Sample records for standardized continuous flow

  1. Organocatalysis in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.A.


    Continuous flow chemistry is an enabling technique in organic chemistry. Advantages include extremely fast mixing and heat transfer capabilities as well as rapid screening of reaction conditions. Combining continuous flow chemistry with solid-supported organocatalysis presents challenges that have

  2. Continuous information flow fluctuations (United States)

    Rosinberg, Martin Luc; Horowitz, Jordan M.


    Information plays a pivotal role in the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes with feedback. However, much remains to be learned about the nature of information fluctuations in small-scale devices and their relation with fluctuations in other thermodynamics quantities, like heat and work. Here we derive a series of fluctuation theorems for information flow and partial entropy production in a Brownian particle model of feedback cooling and extend them to arbitrary driven diffusion processes. We then analyze the long-time behavior of the feedback-cooling model in detail. Our results provide insights into the structure and origin of large deviations of information and thermodynamic quantities in autonomous Maxwell's demons.

  3. Continuous-Flow Centrifugal Separator (United States)

    Waldron, Robert D.


    Apparatus combines principles of centrifugal and cyclone separators to control movement of solid or liquid particles suspended in flowing gas. Spinning disk contains radial channels, width varys as function of distance from center. Gas flows from outer ring around disk toward center. Particles in gas collected at periphery, center or both.

  4. Standards for Continuing Education in Nursing. (United States)

    American Nurses' Association, New York, NY.

    The quality of health care depends to a large degree on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of practicing nurses. Continuing education is one way nurses can maintain competence and meet the standards of their profession. Continuing education in nursing consists of planned learning experiences beyond a basic nursing educational program. Providers…

  5. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.


    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  6. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Gary D. (Richland, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA); Kurosky, Randal P. (Maple Valley, WA)


    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  7. Multi-step continuous-flow synthesis. (United States)

    Britton, Joshua; Raston, Colin L


    Organic chemistry is continually evolving to improve the syntheses of value added and bioactive compounds. Through this progression, a concomitant advancement in laboratory technology has occurred. Many researchers now choose to mediate transformations in continuous-flow systems given the many benefits over round bottom flasks. Furthermore, reaction scale up is often less problematic as this is addressed at the inception of the science. Although single-step transformations in continuous-flow systems are common, multi-step transformations are more valuable. In these systems, molecular complexity is accrued through sequential transformations to a mobile scaffold, much like an in vitro version of Nature's polyketide synthases. Utilizing this methodology, multi-step continuous-flow systems have improved the syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), natural products, and commodity chemicals. This Review details these advancements while highlighting the rapid progress, benefits, and diversification of this expanding field.

  8. Catalytic Synthesis of Nitriles in Continuous Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Emily Catherine

    dehydrogenation of ethylamine and post-reaction purging.Chapter 4 outlines the application of RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts to the oxidative dehydrogenation of benzylamine in air, utilizing a new reaction setup. Again, batch and continuous flow reactions are compared and the effects of reaction conditions, ammonia...

  9. Moving wall, continuous flow electronphoresis apparatus (United States)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor)


    This invention relates generally to electrophoresis devices and more particularly to a moving wall, continuous flow device in which an electrophoresis chamber is angularly positionable with respect to the direction of moving belt walls. A frame with an electrophoresis chamber is rotatably supported between two synchronously driven belt walls. This allows the chamber to be angularly positionable with respect to the direction of belt travel, which compensates for electroosmotic flow within the electrophoresis chamber. Injection of a buffer solution via an opening and a homogenous sample stream via another opening is performed at the end of a chamber, and collection of buffer and the fractionated species particles is done by a conventional collection array at an opposite end of the chamber. Belts are driven at a rate which exactly matches the flow of buffer and sample through the chamber, which entrains the buffer to behave as a rigid electrophoretic medium, eliminating flow distortions (Poiseuille effect). Additionally, belt material for each belt is stored at one end of the device and is taken up by drive wheels at an opposite end. The novelty of this invention particularly lies in the electrophoresis chamber being angularly positionable between two moving belt walls in order to compensate for electroosmotic flow. Additionally, new belt material is continuously exposed within the chamber, minimizing flow distortion due to contamination of the belt material by the sample.

  10. Fluid mechanics of continuous flow electrophoresis (United States)

    Saville, D. A.


    The reported investigation has the objective to provide a basis for understanding the hydrodynamic characteristics of the continuous flow electrophoresis chamber and their effects on the separation process. Particular emphasis is placed on the role buoyancy plays in establishing the basic flow and affecting its stability. The flow and temperature field is discussed, taking into account mathematical models for the structure of the temperature field, models for the structure of the axial velocity field, a two-dimensional constant thermal conductivity model, the axial velocity field, a two-dimensional constant transport properties model, and one-dimensional velocity fields. Questions of hydrodynamic stability are considered, giving attention to the stability of a fully developed flow with an axial temperature gradient.

  11. Analytical approach to continuous and intermittent bottleneck flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim


    Many-particle-inspired theory, Continuous and Intermittent Bottleneck Flows Udgivelsesdato: Oct. 20......Many-particle-inspired theory, Continuous and Intermittent Bottleneck Flows Udgivelsesdato: Oct. 20...

  12. The fluid mechanics of continuous flow electrophoresis (United States)

    Saville, D. A.


    The overall objective is to establish theoretically and confirm experimentally the ultimate capabilities of continuous flow electrophoresis chambers operating in an environment essentially free of particle sedimentation and buoyancy. The efforts are devoted to: (1) studying the effects of particle concentration on sample conductivity and dielectric constant. The dielectric constant and conductivity were identified as playing crucial roles in the behavior of the sample and on the resolving power and throughput of continuous flow devices; and (2) improving the extant mathematical models to predict flow fields and particle trajectories in continuous flow electrophoresis. A dielectric spectrometer was designed and built to measure the complex dielectric constant of a colloidal dispersion as a function of frequency between 500 Hz and 200 kHz. The real part of the signal can be related to the sample's conductivity and the imaginary part to its dielectric constant. Measurements of the dielectric constants of several different dispersions disclosed that the dielectric constants of dilute systems of the sort encountered in particle electrophoresis are much larger than would be expected based on the extant theory. Experiments were carried out to show that, in many cases, this behavior is due to the presence of a filamentary structure of small hairs on the particle surface. A technique for producing electrokinetically ideal synthetic latex particles by heat treating was developed. Given the ubiquitous nature of hairy surfaces with both cells and synthetic particles, it was deemed necessary to develop a theory to explain their behavior. A theory for electrophoretic mobility of hairy particles was developed. Finally, the extant computer programs for predicting the structure of electro-osmotically driven flows were extended to encompass flow channels with variable wall mobilities.

  13. Continuous Flow Ventilatory Support (Clinical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Török


    Full Text Available Background. The world literature contains no reports on the clinical application of continuous flow ventilatory support by an insufflation catheter. Despite the use of different forms of ventilatory support, disconnection of patients from artificial ventilation is unsuccessful in 10—30% of cases despite the fact that the clinical and biochemical criteria are met.Objective: to discuss the efficiency of the new ventilation regime — continuous flow ventilatory support in the clinical setting.Methods: continuous flow ventilatory support with an original licensed multi-jet insufflation catheter or a terminal one-orifice catheter nasally inserted into the trachea was applied to 70 patients. It was used in a subgroup of 64 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD due to the occurrence of global respiratory insufficiency caused by infectious complications and in a group of 6 patients as a ventilatory regime for their disconnection from long-term artificial ventilation, whose disconnection other ventilatory regimens being used were unsuccessful.Results. None patient with COLD should be intubated, and just 30 minutes after the initiation of ventilatory support with a multi-jet catheter, there were decreases in the mean respiration rate from 33±2.8 to 27±2.5 cycles/min and in paCo2 from 11.9±1.7 to 10.8±1.6 kPa and an increase in paCo2 from 5.7±1.1 to 6.8±1.3 kPa at FiO2 =0.3. Within 24 hours after the initiation of ventilatory support, blood gas levels changed in response to the values typical of partial respiratory insufficiency. The spontaneous ventilation rate decreased to 20±2.2, paCO2 reduced to 6.4±1.2  kPa  and  pO2 continuously  increased  up  to  the  value  8.9±1.4  kPa  (FiO2 =0.3  at  hour  24  of  ventilatory  support. Ventilatory support lasted an average of 5 days. Statistical comparison of the study parameters showed a significant improvement (p<0.05 just 6 hours after ventilatory support and a

  14. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Lintang, Hendrik O; Hussain, Rafaqat


    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca(2+) ion released in SBF solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart. (United States)

    Fox, Carson; Chopski, Steven; Murad, Nohra; Allaire, Paul; Mentzer, Robert; Rossano, Joseph; Arabia, Francisco; Throckmorton, Amy


    Clinical studies using total artificial hearts (TAHs) have demonstrated that pediatric and adult patients derive quality-of-life benefits from this form of therapy. Two clinically-approved TAHs and other pumps under development, however, have design challenges and limitations, including thromboembolic events, neurologic impairment, infection risk due to large size and percutaneous drivelines, and lack of ambulation, to name a few. To address these limitations, we are developing a hybrid-design, continuous-flow, implantable or extracorporeal, magnetically-levitated TAH for pediatric and adult patients with heart failure. This TAH has only two moving parts: an axial impeller for the pulmonary circulation and a centrifugal impeller for the systemic circulation. This device will utilize the latest generation of magnetic bearing technology. Initial geometries were established using pump design equations, and computational modeling provided insight into pump performance. The designs were the basis for prototype manufacturing and hydraulic testing. The study results demonstrate that the TAH is capable of delivering target blood flow rates of 1-6.5 L/min with pressure rises of 1-92 mm Hg for the pulmonary circulation and 24-150 mm Hg for the systemic circulation at 1500-10 000 rpm. This initial design of the TAH was successful and serves as the foundation to continue its development as a novel, more compact, nonthrombogenic, and effective therapeutic alternative for infants, children, adolescents, and adults with heart failure. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Renormalization group flows and continual Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis


    We study the renormalization group flows of two-dimensional metrics in sigma models and demonstrate that they provide a continual analogue of the Toda field equations based on the infinite dimensional algebra G(d/dt;1). The resulting Toda field equation is a non-linear generalization of the heat equation, which is integrable in target space and shares the same dissipative properties in time. We provide the general solution of the renormalization group flows in terms of free fields, via Backlund transformations, and present some simple examples that illustrate the validity of their formal power series expansion in terms of algebraic data. We study in detail the sausage model that arises as geometric deformation of the O(3) sigma model, and give a new interpretation to its ultra-violet limit by gluing together two copies of Witten's two-dimensional black hole in the asymptotic region. We also provide some new solutions that describe the renormalization group flow of negatively curved spaces in different patches...

  17. Hybrid Amyloid Membranes for Continuous Flow Catalysis. (United States)

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Arcari, Mario; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele


    Amyloid fibrils are promising nanomaterials for technological applications such as biosensors, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and optoelectronics. Here we show that amyloid-metal nanoparticle hybrids can be used both as efficient active materials for wet catalysis and as membranes for continuous flow catalysis applications. Initially, amyloid fibrils generated in vitro from the nontoxic β-lactoglobulin protein act as templates for the synthesis of gold and palladium metal nanoparticles from salt precursors. The resulting hybrids possess catalytic features as demonstrated by evaluating their activity in a model catalytic reaction in water, e.g., the reduction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, with the rate constant of the reduction increasing with the concentration of amyloid-nanoparticle hybrids. Importantly, the same nanoparticles adsorbed onto fibrils surface show improved catalytic efficiency compared to the same unattached particles, pointing at the important role played by the amyloid fibril templates. Then, filter membranes are prepared from the metal nanoparticle-decorated amyloid fibrils by vacuum filtration. The resulting membranes serve as efficient flow catalysis active materials, with a complete catalytic conversion achieved within a single flow passage of a feeding solution through the membrane.

  18. Continuous Flow in Labour-Intensive Manufacturing Process (United States)

    Pacheco Eng., Jhonny; Carbajal MSc., Eduardo; Stoll-Ing., Cesar, Dr.


    A continuous-flow manufacturing represents the peak of standard production, and usually it means high production in a strict line production. Furthermore, low-tech industry demands high labour-intensive, in this context the efficient of the line production is tied at the job shop organization. Labour-intensive manufacturing processes are a common characteristic for developing countries. This research aims to propose a methodology for production planning in order to fulfilment a variable monthly production quota. The main idea is to use a clock as orchestra director in order to synchronize the rate time (takt time) of customer demand with the manufacturing time. In this way, the study is able to propose a stark reduction of stock in process, over-processing, and unnecessary variability.

  19. Efficient Synthetic Photocyclization for Phenacenes Using a Continuous Flow Reactor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okamoto, Hideki; Takane, Takamitsu; Gohda, Shin; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kaori; Yamaji, Minoru; Satake, Kyosuke


    The continuous flow reaction technique has been applied to the photocyclization of 1,2-diarylethenes, the so-called Mallory reaction, to afford phenacenes in high chemical yields and efficiencies (114–288 mg h−1...

  20. Continuous-flow hydrothermal and solvothermal synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials


    Starkey, Christopher L.


    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology are presently receiving high levels of interest which is aiding significant advancements to industrial and technological applications. New strategies towards nanoparticle synthesis are needed to produce high quality nanomaterials at industrially viable levels. This thesis presents the continuous flow hydrothermal and solvothermal synthesis (CFHSS) of a range of inorganic nanomaterials produced using a continuous-flow reactor designed at the University of Notti...

  1. Pin-count reduction for continuous flow microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan


    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers integrating the necessary functions on-chip. We are interested in flow-based biochips, where a continuous flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves, controlled from external pressure sources via off...

  2. Single-step radiofluorination of peptides using continuous flow microreactor. (United States)

    Selivanova, Svetlana V; Mu, Linjing; Ungersboeck, Johanna; Stellfeld, Timo; Ametamey, Simon M; Schibli, Roger; Wadsak, Wolfgang


    18F radiolabelling of peptides bearing two different prosthetic groups was successfully conducted in a continuous flow microfluidic device for the first time. Radiochemical yields were dependent on precursor concentration, reaction temperature and flow rate. The choice of leaving group had a dramatic influence on the reaction outcome. Rapid reaction optimization was possible.

  3. Continuous-Flow Biochips: Technology, Physical Design Methods and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Araci, Ismail Emre; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu


    This article is a tutorial on continuous-flow biochips where the basic building blocks are microchannels, and microvalves, and by combining them, more complex units such as mixers, switches, and multiplexers can be built. It also presents the state of the art in flow-based biochip technology and ...... and emerging research challenges in the areas of physical design and testing techniques....

  4. Fluid flow analysis in horizontal continuous casting tundish (United States)

    Kam, Dong Heon; Lee, Hwang Ku; Han, Jeong Whan; You, Byung Don


    Water model studies were carried out to analyze fluid flow characteristics in a horizontal continuous casting tundish. The effects of LSN (ladle submerged nozzle) and dams on the flow pattems in a tundish were investigated and casting speeds were also changed as experimental parameters. Dye injection experiments were made to observe qualitative flow patterns and mixing characteristics in a continuous flowing tundish. And quantitative analyses of RTD (residence time distribution) curves using tracer pulse injection were also made to calculate the dead volume fraction in the water model tundish under consideration. From the results it was found that flow modification devices with an open stream have little effect on the flow patterns in the tundish, whether the dam is installed or not. This was confirmed by the flow visualization method showing upward flow near falling stream driven by the buoyancy force caused by air entrapment during liquid falling. However when LSN was installed between a ladle and a tundish there was a great change in flow pattern and a bypassing flow that existed in bare tundish was decreased with the use of dams. Especially, dead volume fraction was decreased with the increase of dam height.

  5. Preparation of nanoparticles by continuous-flow microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Andreas, E-mail:; Reiner, Joseph E.; Vreeland, Wyatt N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States); DeVoe, Don L. [University of Maryland (United States); Locascio, Laurie E.; Gaitan, Michael [National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)


    We review a variety of micro- and nanoparticle formulations produced with microfluidic methods. A diverse variety of approaches to generate microscale and nanoscale particles has been reported. Here we emphasize the use of microfluidics, specifically microfluidic systems that operate in a continuous flow mode, thereby allowing continuous generation of desired particle formulations. The generation of semiconductor quantum dots, metal colloids, emulsions, and liposomes is considered. To emphasize the potential benefits of the continuous-flow microfluidic methodology for nanoparticle generation, preliminary data on the size distribution of liposomes formed using the microfluidic approach is compared to the traditional bulk alcohol injection method.

  6. The fluid mechanics of continuous flow electrophoresis in perspective (United States)

    Saville, D. A.


    Buoyancy alters the flow in continuous flow electrophoresis chambers through the mechanism of hydrodynamic instability and, when the instability is supressed by careful cooling of the chamber boundaries, by restructuring the axial flow. The expanded roles of buoyancy follow upon adapting the size of the chamber and the electric field so as to fractionate certain sorts of cell populations. Scale-up problems, hydrodynamic stability and the altered flow fields are discussed to show how phenomena overlooked in the design and operations of narrow-gap devices take on an overwhelming importance in wide-gap chambers

  7. The Physiology of Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices. (United States)

    Lim, Hoong Sern; Howell, Neil; Ranasinghe, Aaron


    The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has increased significantly over the past few years, in part because heart transplant activity has plateaued, but also because of the improving clinical outcomes with contemporary continuous-flow LVAD. As such, there is now a growing population of patients with continuous-flow LVADs. Management of these patients is complicated by the altered circulatory physiology, because continuous-flow LVADs provide a parallel circulation from the heart to the aorta, which interacts with the native left heart (systemic) circulation with consequent effects on the right heart circulation. In addition, the displayed pump parameters can mislead the unwary clinician. An understanding of LVAD physiology can guide clinicians in the management of patients with LVADs. This review describes the basic design of axial and centrifugal continuous-flow LVADs, the functional anatomy and physiology of continuous-flow LVADs, and the interaction between the heart and the LVAD. leading to a discussion about the interpretation of the pump parameters in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuous evaluation of midwives as to professional standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Implementation of professional standards as well as evaluation and assessments of providers has an important role in health promotion of each society. The purpose of this study was to assess the midwives working at midwifery offices as to performance of professional standards and effectiveness of continuous evaluation and education on them. Methods: This is an interventional study in which all of midwifery offices (110 were evaluated. The study was done in three stages using standard checklist observation and interview in each step. Based on detected errors, appropriate education was done and their performance was reevaluated in the next step of supervision. Finally total scores in each step as well as scores in different subjects were compared among three evaluated stages. Results: Overall mean score of faults at midwifery offices decreased from step 1 to step 3 in the following fields: environmental health and infection control (P<0.0002, personal and patient care (P=0.0005, individual health (P=0.003 and adherence to laws and rules (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Continuous evaluation is essential for assessing the effectiveness and improvement of our educational program. With continuous evaluation, correction of observed defects will be done at an early stage by appropriate intervention and education. So our medical and health programs will attain the planned goals.

  9. Miniaturized continuous flow reaction vessels: influence on chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brivio, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David


    This review offers an overview of the relatively young research area of continuous flow lab-on-a-chip for synthetic applications. A short introduction on the basic aspects of lab-on-a-chip is given in the first part. Subsequently, the effects of downscaling reaction vessels as well as the advantages

  10. Voltage stability analysis using a modified continuation load flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the rising problem of identifying the voltage stability limits of load buses in a power system and how to optimally place capacitor banks for voltage stability improvement. This paper uses the concept of the continuation power flow analysis used in voltage stability analysis. It uses the modified ...

  11. Nasal deformities resulting from flow driver continuous positive airway pressure. (United States)

    Robertson, N J; McCarthy, L S; Hamilton, P A; Moss, A L


    Over a period of six months, seven cases were documented of trauma to the nose as a result of flow driver continuous positive airway pressure in babies of very low birthweight (VLBW). There was a complication rate of 20% in the babies who required it. Deformities consisted of columella nasi necrosis which can occur within three days, flaring of nostrils which worsens with duration of continuous positive airway pressure, and snubbing of the nose which persists after prolonged continuous positive airway pressure. These complications should be preventable by modifications to the mechanism and method of use.

  12. Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid. (United States)

    Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.


    To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken

  13. Toward developing a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart. (United States)

    Alabdulkader, Balsam; Leat, Susan Jennifer

    Near visual acuity is an essential measurement during an oculo-visual assessment. Short duration continuous text reading charts measure reading acuity and other aspects of reading performance. There is no standardized version of such chart in Arabic. The aim of this study is to create sentences of equal readability to use in the development of a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart. Initially, 109 Arabic pairs of sentences were created for use in constructing a chart with similar layout to the Colenbrander chart. They were created to have the same grade level of difficulty and physical length. Fifty-three adults and sixteen children were recruited to validate the sentences. Reading speed in correct words per minute (CWPM) and standard length words per minute (SLWPM) was measured and errors were counted. Criteria based on reading speed and errors made in each sentence pair were used to exclude sentence pairs with more outlying characteristics, and to select the final group of sentence pairs. Forty-five sentence pairs were selected according to the elimination criteria. For adults, the average reading speed for the final sentences was 166 CWPM and 187 SLWPM and the average number of errors per sentence pair was 0.21. Childrens' average reading speed for the final group of sentences was 61 CWPM and 72 SLWPM. Their average error rate was 1.71. The reliability analysis showed that the final 45 sentence pairs are highly comparable. They will be used in constructing an Arabic short duration continuous text reading chart. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Product differentiation during continuous-flow thermal gradient PCR. (United States)

    Crews, Niel; Wittwer, Carl; Palais, Robert; Gale, Bruce


    A continuous-flow PCR microfluidic device was developed in which the target DNA product can be detected and identified during its amplification. This in situ characterization potentially eliminates the requirement for further post-PCR analysis. Multiple small targets have been amplified from human genomic DNA, having sizes of 108, 122, and 134 bp. With a DNA dye in the PCR mixture, the amplification and unique melting behavior of each sample is observed from a single fluorescent image. The melting behavior of the amplifying DNA, which depends on its molecular composition, occurs spatially in the thermal gradient PCR device, and can be observed with an optical resolution of 0.1 degrees C pixel(-1). Since many PCR cycles are within the field of view of the CCD camera, melting analysis can be performed at any cycle that contains a significant quantity of amplicon, thereby eliminating the cycle-selection challenges typically associated with continuous-flow PCR microfluidics.

  15. Microdevice for continuous flow magnetic separation for bioengineering applications (United States)

    Khashan, Saud A.; Dagher, Sawsan; Alazzam, Anas; Mathew, Bobby; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali


    A novel continuous flow microfluidic device, integrated with soft-magnetic wire (permalloy), is fabricated and tested for magnetophoresis based separation. The flow-invasive permalloy wire, magnetized using an external bias field, is positioned perpendicular to the external magnetic field and with its length traversing the introduced sample flow. The microfluidic device is realized in PDMS; the mold for PDMS microstructures is cut out of Plexiglas® sheets with controllable dimensions. Microfluidic devices with microchannel height ranging between 0.5 mm and 2 mm are fabricated. Experiments are carried out with and without sheath flow; with sheath flow the microparticles are focused at the center of the microchannel. When focusing is not employed, the microdevice can exhibit a complete separation (or filtration) with the introduction of the sample at rates lower than a maximum threshold. However, this complete separation is attributed to the fact that part of the particles, once they approach the repulsive field of the wire, will find their way into the attractive region of the wire while the remaining will be indefinitely trapped at the channel walls. On the other hand, when the focused sample is flowing at the same rate but alongside an appropriate sheath flow, the complete separation can be achieved with all (initially repelled) particles being captured on the attractive region of the wire itself. This microdevice design is well suited for purification, enrichment, and detection of microparticles in lab-on-a-chip devices due to its ability to handle high throughput without compromising capture efficiency while exhibiting excellent reliability and flexibility.

  16. Electricity generation using continuously recirculated flow electrodes in reverse electrodialysis (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Coronell, Orlando; Call, Douglas F.


    Capacitive flow electrode systems that generate electricity from salinity gradients are limited by low power densities, inefficient electrical current collection, and complex system operation. We show here the proof-of-concept that a single reverse electrodialysis cell using continuously recirculated activated carbon flow electrodes can generate uninterrupted electricity from an artificial sea/river water gradient. Power densities reached 61 ± 5.7 mW m-2 (normalized to total membrane surface area) and current densities 2.4 ± 0.13 A m-2 when a 10% by weight carbon loading was used with graphite plate current collectors. Using high-surface area graphite brush current collectors, maximum power densities increased more than 320% to 260 ± 8.7 mW m-2 and maximum current densities more than 400% to 14 ± 0.59 A m-2. The performance improvements were attributed to a more than 80% decrease in electrode resistances when brushes were used instead of plates. A control static capacitive electrode system obtained slightly higher average power densities (290 ± 8.7 mW m-2), but could not produce it continuously, highlighting the operational advantage of the recirculated flow electrode design.

  17. An Analytical Approximation for Continuous Flow Microwave Heating of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cuccurullo


    Full Text Available Both a numerical and an analytical models were developed to simulate temperature profiles in continuous laminar pipe flow during microwave heating. Fully developed velocity and thermally developing conditions were assumed. The numerical solution was obtained by first solving Maxwell equations and then by coupling them with the energy balance for the flowing fluid. On the other hand, the same problem was solved analytically under the simplifying assumption foreseeing uniform heat generation inside the pipe. With the aim of reducing computational efforts, numerical and analytical results were compared in order to investigate conditions for which the two models allowed to recover the same temperature patterns. Thus, it has been shown that suitable conditions can be found for which the simplified analytical model can lead to an easy way to predict the heat transfer through the pipe.

  18. Synthesis of nanomaterials by continuous-flow microfluidics: a review. (United States)

    Makgwane, Peter Ramashadi; Ray, Suprakas Sinha


    The development of controlled synthesis protocols of nanostructured materials with tailored particle size and shape has been a significant research area in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Much innovative research efforts had been focused on finding suitable chemical reagents and synthetic methodologies that offer opportunities to produce the desired structure-function controlled nanomaterials. On the other hand, the reactor equipment for the synthesis of these tailored nanomaterials is of prime importance not only at laboratory-scale but also with view of up-scaling the synthetic processes into large-scale productions. Whilst the sequential three-stage scale-up from the conventional process (i.e., lab-scale/pilot-scale/large-scale) using multi-purpose batch reactor is masked with complications, on the other hand, the interface of nanomaterials synthesis processes and continuous-flow microfluidic chemistry has demonstrated relatively superior process performance over conventional technologies. Consequently, the uses of continuous-flow microfluidics systems have recently attracted much research attention as versatile tools for the synthesis of various structured nanomaterials. In this review, we highlight and analyze the key achievements to date of adopting microfluidics technologies for the controlled synthesis of nanomaterials with well-defined structural properties desirable for the intended applications. We devote the significant emphasis on demonstrating the improved potential characteristics features of continuous-flow microfluidics as a capable technology to provide efficient synthesis processes for the production of various nanosized scale structured materials with precise control of the involved chemistry. Moreover, we discuss the novel process window opportunities of hyphenated microfluidics nanoparticles synthesis with the in-situ or in-line structure characterization during synthesis under real-time reaction conditions which provide interesting insights

  19. Transition and Continuance in Science Production: Authorship Flow in Chemistry


    Mahsa Nikzad; Nadjla Hariri; Fahime Babolhavaeji; Fatemeh Nooshinfard


    The aim of this article is to study authorship flow in Iranian ISI articles in the field of chemistry based on Price’s model. Price divided authors in each given period in any field into four groups including newcomers, transients, continuants, and terminators. He maintained that actuarial statistics could be applied to authorship to calculate death rate and birth rate in scientific fields. A total 25,573 articles written by 59,661 Iranian chemistry authors between 1973 and 2012 were do...

  20. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu


    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  1. Nutrient removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands under batch and continuous flow conditions. (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M; Zhu, Junfei; Sadreddini, Sara; Li, Yifei


    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of batch versus continuous flow on the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (TP) in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CW). The quantitative role of the higher aquatic plants in nutrient removal in these two operational modes was also investigated. Results indicated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in COD removal between batch and continuous flow modes for either the planted or unplanted treatments. Furthermore, the batch-loaded planted wetlands showed significantly (p hydraulic retention time (HRT), the presence of plants significantly enhanced both ammonia oxidation and TP removal in both batch and continuous modes of operation as compared to that for unplanted beds. An estimation of the quantitative role of aeration from drain and fill operation at a 4-day HRT, as compared to rhizosphere aeration by the higher aquatic plant, indicated that drain and fill operation might account for only less than half of the higher aquatic plant's quantitative contribution of oxygen (1.55 g O2 per m2 per day for batch flow versus 1.13 g O2 per m2 per day for continuous flow). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guri; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.


    Wet macroalgal slurries have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to a gravity-separable oil product of 58.8% was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a pressurized (subcritical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using feedstock slurries with a 21.7% concentration of dry solids. As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent, and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water-soluble organics. Conversion of 99.2% of the carbon left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. Finally, as a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of residual organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  3. Continuous-flow sheathless diamagnetic particle separation in ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yilong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0921 (United States); Song, Le [School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronic Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yu, Liandong, E-mail: [School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronic Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Xuan, Xiangchun, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0921 (United States)


    Separating particles from a complex mixture is often necessary in many chemical and biomedical applications. This work presents a continuous-flow sheathless diamagnetic particle separation in ferrofluids through U-shaped microchannels. Due to the action of a size-dependent magnetic force, diamagnetic particles are focused into a single stream in the inlet branch of the U-turn and then continuously separated into two streams in its outlet branch. A 3D numerical model is developed to predict and understand the diamagnetic particle transport during this separation process. The numerical predictions are found to agree well with the experimental observations in a systematic study of the effects of multiple parameters including ferrofluid flow rate, concentration and magnet-channel distance. Additional numerical studies of the geometric effects of the U-turn reveal that increasing the outlet-branch width of the U-turn can significantly enhance the diamagnetic particle separation in ferrofluids. - Highlights: • Particles are focused and separated in the two branches of a U-shaped microchannel. • Negative magnetophoretic motion in ferrofluids causes the particle deflection. • A 3D numerical model is developed to simulate the particle separation. • Multiple parametric effects are studied both experimentally and numerically. • Increasing the outlet-branch width significantly enhances the particle separation.

  4. Calculation of periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid (United States)

    Vasiliev, A.


    Analytic theory of disturbances generated by an oscillating compact source in a viscous continuously stratified fluid was constructed. Exact solution of the internal waves generation problem was constructed taking into account diffusivity effects. This analysis is based on set of fundamental equations of incompressible flows. The linearized problem of periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid, generated by an oscillating part of the inclined plane was solved by methods of singular perturbation theory. A rectangular or disc placed on a sloping plane and oscillating linearly in an arbitrary direction was selected as a source of disturbances. The solutions include regularly perturbed on dissipative component functions describing internal waves and a family of singularly perturbed functions. One of the functions from the singular components family has an analogue in a homogeneous fluid that is a periodic or Stokes' flow. Its thickness is defined by a universal micro scale depending on kinematics viscosity coefficient and a buoyancy frequency with a factor depending on the wave slope. Other singular perturbed functions are specific for stratified flows. Their thickness are defined the diffusion coefficient, kinematic viscosity and additional factor depending on geometry of the problem. Fields of fluid density, velocity, vorticity, pressure, energy density and flux as well as forces acting on the source are calculated for different types of the sources. It is shown that most effective source of waves is the bi-piston. Complete 3D problem is transformed in various limiting cases that are into 2D problem for source in stratified or homogeneous fluid and the Stokes problem for an oscillating infinite plane. The case of the "critical" angle that is equality of the emitting surface and the wave cone slope angles needs in separate investigations. In this case, the number of singular component is saved. Patterns of velocity and density fields were constructed and

  5. 40 CFR 63.5900 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the standards? (United States)


    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.5900 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance... continuous emissions monitors to demonstrate continuous compliance as an alternative to control parameter...

  6. Study of transient flow and particle transport in continuous steel caster molds: Part I. Fluid flow (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Thomas, Brian G.; Vanka, S. P.


    Unsteady three-dimensional flow in the mold region of the liquid pool during continuous casting of steel slabs has been computed using realistic geometries starting from the submerged inlet nozzle. Three large-eddy simulations (LES) have been validated with measurements and used to compare results between full-pool and symmetric half-pool domains and between a full-scale water model and actual behavior in a thin-slab steel caster. First, time-dependent turbulent flow in the submerged nozzle is computed. The time-dependent velocities exiting the nozzle ports are then used as inlet conditions for the flow in the liquid pool. Complex time-varying flow structures are observed in the simulation results, in spite of the nominally steady casting conditions. Flow in the mold region is seen to switch between a “double-roll” recirculation zone and a complex flow pattern with multiple vortices. The computed time-averaged flow pattern agrees well with measurements obtained by hot-wire anemometry and dye injection in full-scale water models. Full-pool simulations show asymmetries between the left and right sides of the flow, especially in the lower recirculation zone. These asymmetries, caused by interactions between two halves of the liquid pool, are not present in the half-pool simulation. This work also quantifies differences between flow in the water model and the corresponding steel caster. The top-surface liquid profile and fluctuations are predicted in both systems and agree favorably with measurements. The flow field in the water model is predicted to differ from that in the steel caster in having higher upward velocities in the lower-mold region and a more uniform top-surface liquid profile. A spectral analysis of the computed velocities shows characteristics similar to previous measurements. The flow results presented here are later used (in Part II of this article) to investigate the transport of inclusion particles.

