...

  9. 40 CFR 1048.320 - What happens if one of my production-line engines fails to meet emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ...-line engines fails to meet emission standards? 1048.320 Section 1048.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.320 What happens if one of my production...

  10. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    2011-08-22

    ... Standard provide protection for workers from the adverse health effects associated with exposure to coke...' exposure to coke oven emissions, monitor worker health, and provide workers with information about their exposures and the health effects of exposure to coke oven emissions. II. Special Issues for Comment OSHA has...

  11. 40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE... are designed to operate, except for engines certified under § 1039.615. For engines certified under... must meet the numerical emission standards for NMHC in this section based on the following types of...

  12. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust: Effects of Engine Technology, Cold Start, and Emission Certification Standard.

    Zhao, Yunliang; Lambe, Andrew T; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Robinson, Allen L

    2018-02-06

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from dilute exhaust from 16 gasoline vehicles was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor during chassis dynamometer testing using the cold-start unified cycle (UC). Ten vehicles were equipped with gasoline direct injection engines (GDI vehicles) and six with port fuel injection engines (PFI vehicles) certified to a wide range of emissions standards. We measured similar SOA production from GDI and PFI vehicles certified to the same emissions standard; less SOA production from vehicles certified to stricter emissions standards; and, after accounting for differences in gas-particle partitioning, similar effective SOA yields across different engine technologies and certification standards. Therefore the ongoing, dramatic shift from PFI to GDI vehicles in the United States should not alter the contribution of gasoline vehicles to ambient SOA and the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones certified to stricter emissions standards should reduce atmospheric SOA levels. Compared to hot operations, cold-start exhaust had lower effective SOA yields, but still contributed more SOA overall because of substantially higher organic gas emissions. We demonstrate that the PAM reactor can be used as a screening tool for vehicle SOA production by carefully accounting for the effects of the large variations in emission rates.

  13. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  14. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  15. Development of Standardized Mobile Tracer Correlation Approach for Large Area Emission Measurements (DRAFT UNDER EPA REVIEW)

    Foster-wittig, T. A.; Thoma, E.; Green, R.; Hater, G.; Swan, N.; Chanton, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of air emissions from large area sources such as landfills, waste water ponds, open-source processing, and agricultural operations is a topic of increasing environmental importance. In many cases, the size of the area source, coupled with spatial-heterogeneity, make direct (on-site) emission assessment difficult; methane emissions, from landfills for example, can be particularly complex [Thoma et al, 2009]. Recently, whole-facility (remote) measurement approaches based on tracer correlation have been utilized [Scheutz et al, 2011]. The approach uses a mobile platform to simultaneously measure a metered-release of a conservative gas (the tracer) along with the target compound (methane in the case of landfills). The known-rate tracer release provides a measure of atmospheric dispersion at the downwind observing location allowing the area source emission to be determined by a ratio calculation [Green et al, 2010]. Although powerful in concept, the approach has been somewhat limited to research applications due to the complexities and cost of the high-sensitivity measurement equipment required to quantify the part-per billion levels of tracer and target gas at kilometer-scale distances. The advent of compact, robust, and easy to use near-infrared optical measurement systems (such as cavity ring down spectroscopy) allow the tracer correlation approach to be investigated for wider use. Over the last several years, Waste Management Inc., the U.S. EPA, and collaborators have conducted method evaluation activities to determine the viability of a standardized approach through execution of a large number of field measurement trials at U.S. landfills. As opposed to previous studies [Scheutz et al, 2011] conducted at night (optimal plume transport conditions), the current work evaluated realistic use-scenarios; these scenarios include execution by non-scientist personnel, daylight operation, and full range of atmospheric condition (all plume transport

  16. Standard practice for examination of seamless, Gas-Filled, pressure vessels using acoustic emission

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of seamless pressure vessels (tubes) of the type used for distribution or storage of industrial gases. 1.2 This practice requires pressurization to a level greater than normal use. Pressurization medium may be gas or liquid. 1.3 This practice does not apply to vessels in cryogenic service. 1.4 The AE measurements are used to detect and locate emission sources. Other nondestructive test (NDT) methods must be used to evaluate the significance of AE sources. Procedures for other NDT techniques are beyond the scope of this practice. See Note 1. Note 1—Shear wave, angle beam ultrasonic examination is commonly used to establish circumferential position and dimensions of flaws that produce AE. Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD), ultrasonic examination is also commonly used for flaw sizing. 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standa...

  17. The Dynamics of Standardization

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  18. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  19. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  20. Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Find regulatory information regarding the NESHAP for Aerospace manufacturing and rework facilities. This page contains the rule summary, rule history, and related rules and additional resources for this standard.

  1. 77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    2012-09-11

    ... third parties,' such as strikes, sabotage, operator intoxication or insanity, and a variety of other... could lead to standards that are significantly less stringent than levels that are achieved by a well...

  2. 75 FR 32005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    2010-06-04

    ... Manufacturers of motor vehicle parts and accessories. 221 Electric, gas, and sanitary services. 622 Health...)) vacating and remanding CAA section 112(d) MACT standards for the Brick and Structural Clay Ceramics source...

  3. 75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...

    2010-02-19

    ... 2060-AI23; 2060-AQ12 Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline.... The rulemaking also required oil refiners to limit the sulfur content of the gasoline they produce. Sulfur in gasoline has a detrimental impact on catalyst performance and the sulfur requirements have...

  4. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  5. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  6. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the

  7. Standard practice for determining damage-Based design Stress for fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) materials using acoustic emission

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice details procedures for establishing the direct stress and shear stress damage-based design values for use in the damage-based design criterion for materials to be used in FRP vessels and other composite structures. The practice uses data derived from acoustic emission examination of four-point beam bending tests and in-plane shear tests (see ASME Section X, Article RT-8). 1.2 The onset of lamina damage is indicated by the presence of significant acoustic emission during the reload portion of load/reload cycles. "Significant emission" is defined with historic index. 1.3 Units - The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in brackets are mathematical conversions to SI units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health pr...

  8. Accounting for Carbon Stocks in Soils and Measuring GHGs Emission Fluxes from Soils: Do We Have the Necessary Standards?

    Antonio Bispo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a key compartment for climate regulation as a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and as a sink of carbon. Thus, soil carbon sequestration strategies should be considered alongside reduction strategies for other greenhouse gas emissions. Taking this into account, several international and European policies on climate change are now acknowledging the importance of soils, which means that proper, comparable and reliable information is needed to report on carbon stocks and GHGs emissions from soil. It also implies a need for consensus on the adoption and verification of mitigation options that soil can provide. Where consensus is a key aspect, formal standards and guidelines come into play. This paper describes the existing ISO soil quality standards that can be used in this context, and calls for new ones to be developed through (international collaboration. Available standards cover the relevant basic soil parameters including carbon and nitrogen content but do not yet consider the dynamics of those elements. Such methods have to be developed together with guidelines consistent with the scale to be investigated and the specific use of the collected data. We argue that this standardization strategy will improve the reliability of the reporting procedures and results of the different climate models that rely on soil quality data.

  9. Calculation of lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for the renewable fuel standard

    2009-06-25

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005, P.L.109-58). The RFS requires the use of 9.0 billion gallons of ...

  10. 77 FR 11390 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    2012-02-27

    ... Source Categories. Subpart ZZZZZZ--NESHAP: Area Source Standards for Aluminum, Copper, and Other... Perchloroethylene Dry X X X Cleaning. N Hard and Decorative X X X Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing... Publishing X X X Industry. LL Primary Aluminum Reduction X X Plants. MM Chemical Recovery X X Combustion...

  11. 76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2011-01-18

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0051, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington...

  12. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    2012-12-21

    ... `uncontrollable acts of third parties,' such as strikes, sabotage, operator intoxication or insanity, and a... accounting for malfunctions could lead to standards that are significantly less stringent than levels that...) to eliminate redundancy. 40 CFR 63.11494(c)(1)(vii) We are adding a new paragraph that lists lead...

  13. 76 FR 15703 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    2011-03-21

    ... Canadian Standards Association CWA Clean Water Act D/F Dioxin/Furan DIFF Dry Sorbent Injection Fabric...; manufacturers of pulp, paper and paperboard; manufacturers of furniture and related products. 325, 326... section 112 NESHAP from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry (75 FR 21136, September 9, 2010...

  14. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    2013-02-12

    .... Open Clinker Storage Piles IV. Summary of Major Changes Since Proposal A. PM Parametric Monitoring B. Scaling for Continuous Parametric Monitoring of THC for Alternative OHAP Standard C. Work Practice... parametric monitoring system D/F dioxins and furans EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESP Electrostatic...

  15. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    2013-11-04

    ... estimate VCS voluntary consensus standards WWW world wide web Organization of this Document. The... oxidizer RTR residual risk and technology review SAB Science Advisory Board SBA Small Business... acceptable in the world in which we live'' (Risk Report at 178, quoting NRDC v. EPA, 824 F.2d 1146, 1165 (D.C...

  16. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    2012-01-30

    ... During Periods of Startup, Shutdown and Malfunctions (SSM) VI. Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents A. Definition of Metal HAP Process Vent B. Metal HAP Process Vent Standards VII. Technical Corrections and...: Chromium Compounds, Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, Paint and Allied Coatings and Mercury...

  17. 75 FR 27249 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    2010-05-14

    ... distributions typically have a skewness of zero, we concluded that those datasets with a skewness less than 0.5 were normally distributed, while those with a skewness of 0.5 or greater were lognormally distributed... sources (used to determine the MACT floor for existing sources) and had a higher standard deviation...

  18. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    2012-01-05

    ... 331492 0205 \\a\\ North American Industry Classification System. \\b\\ Maximum Achievable Control Technology... protective. NRDC v. EPA, 529 F.3d 1077, 1083 (DC Cir. 2008). On May 19, 2011, the EPA published a proposed... dioxin formation. Finalizing work practice standards for mercury. Revising the requirements in the NESHAP...

  19. Optimal transformations leading to normal distributions of positron emission tomography standardized uptake values

    Scarpelli, Matthew; Eickhoff, Jens; Cuna, Enrique; Perlman, Scott; Jeraj, Robert

    2018-02-01

    The statistical analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements is challenging due to the skewed nature of SUV distributions. This limits utilization of powerful parametric statistical models for analyzing SUV measurements. An ad-hoc approach, which is frequently used in practice, is to blindly use a log transformation, which may or may not result in normal SUV distributions. This study sought to identify optimal transformations leading to normally distributed PET SUVs extracted from tumors and assess the effects of therapy on the optimal transformations. Methods. The optimal transformation for producing normal distributions of tumor SUVs was identified by iterating the Box-Cox transformation parameter (λ) and selecting the parameter that maximized the Shapiro-Wilk P-value. Optimal transformations were identified for tumor SUVmax distributions at both pre and post treatment. This study included 57 patients that underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET scans (publically available dataset). In addition, to test the generality of our transformation methodology, we included analysis of 27 patients that underwent 18F-Fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) PET scans at our institution. Results. After applying the optimal Box-Cox transformations, neither the pre nor the post treatment 18F-FDG SUV distributions deviated significantly from normality (P  >  0.10). Similar results were found for 18F-FLT PET SUV distributions (P  >  0.10). For both 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT SUV distributions, the skewness and kurtosis increased from pre to post treatment, leading to a decrease in the optimal Box-Cox transformation parameter from pre to post treatment. There were types of distributions encountered for both 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT where a log transformation was not optimal for providing normal SUV distributions. Conclusion. Optimization of the Box-Cox transformation, offers a solution for identifying normal SUV transformations for when

  20. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  1. Malaysian NDT standards

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of the characteristics of a field emission cathode for use in a Mercury ion trap frequency standard

    Christman, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The performance is reported of a field emission array characterized for the purpose of replacing the filament in a trapped ion frequency standard. This dark electron emitter eliminates the need for the interference filter currently used in the trapped ion standard. While reducing the filament's unwanted light, this filter causes a significant reduction in the signal. The magnetic field associated with the filament is also eliminated, thus potentially improving the present stability of the trapped ion standard. The operation of the filament in the present system is described, as well as the associated concerns. The cathode considered for the filament's replacement is then described along with the experimental system. Experimental results, observations, and conclusions are presented.

  3. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  4. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    2013-04-08

    ...The EPA is announcing two public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''), which will be published separately in the Federal Register. The hearings will be held in Philadelphia, PA on April 24, 2013 and in Chicago, IL on April 29, 2013. The comment period for the proposed rulemaking will end on June 13, 2013.

  5. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    2012-10-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9678-1] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages 36341-36386 in the issue of Monday, June 18, 2012, make the following corrections: Sec. 87.2...

  6. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-06-01

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards. Solid particle number and black carbon were suggested in place of PM mass for the California LEV III 1-mg/mile FTP standard. Their equivalence, proportionality, and emission variability in comparison to PM mass, based on a large light-duty vehicle fleet examined, are dependent on engine

  7. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  8. Standard Reference Tables -

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards for... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty... group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or...

  11. MTU engines for locomotives satisfying the EU stage IIIB emission standard; MTU-Lokomotivantriebe fuer die Emissionsstufe EU IIIB

    Wintruff, Ingo; Reich, Christian; Geiselmann, Wolfgang; Gottschalch, Harald; Jansen, Eddy [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The emission limits for diesel locomotives inside the European Union are included within the scope of Directive 97/68/EC, which is sometimes referred to as the ''non-road directive''. The pollutants limited by it are NO{sub x}, particulates, CO and HCs. The aim, through the directive, is to reduce railway emissions by a factor of ten by the year 2020. The EU stage IIIB standard is due to take effect on 1 January 2012. This envisages a further drastic reduction in limit values compared with EU stage IIIA, which is applicable today. For diesel locomotives, EU stage IIIA only came into force as recently as 2009. The manufacturers of engines and locomotives are thus having to face up to the huge challenge of getting the technologies needed for EU stage IIIB ready for the production line within a period of only three years. MTU has succeeded in developing engines for diesel locomotives that comply with the EU stage IIIB emission standard, which appreciably lower emissions compared with engines satisfying EU stage IIIA, thanks to the incorporation of the most modern technologies available, and has even gone as far as preparing them for the EU stage IV, the next one to come into force. (orig.)