  7. Initial in vitro testing of a paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart. (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Karimov, Jamshid H; Horvath, David J; Sunagawa, Gengo; Byram, Nicole A; Kuban, Barry D; Moazami, Nader


    Mechanical circulatory support has become standard therapy for adult patients with end-stage heart failure; however, in paediatric patients with congenital heart disease, the options for chronic mechanical circulatory support are limited to paracorporeal devices or off-label use of devices intended for implantation in adults. Congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathy often involve both the left and right ventricles; in such cases, heart transplantation, a biventricular assist device or a total artificial heart is needed to adequately sustain both pulmonary and systemic circulations. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro performance of the initial prototype of our paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart. The paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart pump was downsized from the adult continuous-flow total artificial heart configuration by a scale factor of 0.70 (1/3 of total volume) to enable implantation in infants. System performance of this prototype was evaluated using the continuous-flow total artificial heart mock loop set to mimic paediatric circulation. We generated maps of pump performance and atrial pressure differences over a wide range of systemic vascular resistance/pulmonary vascular resistance and pump speeds. Performance data indicated left pump flow range of 0.4-4.7 l/min at 100 mmHg delta pressure. The left/right atrial pressure difference was maintained within ±5 mmHg with systemic vascular resistance/pulmonary vascular resistance ratios between 1.4 and 35, with/without pump speed modulation, verifying expected passive self-regulation of atrial pressure balance. The paediatric continuous-flow total artificial heart prototype met design requirements for self-regulation and performance; in vivo pump performance studies are ongoing.

  8. Continuous-Flow Detector for Rapid Pathogen Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Louise M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics; Skulan, Andrew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics; Singh, Anup K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics; Cummings, Eric B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics; Fiechtner, Gregory J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Microfluidics


    This report describes the continued development of a low-power, portable detector for the rapid identification of pathogens such as B. anthracis and smallpox. Based on our successful demonstration of the continuous filter/concentrator inlet, we believe strongly that the inlet section will enable differentiation between viable and non-viable populations, between types of cells, and between pathogens and background contamination. Selective, continuous focusing of particles in a microstream enables highly selective and sensitive identification using fluorescently labeled antibodies and other receptors such as peptides, aptamers, or small ligands to minimize false positives. Processes such as mixing and lysing will also benefit from the highly localized particle streams. The concentrator is based on faceted prisms to contract microfluidic flows while maintaining uniform flowfields. The resulting interfaces, capable of high throughput, serve as high-, low-, and band-pass filters to direct selected bioparticles to a rapid, affinity-based detection system. The proposed device is superior to existing array-based detectors as antibody-pathogen binding can be accomplished in seconds rather than tens of minutes or even hours. The system is being designed to interface with aerosol collectors under development by the National Laboratories or commercial systems. The focused stream is designed to be interrogated using diode lasers to differentiate pathogens by light scattering. Identification of particles is done using fluorescently labeled antibodies to tag the particles, followed by multiplexed laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection (achieved by labeling each antibody with a different dye).

  9. Continuous-flow chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syropoulos, A.B.; Calokerinos, A.C. (University of Athens (greece). Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry)


    Chemiluminescence is found to be generated by action of lucigenin or hexacyanoferrate(III) on tetracyclines. The reaction with lucigenin exhibits chemiluminescence after alkaline degradation of tetracyclines to the corresponding iso derivatives. The reaction with hexacyanoferrate (III) occurs after acidic degradation of tetracyclines to corresponding anhydro derivatives. The chemiluminescence reaction takes place in alkaline medium, and allows the development of a continuous-flow method for the determination of 1.00-10.0 {mu}gml{sup -1} oxytetracycline and doxycycline. When applied to commercial formulations, the procedure was relatively free from interferences from common excipients. The results obtained for the assay of dosage forms compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs.

  10. Scanning tunneling microscope with continuous flow cryostat sample cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behler, S.; Rose, M.K.; Dunphy, J.C.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chapelier, C. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA/Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    We have constructed an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for operation in the temperature range 20{endash}300 K. The design consists of a vibration isolated sample holder mounted on a continuous flow cryostat. By rotation and linear motion of the cryostat, the sample can be positioned in front of various surface preparation and analysis instruments contained in a single vacuum chamber. A lightweight beetle-type STM head is lowered from the top onto the sample by a linear manipulator. To minimize helium convection in the cryostat, the entire vacuum system, including a liquid helium storage Dewar, can be tilted by a few degrees perpendicular to the cryostat axis, which improves the operation. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of the Pd(111) surface and adsorbed CO molecules. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. New continuous-flow total artificial heart and vascular permeability. (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Cohn, William E; Parnis, Steven M; Sodha, Neel R; Clements, Richard T; Sellke, Nicholas; Frazier, O Howard; Sellke, Frank W


    We tested the short-term effects of completely nonpulsatile versus pulsatile circulation after ventricular excision and replacement with total implantable pumps in an animal model on peripheral vascular permeability. Ten calves underwent cardiac replacement with two HeartMate III continuous-flow rotary pumps. In five calves, the pump speed was rapidly modulated to impart a low-frequency pulse pressure in the physiologic range (10-25 mm Hg) at a rate of 40 pulses per minute (PP). The remaining five calves were supported with a pulseless systemic circulation and no modulation of pump speed (NP). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before cardiac replacement (baseline) and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 7, and 14. Skeletal muscle-tissue water content was measured, and morphologic alterations of skeletal muscle were assessed. VE-cadherin, phospho-VE-cadherin, and CD31 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. There were no significant changes in tissue water content and skeletal muscle morphology within group or between groups at baseline, PODs 1, 7, and 14, respectively. There were no significant alterations in the expression and/or distribution of VE-cadherin, phospho-VE-cadherin, and CD31 in skeletal muscle vasculature at baseline, PODs 1, 7, and 14 within each group or between the two groups, respectively. Although continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) with or without a pulse pressure caused slight increase in tissue water content and histologic damage scores at PODs 7 and 14, it failed to reach statistical significance. There was no significant adherens-junction protein degradation and phosphorylation in calf skeletal muscle microvasculature after CFTAH implantation, suggesting that short term of CFTAH with or without pulse pressure did not cause peripheral endothelial injury and did not increase the peripheral microvascular permeability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 2: Statistical comparison using response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik


    Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper-motor exp......Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper...

  13. Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Standard Product Generation and Characteristics (United States)

    Micijevic, E.; Hayes, R.


    prefer uncorrected data a Level 0 Reformatted Product (L0Rp) product will be available. The standard L1T product for L8 will be a 16-bit, north up Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, Cubic Convolution (CC) resampled, GeoTIFF file. The delivered tar file contains eight 30-meter OlI multispectral bands, one 15-meter OLI Panchromatic band, two TIRS thermal bands, a Quality Band (QB), a metadata file, and an Angle Band. The QB is a file that contains quality statistics from the image data and cloud mask for the scene. The metadata file contains information about the product ordered and is essential for the end user to know how that product was processed. The Angle Band is a binary image file that contains the solar angle information for the scene data collected. The L1T reflectance product bands will be generated with no sun angle correction applied. The angle band will enable an optional TOA reflectance calculation using the sun angles specific to each image pixel. This method was chosen to maintain continuity with Landsat products while allowing the users that require a per pixel sun angle correction to have that capability. An example of a L8 product can be downloaded from the Landsat website located at: The sample L8 product was created using Landsat 7 data projected onto a L8 grid and processed to LDCM data product specifications.

  14. Coupling lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of thermal flows on standard lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Q; He, Y L; Gao, Y J; Tao, W Q


    In this paper, a coupling lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating thermal flows on the standard D2Q9 lattice is developed in the framework of the double-distribution-function (DDF) approach in which the viscous heat dissipation and compression work are considered. In the model, a density distribution function is used to simulate the flow field, while a total energy distribution function is employed to simulate the temperature field. The discrete equilibrium density and total energy distribution functions are obtained from the Hermite expansions of the corresponding continuous equilibrium distribution functions. The pressure given by the equation of state of perfect gases is recovered in the macroscopic momentum and energy equations. The coupling between the momentum and energy transports makes the model applicable for general thermal flows such as non-Boussinesq flows, while the existing DDF LB models on standard lattices are usually limited to Boussinesq flows in which the temperature variation is small....

  15. Standardized Multi-Color Flow Cytometry and Computational Biomarker Discovery. (United States)

    Schlickeiser, Stephan; Streitz, Mathias; Sawitzki, Birgit


    Multi-color flow cytometry has become a valuable and highly informative tool for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients with immune deficiencies or inflammatory disorders. However, the method complexity and error-prone conventional manual data analysis often result in a high variability between different analysts and research laboratories. Here, we provide strategies and guidelines aiming at a more standardized multi-color flow cytometric staining and unsupervised data analysis for whole blood patient samples.

  16. 78 FR 65306 - Best Practices for Continuous Monitoring of Temperature and Flow in Wadeable Streams (United States)


    ... AGENCY Best Practices for Continuous Monitoring of Temperature and Flow in Wadeable Streams AGENCY... Continuous Monitoring of Temperature and Flow in Wadeable Streams'' (EPA/600/R-13/170). The EPA also is... Development. The report describes best practices for the deployment of continuous temperature and flow sensors...

  17. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.


    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  18. Numerical and Physical Parametric Analysis of a SEN with Flow Conditioners in Slab Continuous Casting Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Trejo J.


    Full Text Available Some of the most recent technologies that improves the performance in continuous casting process has installed infrastructure outside the mold to modify the natural fluid flow pattern to obtain a quasi-steady condition and promote a uniform solidified shell of steel. The submerged entry nozzle distributes the liquid steel in the mold and can be used to obtain the flow symmetry condition with external geometry improvements. The fluid flow conditioners were located near the outlet ports of the nozzle. The aim of the modifiers is to impose a pseudo symmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. This work evaluates the effect of the thickness and length of the fluid-flow modifiers on the overall performance of the submerged nozzle. These properties of the fluid-flow modifiers were normalized based on two of the geometric dimensions of the standard equipment. Numerical and physical simulations suggest that the flow modifier should be as thin as possible.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melentev Vladimir Anatolevich


    Full Text Available In presented article the questions connected with the general concepts and bases of functioning of document flow in borders of any economic object (the enterprise, establishment, the organization are considered. Gostirovanny definition of document flow, classification of types of documentary streams is given. The basic principles of creation of document flow, following which are considered allows to create optimum structure документопотока and nature of movement of documents; interrelation of external and internal influences. Further basic elements of medical document flow are considered; the main problems of medical document flow being, besides, major factors, distinguishing medical document flow from document flow of manufacturing enterprises or other economic objects are specified. From consideration of these problems the conclusion about an initial stage of their decision - standardization of the medical document flow, being, besides, is drawn by the first stage of creation of a common information space of medical branch.

  20. Validation of a continuous penile blood-flow measurement by pulse-volume-plethysmography. (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Barbe, R; Gally, M


    Today, in the assessment of cavernous artery blood-flow, the most commonly used technique is Doppler ultrasound velocimetry (continuous, pulsed, color-coded or power), which is often considered as the gold standard. Plethysmographic techniques and radioactive tracers have been widely used for the assessment of global penis flow variations but are not adequate for continuous blood-flow measurement. A new pulse-volume plethysmographic (PVP) device using a water-filled penile cuff was employed to assess continuous blood-flow measurement in the penis. Simultaneously Doppler velocity was recorded and served as a gold standard. A penile water-cuff is connected through a pressure tube to a three-way tap. The pulse-volume changes in the penile water-cuff are measured by means of a latex membrane placed over one of the three-way taps. The displacements of the latex are recorded by a photoplethysmograph. The third tap is connected to a 5 l perfusion bag placed 30 cm above the penis so as to maintain constant pressure in the whole device whatever the penis volume. Twenty-four volunteers were tested. The Doppler velocity signal and pulse volume of cavernous arteries were measured simultaneously after PGE1 intra-cavernous injection. Blood-flow variations were induced by increasing penis artery compression with a second penile water-cuff used as a tourniquet fitted onto the penis root, and the pressure of which could be modified by a water-filled syringe. The amplitude of the plethysmographic pulse-volume signal and the area under the Doppler velocity signal were correlated. The inter-patient (n=24) correlation ranged from 0.455 to 0.904, with a mean correlation of 0.704 and P<0.0001. PVP measurement by a water-filled cuff was validated by ultrasound velocimetry. This new continuous, non-invasive and easy-to-use technique enables physiological and physiopathological flow-measurement during sleep, under visual sexual stimulation (VSS), or following artificial erection

  1. Hydrothermal upgrading of algae paste in a continuous flow reactor. (United States)

    Patel, Bhavish; Hellgardt, Klaus


    This investigation demonstrates the utility of a novel laboratory scale continuous plug flow reactor for fast Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae in a quartz lined chamber. Reactions were carried out between 300 and 380 °C and residence times of 0.5-4 min. Cyclohexane was used as a co-solvent to enhance extraction and prevent char formation. Highest biocrude yield of 38 wt.% was achieved at 380 °C and 30 s as well as Water Soluble Fraction containing up to 60 wt.% matter recovered. Analysis of the biocrude showed that the extent of deoxygenation and denitrogenation after HTL varied and is dependent on the reaction conditions, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis showed that biocrude contains similar functional moieties with only a small difference observed at different reaction conditions. Conversely, the Simulated Distillation and Size Exclusion Chromatography data showed that harsher conditions produced marginally better biocrude with improved boiling point profile and lower molecular weight compounds, respectively which was confirmed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microfluidic continuous flow digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Chen, Liben; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei


    Digital nucleic acid detection is rapidly becoming a popular technique for ultra-sensitive and quantitative detection of nucleic acid molecules in a wide range of biomedical studies. Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the most popular way of conducting digital nucleic acid detection. However, due to the need for thermocycling, digital PCR is difficult to implement in a streamlined manner on a single microfluidic device, leading to complex fragmented workflows and multiple separate devices and instruments. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an excellent isothermal alternative to PCR with potentially better specificity than PCR because of the use of multiple primer sets for a nucleic acid target. Here we report a microfluidic droplet device implementing all the steps required for digital nucleic acid detection including droplet generation, incubation and in-line detection for digital LAMP. As compared to microchamber or droplet array-based digital assays, the continuous flow operation of this device eliminates the constraints on the number of total reactions imposed by the footprint of the device and the analysis throughput caused by the time for lengthy incubation and transfer of materials between instruments.

  3. 75 FR 4703 - Track Safety Standards; Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) (United States)


    ... Rail (CWR) AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... condition'' as they are used with regard to continuous welded rail (CWR). DATES: Effective Date: This final...-prone condition'' exists ``when the actual rail temperature is above the actual rail neutral temperature...

  4. Rapid identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis by chip-based continuous flow PCR (United States)

    Dietzsch, Michael; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia; Neubauer, Heinrich


    To combat the threat of biological agents like Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis in bioterroristic scenarios requires fast, easy-to-use and safe identification systems. In this study we describe a system for rapid amplification of specific genetic markers for the identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis. Using chip based PCR and continuous flow technology we were able to amplify the targets simultaneously with a 2-step reaction profile within 20 minutes. The subsequent analysis of amplified fragments by standard gel electrophoresis requires another 45 minutes. We were able to detect both pathogens within 75 minutes being much faster than most other nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  5. Standard flow liquid chromatography for shotgun proteomics in bioenergy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. González Fernández-Niño


    Full Text Available Over the past ten years the bioenergy and biofuels field has realized significant achievements that have encouraged many follow on efforts centered on biosynthetic production of fuel-like compounds. Key to the success of these efforts has been transformational developments in feedstock characterization and metabolic engineering of biofuel-producing microbes. Lagging far behind these advancements are analytical methods to characterize and quantify systems of interest to the bioenergy field. In particular the utilization of proteomics, while valuable for identifying novel enzymes and diagnosing problems associated with biofuel-producing microbes, is limited by a lack of robustness and limited throughput. Nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled to high-mass accuracy, high-resolution mass spectrometers has become the dominant approach for the analysis of complex proteomic samples, yet such assays still require dedicated experts for data acquisition, analysis, and instrument upkeep. The recent adoption of standard flow chromatography (ca. 0.5 mL/min for targeted proteomics has highlighted the robust nature and increased throughput of this approach for sample analysis. Consequently, we assessed the applicability of standard flow liquid chromatography for shotgun proteomics using samples from Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis thaliana, organisms commonly used as model systems for lignocellulosic biofuels research. Employing 120 minute gradients with standard flow chromatography we were able to routinely identify nearly 800 proteins from E. coli samples, while for samples from Arabidopsis over 1,000 proteins could be reliably identified. An examination of identified peptides indicated that the method was suitable for reproducible applications in shotgun proteomics. Standard flow liquid chromatography for shotgun proteomics provides a robust approach for the analysis of complex samples. To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first attempt

  6. A Novel Pressure Indicator for Continuous Flow PCR Chip Using Micro Molded PDMS Pillar Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Xin


    .... Continuous flow PCR chip releases biologists from their laborious exercises. The use of such chip is, however, hindered by costly expense of the syringe pump, which is used to maintain a constant flow rate...

  7. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohora, Emilijan, E-mail: [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Roncevic, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Bozo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlovic, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} was 77% relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 {mu}g/l), relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m{sup 3} and 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm{sup 2}, A/V ratio = 0.248 cm{sup -1}. The NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 {mu}g As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

  8. Titer plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors for high throughput applications: fabrication and testing (United States)

    Sang-Won Park, Daniel; Chen, Pin-Chuan; You, Byoung Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Datta, Proyag; Desta, Yohannes; Soper, Steven A.; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Murphy, Michael C.


    A high throughput, multi-well (96) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform, based on a continuous flow (CF) mode of operation, was developed. Each CFPCR device was confined to a footprint of 8 × 8 mm2, matching the footprint of a well on a standard micro-titer plate. While several CFPCR devices have been demonstrated, this is the first example of a high-throughput multi-well continuous flow thermal reactor configuration. Verification of the feasibility of the multi-well CFPCR device was carried out at each stage of development from manufacturing to demonstrating sample amplification. The multi-well CFPCR devices were fabricated by micro-replication in polymers, polycarbonate to accommodate the peak temperatures during thermal cycling in this case, using double-sided hot embossing. One side of the substrate contained the thermal reactors and the opposite side was patterned with structures to enhance thermal isolation of the closely packed constant temperature zones. A 99 bp target from a λ-DNA template was successfully amplified in a prototype multi-well CFPCR device with a total reaction time as low as ~5 min at a flow velocity of 3 mm s-1 (15.3 s cycle-1) and a relatively low amplification efficiency compared to a bench-top thermal cycler for a 20-cycle device; reducing the flow velocity to 1 mm s-1 (46.2 s cycle-1) gave a seven-fold improvement in amplification efficiency. Amplification efficiencies increased at all flow velocities for 25-cycle devices with the same configuration.

  9. Simulation of Argon Gas Flow Effects in a Continuous Slab Caster (United States)

    Thomas, B. G.; Huang, X.; Sussman, R. C.


    Three-dimensional finite-volume-based numerical models of fluid, heat, and mass transport have been developed and applied to help explain the complex inter-related phenomena of multiphase fluid flow, superheat dissipation, and grade intermixing during the continuous casting of steel slabs. Gas bubbles are simulated using a continuum model, which calculates the volume fraction and velocities of the gas, and its effect on the liquid flow. Turbulence has been incorporated using the standard K-ɛ turbulence model. Reasonable agreement has been achieved between predicted velocities and corresponding measurements and observations in full-scale water models, both with and without gas injection. The effects of argon gas bubble injection on flow-related phenomena are investigated with simulations of a typical steel slab caster. Argon bubbles alter the flow pattern in the upper recirculation zone, shifting the impingement point and recirculation zones upward. The effect increases with increasing gas fraction and decreasing bubble size. Argon injection also causes superheat to be removed higher in the caster, moves the hot spot upward, lowers the peak heat flux, and increases heat extraction from the wide face and meniscus regions. During a steel grade transition, argon injection slightly affects slab surface composition but has no effect on intermixing in the slab interior.

  10. Modelling of hot air chamber designs of a continuous flow grain dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lotte Strange; Poulsen, Mathias; Sørensen, Kim


    The pressure loss, flow distribution and temperature distribution of a number of designs of the hot air chamber in a continuous flow grain dryer, were investigated using CFD. The flow in the dryer was considered as steady state, compressible and turbulent. It is essential that the grain is unifor......The pressure loss, flow distribution and temperature distribution of a number of designs of the hot air chamber in a continuous flow grain dryer, were investigated using CFD. The flow in the dryer was considered as steady state, compressible and turbulent. It is essential that the grain...

  11. Volume management for fault-tolerant continuous-flow microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander Rüdiger; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan


    in the control-as well as the flow channel, some common causes being environmental particles, imperfections in molds or bubbles in the PDMS gel. While some faults may be detected before the execution of an application by introducing a test run, other faults occur only during runtime as a result of deterioration...

  12. Construction and simulation of a novel continuous traffic flow model (United States)

    Hwang, Yao-Hsin; Yu, Jui-Ling


    In this paper, we aim to propose a novel mathematical model for traffic flow and apply a newly developed characteristic particle method to solve the associate governing equations. As compared with the existing non-equilibrium higher-order traffic flow models, the present one is put forward to satisfy the following three conditions: Preserve the equilibrium state in the smooth region. Yield an anisotropic propagation of traffic flow information. Expressed with a conservation law form for traffic momentum. These conditions will ensure a more practical simulation in traffic flow physics: The current traffic will not be influenced by the condition in the behind and result in unambiguous condition across a traffic shock. Through analyses of characteristics, stability condition and steady-state solution adherent to the equation system, it is shown that the proposed model actually conform to these conditions. Furthermore, this model can be cast into its characteristic form which, incorporated with the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, is appropriate to be simulated by the characteristic particle method to obtain accurate computational results.

  13. Continuous-flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices: Clinical and Technical Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, J.R.


    In view of the shortage of donor hearts, continuous-flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices (cf-LVADs) have become an effective therapeutic option to bridge heart failure patients to heart transplantation. The subject of this thesis is the clinical and technical aspects of continuous-flow Left

  14. Isothermal Reactor for Continuous Flow Microwave-Assisted Chemical Reaction (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Mitsuhiro; Togashi, Shigenori; Hasebe, Shinji

    An isothermal reactor in which reaction solutions can be controlled at constant temperature under constant microwave irradiation was developed. This is useful for investigating microwave effects on chemical reactions that are not observed under conventional heating conditions. We devised a structure in which a heat-transfer medium with a low dielectric loss factor, which hardly absorbs any microwaves, flowed outside a spiral reaction tube and designed the basic structure of the reactor using electromagnetic simulation to optimize the energy absorption rate. The conditions for increasing the temperature controlling ability of the reactor were also investigated theoretically and experimentally by taking into consideration the influences of three elements: the velocity of the internal fluid, the material for the tube, and the velocity of the external fluid. The velocity of the external fluid had the greatest influence on temperature controlling ability and the material for the tube had the least influence under the experimental conditions. The overall heat transfer coefficient was about 3.9×102 W/(m2·K) when water flowed through the quartz reaction tube at 7.1 mm/s and the external fluid flowed outside the tube at 44 mm/s. We also tested and confirmed that the temperature of water used as internal fluid could be controlled to within ±1.5 K at 309.3 K when microwaves at 26 W were irradiated into the reactor, whereas the temperature of water was over 373 K and boiled without the heat-transfer medium flowing outside the reaction tube using a conventional method of microwave heating. In addition, we investigated microwave effects on Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction using the developed isothermal reactor and we confirmed that the temperatures were controlled well in the reactor. The yields obtained by microwave heating were almost the same as that obtained by oil-bath heating.

  15. Cash flow in the context of economic equation of continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez Villarraga


    Full Text Available The mathematic scheme, known as economic equation of continuity, is established for the balance of economic resources. In order to apply this equation it is necessary to determine an economic volume of control. The patrimonial equation is also proposed as a speed equationfor this volurne. The integral equation of economic continuity is applied to the «cash» system along with the integral patrimonial equation and so it gets expressions that correspond to model to elaborate cashflow statement with the particularities of the direct and indirect method. This model generales a useful definition for the calculation of this basic financial statement classified by operating, investing and financing activities.

  16. Pollution by air filters: Continuous vs intermittent air flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, C.W.J.; Bluyssen, P.M.


    Within the framework of the EU research project Airless, a long-term experiment of 28 weeks was carried out to investigate the influence of intermittent airflow compared to continuous airflow on the pollution effect of glass fibre filters (F7). No statistical relevant differences between odour

  17. Relative susceptibility of stream macroinvertebrates to temephos and chlorpyrifos, determined in laboratory continuous-flow systems. (United States)

    Muirhead-Thomson, R C


    Laboratory techniques are described for evaluating the lethal and behavioral impact of pesticides on a range of stream macroinvertebrates under continuous through-flow and simulated stream conditions. The same basic test unit has been used, with slight modifications, to study the reactions of both Simulium larvae and non-target stream invertebrates. On the basis of a standard 1-hr exposure period to different concentrations followed by a 24-hr holding period in a continuous flow of clean water, different test organisms showed wide and consistent differences in tolerance to each of the two insecticides tested. The widest difference between two organisms occurred in the case of the Amphipod, Gammarus pulex (LC90-95, greater than 1 ppm) which was found to be about 5000 x more tolerant to temephos than are nymphs of the mayfly, Baetis rhodani. (LC 90-95, 0.001-0.002 ppm) The widest difference in the reactions of any one species is shown on the part of Gammarus which is about 100 times more susceptible to chlorpyrifos (LC 90-95, 0.05-0.1 ppm) than to temephos. The susceptibility levels of other indicator species such as Agrion, Hydropsyche, Brachycentrus, Ephemera, etc. are discussed in relation to susceptibility levels of Simulium larvae under the same test conditions, and also in relation to current field dosages of the two insecticides in practical and experimental Simulium control.

  18. Effect on the load size on the efficiency of microwave heating under stop flow and continuous flow conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, N.G.; Rebrov, E.V.; Esveld, D.C.; Eränen, K.; Benaskar, F.; Meuldijk, Jan; Mikkola, J.P.; Hessel, V.; Hulshof, L.A.; Murzin, D.Y.; Schouten, J.C.


    A novel heating efficiency analysis of the microwave heated stop-flow (i.e. stagnant
    liquid) and continuous-flow reactors has been presented. The thermal losses to the surrounding
    air by natural convection have been taken into account for heating efficiency calculation of
    the microwave

  19. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried R. Waldvogel


    Full Text Available Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM. Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ = 2 × 10−9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow.

  20. Giant Volume Change of Active Gels under Continuous Flow (United States)


    example, Beebe reported the use of gels as a component for self-regulated flow control9 and adaptive liquid microlenses,5 Kumacheva14 and Seiffert12 used...Yamaguchi, T.; Ichijo, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 5134. (5) Dong, L.; Agarwal, A. K.; Beebe , D. J.; Jiang, H. R. Nature 2006, 442, 551. (6) Zhang, Y...Vanag, V. K.; Epstein, I. R. Science 2011, 331, 1309. (9) Beebe , D. J.; Moore, J. S.; Bauer, J. M.; Yu, Q.; Liu, R. H.; Devadoss, C.; Jo, B. H. Nature

  1. Multistep continuous-flow synthesis in medicinal chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Mirsharghi, Sahar; Rummel, Pia Cwarzko


    in overall yields of 49-94%. The system is modular and flexible, and the individual steps of the sequence can be interchanged with similar outcome, extending the scope of the chemistry. Biological evaluation confirmed activity on the chemokine CCR8 receptor and provided initial structure......-activity-relationship (SAR) information for this new ligand series, with the most potent member displaying full agonist activity with single-digit nanomolar potency. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first published example of efficient use of multistep flow synthesis combined with biological testing and SAR...... studies in medicinal chemistry....

  2. The assembly and use of continuous flow systems for chemical synthesis. (United States)

    Britton, Joshua; Jamison, Timothy F


    The adoption of and opportunities in continuous flow synthesis ('flow chemistry') have increased significantly over the past several years. Continuous flow systems provide improved reaction safety and accelerated reaction kinetics, and have synthesised several active pharmaceutical ingredients in automated reconfigurable systems. Although continuous flow platforms are commercially available, systems constructed 'in-lab' provide researchers with a flexible, versatile, and cost-effective alternative. Herein, we describe the assembly and use of a modular continuous flow apparatus from readily available and affordable parts in as little as 30 min. Once assembled, the synthesis of a sulfonamide by reacting 4-chlorobenzenesulfonyl chloride with dibenzylamine in a single reactor coil with an in-line quench is presented. This example reaction offers the opportunity to learn several important skills including reactor construction, charging of a back-pressure regulator, assembly of stainless-steel syringes, assembly of a continuous flow system with multiple junctions, and yield determination. From our extensive experience of single-step and multistep continuous flow synthesis, we also describe solutions to commonly encountered technical problems such as precipitation of solids ('clogging') and reactor failure. Following this protocol, a nonspecialist can assemble a continuous flow system from reactor coils, syringes, pumps, in-line liquid-liquid separators, drying columns, back-pressure regulators, static mixers, and packed-bed reactors.

  3. The Eschenmoser coupling reaction under continuous-flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeep Singh


    Full Text Available The Eschenmoser coupling is a useful carbon–carbon bond forming reaction which has been used in various different synthesis strategies. The reaction proceeds smoothly if S-alkylated ternary thioamides or thiolactames are used. In the case of S-alkylated secondary thioamides or thiolactames, the Eschenmoser coupling needs prolonged reaction times and elevated temperatures to deliver valuable yields. We have used a flow chemistry system to promote the Eschenmoser coupling under enhanced reaction conditions in order to convert the demanding precursors such as S-alkylated secondary thioamides and thiolactames in an efficient way. Under pressurized reaction conditions at about 220 °C, the desired Eschenmoser coupling products were obtained within 70 s residence time. The reaction kinetics was investigated and 15 examples of different building block combinations are given.

  4. Arsenic incorporation into pyrite at ambient environmental conditions: a continuous-flow experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Butler, I.B.; Rickard, D.; Mason, P.R.D.


    Pyrite was synthesized in the presence of arsenite, As(III), at concentrations approaching those in ambient environments, under controlled, monitored, anoxic conditions in a continuous-flow reaction system at pH 6 and 25°C. During the continuous pyrite growth in these experiments, a continued

  5. Continuous flow, explosives vapor generator and sensor chamber (United States)

    Collins, Greg E.; Giordano, Braden C.; Sivaprakasam, Vasanthi; Ananth, Ramagopal; Hammond, Mark; Merritt, Charles D.; Tucker, John E.; Malito, Michael; Eversole, Jay D.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan


    A novel liquid injection vapor generator (LIVG) is demonstrated that is amenable to low vapor pressure explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The LIVG operates in a continuous manner, providing a constant and stable vapor output over a period of days and whose concentration can be extended over as much as three orders of magnitude. In addition, a large test atmosphere chamber attached to the LIVG is described, which enables the generation of a stable test atmosphere with controllable humidity and temperature. The size of the chamber allows for the complete insertion of testing instruments or arrays of materials into a uniform test atmosphere, and various electrical feedthroughs, insertion ports, and sealed doors permit simple and effective access to the sample chamber and its vapor.

  6. Standard Operating Procedures at Skanska : Standardization and continuous improvementin the construction industry


    Bergerova, Katarina


    The construction industry has faced severe criticism against its inefficiency, high costs and insufficient quality. Besides, the building branch is one of the most dangerous occupations.Skanska Sverige AB runs an international project focused mainly on improving safety, increasing overall process efficiency and providing customers higher value. A part of this project are Standard operating procedures. These are supposed to be the best practices known at the company and should be used on sites...

  7. Applications of Continuous-Flow Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis, Material Science, and Water Treatment. (United States)

    Cambié, Dario; Bottecchia, Cecilia; Straathof, Natan J W; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy


    Continuous-flow photochemistry in microreactors receives a lot of attention from researchers in academia and industry as this technology provides reduced reaction times, higher selectivities, straightforward scalability, and the possibility to safely use hazardous intermediates and gaseous reactants. In this review, an up-to-date overview is given of photochemical transformations in continuous-flow reactors, including applications in organic synthesis, material science, and water treatment. In addition, the advantages of continuous-flow photochemistry are pointed out and a thorough comparison with batch processing is presented.

  8. X-rays from protostellar jets: emission from continuous flows (United States)

    Bonito, R.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Favata, F.; Rosner, R.


    Context: Recently X-ray emission from protostellar jets has been detected with both XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, but the physical mechanism which can give rise to this emission is still unclear. Aims: We performed an extensive exploration of the parameter space for the main parameters influencing the jet/ambient medium interaction. Aims include: 1) to constrain the jet/ambient medium interaction regimes leading to the X-ray emission observed in Herbig-Haro objects in terms of the emission by a shock forming at the interaction front between a continuous supersonic jet and the surrounding medium; 2) to derive detailed predictions to be compared with optical and X-ray observations of protostellar jets; 3) to get insight into the protostellar jet's physical conditions. Methods: We performed a set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulations, in cylindrical coordinates, modeling supersonic jets ramming into a uniform ambient medium. The model takes into account the most relevant physical effects, namely thermal conduction and radiative losses. Results: Our model explains the observed X-ray emission from protostellar jets in a natural way. In particular, we find that a protostellar jet that is less dense than the ambient medium well reproduces the observations of the nearest Herbig-Haro object, HH 154, and allows us to make detailed predictions of a possible X-ray source proper motion (v_sh ≈500 km s-1) detectable with Chandra. Furthermore, our results suggest that the simulated protostellar jets which best reproduce the X-rays observations cannot drive molecular outflows.

  9. Redefining What It Means to Be a Teacher through Professional Standards: Implications for Continuing Teacher Education (United States)

    Torrance, Deirdre; Forde, Christine


    This article connects with an international debate around the place of professional standards in educational policy targeted at enhancing teacher quality, with associated implications for continuing teacher education. Scotland provides a fertile context for discussion, having developed sets of professional standards in response to a recent…

  10. Continuous extraction of urinary anthracycline antitumor antibiotics with the horizontal flow-through coil planet centrifuge. (United States)

    Nakazawa, H; Riggs, C E; Egorin, M J; Redwood, S M; Bachur, N R; Bhatnagar, R; Ito, Y


    Extraction of doxorubicin (adriamycin) and daunorubicin and their metabolites from human urine was attempted utilizing the horizontal flow-through coil planet centrifuge. Partition coefficients of the drugs for various combinations of non-aqueous phases and aqueous salt solutions were determined. Optimal coefficients for adriamycin and daunorubicin were achieved with n-butanol-0.3 M disodium hydrogen phosphate. Extraction efficiencies of the drugs from human urine comparable to those obtained by standard resin column techniques could be realized by employing the n-butanol-urine (containing 0.3 M disodium hydrogen phosphate) system in the coil planet centrifuge, at flow-rates of 500-600 ml/h, and at 650 rpm revolutional speed. Small quantities of drugs and metabolites could be continuously concentrated into small volumes of the n-butanol phase from large volumes of salted urine. The versatility of the technique was demonstrated by its application to extraction of aclacinomycin A, a novel anthracycline antitumor agent, and its metabolites from human urine.

  11. Continuous Flow Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution with Dimethylamine Generated in Situ by Decomposition of DMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Larsen, Anders Foller; Ritzén, Andreas


    A safe, practical, and scalable continuous flow protocol for the in situ generation of dimethylamine from DMF followed by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of a broad range of aromatic and heteroaromatic halides is reported....

  12. Continuous flow photocyclization of stilbenes – scalable synthesis of functionalized phenanthrenes and helicenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Lefebvre


    Full Text Available A continuous flow oxidative photocyclization of stilbene derivatives has been developed which allows the scalable synthesis of backbone functionalized phenanthrenes and helicenes of various sizes in good yields.

  13. Continuous flow microfluidic demixing of electrolytes by induced charge electrokinetics in structured electrode arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinweber, F.C.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert


    A continuous flow microfluidic demixing process is realized. It utilizes high external electrical fields that are applied over electrically floating noble metal electrodes in an otherwise straight microchannel. The process converts axial electrical potential gradients into lateral molecular

  14. Heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving porous flat plate with heat flux

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    The analysis of the heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving semi-infinite plate in the presence of suction/ injection with heat flux has been presented. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated...

  15. Continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow synthesis of 4-fluoropyrazole derivatives by selective direct fluorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Breen


    Full Text Available 4-Fluoropyrazole systems may be prepared by a single, sequential telescoped two-step continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow process from diketone, fluorine gas and hydrazine starting materials.

  16. 40 CFR 63.5820 - What are my options for meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? (United States)


    ... standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? 63.5820 Section 63.5820 Protection of Environment... meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations? You must use one or more of the... continuous lamination line and each continuous casting line complies with the applicable standard. (b...

  17. A three step continuous flow synthesis of the biaryl unit of the HIV protease inhibitor Atazanavir. (United States)

    Dalla-Vechia, Luciana; Reichart, Benedikt; Glasnov, Toma; Miranda, Leandro S M; Kappe, C Oliver; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A


    The development of multistep continuous flow reactions for the synthesis of important intermediates for the pharmaceutical industry is still a significant challenge. In the present contribution the biaryl-hydrazine unit of Atazanavir, an important HIV protease inhibitor, was prepared in a three-step continuous flow sequence in 74% overall yield. The synthesis involved Pd-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling, followed by hydrazone formation and a subsequent hydrogenation step, and additionally incorporates a liquid–liquid extraction step.

  18. A multistep continuous-flow system for rapid on-demand synthesis of receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Ritzén, Andreas; Ulven, Trond


    A multistep continuous-flow system for synthesis of receptor ligands by assembly of three variable building blocks in a single unbroken flow is described. The sequence consists of three reactions and two scavenger steps, where a Cbz-protected diamine is reacted with an isocyanate, deprotected, an...

  19. The continuous flow synthesis of butane-2,3-diacetal protected building blocks using microreactors. (United States)

    Carter, Catherine F; Baxendale, Ian R; Pavey, John B J; Ley, Steven V


    The continuous flow synthesis of butane-2,3-diacetal protected derivatives has been achieved using commercially available flow chemistry microreactors in concert with solid supported reagents and scavengers to provide in-line purification systems. The BDA protected products are all obtained in superior yield to the corresponding batch processes.

  20. Applying lean principles to achieve continuous flow in 3PLs’ outbound processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overboom, M.A.; Small, J.S.; Naus, A.J.A.M.; de Haan, J.A.C.


    The article offers information on the application of lean principles to achieve continuous flow in third party logistics providers (3PLs). It mentions that lean management principles and practices have been traditionally applied to manufacturing systems and try to make products flow through the

  1. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 1: Experimental comparison and visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik


    . The fluid pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and are compared with continuous flow by a stepper-motor expansion valve in terms of time-averaged heat transfer coefficient. The cycle time ranges from 1 s to 9 s for the pulsations. The time-averaged heat transfer coefficients...

  2. Continuous versus pulsating flow boiling. Experimental comparison, visualization, and statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik


    . The fluid pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and are compared with continuous flow by a stepper-motor expansion valve in terms of time-averaged heat transfer coefficient. The cycle time ranges from 1 to 9 s for the pulsations. The time-averaged heat transfer coefficients...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin


    Full Text Available In a review of the comparative analysis of methods and tools for long-term mechanical circulatory support with continuous flow and pulsatile flow implantable pumps. Particular attention is paid to the choice of the optimal modes of the operation of pumps based on the physical principles of the interaction between a the steady flow of blood to the pulsatile mechanics of the heart chambers. 

  4. Disinfection effect of a continuous-flow ultrasound/ultraviolet baffled reactor at a pilot scale. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Yan, Yichang; Li, Zifu; Yin, Jie


    An ultrasound/ultraviolet (US/UV) baffled reactor was developed to fill the gap in ultraviolet (UV) disinfection associated with disinfection efficiency. According to the previously selected operational condition, a continuous-flow US/UV baffled reactor was continuously operated in a wastewater treatment plant at a pilot scale for nearly three months, and the disinfection influent and effluent were analyzed, including fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. The US/UV baffled reactor could guarantee a high effluent disinfection performance in terms of fecal coliforms removal even with the fluctuation of the secondary effluent. All the disinfected effluents satisfied the requirement of the "Pollutants Discharge Standard of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in China" (fecal coliforms below 1000CFU/L for class 1A), and 87% of the tested fecal coliforms concentration in the disinfected effluent was below 100CFU/L, nearly eliminating all fecal coliforms. Further analysis of the E. coli and fecal streptococci showed the broad disinfection ability and high disinfection efficiency of the US/UV baffled reactor. The flexibility of the specific energy consumption for the disinfection system depends on the water quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. One-step synthesis of pyridines and dihydropyridines in a continuous flow microwave reactor. (United States)

    Bagley, Mark C; Fusillo, Vincenzo; Jenkins, Robert L; Lubinu, M Caterina; Mason, Christopher


    The Bohlmann-Rahtz pyridine synthesis and the Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis can be carried out in a microwave flow reactor or using a conductive heating flow platform for the continuous processing of material. In the Bohlmann-Rahtz reaction, the use of a Brønsted acid catalyst allows Michael addition and cyclodehydration to be carried out in a single step without isolation of intermediates to give the corresponding trisubstituted pyridine as a single regioisomer in good yield. Furthermore, 3-substituted propargyl aldehydes undergo Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis in preference to Bohlmann-Rahtz reaction in a very high yielding process that is readily transferred to continuous flow processing.

  6. Studies with sample conductivity, insertion rates, and particle deflection in a continuous flow electrophoresis system (United States)

    Williams, G., Jr.


    The continuous flow electrophoresis system makes electrophoresis possible in a free-flowing film of aqueous electrolyte medium. The sample continuously enters the electrolyte at the top of the chamber and is subjected to the action of a lateral dc field. This divides the sample into fractions since each component has a distinctive electrophoretic mobility. Tests were made using monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres to determine optimum sample conductivity, insertion rates and optimum electric field applications as baseline data for future STS flight experiments. Optimum sample flow rates for the selected samples were determined to be approximately 26 micro-liters/min. Experiments with samples in deionized water yielded best results and voltages in the 20 V/cm to 30 V/cm range were optimum. Deflections of formaldehyde fixed turkey and bovine erythrocytes were determined using the continuous flow electrophoresis system. The effects of particle interactions on sample resolution and migration in the chamber was also evaluated.

  7. Simulation for the development of the continuous groundwater flow measurement technology (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kumagai, Koki; Fujima, Ritsuko; Chikahisa, Hiroshi

    The flow of groundwater varies with time due to rainfall, atmospheric pressure change, tidal change, melting of snow during seasonal change, underground construction works etc. Therefore, to increase the precision of assessing in-situ groundwater flow characteristics, it is important to measure continuously the direction and velocity of the flow, in addition to obtaining accurate data for the afore mentioned environmental changes. The first part of this paper describes the development of a new device for measuring the direction and velocity of groundwater flow. The device was composed of a unique floating sensor with a hinge end at the bottom, which enabled continuous measurement of groundwater flow based on image data processing technique. In the second part, discussion is focused on clarifying the optimum cross-section shape and the behavior of the float sensor in saltwater and freshwater using numerical analysis.

  8. Simulation of fluid flow and solididification in the funnel type crystalizer of thin slab continuous cast


    Zare, M. H.; A. H. Meysami; Sh. Mahmoudi; M. Hajisafari; M. MazarAtabaki


    The present work models the fluid flow and heat transfer with solidification of a steel in the funnel type mold region of a thin slab steel continuous caster.ªª In current modeling a turbulent fluid flow has been supposed and used K-ɛ model in order to anticipate the heat transfer distribution in mold region. To consider the solidification effects on fluid flow and solid crust, the Darci model was applied, also for outlet heat flow measurement a simple method was used. The fluid flowresults i...

  9. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography (United States)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.


    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water

  10. Analysis of flow within a left ventricle model fully assisted with continuous flow through the aortic valve. (United States)

    Yano, Tetsuya; Funayama, Masanori; Sudo, Seiichi; Mitamura, Yoshinori


    Blood compatibility of a ventricular assist device (VAD) depends on the dynamics of blood flow. The focus in most previous studies was on blood flow in the VAD. However, the tip shape and position of the VAD inflow cannula influence the dynamics of intraventricular blood flow and thus thrombus formation in the ventricle. In this study, blood flow in the left ventricle (LV) under support with a catheter-type continuous flow blood pump was investigated. The flow field was analyzed both numerically and experimentally to investigate the effects of catheter tip shape and its insertion depth on intraventricular flow patterns. A computational model of the LV cavity with a simplified shape was constructed using computer-aided design software. Models of catheters with three different tip shapes were constructed and each was integrated to the LV model. In addition, three variations of insertion depth were prepared for all models. The fully supported intraventricular flow field was calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A transparent LV model made of silicone was also fabricated to analyze the intraventricular flow field by the particle image velocimetry technique. A mock circulation loop was constructed and water containing tracer particles was circulated in the loop. The motion of particles in the LV model was recorded with a digital high-speed video camera and analyzed to reveal the flow field. The results of numerical and experimental analyses indicated the formation of two large vortices in the bisector plane of the mitral and aortic valve planes. The shape and positioning of the catheter tip affected the flow distribution in the LV, and some of these combinations elongated the upper vortex toward the ventricular apex. Assessment based on average wall shear stress on the LV wall indicated that the flow distribution improved the washout effect. The flow patterns obtained from flow visualization coincided with those calculated by CFD analysis. Through these

  11. Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart Supports Long-Term Survival of a Calf (United States)

    Frazier, O. H.; Cohn, William E.; Tuzun, Egemen; Winkler, Jo Anna; Gregoric, Igor D.


    The development and clinical use of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) stimulated our interest in developing a total heart replacement with continuous-flow rotary blood pumps. We constructed a continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) from 2 HeartMate II axial-flow LVADs and used this CFTAH to replace the native heart of a calf. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of total continuous flow on physiologic parameters at rest and during exercise after the animal recovered from surgery. We monitored pulmonary and systemic pump performance, and we assessed arterial blood gases, hemodynamic and biochemical variables, and neurohormone levels during the 7 weeks of CFTAH support. At day 36 after CFTAH implantation, the calf was exercised on a treadmill at increasing speeds for 40 minutes; total oxygen consumption, pump flow, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were monitored. Baseline hematologic levels were altered postoperatively but returned to normal by 2 weeks. We saw no signs of hemolysis or thrombosis during CFTAH support. The calf had a normal physiologic response to treadmill exercise. The animal gained weight and appeared to function normally during the study. The CFTAH operated within design specifications throughout the study. Homeostasis, end-organ and vasomotor function, and the ability to exercise are not adversely affected by 7 weeks of totally pulseless circulation in a calf. PMID:20069083

  12. Interaction between physical activity and continuous-flow left ventricular assist device function in outpatients. (United States)

    Hu, Sharon X H; Keogh, Anne M; Macdonald, Peter S; Kotlyar, Eugene; Robson, Desiree; Harkess, Michelle; Granger, Emily; Dhital, Kumud; Jansz, Paul; Spratt, Phillip; Hayward, Christopher S


    Studies have shown that pump output by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) increases with graded exercise testing. However, data on pump behavior during activities of daily living and sleep, where cardiac output requirements vary markedly, are lacking. We sought to determine pump parameters and activity levels in stable patients receiving outpatient LVAD therapy. Eleven outpatients (mean age 51 ± 14 years, 9 male) with centrifugal continuous-flow LVADs underwent monitoring of LVAD flow, heart rate (HR), energy expenditure, and physical activity over 1 week in an outpatient setting. Physical activity was recorded with the use of a combined pedometer, accelerometer, and calorimeter Sensewear armband. Pump, HR, and physical activity parameters were time matched for correlation analysis. Outpatients had an average pump flow of 5.67 ± 1.27 L/min and engaged predominately in low levels of physical activity (mean daily step count 3,249/day). Across the entire cohort, pump flow exhibited strong univariate relationships with patients' energy expenditure (r = 0.73), step count (r = 0.69), HR (r = 0.73), sleep (r = -0.89), and skin temperature (r = -0.85; P < .0001 for all). Multivariate analysis suggested that pump output was predominantly affected by recumbent position, energy expenditure and skin temperature (r(2) = 0.84; P < .0001). Pump flow and power consumption were significantly lower during sleep than during wake periods (5.48 ± 1.31 L/min vs 5.80 ± 1.26 L/min; P < .001). Pump output from continuous-flow LVADs is adaptive to changes in activities of daily living. Circadian variation in pump flow is mostly explained by recumbency and activity levels. Despite adequate pump flow, many LVAD patients continue to live sedentary lifestyles. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of dialysate flow configurations in continuous renal replacement therapy on solute removal: computational modeling. (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Cruz, Dinna; Garzotto, Francesco; Kaushik, Manish; Teixeria, Catarina; Baldwin, Marie; Baldwin, Ian; Nalesso, Federico; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eungtaek; Kim, Hee Chan; Ronco, Claudio


    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is commonly used for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. During treatment, a slow dialysate flow rate can be applied to enhance diffusive solute removal. However, due to the lack of the rationale of the dialysate flow configuration (countercurrent or concurrent to blood flow), in clinical practice, the connection settings of a hemodiafilter are done depending on nurse preference or at random. In this study, we investigated the effects of flow configurations in a hemodiafilter during continuous venovenous hemodialysis on solute removal and fluid transport using computational fluid dynamic modeling. We solved the momentum equation coupling solute transport to predict quantitative diffusion and convection phenomena in a simplified hemodiafilter model. Computational modeling results showed superior solute removal (clearance of urea: 67.8 vs. 45.1 ml/min) and convection (filtration volume: 29.0 vs. 25.7 ml/min) performances for the countercurrent flow configuration. Countercurrent flow configuration enhances convection and diffusion compared to concurrent flow configuration by increasing filtration volume and equilibrium concentration in the proximal part of a hemodiafilter and backfiltration of pure dialysate in the distal part. In clinical practice, the countercurrent dialysate flow configuration of a hemodiafilter could increase solute removal in CRRT. Nevertheless, while this configuration may become mandatory for high-efficiency treatments, the impact of differences in solute removal observed in slow continuous therapies may be less important. Under these circumstances, if continuous therapies are prescribed, some of the advantages of the concurrent configuration in terms of simpler circuit layout and simpler machine design may overcome the advantages in terms of solute clearance. Different dialysate flow configurations influence solute clearance and change major solute removal mechanisms in the proximal and

  14. The LHC Continuous Cryostat Interconnections The Organization of a Logistically Complex Worksite Requiring Strict Quality Standards and High Output

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Jacquemod, A; Maan, W; Musso, A; Oberli, L; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Struik, M; Tock, J Ph; Tommasini, D; Völlinger, C; Kotarba, A; Olek, S; Sulek, Z; Grimaud, A; Vaudaux, L


    The interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) continuous cryostat have been completed in fall 2007: 1695 interconnections magnet to magnet and 224 interconnections between the continuous cryostat and the cryogenic distribution line have been executed along the 27 km of the LHC. The very tight schedule, the complexity of the interconnection sequence, the strict quality standards applied have required the creation of an ad hoc organization in order to steer and coordinate the activities on the worksite dispersed along the whole accelerator ring. The concatenation of construction and test phases carried out by CERN staff, CERN collaborating institutes and contractors have led to the necessity of a common approach and of a very effective information flow. In this paper, after having recalled the main technical challenges, we review the organizational choices that have been taken and we briefly analyze the development of the worksite in term of allocated resources and production.

  15. Flow angle dependent photoacoustic Doppler power spectra under intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong


    Full Text Available Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.

  16. Striving for the best: WONCA global standards for continuing professional development for family doctors. (United States)

    Ng, Victor; Walsh, Allyn; de Silva, Nandani; Politi, Eleni; Grusauskas, Heather


    While all physicians must continue to learn new knowledge through their careers, their post-training continuing professional development (CPD) has received less attention. Problems include lack of support for physicians, frequent deviations from best practices such as mandatory participation, focus on community need, and clear conflicts of interest amongst providers. Additionally, specialists from other disciplines catering to different patient populations often provide CPD for family doctors. The Working Party on Education of the World Organisation of Family Doctors (WONCA) sought to develop global standards in CPD for family doctors. The standards were developed through an iterative process with reference to published best practices for effective CPD. Adapted for family doctors from the World Federation for Medical Education's CPD for Medical Doctors: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement', the WONCA CPD Standards for Family Doctors were approved by WONCA Council in November 2016. The objectives of the standards are to: (1) Provide a resource for family doctors and/or groups of family doctors to design and structure a program of CPD to reinforce lifelong learning; (2) Optimise current CPD systems such that, through more effective program design and delivery, family doctors are advancing in patient care and their discipline; (3) Offer a set of globally recognised standards developed through a family medicine perspective to provide feedback on existing CPD programs and systems and encourage international recognition of CPD activities. The WONCA Global CPD Standards should inspire best practices in family medicine CPD, assisting family doctors in providing excellent care.

  17. The synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs using continuous flow chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Baumann


    Full Text Available The implementation of continuous flow processing as a key enabling technology has transformed the way we conduct chemistry and has expanded our synthetic capabilities. As a result many new preparative routes have been designed towards commercially relevant drug compounds achieving more efficient and reproducible manufacture. This review article aims to illustrate the holistic systems approach and diverse applications of flow chemistry to the preparation of pharmaceutically active molecules, demonstrating the value of this strategy towards every aspect ranging from synthesis, in-line analysis and purification to final formulation and tableting. Although this review will primarily concentrate on large scale continuous processing, additional selected syntheses using micro or meso-scaled flow reactors will be exemplified for key transformations and process control. It is hoped that the reader will gain an appreciation of the innovative technology and transformational nature that flow chemistry can leverage to an overall process.

  18. Electrowetting (EW)-based valve combined with hydrophilic teflon microfluidic guidance in controlling continuous fluid flow. (United States)

    Cheng, Ji-Yen; Hsiung, Lo-Chang


    Electrowetting (EW)-based techniques have been widely used in manipulating discrete liquid. However, few articles discussed the controlling of continuous fluid flow by using EW-based techniques. In this paper, an EW-based valve combined with plasma-modified Teflon surface, which serves as a microfluidic guidance, in controlling continuous fluid flow has been demonstrated. The plasma-modified Teflon surface is firstly demonstrated for confining continuous fluid flow. The EW-based microfluidic device possesses the functions of a valve and a microchannel without complex moving parts and grooved microchannels. The quantitative characteristics of the EW-based valve are also studied. Propylene carbonate (PC) is firstly demonstrated as the working liquid in the EW-based device because of its applications in parallel oligonucleotide synthesis. It is found that lower valve actuation voltage reduces the deterioration of the valve and improves the valve stability.

  19. A Standardized Approach to Assessing Physician Expectations and Perceptions of Continuing Medical Education (United States)

    Shewchuk, Richard M.; Schmidt, Hilary J.; Benarous, Alexandra; Bennett, Nancy L.; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Casebeer, Linda L.


    Introduction: Rapidly expanding science and mandates for maintaining credentials place increasing demands on continuing medical education (CME) activities to provide information that is current and relevant to patient care. Quality may be seen as the perceived level of service measured against consumer expectations. Standard tools have not been…

  20. Calculation of the reduced surface excess from continuous flow frontal analysis solid-liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, L.A.; Burchfield, T.E.


    The article describes the calculation of the reduced surface excess from a continuous flow experiment. The desirability of using surface excess is considered. The usual method of frontal analysis is explained, and its shortcomings are briefly mentioned. The results of both methods of calculation are shown using the Everett model, and these results are compared with each other and with the thermal data gathered simultaneously. Calculation of surface excess for a flowing multicomponent system is outlined. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B


    Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours for postopera......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0...... than 0.03) in the other five patients as the level of sensory analgesia regressed postoperatively. These data suggest that changes in epidural blood flow during continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine, and thus changes in rates of vascular absorption of bupivacaine from the epidural space, may...

  2. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero


    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  3. Continuous-flow organic synthesis: a tool for the modern medicinal chemist. (United States)

    Wiles, Charlotte; Watts, Paul


    Medicinal chemists are under increasing pressure, not only to identify lead compounds and optimize them into clinical candidates, but also to produce materials in sufficient quantities for subsequent investigation. With this in mind, continuous-flow methodology presents an opportunity to reduce the time taken to, first, identify the compound and, second, scale the process for evaluation and, where necessary, production. It is therefore the aim of this review to provide the reader with an insight into the advantages associated with the use of continuous-flow chemistry through the use of strategically selected literature examples.

  4. Diels–Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Hornung


    Full Text Available This work describes the Diels–Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels–Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times.

  5. Diels-Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors. (United States)

    Hornung, Christian H; Álvarez-Diéguez, Miguel Á; Kohl, Thomas M; Tsanaktsidis, John


    This work describes the Diels-Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels-Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times.

  6. Nanomanufacturing of Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Based Spherical Biomaterials Using a Continuous Flow Method. (United States)

    Bruckman, Michael A; VanMeter, Allen; Steinmetz, Nicole F


    Nanomanufacturing of nanoparticles is critical for potential translation and commercialization. Continuous flow devices can alleviate this need through unceasing production of nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate the scaled-up production of spherical nanoparticles functionalized with biomedical cargos from the rod-shaped plant virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using a mesofluidic, continued flow method. Production yields were increased 30-fold comparing the mesofluidic device versus batch methods. Finally, we produced MRI contrast agents of select sizes, with per particle relaxivity reaching 979,218 mM(-1) s(-1) at 60 MHz. These TMV-based spherical nanoparticle MRI contrast agents are in the top echelon of relaxivity per nanoparticle.

  7. Diels–Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors (United States)

    Álvarez-Diéguez, Miguel Á; Kohl, Thomas M; Tsanaktsidis, John


    This work describes the Diels–Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels–Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times. PMID:28228853

  8. Effect Of Steel Flow Control Devices On Flow And Temperature Field In The Tundish Of Continuous Casting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowa L.


    Full Text Available The mathematical model and numerical simulations of the liquid steel flow in a tundish are presented in this paper. The problem was treated as a complex and solved by the finite element method. One takes into consideration in the mathematical model the changes of thermophysical parameters depending on the temperature. The single-strand tundish is used to casting slabs. The internal work space of the tundish was modified by flow control devices. The first device was a pour pad situated in the pouring tundish zone. The second device was a dam. The third device was a baffle with three holes. The dam and baffle were placed in the tundish at different positions depending on the variant. The main purpose of using these was to put barriers in the steel flow path as well as give directional metal flow upwards which facilitated inclusion floatation. The interaction of flow control devices on hydrodynamic conditions was received from numerical simulations. As a result of the computations carried out, the liquid steel flow and steel temperature fields were obtained. The influences of the tundish modifications on the velocity fields in liquid phase of the steel were estimated, because these have essential an influence on high-quality of a continuous steel cast slab.

  9. Continuous Flow Magnesiation or Zincation of Acrylonitriles, Acrylates, and Nitroolefins. Application to the Synthesis of Butenolides. (United States)

    Ganiek, Maximilian A; Becker, Matthias R; Ketels, Marthe; Knochel, Paul


    Scalable continuous flow procedures are reported for the metalation and downstream functionalization of β-substituted acrylates. The flow conditions allow the metalation of acrylonitriles, acrylates, and nitroolefins at 0.25-2.50 mmol/min conversion rates. Magnesiations can be performed with short residence times (1-20 min) and near-ambient temperature using TMPMgCl·LiCl. Further, high temperature zincation (≤90 °C) using TMPZnCl·LiCl is possible. This method allows a simple entry to 2(5H)-furanones by flow generation of magnesiated acrylates and a subsequent reaction with aldehydes.

  10. LES‐VOF simulation of turbulent interfacial flow in the continuous casting mold


    Saeedipour, Mahdi; Puttinger, Stefan; Pirker, Stefan


    Slag entrainment during continuous casting process is a multiscale problem strongly dependent on the molten metal flow in the mold. Large-scale flow structures in the mold interact with the slag layer at the top of the meniscus, and small-scale liquid structures in the form of slag droplets may be entrained into the solidifying metal. In this work a large eddy simulation - volume of fluid (LES-VOF) approach is applied to investigate the unsteady flow interaction with the metal-slag-air interf...

  11. Continuous sample drop flow-based microextraction method as a microextraction technique for determination of organic compounds in water sample. (United States)

    Moinfar, Soleyman; Khayatian, Gholamreza; Milani-Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza


    Continuous sample drop flow-based microextraction (CSDF-ME) is an improved version of continuous-flow microextraction (CFME) and a novel technique developed for extraction and preconcentration of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene and o-xylene (BTEXs) from aqueous samples prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this technique, a small amount (a few microliters) of organic solvent is transferred to the bottom of a conical bottom test tube and a few mL of aqueous solution is moved through the organic solvent at relatively slow flow rate. The aqueous solution transforms into fine droplets while passing through the organic solvent. After extraction, the enriched analyte in the extraction solvent is determined by GC-FID. The type of extraction solvent, its volume, needle diameter, and aqueous sample flow rate were investigated. The enrichment factor was 221-269 under optimum conditions and the recovery was 89-102%. The linear ranges and limits of detection for BTEXs were 2-500 and 1.4-3.1 µg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations for 10 µg L(-1) of BTEXs in water were 1.8-6.2% (n=5). The advantages of CSDF-ME are its low cost, relatively short sample preparation time, low solvent consumption, high recovery, and high enrichment factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Suspensions via Dynamic Cross-Flow Filtration. (United States)

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Toschkoff, Gregor; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes


    Over the last years, continuous manufacturing has created significant interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Continuous filtration at low flow rates and high solid loadings poses, however, a significant challenge. A commercially available, continuously operating, dynamic cross-flow filtration device (CFF) is tested and characterized. It is shown that the CFF is a highly suitable technology for continuous filtration. For all tested model active pharmaceutical ingredients, a material-specific strictly linear relationship between feed and permeate rate is identified. Moreover, for each tested substance, a constant concentration factor is reached. A one-parameter model based on a linear equation is suitable to fully describe the CFF filtration performance. This rather unexpected finding and the concentration polarization layer buildup is analyzed and a basic model to describe the observed filtration behavior is developed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. 3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Dragone


    Full Text Available We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products.

  14. 3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry


    Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Rosnes, Mali H.; Kitson, Philip J.; Cronin, Leroy


    Summary We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine synthese...

  15. 3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry. (United States)

    Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Rosnes, Mali H; Kitson, Philip J; Cronin, Leroy


    We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products.

  16. Renewable Wood Pulp Paper Reactor with Hierarchical Micro/Nanopores for Continuous-Flow Nanocatalysis. (United States)

    Koga, Hirotaka; Namba, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Nogi, Masaya; Nishina, Yuta


    Continuous-flow nanocatalysis based on metal nanoparticle catalyst-anchored flow reactors has recently provided an excellent platform for effective chemical manufacturing. However, there has been limited progress in porous structure design and recycling systems for metal nanoparticle-anchored flow reactors to create more efficient and sustainable catalytic processes. In this study, traditional paper is used for a highly efficient, recyclable, and even renewable flow reactor by tailoring the ultrastructures of wood pulp. The "paper reactor" offers hierarchically interconnected micro- and nanoscale pores, which can act as convective-flow and rapid-diffusion channels, respectively, for efficient access of reactants to metal nanoparticle catalysts. In continuous-flow, aqueous, room-temperature catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-anchored paper reactor with hierarchical micro/nanopores provided higher reaction efficiency than state-of-the-art AuNP-anchored flow reactors. Inspired by traditional paper materials, successful recycling and renewal of AuNP-anchored paper reactors were also demonstrated while high reaction efficiency was maintained. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of performic acid in a continuous flow microstructured reactor. (United States)

    Jolhe, P D; Bhanvase, B A; Patil, V S; Sonawane, S H; Potoroko, I


    The present work establishes in depth study of ultrasound assisted preparation of performic acid (PFA) in a continuous flow microstructured reactor. The influence of various parameters viz. formic acid: hydrogen peroxide molar ratio, flow rate, temperature and catalyst loading on the PFA formation were studied in a continuous flow microstructured reactor. In a continuous microstructured reactor in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation, the formation of PFA was found to be dependent on the molar ratio of formic acid: hydrogen peroxide, flow rate of reactants, temperature and catalyst loading (Amberlite IR-120H). The optimized parameter values are 1:1M ratio, 50mL/h, 40°C and 471mg/cm(3) respectively. Further, the performance of Amberlite IR-120H catalyst was evaluated for three successive cycles in continuous microstructured reactor. The performance of catalyst was found to be decreased with the usage of the catalyst and is attributed to neutralization of the sulfonic acid groups, catalyst shrinkage, or loss in pore sites. The experimental results revealed that, for an ultrasound assisted synthesis of PFA in continuous microstructured reactor the observed reaction time was even less than 10min. The observed intensification in the PFA synthesis process can be attributed to the intense collapse of the cavities formed at low temperature during ultrasonic irradiations, which further improved the heat and mass transfer rates with the formation of H2O2 during the reaction. The combined use of ultrasound and a continuous flow microstructured reactor has proved beneficial process of performic acid synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enabling joint commission medication reconciliation objectives with the HL7 / ASTM Continuity of Care Document standard. (United States)

    Dolin, Robert H; Giannone, Gay; Schadow, Gunther


    We sought to determine how well the HL7/ASTM Continuity of Care Document (CCD) standard supports the requirements underlying the Joint Commission medication reconciliation recommendations. In particular, the Joint Commission emphasizes that transition points in the continuum of care are vulnerable to communication breakdowns, and that these breakdowns are a common source of medication errors. These transition points are the focus of communication standards, suggesting that CCD can support and enable medication related patient safety initiatives. Data elements needed to support the Joint Commission recommendations were identified and mapped to CCD, and a detailed clinical scenario was constructed. The mapping identified minor gaps, and identified fields present in CCD not specifically identified by Joint Commission, but useful nonetheless when managing medications across transitions of care, suggesting that a closer collaboration between the Joint Commission and standards organizations will be mutually beneficial. The nationally recognized CCD specification provides a standards-based solution for enabling Joint Commission medication reconciliation objectives.

  19. Improved methodologies for continuous-flow analysis of stable water isotopes in ice cores (United States)

    Jones, Tyler R.; White, James W. C.; Steig, Eric J.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; Morris, Valerie; Gkinis, Vasileios; Markle, Bradley R.; Schoenemann, Spruce W.


    Water isotopes in ice cores are used as a climate proxy for local temperature and regional atmospheric circulation as well as evaporative conditions in moisture source regions. Traditional measurements of water isotopes have been achieved using magnetic sector isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, a number of recent studies have shown that laser absorption spectrometry (LAS) performs as well or better than IRMS. The new LAS technology has been combined with continuous-flow analysis (CFA) to improve data density and sample throughput in numerous prior ice coring projects. Here, we present a comparable semi-automated LAS-CFA system for measuring high-resolution water isotopes of ice cores. We outline new methods for partitioning both system precision and mixing length into liquid and vapor components - useful measures for defining and improving the overall performance of the system. Critically, these methods take into account the uncertainty of depth registration that is not present in IRMS nor fully accounted for in other CFA studies. These analyses are achieved using samples from a South Pole firn core, a Greenland ice core, and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core. The measurement system utilizes a 16-position carousel contained in a freezer to consecutively deliver ˜ 1 m × 1.3 cm2 ice sticks to a temperature-controlled melt head, where the ice is converted to a continuous liquid stream and eventually vaporized using a concentric nebulizer for isotopic analysis. An integrated delivery system for water isotope standards is used for calibration to the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) scale, and depth registration is achieved using a precise overhead laser distance device with an uncertainty of ±0.2 mm. As an added check on the system, we perform inter-lab LAS comparisons using WAIS Divide ice samples, a corroboratory step not taken in prior CFA studies. The overall results are important for substantiating data obtained from LAS

  20. Standardizing instream flow requirements at hydropower projects in the Cascade Mountains, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I.M.; Sale, M.J.


    Instream flow requirements are common mitigation measures instituted in the bypassed reaches of hydroelectric diversion projects. Currently, there are two extremes among the ways to determine instream flow requirements: generic standard-setting methods and detailed, habitat-based, impact assessment methods such as the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Data from streams in Washington state show a consistent pattern in the instream flow requirements resulting from the IFIM. This pattern can be used to refine the simpler standard-setting approaches and thereby provide better estimates of flow needs during early stages of project design.