  12. Standards for holdup measurement

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  13. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  14. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  15. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides. Annual report

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions

  16. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  17. Standardisation in standards

    McDonald, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The following observations are offered by one who has served on national and international standards-writing committees and standards review committees. Service on working groups consists of either updating previous standards or developing new standards. The process of writing either type of document proceeds along similar lines. The first order of business is to recognise the need for developing or updating a standard and to identify the potential user community. It is also necessary to ensure that there is a required number of members willing to do the writing. A justification is required as to why a new standard should be developed, and this is written as a new work item proposal or a project initiation notification system form. This document must be filed officially and approved, and a search is then undertaken to ensure that the proposed new standard will not duplicate a standard that has already been published or is underway in another standards organisation. (author)

  18. International Standards to Reduce Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines and Their Fuels

    Overview of EPA coordination with International Maritime Organization including a list of all international regulations and materials related to emissions from marine compression-ignition (diesel) engines.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR EMISSION FOR STANDARD POINT-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA

    Acero, F.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Buson, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: isabelle.grenier@cea.fr, E-mail: casandjian@cea.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2016-04-01

    Most of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.

  20. Nuclear standardization development study

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements in...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    2010-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a design...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.105 - What evaporative emission standards and requirements apply?

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION... specified in § 1048.501. Diurnal emission controls must continue to function during engine operation. (d... 62 kPa (9 psi) begins to boil at about 53 °C at atmospheric pressure, and at about 60 °C for fuel...

  4. Consideration of the overall impact of an emission when setting standards for air pollution control

    Van As, D.

    1981-01-01

    By increasing the release height, dispersion of the effluent is improved and thus the release rate that can be tolerated for the same air concentration at ground level is also increased. Stacks are thus often misapplied if the ground-level concentration alone is taken into account, while total release, and thus the overall impact, are disregarded. In the nuclear industry the control of radioactive releases to the environment is based on two important requirements, viz.: dose limits (air-quality standards) may under no circumstances be exceeded, and; doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, which requires that total exposure from all doses, even those well below the dose limit, to all members of the public and for all future time, should be considered. Permissible releases are determined by taking into account the overall impact of the release and optimising the release to the point where the cost of further decreasing the amount is not justified by the additional protection obtained [af

  5. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company's management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring

  6. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  7. Some considerations about standardization

    Dewez, Ph L; Fanjas, Y R [C.E.R.C.A., Romans (France)

    1985-07-01

    Complete standardization of research reactor fuel is not possible. However the transition from HEU to LEU should be an opportunity for a double effort towards standardization and optimization in order to reduce cost. (author)

  8. BTS statistical standards manual

    2005-10-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  9. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  10. Some considerations about standardization

    Dewez, Ph.L.; Fanjas, Y.R.

    1985-01-01

    Complete standardization of research reactor fuel is not possible. However the transition from HEU to LEU should be an opportunity for a double effort towards standardization and optimization in order to reduce cost. (author)

  11. The Distance Standard Deviation

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  12. Making standards work

    Stigzelius, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Social and environmental standards can function as tools for companies that want to improve their conduct in social and environmental areas in the supply chain. However, relatively little attention has been given to how the adoption of social and environmental standards may influence the actual business practices in the supply chain. The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the institutional context surrounding the adoption of social and environmental standards and how these standards inf...

  13. Standards, the users perspective

    Nason, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The term standard has little meaning until put into the proper context. What is being standardized? What are the standard conditions to be applied? The list of questions that arise goes on and on. In this presentation, answers to these questions are considered in the interest of providing a basic understanding of what might be useful to the electrical power industry in the way of standards and what the limitations on application of them would be as well. 16 figs

  14. Large Municipal Waste Combustors (LMWC): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emissions Guidelines

    Learn about the NSPS, emission guidelines and compliance times for large municipal waste combustors (MWC) by reading the rule summary, rule history and the federal register citations and supporting documents

  15. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    2011-03-21

    ... firms to operate and maintain the emissions control systems. Consistent with the legislative history, we... stores/malls, laundries, apartments, restaurants, and hotels/motels. The institutional boiler source...

  16. Radiological Control Technician: Standardized technician Qualification Standard

    1992-10-01

    The Qualification Standard states and defines the knowledge and skill requirements necessary for successful completion of the Radiological Control Technician Training Program. The standard is divided into three phases: Phase I concerns RCT Academic training. There are 13 lessons associated with the core academics program and 19 lessons associated with the site academics program. The staff member should sign the appropriate blocks upon successful completion of the examination for that lesson or group of lessons. In addition, facility specific lesson plans may be added to meet the knowledge requirements in the Job Performance Measures (JPM) of the practical program. Phase II concerns RCT core/site practical (JPMs) training. There are thirteen generic tasks associated with the core practical program. Both the trainer/evaluator and student should sign the appropriate block upon successful completion of the JPM. In addition, facility specific tasks may be added or generic tasks deleted based on the results of the facility job evaluation. Phase III concerns the oral examination board successful completion of the oral examination board is documented by the signature of the chairperson of the board. Upon completion of all of the standardized technician qualification requirements, final qualification is verified by the student and the manager of the Radiological Control Department and acknowledged by signatures on the qualification standard. The completed Qualification Standard shall be maintained as an official training record

  17. Quality of semantic standards

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  18. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  19. Practical no-gold-standard evaluation framework for quantitative imaging methods: application to lesion segmentation in positron emission tomography.

    Jha, Abhinav K; Mena, Esther; Caffo, Brian; Ashrafinia, Saeed; Rahmim, Arman; Frey, Eric; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a class of no-gold-standard (NGS) techniques have been proposed to evaluate quantitative imaging methods using patient data. These techniques provide figures of merit (FoMs) quantifying the precision of the estimated quantitative value without requiring repeated measurements and without requiring a gold standard. However, applying these techniques to patient data presents several practical difficulties including assessing the underlying assumptions, accounting for patient-sampling-related uncertainty, and assessing the reliability of the estimated FoMs. To address these issues, we propose statistical tests that provide confidence in the underlying assumptions and in the reliability of the estimated FoMs. Furthermore, the NGS technique is integrated within a bootstrap-based methodology to account for patient-sampling-related uncertainty. The developed NGS framework was applied to evaluate four methods for segmenting lesions from F-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography images of patients with head-and-neck cancer on the task of precisely measuring the metabolic tumor volume. The NGS technique consistently predicted the same segmentation method as the most precise method. The proposed framework provided confidence in these results, even when gold-standard data were not available. The bootstrap-based methodology indicated improved performance of the NGS technique with larger numbers of patient studies, as was expected, and yielded consistent results as long as data from more than 80 lesions were available for the analysis.

  20. Extended wavelength anisotropy resolved multidimensional emission spectroscopy (ARMES) measurements: better filters, validation standards, and Rayleigh scatter removal methods

    Casamayou-Boucau, Yannick; Ryder, Alan G.

    2017-09-01

    Anisotropy resolved multidimensional emission spectroscopy (ARMES) provides valuable insights into multi-fluorophore proteins (Groza et al 2015 Anal. Chim. Acta 886 133-42). Fluorescence anisotropy adds to the multidimensional fluorescence dataset information about the physical size of the fluorophores and/or the rigidity of the surrounding micro-environment. The first ARMES studies used standard thin film polarizers (TFP) that had negligible transmission between 250 and 290 nm, preventing accurate measurement of intrinsic protein fluorescence from tyrosine and tryptophan. Replacing TFP with pairs of broadband wire grid polarizers enabled standard fluorescence spectrometers to accurately measure anisotropies between 250 and 300 nm, which was validated with solutions of perylene in the UV and Erythrosin B and Phloxine B in the visible. In all cases, anisotropies were accurate to better than ±1% when compared to literature measurements made with Glan Thompson or TFP polarizers. Better dual wire grid polarizer UV transmittance and the use of excitation-emission matrix measurements for ARMES required complete Rayleigh scatter elimination. This was achieved by chemometric modelling rather than classical interpolation, which enabled the acquisition of pure anisotropy patterns over wider spectral ranges. In combination, these three improvements permit the accurate implementation of ARMES for studying intrinsic protein fluorescence.

  1. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  2. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  3. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H; RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL-TO-EMIT CALCULATIONS

    EARLEY JN

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year

  4. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  5. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr

  6. Analysis of standard and innovative methods for allocating upstream and refinery GHG emissions to oil products

    Moretti, Christian; Moro, Alberto; Edwards, Robert; Rocco, Matteo Vincenzo; Colombo, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Traditional and innovative methods for allocating emissions at refinery level are reviewed. •Added value has been introduced as a novel allocation method. •Hydrogen-based consistency test has been introduced to validate the allocation methods. •Consistent allocation methods assign negative refinery emissions to heavy products. -- Abstract: Alternative fuel policies need accurate and transparent methods to find the embedded carbon intensity of individual refinery products. This study investigates different ways of allocating greenhouse gases emissions deriving from refining and upstream crude oil supply. Allocation methods based on mass, energy content, economic value and, innovatively, added-value, are compared with the marginal refining emissions calculated by CONCAWE’s linear-programming model to the average EU refinery, which has been adopted as reference in EU legislation. Beside the most important transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel and heavy fuel oil), the analysis extends to petroleum coke and refinery hydrogen. Moreover, novel criteria, based on the implications due to hydrogen usage by each fuel pathway, have been introduced to test the consistency of the analyzed approaches. It is found that only two economic-based allocation methods are consistent with the introduced criteria. These two methods also give negative refinery emissions for heavy products, which is coherent with the marginal emissions calculated through the CONCAWE refinery model. The recommended allocation methods are transparent and use only publicly available statistical data, so they may be useful not only for future EU legislation, but also in jurisdictions where a representative refinery model is not available.

  7. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Tier 2 Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing more protective tailpipe emissions standards for all passenger vehicles, including sport utility vehicles (SUVs), minivans, vans and pick-up trucks.

  8. 40 CFR 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Selective Enforcement Auditing § 1068.425 What happens if one of my production... engine/equipment to show it complies with all emission standards. (2) Include in your written report a...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 2 vehicles, this section also applies to hybrid electric vehicles and zero emission vehicles. Unless... element of design installed on or incorporated in a new motor vehicle to enable such vehicle to conform to... adjustable range of each adjustable parameter on a new motor vehicle, the manufacturer shall ensure that...

  10. User needs for a standardized CO2 emission assessment methodology for intelligent transport systems

    Mans, D.; Rekiel, J.; Wolfermann, A.; Klunder, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Amitran FP7 project will define a reference methodology to assess the impact of intelligent transport systems on CO2 emissions. The methodology is intended to be used as a reference by future projects and covers both passenger and freight transport. The project will lead to a validated

  11. Formaldehyde emission from particleboard and plywood paneling : measurement, mechanism, and product standards

    George E. Myers

    1983-01-01

    A number of commercial panel products, primarily particleboard and hardwood plywood, were tested for their formaldehyde emission behavior using desiccator, perforator, and dynamic chamber methods. The results were analyzed in terms of the source of formaldehyde observed in the tests (free vs. hydrolytically produced) and the potential utility of the testa as product...

  12. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND... travel greater than 10 inches. (E) Engine displacement greater than 50 cc. (F) The absence of a... operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family. (ii...

  13. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    2012-12-31

    ... application. These definitions are consistent with CAEP/8 usage, and the common understanding of these terms.... Instead, it was printed in regular size text, implying a very different mathematical calculation. Since... each pollutant based on a statistical assessment of measured emissions from multiple tests.\\1\\ \\1\\ This...

  14. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.19 kW ≥ 3700 2015 0.06 1.8 0.19 (b) Averaging, banking, and trading. You may generate or use emission credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program as described in subpart H of this...) Determine the applicable NTE zone and subzones as described in § 1042.515. Determine NTE multipliers for...

  15. 76 FR 76259 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants

    2011-12-06

    ... Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene...). The rule is applicable to facilities with affected sources associated with the production of aluminum... are subject to the requirements of this NESHAP: 14 primary aluminum production plants and one carbon...

  16. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  17. Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for post-2010 HD Emission Standards

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heijden, van der P.

    2009-01-01

    A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meetpost-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy dutyapplications. The proposed concept is based on anengine from a EURO IV SCR application, which isconsidered optimal with respect to fuel economy andcosts. The addition of advanced SCR after

  18. 78 FR 38001 - Reconsideration of Certain Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    2013-06-25

    ..., FRL-9827-1] RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission... published in the Federal Register the proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup....'' That proposal opened for reconsideration certain issues, including those related to startup and...

  19. Cost and fuel efficient SCR-only solution for post-2010 HD emission standards

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heijden, P.V.A.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment

  20. Calibration of Flick standards

    Thalmann, Ruedi; Spiller, Jürg; Küng, Alain; Jusko, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Flick standards or magnification standards are widely used for an efficient and functional calibration of the sensitivity of form measuring instruments. The results of a recent measurement comparison have shown to be partially unsatisfactory and revealed problems related to the calibration of these standards. In this paper the influence factors for the calibration of Flick standards using roundness measurement instruments are discussed in detail, in particular the bandwidth of the measurement chain, residual form errors of the device under test, profile distortions due to the diameter of the probing element and questions related to the definition of the measurand. The different contributions are estimated using simulations and are experimentally verified. Also alternative methods to calibrate Flick standards are investigated. Finally the practical limitations of Flick standard calibration are shown and the usability of Flick standards both to calibrate the sensitivity of roundness instruments and to check the filter function of such instruments is analysed. (paper)

  1. 40 CFR 265.1087 - Standards: Containers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 265.1087... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1087 Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions...

  2. 40 CFR 264.1086 - Standards: Containers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 264.1086... Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 264.1086 Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions from...

  3. 40 CFR 91.104 - Exhaust emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines.

    2010-07-01

    ... 2006 and later 81.00 (0.250 × (151 + 557/P0.9)) + 6.00 where: P = the average power of an engine family in kW (sales weighted). The power of each configuration is the rated output in kilowatts as... designate a Family Emission Limit (FEL) for HC+NOX for every engine family. The FEL may be equal to the...