  1. Exploiting biased reptation for continuous flow preparative DNA fractionation in a versatile microfluidic platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Bomer, Johan G.; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    A new approach is presented for preparative, continuous flow fractionation of sub-10-kbp DNA fragments, which exploits the variation in the field-dependent mobility of the DNA molecules based on their length. Orthogonally pulsed electric fields of significantly different magnitudes are applied to a

  2. Amination of Aryl Halides and Esters Using Intensified Continuous Flow Processing. (United States)

    Kohl, Thomas M; Hornung, Christian H; Tsanaktsidis, John


    Significant process intensification of the amination reactions of aryl halides and esters has been demonstrated using continuous flow processing. Using this technology traditionally difficult amination reactions have been performed safely at elevated temperatures. These reactions were successfully conducted on laboratory scale coil reactor modules with 1 mm internal diameter (ID) and on a preparatory scale tubular reactor with 6 mm ID containing static mixers.

  3. Methylation of 2-Naphthol Using Dimethyl Carbonate under Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Conditions (United States)

    Tundo, Pietro; Rosamilia, Anthony E.; Arico, Fabio


    This experiment investigates the methylation of 2-naphthol with dimethyl carbonate. The volatility of the substrates, products, and co-products allows the reaction to be performed using a continuous-flow gas-phase setup at ambient pressure. The reaction uses catalytic quantities of base, achieves high conversion, produces little waste, and…

  4. Hemodynamic stress echocardiography in patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Gustafsson, Finn; Madsen, Per Lav


    Functional assessment of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) is usually performed with the patient at rest. This study compared echocardiographic indices of contraction and filling pressure with invasive measures in 12 ambulatory LVAD patients undergoing symptom-limited bicycl...

  5. Flow Chemistry on Multigram Scale: Continuous Synthesis of Boronic Acids within 1 s. (United States)

    Hafner, Andreas; Meisenbach, Mark; Sedelmeier, Joerg


    The benefits and limitations of a simple continuous flow setup for handling and performing of organolithium chemistry on the multigram scale is described. The developed metalation platform embodies a valuable complement to existing methodologies, as it combines the benefits of Flash Chemistry (chemical synthesis on a time scale of <1 s) with remarkable throughput (g/min) while mitigating the risk of blockages.

  6. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Jerson R.; Westerhof, Berend E.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; van Goudoever, Jeroen; Westers, Paul; Chamuleau, Steven; van Dijk, Diederik; Rodermans, Ben F. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Lahpor, Jaap R.


    Arterial blood pressure and echocardiography may provide useful physiological information regarding cardiac support in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). We investigated the accuracy and characteristics of noninvasive blood pressure during cf-LVAD support.

  7. Continuous-flow protease assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirata, J.; Ariese, F.; Gooijer, C.; Irth, H.


    A homogeneous continuous-flow assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for detection was developed to measure the hydrolysis of HIV Protease Substrate 1 (to which two choromophores, EDANS and DABCYL are covalently attached) by a protease (e.g. Subtilisin Carlsberg) and the influence

  8. Large-Scale mRNA Transfection of Dendritic Cells by Electroporation in Continuous Flow Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, Dávid; Hansen, Thomas Steen; Met, Özcan


    with high cell survival. Continuous flow of suspended dendritic cells through a channel incorporating spatially separated microporous meshes with a synchronized electrical pulsing sequence can yield dendritic cell transfection rates of >75 % with survival rates of >90 %. This chapter describes...

  9. Continuous Flow-Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of an Intermediate Redox State of Cytochrome-C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forster, M.; Hester, R. E.; Cartling, B.


    An intermediate redox state of cytochrome c at alkaline pH, generated upon rapid reduction by sodium dithionite, has been observed by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy in combination with the continuous flow technique. The RR spectrum of the intermediate state is reported for excitation both in t...

  10. Continuous Flow 1H and 13C NMR Spectroscopy in Microfluidic Stripline NMR Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthoek-de Vries, Anna Jo; Bart, Jacob; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Janssen, Johannes W.G.; van Bentum, Jan (P.J.M.); Gardeniers, Han J.G.E.; Kentgens, Arno P.M.


    Microfluidic stripline NMR technology not only allows for NMR experiments to be performed on small sample volumes in the submicroliter range, but also experiments can easily be performed in continuous flow because of the stripline's favorable geometry. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of

  11. Continuous flow microwave-assisted processing and aseptic packaging of purple-fleshed sweetpotato purees (United States)

    Pumpable purees from purple-flesh sweetpotatoes (PFSP) were subjected to microwave heating using a 915 MHz continuous flow system, followed by aseptic packaging in flexible containers to obtain a shelf-stable product. Initial test runs were conducted using a 5 kW microwave unit to measure dielectr...

  12. Performance of a continuous flow passenger oxygen mask at an altitude of 40,000 feet. (United States)


    A redesigned continuous flow passenger oxygen mask was tested for its ability to deliver an adequate supply of oxygen at an altitude of 40,000 feet above sea level. Four male subjects participated in the study. Blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) baseline...

  13. Standardization of 8-color flow cytometry across different flow cytometer instruments: A feasibility study in clinical laboratories in Switzerland. (United States)

    Glier, Hana; Heijnen, Ingmar; Hauwel, Mathieu; Dirks, Jan; Quarroz, Stéphane; Lehmann, Thomas; Rovo, Alicia; Arn, Kornelius; Matthes, Thomas; Hogan, Cassandra; Keller, Peter; Dudkiewicz, Ewa; Stüssi, Georg; Fernandez, Paula


    The EuroFlow Consortium developed a fully standardized flow cytometric approach from instrument settings, through antibody panel, reagents and sample preparation protocols, to data acquisition and analysis. The Swiss Cytometry Society (SCS) promoted a study to evaluate the feasibility of using such standardized measurements of 8-color data across two different flow cytometry platforms - Becton Dickinson (BD) FACSCanto II and Beckman Coulter (BC) Navios, aiming at increasing reproducibility and inter-laboratory comparability of immunophenotypic data in clinical laboratories in Switzerland. The study was performed in two phases, i.e. a learning phase (round 1) and an analytical phase (rounds 2 and 3) consisting of a total of three rounds. Overall, 10 laboratories using BD FACSCanto II (n=6) or BC Navios (n=4) flow cytometers participated. Each laboratory measured peripheral blood samples from healthy donors stained with a uniform antibody panel of reagents - EuroFlow Lymphoid Screening Tube (LST) - applying the EuroFlow standardized protocols for instrument setup and sample preparation ( All data files were analyzed centrally and median fluorescence intensity (MedFI) values for individual markers on defined lymphocyte subsets were recorded; variability from reference MedFI values was assessed using performance scores. Data troubleshooting and discussion of the results with the participants followed after each round at SCS meetings. The results of the learning phase demonstrated that standardized instrument setup and data acquisition are feasible in routine clinical laboratories without previous experience with EuroFlow. During the analytical phase, highly comparable data were obtained at the different laboratories using either BD FACSCanto II or BC Navios. The coefficient of variation of MedFI for 7 of 11 markers performed repeatedly below 30%. In the last study round, 89% of participants scored over 90% MedFI values within the acceptance criteria

  14. Use of Continuous Magnetic Extraction for removal of feedstock contaminants in flow-through mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulus, Anja; Fischer, Ingo; Hobley, Timothy John


    . However under such unusual conditions, new options for downstream processing are necessary such as Continuous Magnetic Extraction. The application of Continuous Magnetic Extraction in flow-through mode is demonstrated with soy whey as an example feed stream. The target molecule was the Bowman......-Birk protease inhibitor which has an anti-carcinogenic effect. It was found that using anion exchange magnetic particles as the impurity adsorbing agent, Continuous Magnetic Extraction of contaminants led to a BBI preparation with purity approaching 97% and with yield of 55% in a 15L pilot scale system....

  15. Rapid continuous flow synthesis of high-quality silver nanocubes and nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim


    We report a biphasic-liquid segmented continuous flow method for the synthesis of high-quality plasmonic single crystal silver nanocubes and nanospheres. The nanocubes were synthesized with controllable edge lengths from 20 to 48 nm. Single crystal nanospheres with a mean size of 29 nm were obtained by in-line continuous-flow etching of as-produced 39 nm nanocubes with an aqueous solution of FeNO3. In comparison to batch synthesis, the demonstrated processes represent highly scalable reactions, in terms of both production rate and endurance. The reactions were conducted in a commercially available flow-reactor system that is easily adaptable to industrial-scale production, facilitating widespread utilization of the procedure and the resulting nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  16. A locally conservative stabilized continuous Galerkin finite element method for two-phase flow in poroelastic subsurfaces (United States)

    Deng, Q.; Ginting, V.; McCaskill, B.; Torsu, P.


    We study the application of a stabilized continuous Galerkin finite element method (CGFEM) in the simulation of multiphase flow in poroelastic subsurfaces. The system involves a nonlinear coupling between the fluid pressure, subsurface's deformation, and the fluid phase saturation, and as such, we represent this coupling through an iterative procedure. Spatial discretization of the poroelastic system employs the standard linear finite element in combination with a numerical diffusion term to maintain stability of the algebraic system. Furthermore, direct calculation of the normal velocities from pressure and deformation does not entail a locally conservative field. To alleviate this drawback, we propose an element based post-processing technique through which local conservation can be established. The performance of the method is validated through several examples illustrating the convergence of the method, the effectivity of the stabilization term, and the ability to achieve locally conservative normal velocities. Finally, the efficacy of the method is demonstrated through simulations of realistic multiphase flow in poroelastic subsurfaces.

  17. Highly Efficient Photocatalysts and Continuous-Flow Photocatalytic Reactors for Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater. (United States)

    Chang, Sujie; Yang, Xiaoqiu; Sang, Yuanhua; Liu, Hong


    One of the most important applications for photocatalysis is engineered water treatment that photodegrades organic pollutants in wastewater at low cost. To overcome the low efficiency of batch degradation methods, continuous-flow photocatalytic reactors have been proposed and have become the most promising method for mass water treatment. However, most commercial semiconductor photocatalysts are granular nanoparticles with low activity and a narrow active light wavelength band; this creates difficulties for direct use in continuous-flow photocatalytic reactors. Therefore, a high-performance photodegradation photocatalyst with proper morphology or structure is key for continuous photocatalytic degradation. Moreover, a well-designed photocatalytic device is another important component for continuous-flow photocatalysis and determines the efficiency of photocatalysis in practical water treatment. This review describes the basic design principles and synthesis of photocatalysts with excellent performance and special morphologies suitable for a filtering photocatalysis process. Certain promising continuous photodegradation reactors are also categorized and summarized. Additionally, selected scientific and technical problems that must be urgently solved are suggested. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. An efficient and more sustainable one-step continuous-flow multicomponent synthesis approach to chromene derivatives (United States)

    A simple and rapid one-step continuous-flow synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of chromene derivatives from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes, α-cyanomethylene compounds and naphthols. In this contribution, a one-step continuous-flow protocol in a continuous ...

  19. Use of heparin for cytapheresis and plasmapheresis in a continuous flow centrifuge. (United States)

    Morales, M; Pizzuto, J; Reyna, M; Ambriz, R; Avilés, A; Conte, G; Sinco, A


    We evaluated the use of heparin in continuous flow centrifugation by continuous infusion. Doses were modified by assessment of the anticoagulant effect by the thrombin time dilution test (TTDT). Heparin is an efficient anticoagulant in continuous flow centrifugation and the TTDT is an effective and reliable method for control. The initial dose in leukapheresis is one unit per milliliter of blood during the first hour, then one-half the dose during the next hour, and then a one-quarter of the dose until the procedure is completed. A TTDT performed every 30 to 60 minutes will indicate whether the heparin dose should be modified. For plasmapheresis, it is necessary to determine the specific dose for each patient. There was no case of bleeding or extracorporeal coagulation of the blood.

  20. Testing glueline continuity in standard-size hardwood blanks by mechanical methods (United States)

    David W. Patterson; Nathan D. Hesterman; Charles Gatchell


    Glueline continuity is very critical in standard-size hardwood blanks because the blanks are cut up into small furniture parts, and a small gap in the glueline of a blank may extend across the whole part—or a gap may appear as a crack in the final product. Strength is not a critical factor. The objective of this study was to determine if a gap in a glueline can be...

  1. A continuous-flow system for measuring in vitro oxygen and nitrogen metabolism in separated stream communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, C.; Jeppesen, E.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj


    and dissolved oxygen are measured continuously and the data stored on magnetic tape. Water samples are collected in a refrigerator and analysed using standard chemical procedures. 2. The application of the system is illustrated using results obtained during a 2-day summer experiment in a shallow macrophyte...... production and dark respiration occurred at similar rates (6-7g O2 m-2 day-1), net balance being about zero. Inorganic nitrogen was consumed both by the sediment and to a greater extent by the macrophytes, the diel average consumption being 1g N m-2 day-1. 3. The sum of the activity in the macrophyte...... and sediment chambers corresponded to the overall activity of the stream section as determined by upstream/downstream mass balance. This indicates that the results obtained with the continuous-flow chambers realistically describe the oxygen and the nitrogen metabolism of the stream....

  2. Continuous-flow Heck synthesis of 4-methoxybiphenyl and methyl 4-methoxycinnamate in supercritical carbon dioxide expanded solvent solutions. (United States)

    Lau, Phei Li; Allen, Ray W K; Styring, Peter


    The palladium metal catalysed Heck reaction of 4-iodoanisole with styrene or methyl acrylate has been studied in a continuous plug flow reactor (PFR) using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as the solvent, with THF and methanol as modifiers. The catalyst was 2% palladium on silica and the base was diisopropylethylamine due to its solubility in the reaction solvent. No phosphine co-catalysts were used so the work-up procedure was simplified and the green credentials of the reaction were enhanced. The reactions were studied as a function of temperature, pressure and flow rate and in the case of the reaction with styrene compared against a standard, stirred autoclave reaction. Conversion was determined and, in the case of the reaction with styrene, the isomeric product distribution was monitored by GC. In the case of the reaction with methyl acrylate the reactor was scaled from a 1.0 mm to 3.9 mm internal diameter and the conversion and turnover frequency determined. The results show that the Heck reaction can be effectively performed in scCO2 under continuous flow conditions with a palladium metal, phosphine-free catalyst, but care must be taken when selecting the reaction temperature in order to ensure the appropriate isomer distribution is achieved. Higher reaction temperatures were found to enhance formation of the branched terminal alkene isomer as opposed to the linear trans-isomer.

  3. Continuous-flow Heck synthesis of 4-methoxybiphenyl and methyl 4-methoxycinnamate in supercritical carbon dioxide expanded solvent solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phei Li Lau


    Full Text Available The palladium metal catalysed Heck reaction of 4-iodoanisole with styrene or methyl acrylate has been studied in a continuous plug flow reactor (PFR using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 as the solvent, with THF and methanol as modifiers. The catalyst was 2% palladium on silica and the base was diisopropylethylamine due to its solubility in the reaction solvent. No phosphine co-catalysts were used so the work-up procedure was simplified and the green credentials of the reaction were enhanced. The reactions were studied as a function of temperature, pressure and flow rate and in the case of the reaction with styrene compared against a standard, stirred autoclave reaction. Conversion was determined and, in the case of the reaction with styrene, the isomeric product distribution was monitored by GC. In the case of the reaction with methyl acrylate the reactor was scaled from a 1.0 mm to 3.9 mm internal diameter and the conversion and turnover frequency determined. The results show that the Heck reaction can be effectively performed in scCO2 under continuous flow conditions with a palladium metal, phosphine-free catalyst, but care must be taken when selecting the reaction temperature in order to ensure the appropriate isomer distribution is achieved. Higher reaction temperatures were found to enhance formation of the branched terminal alkene isomer as opposed to the linear trans-isomer.

  4. Evaluation of a portable differential continuous flow centrifuge for concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from water. (United States)

    Zuckerman, U; Armon, R; Tzipori, S; Gold, D


    A portable device was developed and assembled from a stationary differential continuous flow centrifuge usually employed for blood cell separation, for the purpose of concentrating Cryptosporidium and Giardia from large volumes of water. Following compaction onto the wall of the disposable plastic centrifuge bowl and aspiration of residual water, the oocysts and cysts were dislodged by injection of a 20 ml solution containing 0.01% Tween-80 and 1% SDS and vigorous shaking. Following aspiration, the oocysts were pelleted, reacted with specific FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies, and enumerated via fluorescence microscopy. The entire procedure required about 2 h. Initially, 55% and 87% of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, were recovered from 45 litres of tap water, and 27% and 57%, respectively, from river water. Adjustments in centrifuge speed and flow rates improved recovery to about 90% for Cryptosporidium oocysts and hence, this method compared favourably with the recently developed calcium carbonate flocculation method. It was superior in time requirement and volume flexibility, and showed a distinct advantage over the standard cartridge filtration method in all respects. The continuous flow centrifugation equipment is compact, mobile, flexible, and yields reproducibly high recovery rates. The ease of handling, speed of performance and minimal requirements for post-concentration equipment, reagents and labour make the system highly cost-effective. It appears to offer an improved method, well suited for use by water utilities for monitoring the burden of water-borne protozoan pathogens.

  5. Pressurised hot water extraction in continuous flow mode for thermolabile compounds: extraction of polyphenols in red onions. (United States)

    Liu, Jiayin; Sandahl, Margareta; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta


    Extraction and analysis of labile compounds in complex sample matrices, such as plants, is often a big analytical challenge. In this work, the use of a "green and clean" pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) approach performed in continuous flow mode is explored. Experimental data for extraction and degradation kinetics of selected compounds were utilised to develop a continuous flow extraction (CFE) method targeting thermolabile polyphenols in red onions, with detection by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)-mass spectrometry (MS). Water containing ethanol and formic acid was used as extraction solvent. Method performance was focused on extraction yield with minimal analyte degradation. By adjusting the flow rate of the extraction solvent, degradation effects were minimised, and complete extraction could be achieved within 60 min. The CFE extraction yields of the polyphenols investigated were 80-90 % of the theoretically calculated quantitative yields and were significantly higher than the yields obtained by conventional methanol extraction and static batch extraction (70-79 and 58-67 % of the theoretical yields, respectively). The precision of the developed method was lower than 8 % expressed as relative standard deviation.

  6. Fluid Dynamic Characterization of a Polymeric Heart Valve Prototype (Poli-Valve) tested under Continuous and Pulsatile Flow Conditions (United States)

    De Gaetano, Francesco; Serrani, Marta; Bagnoli, Paola; Brubert, Jacob; Stasiak, Joanna; Moggridge, Geoff D.; Costantino, Maria Laura


    Introduction Only mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses are currently commercially available. The former show longer durability but require anticoagulant therapy, the latter display better fluid dynamic behaviour but do not have adequate durability. New Polymeric Heart Valves (PHVs) could potentially combine the haemodynamic properties of biological valves with the durability of mechanical valves. This work presents a hydrodynamic evaluation of two groups of newly developed supra-annular tri-leaflet prosthetic heart valves made from styrenic block copolymers (SBC): Poli-Valves. Methods Two types of Poli-Valves made of SBC differing in polystyrene fraction content were tested under continuous and pulsatile flow conditions as prescribed by ISO 5840 Standard. An ad - hoc designed pulse duplicator allowed the valve prototypes to be tested at different flow rates and frequencies. Pressure and flow were recorded; pressure drops, effective orifice area (EOA), and regurgitant volume were computed to assess the valve’s behaviour. Results Both types Poli-Valves met the minimum requirements in terms of regurgitation and EOA as specified by ISO 5840 Standard. Results were compared with five mechanical heart valves (MHVs) and five tissue heart valves (THVs), currently available on the market. Conclusion Based on these results, polymeric heart valves based on styrenic block copolymers, as Poli-Valves are, can be considered as promising alternative for heart valve replacement in near future. PMID:26689146

  7. Enantioselective Transamination in Continuous Flow Mode with Transaminase Immobilized in a Macrocellular Silica Monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine van den Biggelaar


    Full Text Available ω-Transaminases have been immobilized on macrocellular silica monoliths and used as heterogeneous biocatalysts in a continuous flow mode enantioselective transamination reaction. The support was prepared by a sol-gel method based on emulsion templating. The enzyme was immobilized on the structured silica monoliths both by adsorption, and by covalent grafting using amino-functionalized silica monoliths and glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. A simple reactor set-up based on the use of a heat-shrinkable Teflon tube is presented and successfully used for the continuous flow kinetic resolution of a chiral amine, 4-bromo-α-methylbenzylamine. The porous structure of the supports ensures effective mass transfer and the reactor works in the plug flow regime without preferential flow paths. When immobilized in the monolith and used in the flow reactor, transaminases retain their activity and their enantioselectivity. The solid biocatalyst is also shown to be stable both on stream and during storage. These essential features pave the way to the successful development of an environmentally friendly process for chiral amines production.

  8. Integrating continuous stocks and flows into state-and-transition simulation models of landscape change (United States)

    Daniel, Colin J.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Frid, Leonardo; Fortin, Marie-Josée


    State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) provide a general framework for forecasting landscape dynamics, including projections of both vegetation and land-use/land-cover (LULC) change. The STSM method divides a landscape into spatially-referenced cells and then simulates the state of each cell forward in time, as a discrete-time stochastic process using a Monte Carlo approach, in response to any number of possible transitions. A current limitation of the STSM method, however, is that all of the state variables must be discrete.Here we present a new approach for extending a STSM, in order to account for continuous state variables, called a state-and-transition simulation model with stocks and flows (STSM-SF). The STSM-SF method allows for any number of continuous stocks to be defined for every spatial cell in the STSM, along with a suite of continuous flows specifying the rates at which stock levels change over time. The change in the level of each stock is then simulated forward in time, for each spatial cell, as a discrete-time stochastic process. The method differs from the traditional systems dynamics approach to stock-flow modelling in that the stocks and flows can be spatially-explicit, and the flows can be expressed as a function of the STSM states and transitions.We demonstrate the STSM-SF method by integrating a spatially-explicit carbon (C) budget model with a STSM of LULC change for the state of Hawai'i, USA. In this example, continuous stocks are pools of terrestrial C, while the flows are the possible fluxes of C between these pools. Importantly, several of these C fluxes are triggered by corresponding LULC transitions in the STSM. Model outputs include changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of C pools and fluxes across the landscape in response to projected future changes in LULC over the next 50 years.The new STSM-SF method allows both discrete and continuous state variables to be integrated into a STSM, including interactions between

  9. Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography: Brief History and Recent Developments in Its Application to Continuous Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Ratajczak


    Full Text Available The contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT aims at reconstructing the velocity field of electrically conducting fluids, with special focus on applications in metallurgy and crystal growth technologies. The method relies on the induction of secondary magnetic fields if the moving fluid is exposed to a primary magnetic field. The theoretical foundation of the method is delineated, and some early experiments on the reconstruction of the three-dimensional flow in a cylinder are sketched. Then, the recent efforts to apply CIFT to various model problems in connection with the continuous casting of steel are summarized.

  10. Segmented flow is controlling growth of catalytic biofilms in continuous multiphase microreactors. (United States)

    Karande, Rohan; Halan, Babu; Schmid, Andreas; Buehler, Katja


    Biofilm reactors are often mass transfer limited due to excessive biofilm growth, impeding reactor performance. Fluidic conditions play a key role for biofilm structural development and subsequently for overall reactor performance. Continuous interfacial forces generated by aqueous-air segmented flow are controlling biofilm structure and diminish mass transfer limitations in biofilm microreactors. A simple three step method allows the formation of robust biofilms under aqueous-air segmented flow conditions: a first-generation biofilm is developing during single phase flow, followed by the introduction of air segments discarding most of the established biofilm. Finally, a second-generation, mature biofilm is formed in the presence of aqueous-air segments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy experiments revealed that the segmented flow supports the development of a robust biofilm. This mature biofilm is characterized by a three to fourfold increase in growth rate, calculated from an increase in thickness, a faster spatial distribution (95% surface coverage in 24 h), and a significantly more compact structure (roughness coefficient flow conditions. The applicability of the concept in a segmented flow biofilm microreactor was demonstrated using the epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide (ee > 99.8%) catalyzed by Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120ΔC cells in the mono-species biofilm. The limiting factor affecting reactor performance was oxygen transfer as the volumetric productivity rose from 11 to 46 g L tube (-1) day(-1) after increasing the air flow rate. In summary, different interfacial forces can be applied for separating cell attachment and adaptation resulting in the development of a robust catalytic biofilm in continuous microreactors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M


    Alteration in tendinous and peritendinous blood flow during and after exercise is suggested to contribute to the development of Achilles tendon injury and inflammation. In the present study a method for evaluating the influence of standardized workload on peritendinous flow is presented. The radi......Alteration in tendinous and peritendinous blood flow during and after exercise is suggested to contribute to the development of Achilles tendon injury and inflammation. In the present study a method for evaluating the influence of standardized workload on peritendinous flow is presented...

  12. Contactless inductive flow tomography: basic principles and first applications in the experimental modelling of continuous casting (United States)

    Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.


    Contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the flow structure of a liquid metal from the magnetic fields measured at various positions outside the fluid body which are induced by the flow under the influence of one or multiple applied magnetic fields. We recap the basic mathematical principles of CIFT and the results of an experiment in which the propeller-driven three-dimensional flow in a cylindrical had been reconstructed. We also summarize the recent activities to utilize CIFT in various problems connected with the experimental simulation of the continuous casting process. These include flow reconstructions in single-phase and two-phase flow problems in the Mini-LIMMCAST model of slab-casting, studies of the specific effects of an electromagnetic stirrer attached to the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN), as well as first successful applications of CIFT on the background of a strong electromagnetic brake field. We conclude by discussing some remaining obstacles for the deployment of CIFT in a real caster.

  13. Continuous-flow separation of nanoparticles by electrostatic sieving at a micro-nanofluidic interface. (United States)

    Regtmeier, Jan; Käsewieter, Jörg; Everwand, Martina; Anselmetti, Dario


    Continuous-flow separation of nanoparticles (NPs) (15 and 39 nm) is demonstrated based on electrostatic sieving at a micro-nanofluidic interface. The interface is realized in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) device with a nanoslit of 525 nm laterally spanning the microfluidic channel (aspect ratio of 540:1). Within this nanoslit, the Debye layers overlap and generate an electrostatic sieve. This was exploited to selectively deflect and sort NPs with a sorting purity of up to 97%. Because of the continuous-flow operation, the sample is continuously fed into the device, immediately separated, and the parameters can be adapted in real time. For bioanalytical purposes, we also demonstrate the deflection of proteins (longest axis 6.8 nm). The continuous operation mode and the general applicability of this separation concept make this method a valuable addition to the current Lab-on-a-Chip devices for continuous sorting of NPs and macromolecules. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nanofiltration-Enabled In Situ Solvent and Reagent Recycle for Sustainable Continuous-Flow Synthesis. (United States)

    Fodi, Tamas; Didaskalou, Christos; Kupai, Jozsef; Balogh, Gyorgy T; Huszthy, Peter; Szekely, Gyorgy


    Solvent usage in the pharmaceutical sector accounts for as much as 90 % of the overall mass during manufacturing processes. Consequently, solvent consumption poses significant costs and environmental burdens. Continuous processing, in particular continuous-flow reactors, have great potential for the sustainable production of pharmaceuticals but subsequent downstream processing remains challenging. Separation processes for concentrating and purifying chemicals can account for as much as 80 % of the total manufacturing costs. In this work, a nanofiltration unit was coupled to a continuous-flow rector for in situ solvent and reagent recycling. The nanofiltration unit is straightforward to implement and simple to control during continuous operation. The hybrid process operated continuously over six weeks, recycling about 90 % of the solvent and reagent. Consequently, the E-factor and the carbon footprint were reduced by 91 % and 19 %, respectively. Moreover, the nanofiltration unit led to a solution of the product eleven times more concentrated than the reaction mixture and increased the purity from 52.4 % to 91.5 %. The boundaries for process conditions were investigated to facilitate implementation of the methodology by the pharmaceutical sector. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Minimizing E-factor in the continuous-flow synthesis of diazepam and atropine. (United States)

    Bédard, Anne-Catherine; Longstreet, Ashley R; Britton, Joshua; Wang, Yuran; Moriguchi, Hideki; Hicklin, Robert W; Green, William H; Jamison, Timothy F


    Minimizing the waste stream associated with the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and commodity chemicals is of high interest within the chemical industry from an economic and environmental perspective. In exploring solutions to this area, we herein report a highly optimized and environmentally conscious continuous-flow synthesis of two APIs identified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization, namely diazepam and atropine. Notably, these approaches significantly reduced the E-factor of previously published routes through the combination of continuous-flow chemistry techniques, computational calculations and solvent minimization. The E-factor associated with the synthesis of atropine was reduced by 94-fold (about two orders of magnitude), from 2245 to 24, while the E-factor for the synthesis of diazepam was reduced by 4-fold, from 36 to 9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuation Power Flow Analysis for PV Integration Studies at Distribution Feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiyu; Zhu, Xiangqi; Lubkeman, David L.; Lu, Ning; Samaan, Nader A.


    This paper presents a method for conducting continuation power flow simulation on high-solar penetration distribution feeders. A load disaggregation method is developed to disaggregate the daily feeder load profiles collected in substations down to each load node, where the electricity consumption of residential houses and commercial buildings are modeled using actual data collected from single family houses and commercial buildings. This allows the modeling of power flow and voltage profile along a distribution feeder on a continuing fashion for a 24- hour period at minute-by-minute resolution. By separating the feeder into load zones based on the distance between the load node and the feeder head, we studied the impact of PV penetration on distribution grid operation in different seasons and under different weather conditions for different PV placements.

  17. Large-Scale Production of CdSe Nanocrystal by a Continuous Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawa, Manabu, E-mail:; Morii, Hidekazu; Ioku, Atau; Saita, Soichiro [MCC-Group Science and Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (Japan); Okuyama, Kikuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)


    Organically capped CdSe nanocrystals were successfully produced by a continuous flow reactor in 13 g/h rate as isolated CdSe nanocrystal, using trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) both as the capping organic reagent and the high-temperature reaction solvent. Relatively high reaction temperature (e.g. 350 deg. C) was necessary for matured crystal growth. The quality of TOPO (i.e. impurity composition such like phosphonic acids) was also influential on the quality of the resulting CdSe nanocrystal. The continuous flow reactor was able to produce highly-luminescence, monodispersed CdSe nanocrystals, confirmed by transmission electron microscope observation. The production rate was stable at least 1 h to allow over 10 g production.

  18. Continuous flow electrophoretic separation of proteins and cells from mammalian tissues (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Barlow, Grant H.; Blaisdell, Steven J.; Cleveland, Carolyn; Farrington, Mary Ann; Feldmeier, Mary; Hatfield, J. Michael; Lanham, J. Wayne; Grindeland, Richard; Snyder, Robert S.


    This paper describes an apparatus for continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE), designed to separate macromolecules and cells at conditions of microgravity. In this CFE, buffer flows upward in a 120-cm long flow chamber, which is 16-cm wide x 3.0-mm thick in the microgravity version (and 6-cm wide x 1.5-mm thick in the unit-gravity laboratory version). Ovalbumin and rat serum albumin were separated in space (flight STS-4) with the same resolution of the two proteins achieved at 25 percent total w/v concentration that was obtained in the laboratory at 0.2 percent w/v concentration. Rat anterior pituitary cells, cultured human embryonic kidney cells, and canine Langerhans cells were separated into subpopulations (flight STS-8) more effectively than in unit gravity, with comparable resolution having been achieved at 100 times the concentration possible on earth.

  19. Sensorless Suction Recognition in the Self-Regulating Cleveland Clinic Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart (United States)

    Horvath, David; Karimov, Jamshid H.; Byram, Nicole; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka


    The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart passively regulates itself in regard to the relative performance of systemic and pulmonary pumps. The system incorporates real-time monitoring to detect any indication of incipient left or right suction as input for automatic controller response. To recognize suction, the external controller compares the waveforms of modulating speed input and power feedback. Deviations in periodic waveforms indicate sudden changes to flow impedance, which are characteristic of suction events as the pump speed is modulating. Incipient suction is indicated within three seconds of being detected in the power wave form, allowing timely controller response before mean flow is affected. This article describes the results obtained from subjecting the system to severe hemodynamic manipulation during an acute study in a calf. PMID:26102177

  20. Numerical modeling of continuous flow microwave heating: a critical comparison of COMSOL and ANSYS. (United States)

    Salvi, D; Boldor, Dorin; Ortego, J; Aita, G M; Sabliov, C M


    Numerical models were developed to simulate temperature profiles in Newtonian fluids during continuous flow microwave heating by one way coupling electromagnetism, fluid flow, and heat transport in ANSYS 8.0 and COMSOL Multiphysics v3.4. Comparison of the results from the COMSOL model with the results from a pre-developed and validated ANSYS model ensured accuracy of the COMSOL model. Prediction of power Loss by both models was in close agreement (5-13% variation) and the predicted temperature profiles were similar. COMSOL provided a flexible model setup whereas ANSYS required coupling incompatible elements to transfer load between electromagnetic, fluid flow, and heat transport modules. Overall, both software packages provided the ability to solve multiphysics phenomena accurately.

  1. Continuous-flow processes for the catalytic partial hydrogenation reaction of alkynes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Moreno-Marrodan


    Full Text Available The catalytic partial hydrogenation of substituted alkynes to alkenes is a process of high importance in the manufacture of several market chemicals. The present paper shortly reviews the heterogeneous catalytic systems engineered for this reaction under continuous flow and in the liquid phase. The main contributions appeared in the literature from 1997 up to August 2016 are discussed in terms of reactor design. A comparison with batch and industrial processes is provided whenever possible.

  2. Biological anoxic phosphorus removal in a continuous-flow external nitrification activated sludge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapagiannidis, A. G.; Aivasidis, A.


    Application of Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in wastewater treatment is necessitated for the protection of water bodies from eutrophication. an alternative BNR method is tested for simultaneous Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) removal in a continuous-flow bench scale plant for municipal wastewater treatment. The plant operation is based on the activity of two microbial populations which grow under different operational conditions (two sludge system). (Author)

  3. Amination of Aryl Halides and Esters Using Intensified Continuous Flow Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Kohl


    Full Text Available Significant process intensification of the amination reactions of aryl halides and esters has been demonstrated using continuous flow processing. Using this technology traditionally difficult amination reactions have been performed safely at elevated temperatures. These reactions were successfully conducted on laboratory scale coil reactor modules with 1 mm internal diameter (ID and on a preparatory scale tubular reactor with 6 mm ID containing static mixers.