  4. Standard practice for examination of fiberglass reinforced plastic fan blades using acoustic emission

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) fan blades of the type used in industrial cooling towers and heat exchangers. 1.2 This practice uses simulated service loading to determine structural integrity. 1.3 This practice will detect sources of acoustic emission in areas of sensor coverage that are stressed during the course of the examination. 1.4 This practice applies to examinations of new and in-service fan blades. 1.5 This practice is limited to fan blades of FRP construction, with length (hub centerline to tip) of less than 3 m [10 ft], and with fiberglass content greater than 15 % by weight. 1.6 AE measurements are used to detect emission sources. Other nondestructive examination (NDE) methods may be used to evaluate the significance of AE sources. Procedures for other NDE methods are beyond the scope of this practice. 1.7 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as sta...

  5. Requirements of quality standards

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  6. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Ahmed Al-Samari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  7. Theoretical modeling and analysis of the emission spectra of a ChemCam standard: Basalt BIR-1A

    Colgan, J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Judge, E.J. [Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johns, H.M.; Kilcrease, D.P. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Barefield, J.E. [Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); McInroy, R. [Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hakel, P. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiens, R.C. [Space and Remote Sensing Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, S.M. [Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We report on efforts to perform theoretical modeling of the emission spectrum measured from a basalt sample. We compare our calculations with measurements that were made to provide standards for the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory. We find that to obtain good agreement between modeling and the measurement, it is necessary to determine atomic and ionic level populations via a multi-element approach in which the free electron density that is created influences all the species within the plasma. Calculations that consider each element separately are found to be in poorer agreement with the measured spectrum, indicating that the ‘matrix effect’ term often used to describe the influence of other species on the emission spectrum from a given element is due to the influence of the global electron density of the plasma. We explore the emission features in both the visible and near-infrared wavelength ranges, and also examine radiation transport effects for some of the most intense features found in the basalt spectrum. Finally, we also provide comparisons of the ChemCam measurement with new high-resolution spectral measurements. - Highlights: • LIBS basalt spectrum • Ab-initio theoretical modeling • Discussion of matrix effects • Discussion of radiation transport effects • High-resolution measurements of Basalt.

  8. A guide for determining compliance with the Clean Air Act Standards for radionuclide emissions from NRC-licensed and non-DOE federal facilities (Rev. 1)

    NONE

    1989-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued standards under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act of February 6, 1985 that limit airborne emissions of radionuclides to the atmosphere. In February 1989 these standards were re proposed , and in November 1989 final standards may be promulgated. This document provides guidance for determining compliance with one of the National Emissions for Hazardous Air Pollutants covering facilities that are licensed by NRC, and federal facilities not operated by the DOE, that could emit radionuclides to the ai00.

  9. Development of a direct measurement system for the standardization of neutron emission rates

    Ogheard, Florestan

    2012-01-01

    The manganese bath technique is the reference method for neutron source emission rates calibration. It is used to calibrate neutron sources using radionuclides (AmBe, PuBe, "2"5"2Cf,...) in terms of neutron emission rate under 4π sr. As a complement to this technique, the anisotropy of the source is measured using a rotating source holder and a neutron long counter. The neutron source to be measured is immersed in a manganese sulphate solution whereby the emitted neutrons are captured within the bath contents. In a typical configuration (a 1 m diameter sphere and a concentrated solution), approximately half of the neutrons lead to the creation of "5"6Mn via the "5"5Mn(n, γ) capture reaction. The "5"6Mn radionuclide has a half-life of approximately 2.6 hours and the bath reaches saturation when the number of nuclei decaying is equal to the number of nuclei created per unit time. The neutron emission rate from the source can then be deduced from the "5"6Mn activity at saturation, assuming proper modelling of the nuclear reactions occurring in the bath. The manganese bath facility at LNE-LNHB has been recently refurbished in order to comply with appropriate safety and radioprotection regulations. This has lead to the upgrading of both the measurement methodology and the modelling of the bath, and a study on the development of a new detector for the on-line measurement of the manganese activity was started. This new detector uses the β-γ coincidence measurement method. The beta channel consists of two photomultipliers tubes which allow the detection of Cerenkov light, and the gamma channel uses a solid scintillation detector. The advantage of this measurement method is that it allows the determination of the bath activity without any prior calibration, unlike the former method which uses a gamma-ray detector calibrated using a high activity manganese source. The principle of the Cerenkov-gamma coincidence measurement has been validated by a prototype of the

  10. Beyond the standard model

    Wilczek, F.

    1993-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is highly successful, although it is obviously not a complete or final theory. In this presentation the author argues that the structure of the standard model gives some quite concrete, compelling hints regarding what lies beyond. Essentially, this presentation is a record of the author's own judgement of what the central clues for physics beyond the standard model are, and also it is an attempt at some pedagogy. 14 refs., 6 figs

  11. Standard Model processes

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  12. International Construction Measurement Standard

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  13. Role of energy efficiency standards in reducing CO2 emissions in Germany: An assessment with TIMES

    Blesl, Markus; Das, Anjana; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Energy efficiency is widely viewed as an important element of energy and environmental policy. Applying the TIMES model, this paper examines the impacts of additional efficiency improvement measures (as prescribed by the ACROPOLIS project) over the baseline, at the level of individual sectors level as well as in a combined implementation, on the German energy system in terms of energy savings, technological development, emissions and costs. Implementing efficiency measures in all sectors together, CO 2 reduction is possible through substitution of conventional gas or oil boilers by condensing gas boilers especially in single family houses, shifting from petrol to diesel vehicles in private transport, increased use of electric vehicles, gas combined cycle power plants and CHP (combined heat and power production) etc. At a sectoral level, the residential sector offers double benefits of CO 2 reduction and cost savings. In the transport sector, on the other hand, CO 2 reduction is the most expensive, using bio-fuels and methanol to achieve the efficiency targets. An additional case is examined which assumes the CO 2 emissions in the combined efficiency measures case as the target. This case concludes that, with different options, the same amount of CO 2 reduction is possible together with cost reductions over the baseline, confirming that the specific sectoral efficiency targets prescribed by ACROPOLIS may not be the optimal one to mitigate CO 2 . It applies the same efficiency improvement targets in the residential and industrial sectors but scales down the target in the service sector and avoids any further efficiency improvement in the transport sector. It replaces electricity with heating fuel in final energy consumption, while further increasing the use of gas for power generation in 2030. In 2050, part of the electricity demand is met through the import of electricity from renewable sources

  14. Pellets standard on the way

    Laeng, H.-P.

    2001-01-01

    This short article introduces the Swiss standard that has been adapted from the German standard for heating pellets made of untreated wood. The various requirements placed on the materials used in the manufacture of the pellets and their influence on the pollution emissions produced by boilers and ovens using the pellets as a heating fuel are listed. Further points in the standard referring to declarations to be made by the manufacturer, size and specific weight of the pellets and instructions for the storage and burning of the pellets are discussed

  15. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  16. Towards common technical standards

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  17. The Standard Model course

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Suggested Readings: Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0001118. - The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0502010. - The Standard Model of Particle Physics/A Pich The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics will be described. A detailed discussion of the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory will be given, together with an overview of the most important experimental facts which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of particle interactions.

  18. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  19. 40 CFR 63.3350 - If I use a control device to comply with the emission standards, what monitoring must I do?

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If I use a control device to comply with the emission standards, what monitoring must I do? 63.3350 Section 63.3350 Protection of... for Monitoring and Performance Tests § 63.3350 If I use a control device to comply with the emission...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.320 - What happens if one of my production-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards?

    2010-07-01

    ...-line vehicles or engines fails to meet emission standards? 1051.320 Section 1051.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.320 What happens if one...

  1. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography standardized uptake values in clinical practice and assessing response to therapy.

    Kinahan, Paul E; Fletcher, James W

    2010-12-01

    The use of standardized uptake values (SUVs) is now common place in clinical 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) position emission tomography-computed tomography oncology imaging and has a specific role in assessing patient response to cancer therapy. Ideally, the use of SUVs removes variability introduced by differences in patient size and the amount of injected FDG. However, in practice there are several sources of bias and variance that are introduced in the measurement of FDG uptake in tumors and also in the conversion of the image count data to SUVs. In this article the overall imaging process is reviewed and estimates of the magnitude of errors, where known, are given. Recommendations are provided for best practices in improving SUV accuracy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    1994-01-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (''D'') Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ''D'' pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels

  3. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate policy in the United States

    Karplus, Valerie J.; Paltsev, Sergey; Babiker, Mustafa; Reilly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use and (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the cost and effectiveness of fuel economy standards, alone and in combination with economy-wide policies that constrain GHG emissions, is essential to inform coordinated design of future climate and energy policy. We use a computable general equilibrium model, the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, to investigate the effect of combining a fuel economy standard with an economy-wide GHG emissions constraint in the United States. First, a fuel economy standard is shown to be at least six to fourteen times less cost effective than a price instrument (fuel tax) when targeting an identical reduction in cumulative gasoline use. Second, when combined with a cap-and-trade (CAT) policy, a binding fuel economy standard increases the cost of meeting the GHG emissions constraint by forcing expensive reductions in passenger vehicle gasoline use, displacing more cost-effective abatement opportunities. Third, the impact of adding a fuel economy standard to the CAT policy depends on the availability and cost of abatement opportunities in transport—if advanced biofuels provide a cost-competitive, low carbon alternative to gasoline, the fuel economy standard does not bind and the use of low carbon fuels in passenger vehicles makes a significantly larger contribution to GHG emissions abatement relative to the case when biofuels are not available. This analysis underscores the potentially large costs of a fuel economy standard relative to alternative policies aimed at reducing petroleum use and GHG emissions. It further emphasizes the need to consider sensitivity to vehicle technology and alternative fuel availability and costs as well as economy-wide responses when forecasting the energy, environmental, and economic outcomes of

  4. Position paper on standardization

    1991-04-01

    The ''NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants'' creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. One of the key elements of the Strategic Plan is a comprehensive industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The NPOC plan proposes four stages of standardization in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The first stage is established by the ALWR Utility Requirements Document which specifies owner/operator requirements at a functional level covering all elements of plant design and construction, and many aspects of operations and maintenance. The second stage of standardization is that achieved in the NRC design certification. This certification level includes requirements, design criteria and bases, functional descriptions and performance requirements for systems to assure plant safety. The third stage of standardization, commercial standardization, carries the design to a level of completion beyond that required for design certification to enable the industry to achieve potential increases in efficiency and economy. The final stage of standardization is enhanced standardization beyond design. A standardized approach is being developed in construction practices, operating, maintenance training, and procurement practices. This comprehensive standardization program enables the NRC to proceed with design certification with the confidence that standardization beyond the regulations will be achieved. This confidence should answer the question of design detail required for design certification, and demonstrate that the NRC should require no further regulatory review beyond that required by 10 CFR Part 52

  5. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    2012-07-25

    ... rule that revised Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost... Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of...

  6. Regulated and unregulated emissions from highway heavy-duty diesel engines complying with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 emissions standards.

    Khalek, Imad A; Bougher, Thomas L; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from four different 2007 model year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-compliant heavy-duty highway diesel engines were measured on an engine dynamometer. The engines were equipped with exhaust high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filters (C-DPFs) that are actively regenerated or cleaned using the engine control module. Regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (PM) were on average 97, 89, and 86% lower than the 2007 EPA standard, respectively, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were on average 9% lower. Unregulated exhaust emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions were on, average 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than the NO, emissions reported in previous work using 1998- and 2004-technology engines, respectively. However, compared with other work performed on 1994- to 2004-technology engines, average emission reductions in the range of 71-99% were observed for a very comprehensive list of unregulated engine exhaust pollutants and air toxic contaminants that included metals and other elements, elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, and gas- and particle-phase volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon (OC) compounds. The low PM mass emitted from the 2007 technology ACES engines was composed mainly of sulfate (53%) and OC (30%), with a small fraction of EC (13%) and metals and other elements (4%). The fraction of EC is expected to remain small, regardless of engine operation, because of the presence of the high-efficiency C-DPF in the exhaust. This is different from typical PM composition of pre-2007 engines with EC in the range of 10-90%, depending on engine operation. Most of the particles emitted from the 2007 engines were mainly volatile nuclei mode in the sub-30-nm size range. An increase in volatile nanoparticles was observed during C-DPF active regeneration, during which the observed particle number was

  7. State Skill Standards: Welding

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  8. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  9. How many standards?

    Maegaard, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school...

  10. Environmental radiation standards

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs

  11. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality...

  12. Weston Standard battery

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  13. Surface soil contamination standards

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  14. Standard classification: Physics

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  15. Governing through standards

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...

  16. Environmental radiation protection standards

    Richings, L.D.G.; Morley, F.; Kelley, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  17. Standards and Professional Development

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  18. “Lock-in” effect of emission standard and its impact on the choice of market based instruments

    Haoqi, Qian; Libo, Wu; Weiqi, Tang

    2017-01-01

    A country's existing emission standard policy will lead to a “lock in” effect. When the country plans to adopt new market-based instruments to control greenhouse gas emissions, it must consider this effect as it chooses among instruments to avoid larger efficiency loss. In this paper, we find that the “lock in” effect will cause a kink point to occur on the marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve. This change of shape for the MAC curve reminds us to be cautious in choosing market-based instruments when applying Weitzman's rule. We also introduce this concept into a dynamic multi-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for China and simulate MAC curves for all regions. After applying Weitzman's rule, we propose a timeline for introducing price instruments under different marginal benefit (MB) curve scenarios. - Highlights: • China's existing carbon intensity policy has a “lock-in” effect and leads to a “kink point” on MAC. • A dynamic inter-regional CGE model is developed to simulate the regional kinked MAC curves in China. • A timeline of introducing new market based instrument is proposed by combining different MB scenarios.