  4. Integrated continuous flow photoreactors: Photooxidation of (L)-methionine with singlet oxygen


    Emmanuel, Noémie; Mendoza Gallego, Carlos; Lismont, Marjorie; Dreesen, Laurent; Heinrichs, Benoît; Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe


    Development of photochemistry in macroscopic batch reaction vessels is hampered due to inherent limitations: light penetration remains superficial, resulting in inhomogeneous irradiation and hence to side-reactions or product degradation due to overexposure. The recent implementation of photochemical processes in microreactors under continuous-flow conditions appeared to be much more powerful than its batch analogue in terms of irradiation efficiency and light penetration. Furthermore, the fi...

  5. Integrated continuous flow photoreactors: Photooxidation of (L)-methionine with singlet oxygen


    Emmanuel, Noémie; Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe


    Development of photochemistry in macroscopic batch reaction vessels is hampered due to inherent limitations: light penetration remains superficial, resulting in inhomogeneous irradiation and hence to side-reactions or product degradation due to overexposure. The recent implementation of photochemical processes in microreactors under continuous-flow conditions appeared to be much more powerful than its batch analogue in terms of irradiation efficiency and light penetration. Furthermore, the fi...

  6. Integrated continuous flow photoreactors: Photooxidation of (L)-methionine derivatives with singlet oxygen


    Emmanuel, Noémie; Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe


    Development of photochemistry in macroscopic batch reaction vessels is hampered due to inherent limitations: light penetration remains superficial, resulting in inhomogeneous irradiation and hence to side-reactions or product degradation due to overexposure. The recent implementation of photochemical processes in microreactors under continuous-flow conditions appeared to be much more powerful than its batch analogue in terms of irradiation efficiency and light penetration. Furthermore, the fi...

  7. Trapping shape-controlled nanoparticle nucleation and growth stages via continuous-flow chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.


    Continuous flow chemistry is used to trap the nucleation and growth stages of platinum-nickel nano-octahedra with second time resolution and high throughputs to probe their properties ex situ. The growth starts from poorly crystalline particles (nucleation) at 5 seconds, to crystalline 1.5 nm particles bounded by the {111}-facets at 7.5 seconds, followed by truncation and further growth to octahedral nanoparticles at 20 seconds.

  8. Advanced reactor engineering with 3D printing for the continuous-flow synthesis of silver nanoparticles


    Okafor, Obinna; Weilhard, Andreas; Fernandes, Jesum A.; Karjalainen, Erno; Goodridge, Ruth; Sans, Victor


    The implementation of advanced reactor engineering concepts employing additive manufacturing is demonstrated. The design and manufacturing of miniaturised continuous flow oscillatory baffled reactors (mCOBR) employing low cost stereolithography based 3D printing is reported for the first time. Residence time distribution experiments have been employed to demonstrate that these small scale reactors offer improved mixing conditions at a millimetre scale, when compared to tubular reactors. Nearl...

  9. Domestic wastewater treatment using multi-electrode continuous flow MFCs with a separator electrode assembly design

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae


    Treatment of domestic wastewater using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require reactors with multiple electrodes, but this presents unique challenges under continuous flow conditions due to large changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration within the reactor. Domestic wastewater treatment was examined using a single-chamber MFC (130 mL) with multiple graphite fiber brush anodes wired together and a single air cathode (cathode specific area of 27 m2/m3). In fed-batch operation, where the COD concentration was spatially uniform in the reactor but changed over time, the maximum current density was 148 ± 8 mA/m2 (1,000 Ω), the maximum power density was 120 mW/m2, and the overall COD removal was >90 %. However, in continuous flow operation (8 h hydraulic retention time, HRT), there was a 57 % change in the COD concentration across the reactor (influent versus effluent) and the current density was only 20 ± 13 mA/m2. Two approaches were used to increase performance under continuous flow conditions. First, the anodes were separately wired to the cathode, which increased the current density to 55 ± 15 mA/m2. Second, two MFCs were hydraulically connected in series (each with half the original HRT) to avoid large changes in COD among the anodes in the same reactor. The second approach improved current density to 73 ± 13 mA/m2. These results show that current generation from wastewaters in MFCs with multiple anodes, under continuous flow conditions, can be improved using multiple reactors in series, as this minimizes changes in COD in each reactor. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Oxygen requirement to reverse altitude-induced hypoxemia with continuous flow and pulsed dose oxygen. (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Gerlach, Travis W; Dorlac, Warren C; Johannigman, Jay A; Branson, Richard D


    Hypoxemia secondary to reduced barometric pressure is a complication of ascent to altitude. We designed a study to compare the reversal of hypobaric hypoxemia at 14,000 ft with continuous flow oxygen from a cylinder and pulsed dose oxygen from a portable concentrator. There were 30 healthy volunteers who were randomized to one of three study groups, placed in an altitude chamber, and ascended to 14,000 ft. There were 10 subjects in each study group. Subjects breathed room air for 10 min to induce hypoxemia. Oxygen was then delivered via a nasal cannula from a cylinder at 1, 2, or 3 lpm of continuous flow for 10 min. The subjects again breathed room air at altitude for 10 min and were then placed on pulsed dose oxygen and titrated to obtain the continuous flow Spo2 equivalent. Spo2, Etco2, RR, HR, Hgb, and tissue oxygenation (Sto2) were continuously recorded. The 1-lpm group's Spo2 range was 89-99%. The 2-lpm group's Spo2 range was 95-98%, and the 3-lpm group's Spo2 range was 95-99%. The 2-lpm and 3-lpm flows were able to correct hypoxemia in every subject. The mean pulsed dose required to achieve an equivalent Spo2 ranged from 36.8 ml ± 18.9 ml in the 1-lpm arm, and 102.4 ml ± 53.8 in the 3-lpm arm. Portable oxygen concentrators using pulsed dose technology corrected hypoxemia in every subject. Oxygen concentrators may be an alternative to liquid oxygen or cylinders for use during aeromedical evacuation.

  11. Using Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from Capacitive Mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.


    Efficient conversion of “mixing energy” to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles. We show here that a CapMix system based on a four-reactor process with flow electrodes can generate constant and continuous energy, providing a more flexible platform for harvesting mixing energy. The power densities were dependent on the flow-electrode carbon loading, with 5.8 ± 0.2 mW m–2 continuously produced in the charging reactor and 3.3 ± 0.4 mW m–2 produced in the discharging reactor (9.2 ± 0.6 mW m–2 for the whole system) when the flow-electrode carbon loading was 15%. Additionally, when the flow-electrode electrolyte ion concentration increased from 10 to 20 g L–1, the total power density of the whole system (charging and discharging) increased to 50.9 ± 2.5 mW m–2.

  12. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B


    surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...

  13. Factors influencing arsenic and nitrate removal from drinking water in a continuous flow electrocoagulation (EC) process. (United States)

    Kumar, N Sanjeev; Goel, Sudha


    An experimental study was conducted under continuous flow conditions to evaluate some of the factors influencing contaminant removal by electrocoagulation (EC). A bench-scale simulation of drinking water treatment was done by adding a filtration column after a rectangular EC reactor. Contaminant removal efficiency was determined for voltages ranging from 10 to 25 V and a comparative study was done with distilled water and tap water for two contaminants: nitrate and arsenic(V). Maximum removal efficiency was 84% for nitrate at 25 V and 75% for arsenic(V) at 20 V. No significant difference in contaminant removal was observed in tap water versus distilled water. Increase in initial As(V) concentration from 1 ppm to 2 ppm resulted in a 10% increase in removal efficiency. Turbidity in the EC reactor effluent was 52 NTU and had to be filtered to achieve acceptable levels of final turbidity (5 NTU) at steady-state. The flow regime in the continuous flow reactor was also evaluated in a tracer study to determine whether it is a plug flow reactor (PFR) or constantly stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the results show that this reactor was close to an ideal CSTR, i.e., it was fairly well-mixed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing by means of the baffle geometry and pulsation which facilitates to continuous operation, giving plug flow residence time distribution with high turbulence and enhanced mass and heat transfer. In conjunction with the concept of reactor design, parameters such as reactor dimensions, the hydrodynamic studies and physical properties of reactants must be considered prior to the design work initiated recently. The OFBR reactor design involves the use of simulation software, ASPEN PLUS and the reactor design fundamentals. Following this, the design parameters shall be applied in fabricating the OFBR for laboratory scale biodiesel production.

  15. Laminar flow mediated continuous single-cell analysis on a novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chip. (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Tian, Yu; Yu, Xu; Song, Jian; Guo, Feng; Xiao, Yuxiu; Zhang, Zhiling


    A novel microfluidic chip with simple design, easy fabrication and low cost, coupled with high-sensitive laser induced fluorescence detection, was developed to provide continuous single-cell analysis based on dynamic cell manipulation in flowing streams. Making use of laminar flows, which formed in microchannels, single cells were aligned and continuously introduced into the sample channel and then detection channel in the chip. In order to rapidly lyse the moving cells and completely transport cellular contents into the detection channel, the angle of the side-flow channels, the asymmetric design of the channels, and the number, shape and layout of micro-obstacles were optimized for effectively redistributing and mixing the laminar flows of single cells suspension, cell lysing reagent and detection buffer. The optimized microfluidic chip was an asymmetric structure of three microchannels, with three microcylinders at the proper positions in the intersections of channels. The microchip was evaluated by detection of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) uptake and membrane surface P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in single leukemia K562 cells. An average throughput of 6-8 cells min(-1) was achieved. The detection results showed the cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake and surface P-gp expression within K562 cells. Our researches demonstrated the feasibility and simplicity of the newly developed microfluidic chip for chemical single-cell analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-resolution continuous-flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.


    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotope (δ18O and δD) continuous-flow measurements and provide metrics defining the performance of the setup during a major ice core measurement campaign (Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution; RICE). We also use the metrics to compare alternate systems. Our setup is the first continuous-flow laser spectroscopy system that is using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research, LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze water samples from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotope Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to (1) enable measurements on several water standards, (2) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time and (3) reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the continuous-flow analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The custom setups provide a shorter response time (~ 54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~ 62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the custom setups have a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the custom and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the custom 2013 setup the precision after integration times of 103 s is 0.060 and 0.070 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. The corresponding σAllan values for the custom 2014 setup are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043 ‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042 ‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the custom setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The

  17. High-resolution continuous flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.


    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) continuous flow measurements. It is the first continuous flow laser spectroscopy system that is using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research - LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze sample from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotopic Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to: (1) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time (2) enable measurements on several water standards, and (3) to reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The modified setup provides a shorter response time (~54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the modified setup has a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the modified WVISS and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the 2013 modified setup the precision after integration times of 103 s are 0.060 and 0.070‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. For the WVISS setup the corresponding σAllan values are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the modified setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The σAllan values for δ18O of 0.30 and 0.18‰ for the modified (2013) and WVISS setup, respectively after averaging times of 104 s (2.78 h). The Isotopic Water Analyzer (IWA)-modified WVISS setup used during the

  18. Continuous flow synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite on the order of seconds (United States)

    Liu, Zhendong; Okabe, Kotatsu; Anand, Chokkalingam; Yonezawa, Yasuo; Zhu, Jie; Yamada, Hiroki; Endo, Akira; Yanaba, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohara, Koji; Okubo, Tatsuya; Wakihara, Toru


    The hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites carried out in batch reactors takes a time so long (typically, on the order of days) that the crystallization of zeolites has long been believed to be very slow in nature. We herein present a synthetic process for ZSM-5, an industrially important zeolite, on the order of seconds in a continuous flow reactor using pressurized hot water as a heating medium. Direct mixing of a well-tuned precursor (90 °C) with the pressurized water preheated to extremely high temperature (370 °C) in the millimeter-sized continuous flow reactor resulted in immediate heating to high temperatures (240-300 °C); consequently, the crystallization of ZSM-5 in a seed-free system proceeded to completion within tens of or even several seconds. These results indicate that the crystallization of zeolites can complete in a period on the order of seconds. The subtle design combining a continuous flow reactor with pressurized hot water can greatly facilitate the mass production of zeolites in the future.

  19. Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in continuous flow and batch reactors (United States)

    Sengor, S. S.; Gikas, P.; Moberly, J. G.; Peyton, B. M.; Ginn, T. R.


    The presence of heavy metals may significantly affect microbial growth. In many cases, small amounts of particular heavy metals may stimulate microbial growth; however, larger quantities may result in microbial growth reduction. Environmental parameters, such as growth pattern may alter the critical heavy metal concentration, above which microbial growth stimulation turns to growth inhibition. Thus, it is important to quantify the effects of heavy metals on microbial activity for understanding natural or manmade biological reactors, either in situ or ex situ. Here we compare the toxicity of Zn and Cu on Arthrobacter sp., a heavy metal tolerant microorganism, under continuous flow versus batch reactor operations. Batch and continuous growth tests of Arthrobacter sp. were carried out at various individual and combined concentrations of Zn and Cu. Biomass concentration (OD) was measured for both the batch and continuous reactors, whereas ATP, oxygen uptake rates and substrate concentrations were additionally measured for the continuous system. Results indicated that Cu was more toxic than Zn under all conditions for both systems. In batch reactors, all tested Zn concentrations up to 150 uM showed a stimulatory effect on microbial growth. However, in the case of mixed Zn and Cu exposures, the presence of Zn either eliminated (at the 50 uM level both Zn and Cu) or reduced by ~25% (at the 100 and 150 uM levels both Zn and Cu) the Cu-induced inhibition. In the continuous system, only one test involved combined Cu (40uM) and Zn (125uM) and this test showed similar results to the 40uM Cu continuous test, i.e., no reduction in inhibition. The specific ATP concentration, i.e., ATP/OD, results for the continuous reactor showed an apparent recovery for both Cu-treated populations, although neither the OD nor glucose data showed any recovery. This may reflect that the individual microorganisms that survived after the addition of heavy metals, kept maintaining the usual ATP

  20. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers? (United States)

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap.

  1. Data File Standard for Flow Cytometry, Version FCS 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spidlen, Josef; Moore, Wayne; Parks, David; Goldberg, Michael; Bray, Chris; Gorombey, Peter; Hyun, Bill; Hubbard, Mark; Lange, Simon; Lefebvre, Ray; Leif, Robert; Novo, David; Ostruszka, Leo; Treister, Adam; Wood, James; Murphy, Robert F.; Roederer, Mario; Sudar, Damir; Zigon, Robert; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Brierre, Pierre


    The flow cytometry data file standard provides the specifications needed to completely describe flow cytometry data sets within the confines of the file containing the experimental data. In 1984, the first Flow Cytometry Standard format for data files was adopted as FCS 1.0. This standard was modified in 1990 as FCS 2.0 and again in 1997 as FCS 3.0. We report here on the next generation flow cytometry standard data file format. FCS 3.1 is a minor revision based on suggested improvements from the community. The unchanged goal of the standard is to provide a uniform file format that allows files created by one type of acquisition hardware and software to be analyzed by any other type. The FCS 3.1 standard retains the basic FCS file structure and most features of previous versions of the standard. Changes included in FCS 3.1 address potential ambiguities in the previous versions and provide a more robust standard. The major changes include simplified support for international characters and improved support for storing compensation. The major additions are support for preferred display scale, a standardized way of capturing the sample volume, information about originality of the data file, and support for plate and well identification in high throughput, plate based experiments. Please see the normative version of the FCS 3.1 specification in Supporting Information for this manuscript (or at in the Current standards section) for a complete list of changes.

  2. Nanotechnology Laboratory Continues Partnership with FDA and National Institute of Standards and Technology | Poster (United States)

    The NCI-funded Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL)—a leader in evaluating promising nanomedicines to fight cancer—recently renewed its collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to continue its groundbreaking work on characterizing nanomedicines and moving them toward the clinic. In partnership with NIST and the FDA, NCL has laid a solid, scientific foundation for using the power of nanotechnology to increase the potency and target the delivery

  3. Standardization of microparticle enumeration across different flow cytometry platforms : results of a multicenter collaborative workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cointe, S; Judicone, C; Robert, S; Mooberry, M J; Poncelet, P; Wauben, M; Nieuwland, R; Key, N S; Dignat-George, F; Lacroix, R


    BACKGROUND: Microparticles are extracellular vesicles resulting from the budding of cellular membranes that have a high potential as emergent biomarkers; however, their clinical relevance is hampered by methodological enumeration concerns and a lack of standardization. Flow cytometry (FCM) remains

  4. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B


    for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0.......17 (mean +/- SEM). Postoperatively, two patients maintained the initial level of sensory analgesia and low pain score throughout the 16-hour study. In these two patients epidural blood flow remained constant after the initial increase. Flow increased further to 10.3 +/- 0.8 ml/min per 100 g tissue (P less...

  5. High-throughput DNA Stretching in Continuous Elongational Flow for Genome Sequence Scanning (United States)

    Meltzer, Robert; Griffis, Joshua; Safranovitch, Mikhail; Malkin, Gene; Cameron, Douglas


    Genome Sequence Scanning (GSS) identifies and compares bacterial genomes by stretching long (60 - 300 kb) genomic DNA restriction fragments and scanning for site-selective fluorescent probes. Practical application of GSS requires: 1) high throughput data acquisition, 2) efficient DNA stretching, 3) reproducible DNA elasticity in the presence of intercalating fluorescent dyes. GSS utilizes a pseudo-two-dimensional micron-scale funnel with convergent sheathing flows to stretch one molecule at a time in continuous elongational flow and center the DNA stream over diffraction-limited confocal laser excitation spots. Funnel geometry has been optimized to maximize throughput of DNA within the desired length range (>10 million nucleobases per second). A constant-strain detection channel maximizes stretching efficiency by applying a constant parabolic tension profile to each molecule, minimizing relaxation and flow-induced tumbling. The effect of intercalator on DNA elasticity is experimentally controlled by reacting one molecule of DNA at a time in convergent sheathing flows of the dye. Derivations of accelerating flow and non-linear tension distribution permit alignment of detected fluorescence traces to theoretical templates derived from whole-genome sequence data.

  6. Elasto-Inertial Pinched Flow Fractionation for Continuous Shape-Based Particle Separation. (United States)

    Lu, Xinyu; Xuan, Xiangchun


    Shape is an important passive marker in label-free particle and cell separation for chemical, biomedical, and environmental applications. We demonstrate herein a continuous-flow shape-based separation of spherical and peanut-shaped rigid particles of equal volume (or equivalent spherical diameter) via elasto-inertial pinched flow fractionation (eiPFF). This microfluidic technique exploits the shape dependence of the flow-induced elasto-inertial lift (and hence the cross-stream migration) in viscoelastic fluids to increase the displacement of a sheath flow-focused particle mixture for a high-purity separation. The parametric effects on this shape-based particle separation via eiPFF are systematically investigated in terms of five dimensionless numbers. It is found that the separation is strongly affected by the flow rate, fluid elasticity, and channel aspect ratio. Interestingly, the elasto-inertial deflection of the peanut particles can be either greater or smaller than that of equally volumed spherical particles. This phenomenon is speculated to correlate with the rotational effects of peanut particles.

  7. Influence of System Variables on the Heating Characteristics of Water during Continuous Flow Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy


    Full Text Available A domestic microwave oven (1000 W was modified to permit the continuous flow of liquids run through a helical coil centrally located inside the oven cavity. Heating characteristics were evaluated by measuring inlet and outlet temperatures of coil as a function of system variables. The influence of number of turns, coil diameter, tube diameter, pitch and initial temperature were evaluated at different flow rates. The average residence time of water was computed by dividing the coil volume by the volumetric flow rate. The influence of Dean number was evaluated. Results from this study showed that (1 higher number of turns resulted in lower heating rate, lower temperature fluctuations, higher exit temperature and longer time to achieve temperature equilibrium; (2 larger tube or coil diameter gave larger coil volume causing the heating rate to decrease; (3 faster flow rates resulted in lower exit temperatures, lower temperature fluctuation, higher Dean number and slightly higher heating rate; (4 higher initial temperatures resulted in higher exit temperatures; (5 higher Dean number resulted in more uniform heating and slightly higher heating rate. Overall, the coil volume was the more dominant factor affecting heating rate as compared with flow rate and Dean number.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Monakhova


    Full Text Available Introduction. The main objective of the professional standard, systematizing the work function of a teacher, is to describe not personal qualities of teachers but the process and outcome of their activities. The logic of the development of the professional standard involves the analysis of teaching activities and evaluation of its results, which should possess the properties of measurability and diagnosability.The aim of the present publication is to identify praxiological foundations of the professional standard of the teacher via a comparative analysis of the requirementsand fundamental concepts of praxeology – a General theory of successful activities developed by domestic and foreign authors and reflected in monographic and dissertation researches.Methodology and methods of research. Methodological basis of research is the ideas of system, activity and praxiological approaches. Results. The authors prove that pedagogical praxeology as the science and practice of effective organization of pedagogical activity is a new mechanism to describe the characteristics of pedagogical activity and formation of complex of professional portrait of the teacher. Pedagogical praxeology as the mechanism: establishes the framework of competences of the teacher; defines the requirements for structured content, conditions and quality of work of the teacher, their qualifications and competences in the field of professional activity; provides the necessary compliance awareness of teacher’s requirements; describes methods of assessing the development of competencies of teachers; promotes the involvement of the teacher in the task of improving the quality of education; serves as the basis for constructing a continuous trajectory of increasing level of professional training of each teacher.Scientific novelty. The content of professional standards from the standpoint of the praxiological approach is investigated; conceptual ideas of praxeology, defining role and

  9. Continuous flow fluorescence based immunosensor for the detection of explosives and environmental pollutants (United States)

    Charles, Paul T.; Bart, John C.; Judd, Linda L.; Gauger, Paul R.; Ligler, Frances S.; Kusterbeck, Anne W.


    A continuous flow fluorescence based immunosensor has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory as an inexpensive, field portable device to detect environmental pollutants. Detection of environmental pollutants such as explosives [e.g. trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5 trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine (RDX)[ and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been achieved at low level concentrations. The continuous flow immunosensor (CFI) employs antibodies as recognition elements for specific antigens. Antibodies specific for the environmental pollutants of interest are covalently immobilized on a solid support matrix. Subsequent saturation of the antibody-support complex with a fluorescence analog (i.e. cyanine dye) of the pollutant completes the sensor matrix. The derivatized matrix is prepacked into a micro column with a continuous flow stream of buffer that removes nonspecifically bound fluorescent analog. After a stable baseline is obtained sample injections of the desired pollutant (PCBs, TNT, RDX, etc.) into the flow stream displaces the fluorescence analog from the immobilized antibody on the solid support. A signal response over background from the displaced fluorescence analog is measured and integrated by an in-line fluorometer. Dose response curves reveal the lowest limit of detection for TNT and RDX is 20 ppb (parts-per-billion). Detection limits for PCBs is slightly higher at 1.0 ppm (part-per-million). Results from field trials conducted at two military bases, Umatilla Army Depot (Hermiston, Ore.) and Site F and A at Naval SUBASE Bangor (Bangor, Wash.) demonstrated the capabilities of the immunosensor in performing on-site field analysis in groundwater and soil leachate matrices.

  10. Patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices provide insight in human baroreflex physiology. (United States)

    Tank, Jens; Heusser, Karsten; Malehsa, Doris; Hegemann, Katrin; Haufe, Sven; Brinkmann, Julia; Tegtbur, Uwe; Diedrich, André; Bara, Christoph; Jordan, Jens; Strüber, Martin


    The superior clinical outcome of new continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) challenges the physiological dogma that cardiovascular autonomic homeostasis requires pulsatile blood flow and pressure. We tested the hypothesis that continuous-flow LVADs impair baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve traffic, thus further exacerbating sympathetic excitation. We included 9 male heart failure patients (26-61 years; 18.9-28.3 kg/m(2)) implanted with a continuous-flow LVAD. We recorded ECG, respiration, finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. After baseline measurements had been taken, patients underwent autonomic function testing including deep breathing, a Valsalva maneuver, and 15° head-up tilt. Finally, we increased the LVAD speed in 7 patients. Spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity was analyzed. Brachial blood pressure was 99±4 mm Hg with 14±2 mm Hg finger pulse pressure. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity bursts showed a normal morphology, were linked to the cardiac cycle, and were suppressed during blood pressure increases. Mean burst frequency was lower compared with age- and body mass index-matched controls in 2 patients, slightly increased in 4 patients, and increased in 2 patients (P=0.11). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity burst latency and the median values of the burst amplitude distribution were similar between groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity increased 4±1 bursts per minute with head-up tilt (P<0.0003) and decreased 3±4 bursts per minute (P<0.031) when LVAD speed was raised. The mean sympathetic baroreflex slope was -3.75±0.79%/mm Hg in patients and -3.80±0.55%/mm Hg in controls. We conclude that low pulse pressure levels are sufficient to restrain sympathetic nervous system activity through baroreflex mechanisms.

  11. CFD Simulation of the Discharge Flow from Standard Rushton Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohuš Kysela


    Full Text Available The radial discharge jet from the standard Rushton turbine was investigated by the CFD calculations and compared with results from the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA measurements. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES approach was employed with Sliding Mesh (SM model of the impeller motion. The obtained velocity profiles of the mean ensemble-averaged velocity and r.m.s. values of the fluctuating velocity were compared in several distances from the impeller blades. The calculated values of mean ensemble-averaged velocities are rather in good agreement with the measured ones as well as the derived power number from calculations. However, the values of fluctuating velocities are obviously lower from LES calculations than from LDA measurements.

  12. Portable continuous flow centrifugation and method 1623 for monitoring of waterborne protozoa from large volumes of various water matrices. (United States)

    Zuckerman, U; Tzipori, S


    The aims of this study were to validate a portable continuous flow centrifuge (PCFC) as an alternative concentration step of US-EPA Method 1623 and to demonstrate it's efficacy for recovery of low numbers of protozoa from large volumes of various water matrices. Recoveries of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia intestinalis cysts and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores spiked into 10-1000 l volumes of various water matrices were evaluated during in-house and collaborative trials. Spiked protozoa were either approved standards or diluted stock samples enumerated according to USEPA Method 1623. Cryptosporidium recoveries exceeded method 1623 criteria and substantially high recoveries were observed for Giardia and E. intestinalis. Portable continuous flow centrifuge methodology exceeded method 1623 acceptance criteria for Cryptosporidium and could be easily adopted for other protozoa. The PCFC could be adopted as an alternative user-friendly concentration method for Cryptosporidium and for monitoring of large volumes of source and tap water for accidental or deliberate contamination with protozoa and potentially with other enteric pathogens. It is anticipated that PCFC would also be equal or superior to filtration for protozoa monitoring in wastewater and effluents.

  13. Bioremoval of trivalent chromium using Bacillus biofilms through continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundar, K.; Sadiq, I. Mohammed; Mukherjee, Amitava [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Nano Bio-Medicine Laboratory School of Bio Sciences and Technology VIT University, Vellore - 632014 (India); Chandrasekaran, N., E-mail: [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Nano Bio-Medicine Laboratory School of Bio Sciences and Technology VIT University, Vellore - 632014 (India)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective bioremoval of Cr(III) using bacterial biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simplified bioreactor was fabricated for the biofilm development and Cr(III) removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Economically feasible substrate like coarse sand and pebbles were used. - Abstract: Present study deals with the applicability of bacterial biofilms for the bioremoval of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A continuous flow reactor was designed for the development of biofilms on different substrates like glass beads, pebbles and coarse sand. The parameters for the continuous flow reactor were 20 ml/min flow rate at 30 Degree-Sign C, pH4. Biofilm biomass on the substrates was in the following sequence: coarse sand > pebbles > glass beads (4.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}, 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} and 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} CFU/cm{sup 2}), which was confirmed by CLSM. Biofilms developed using consortium of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus on coarse sand had more surface area and was able to remove 98% of Cr(III), SEM-EDX proved 92.60% Cr(III) adsorption on biofilms supported by coarse sand. Utilization of Bacillus biofilms for effective bioremoval of Cr(III) from chrome tanning effluent could be a better option for tannery industry, especially during post chrome tanning operation.

  14. Spatial Dynamic Optimization of Groundwater Use with Ecological Standards for Instream Flow (United States)

    Brozovic, N.; Han, J.; Speir, C.


    Instream flow requirements for protected species in arid and semi-arid regions have created the need to reduce groundwater use adjacent to streams. We present an integrated hydrologic-economic model that optimizes agricultural groundwater use next to streams with flow standards. Policies to meet instream flow standards should aim to minimize the welfare losses to irrigated agriculture due to reduced pumping. Previous economic studies have proposed spatially targeted water allocations between groundwater irrigators and instream demands. However, these studies focused on meeting aggregate instream flow goals on a seasonal or yearly basis rather than meeting them on a continuous basis. Temporally aggregated goals ignore important intra-seasonal hydrologic effects and may not provide sufficient habitat quality for species of concern. We present an optimization model that solves for groundwater pumping allocations across space in a stream-aquifer system with instream flow goals that must be met on a daily basis. We combine an analytical model of stream depletion with a farm profit maximization model that includes cumulative crop yield damages from water stress. The objective is the minimization of agricultural losses from reduced groundwater use while minimum instream flow requirements for ecological needs are met on a daily basis. As a case study, we apply our model to the Scott River Basin in northern California. This is a region where stream depletion resulting from extensive irrigation has degraded habitat for Coho salmon, a species protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our results indicate the importance of considering the lag between the time at which pumping occurs and the time at which stream depletion related to that pumping occurs. In general, we find that wells located farther from the stream should be allocated more water in most hydrologic scenarios. However, we also find that the spatial and temporal distribution of optimal groundwater pumping

  15. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters (United States)


    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's...: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to...

  16. 75 FR 75761 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters (United States)


    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters...#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for... Regulatory Background C. Water Quality Criteria D. EPA Determination Regarding Florida and EPA's Rulemaking...

  17. Perceptual effects and efficacy of intermittent or continuous blood flow restriction resistance training. (United States)

    Fitschen, P J; Kistler, B M; Jeong, J H; Chung, H R; Wu, P T; Walsh, M J; Wilund, K R


    Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise may be an alternative form of resistance training; however, a side of effect of BFR resistance exercise is acute muscle pain. Typically, BFR exercise studies restrict blood flow with a cuff continuously during the exercise bout, including rest periods. However, others have used intermittent BFR where the cuff is inflated only during sets. We performed two studies to compare intermittent and continuous BFR exercise. In study one, eleven subjects randomly proceeded through three treatments of unilateral leg extensions to failure: (i) continuous BFR, (ii) intermittent BFR and (iii) control (exercise without BFR). Pain measurements were taken immediately after each set. In study two, subjects (n = 32) underwent a 5-week resistance training programme after random assignment to one of the three conditions. Lean mass and strength were assessed at baseline and after training. Continuous BFR resulted in significantly greater pain than intermittent BFR or control. Both BFR conditions resulted in significantly fewer repetitions to failure than control. This suggests that an acute bout of intermittent BFR exercise may produce as much muscle fatigue as an acute bout of continuous BFR exercise, but with less pain. With training, maximal knee extension (P = 0·033) and maximum knee flexion (P = 0·007) strength increased among all groups. There were no significant differences between groups in strength or lean mass. These results suggest that short-term low-load resistance training increases muscle strength to a similar extent as low-load resistance training without BFR. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Solar disinfection for the post-treatment of greywater by means of a continuous flow reactor. (United States)

    Pansonato, Natália; Afonso, Marcos V G; Salles, Carlos A; Boncz, Marc A; Paulo, Paula L


    SODIS (solar disinfection) is a low-cost alternative for water decontamination. The method is based on the exposure of water, contained in PET bottles, to direct sunlight, and mainly its UV-A and infrared components. The present research studied SODIS as a low cost alternative for the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in treated greywater, aiming at its reuse for more noble applications. Experiments were performed in (i) batch mode (2 L PET-bottles), testing the effect of turbidity on system efficiency and, (ii) in a continuous pilot-scale reactor prototype (51 L, using interconnected 2 L-PET bottles), testing hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 18 and 24 h. Samples were exposed to an average solar radiation intensity of 518 W/m2. The results obtained indicate that the SODIS system has potential for total coliforms and E. coli inactivation in the pre-treated greywater, reaching 2.1 log units E. coli inactivation in batch experiments for low turbidity samples (21 NTU), and > 2 log units inactivation of total coliforms (and E. coli, when present) for the 24 h HRT-continuous prototype. The continuous flow prototype needs more testing and structural improvements to cope with the difficulties posed by algae growth, as they complicate maintaining conditions of constant flow and make frequent maintenance inevitable.

  19. Standard blood flow rates of cardiopulmonary bypass are adequate in awake on-pump cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Porizka, Michal; Stritesky, Martin; Semrad, Michal; Dobias, Milos; Dohnalova, Alena; Korinek, Josef


    Standard blood flow rates for cardiopulmonary bypass have been assumed to be the same for awake cardiac surgery with thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) as for general anesthesia. However, compared with general anesthesia, awake cardiac surgery with epidural anesthesia may be associated with higher oxygen consumption and may result in lactic acidosis when standard blood flow rates were used. The aim of our study was to investigate if standard blood flow rates are adequate in awake cardiac surgery. Forty-five patients undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgery were assigned to receive either epidural (Group TEA, n=15), combined (Group TEA-GA, n=15) or general (Group GA, n=15) anesthesia. To monitor the adequacy of standard blood flow rates, arterial lactate, acid base parameters, and central venous and jugular bulb saturation were measured at six time points (before, during, and after the surgery) in all groups. Blood flow rates were adjusted when needed. No lactic acidosis has developed in any group (p=NS). TEA as compared with TEA-GA and GA groups had lower central venous (67±4%, 75±11%, and 72±13%, respectively, pflow rates adjustments in any study group and no ventilatory support in TEA group were required. Under careful monitoring, the use of standard blood flow rates is adequate for patients undergoing awake on-pump normothermic cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Large Eddy Simulations of Double-Ruler Electromagnetic Field Effect on Transient Flow During Continuous Casting (United States)

    Singh, Ramnik; Thomas, Brian G.; Vanka, Surya P.


    Transient flow during nominally steady conditions is responsible for many intermittent defects during the continuous casting of steel. The double-ruler electromagnetic field configuration, or "FC-Mold EMBr," is popular in commercial slab casting as it provides independent control of the applied static field near the jet and free surface regions of the mold. In the current study, transient flow in a typical commercial caster is simulated in the absence and in the presence of a double-ruler magnetic field, with rulers of equal strengths. Large eddy simulations with the in-house code CU-FLOW resolve the important transient behavior, using grids of over five million cells with a fast parallel solver. In the absence of a magnetic field, a double-roll pattern is observed, with transient unbalanced behavior, high surface velocities (~0.5 m/s), surface vortex formation, and very large surface-level fluctuations (~±12 mm). Applying the magnetic field suppresses the unbalanced behavior, producing a more complex mold flow pattern, but with much lower surface velocities (~0.1 m/s), and a flat surface level with small level fluctuations (<±1 mm). Nail board measurements taken at this commercial caster, in the absence of the field, matched reasonably well with the calculated results, both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  1. Selective particle and cell capture in a continuous flow using micro-vortex acoustic streaming. (United States)

    Collins, David J; Khoo, Bee Luan; Ma, Zhichao; Winkler, Andreas; Weser, Robert; Schmidt, Hagen; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye


    Acoustic streaming has emerged as a promising technique for refined microscale manipulation, where strong rotational flow can give rise to particle and cell capture. In contrast to hydrodynamically generated vortices, acoustic streaming is rapidly tunable, highly scalable and requires no external pressure source. Though streaming is typically ignored or minimized in most acoustofluidic systems that utilize other acoustofluidic effects, we maximize the effect of acoustic streaming in a continuous flow using a high-frequency (381 MHz), narrow-beam focused surface acoustic wave. This results in rapid fluid streaming, with velocities orders of magnitude greater than that of the lateral flow, to generate fluid vortices that extend the entire width of a 400 μm wide microfluidic channel. We characterize the forces relevant for vortex formation in a combined streaming/lateral flow system, and use these acoustic streaming vortices to selectively capture 2 μm from a mixed suspension with 1 μm particles and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-231) from red blood cells.

  2. Robust Extraction Interface for Coupling Droplet-Based and Continuous Flow Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.


    Reliable and highly efficient extraction of droplets from oil to aqueous phase is key for downstream coupling with chemical separations and nonoptical detection methods such as amperometry and mass spectrometry. This paper presents an improved interface providing robust extraction for droplet-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The extraction interface consists of an array of cylindrical posts with narrow apertures in between. The aqueous flow channel into which droplets coalesced was simply and selectively modified to be hydrophilic, while the continuous oil phase flow channel that contained encapsulated aqueous droplets retained a hydrophobic surface. The different surfaces on both sides of the extraction region form a highly stable liquid interface between the two immiscible phases, allowing rapid droplet transfer to the aqueous stream. Entire droplets could be completely extracted within broad ranges of aqueous and oil flow rates (0 - 1 and 0.1 - 1 uL/min, respectively). After extraction, the droplet contents could be transported electrophoretically or by pressure-driven flow to a monolithically integrated emitter for nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) analysis. This interface should be amenable to the separation and identification of droplet contents and on-line monitoring of in-droplet reactions.

  3. Recent progress on contactless inductive flow tomography for continuous casting in the presence of strong static magnetic fields


    Wondrak, T; Ratajczak, M.; Timmel, K; Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.


    International audience; The flow structure of liquid steel in the mold of a continuous caster has huge impact on the quality of the produced steel. In order to influence the flow during the casting process electromagnetic brakes (EMBr) are used. Even a rough knowledge of the flow field would be highly desirable. The contactless inductive flow tomography is a technique for reconstructing the velocity field in electrically conducting melts from externally measured induced magnetic fields. For a...

  4. Continuous Crystallization of Proteins in a Tubular Plug-Flow Crystallizer. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Peter; Khinast, Johannes G


    Protein crystals have many important applications in many fields, including pharmaceutics. Being more stable than other formulations, and having a high degree of purity and bioavailability, they are especially promising in the area of drug delivery. In this contribution, the development of a continuously operated tubular crystallizer for the production of protein crystals has been described. Using the model enzyme lysozyme, we successfully generated product particles ranging between 15 and 40 μm in size. At the reactor inlet, a protein solution was mixed with a crystallization agent solution to create high supersaturations required for nucleation. Along the tube, supersaturation was controlled using water baths that divided the crystallizer into a nucleation zone and a growth zone. Low flow rates minimized the effect of shear forces that may impede crystal growth. Simultaneously, a slug flow was implemented to ensure crystal transport through the reactor and to reduce the residence time distribution.

  5. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.


    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

  6. Photoredox activation of carbon dioxide for amino acid synthesis in continuous flow (United States)

    Seo, Hyowon; Katcher, Matthew H.; Jamison, Timothy F.


    Although carbon dioxide (CO2) is highly abundant, its low reactivity has limited its use in chemical synthesis. In particular, methods for carbon-carbon bond formation generally rely on two-electron mechanisms for CO2 activation and require highly activated reaction partners. Alternatively, radical pathways accessed via photoredox catalysis could provide new reactivity under milder conditions. Here we demonstrate the direct coupling of CO2 and amines via the single-electron reduction of CO2 for the photoredox-catalysed continuous flow synthesis of α-amino acids. By leveraging the advantages of utilizing gases and photochemistry in flow, a commercially available organic photoredox catalyst effects the selective α-carboxylation of amines that bear various functional groups and heterocycles. The preliminary mechanistic studies support CO2 activation and carbon-carbon bond formation via single-electron pathways, and we expect that this strategy will inspire new perspectives on using this feedstock chemical in organic synthesis.

  7. Three dimensional open cavity flow for the continuous separation of suspended particles (United States)

    Bernate, Jorge A.; Paul, Colin; Liu, Chengxun; Lagae, Liesbet; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Gagnon, Zachary; Drazer, German


    We present a microfluidic platform for the continuous separation of suspended particles based on their size and settling velocity, which relies on the reorientation of the flow field created by applying a pressure gradient across and along a periodic array of open cavities. The flow along the open cavities deflects different particles to a different degree depending on the extent to which they penetrate into the open cavities. Two regimes can be distinguished depending on the ratio r between the settling velocity of the particles and their velocity across the cavities. When r ~ 1 , heavier particles settle deeper into the open cavities and deflect more than lighter ones. When r centrifuge depleting RBCs and enriching spiked MCF-7 cancer cells. This platform can be easily integrated with external fields resulting in a potentially versatile technique. In particular, we use dielectrophoretic forces for the high-throughput separation of particles of the same size.

  8. Quantitative angle-independent flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Zhang, Buyun; Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Gao, Yiwei; Huo, Tiancheng; Zhu, Zhuqing; Chen, Zhongping


    Incorporating different data processing methods, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution micro-angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurement. However, OCT micro-angiography cannot provide quantitative measurement of flow velocity, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which are difficult for whole vascular network. In this study, we report a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) for the mapping of the flow velocity in a vascular network without the calculation of Doppler angle. From the theoretical analysis and experimental validation, the RSD-OCT is angle-independent and can quantify the flow velocity conveniently after a calibration.

  9. Selected low-flow frequency statistics for continuous-record streamgage locations in Maryland, 2010 (United States)

    Doheny, Edward J.; Banks, William S.L.


    According to a 2008 report by the Governor's Advisory Committee on the Management and Protection of the State's Water Resources, Maryland's population grew by 35 percent between 1970 and 2000, and is expected to increase by an additional 27 percent between 2000 and 2030. Because domestic water demand generally increases in proportion to population growth, Maryland will be facing increased pressure on water resources over the next 20 years. Water-resources decisions should be based on sound, comprehensive, long-term data and low-flow frequency statistics from all available streamgage locations with unregulated streamflow and adequate record lengths. To provide the Maryland Department of the Environment with tools for making future water-resources decisions, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in October 2009 to compute low-flow frequency statistics for selected streamgage locations in Maryland with 10 or more years of continuous streamflow records. This report presents low-flow frequency statistics for 114 continuous-record streamgage locations in Maryland. The computed statistics presented for each streamgage location include the mean 7-, 14-, and 30-consecutive day minimum daily low-flow dischages for recurrence intervals of 2, 10, and 20 years, and are based on approved streamflow records that include a minimum of 10 complete climatic years of record as of June 2010. Descriptive information for each of these streamgage locations, including the station number, station name, latitude, longitude, county, physiographic province, and drainage area, also is presented. The statistics are planned for incorporation into StreamStats, which is a U.S. Geological Survey Web application for obtaining stream information, and is being used by water-resource managers and decision makers in Maryland to address water-supply planning and management, water-use appropriation and permitting, wastewater and industrial discharge permitting, and setting minimum required

  10. Automated continuous flow determination of urine albumin by competition with dye-detergent binding. (United States)

    Lever, M; Walmsley, T A


    A continuous flow automated method for urine albumin was developed based on the ability of albumin to displace bromophenol blue from a bromophenol blue detergent complex. The method is almost specific for albumin, giving a slight response with an alpha-globulin fraction from serum. Results agreed closely with rocket electrophoresis albumin estimates on urine samples, but significantly less closely with "total urine protein" estimates by an acid protein precipitation, followed by biuret colour reaction, procedure. This method is being used to replace the indefinite "total protein" test for most routine purposes.

  11. Mechanistic insights into the oxidative dehydrogenation of amines to nitriles in continuous flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corker, Emily C.; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Riisager, Anders


    and the amine utilised. The presence of water was found to be important for the activity and stability of the RuO2/Al2O3 catalyst. The Hammett relationship and in situ infrared spectroscopy were applied to divulge details about the catalytic mechanism of the oxidative dehydrogenation of amines over RuO2/Al2O3......The oxidative dehydrogenation of various aliphatic amines to their corresponding nitrile compounds using RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts in air was successfully applied to a continuous flow reaction. Conversions of amines (up to >99%) and yields of nitriles (up to 77%) varied depending on reaction conditions...

  12. From discovery to production: Scale-out of continuous flow meso reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Styring


    Full Text Available A continuous flow parallel reactor system has been developed to provide a rapid and seamless transition from the discovery phase and production phase of chemical synthesis, particularly in low volume-high value pharmaceuticals production. Using a single fixed bed catalytic meso reactor, reactions can be screened on a small discovery scale over short time scales. The intensified process produces sufficient material for a full analysis. By replication of the single reactor in parallel, the same chemistry can be achieved on a larger scale, on a small footprint and without the mass and heat transport limitations of reactor scale-out in batch.

  13. Lab on a chip for continuous-flow magnetic cell separation. (United States)

    Hejazian, Majid; Li, Weihua; Nguyen, Nam-Trung


    Separation of cells is a key application area of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. Among the various methods, magnetic separation of cells utilizing microfluidic devices offers the merits of biocompatibility, efficiency, and simplicity. This review discusses the fundamental physics involved in using magnetic force to separate particles, and identifies the optimisation parameters and corresponding methods for increasing the magnetic force. The paper then elaborates the design considerations of LOC devices for continuous-flow magnetic cell separation. Examples from the recently published literature illustrate these state-of-the-art techniques.

  14. Deconvolution-based resolution enhancement of chemical ice core records obtained by continuous flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Andersen, Katrine K.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann


    Continuous flow analysis (CFA) has become a popular measuring technique for obtaining high-resolution chemical ice core records due to an attractive combination of measuring speed and resolution. However, when analyzing the deeper sections of ice cores or cores from low-accumulation areas......, there is still need for further improvement of the resolution. Here a method for resolution enhancement of CFA data is presented. It is demonstrated that it is possible to improve the resolution of CFA data by restoring some of the detail that was lost in the measuring process, thus improving the usefulness...

  15. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)


    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  16. The renascence of continuous-flow peptide synthesis - an abridged account of solid and solution-based approaches. (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher P


    Within a decade of Merrifield's seminal description of solid-phase peptide synthesis, the synergies between solid-phase approaches and flow synthesis were noted by a number of groups. However, despite the various advantages flow brings to peptide synthesis, throughout the 1990s and 2000s, interest in the technique was overshadowed by microwave assisted approaches. However, the current expansion of flow technologies has reinvigorated interest in both solid-phase and solution-phase continuous-flow approaches for assembling peptides. This perspective traces the introduction and evolution of continuous-flow solid-phase synthesis from a practical aspect with a particular focus on solid supports, acylation protocols, and racemisation suppression. Practical aspects of solution-phase continuous-flow peptide synthesis are also considered with an evaluation of microreactor systems, coupling protocols, and fragment-based approaches for assembly of extended peptide units.

  17. Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

  18. Next Generation Flow for highly sensitive and standardized detection of minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma. (United States)

    Flores-Montero, J; Sanoja-Flores, L; Paiva, B; Puig, N; García-Sánchez, O; Böttcher, S; van der Velden, V H J; Pérez-Morán, J-J; Vidriales, M-B; García-Sanz, R; Jimenez, C; González, M; Martínez-López, J; Corral-Mateos, A; Grigore, G-E; Fluxá, R; Pontes, R; Caetano, J; Sedek, L; Del Cañizo, M-C; Bladé, J; Lahuerta, J-J; Aguilar, C; Bárez, A; García-Mateo, A; Labrador, J; Leoz, P; Aguilera-Sanz, C; San-Miguel, J; Mateos, M-V; Durie, B; van Dongen, J J M; Orfao, A


    Flow cytometry has become a highly valuable method to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) and evaluate the depth of complete response (CR) in bone marrow (BM) of multiple myeloma (MM) after therapy. However, current flow-MRD has lower sensitivity than molecular methods and lacks standardization. Here we report on a novel next generation flow (NGF) approach for highly sensitive and standardized MRD detection in MM. An optimized 2-tube 8-color antibody panel was constructed in five cycles of design-evaluation-redesign. In addition, a bulk-lysis procedure was established for acquisition of ⩾107 cells/sample, and novel software tools were constructed for automatic plasma cell gating. Multicenter evaluation of 110 follow-up BM from MM patients in very good partial response (VGPR) or CR showed a higher sensitivity for NGF-MRD vs conventional 8-color flow-MRD -MRD-positive rate of 47 vs 34% (P=0.003)-. Thus, 25% of patients classified as MRD-negative by conventional 8-color flow were MRD-positive by NGF, translating into a significantly longer progression-free survival for MRD-negative vs MRD-positive CR patients by NGF (75% progression-free survival not reached vs 7 months; P=0.02). This study establishes EuroFlow-based NGF as a highly sensitive, fully standardized approach for MRD detection in MM which overcomes the major limitations of conventional flow-MRD methods and is ready for implementation in routine diagnostics.

  19. Micro Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Micro Fluid Segment Technology (United States)

    Knauer, Andrea; Köhler, J. Michael

    The micro segmented flow technique is very promising for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles, in particular for plasmonic nanoparticles and is very useful for combinatorial syntheses and screenings of new types of nanomaterials. In this chapter, the specific properties and technical as well as scientific challenges related to metal nanoparticles, the advantages of micro segmented flow and draw-backs of conventional synthesis for metal nanoparticles as well as the general applicability and the potential for the application of micro segmented flow for the preparation of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed. The specific conditions of micro segmented flow are described relating to the critical steps of reactant mixing, nucleation, and particle growth. It is shown that the intensification of local transport in the microfluidic system causes a significant improvement in particle homogeneity. In the formation and handling of metal particles, aspects of redox reactions, electrochemical parameters, and aspects of coordination chemistry have to be reconsidered. Ligands, which are able to interact with the metal ions in solution or with the forming nanoparticles, have a strong effect on the particle formation, their transport behavior, and interaction. The effect of fast reactant mixing supported by intensive segment-internal convection due to high flow rates is used in order to obtain uniform conditions for nucleation as well as for the particle growth. It is explained why non-spherical particles are of particular interest for different applications and how their quality can be improved by the application of microfluidic synthesis techniques, too. The formation of silver prisms by a micro continuous-flow synthesis in micro fluid segments will be given as a typical example allowing the tuning of the optical properties of the colloidal solutions. Finally, it is demonstrated that the micro segmented flow technique is well suited for an automated variation of

  20. Electromagnetic field modeling and ion optics calculations for a continuous-flow AMS system (United States)

    Han, B. X.; von Reden, K. F.; Roberts, M. L.; Schneider, R. J.; Hayes, J. M.; Jenkins, W. J.


    A continuous-flow 14C AMS (CFAMS) system is under construction at the NOSAMS facility. This system is based on a NEC Model 1.5SDH-1 0.5 MV Pelletron accelerator and will utilize a combination of a microwave ion source (MIS) and a charge exchange canal (CXC) to produce negative carbon ions from a continuously flowing stream of CO2 gas. For high-efficiency transmission of the large emittance, large energy-spread beam from the ion source unit, a large-acceptance and energy-achromatic injector consisting of a 45° electrostatic spherical analyzer (ESA) and a 90° double-focusing magnet has been designed. The 45° ESA is rotatable to accommodate a 134-sample MC-SNICS as a second ion source. The high-energy achromat (90° double focusing magnet and 90° ESA) has also been customized for large acceptance. Electromagnetic field modeling and ion optics calculations of the beamline were done with Infolytica MagNet, ElecNet, and Trajectory Evaluator. PBGUNS and SIMION were used for the modeling of ion source unit.

  1. Continuous-flow DNP polarizer for MRI applications at 1.5 T (United States)

    Denysenkov, V.; Terekhov, M.; Maeder, R.; Fischer, S.; Zangos, S.; Vogl, T.; Prisner, T. F.


    Here we describe a new hyperpolarization approach for magnetic resonance imaging applications at 1.5 T. Proton signal enhancements of more than 20 were achieved with a newly designed multimode microwave resonator situated inside the bore of the imager and used for Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization of the water proton signal. Different from other approaches in our setup the hyperpolarization is achieved continuously by liquid water flowing through the polarizer under continuous microwave excitation. With an available flow rate of up to 1.5 ml/min, which should be high enough for DNP MR angiography applications in small animals like mice and rats. The hyperpolarized liquid cooled to physiological temperature can be routed by a mechanical switch to a quartz capillary for injection into the blood vessels of the target object. This new approach allows hyperpolarization of protons without the need of an additional magnet and avoids the losses arising from the transfer of the hyperpolarized solution between magnets. The signal-to-noise improvement of this method is demonstrated on two- and three-dimensional phantoms of blood vessels.

  2. Continuous-flow technology—a tool for the safe manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients. (United States)

    Gutmann, Bernhard; Cantillo, David; Kappe, C Oliver


    In the past few years, continuous-flow reactors with channel dimensions in the micro- or millimeter region have found widespread application in organic synthesis. The characteristic properties of these reactors are their exceptionally fast heat and mass transfer. In microstructured devices of this type, virtually instantaneous mixing can be achieved for all but the fastest reactions. Similarly, the accumulation of heat, formation of hot spots, and dangers of thermal runaways can be prevented. As a result of the small reactor volumes, the overall safety of the process is significantly improved, even when harsh reaction conditions are used. Thus, microreactor technology offers a unique way to perform ultrafast, exothermic reactions, and allows the execution of reactions which proceed via highly unstable or even explosive intermediates. This Review discusses recent literature examples of continuous-flow organic synthesis where hazardous reactions or extreme process windows have been employed, with a focus on applications of relevance to the preparation of pharmaceuticals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photochemical transformations accelerated in continuous-flow reactors: basic concepts and applications. (United States)

    Su, Yuanhai; Straathof, Natan J W; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy


    Continuous-flow photochemistry is used increasingly by researchers in academia and industry to facilitate photochemical processes and their subsequent scale-up. However, without detailed knowledge concerning the engineering aspects of photochemistry, it can be quite challenging to develop a suitable photochemical microreactor for a given reaction. In this review, we provide an up-to-date overview of both technological and chemical aspects associated with photochemical processes in microreactors. Important design considerations, such as light sources, material selection, and solvent constraints are discussed. In addition, a detailed description of photon and mass-transfer phenomena in microreactors is made and fundamental principles are deduced for making a judicious choice for a suitable photomicroreactor. The advantages of microreactor technology for photochemistry are described for UV and visible-light driven photochemical processes and are compared with their batch counterparts. In addition, different scale-up strategies and limitations of continuous-flow microreactors are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Continuous power generation from glucose with two different miniature flow-through enzymatic biofuel cells. (United States)

    du Toit, Hendrik; Di Lorenzo, Mirella


    Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) can generate energy from metabolites present in physiological fluids. They represent an attractive alternative to lithium batteries to power implantable devices, as they work at body temperature, are light and easy-to-miniaturise. To be implantable in blood vessels, EBFCs should not only be made of non-toxic and biocompatible compounds but should also be able to operate in continuous flow-through mode. The EBFC devices reported so far, however, implement carbon-based materials of questionable toxicity and stability, such as carbon nanotubes, and rely on the use of external redox mediators for the electrical connection between the enzyme and the electrode. With this study, we demonstrate for the first time continuous power generation by flow through miniature enzymatic biofuel cells fed with an aerated solution of glucose and no redox mediators. Non-toxic highly porous gold was used as the electrode material and the immobilisation of the enzymes onto the electrodes surface was performed via cost-effective and easy-to-reproduce methodologies. The results presented here are a significant step towards the development of revolutionary implantable medical devices that extract the power they require from metabolites in the body. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic cross-flow filtration: enhanced continuous small-scale solid-liquid separation. (United States)

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes


    In a previous study, a small-scale dynamic filtration device (SFD) was analyzed and the basic mechanisms governing the filtration process were characterized. The present work aims at improving the device's performance in terms of actual production. Various operation modes were tested in order to increase permeate flow and concentration factors (CF), while maintaining a fully continuous production mode. Both, a vacuum-enhanced and a pulsating operation mode, proved to be superior to the currently implemented open-operation mode. For example, for lactose, an increase of the CF could be achieved from 1.7 in open mode to 7.6 in pulsating operation mode. The investigated operation strategy enables process control systems to rapidly react to fluctuating feeds that may occur due to changes in upstream manufacturing steps. As a result, not only filtration performance in terms of permeate rate but also process flexibility can be significantly increased. Overall, vacuum-enhanced operation was shown to be most promising for integration into an industrial environment. The option to elevate achievable concentration factors, ease of flow monitoring as well as the ability to react to changes in the feed conditions allow for effective and efficient continuous small-scale filtration.

  6. Partial nitrification using aerobic granules in continuous-flow reactor: rapid startup. (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Sun, Supu; Lee, Duu-Jong; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Li; Yang, Xue; Pan, Xiangliang


    This study applied a novel strategy to rapid startup of partial nitrification in continuous-flow reactor using aerobic granules. Mature aerobic granules were first cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor at high chemical oxygen demand in 16 days. The strains including the Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana strain were enriched in cultivated granules to enhance their structural stability. Then the cultivated granules were incubated in a continuous-flow reactor with influent chemical oxygen deamnad being stepped decreased from 1,500 ± 100 (0-19 days) to 750 ± 50 (20-30 days), and then to 350 ± 50 mg l(-1) (31-50 days); while in the final stage 350 mg l(-1) bicarbonate was also supplied. Using this strategy the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, was enriched in the incubated granules to achieve partial nitrification efficiency of 85-90% since 36 days and onwards. The partial nitrification granules were successfully harvested after 52 days, a period much shorter than those reported in literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of the impact and potential of intermittent aeration on continuous flow nitrifying activated sludge. (United States)

    Dotro, Gabriela; Jefferson, Bruce; Jones, Mark; Vale, Peter; Cartmell, Elise; Stephenson, Tom


    Intermittent aeration of activated sludge plants (ASPs) is a potential strategy that may help deliver reduced operational costs while providing an adequate effluent quality. This review paper critically assesses the implications of temporary turning aeration offin continuous flow nitrifying ASPs, including impact on dissolved oxygen concentrations, process biology and operational parameters. The potential savings and pitfalls of the approach are further illustrated through an example scenario. Findings from this review indicate rapid dissolved oxygen depletion times of 1-60 minutes and a significant reduction of nitrification rates from 0.12 to less than 0.04 g NH4-N/g VSS/d. Further negative impacts include a potential increase in nitrous oxide emissions from 0.07% to 27% N2O-N per mole of NH4-N oxidized; enhanced filamentous bacteria growth; a noticeable increase in effluent turbidity developing within one hour of air supply interruption; and, if no mechanical mixing is in place, risk of mixed liquor suspended solids settling in the bioreactor within short times (23-53 min). However, the potential savings in terms of aeration costs could amount to 33%-45% if instrumentation adequacy and impact on process biology and carbon equivalent emissions are excluded from the economic analysis. Further research on the areas of nitrous oxide emissions and the use of hybrid systems to provide resilience and robustness to the intermittent operation of continuous flow nitrifying ASPs is recommended.

  8. Three-Dimensional Holographic Refractive-Index Measurement of Continuously Flowing Cells in a Microfluidic Channel (United States)

    Sung, Yongjin; Lue, Niyom; Hamza, Bashar; Martel, Joseph; Irimia, Daniel; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Choi, Wonshik; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter


    The refractive index of biological specimens is a source of intrinsic contrast that can be explored without any concerns of photobleaching or harmful effects caused by extra contrast agents. In addition, the refractive index contains rich information related to the metabolism of cells at the cellular and subcellular levels. Here, we report a no-moving-parts approach that provides three-dimensional refractive-index maps of biological samples continuously flowing in a microfluidic channel. Specifically, we use line illumination and off-axis digital holography to record the angular spectra of light scattered from flowing samples at high speed. Applying the scalar diffraction theory, we obtain accurate refractive-index maps of the samples from the measured spectra. Using this method, we demonstrate label-free three-dimensional imaging of live RKO human colon cancer cells and RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells, and obtain the volume, dry mass, and density of these cells from the measured three-dimensional refractive-index maps. Our results show that the reported method, alone or in combination with the existing flow cytometry techniques, shows promise as a quantitative tool for stain-free characterization of a large number of cells.

  9. Cinematic Characterization of Convected Coherent Structures Within an Continuous Flow Z-Pinch (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas; Rodriguez, Jesse; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark


    In this study, two separate diagnostics are applied to a plasma jet produced from a coaxial accelerator with characteristic velocities exceeding 105 m/s and timescales of 10 μs. In the first of these, an ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse. The unique advantage of this diagnostic is its ability to simultaneously resolve both structural and temporal evolution of instabilities and density gradients within the flow. To allow for a more meaningful statistical analysis of the resulting wave motion, a multiple B-dot probe array was constructed and calibrated to operate over a broadband frequency range up to 100 MHz. The resulting probe measurements are incorporated into a wavelet analysis to uncover the dispersion relation of recorded wave motion and furthermore uncover instability growth rates. Finally these results are compared with theoretical growth rate estimates to identify underlying physics. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  10. Microfluidic Free-Flow Electrophoresis Based Solvent Exchanger for Continuously Operating Lab-on-Chip Applications. (United States)

    Zitzmann, Franziska D; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Pfeiffer, Simon A; Frank, Ronny; Nitschke, Felix; Mauritz, Laura; Abel, Bernd; Belder, Detlev; Robitzki, Andrea A


    For miniaturization and integration of chemical synthesis and analytics on small length scales, the development of complex lab-on-chip (LOC) systems is in the focus of many current research projects. While application specific synthesis and analytic modules and LOC devices are widely described, the combination and integration of different modules is intensively investigated. Problems for in-line processes such as solvent incompatibilities, e.g., for a multistep synthesis or the combination of an organic drug synthesis with a cell-based biological activity testing system, require a solvent exchange between serialized modules. Here, we present a continuously operating microfluidic solvent exchanger based on the principle of free-flow electrophoresis for miscible organic/aqueous fluids. We highlight a proof-of-principle and describe the working principle for the model compound fluorescein, where the organic solvent DMSO is exchanged against an aqueous buffer. The DMSO removal performance could be significantly increased to 95% by optimization of the microfluidic layout. Moreover, the optimization of the inlet flow ratio resulted in a minimized dilution factor of 5, and we were able to demonstrate that a reduction of the supporting instrumentation is possible without a significant decrease of the DMSO removal performance. Finally, the compatibility of the developed solvent exchanger for cell based downstream applications was proven. The impedimetric monitoring of HEK293A cells in a continuously operating microfluidic setup revealed no adverse effects of the residual DMSO after the solvent replacement. Our solvent exchanger device demonstrates the power of micro-free-flow electrophoresis not only as a powerful technique for separation and purification of compound mixtures but also for solvent replacement.

  11. Continuous-flow single-molecule CE with high detection efficiency. (United States)

    Schiro, Perry G; Kuyper, Christopher L; Chiu, Daniel T


    This paper describes the use of two-beam line-confocal detection geometry for measuring the total mobility of individual molecules undergoing continuous-flow CE separation. High-sensitivity single-molecule confocal detection is usually performed with a diffraction limited focal spot (approximately 500 nm in diameter), which necessitates the use of nanometer-sized channels to ensure all molecules flow through the detection volume. To allow for the use of larger channels that are a few micrometers in width, we employed cylindrical optics to define a rectangular illumination area that is diffraction-limited (approximately 500 nm) in width, but a few micrometers in length to match the width of the microchannel. We present detailed studies that compare the performance of this line-confocal detection geometry with the more widely used point-confocal geometry. Overall, we found line-confocal detection to provide the highest combination of signal-to-background ratio and spatial detection efficiency when used with micrometer-sized channels. For example, in a 2 microm wide channel we achieved a 94% overall detection efficiency for single Alexa488 dye molecules when a 2 microm x 0.5 microm illumination area was used, but only 34% detection efficiency with a 0.5 microm-diameter detection spot. To carry out continuous-flow CE, we used two-beam fluorescent cross-correlation spectroscopy where the transit time of each molecule is determined by cross-correlating the fluorescence registered by two spatially offset line-confocal detectors. We successfully separated single molecules of FITC, FITC-tagged glutamate, and FITC-tagged glycine.

  12. Continuous Flow Peritoneal Dialysis: First Experience in Children with Acute Renal Failure (United States)

    Schröder, Cornelis H.; Gajjar, Priya; Argent, Andrew; Nourse, Peter


    Summary Background and objectives Acute renal failure can be treated with different dialysis modalities, depending on patient characteristics and hospital resources. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be first choice in situations like hypotension, disturbed coagulation, or difficult venous access. The main disadvantage of PD is the relatively limited efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous flow peritoneal dialysis (CFPD) is a more effective treatment than conventional PD in acute renal failure. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A pilot study was performed at The Red Cross University Hospital in Cape Town in six patients. Patients were treated with both CFPD and conventional PD for 8 to 16 hours. CFPD was performed with two bedside-placed catheters. After initial filling, dialysate flow rate (100 ml/1.73 m2 per minute) was maintained with an adapted continuous venovenous hemofiltration machine. Ultrafiltration flow rate was set at 2.5 ml/1.73 m2 per minute. Results Mean ultrafiltration was 0.20 ml/1.73 m2 per minute with conventional PD versus 1.8 ml/1.73 m2 per minute with CFPD. Mean clearances of urea and creatinine were 5.0 and 7.6 ml/1.73 m2 per minute with conventional PD versus 15.0 and 28.8 ml/1.73 m2 per minute with CFPD, respectively. No complications occurred. Conclusions In this first report of CFPD in six pediatric patients with acute renal failure, CFPD was on average three to five times more effective for urea and creatinine clearance and ultrafiltration than conventional PD, without any complications observed. CFPD has the ability to improve therapy for acute renal failure . PMID:21030578

  13. Heart Rate and V˙O2 Concordance in Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices. (United States)

    Kerrigan, Dennis J; Williams, Celeste T; Brawner, Clinton A; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Saval, Matthew A; Peterson, Edward L; Lanfear, David E; Tita, Christina; Velez, Mauricio; Selektor, Yelena; Keteyian, Steven J


    The American College of Sports Medicine currently recommends the HR reserve (HRR) method to guide exercise in individuals who have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. This recommendation is based on the known association between %HRR and percentage of V˙O2 reserve (%V˙O2R) in this population. However, to our knowledge, no studies exist regarding this relation in individuals with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). This article aimed to describe the relation between V˙O2 and surrogate markers of exercise intensity among patients with LVAD. Patients with continuous-flow LVAD (n = 24, seven females) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test on a treadmill. HR and V˙O2 were measured continuously and averaged every 20 s. Regression equations were determined using a generalized estimating equation to predict %V˙O2R from %HRR, Borg RPE, and LVAD flow, overall and stratified by presence of pacing. Although the association between %HRR and %V˙O2R was good (R = 0.75), the slope and y-intercept for %HRR versus %V˙O2R was different from the line of identity (P = 0.002). However, when paced subjects were excluded (n = 8) from the analysis, there was no significant difference between the slope and y-intercept (= 0.036 + 0.937 × %HRR; SEE, 2%; P = 0.052). RPE showed a strong association with %V˙O2R (R = 0.84), whereas LVAD flow showed a weak (albeit statistically significant) association (R = 0.05). Both had slopes and y-intercepts that were different from the line of identity (P intensity.