  19. New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet

    Wang Zhao; Jin Yuefu; Wang Michael; Wei Wu

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L/100 km. The Phase 3 standard follows the evaluating system by specifying fuel consumption targets for sixteen individual mass-based classes. Different from compliance with the Phases 1 and 2 fuel consumption standards, compliance of the Phase 3 standard is based on corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) rates for individual automobile companies. A transition period from 2012 to 2014 is designed for manufacturers to gradually adjust their production plans and introduce fuel-efficient technologies. In this paper, we, the designers of the Phase 3 standard, present the design of the overall fuel consumption reduction target, technical feasibility, and policy implications of the Phase 3 standard. We also explore several enforcement approaches for the Phase 3 standard with financial penalties of non-compliance as a priority. Finally, we estimate the overall effect of the Phase 3 standard on oil savings and CO 2 emission reductions.

  20. Efficiency Standard in automotive industry

    Goldoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    A technological transition in the transport sector could be only be possible with a convergence of objectives of the automotive and the fuel industries, which is not very simple to obtain. Fuel economy standards could differently reduce the growing trend of CO 2 emissions in this sector but regulators should avoid capture from domestic industry. [it

  1. A case of standardization?

    Rod, Morten Hulvej; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2016-01-01

    the ones envisioned by the makers of standards. In 2012, the Danish National Health Authorities introduced a set of health promotion guidelines that were meant to guide the decision making and priority setting of Denmark's 98 local governments. The guidelines provided recommendations for health promotion...... and standardization. It remains an open question whether or not the guidelines lead to more standardized policies and interventions, but we suggest that the guidelines promote a risk factor-oriented approach as the dominant frame for knowledge, reasoning, decision making and priority setting in health promotion. We...

  2. The Standard Model

    Sutton, Christine

    1994-01-01

    The initial evidence from Fermilab for the long awaited sixth ('top') quark puts another rivet in the already firm structure of today's Standard Model of physics. Analysis of the Fermilab CDF data gives a top mass of 174 GeV with an error of ten per cent either way. This falls within the mass band predicted by the sum total of world Standard Model data and underlines our understanding of physics in terms of six quarks and six leptons. In this specially commissioned overview, physics writer Christine Sutton explains the Standard Model

  3. Wireless installation standard

    Lim, Hwang Bin

    2007-12-01

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  4. Operator licensing examiner standards

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  5. International radiofrequency standards

    Lincoln, J.

    2001-01-01

    Of the various radiofrequency standards in use around the world, many are based on or similar to the Guidelines published by ICNIRP (The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection). This organisation is a working group operating in co-operation with the Environmental Health division of the World Health Organisation (WHO). This paper presents a very brief overview of current international standards, beginning with a summary of the salient points of the ICNIRP Guidelines. It should be remembered that these are guidelines only and do not exist as a separate standard. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  6. Beyond the standard model

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1990-04-01

    The unresolved issues of the standard model are reviewed, with emphasis on the gauge hierarchy problem. A possible mechanism for generating a hierarchy in the context of superstring theory is described. 24 refs

  7. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  8. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  9. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  10. 3G Standards

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which....... Originality/value – The paper is based on the understanding that a vast array of different factors in a complex dynamic environment goes into the determination of the outcome of such standardization games. However, the battle between 3G standards has already reached a level, where relatively certain...... predictions can be made. And, the paper contributes with a methodologically based discussion concerning the outcome of the battle between 3G standards....

  11. State Air Quality Standards.

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  12. SOFG: Standards requirements

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  13. AKRO: Standard Prices

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  14. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  15. Nuclear radiation gauge standard

    Berry, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described, comprising a body of superposed interleaved thin layers of a moderating material containing hydrogen in the molecular structure thereof and of a substantially non-moderating material

  16. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  17. Beyond the standard model

    Pleitez, V.

    1994-01-01

    The search for physics laws beyond the standard model is discussed in a general way, and also some topics on supersymmetry theories. An approach is made on recent possibilities rise in the leptonic sector. Finally, models with SU(3) c X SU(2) L X U(1) Y symmetry are considered as alternatives for the extensions of the elementary particles standard model. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Testing the standard model

    Gordon, H.; Marciano, W.; Williams, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize here the results of the standard model group which has studied the ways in which different facilities may be used to test in detail what we now call the standard model, that is SU/sub c/(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The topics considered are: W +- , Z 0 mass, width; sin 2 theta/sub W/ and neutral current couplings; W + W - , Wγ; Higgs; QCD; toponium and naked quarks; glueballs; mixing angles; and heavy ions

  19. The Gold Standard Programme

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  20. Food Safety & Standards

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  1. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture...

  2. Standard software for CAMAC

    Lenkszus, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the U.S. Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories have jointly specified standard software for use with CAMAC. Three general approaches were followed: the definition of a language called IML for use in CAMAC systems, the definition of a standard set of subroutine calls, and real-time extensions to the BASIC language. This paper summarizes the results of these efforts. 1 table

  3. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA is proposing to adopt emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  4. Standards update -- 1995

    Mason, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    What a year this has been! Not since 1986, when SGML was being finished, has there been so much activity in the SGML world. In ISO, there are new standards being completed and old ones (some of which are not really all that old) being revised. As you`ll be hearing, there is lots of SGML activity in the applications world--particularly on the Internet--and that`s causing other kinds of standards activity. WG8 divides its work into five ``Rapporteur Groups`` (or ``RGs``) for DSSSL, Font Description and Interchange, SGML, SPDL, and Hypermedia Languages. Since interest is in DSSSL, SGML, and Hypermedia Languages, the author only mentions that the other groups have been active, too. The Fronts group has been doing amendments to its standards, ISO/IEC 9541 and ISO/IEC 10036. The Fronts groups has been active in providing support for ISO/IEC 10646, the massive character coding standard that has drawn a lot of attention in the SGML world. The SPDL group has at long last finished its standard, the Standard Page Description Language (ISO/IEC 10180) and is about to publish it. More detailed discussions are given for activity in SGML, DSSSL, and Hypermedia Languages.

  5. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  6. Technical standards in nuclear area

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  7. Implementation of sum-peak method for standardization of positron emission radionuclides; Implementacao do metodo pico-soma para padronizacao de radionuclideos emissores de positrons

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mcfragoso@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly recognized as an important quantitative imaging tool for diagnosis and assessing response to therapy. As correct dose administration plays a crucial part in nuclear medicine, it is important that the instruments used to assay the activity of the short-lived radionuclides are calibrated accurately, with traceability to the national or international standards. The sum-peak method has been widely used for radionuclide standardization. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of PET radiopharmaceuticals at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE). (author)

  8. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  9. Measuring temporal stability of positron emission tomography standardized uptake value bias using long-lived sources in a multicenter network.

    Byrd, Darrin; Christopfel, Rebecca; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Karp, Joel; Lodge, Martin A; Laymon, Charles; Moros, Eduardo G; Budzevich, Mikalai; Nehmeh, Sadek; Scheuermann, Joshua; Sunderland, John; Zhang, Jun; Kinahan, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a quantitative imaging modality, but the computation of standardized uptake values (SUVs) requires several instruments to be correctly calibrated. Variability in the calibration process may lead to unreliable quantitation. Sealed source kits containing traceable amounts of [Formula: see text] were used to measure signal stability for 19 PET scanners at nine hospitals in the National Cancer Institute's Quantitative Imaging Network. Repeated measurements of the sources were performed on PET scanners and in dose calibrators. The measured scanner and dose calibrator signal biases were used to compute the bias in SUVs at multiple time points for each site over a 14-month period. Estimation of absolute SUV accuracy was confounded by bias from the solid phantoms' physical properties. On average, the intrascanner coefficient of variation for SUV measurements was 3.5%. Over the entire length of the study, single-scanner SUV values varied over a range of 11%. Dose calibrator bias was not correlated with scanner bias. Calibration factors from the image metadata were nearly as variable as scanner signal, and were correlated with signal for many scanners. SUVs often showed low intrascanner variability between successive measurements but were also prone to shifts in apparent bias, possibly in part due to scanner recalibrations that are part of regular scanner quality control. Biases of key factors in the computation of SUVs were not correlated and their temporal variations did not cancel out of the computation. Long-lived sources and image metadata may provide a check on the recalibration process.

  10. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  11. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks

  12. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  13. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    White, B.

    1995-01-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who's Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed

  14. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  15. IAEA Safety Standards

    2016-09-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series comprises publications of a regulatory nature covering nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive material, the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and management systems. These publications are issued under the terms of Article III of the IAEA’s Statute, which authorizes the IAEA to establish “standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property”. Safety standards are categorized into: • Safety Fundamentals, stating the basic objective, concepts and principles of safety; • Safety Requirements, establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure safety; and • Safety Guides, recommending measures for complying with these requirements for safety. For numbering purposes, the IAEA Safety Standards Series is subdivided into General Safety Requirements and General Safety Guides (GSR and GSG), which are applicable to all types of facilities and activities, and Specific Safety Requirements and Specific Safety Guides (SSR and SSG), which are for application in particular thematic areas. This booklet lists all current IAEA Safety Standards, including those forthcoming

  16. Code, standard and specifications

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  17. Standardization of depression measurement

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  18. Standards and quality

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  19. Operator licensing examiner standards

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  20. Beyond the standard model

    Altarelli, G.

    1987-01-01

    The standard model of particle interactions is a complete and relatively simple theoretical framework which describes all the observed fundamental forces. It consists of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and of the electro-weak theory of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. The former is the theory of colored quarks and gluons, which underlies the observed phenomena of strong interactions, the latter leads to a unified description of electromagnetism and of weak interactions. The inclusion of the classical Einstein theory of gravity completes the set of established basic knowledge. The standard model is in agreement with essentially all of the experimental information which is very rich by now. The recent discovery of the charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons of weak interactions at the expected masses has closed a really important chapter of particle physics. Never before the prediction of new particles was so neat and quantitatively precise. Yet the experimental proof of the standard model is not completed. For example, the hints of experimental evidence for the top quark at a mass ∼ 40 GeV have not yet been firmly established. The Higgs sector of the theory has not been tested at all. Beyond the realm of pure QED, even remaining within the electro-weak sector, the level of quantitative precision in testing the standard model does not exceed 5% or so. Furthermore, the standard model does not look as the ultimate theory. To a closer inspection a large class of fundamental questions emerges and one finds that a host of crucial problems are left open by the standard model

  1. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  2. The Standard Model

    Burgess, Cliff; Moore, Guy

    2012-04-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgments; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Field theory review; 2. The standard model: general features; 3. Cross sections and lifetimes; Part II. Applications: Leptons: 4. Elementary boson decays; 5. Leptonic weak interactions: decays; 6. Leptonic weak interactions: collisions; 7. Effective Lagrangians; Part III. Applications: Hadrons: 8. Hadrons and QCD; 9. Hadronic interactions; Part IV. Beyond the Standard Model: 10. Neutrino masses; 11. Open questions, proposed solutions; Appendix A. Experimental values for the parameters; Appendix B. Symmetries and group theory review; Appendix C. Lorentz group and the Dirac algebra; Appendix D. ξ-gauge Feynman rules; Appendix E. Metric convention conversion table; Select bibliography; Index.

  3. Operator licensing examiner standards

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  4. 40 CFR 63.5150 - If I use a control device to comply with the emission standards, what monitoring must I do?

    2010-07-01

    .... Calculate the temperature difference across the catalyst. If you are demonstrating continuous compliance... of the catalyst bed. (4) Capture system monitoring. If you are complying with the requirements of the... with the emission standards, what monitoring must I do? 63.5150 Section 63.5150 Protection of...

  5. State-of-the art comparability of corrected emission spectra. 2. Field laboratory assessment of calibration performance using spectral fluorescence standards.

    Resch-Genger, Ute; Bremser, Wolfram; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Spieles, Monika; Hoffmann, Angelika; DeRose, Paul C; Zwinkels, Joanne C; Gauthier, François; Ebert, Bernd; Taubert, R Dieter; Voigt, Jan; Hollandt, Jörg; Macdonald, Rainer

    2012-05-01

    In the second part of this two-part series on the state-of-the-art comparability of corrected emission spectra, we have extended this assessment to the broader community of fluorescence spectroscopists by involving 12 field laboratories that were randomly selected on the basis of their fluorescence measuring equipment. These laboratories performed a reference material (RM)-based fluorometer calibration with commercially available spectral fluorescence standards following a standard operating procedure that involved routine measurement conditions and the data evaluation software LINKCORR developed and provided by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This instrument-specific emission correction curve was subsequently used for the determination of the corrected emission spectra of three test dyes, X, QS, and Y, revealing an average accuracy of 6.8% for the corrected emission spectra. This compares well with the relative standard uncertainties of 4.2% for physical standard-based spectral corrections demonstrated in the first part of this study (previous paper in this issue) involving an international group of four expert laboratories. The excellent comparability of the measurements of the field laboratories also demonstrates the effectiveness of RM-based correction procedures.

  6. 40 CFR 63.746 - Standards: Depainting operations.

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities § 63.746 Standards... to an aerospace manufacturing or rework facility that depaints six or less completed aerospace...

  7. Low Impact Development Standards

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The goal of the LID Standards is to provide guidance on the planning, design, construction and maintenance of green infrastructure (GI) features at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The success of LID at LANL is dependent on maintaining a consistent approach to achieve effective application, operation, and maintenance of these storm water control features.

  8. Standards and producers' liability

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  9. GASB Achieves Standardization, Recognition.

    Bissell, George E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Governmental Accounting Standards Board, created to solidify accounting principles for government entities, enumerated Generally Accepted Accounting Principles endorsed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Council on Governmental Accounting. These principles have recently been approved for school…

  10. Standard hakkab tootma Mercedesele

    2005-01-01

    AS Standard sõlmis ühe maailma suurema autotootjaga DaimlerChrysler AG koostöölepingu, mille kohaselt hakkab ettevõte tootma ning müüma kontori- ja teenindussaalide mööblit kontserni kuuluva Mercedes-Benzi Euroopa diileritele

  11. Elevating standards, improving safety.

    Clarke, Richard

    2014-08-01

    In our latest 'technical guidance' article, Richard Clarke, sales and marketing director at one of the UK's leading lift and escalator specialists, Schindler, examines some of the key issues surrounding the specification, maintenance, and operation of lifts in hospitals to help ensure the highest standards of safety and reliability.