  14. Superior performance of continuous over pulsatile flow ventricular assist devices in the single ventricle circulation: A computational study. (United States)

    Schmidt, Tyler; Rosenthal, David; Reinhartz, Olaf; Riemer, Kirk; He, Fei; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Marsden, Alison; Kung, Ethan


    This study compares the physiological responses of systemic-to-pulmonary shunted single ventricle patients to pulsatile and continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VADs). Performance differences between pulsatile and continuous flow VADs have been clinically observed, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Six systemic-to-pulmonary shunted single ventricle patients (mean BSA=0.30m(2)) were computationally simulated using a lumped-parameter network tuned to match patient specific clinical data. A first set of simulations compared current clinical implementation of VADs in single ventricle patients. A second set modified pulsatile flow VAD settings with the goal to optimize cardiac output (CO). For all patients, the best-case continuous flow VAD CO was at least 0.99L/min greater than the optimized pulsatile flow VAD CO (p=0.001). The 25 and 50mL pulsatile flow VADs exhibited incomplete filling at higher heart rates that reduced CO as much as 9.7% and 37.3% below expectations respectively. Optimization of pulsatile flow VAD settings did not achieve statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement to CO. Results corroborate clinical experience that continuous flow VADs produce higher CO and superior ventricular unloading in single ventricle patients. Impaired filling leads to performance degradation of pulsatile flow VADs in the single ventricle circulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  16. Modeling on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Strands (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman


    During the centrifugal continuous casting process, unreasonable casting parameters can cause violent level fluctuation, serious gas entrainment, and formation of frozen shell pieces at the meniscus. Thus, in the current study, a three-dimensional multiphase turbulent model was established to study the transport phenomena during centrifugal continuous casting process. The effects of nozzle position, casting and rotational speed on the flow pattern, centrifugal force acting on the molten steel, level fluctuation, gas entrainment, shear stress on mold wall, and motion of inclusions during centrifugal continuous casting process were investigated. Volume of Fluid model was used to simulate the molten steel-air two-phase. The level fluctuation and the gas entrainment during casting were calculated by user-developed subroutines. The trajectory of inclusions in the rotating system was calculated using the Lagrangian approach. The results show that during centrifugal continuous casting, a large amount of gas was entrained into the molten steel, and broken into bubbles of various sizes. The greater the distance to the mold wall, the smaller the centrifugal force. Rotation speed had the most important influence on the centrifugal force distribution at the side region. Angular moving angle of the nozzle with 8° and keeping the rotation speed with 60 revolutions per minute can somehow stabilize the level fluctuation. The increase of angular angle of nozzle from 8 to 18 deg and rotation speed from 40 to 80 revolutions per minute favored to decrease the total volume of entrained bubbles, while the increase of distance of nozzle moving left and casting speed had reverse effects. The trajectories of inclusions in the mold were irregular, and then rotated along the strand length. After penetrating a certain distance, the inclusions gradually moved to the center of billet and gathered there. More work, such as the heat transfer, the solidification, and the inclusions entrapment

  17. Thermal performance of shallow solar pond under open cycle continuous flow heating mode for heat extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sebaii, A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt)]. E-mail:; Aboul-Enein, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt); Ramadan, M.R.I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt); Khallaf, A.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt)


    The thermal performance of a shallow solar pond (SSP) under an open cycle continuous flow heating mode for heat extraction has been investigated. A serpentine heat exchanger (HE), either welded to the absorber plate or immersed in the pond water, has been used for extracting the heat. Suitable computer programs have been developed based on analytical solutions of the energy balance equations for the various elements of the SSP in the presence of the HE. Numerical calculations have been performed to study the effect of different operational and configurational parameters on the pond performance. In order to improve the pond performance, optimization of the various dimensions of the pond with the HE has been performed. The effects of the design parameters of the HE's tube, i.e. length L{sub he}, diameter D and mass flow rate m-bar {sub f} of the fluid flowing through the HE, on the pond performance have been investigated. The outlet temperature of the HE's fluid T{sub fo} is found to increase with increase of the HE length L{sub he}, and it decreases with increase of the mass flow rate of the HE's fluid m-bar {sub f} up to typical values for these parameters. Typical values for L{sub he} and m-bar {sub f} are found to be 4m and 0.004kg/s beyond which the change in T{sub fo} becomes insignificant. Experiments have been performed for the pond under different operational conditions with a HE welded to the absorber plate. To validate the proposed mathematical models, comparisons between experimental and theoretical results have been performed. Good agreement has been achieved.

  18. Continuous-Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy in a Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flow (United States)

    Thawoos, Shameemah; Suas-David, Nicolas; Suits, Arthur


    We introduce a new approach that couples a pulsed uniform supersonic flow with high sensitivity continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy (UF-CRDS) operated in the near infrared (NIR). This combination is related to the CRESU technique developed in France and used for many years to study reaction kinetics at low temperature, and to the microwave based chirped-pulse uniform supersonic flow spectrometer (CPUF) developed in our group which has successfully demonstrated the use of pulsed uniform supersonic flow to probe reaction dynamics at temperatures as low as 22 K. CRDS operated with NIR permits access to the first overtones of C-H and O-H stretching/bending which, in combination with its extraordinary sensitivity opens new experiments complementary to the CPUF technique. The UF-CRDS apparatus (Figure) utilizes the pulsed uniform flow produced by means of a piezo-electric stack valve in combination with a Laval nozzle. At present, two machined aluminum Laval nozzles designed for carrier gases Ar and He generate flows with a temperature of approximately 25 K and pressure around 0.15 mbar. This flow is probed by an external cavity diode laser in the NIR (1280-1380 nm). Laval nozzles designed using a newly developed MATLAB-based program will be used in the future. A detailed illustration of the novel UF-CRDS instrumentation and its performance will be presented along with future directions and applications. I. Sims, J. L. Queffelec, A. Defrance, C. Rebrion-Rowe, D. Travers, P. Bocherel, B. Rowe, I. W. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 4229-4241, (1994). C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, N. Ariyasingha, L. N. Zack, I. R. Sims, R. W. Field, A. G. Suits, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 1599-1604, (2015). N. Suas-David, T. Vanfleteren, T. Foldes, S. Kassi, R. Georges, M. Herman, J. Phys. Chem.A, 119, 10022-10034, (2015). C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, Y. Shi, A. Kamasah, J. M. Oldham, A. G. Suits, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 116107, (2014).

  19. The NOFLO trial: low-flow nasal prongs therapy in weaning nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Sinéad M


    To determine if low-flow nasal prongs therapy with room air, compared with no treatment, facilitates weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500 g) infants.

  20. Development of a standardized curriculum concept for continuing training in hernia surgery: German Hernia School. (United States)

    Lorenz, R; Stechemesser, B; Reinpold, W; Fortelny, R; Mayer, F; Schröder, W; Köckerling, F


    The increasingly more complex nature of hernia surgery means that training programs for young surgeons must now meet ever more stringent requirements. There is a growing demand for improved structuring and standardization of education and training in hernia surgery. In 2011, the concept of a Hernia School was developed in Germany and has been gradually implemented ever since. That concept comprises the following series of interrelated, tiered course elements: Hernie kompakt (Hernia compact), Hernie konkret (Hernia concrete), and Hernie complex (Hernia complex). All three course elements make provision for structured clinical training based on guest visits to approved hernia centers. The Hernia compact basic course imparts knowledge of anatomy working with fresh cadavers. Hernia surgery procedures can also be conducted using unfixed specimens. Knowledge of abdominal wall ultrasound diagnostics is also imparted and hernia surgery procedures simulated on pelvic trainers. In all three course elements, lectures are delivered by experts across the entire field of hernia surgery using evidence-based practices from the literature. To date, eight Hernie kompakt (Hernia compact) courses have been conducted, in each case with up to 55 participants, and with a total of 390 participants. On evaluating the course, over 95% of participants expressed the view that the Hernia compact course content improved hernia surgery training. Following that positive feedback, the more advanced Hernie konkret (Hernia concrete) and Hernie complex (Hernia complex) course elements were introduced in 2016. The experiences gained to date since the introduction of a Hernia School-a standardized curriculum concept for continuing training in hernia surgery-has been evaluated by participants as an improvement on hitherto hernia surgery training.

  1. A New Electrochemical System Based on a Flow-Field Shaped Solid Electrode and 3D-Printed Thin-Layer Flow Cell: Detection of Pb(2+) Ions by Continuous Flow Accumulation Square-Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. (United States)

    Sun, Qianwen; Wang, Jikui; Tang, Meihua; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Zhiyi; Liu, Chang; Lu, Xiaohua; Hunter, Kenneth W; Chen, Guosong


    Here we describe a new and sensitive flow electrochemical detection system that employs a novel flow-field shaped solid electrode (FFSSE). The system was constructed with a 3D-printed thin-layer flow cell (TLFC) and a flat screen-printed FFSSE with USB connection. This interface facilitates continuous flow accumulation square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The flow distribution in the working space of TLFC was simulated using the finite element method (FEM) and the shape and configuration of electrodes were optimized accordingly. We demonstrated the electrochemical determination of Pb(2+) using this newly designed TLFC-FFSSE detection system without removal of oxygen from samples. This TLFC-FFSSE based system showed an attractive stripping voltammetric performance compared to a traditional ASV based method. A linear range for detection of Pb(2+) was found to be 0.5-100 μg/L (0.5 to 100 ppb) and a detection limit of 0.2 μg/L (0.2 ppb) was achieved in the presence of bismuth as codeposition metal. The system was further applied to detect Pb(2+) in biological broths of methane fermentation. The electrochemical detection results were consistent with that obtained from atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) analysis and the average recovery was found to be 95.5-106.5% using a standard addition method. This new flow electrochemical detection system showed better sensitivity and reproducibility compared to a traditional ASV based method. Such a system offers great potential for on-site and real-time detection of heavy metals where compact, inexpensive, robust, and low-volume analysis is required.

  2. Selected low-flow frequency statistics for continuous-record streamgages in Georgia, 2013 (United States)

    Gotvald, Anthony J.


    This report presents the annual and monthly minimum 1- and 7-day average streamflows with the 10-year recurrence interval (1Q10 and 7Q10) for 197 continuous-record streamgages in Georgia. Streamgages used in the study included active and discontinued stations having a minimum of 10 complete climatic years of record as of September 30, 2013. The 1Q10 and 7Q10 flow statistics were computed for 85 streamgages on unregulated streams with minimal diversions upstream, 43 streamgages on regulated streams, and 69 streamgages known, or considered, to be affected by varying degrees of diversions upstream. Descriptive information for each of these streamgages, including the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) station number, station name, latitude, longitude, county, drainage area, and period of record analyzed also is presented.Kendall’s tau nonparametric test was used to determine the statistical significance of trends in annual and monthly minimum 1-day and 7-day average flows for the 197 streamgages. Significant negative trends in the minimum annual 1-day and 7-day average streamflow were indicated for 77 of the 197 streamgages. Many of these significant negative trends are due to the period of record ending during one of the recent droughts in Georgia, particularly those streamgages with record through the 2013 water year. Long-term unregulated streamgages with 70 or more years of record indicate significant negative trends in the annual minimum 7-day average flow for central and southern Georgia. Watersheds for some of these streamgages have experienced minimal human impact, thus indicating that the significant negative trends observed in flows at the long-term streamgages may be influenced by changing climatological conditions. A Kendall-tau trend analysis of the annual air temperature and precipitation totals for Georgia indicated no significant trends. A comprehensive analysis of causes of the trends in annual and monthly minimum 1-day and 7-day average flows in central

  3. Quantitative angle-insensitive flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT. (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Buyun; Qi, Li; Wang, Ling; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhongping


    Incorporating different data processing methods, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurements. However, OCT angiography cannot provide quantitative information of flow velocities, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which is a challenge in a complex vascular network. In this study, we report on a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) method which provides both vascular network mapping and quantitative information for flow velocities within a wide range of Doppler angles. The RSD values are angle-insensitive within a wide range of angles, and a nearly linear relationship was found between the RSD values and the flow velocities. The RSD-OCT measurement in a rat cortex shows that it can quantify the blood flow velocities as well as map the vascular network in vivo .

  4. Quantitative angle-insensitive flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Buyun; Qi, Li; Wang, Ling; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhongping


    Incorporating different data processing methods, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurements. However, OCT angiography cannot provide quantitative information of flow velocities, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which is a challenge in a complex vascular network. In this study, we report on a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) method which provides both vascular network mapping and quantitative information for flow velocities within a wide range of Doppler angles. The RSD values are angle-insensitive within a wide range of angles, and a nearly linear relationship was found between the RSD values and the flow velocities. The RSD-OCT measurement in a rat cortex shows that it can quantify the blood flow velocities as well as map the vascular network in vivo.

  5. Validation of a continuous flow method for the determination of soluble iron in atmospheric dust and volcanic ash. (United States)

    Simonella, Lucio E; Gaiero, Diego M; Palomeque, Miriam E


    Iron is an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton growth and is supplied to the remote areas of the ocean mainly through atmospheric dust/ash. The amount of soluble Fe in dust/ash is a major source of uncertainty in modeling-Fe dissolution and deposition to the surface ocean. Currently in the literature, there exist almost as many different methods to estimate fractional solubility as researchers in the field, making it difficult to compare results between research groups. Also, an important constraint to evaluate Fe solubility in atmospheric dust is the limited mass of sample which is usually only available in micrograms to milligrams amounts. A continuous flow (CF) method that can be run with low mass of sediments (<10mg) was tested against a standard method which require about 1g of sediments (BCR of the European Union). For validation of the CF experiment, we run both methods using South American surface sediment and deposited volcanic ash. Both materials tested are easy eroded by wind and are representative of atmospheric dust/ash exported from this region. The uncertainty of the CF method was obtained from seven replicates of one surface sediment sample, and shows very good reproducibility. The replication was conducted on different days in a span of two years and ranged between 8 and 22% (i.e., the uncertainty for the standard method was 6-19%). Compared to other standardized methods, the CF method allows studies of dissolution kinetic of metals and consumes less reagents and time (<3h). The method validated here is suggested to be used as a standardized method for Fe solubility studies on dust/ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial communities in batch and continuous-flow wetlands treating the herbicide S-metolachlor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, O.F. [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France); Génétique Moléculaire, Génomique, Microbiologie (GMGM), UMR 7156 University of Strasbourg/CNRS (France); Maillard, E. [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France); Vuilleumier, S. [Génétique Moléculaire, Génomique, Microbiologie (GMGM), UMR 7156 University of Strasbourg/CNRS (France); Imfeld, G., E-mail: [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France)


    Knowledge of wetland bacterial communities in the context of pesticide contamination and hydrological regime is scarce. We investigated the bacterial composition in constructed wetlands receiving Mercantor Gold{sup ®} contaminated water (960 g L{sup −1} of the herbicide S-metolachlor, > 80% of the S-enantiomer) operated under continuous-flow or batch modes to evaluate the impact of the hydraulic regime. In the continuous-flow wetland, S-metolachlor mass removal was > 40%, whereas in the batch wetland, almost complete removal of S-metolachlor (93–97%) was observed. Detection of ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradation products further indicated S-metolachlor biodegradation in the two wetlands. The dominant bacterial populations were characterised by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial profiles evolved during the first 35 days of the experiment, starting from a composition similar to that of inlet water, with the use of nitrate and to a lesser extent sulphate and manganese as terminal electron acceptors for microbial metabolism. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum, with Beta-, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria representing 26%, 19% and 17% respectively of total bacterial abundance. Bacterial composition in wetland water changed gradually over time in continuous-flow wetland and more abruptly in the batch wetland. Differences in overall bacterial water structure in the two systems were modest but significant (p = 0.008), and S-metolachlor, nitrate, and total inorganic carbon concentrations correlated with changes in the bacterial profiles. Together, the results highlight that bacterial composition profiles and their dynamics may be used as bioindicators of herbicide exposure and hydraulic disturbances in wetland systems. - Highlights: • We evaluated the bacterial composition in wetlands treating S-metolachlor • Hydraulic regime impacted biogeochemical processes and S-metolachlor removal

  7. Continuous Flow Photochemistry for the Rapid and Selective Synthesis of 2'-Deoxy and 2',3'-Dideoxynucleosides


    Shen, Bo; Timothy F. Jamison


    A new photochemical flow reactor has been developed for the photo-induced electron-transfer deoxygenation reaction to produce 2′-deoxy and 2′,3′-dideoxynucleosides. The continuous flow format significantly improved both the efficiency and selectivity of the reaction, with the streamlined multi-step sequence directly furnishing the highly desired unprotected deoxynucleosides.

  8. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE... (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the respirator...

  9. The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards (United States)

    Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.


    The flow regime is a primary determinant of the structure and function of aquatic and riparian ecosystems for streams and rivers. Hydrologic alteration has impaired riverine ecosystems on a global scale, and the pace and intensity of human development greatly exceeds the ability of scientists to assess the effects on a river-by-river basis. Current scientific understanding of hydrologic controls on riverine ecosystems and experience gained from individual river studies support development of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. 2. This paper presents a consensus view from a group of international scientists on a new framework for assessing environmental flow needs for many streams and rivers simultaneously to foster development and implementation of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. This framework, the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA), is a synthesis of a number of existing hydrologic techniques and environmental flow methods that are currently being used to various degrees and that can support comprehensive regional flow management. The flexible approach allows scientists, water-resource managers and stakeholders to analyse and synthesise available scientific information into ecologically based and socially acceptable goals and standards for management of environmental flows. 3. The ELOHA framework includes the synthesis of existing hydrologic and ecological databases from many rivers within a user-defined region to develop scientifically defensible and empirically testable relationships between flow alteration and ecological responses. These relationships serve as the basis for the societally driven process of developing regional flow standards. This is to be achieved by first using hydrologic modelling to build a 'hydrologic foundation' of baseline and current hydrographs for stream and river segments throughout the region. Second, using a set of ecologically relevant flow variables, river segments within the

  10. Enantiomerically pure trans-beta-lactams from alpha-amino acids via compact fluorescent light (CFL) continuous-flow photolysis. (United States)

    Vaske, Yvette S Mimieux; Mahoney, Maximillian E; Konopelski, Joseph P; Rogow, David L; McDonald, William J


    Photolysis of alpha-diazo-N-methoxy-N-methyl (Weinreb) beta-ketoamides derived from enantiomerically pure (EP) alpha-amino acids affords the corresponding EP beta-lactams via an intramolecular Wolff rearrangement. The photochemistry is promoted with either standard UV irradiation or through the use of a 100 W compact fluorescent light; the latter affords a safe and environmentally friendly alternative to standard photolysis conditions. A continuous-flow photochemical reactor made from inexpensive laboratory equipment reduced reaction times and was amenable to scale-up. The diastereoselectivity (cis or trans) of the product beta-lactams has been shown to vary from modest to nearly complete. An extremely facile, atom-economical method for the epimerization of the product mixture to the trans isomer, which is generally highly crystalline, has been developed. Evidence for C3 epimerization of Weinreb amide structures via a nonbasic, purely thermal route is presented. Subsequent transformations of both the Weinreb amide at C3 (beta-lactam numbering) and the amino acid side chain at C4 are well-tolerated, allowing for a versatile approach to diverse beta-lactam structures. The technology is showcased in the synthesis of a common intermediate used toward several carbapenem-derived structures starting from unfunctionalized aspartic acid.

  11. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride. (United States)

    Schotten, Christiane; Plaza, Dorota; Manzini, Simone; Nolan, Steven P; Ley, Steven V; Browne, Duncan L; Lapkin, Alexei


    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl 2 ( i Bu-phoban) 2 (3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas-liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested.

  12. Reliability Evaluation of Power System Considering Voltage Stability and Continuation Power Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Saket


    Full Text Available This article describes the methodology for evaluation of the reliability of an composite electrical power system considering voltage stability and continuation power flow, which takes into account the peak load and steady state stability limit. The voltage stability is obtained for the probable outage of transmission lines and removal of generators along with the combined state probabilities. The loss of load probabilities (LOLP index is evaluated by merging the capacity probability with load model. State space is truncated by assuming the limits on total numbers of outages of generators and transmission lines. A prediction correction technique has been used along with one dimensional search method to get optimized stability limit for each outage states. The algorithm has been implemented on a six-bus test system.

  13. Harnessing the Versatility of Continuous-Flow Processes: Selective and Efficient Reactions. (United States)

    Mándity, István M; Ötvös, Sándor B; Szőlősi, György; Fülöp, Ferenc


    There is a great need for effective transformations and a broad range of novel chemical entities. Continuous-flow (CF) approaches are of considerable current interest: highly efficient and selective reactions can be performed in CF reactors. The reaction setup of CF reactors offers a wide variety of possible points where versatility can be introduced. This article presents a number of selective and highly efficient gas-liquid-solid and liquid-solid reactions involving a range of reagents and immobilized catalysts. Enantioselective transformations through catalytic hydrogenation and organocatalytic reactions are included, and isotopically labelled compounds and pharmaceutically relevant 1,2,3-triazoles are synthesized in CF reactors. Importantly, the catalyst bed can be changed to a solid-phase peptide synthesis resin, with which peptide synthesis can be performed with the utilization of only 1.5 equivalents of the amino acid. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Continuous flow centrifuge leucapheresis in the management of chronic myelogenous leukaemia. (United States)

    Hadlock, D C; Fortuny, I E; McCullough, J; Kennedy, B J


    Six patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) were treated by repeated continuous flow centrifuge (CFC) leucapheresis. In six of seven courses of leucapheresis there was no improvement in splenomegaly. In no instance was the leucocyte count reduced to the normal range. The immediate changes in peripheral leucocytosis produced by each CFC leucapheresis procedure were quite variable. There was no correlation between the intensity of a series of CFC leucapheresis procedures and the total clinical effectiveness of the therapy. Balancing potential benefits against definite costs to the patient, CFC leucapheresis seems justified in only a minority of CML patients. Untreated CML patients who have cyclic leucocytosis may be the best candidates for this therapy. Currently this form of therapy for CML remains experimental.

  15. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections.

  16. Continuous Transitions between Discontinuous Magnetohydrodynamic Flows of Plasma and Its Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ledentsov, L S


    The possibility that the type of discontinuous flow changes as the conditions gradually (continuously) change is investigated in connection with the problems arising when the results of numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection in plasma are interpreted. The conservation laws at a discontinuity surface in magnetohydrodynamics admit such transitions, but the socalled transition solutions for the boundary conditions that simultaneously satisfy two types of discontinuities should exist in this case. The specific form of such solutions has been found, and a generalized scheme of permitted transitions has been constructed on their basis. An expression for the jump in internal energy at discontinuity is derived. The dependence of the plasma heating efficiency on the type of discontinuity is considered.

  17. Rapid Determination of Optimal Conditions in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Process Analytical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roberto


    Full Text Available Continuous flow reactors (CFRs are an emerging technology that offer several advantages over traditional batch synthesis methods, including more efficient mixing schemes, rapid heat transfer, and increased user safety. Of particular interest to the specialty chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries is the significantly improved reliability and product reproducibility over time. CFR reproducibility can be attributed to the reactors achieving and maintaining a steady state once all physical and chemical conditions have stabilized. This work describes the implementation of a smart CFR with univariate physical and multivariate chemical monitoring that allows for rapid determination of steady state, requiring less than one minute. Additionally, the use of process analytical technology further enabled a significant reduction in the time and cost associated with offline validation methods. The technology implemented for this study is chemistry and hardware agnostic, making this approach a viable means of optimizing the conditions of any CFR.

  18. [Unsegmented continuous-flow sample processing and electrochemical detection of gaseous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, H.A.


    Goals were a continuous-flow, unsegmented, all-gas carrier and/or a segmented liquid/gas interface system for sample introduction and transport to detection/determination point; a regenerable electrode probe base on redox reactions of Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes with 1, 10-phenanthroline and related ligands; and amperometric/coulometric current measurements providing analyte signals. Gases to be detected included NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2]. This report is divided into 3 parts: preparation of new ligands of 1,10-phenanthroline family; glassy carbon surfaces coated with polymeric films prepared from monomeric units of tris[5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline]iron(II); and sulfite oxidase/hexacyanoferrate modified C paste electrode.

  19. [Continuous dry fermentation of pig manure using up plug-flow type anaerobic reactor]. (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Deng, Liang-Wei; Xin, Xin; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Yi; Kong, Chui-Xue


    To solve the problems of ammonia inhibition and discharging difficulty in continuous dry fermentation of pig manure, under the experimental conditions of temperature of (25 +/- 2) degrees C and organic loading rate (TS) of 4.44 g x (L x d) (-1), a lab-scale up plug-flow type anaerobic reactor (UPAR) was setup to investigate biogas production, ammonia inhibition, effluent liquidity, and the feasibility of continuous dry fermentation of pig manure using up plug-flow type anaerobic reactor. The experiment was operated for 160 days using the pig manure with four different TS mass fractions (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%) as feeding. Results showed that the feeding TS mass fraction exerted a significant influence on the dry fermentation of pig manure; the stable volumetric biogas production rates of four different feeding TS mass fractions were 2.40, 1.73, 0.89, and 0.62 L x (L x d)(-1), respectively; the biogas producing efficiencies of the reactors with feeding TS mass fractions of 20%, 25% and 30% were obviously superior to that with feeding TS of 35%. With feeding TS mass fraction increased from 20% to 35%, obvious inhibition to biogas producing occurred when concentration of ammonia nitrogen reached more than 2 300 mg x L(-1). When the feeding TS mass fraction was 35%, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen could accumulate to 3 800 mg x L(-1) but biogas production rate decreased 74.1% of that with feeding TS of 20%. Additionally, while the feeding TS mass fraction was 35%, the effluent TS mass fraction achieved 17.1%, and the velocity of effluent was less than 0.002 m x s(-1) the effluent of UPAR could not be smoothly discharged.

  20. Multi-electrode continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell for biogas production from acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Rader, Geoffrey K.


    Most microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) contain only a single set of electrodes. In order to examine the scalability of a multiple-electrode design, we constructed a 2.5 L MEC containing 8 separate electrode pairs made of graphite fiber brush anodes pre-acclimated for current generation using acetate, and 304 stainless steel mesh cathodes (64 m2/m3). Under continuous flow conditions and a one day hydraulic retention time, the maximum current was 181 mA (1.18 A/m2, cathode surface area; 74 A/m 3) within three days of operation. The maximum hydrogen production (day 3) was 0.53 L/L-d, reaching an energy efficiency relative to electrical energy input of ηE = 144%. Current production remained relatively steady (days 3-18), but the gas composition dramatically shifted over time. By day 16, there was little H2 gas recovered and methane production increased from 0.049 L/L-d (day 3) to 0.118 L/L-d. When considering the energy value of both hydrogen and methane, efficiency relative to electrical input remained above 100% until near the end of the experiment (day 17) when only methane gas was being produced. Our results show that MECs can be scaled up primarily based on cathode surface area, but that hydrogen can be completely consumed in a continuous flow system unless methanogens can be completely eliminated from the system. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypotensive effects of resistance exercise with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rodrigues Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of low-intensity (LI resistance exercise (RE with continuous blood flow restriction (CBFR and intermittent blood flow restriction (IBFR on systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP. After a one-repetition maximum test, 10 normotensive recreationally trained men performed three experimental protocols. In the three RE protocols, increases in SBP, DBP, and MAP were observed immediately after exercise, but the effect sizes (ESs were greater for the LI + CBFR and high-intensity protocols. There were hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP in all three protocols; however, the effects on MAP lasted longer for the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols. These long-lasting hypotensive effects on DBP and MAP occurred in all three protocols. Thus, we conclude that the post exercise hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP appear to occur in all three RE protocols, with the effect on SBP being longer in the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols.

  2. Generating pulsatility by pump speed modulation with continuous-flow total artificial heart in awake calves. (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Karimov, Jamshid H; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David J; Byram, Nicole; Kuban, Barry D; Dessoffy, Raymond; Sale, Shiva; Golding, Leonard A R; Moazami, Nader


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sinusoidal pump speed modulation of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) on hemodynamics and pump flow in an awake chronic calf model. The sinusoidal pump speed modulations, performed on the day of elective sacrifice, were set at ±15 and ± 25% of mean pump speed at 80 bpm in four awake calves with a CFTAH. The systemic and pulmonary arterial pulse pressures increased to 12.0 and 12.3 mmHg (±15% modulation) and to 15.9 and 15.7 mmHg (±25% modulation), respectively. The pulsatility index and surplus hemodynamic energy significantly increased, respectively, to 1.05 and 1346 ergs/cm at ±15% speed modulation and to 1.51 and 3381 ergs/cm at ±25% speed modulation. This study showed that it is feasible to generate pressure pulsatility with pump speed modulation; the platform is suitable for evaluating the physiologic impact of pulsatility and allows determination of the best speed modulations in terms of magnitude, frequency, and profiles.

  3. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor. (United States)

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene


    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salt removal using multiple microbial desalination cells under continuous flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Qu, Youpeng


    Four microbial desalination cells (MDCs) were hydraulically connected and operated under continuous flow conditions. The anode solution from the first MDC flowed into the cathode, and then on to the anode of the next reactor, which avoided pH imbalances that inhibit bacterial metabolism. The salt solution also moved through each desalination chamber in series. Increasing the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of the salt solution from 1 to 2. days increased total NaCl removal from 76 ± 1% to 97 ± 1%, but coulombic efficiencies decreased from 49 ± 4% to 35 ± 1%. Total COD removals were similar at both HRTs (60 ± 2%, 2. days; 59 ± 2%, 1. day). Community analysis of the anode biofilms showed that bacteria most similar to the xylose fermenting bacterium Klebsiella ornithinolytica predominated in the anode communities, and sequences most similar to Geobacter metallireducens were identified in all MDCs except the first one. These results demonstrated successful operation of a series of hydraulically connected MDCs and good desalination rates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  5. Continuous Flow Controlled Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pulsed Mixing Microfluidic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Liu


    Full Text Available To prepare the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs with uniform sizes, fine morphology, and good monodispersity, a pulsed mixing microfluidic system based on PZT actuation was presented. The system includes PZT micropump and Y type micromixer. By adjusting voltage (entrance flow rate, pulsed frequency, phase, and other parameters, a variety of mixing modes can be achieved, so as to realize the controllable synthesis of nanoparticles in a certain range. By numerical simulation and analysis, the channel section size, entrance angle, and pulse frequency were optimized. Based on the optimized structure and working parameters, the test prototype has been manufactured in lab, and the related synthesis tests of AuNPs were carried out. The test results indicate that AuNPs with uniform morphology and good monodispersity can be synthesized using the system with the section size (0.4 mm × 0.4 mm, the entrance channel angle (60° under condition of the pulsed frequency (300 Hz, and the entrance flow rate (4 mL/min. The average diameter and its standard deviation of AuNPs synthesized were 21.6 nm, 4.83 nm, respectively. The research work above can be applied to the fields such as the controlled synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles, biomedicine, and microchemical system.

  6. Zero-flow : A novel approach to continuous ultrasonic welding of CF/PPS thermoplastic composite plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senders, F.; van Beurden, M.; Palardy, G.; Fernandez Villegas, I.


    Continuous ultrasonic welding of plastic films, fabrics, and even thermoplastic composite prepreg tape is a common industrial practice. However, continuous ultrasonic welding of stiff thermoplastic composite plates is challenging due to squeeze flow of resin at the welding interface, and significant

  7. Creating an educationally minded schedule: one approach to minimize the impact of duty hour standards on intern continuity clinic experience. (United States)

    DeBlasio, Dominick; Kerrey, M Kathleen; Sucharew, Heidi; Klein, Melissa


    To determine if implementing an educationally minded schedule utilizing consecutive night shifts can moderate the impact of the 2011 duty hour standards on education and patient continuity of care in longitudinal primary care experience (continuity clinic). A 14-month pre-post study was performed in continuity clinic with one supervising physician group and two intern groups. Surveys to assess attitudes and education were distributed to the supervising physicians and interns before and after the changes in duty hour standards. Intern groups' schedules were reviewed for the number of regular and alternative day clinic (i.e. primary care experience on a different weekday) sessions and patient continuity of care. Fifteen supervising physicians and 51 interns participated (25 in 2011, 26 in 2012). Intern groups' comfort when discussing patient issues, educational needs and teamwork perception did not differ. Supervising physicians' understanding of learning needs and provision of feedback did not differ between groups. Supervising physicians indicated a greater ability to provide feedback and understand learning needs during regular continuity clinic sessions compared with alternative day clinics (all p < 0.05). No significant difference was detected between intern groups in the number of regularly scheduled continuity clinics, alternative day clinics or patient continuity of care. The 2011 duty hour standards required significant alterations to intern schedules, but educationally minded scheduling limited impact on education and patient continuity in care.

  8. Standard Test Method for Resin Flow of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the amount of resin flow that will take place from prepreg tape or sheet under given conditions of temperature and pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Effect of sampling regime on estimation of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss using flow-through respirometry. (United States)

    Cooper, C E; Withers, P C


    Strict criteria have been established for measurement of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss to ensure that data can be compared intra- and interspecifically. However, data-sampling regimes vary, from essentially continuous sampling to interrupted (switching) systems with data recorded periodically at more widely spaced intervals. Here we compare one continuous and three interrupted sampling regimes to determine whether sampling regime has a significant effect on estimation of basal metabolic rate or standard evaporative water loss. Compared to continuous 20-s sampling averaged over 20 min, sampling every 6 min and averaging over 60 min overestimated basal metabolic rate and evaporative water loss, sampling every 3 min and averaging over 21 min underestimated basal metabolic rate, and sampling every 12 min and averaging over 36 min showed no difference in estimates. Increasing the period over which the minimum mean was calculated significantly increased estimates of physiological variables. Reducing the frequency of sampling from 20 s to a longer interval of 3, 6, or 12 min underestimated basal metabolic rate but not evaporative water loss. This indicates that sampling frequency per se influences estimates of basal metabolic rate and that differences are not just an artifact of differences in the period over which the mean is calculated. Sampling regime can have a highly significant influence on estimation of standard physiological variables, although the actual differences between sampling regimes were generally small (usually <5%). Although continuous sampling is the preferred sampling regime for open-flow respirometry studies, if time and cost are prohibitive, then use of an appropriate switching system will result in smaller errors than measuring individuals continuously for shorter periods.

  10. Verification of a computational cardiovascular system model comparing the hemodynamics of a continuous flow to a synchronous valveless pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device (United States)

    Gohean, Jeffrey R.; George, Mitchell J.; Pate, Thomas D.; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G.; Smalling, Richard W.