  12. International Financial Reporting Standards

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  13. Standard Model festival

    Anon.

    1987-10-15

    The 'Standard Model' of modern particle physics, with the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of inter-quark forces superimposed on the unified electroweak picture, is still unchallenged, but it is not the end of physics. This was the message at the big International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies, held in Hamburg from 27-31 July.

  14. Beyond the standard model

    Cuypers, F.

    1997-05-01

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  15. Standardized terminology in electronic

    Pallas, R.

    1985-01-01

    The correct definitions of the most usual terms on standardization and homologation are given. Then the factors concerning the safety of electrical equipments are reviewed, as they are considered in most of the present legislations. Last, the state of homologations in Spain and Europe is included. (author)

  16. Standard Model festival

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The 'Standard Model' of modern particle physics, with the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of inter-quark forces superimposed on the unified electroweak picture, is still unchallenged, but it is not the end of physics. This was the message at the big International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies, held in Hamburg from 27-31 July

  17. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and string theory will be presented.

  18. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  19. Mixed RIA standard

    Talan, P.; Mucha, J.; Krizan, J.

    1986-01-01

    For the radioimmunoassay of digoxin, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and α 1 -fetoprotein a mixed standard was prepared of these substances in a gamma globulin solution at a concentration of 0.8 to 1.4 wt.% in an aqueous buffer at pH within the range of 6 - 9. The standard contains digoxin at a concentration of 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l, 17β-estradiol at 10 -4 to 2 nmol/l, progesteron at 10 -4 to 100 nmol/l, testosterone at 1o -4 to 21 nmol/l, and α 1 -fetoprotein at 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l with at least two of these substances having concentrations higher than 10 -3 nmol/l. Examples are given of the preparation of the mixed standard with different concentrations of the components. The use of the standard has the following advantages: it is labor saving, reduces the risk of failure in the manufacture of RIA kits, eliminates mistakes in the selection of kits for the determination of different substances and allows a more economical use of material. (E.S.)

  20. Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    With the federal No Child Left Behind Act underscoring the wide variation in what states demand of their students, people on both sides of the political aisle are again making the case for national standards, curricula, and tests. It wasn't so long ago--during the Clinton and George H.W. Bush administrations--that similar proposals went down in…

  1. Comparison of Gasoline Direct-Injection (GDI) and Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Vehicle Emissions: Emission Certification Standards, Cold-Start, Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Potential, and Potential Climate Impacts.

    Saliba, Georges; Saleh, Rawad; Zhao, Yunliang; Presto, Albert A; Lambe, Andrew T; Frodin, Bruce; Sardar, Satya; Maldonado, Hector; Maddox, Christine; May, Andrew A; Drozd, Greg T; Goldstein, Allen H; Russell, Lynn M; Hagen, Fabian; Robinson, Allen L

    2017-06-06

    Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from 82 light-duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most-stringent emissions standard, superultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV). We quantified the effects of engine technology, emission certification standards, and cold-start on emissions. For vehicles certified to the same emissions standard, there is no statistical difference of regulated gas-phase pollutant emissions between PFIs and GDIs. However, GDIs had, on average, a factor of 2 higher particulate matter (PM) mass emissions than PFIs due to higher elemental carbon (EC) emissions. SULEV certified GDIs have a factor of 2 lower PM mass emissions than GDIs certified as ultralow-emission vehicles (3.0 ± 1.1 versus 6.3 ± 1.1 mg/mi), suggesting improvements in engine design and calibration. Comprehensive organic speciation revealed no statistically significant differences in the composition of the volatile organic compounds emissions between PFI and GDIs, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Therefore, the secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation potential of the exhaust does not depend on engine technology. Cold-start contributes a larger fraction of the total unified cycle emissions for vehicles meeting more-stringent emission standards. Organic gas emissions were the most sensitive to cold-start compared to the other pollutants tested here. There were no statistically significant differences in the effects of cold-start on GDIs and PFIs. For our test fleet, the measured 14.5% decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs was much greater than

  2. Standardized uptake value on positron emission tomography/computed tomography predicts prognosis in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Wang, Si-Liang; Cao, Shuo; Sun, Yu-Nan; Wu, Rong; Chi, Feng; Tang, Mei-Yue; Jin, Xue-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the use and value of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images as a prognostic marker for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). The medical records of all consecutive patients who underwent PET/CT examination in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were histologically or cytologically proven LAPC. Patients with distant metastasis were excluded. For statistical analysis, the SUV max of primary pancreatic cancer was measured. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariable analysis was performed to determine the association of SUV max with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) using a Cox proportional hazards model. Between July 2006 and June 2013, 69 patients were enrolled in the present study. OS and PFS were 14.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.1-16.7] and 8.3 months (95% CI 7.1-9.5), respectively. A high SUV max (>5.5) was observed in 35 patients, who had significantly worse OS and PFS than the remaining patients with a low SUV max (P = 0.025 and P = 0.003). Univariate analysis showed that SUV max and tumor size were prognostic factors for OS, with a hazard ratio of 1.90 and 1.81, respectively. A high SUV max was an independent prognostic factor, with a hazard ratio of 1.89 (95% CI 1.015-3.519, P = 0.045). The present study suggests that increased SUV max is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with LAPC.

  3. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Jochimsen, Thies H.; Schulz, Jessica; Busse, Harald; Werner, Peter; Schaudinn, Alexander; Zeisig, Vilia; Kurch, Lars; Seese, Anita; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI. A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM. The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation. In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement.

  4. DOE standard: Radiological control

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  5. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  6. DOE standard: Radiological control

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ''Occupational Radiation Protection''. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835

  7. Seminar on standards, standardization, quality control and interlaboratory test programmes

    de Bievre, P. [Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1978-12-15

    The author gives a resume on the proper use of standards and standardization of measurement procedures. Results of measurements obtained on the same instrument and on the same series of standards of different isotopic compositions are displayed.

  8. Department of Energy Standards Index

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  9. On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note

    Toshimitsu, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)

  10. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  11. Standarder for god undervisning

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab...

  12. Beyond the Standard Model

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ''Beyond the Standard Model'' for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e + e - colliders

  13. Beyond the Standard Model

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  14. Beyond standard quantum chromodynamics

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Despite the many empirical successes of QCD, there are a number of intriguing experimental anomalies that have been observed in heavy flavor hadroproduction, in measurements of azimuthal correlations in deep inelastic processes, and in measurements of spin correlations in hadronic reactions. Such phenomena point to color coherence and multiparton correlations in the hadron wavefunctions and physics beyond standard leading twist factorization. Two new high precision tests of QCD and the Standard Model are discussed: classical polarized photoabsorption sum rules, which are sensitive to anomalous couplings and composite structure, and commensurate scale relations, which relate physical observables to each other without scale or scheme ambiguity. The relationship of anomalous couplings to composite structure is also discussed

  15. Testing the Standard Model

    Riles, K

    1998-01-01

    The Large Electron Project (LEP) accelerator near Geneva, more than any other instrument, has rigorously tested the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles. LEP measurements have probed the theory from many different directions and, so far, the Standard Model has prevailed. The rigour of these tests has allowed LEP physicists to determine unequivocally the number of fundamental 'generations' of elementary particles. These tests also allowed physicists to ascertain the mass of the top quark in advance of its discovery. Recent increases in the accelerator's energy allow new measurements to be undertaken, measurements that may uncover directly or indirectly the long-sought Higgs particle, believed to impart mass to all other particles.

  16. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  17. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements

  18. Beyond the Standard Model

    Ross, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The attempts to develop models beyond the Standard Model are briefly reviewed paying particular regard to the mechanisms responsible for symmetry breaking and mass generation. A comparison is made of the theoretical expectations with recent precision measurements for theories with composite Higgs and for supersymmetric theories with elementary Higgs boson(s). The implications of a heavy top quark and the origin of the light quark and lepton masses and mixing angles are considered within these frameworks. ((orig.))

  19. New standard environmental management

    Andriola, Luca; Luciani, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The ISO 14001:2004 standard, like ISO 9001:2000 on quality management, transcends the preventive approach (based on a rigid and more or less adequate process-management model still mainly inspired by traditional production methods) and introduces in its stead a highly flexible approach applicable to any socio-economic activity. It is structured by processes rather than system elements, and is based on the quest for efficacy and ongoing improvement [it

  20. Standard Model physics

    Altarelli, Guido

    1999-01-01

    Introduction structure of gauge theories. The QEDand QCD examples. Chiral theories. The electroweak theory. Spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Higgs mechanism Gauge boson and fermion masses. Yukawa coupling. Charges current couplings. The Cabibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and CP violation. Neutral current couplings. The Glasow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism. Gauge boson and Higgs coupling. Radiative corrections and loops. Cancellation of the chiral anomaly. Limits on the Higgs comparaison. Problems of the Standard Model. Outlook.

  1. Standard model and beyond

    Quigg, C.

    1984-09-01

    The SU(3)/sub c/ circle crossSU(2)/sub L/circle crossU(1)/sub Y/ gauge theory of ineractions among quarks and leptons is briefly described, and some recent notable successes of the theory are mentioned. Some shortcomings in our ability to apply the theory are noted, and the incompleteness of the standard model is exhibited. Experimental hints that Nature may be richer in structure than the minimal theory are discussed. 23 references

  2. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  3. Natural matrix standards

    Bowen, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental radiochemistry needs, for use in analytical intercomparision and as standard reference materials, very large homogeneous samples of a variety of matrices, each naturally contaminated by a variety of longer-lived radionuclides, at several different ranges of concentrations. The reasons for this need are discussed, and the minimum assortment of matrices of radionuclides, and of concentrations is established. Sources of suitable materials are suggested, and the international approach to meeting this need is emphasized

  4. Non_standard Wood

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  5. Natural matrix standards

    Bowen, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental radiochemistry needs, for use in analytical inter-comparison and as standard reference materials, very large homogeneous samples of a variety of longer-lived radionuclides, at several different ranges of concentrations. The reasons for this need are discussed, and the minimum assortment of matrices, of radionuclides, and of concentrations is established. Sources of suitable materials are suggested, and the international approach to meeting this need is emphasized. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 60.612 - Standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... flame zone of the boiler or process heater; or (b) Combust the emissions in a flare that meets the... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions... start-up, whichever date comes first. Each owner or operator shall either: (a) Reduce emissions of TOC...

  7. 40 CFR 60.662 - Standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... boiler or process heater; or (b) Combust the emissions in a flare that meets the requirements of § 60.18... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions..., whichever date comes first. Each owner or operator shall either: (a) Reduce emissions of TOC (less methane...

  8. Operator licensing examiner standards

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  9. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  10. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  11. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  12. US Topo Product Standard

    Cooley, Michael J.; Davis, Larry R.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Lestinsky, Helmut; Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    This document defines a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital topographic map. This map series, named “US Topo,” is modeled on what is referred to as the standard USGS 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) topographic map series that was created during the period from 1947 to approximately 1992. The US Topo map product has the same extent, scale, and general layout as the older standard topographic maps. However, unlike the previous maps, US Topo maps are published using Adobe Systems Inc. Portable Document Format (PDF) with a geospatial extension that is called Georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF), patented by TerraGo Technologies. In addition, the US Topo map products incorporate an orthorectified image along with data that was included in the standard 7.5-minute topographic maps. US Topo maps are intended to serve conventional map users by providing Geographic Information System (GIS) information in symbolized form in the customary topographic map layout. The maps are not intended for GIS analysis applications.

  13. The IAEA safety standards

    Karbassioun, Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the NUSS standards, wide consultation was carried out with all the Member States to obtain a consensus and the programme was supervised by a Senior Advisory Group consisting of senior safety experts from 13 countries. This group of senior regulators later became what is now known as the Nuclear Safety Standards Advisory Group (NUSSAG) and comprises of senior regulatory experts from 16 countries. The standards that were developed comprise of four types of documents: safety fundamentals; codes of practice; safety guides; and safety practices. The safety fundamentals set out the basic objectives, concepts and principles for nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The codes of practice, are of a legislative nature, and establish the general objectives that must be fulfilled to ensure adequate nuclear power plant safety. They cover five areas: governmental organization; siting, design, operation and quality assurance. The safety guides, administrative in character, recommend procedures and acceptable technical solutions to implement the codes and guides by presenting further details gained from Member States, on the application and interpretation of individual concepts in the NUSS codes and guides. In total in the NUSS series there is currently one Fundamentals document, five Codes of Practice and fifty-six Safety Guides

  14. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  15. ISO radiation protection standards

    Becker, K.; West, N.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', the work of its Sub-Committee (SC) 2 ''Radiation Protection'' is described in some detail. Several international standards on subjects closely related to radiation protection have already been published, for example ISO-361 (Basic radiation protection symbol), ISO-1757 (Photographic dosimeters), ISO-1758 and 1759 (Direct and indirect-reading pocket exposure meters), ISO-2889 (Sampling of airborne radioactive materials), ISO-4037 (X and gamma reference radiations for calibration) and ISO-4071 (Testing of exposure meters and dosimeters). TC 85/SC 2 has currently eight active Working Groups (WG) dealing with 14 standards projects, mostly in advanced stages, in such fields as neutron and beta reference radiations, and X and gamma radiations of high and low dose-rates and high energies for calibration purposes, reference radiations for surface contamination apparatus, ejection systems for gamma radiography apparatus, industrial and laboratory irradiators, lead shielding units, protective clothing, thermoluminescence dosemeters, radioelement gauges, and surface contamination and decontamination. (author)

  16. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  17. Beyond the Standard Model

    Lykken, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest - to those who get close enough to listen

  18. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  19. Beyond the Standard Model

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest

  20. Standard Wiggler magnets

    Winick, H.; Helm, R.H.

    1977-09-01

    Interest in Wiggler magnets (a close sequence of transverse fields with alternating polarity) to extend and enhance the spectrum of synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings has increased significantly during the past few years. Standard wigglers, i.e., wigglers in which interference effects on the spectrum of synchrotron radiation are not important, are considered. In standard wigglers the spectrum of synchrotron radiation has the same general shape as the spectrum from ring bending magnets. However, the critical energy of the wiggler spectrum may be different. The critical energy of the wiggler spectrum is given by epsilon/sub CW/ = epsilon/sub CB/(B/sub W//B/sub B/) where epsilon/sub CB/ is the critical energy from the bending magnets and B/sub W/ and B/sub B/ are the magnetic field strengths of the wiggler magnet and bending magnets respectively. Since most electron storage rings operate with relatively low bending magnet fields (B/sub B/ less than or equal to 12 kG), even a modest wiggler magnet field (less than or equal to 18 kG) can significantly increase the critical energy. Such magnets are planned for ADONE and SPEAR. Higher field (30 to 50 kG) superconducting magnets are planned at Brookhaven, Daresbury, and Novosibirsk to produce even larger increase in the critical energy. For some standard wigglers a further enhancement of the spectrum is produced due tothe superposition of the radiation from the individual poles. Wiggler designs are discussed as well as the effect of wigglers on the synchrotron radiation spectrum and on the operation of storage rings

  1. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  2. Hazard Communication Standard

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  3. Quasi standard model physics

    Peccei, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Possible small extensions of the standard model are considered, which are motivated by the strong CP problem and by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Phenomenological arguments are given which suggest that imposing a PQ symmetry to solve the strong CP problem is only tenable if the scale of the PQ breakdown is much above M W . Furthermore, an attempt is made to connect the scale of the PQ breakdown to that of the breakdown of lepton number. It is argued that in these theories the same intermediate scale may be responsible for the baryon number of the Universe, provided the Kuzmin Rubakov Shaposhnikov (B+L) erasing mechanism is operative. (orig.)

  4. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  5. Non-standard antennas

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  6. Standard-model bundles

    Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan; Donagi, Ron; Ovrut, Burt; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We describe a family of genus one fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds with fundamental group ${\\mathbb Z}/2$. On each Calabi-Yau $Z$ in the family we exhibit a positive dimensional family of Mumford stable bundles whose symmetry group is the Standard Model group $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ and which have $c_{3} = 6$. We also show that for each bundle $V$ in our family, $c_{2}(Z) - c_{2}(V)$ is the class of an effective curve on $Z$. These conditions ensure that $Z$ and $V$ can be used for a phenomenologically relevant compactification of Heterotic M-theory.

  7. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  8. European standards for composite construction

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  9. Repeated Interaction in Standard Setting

    Larouche, Pierre; Schütt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    As part of the standard-setting process, certain patents become essential. This may allow the owners of these standard-essential patents to hold up implementers of the standard, who can no longer turn to substitute technologies. However, many real-world standards evolve over time, with several

  10. Standard cross-section data

    Carlson, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of neutron cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross-section and the errors associated with using it. Any improvement in the standard immediately improves all cross-section measurements which have been made relative to that standard. Light element, capture and fission standards are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Spillover effects of international standards

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  12. Regulatory impact analysis of national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for by-product coke oven charging, door leaks, and topside leaks. Draft report

    1992-11-01

    Under the authority of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, a Natioal Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants is proposed to control emissions from By-product Coke Oven Charging, door leaks, and topside leaks. Because the EPA considers the regulation for By-product Coke Oven batteries to be a major rule, the attached Regulatory Impact Analysis was prepared to fulfill the requirements of E012291. The document reviews the need for regulation, control techniques, regulatory options, costs of control, economic impacts, benefits of the regulation, and compares benefits and costs associated with the regulation

  13. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  14. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  15. Standards for Lithotripter Performance

    Schultheiss, Reiner; Doerffel, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Standards for lithotripsy have been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the FDA. In addition to the existing regulations and norms for the manufacturers, special standards were developed to address a treatment method developed in the early 1980's using extracorporeal shock waves. Initially, the FDA regulated the premarket approval process for lithotripters as a Class III device but reclassified lithotripters in 2000 to a Class II device. The corresponding guidance document for showing the substantial equivalence of new devices with predicate devices will be described in detail. The FDA guidance document is very useful in helping device manufacturers: (i) develop technical performance testing for a shock wave lithotripter within the parameters of an FDA submission, and (ii) conduct clinical performance testing via at least one clinical confirmation study with a small number of subjects. Unfortunately although the submitted data are available at the FDA they are not available in the marketplace and this causes difficulties for physicians in deciding which device to use. The results of the technical performance testing of the LithoGold™ are provided.

  16. Standards for backscattering analysis

    Mitchell, I.V.; Eschbach, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The need for backscattering standards appears to be twofold and depends on the uses and requirements of the users. The first is as a calibrated reference by which samples of a similar nature to the standard may be absolutely compared. The second is as a means of intercomparing the relative results obtained by different laboratories using, as near as possible, identical samples. This type of comparison is of a relative nature and the absolute values are not necessarily required. In the present work the authors try to satisfy both needs by providing identical samples which have been absolutely calibrated to a high accuracy. Very thin copper and vanadium layers were evaporated onto bismuth implanted silicon crystals and on glass plates under carefully controlled conditions. The mass of the deposits was determined in situ using a sensitive UHV microbalance. In addition, two quartz oscillator monitors were used. The samples have been analysed by Rutherford backscattering and the absolute quantity of bismuth determined by a comparison with the known amounts of deposited material. (Auth.)

  17. The standard model

    Marciano, W.J.

    1994-03-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to provide a survey of the standard model with emphasis on its renormalizability and electroweak radiative corrections. Since this is a school, I will try to be somewhat pedagogical by providing examples of loop calculations. In that way, I hope to illustrate some of the commonly employed tools of particle physics. With those goals in mind, I have organized my presentations as follows: In Section 2, renormalization is discussed from an applied perspective. The technique of dimensional regularization is described and used to define running couplings and masses. The utility of the renormalization group for computing leading logs is illustrated for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In Section 3 electroweak radiative corrections are discussed. Standard model predictions are surveyed and used to constrain the top quark mass. The S, T, and U parameters are introduced and employed to probe for ''new physics''. The effect of Z' bosons on low energy phenomenology is described. In Section 4, a detailed illustration of electroweak radiative corrections is given for atomic parity violation. Finally, in Section 5, I conclude with an outlook for the future

  18. The illusory nature of standards

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implications of the paradoxical situation in which standard setters are placed when standardising human practice. Contrary to standards, human practices are ambiguous, heterogeneous, and highly context dependent; in contrast, standards...... creation is innate in the practice of standardisation and therefore the risk of creating untrustworthy standards is prevalent for standard setters. Originality/value – The paper provides a new understanding of standards and demonstrates the need to research standardization processes in depth and bring...

  19. Difference in prognostic significance of maximum standardized uptake value on [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Misumi, Keizo; Ikeda, Takuhiro; Mimura, Takeshi; Hihara, Jun; Okada, Morihito

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the prognostic significance of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings according to histological subtypes in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer. We examined 176 consecutive patients who had undergone preoperative [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and curative surgical resection for adenocarcinoma (n=132) or squamous cell carcinoma (n=44). Maximum standardized uptake values for the primary lesions in all patients were calculated as the [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake and the surgical results were analyzed. The median values of maximum standardized uptake value for the primary tumors were 2.60 in patients with adenocarcinoma and 6.95 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (P 6.95 (P=0.83) among patients with squamous cell carcinoma, 2-year disease-free survival rates were 93.9% for maximum standardized uptake value ≤3.7 and 52.4% for maximum standardized uptake value >3.7 (P<0.0001) among those with adenocarcinoma, and notably, 100 and 57.2%, respectively, in patients with Stage I adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001). On the basis of the multivariate Cox analyses of patients with adenocarcinoma, maximum standardized uptake value (P=0.008) was a significantly independent factor for disease-free survival as well as nodal metastasis (P=0.001). Maximum standardized uptake value of the primary tumor was a powerful prognostic determinant for patients with adenocarcinoma, but not with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 63.688 - Standards: Containers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 63.688 Section... Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from containers for which § 63.683(b)(1)(i) of this subpart references the use of this section for such air...

  1. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT INTERNAL STANDARDS FOR ...

    internal standard addition method was evaluated with the variation in solution ... background emissions involved in generating accurate and reliable .... The most suitable atomic and ionic wavelengths (λ) for the internal standards and precious ..... spectral interferences occur and using validation parameters is currently ...

  2. Government by standards

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....... be contributing to accountability overload. This article seeks to provide an explanation for why hospital staff seems to accept, albeit grudgingly and partially, the imposition of a new, comprehensive accountability system with questionable clinical merits. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s analytics of government...

  3. Standard model baryogenesis

    Gavela, M.B.; Orloff, J.; Pene, O

    1994-01-01

    Simply on CP arguments, we argue against a Standard Model explanation of baryogenesis via the charge transport mechanism. A CP-asymmetry is found in the reflection coefficients of quarks hitting the electroweak phase boundary created during a first order phase transition. The problem is analyzed both in an academic zero temperature case and in the realistic finite temperature one. At finite temperature, a crucial role is played by the damping rate of quasi-quarks in a hot plasma, which induces loss of spatial coherence and suppresses reflection on the boundary even at tree-level. The resulting baryon asymmetry is many orders of magnitude below what observation requires. We comment as well on related works.

  4. Status of Standardization Projects

    1993-12-31

    A5 B 942 943 943 ASM SA 69 D, 8115 056; ASTM D 5118 FABRICATION OF FIBERBOARD SM AS B 941 943 943 A SM SA 69 Di- N 8115 0562 ASTM D 5168 FAB AND...DR&E(AR)759 STANDARDIZATION PROJECTS REPORT - 1ST QTR FY 1994 PREPARING ACTIVITY LISTING PA AAPAA p BPP .A- G/ASA NC AC 21 RC G CSOL- Qý yqFyýFT7RL AL...941 943 943 A SM SA 69 DH N 8115 0562 ASTM D 5168 FAB AND CLOSURE TRIPLE WALL SM AS B 941 943 943 A SM SA 69 DH N 8125 0379 V’L-B-61000 BOTTLES

  5. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    Vollebergh, H.

    2010-01-01

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  6. International standards for radiation protection

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  7. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 3. Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards

    2017-07-01

    Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-5 Table 3-4. Constant-Bandwidth FM Subcarrier Channels Frequency Criteria\\Channels: A B C D E F G H Deviation ...Telemetry Standards , RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-i CHAPTER 3 Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards Acronyms...Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards ................................ 3-1 3.1 General

  8. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  9. 40 CFR 60.702 - Standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound Emissions From... first. Each owner or operator shall either: (a) Reduce emissions of TOC (less methane and ethane) by 98... to 3 percent oxygen, whichever is less stringent. If a boiler or process heater is used to comply...

  10. A standard graphite block

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  11. Beyond the standard model

    Domokos, G.; Elliott, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.; Mrenna, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors briefly review the necessity of going beyond the Standard Model. We argue that certain types of composite models of quarks and leptons may resolve some of the difficulties of the SM. Furthermore the authors argue that, even without a full specification of a composite model, one may predict some observable effects following from the compositeness hypothesis. The effects are most easily seen in reaction channels in which there is little competition from known processes predicted by the SM, typically in neutrino induced reactions. The authors suggest that above a certain characteristic energy, neutrino cross sections rise well above those predicted within the framework of the SM and the difference between the characteristic features of lepton and hadron induced reactions is blurred. The authors claim that there is some (so far, tenuous) evidence for the phenomenon we just alluded to: in certain high energy cosmic ray interactions it appears that photons and/or neutrinos behave in a manner which is inconsistent with the SM. The authors analyze the data and conclude that the origin of the anomaly in the observational data arises from an increased neutrino interaction cross section

  12. A standard graphite block

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  13. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... foam production—HAP ABA emissions from the production line. (a) Each owner or operator of a new or... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line in...

  14. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  15. Intelligent Transportation Systems : critical standards

    1999-06-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards are industry-consensus standards that provide the details about how different systems interconnect and communicate information to deliver the ITS user services described in the National ITS Architect...

  16. Data content standards in Africa

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  17. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  18. 40 CFR 86.096-8 - Emission standards for 1996 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.08 Natural Gas 0.25 3.4 0.4 0.08 LPG 0.41 0.25 3.4 0.4 0.08 Table A96-2—Full Useful Life Standards....31 4.2 1.25 0.10 Methanol 0.31 4.2 0.6 0.10 Natural Gas 0.31 4.2 0.6 0.10 LPG 0.31 4.2 0.6 0.10 (ii... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86...

  19. Shielding standards: a case history

    Battat, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the sequence of events leading from the inception of a standard to its transmittal to the ANSI Board of Standards Review will be given. The standard referred to is entitled, ''Neutron and Gamma-Ray Flux-to-Dose-Rate Factors,'' (ANSI N666). Certain questions raised during the review process and the compatibility of this standard with the USA Code of Federal Regulations will be discussed

  20. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.

    2016-01-01

    organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions...

  1. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  2. Standardization of splash device

    Fernández Raga, María; Peters, Piet

    2017-04-01

    The erosion is a complex process that has been studied extensively by numerous researchers, requiring a prolongued time effort and a large economic investment. To be effective, the measurements of erosion should be precise, controlled and replicable, and to assure efectiveness, measurement devices of erosion should be properly designed, constructed, well calibrated and also they should be operated by a trained person (Stroosnijder, 2005). Because researchers try to improve old devices, the equipment is constantly being redesigned, making the measurements not comparable and furthermore, producing a lack of available standarized device. The lack of standardization of erosion equipment is more obvious in the case of the local splash erosion, where the nature of the process makes very difficult to isolate its effects. In this article we compare the results obtained from five of the most common splash erosion devices (selected from more than 16 different currently types), under the same rain conditions, with the objective of facilitate the standardization of the method that will be more easy to build, minimizing the error. A set of six splash devices were setted in well known positions under simulated rain, to measured the differences, among devices and the accuracy of the data recovered after 10 minutes of rainfall simulation under different intensities (from 60 to 130 mm/h). The rainfall simulator of Wageningen was used, using sand as splash erosion source. Differences in the infiltration were also measured, and a calibration of sizes and speeds of the raindrops was done using the photography method (Hamidreza-Sadeghi et al., 2013). The splash devices selected for this study were unbounded splash devices (like the funnel, the cup (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010) and the splash flume (Jomaa et al., 2010)), and bounded devices that allow the calculation of splash rate, (like the new cup (Scholten et al., 2011) and the Morgan tray). The behaviour of different splash devices

  3. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    Wuppertal, Germany (Chaotic and Complex Systems); F W Nijhoff, University of Leeds, UK (Mathematical Physics); G Ghirardi, Universita di Trieste, Italy (Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information Theory); G Dunne, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA (Classical and Quantum Field Theory); and L Turner, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA (Fluid and Plasma Theory). It will be an honour and a pleasure to work together with all these talented people towards the high-minded goal of running a world-class scientific journal. As Editor-in-Chief of J. Phys. A, my principal objective will be to raise the standards of this first-rate journal to even higher levels by raising the quality of accepted papers. I believe that this goal will be possible to accomplish. Despite an already high rejection rate, paper submissions are rising rapidly and I anticipate that we will need to be even more stringent in our assessment of quality next year. A letter has already been sent to referees urging them to raise their standards for acceptance. I believe we will make rapid progress in this direction. (I have heard a few people criticize the journal for being a `write-only' journal. My goal is for the worldwide community of mathematical physicists to view J. Phys. A as essential reading.) I am extremely optimistic about the future of J. Phys. A. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to decision. I am confident that we will continue to improve the quality of the papers published in this already first-class journal. I look forward to working with the journal's excellent staff, the Board of Editors, and the Advisory Panel.

  4. Determination of metal impurities in MOX powder by direct current arc atomic emission spectroscopy. Application of standard addition method for direct analysis of powder sample

    Furuse, Takahiro; Taguchi, Shigeo; Kuno, Takehiko; Surugaya, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    Metal impurities in MOX powder obtained from uranium and plutonium recovered from reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuel have to be determined for its characterization. Direct current arc atomic emission spectroscopy (DCA-AES) is one of the useful methods for direct analysis of powder sample without dissolving the analyte into aqueous solution. However, the selection of standard material, which can overcome concerns such as matrix matching, is quite important to create adequate calibration curves for DCA-AES. In this study, we apply standard addition method using the certified U_3O_8 containing known amounts of metal impurities to avoid the matrix problems. The proposed method provides good results for determination of Fe, Cr and Ni contained in MOX samples at a significant quantity level. (author)

  5. Activities of Radiation Standard Section

    Kannan, A.; Rao, P.S.; Sachadev, R.N.; Shaha, V.V.; Sharma, D.; Srivastava, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    A brief account of the various facilities and services provided by the Radiation Standards Section (RSS) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay is given. RSS maintains the primary and secondary standards of various parameters of radiation measurements. It ensures accurate radiological measurements as per international requirements, through periodic international intercomparisons of national standards. It also provides calibration services to various users of radiation sources and instruments. The activities of RSS are described under the headings: (1) Radiological Metrology Standards, (2) Radionuclide Standards, Neutron Metrology, (4) Instruments Calibration, (5) Non-ionizing Radiations, and (6) Instrumentation. (author). figs., tabs

  6. Vocational High School Effectiveness Standard ISO 9001: 2008 for Achievement Content Standards, Standard Process and Competency Standards Graduates

    Yeni Ratih Pratiwi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Efektivitas Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Berstandar ISO 9001:2008 terhadap Pencapaian Standar Isi, Standar Proses dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of the achievement of the content standards, process standards, and competency standards in vocational already standard ISO 9001: 2008 with CMS that has not been standardized ISO 9001: 2008 both in public schools and private schools. Data collection using the questionnaire enclosed Likert scale models. Analysis of data using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. The results showed: (1 there is no difference in effectiveness between public SMK ISO standard ISO standards with private SMK (P = 0.001; (2 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK SMK ISO standards with ISO standards have not (P = 0.000; (3 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK ISO standards with private vocational yet ISO standards (P = 0.000; (4 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational school with vocational standard ISO standard ISO country has not (P = 0.015; (5 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational bertandar ISO with private vocational yet standardized ISO (P = 0.000; (6 there was no difference in the effectiveness of public SMK has not been standardized by the ISO standard ISO private SMK yet. Key Words: vocational high school standards ISO 9001: 2008, the standard content, process standards, competency standards Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan efektivitas pencapaian standar isi, standar proses, dan standar kompetensi lulusan pada SMK yang sudah berstandar ISO 9001:2008 dengan SMK yang belum berstandar ISO 9001:2008 baik pada sekolah negeri maupun sekolah swasta. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner tertutup model skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way menggunakan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 ada perbedaan

  7. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 8. Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard

    2017-07-01

    incorrect word count/message and illegal mode codes are not considered bus errors. 8.6.2 Source Signal The source of data is a signal conforming to...Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 8, July 2017 CHAPTER 8 Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard Acronyms...check FCS frame check sequence HDDR high-density digital recording MIL-STD Military Standard msb most significant bit PCM pulse code modulation

  8. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  9. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a new or existing...(a)(1) shall not use a HAP or a HAP-based material as an equipment cleaner. ...

  10. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    2010-07-01

    ....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide...

  11. Program standard of quality control for a system of Positron Emission Tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) used in the Foundation Valle de Lili

    Nunez, Nathalia I.; Benavides, Sivor O.; Lopera, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    A standard protocol of quality control in the Fundacion Valle del Lili for the implementation of a multimodal scanner developed emission tomography BIOGRAPH mCT X-3R of SIEMENS ® covering routine testing, frequency, acceptance ranges necessary corrective and preventive measures to detect and correct any faults and proceed if the upper detection precision and accuracy ranges accepted deviations actions. In order to minimize errors in the planning and management of patient dose, thereby improving the quality of the diagnostic image with the dose of radiation is reasonably low as possible, consistent with the clinical use of the equipment used and the information requested diagnostic study

  12. Standard test method for gamma energy emission from fission products in uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solution

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of gamma energy emitted from fission products in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and uranyl nitrate solution. It is intended to provide a method for demonstrating compliance with UF6 specifications C 787 and C 996 and uranyl nitrate specification C 788. 1.2 The lower limit of detection is 5000 MeV Bq/kg (MeV/kg per second) of uranium and is the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual reporting limits of the nuclides to be measured. The limit of detection was determined on a pure, aged natural uranium (ANU) solution. The value is dependent upon detector efficiency and background. 1.3 The nuclides to be measured are106Ru/ 106Rh, 103Ru,137Cs, 144Ce, 144Pr, 141Ce, 95Zr, 95Nb, and 125Sb. Other gamma energy-emitting fission nuclides present in the spectrum at detectable levels should be identified and quantified as required by the data quality objectives. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its us...

  13. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  14. The German radiation protection standards

    Becker, Klaus; Neider, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities are traditionally the principles of radiation protection and dosimetry, applied medical dosimetry, and medical health physics. The German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE), which is concerned mostly with instrumentation standards. The Material Testing Committee (FNM), which is responsible for radiation protection in nonmedical radiography. The current body of over one hundred standards and draft standards was established to supplement the Federal German radiation protection legislation, because voluntary standards can deal in more detail with the specific practical problems. The number of standards is steadily expanding due to the vigorous efforts of about thirty working groups, consisting of essentially all leading German experts of this field. Work is supported by the industry and the Federal Government. A review of the present status and future plans, and of the international aspects with regard to European and world (ISO, etc.) standards will be presented

  15. Development of methods for activity determination for radionuclides with double decay emission β- β+ / electron capture - application to the standardization of 192Ir, 152Eu and 186 Re

    Hilario, Katia Aparecida Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    In the present work alternative procedures have been developed for standardization of radionuclides with double decay, β - β + / electron capture using the 4πβ-γ coincidence technique, applying different systems. Two 4πβ-γ coincidence systems were used: one with a 4π gas-flow proportional counter coupled to a pair of NaI(Tl) scintillators and the other one with the same type of proportional counter coupled to HPGe detector. The radionuclides selected for this standardization, due to great interest in nuclear medicine, detector calibration and industrial radiography, were 192 Ir, 152 Eu and 186 Re. The first and the second were part of international comparisons sponsored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), France, who supplied the radioactive solution. For 186 Re, the gamma-ray emission probability per decay was measured by means REGe spectrometer system, previously calibrated with standard ampoules. All the uncertainties involved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  16. Contributions of China’s Wood-Based Panels to CO2 Emission and Removal Implied by the Energy Consumption Standards

    Shanshan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle analysis on wood-based panels in terms of CO2 flux can be used to quantitatively assess the climate change contributions of these materials. In this study, the annual CO2 flux between 1990 and 2015 was calculated through gate-to-gate life cycle analysis of wood-based panels. As implied by the energy consumption standards, China’s wood-based panels used to be carbon sources during the period 1990–2007, with the average contribution to CO2 emissions of 9.20 Mt/year. The implementation of new standards and the development of Cleaner production technologies in China, decreased the energy consumption per panel. China’s wood-based panels acted as a carbon sink between 2008 and 2015, with the average contribution to CO2 removal of 31.71 Mt/year. Plywood produced the largest contributions to the emission and removal of CO2, and was followed by fiberboard and particleboard. China’s wood-based panels, with good prospects and strong demands projected in the future, can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation.

  17. Commensuration and Legitimacy in Standards

    Hale, Lara

    This paper claims that commensuration is a form of valuation crucial for the legitimacy of standards. It is thus far poorly understood how standards are constructed in a legitimate manner, let alone the role of commensuration, the micro-process of converting qualities into measurable quantities...... for the purpose of comparison. The aim is to show how commensuration affects legitimacy at different phases of a standard's formation and diffusion. In order to do this, the lens is placed upon the relationship between the commensuration processes and input and output legitimacies. Research on the Active House...... legitimacy in different stages, either technical for the standard's specifications or contextual for the standard's implementation. Based on these findings, the paper offers a model of the commensurative development undergone in order to develop the legitimacy of a standard....

  18. EG type radioactive calibration standards

    1980-01-01

    EG standards are standards with a radioactive substance deposited as a solution on filtration paper and after drying sealed into a plastic disc or cylinder shaped casing. They serve the official testing of X-ray and gamma spectrometers and as test sources. The table shows the types of used radionuclides, nominal values of activity and total error of determination not exceeding +-4%. Activity of standards is calculated from the charge and the specific activity of standard solution used for the preparation of the standard. Tightness and surface contamination is measured for each standard. The manufacturer, UVVVR Praha, gives a guarantee for the given values of activity and total error of determination. (M.D.)

  19. Public Health Impact and Economic Costs of Volkswagen’s Lack of Compliance with the United States’ Emission Standards

    Lifang Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA recently issued a notice of violation against Volkswagen (VW for installing a defective device in certain models of diesel cars to circumvent emission tests for nitrogen oxides (NOx. We quantified the health and economic impacts of extra NOx emissions attributable to non-compliant vehicles in the U.S. using the EPA’s Co-Benefits Risk Assessment model. We estimated that the total extra NOx emitted over one year of operation would result in 5 to 50 premature deaths, 687 to 17,526 work days with restricted activity, and economic costs of $43,479,189 to $423,268,502, based on various assumptions regarding emission scenarios and risks. This study highlights the potential impacts of VW vehicles’ lack of compliance on the health and well-being of the U.S. population.

  20. Towards an international address standard

    Coetzee, S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available in a better user experience. Standards compliance allows for the separation of concerns: HTML for content, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for presentation and JavaScript for dynamic behaviour. Standards compliant documents are also...) and cascading style sheets through CSS (CSS n.d.), whilst the JavaScript specification has been standardised by Ecma International (another standards organisation for information and communication systems), in the form of EcmaScript (Ecma...

  1. General philosophy of safety standards

    Dunster, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Safety standards should be related to the form and magnitude of the risk they aim to limit. Because of the lack of direct information at the exposure levels experienced, radiation protection standards have to be based on risk assumptions that, while plausible, are not proven. The pressure for standards has come as much from public perceptions and fears as from the reality of the risk. (author)

  2. Action plan for photovoltaic standards

    Oldach, R.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the present situation regarding international standards governing photovoltaic (PV) systems and components, and seeks to identify barriers to the commercialisation of PV systems in the UK due to the absence of standards and codes of practice, and develop an action plan to overcome these barriers. An overview of standardisation bodies and standard generation mechanisms is presented, and the PV cells and modules, stand-alone PV systems, utility interconnection with PV systems, and building integration of PV are reviewed.

  3. Standard English and Language Attitudes

    ソランキ, ネイディン

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudes and opinions surrounding Standard English (SE) within the United Kingdom. The definition of SE, for the purposes of this study, is standard grammar and standard pronunciation of southern English, commonly referred to as 'BBC English'. The subject of SE and attitudes towards different accents and dialects of British English is emotive and attracts strong opinions. The main issues discussed here are the place of language in society, the social implications ...

  4. The Emerging JBIG2 Standard

    Howard, P.; Kossentini, F.; Martins, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG), an international study group affiliated with ISO/IEC and ITU-T, is in the process of drafting a new standard for lossy and lossless compression of bi-level images. The new standard, informally referred to as JBIG2, will support model-based coding...... with imperceptible loss of quality. It is expected that JBIG2 will become an International Standard by 2000....

  5. Standardization of the bakery goods

    Elżbieta Goryńska-Goldmann

    2010-01-01

    The article presents selected aspects of the standardization, highly valued factor that stimulates the economic development of the country. The attention was paid to the purpose of the standardization, basic normative documents and standardizing activity. Different proposals for the classification of bread applied in practice or appearing in scientific studies were presented. It was emphasised that currently legal mess exists in Poland, in terms of use of the bread classification. The necessi...

  6. Core labour standards and exports

    Siroën, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    (english) Core labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal, but applied very differently across countries. Compliance is much higher in high income countries. However, the causality between improved labour standards and economic growth remains a controversial issue. Export-led growth strategies might encourage developing countries to curb the process of standards improvement. In this way, they can raise the volume of their unskilled labour endowments (child and/or forced labour)...

  7. Synthesised standards in natural matrices

    Olsen, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of securing the most reliable standards for the accurate analysis of radionuclides is discussed in the paper and in the comment on the paper. It is contended in the paper that the best standards can be created by quantitative addition of accurately known spiking solutions into carefully selected natural matrices. On the other hand it is argued that many natural materials can be successfully standardized for numerous trace constituents. Both points of view are supported with examples. (U.K.)

  8. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  9. Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples

    Koide, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Eizo

    1990-01-01

    New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples. The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer. Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Here we present new reliable lead isotope compositions of GSJ standard rock samples and USGS standard rock, BCR-1. (author)

  10. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  11. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test report

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication

  12. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    Furet, J.; Weill, J.

    1978-01-01

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  13. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  14. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  15. Data converters for wireless standards

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  16. The Future of Geospatial Standards

    Bermudez, L. E.; Simonis, I.

    2016-12-01

    The OGC is an international not-for-profit standards development organization (SDO) committed to making quality standards for the geospatial community. A community of more than 500 member organizations with more than 6,000 people registered at the OGC communication platform drives the development of standards that are freely available for anyone to use and to improve sharing of the world's geospatial data. OGC standards are applied in a variety of application domains including Environment, Defense and Intelligence, Smart Cities, Aviation, Disaster Management, Agriculture, Business Development and Decision Support, and Meteorology. Profiles help to apply information models to different communities, thus adapting to particular needs of that community while ensuring interoperability by using common base models and appropriate support services. Other standards address orthogonal aspects such as handling of Big Data, Crowd-sourced information, Geosemantics, or container for offline data usage. Like most SDOs, the OGC develops and maintains standards through a formal consensus process under the OGC Standards Program (OGC-SP) wherein requirements and use cases are discussed in forums generally open to the public (Domain Working Groups, or DWGs), and Standards Working Groups (SWGs) are established to create standards. However, OGC is unique among SDOs in that it also operates the OGC Interoperability Program (OGC-IP) to provide real-world testing of existing and proposed standards. The OGC-IP is considered the experimental playground, where new technologies are researched and developed in a user-driven process. Its goal is to prototype, test, demonstrate, and promote OGC Standards in a structured environment. Results from the OGC-IP often become requirements for new OGC standards or identify deficiencies in existing OGC standards that can be addressed. This presentation will provide an analysis of the work advanced in the OGC consortium including standards and testbeds

  17. Standardization of the bakery goods

    Elżbieta Goryńska-Goldmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the standardization, highly valued factor that stimulates the economic development of the country. The attention was paid to the purpose of the standardization, basic normative documents and standardizing activity. Different proposals for the classification of bread applied in practice or appearing in scientific studies were presented. It was emphasised that currently legal mess exists in Poland, in terms of use of the bread classification. The necessity of legal regulations of this issue by standard regulations was pointed out.

  18. Non-standard patch test

    Astri Adelia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In managing contact dermatitis, identification of the causative agent is essential to prevent recurrent complaints. Patch test is the gold standard to identify the causative agent. Nowadays, there are many patch test standard materials available in the market, but do not include all the materials that potentially cause contact dermatitis. Patch test using patient’s own products or later we refer to as non-standard materials, is very helpful in identifying the causative agents of contact dermatitis. Guidance is needed in producing non-standard patch test materials in order to avoid test results discrepancy.

  19. IMPLEMENTING A RISK MANAGEMENT STANDARD

    Constantin PREDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After risk management “conquered” more and more project managers’ minds and showed its benefits for business and programs, the need to have a global risk management standard has become a crucial issue in the world of risk management. But having a global risk management standard has been a big challenge, starting from the decision of developing the standard (March-June 2005, to the moment of publishing it, November 2009. So, developing the ISO 31000:2009 standard has been more or less like a bumpy ride. Apparently, the people involved in developing the global risk management standard understood from the very beginning that no challenges are too big, nor any tasks too small and that the task of having a new, comprehensive global risk management standard should be completed with excellence: defining the principles and the framework guiding the risk management process applicable for all type of organizations and for a wide range of activities. Coming up with a global standard should always be based on the real organizations’ needs and should fulfill real risk management requirements. The article is trying to present the pros and cons of risk management standard implementation, challenging the implementation process itself and the added value of implementing the standard due to the lack of implementation enablers, like risk culture, a real problem especially in an international environment.

  20. 77 FR 51701 - EPA's Denial of the Petition To Reconsider the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel...

    2012-08-27

    ... designed to examine behavioral strategies (e.g., lowering thermostats, reducing food waste, and biking... explore the market mechanism through which our rule could influence the amount of goods and services...- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles to comply with a corporate average for such emissions''). The...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    2010-07-01

    ... than 5 percent of the total operating time in any semiannual reporting period. (g) Venturi wet scrubbers. For each venturi wet scrubber applied to meet any total particulate matter emission limit in... test. (h) Other control devices. For each control device other than a baghouse or venturi wet scrubber...

  2. Odor and odorous compound emissions from manure of swine fed standard and dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) supplemented diets

    This study was conducted to determine the impact diets containing dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) have on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS. Pigs were fed ...

  3. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of plate-like and flat panel composite structures used in aerospace applications

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers acoustic emission (AE) examination or monitoring of panel and plate-like composite structures made entirely of fiber/polymer composites. 1.2 The AE examination detects emission sources and locates the region(s) within the composite structure where the emission originated. When properly developed AE-based criteria for the composite item are in place, the AE data can be used for nondestructive examination (NDE), characterization of proof testing, documentation of quality control or for decisions relative to structural-test termination prior to completion of a planned test. Other NDE methods may be used to provide additional information about located damage regions. For additional information see Appendix X1. 1.3 This practice can be applied to aerospace composite panels and plate-like elements as a part of incoming inspection, during manufacturing, after assembly, continuously (during structural health monitoring) and at periodic intervals during the life of a structure. 1.4 This pra...

  4. Standard practice for examination of Gas-Filled filament-wound composite pressure vessels using acoustic emission

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examination of filament-wound composite pressure vessels, for example, the type used for fuel tanks in vehicles which use natural gas fuel. 1.2 This practice requires pressurization to a level equal to or greater than what is encountered in normal use. The tanks' pressurization history must be known in order to use this practice. Pressurization medium may be gas or liquid. 1.3 This practice is limited to vessels designed for less than 690 bar [10,000 psi] maximum allowable working pressure and water volume less than 1 m3 or 1000 L [35.4 ft3]. 1.4 AE measurements are used to detect emission sources. Other nondestructive examination (NDE) methods may be used to gain additional insight into the emission source. Procedures for other NDE methods are beyond the scope of this practice. 1.5 This practice applies to examination of new and in-service filament-wound composite pressure vessels. 1.6 This practice applies to examinations conducted at amb...

  5. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  6. The metabolomics standards initiative (MSI)

    Fiehn, O.; Robertson, D.; Griffin, J.; Werf, M. van der; Nikolau, B.; Morrison, N.; Sumner, L.W.; Goodacre, R.; Hardy, N.W.; Taylor, C.; Fostel, J.; Kristal, B.; Kaddurah-Daouk, R.; Mendes, P.; Ommen, B. van; Lindon, J.C.; Sansone, S.-A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Metabolomics Standards Initiative has been formed. An outline and general introduction is provided to inform about the history, structure, working plan and intentions of this initiative. Comments on any of the suggested minimal reporting standards are welcome to be sent to the open

  7. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  8. PIAAC Technical Standards and Guidelines

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will establish technical standards and guidelines to ensure that the survey design and implementation processes of PIAAC yield high-quality and internationally comparable data. This document provides a revised version of the technical standards and guidelines originally…

  9. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    Harari, H.

    1987-02-01

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs

  10. Standards development status. Summary report

    1981-12-01

    The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

  11. Mapping standards for home networking

    Kaa, G. van de; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Vries, H.J. de

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we apply a step-by-step approach for the identification of standards for home networking. We develop a classification and we use this classification to categorize sixty-four (sets of) standards. By developing this categorization, we have brought order to the chaos of home networking

  12. Standard model without Higgs particles

    Kovalenko, S.G.

    1992-10-01

    A modification of the standard model of electroweak interactions with the nonlocal Higgs sector is proposed. Proper form of nonlocality makes Higgs particles unobservable after the electroweak symmetry breaking. They appear only as a virtual state because their propagator is an entire function. We discuss some specific consequences of this approach comparing it with the conventional standard model. (author). 12 refs

  13. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  14. The radiation safety standards programme

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the development of radiation safety standards by the IAEA which is a statutory function of the IAEA is presented. The latest editions of the basic safety standards published by the IAEA in cooperation with ICRP, FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO and WHO are reviewed

  15. Simplified propagation of standard uncertainties

    Shull, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    An essential part of any measurement control program is adequate knowledge of the uncertainties of the measurement system standards. Only with an estimate of the standards'' uncertainties can one determine if the standard is adequate for its intended use or can one calculate the total uncertainty of the measurement process. Purchased standards usually have estimates of uncertainty on their certificates. However, when standards are prepared and characterized by a laboratory, variance propagation is required to estimate the uncertainty of the standard. Traditional variance propagation typically involves tedious use of partial derivatives, unfriendly software and the availability of statistical expertise. As a result, the uncertainty of prepared standards is often not determined or determined incorrectly. For situations meeting stated assumptions, easier shortcut methods of estimation are now available which eliminate the need for partial derivatives and require only a spreadsheet or calculator. A system of simplifying the calculations by dividing into subgroups of absolute and relative uncertainties is utilized. These methods also incorporate the International Standards Organization (ISO) concepts for combining systematic and random uncertainties as published in their Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty. Details of the simplified methods and examples of their use are included in the paper

  16. Premise for Standardized Sepsis Models.

    Remick, Daniel G; Ayala, Alfred; Chaudry, Irshad; Coopersmith, Craig M; Deutschman, Clifford; Hellman, Judith; Moldawer, Lyle; Osuchowski, Marcin

    2018-06-05

    Sepsis morbidity and mortality exacts a toll on patients and contributes significantly to healthcare costs. Preclinical models of sepsis have been used to study disease pathogenesis and test new therapies, but divergent outcomes have been observed with the same treatment even when using the same sepsis model. Other disorders such as diabetes, cancer, malaria, obesity and cardiovascular diseases have used standardized, preclinical models that allow laboratories to compare results. Standardized models accelerate the pace of research and such models have been used to test new therapies or changes in treatment guidelines. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandated that investigators increase data reproducibility and the rigor of scientific experiments and has also issued research funding announcements about the development and refinement of standardized models. Our premise is that refinement and standardization of preclinical sepsis models may accelerate the development and testing of potential therapeutics for human sepsis, as has been the case with preclinical models for other disorders. As a first step towards creating standardized models, we suggest 1) standardizing the technical standards of the widely used cecal ligation and puncture model and 2) creating a list of appropriate organ injury and immune dysfunction parameters. Standardized sepsis models could enhance reproducibility and allow comparison of results between laboratories and may accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis.

  17. Standards and (self)implosion

    Brøgger, Katja; Staunæs, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    of standards often tends to conceptualize the travelling of standards as contagious processes resulting in epidemic spreads. In this article, the abstract metaphor of epidemic spread is replaced by an analytical configuration of a new mode of educational governance in which orchestrating webs of incentives...

  18. Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents

    Wojtowicz, S.; Trechcinski, R.; Rybka, M.; Ryszkowska, A.; Wardaszko, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The most important tasks of the Section in 1996 were: preparation of national standards and program of future work on standards for nuclear instrumentation and electronic equipment in nuclear engineering; organization of activities and participation in the meetings of the Commissions for Standardization No 173 Microprocessor Systems, No 266 Nuclear Instrumentation; giving opinions and expertises on national and international standards for equipment in nuclear engineering; cooperation with the Commission for Standardization No 246 Radiological Protection; control of inventiveness activity; The quality of the technical products is being improved by: a) selection of the proper types of interface systems, technical coordination and quality control; b) creation of standards at a high technical level; The Section works mainly for the Polish Committee for Standardization, the National Atomic Energy Agency, Association of Polish Electrical Engineers and Research Institutes in Poland. The activity of the Section is useful for all national institutions where backplane busses and nuclear electronic equipment is produced or used. The Section participates in the following international organizations: IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) TC 45 (Nuclear Instrumentation); ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTCl SC26 (Microprocessor systems); ESONE (European Studies on Norms for Electronics); The section takes part in popularization of nuclear technology and instrumentation in the following ways: distribution of standards and technical documentation to national institutions dealing with nuclear apparatus; collecting and distributing technical information from international organizations (e.g. ESONE); organization of technical and scientific, national and international conferences (New Generation Nuclear Power Plants - September 96, QNX in Real World - January 96); participation in the technical conference organized by the Polish Committee for

  19. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the EPA comply code to demonstrate compliance with radionuclide emission standards at three manufacturing facilities

    Smith, L.R.; Laferriere, J.R.; Nagy, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of airborne radionuclide emissions and associated environmental concentrations were made at, and in the vicinity of, two urban and one suburban facility where radiolabeled chemicals for biomedical research and radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured. Emission, environmental and meteorological measurements were used in the EPA COMPLY code and in environmental assessment models developed specifically for these sites to compare their ability to predict off-site measurements. The models and code were then used to determine potential dose to hypothetical maximally exposed receptors and the ability of these methods to demonstrate whether these facilities comply with proposed radionuclide emission standards assessed. In no case did the models and code seriously underestimate off-site impacts. However, for certain radionuclides and chemical forms, the EPA COMPLY code was found to overestimate off-site impacts by such a large factor as to render its value questionable for determining regulatory compliance. Recommendations are offered for changing the code to enable it to be more serviceable to radionuclide users and regulators

  20. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    Hale, Lara Anne

    In this thesis I address how experimental standards are used in the new governance paradigm to further sustainability transitions. Focusing on the case of the Active House standard in the building sector, I investigate experimental standards in three research papers examining the following dynamics......: (1) the relationship between commensuration and legitimacy in the formulation and diffusion of a standard’s specifications; (2) the role of awareness in standardizing green default rules to establish sustainable consumption in buildings; and (3) the significance of focus on humans in the development...... of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013...