    The purpose of this investigation is to utilize a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device to continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous, pulsatile, valveless, dual piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared to measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared to the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device. PMID:23438771

  11. The Comparison Flow of Four Impression Compounds (Green Stick with ADA Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mir Mohammad Rezaei


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Low- fusing compound (type 1 is used for border molding and impressions. Flow and reproducibility of surface detail are two important characteristics of these materials. There are no valid data available comparing domestic and imported brands.Purpose: The Purpose of this study was to evaluate these two properties of four different products including Kerr (Kerr Manufacture MI 98174-2600, Harvard (Hoffman Harvard Dental GMb H Germany; Kymia (Kymia dental company 713 Iran; and Pishro (Pishro72534 Iran.Materials and Methods: All procedures were followed according to ADA and BSStandard.Total number of 48 samples were divided into 8 groups (6 in each group.Twenty disks were fabricated for impression tests. The specimen dimensions were 40 mm (diameter and 6mm (thickness. Standard test blocks were used to test the specimens.Results: The Willcoxon test showed significant difference in flow rate between materials tested with the best result for Kerr (P<0.05. Kerr flow was 85% and under 5% at 45°C and 37°C, respectively. There were great deviations from standards value at 45°C. For the rest of the samples at 37°C; except Kymia the flow rate for 3 materials (Kerr; Harvard Pishrowere almost acceptable. The impression test results revealed that only Kerr was able torecord the details at 45°C.Conclusion: Kerr flow is exactly what ADA standards specify. But the flow rate for three materials exhibit a great distance from these standards. In impression test only Kerr was able to record the details

  12. A microfluidic device providing continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction heating and cooling (United States)

    Harandi, A.; Farquhar, T.


    The objective of this study is to describe a new type of microfluidic device that could be used to manipulate fluid temperature in many microfluidic applications. The key component is a composite material containing a thermally conductive phase placed in a purposeful manner to manipulate heat flow into and out of an embedded microchannel. In actual use, the device is able to vary temperature along a defined flow path with remarkable precision. As a demonstration of capability, a functional prototype was designed and fabricated using four layers of patterned copper laminated between alternating layers of polyimide and acrylic. The key fabrication steps included laser micromachining, acid etching, microchannel formation, and hot lamination. In order to achieve the desired temperature variations along the microchannel, an outer optimization loop and an inner finite element analysis loop were used to iteratively obtain a near-optimal copper pattern. With a minor loss of generality, admissible forms were restricted to comb-like patterns. For a given temperature profile, the pattern was found by refining a starting guess based on a deterministic rubric. Thermal response was measured using fine thermocouples placed at critical locations along the microchannel wall. At most of these points, the agreement between measured and predicted temperatures was within 1 °C, and temperature gradients as high as ±45 °C mm-1 (equivalent to ±90 °C s-1 at 2 μl min-1 flow rate) were obtained within the range of 59-91 °C. The particular profile chosen for case study makes it possible to perform five cycles of continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in less than 15 s, i.e. it entails five successive cycles of cooling from 91 to 59 °C, rapid reheating from 59 to 73 °C, slow reheating from 73 to 76 °C, and a final reheating from 73 to 91 °C, using a resistively heated source at 100 °C at and a thermoelectrically cooled sink at 5 °C.

  13. Incidence of electrocardiographic changes during cytapheresis using an intermittent flow centrifuge, haemonetics V50 and a continuous flow centrifuge, AS104. (United States)

    Komatsu, F; Kajiwara, M


    Electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring was performed during cytapheresis and the incidence of ECG changes was compared between methods of intermittent flow centrifugation using the Haemonetics V50 with apheresis donors and continuous flow centrifugation with the AS104 for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection from patients. ST depression, inverted T wave and other ECG changes were found in 49 (14.3%) of the 342 cytaphereses carried out by the intermittent flow centrifugation method and in 8 (4.7%) of the 169 PBSC collections by the continuous flow centrifugation method. This difference was significant (P < 0.05). The hemodynamic changes in the procedure with the AS104 seem to be small. This is considered to be important for prevention of serious ST and T wave changes.

  14. In-line monitoring and optimization of powder flow in a simulated continuous process using transmission near infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Alam, Md Anik; Shi, Zhenqi; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A


    In-line monitoring of continuous powder flow is an integral part of the continuous manufacturing process of solid oral dosage forms in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, monitoring downstream from loss-in-weight (LIW) feeders and/or continuous mixers provides important data about the state of the process. Such measurements support control of the process and thereby enhance product quality. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a potential PAT tool to monitor the homogeneity of a continuous powder flow stream in pharmaceutical manufacturing. However, the association of analytical results from NIR sampling of the powder stream and the homogeneity (content uniformity) of the resulting tablets provides several challenges; appropriate sampling strategies, adequately robust modeling techniques and poor sensitivities (for low dose APIs) are amongst them. Information from reflectance-based NIRS sampling is limited. The region of the powder bed that is interrogated is confined to the surface where the measurement is made. This potential bias in sampling may, in turn, limit the ability to predict the homogeneity of the finished dosage form. Further, changes to the processing parameters (e.g., rate of powder flow) often have a significant effect on the resulting data. Sample representation, interdependence between process parameters and their effects on powder flow behavior are critical factors for NIRS monitoring of continuous powder flow system. A transmission NIR method was developed as an alternative technique to monitor continuous powder flow and quantify API in the powder stream. Transmission NIRS was used to determine the thickness of the powder stream flowing from a loss-in-weight feeder. The thickness measurement of the powder stream provided an in-depth understanding about the effects of process parameters such as tube angles and powder flow rates on powder flow behaviors. This knowledge based approach helped to define an analytical design space that was

  15. Neuro-genetic optimization of temperature control for a continuous flow polymerase chain reaction microdevice. (United States)

    Lee, Hing Wah; Arunasalam, Parthiban; Laratta, William P; Seetharamu, Kankanhalli N; Azid, Ishak A


    In this study, a hybridized neuro-genetic optimization methodology realized by embedding finite element analysis (FEA) trained artificial neural networks (ANN) into genetic algorithms (GA), is used to optimize temperature control in a ceramic based continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CPCR) device. The CPCR device requires three thermally isolated reaction zones of 94 degrees C, 65 degrees C, and 72 degrees C for the denaturing, annealing, and extension processes, respectively, to complete a cycle of polymerase chain reaction. The most important aspect of temperature control in the CPCR is to maintain temperature distribution at each reaction zone with a precision of +/-1 degree C or better, irrespective of changing ambient conditions. Results obtained from the FEA simulation shows good comparison with published experimental work for the temperature control in each reaction zone of the microfluidic channels. The simulation data are then used to train the ANN to predict the temperature distribution of the microfluidic channel for various heater input power and fluid flow rate. Once trained, the ANN analysis is able to predict the temperature distribution in the microchannel in less than 20 min, whereas the FEA simulation takes approximately 7 h to do so. The final optimization of temperature control in the CPCR device is achieved by embedding the trained ANN results as a fitness function into GA. Finally, the GA optimized results are used to build a new FEA model for numerical simulation analysis. The simulation results for the neuro-genetic optimized CPCR model and the initial CPCR model are then compared. The neuro-genetic optimized model shows a significant improvement from the initial model, establishing the optimization method's superiority.

  16. Continuous monitoring of water flow and solute transport using vadose zone monitoring technology (United States)

    Dahan, O.


    Groundwater contamination is usually attributed to pollution events that initiate on land surface. These may be related to various sources such as industrial, urban or agricultural, and may appear as point or non point sources, through a single accidental event or a continuous pollution process. In all cases, groundwater pollution is a consequence of pollutant transport processes that take place in the vadose zone above the water table. Attempts to control pollution events and prevent groundwater contamination usually involve groundwater monitoring programs. This, however, can not provide any protection against contamination since pollution identification in groundwater is clear evidence that the groundwater is already polluted and contaminants have already traversed the entire vadose zone. Accordingly, an efficient monitoring program that aims at providing information that may prevent groundwater pollution has to include vadose-zone monitoring systems. Such system should provide real-time information on the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water and serve as an early warning system capable of detecting pollution events in their early stages before arrival of contaminants to groundwater. Recently, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) was developed to allow continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water in the deep vadose zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes for continuous tracking of water content profiles, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) for frequent sampling of the deep vadose pore water at multiple depths. The monitoring probes and sampling ports are installed through uncased slanted boreholes using a flexible sleeve that allows attachment of the monitoring devices to the borehole walls while achieving good contact between the sensors and the undisturbed sediment column. The system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and

  17. Lattice Boltzmann method for simulation of compressible flows on standard lattices. (United States)

    Prasianakis, Nikolaos I; Karlin, Iliya V


    The recently introduced lattice Boltzmann model for thermal flow simulation on a standard lattice [Prasianakis and Karlin, Phys. Rev. E 76, 016702 (2007)] is studied numerically in the case where compressibility effects are essential. It is demonstrated that the speed of sound and shock propagation are described correctly in a wide temperature range, and that it is possible to take into account additional physics such as heat sources and sinks. A remarkable simplicity of the model makes it viable for engineering applications in subsonic flows with large temperature and density variations.

  18. Continuous gene flow contributes to low global species abundance and distribution of a marine model diatom

    KAUST Repository

    Rastogi, Achal


    Unlike terrestrial ecosystems where geographical isolation often leads to a restricted gene flow between species, genetic admixing in aquatic micro-eukaryotes is likely to be frequent. Diatoms inhabit marine ecosystems since the Mesozoic period and presently constitute one of the major primary producers in the world ocean. They are a highly diversified group of eukaryotic phytoplankton with estimates of up to 200,000 species. Since decades, Phaeodactylum tricornutum is used as a model diatom species to characterize the functional pathways, physiology and evolution of diatoms in general. In the current study, using whole genome sequencing of ten P. tricornutum strains, sampled at broad geospatial and temporal scales, we show a continuous dispersal and genetic admixing between geographically isolated strains. We also describe a very high level of heterozygosity and propose it to be a consequence of frequent ancestral admixture. Our finding that P. tricornutum sequences are plausibly detectable at low but broadly distributed levels in the world ocean further suggests that high admixing between geographically isolated strains may create a significant bottleneck, thus influencing their global abundance and distribution in nature. Finally, in an attempt to understand the functional implications of genetic diversity between different P. tricornutum ecotypes, we show the effects of domestication in inducing changes in the selection pressure on many genes and metabolic pathways. We propose these findings to have significant implications for understanding the genetic structure of diatom populations in nature and provide a framework to assess the genomic underpinnings of their ecological success.

  19. Examination of protein degradation in continuous flow, microbial electrolysis cells treating fermentation wastewater. (United States)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Yates, Matthew D; Zaybak, Zehra; Logan, Bruce E


    Cellulose fermentation wastewaters (FWWs) contain short chain volatile fatty acids and alcohols, but they also have high concentrations of proteins. Hydrogen gas production from FWW was examined using continuous flow microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), with a focus on fate of the protein. H2 production rates were 0.49±0.05 m(3)/m(3)-d for the FWW, compared to 0.63±0.02 m(3)/m(3)-d using a synthetic wastewater containing only acetate (applied potential of 0.9 V). Total organic matter removal was 76±6% for the FWW, compared to 87±5% for acetate. The MEC effluent became relatively enriched in protein (69%) compared to that in the original FWW (19%). Protein was completely removed using higher applied voltages (1.0 or 1.2 V), but current generation was erratic due to more positive anode potentials (-113±38 mV, Eap=1.2V; -338±38 mV, 1.0 V; -0.426±4 mV, 0.9V). Bacteria on the anodes with FWW were primarily Deltaproteobacteria, while Archaea were predominantly Methanobacterium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microwave-Osmotic Dehydration of Cranberries under Continuous Flow Medium Spray Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wray


    Full Text Available Microwave-osmotic dehydration of cranberries was evaluated under continuous flow medium spray (MWODS conditions after some pretreatments. A central composite rotatable design was used with three input variables at five levels (temperature, 33°C–67°C; sucrose concentration, 33°B–67°B; and contact time, 5–55 min. Responses were moisture loss (ML, solids gain (SG, and weight reduction (WR as well as color and texture parameters. The responses were related to process variables using response surface methodology and statistical analysis: each model was tested for lack of fit to assure nonsignificance (P>0.05 and each process variable was tested for significance (P<0.05  or  P<0.0001. Temperature was found to have the most prominent effect as it was significant with all drying (ML, SG, and WR and quality (hardness and chewiness parameters, while contact time was found to be significant with ML and WR. Concentration wasn’t found to be significant for any response. Increasing skin pretreatment severity generally promoted SG but had little effect on ML. The exception was chemical peeling, which favored ML but had no effect on SG. Overall, MWODS enables food dehydration in a much faster period of time than conventional osmotic dehydration (COD, while specifically promoting moisture loss over solids gain.

  1. Characteristics of the electrocardiogram in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. (United States)

    Martinez, Sara C; Fansler, Derrick; Lau, Jeffrey; Novak, Eric L; Joseph, Susan M; Kleiger, Robert E


    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are routinely obtained in patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) before and after surgical implantation with a left-ventricular assist device (LVAD). As the number of patients with CHF is increasing, it is necessary to characterize the changes present in the ECG of patients with LVADs. ECGs of 43 patients pre- and postimplantation of a HeartMate II LVAD were compared to characterize the presence of an LVAD using the following six criteria (LVADS2 ): low limb-lead voltage, ventricular pacing, artifact (electrical), duration of the QRS > 120 milliseconds, ST-elevation in the lateral leads, and splintering of the QRS complex. Additionally, 50 ECGs of non-LVAD patients coded as "lateral myocardial infarction (MI)" and 50 ECGs coded as "ventricular pacing" were chosen at random and scored. Odds ratios were calculated using Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression models were built to predict the presence of an LVAD in all patients. Univariate analysis of the pre- and post-LVAD ECGs confirmed that all criteria except the "Duration of QRS > 120 milliseconds" characterized the ECG of a patient with an LVAD. Electrical artifact and low limb-lead voltage yielded the greatest association with an LVAD-ECG. The ECG of a patient with end-stage CHF significantly changes with LVAD implantation. The LVADS2 criteria provide a framework towards characterizing and establishing a new baseline of the ECG in a patient with a continuous-flow LVAD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Examination of protein degradation in continuous flow, microbial electrolysis cells treating fermentation wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn


    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Cellulose fermentation wastewaters (FWWs) contain short chain volatile fatty acids and alcohols, but they also have high concentrations of proteins. Hydrogen gas production from FWW was examined using continuous flow microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), with a focus on fate of the protein. H2 production rates were 0.49±0.05m3/m3-d for the FWW, compared to 0.63±0.02m3/m3-d using a synthetic wastewater containing only acetate (applied potential of 0.9V). Total organic matter removal was 76±6% for the FWW, compared to 87±5% for acetate. The MEC effluent became relatively enriched in protein (69%) compared to that in the original FWW (19%). Protein was completely removed using higher applied voltages (1.0 or 1.2V), but current generation was erratic due to more positive anode potentials (-113±38mV, Eap=1.2V; -338±38mV, 1.0V; -0.426±4mV, 0.9V). Bacteria on the anodes with FWW were primarily Deltaproteobacteria, while Archaea were predominantly Methanobacterium.

  3. Comparison of work of breathing using drawover and continuous flow anaesthetic breathing systems in children. (United States)

    Bell, G T; McEwen, J P J; Beaton, S J; Young, D


    We compared the work of breathing under general anaesthesia in children using drawover and continuous flow anaesthetic systems. A pilot study was conducted in four children weighing > 20 kg in whom it would usually be considered appropriate to use breathing systems designed for adult anaesthesia. The pilot study compared work of breathing using the Mapleson D breathing system and the Triservice Anaesthetic Apparatus (TSAA). Work of breathing was calculated using the modified Campbell technique that calculates work using a pressure volume loop derived from oesophageal pressure and airway gas volume measurements. We found no difference in the work of breathing when comparing the Mapleson D and the TSAA in children > 20 kg. Following completion of the pilot study, we conducted a study on 10 children weighing between 10 and 20 kg comparing work of breathing using the Mapleson F breathing system and the TSAA. We found no significant difference in the work of breathing between the Mapleson F and the TSAA for these children. The TSAA can therefore be recommended for use down to a lower weight limit of 10 kg.

  4. Human Fitting Studies of Cleveland Clinic Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Steffen, Robert J.; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Cruz, Vincent; Golding, Leonard A.R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Moazami, Nader


    Implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices is challenging, especially in patients with a small chest cavity. We evaluated how well the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) fit the anatomy of patients about to receive a heart transplant. A mock pump model of the CFTAH was rapid-prototyped using biocompatible materials. The model was brought to the operative table, and the direction, length, and angulation of the inflow/outflow ports and outflow conduits were evaluated after the recipient's ventricles had been resected. Thoracic cavity measurements were based on preoperative computed tomographic data. The CFTAH fit well in all five patients (height, 170 ± 9 cm; weight, 75 ± 24 kg). Body surface area was 1.9 ± 0.3 m2 (range, 1.6-2.1 m2). The required inflow and outflow port orientation of both the left and right housings appeared consistent with the current version of the CFTAH implanted in calves. The left outflow conduit remained straight, but the right outflow direction necessitated a 73 ± 22 degree angulation to prevent potential kinking when crossing over the connected left outflow. These data support the fact that our design achieves the proper anatomical relationship of the CFTAH to a patient's native vessels. PMID:25806613

  5. The role of continuous flow centrifuge leucapheresis in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. (United States)

    Fortuny, I E; Hadlock, D C; Kennedy, B J; Theologides, A; McCullough, J


    Continuous flow centrifuge leucapheresis (CFCL) provides a simple, mechanical technique for removing large numbers of circulating lymphocytes without cytotoxicity. Seven sequences of CFCL were performed on six patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). In six, the median course consisted of six procedures in 10 days. A median total of 27.7 X 10(11) leucocytes were removed and a 70% drop in leucocyte counts (from 433 X 10(9)/l. to 130 X 10(9)/l.) was observed with little fall in haemoglobin and platelet counts. Tissue massess decreased in two patients. A similar effect was seen in one patient managed less intensively with 21 procedures being performed over 73 days, removing a total of 87.6 X 10(11) leucocytes. The peripheral leucocyte count decreased from 760 X 10(9)/l. to 114 X 10(9)/l. and hepatomegaly diminished markedly. One patient has survived for over 9 months since CFCL but stayed in control only briefly after each of two courses. Short courses of daily CFCL can produce short-term benefit in the management of advanced CLL but at present its main value is as an investigational form of therapy which provides a unique opportunity to study the cytokinetics of advanced CLL without the complications of superimposed cytotoxic therapy.

  6. Risk Factors of Gastrointestinal Bleeding After Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device. (United States)

    Balcioglu, Ozlem; Kemal, Hatice S; Ertugay, Serkan; Ozturk, Pelin; Engin, Yaprak; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Engin, Cagatay; Yagdi, Tahir; Ozbaran, Mustafa


    This study aimed to compare von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels, ristocetin cofactor levels, platelet counts, aortic valve movements, and right heart failure (RHF) as risk factors of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist device (cf-LVAD). In a single centre, 90 patients (mean age 52.0 ± 10.5 years), of which 59 were male and 31 were female, had cf-LVAD implantation from October 2010 to November 2012. Seventy-six (84.4%) patients had HeartWare (Medtronic, Mounds View, MN) and 14 (15.5%) had Heartmate II (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) implanted. vWF level, ristocetin cofactor level, and platelet count were measured before and after implantation to determine the presence of acquired von Willebrand Syndrome; aortic valve movement and postoperative RHF were evaluated to compare the difference in bleeding and nonbleeding patient groups. Fifteen patients (16.6%) suffered GI bleeding after cf-LVAD implantation. A statistically significant decrease was found in vWF and ristocetin cofactor levels from preoperative period to postoperative period in both bleeding and nonbleeding patient groups (p RHF incidence was significantly high in the bleeding patient group compared with the nonbleeding group (p RHF was an important risk factor for GI bleeding.

  7. A three-step method for analysing bacterial biofilm formation under continuous medium flow. (United States)

    Schmutzler, Karolin; Schmid, Andreas; Buehler, Katja


    For the investigation and comparison of microbial biofilms, a variety of analytical methods have been established, all focusing on different growth stages and application areas of biofilms. In this study, a novel quantitative assay for analysing biofilm maturation under the influence of continuous flow conditions was developed using the interesting biocatalyst Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120. In contrast to other tubular-based assay systems, this novel assay format delivers three readouts using a single setup in a total assay time of 40 h. It combines morphotype analysis of biofilm colonies with the direct quantification of biofilm biomass and pellicle formation on an air/liquid interphase. Applying the Tube-Assay, the impact of the second messenger cyclic diguanylate on biofilm formation of P. taiwanensis VLB120 was investigated. To this end, 41 deletions of genes encoding for protein homologues to diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase were generated in the genome of P. taiwanensis VLB120. Subsequently, the biofilm formation of the resulting mutants was analysed using the Tube-Assay. In more than 60 % of the mutants, a significantly altered biofilm formation as compared to the parent strain was detected. Furthermore, the potential of the proposed Tube-Assay was validated by investigating the biofilms of several other bacterial species.

  8. Continuous flowing micro-reactor for aqueous reaction at temperature higher than 100 °C. (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Tian; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong; Wu, Wengang; Li, Zhihong


    Some aqueous reactions in biological or chemical fields are accomplished at a high temperature. When the reaction temperature is higher than 100 °C, an autoclave reactor is usually required to elevate the boiling point of the water by creating a high-pressure environment in a closed system. This work presented an alternative continuous flowing microfluidic solution for aqueous reaction with a reaction temperature higher than 100 °C. The pressure regulating function was successfully fulfilled by a small microchannel based on a delicate hydrodynamic design. Combined with micro heater and temperature sensor that integrated in a single chip by utilizing silicon-based microfabrication techniques, this pressure regulating microchannel generated a high-pressure/high-temperature environment in the upstream reaction zone when the reagents continuously flow through the chip. As a preliminary demonstration, thermal digestion of aqueous total phosphorus sample was achieved in this continuous flowing micro-reactor at a working pressure of 990 kPa (under the working flow rate of 20 nl/s) along with a reaction temperature of 145 °C. This continuous flowing microfluidic solution for high-temperature reaction may find applications in various micro total analysis systems.

  9. Three-dimensional printed magnetophoretic system for the continuous flow separation of avian influenza H5N1 viruses. (United States)

    Wang, Yuhe; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Ronghui; Wang, Maohua; Lin, Jianhan


    As a result of the low concentration of avian influenza viruses in samples for routine screening, the separation and concentration of these viruses are vital for their sensitive detection. We present a novel three-dimensional printed magnetophoretic system for the continuous flow separation of the viruses using aptamer-modified magnetic nanoparticles, a magnetophoretic chip, a magnetic field, and a fluidic controller. The magnetic field was designed based on finite element magnetic simulation and developed using neodymium magnets with a maximum intensity of 0.65 T and a gradient of 32 T/m for dragging the nanoparticle-virus complexes. The magnetophoretic chip was designed by SOLIDWORKS and fabricated by a three-dimensional printer with a magnetophoretic channel for the continuous flow separation of the viruses using phosphate-buffered saline as carrier flow. The fluidic controller was developed using a microcontroller and peristaltic pumps to inject the carrier flow and the viruses. The trajectory of the virus-nanoparticle complexes was simulated using COMSOL for optimization of the carrier flow and the magnetic field, respectively. The results showed that the H5N1 viruses could be captured, separated, and concentrated using the proposed magnetophoretic system with the separation efficiency up to 88% in a continuous flow separation time of 2 min for a sample volume of 200 μL. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases (United States)

    Woodruff, Stephen


    NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.

  11. 77 FR 74449 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF41 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing... regulation the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Final Rule... Information Does this action apply to me? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested...

  12. 75 FR 45579 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing... 26, 2010, notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to..., ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters.'' This supplemental notice...

  13. Effect of time of cutting and maceration on forage composition, nutrient flow, microbial protein synthesis, and digestibility in dual-flow continuous culture (United States)

    Maceration and evening-cutting are two forage management techniques that have improved forage quality and nutrient utilization in ruminants independently, but have not been evaluated in combination. Using a dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system, this study evaluated the individual and combin...

  14. Optimization of Continuous Flow Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions on Continuous System Column by Peganum Harmala Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhameh Mohammadpour


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Heavy metals discharge to environment is a worldwide problem growing in scale. When they accumulate in the environment and in food chains, they can profoundly disrupt biological processes. Peganum Harmala Seeds (PHS was used as a bio-sorbent, using a continuous system for removing Pb2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions. Materials and Methods: PHS was used as adsorbent in adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. A stock solution of Pb(II, Co(II, Cu (II and Ni (II was prepared and experiments were down in a column as a reactor. The concentration was determined by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. The effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time, heavy metal concentration, ionic strength, particle size and adsorbent dosage on the process was investigated. Langmuir, Frundlich and Temkin isotherms were studied to evaluate of adsorption isotherms. Results: The adsorption efficiency was found to be pH dependent and enhanced by increasing the solution pH. Maximum removal of ions were obtained at pH=4-8. The equilibrium time was attained after 30 min and desorption studies were performed, using diluted HNO3, H2SO4 and HCl solution (1M on adsorbed metal ions from PHS. Results illustrated that adsorbed metal ions could be recovered under acidic conditions. Investigation of the process kinetic was best fitted with pseudo second-order model. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were tested for describing the equilibrium data. The Langmuir isotherm illustrated the best description of the cobalt and copper adsorption mechanism and Freundlich model describes lead and nickel ions adsorption on PHS. Conclusion: It was found that PHS would be a good adsorbent for removal of heavy metals.

  15. Continuous counter-current extraction on an industrial sample using dual-flow counter-current chromatography. (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Remco; Mathews, Ben; Dubant, Stephane; Sutherland, Ian


    Both batch and continuous separations were performed on an industrial liquor using a specially built continuous counter-current extraction centrifuge. Changing the flow regime for different batch separations showed that the elution of components from the respective ends of the coil depends on the flow rates of both upper and lower phases. It was shown that, within the scope of the study, the elution of the components was not affected by the concentration of the injected reaction liquor and more importantly that continuous processing with a counter-current chromatography centrifuge was feasible. This research represents an important step forward in making continuous counter-current chromatography (or true moving bed chromatography) accessible for the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Analysis of Temperature Field, Heat and Fluid Flow of Two-Phase Zone Continuous Casting Cu–Sn Alloy Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo J.


    Full Text Available Cu–4.7 wt. % Sn alloy wire with Ø10 mm was prepared by two-phase zone continuous casting technology, and the temperature field, heat and fluid flow were investigated by the numerical simulated method. As the melting temperature, mold temperature, continuous casting speed and cooling water temperature is 1200 °C, 1040 °C, 20 mm/min and 18 °C, respectively, the alloy temperature in the mold is in the range of 720 °C–1081 °C, and the solid/liquid interface is in the mold. In the center of the mold, the heat flow direction is vertically downward. At the upper wall of the mold, the heat flow direction is obliquely downward and deflects toward the mold, and at the lower wall of the mold, the heat flow deflects toward the alloy. There is a complex circular flow in the mold. Liquid alloy flows downward along the wall of the mold and flows upward in the center.

  17. Enhancing continuity in care: an implemantation of the ASTM E2369-05 Standard Specification for Continuity of Care Record in a homecare application. (United States)

    Botsivaly, M; Spyropoulos, B; Koutsourakis, K; Mertika, K


    Sharing of healthcare related information among the different healthcare providers is a crucial aspect for the continuity of the provided care The purpose of this study is the presentation of a system appropriate to be used upon the transition or the referral of a patient, and especially in transition from hospital to homecare. The function of the developed system is based upon the creation of a structured subset of data, concerning the most relevant facts about a patient's healthcare, organized and transportable, in order to be employed during the post-discharge homecare period, enabling simultaneously the planning and the optimal documentation of the provided homecare. The structure and the content of the created data sets are complying with the ASTM E2369-0 Standard, Specification for Continuity of Care Record.

  18. Synthesis of Core@Shell Nanostructures in a Continuous Flow Droplet Reactor: Controlling Structure through Relative Flow Rates. (United States)

    Santana, Joshua S; Koczkur, Kallum M; Skrabalak, Sara E


    Bimetallic nanostructures are primarily synthesized in small volume batches. However, droplet-based reactors are receiving attention due to their ability to maintain thermal and compositional equilibrium within and between droplets, enabling flow operations for inline analyses and the scale-up of nanomaterial syntheses. Here, the syntheses of shape-controlled core@shell Au@Pd nanostructures with variable shell thicknesses are reported through control of the relative flow rates of reagents within the microreactor. Specifically, Pd shells were grown on cubic or octahedral Au seeds, selected as a model system. In batch reactions, shell thickness is determined by precursor concentration; however, as shown here, precursor feedstock concentration can be held constant, with the precursor concentration within the droplets being controlled through relative flow rates. This approach allows process conditions to be modified inline rather than from batch to batch to achieve particles with different shell thicknesses, and this procedure should be applicable to other multicomponent systems.

  19. Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China (United States)

    Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng


    SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

  20. Integrated continuous flow polymerase chain reaction and micro-capillary electrophoresis system with bioaffinity preconcentration. (United States)

    Njoroge, Samuel K; Witek, Magorzata A; Battle, Katrina N; Immethun, Vicki E; Hupert, Mateusz L; Soper, Steven A


    An integrated and modular DNA analysis system is reported that consists of two modules: (i) A continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CFPCR) module fabricated in a high T(g) (150°C) polycarbonate substrate in which selected gene fragments were amplified using biotin and fluorescently labeled primers accomplished by continuously shuttling small packets of PCR reagents and template through isothermal zones as opposed to heating and cooling large thermal masses typically performed in batch-type thermal reactors. (ii) μCE (micro-capillary electrophoresis) module fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), which utilized a bioaffinity selection and purification bed (2.9  μL) to preconcentrate and purify the PCR products generated from the CFPCR module prior to electrophoretic sorting. Biotin-labeled CFPCR products were hydrostatically pumped through the streptavidin-modified bed, where they were extracted onto the surface of micropillars. The affinity bed was also fabricated in PMMA and was populated with an array of microposts (50  μm width; 100  μm height) yielding a total surface area of ∼117  mm(2). This solid-phase extraction (SPE) process demonstrated high selectivity for biotinylated amplicons and utilized the strong streptavidin/biotin interaction (K(d) = 10(-15)  M) to generate high recoveries. The SPE selected CFPCR products were thermally denatured and single-stranded DNA released for injection into a 7-cm-long μCE channel for size-based separations and fluorescence detection. The utility of the system was demonstrated using Alu DNA typing for gender and ethnicity determinations as a model. Compared with the traditional cross-T injection procedure typically used for μCE, the affinity pre-concentration and injection procedure generated signal enhancements of 17- to 40-fold, critical for CFPCR thermal cyclers due to Taylor dispersion associated with their operation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE) (United States)

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae


    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis.

  2. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE). (United States)

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae


    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis.

  3. The continuous high-precision measurement of the density of flowing blood. (United States)

    Kenner, T; Leopold, H; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H


    The "mechanical oscillator" technique for the measurement of the density of fluids is based on the influence of mass on the natural frequency of a mechanical oscillator. The practical application of this principle was worked out by Kratky et al. (1969) and Leopold (1970). It is demonstrated in this study that the method permits the continuous high-precision measurement of the density of flowing blood in anesthetized animals. The accuracy is 10(5) g/ml, the maximum sampling rate 20/min. As found in rabbits and cats during the control state, physiological blood density changes related to spontaneous blood pressure variations are up to 2-10(4) g/ml. The method can be combined with i.v. injections of isotonic and iso-oncotic solutions to determine cardiac output and blood volume on the basis of a "density dilution" principle. Since the density of the interstitial fluid is lower than that of blood, fluid shifts through the capillary walls can be detected. The effects of hypertonic glucose and of hyperoncotic dextran have been examined. Changes in the density of the arterial blood appear within 10 s after i.v. injection of these fluids. Similarly, density changes result from hemorrhage and reinfusion. During and after i.v. administration of vasoactive drugs (noradrenaline, angiotensin II, acetylcholine), marked transient changes in blood density are seen which obviously reflect the effects of fluid shifts through the capillary walls. During hemorrhagic hypotension we found periodic variations in the blood density synchronous with spontaneously occurring Mayer waves. The new method seems to be a promising tool for investigations physiological and pathological capillary fluid dynamics.

  4. Simple Continuous-Flow Device for Combined Solar Thermal Pasteurization and Solar Disinfection for Water Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Amsberry


    Full Text Available A collection unit and reflective concentrators were used to thermally preheat water to at least 70 °C for thermal pasteurization prior to a solar disinfection stage. The device is offered as a novel combined cycle to be used for either solar thermal pasteurization, during seasonalpeaks in solar irradiation, or as a solar preheat for UV solar disinfection which would occur in a flow-through solar disinfection trough. Inexpensive materials were used in order to simulate in field functionality and applicability to rural regions with low solar input. Solar incidence at Oregon State University, with latitude 45.5°, was recorded during trials conducted during May 1 to June 10 for the purpose of directly scaling the water treatment volumetric flowrate of the device for any future tests in other locations. This scaling by solar irradiation makes this dataset useful for other locations with higher or lower solar input and needing more or less treated water. The simple gravity-fed continuous system presented in this article makes use of a large cold water reservoir, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and a solar collector. The system, operating at flowrates of 100-150 mL/min is able to reach outlet temperatures of 74°C.  The system is projected to produce 55 L of purified water daily when operating on a sunny day with peak UV radiation above 700 W/m2. System cost was $55 with an added optional $15 for the shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

  5. Modeling of Flow Field and Slag/liquid Interface in the Crystallizer System of a Thin Slab Steel Continuous Casting (United States)

    Mahmodi, S.; Meisami, A. H.; Atabaki, M. Mazar; Aboutalebi, M. R.


    In the present investigation, a three dimensional steady flow field model inside crystallizer system of a thin slab steel continuous caster is presented using real geometrical dimension starting from the inlet port of the nozzle. The nozzle flow was modeled considering the minimum casting defects. In addition, a new numerical model is developed for a thin slab casting mold. The velocity of the liquid from the inlet and outlet of the nozzle was considered as the boundary condition. The liquid flow field was computed with main concern on the velocities exiting the nozzle ports for the flow in the liquid pool. It was shown that the fluid pattern in the liquid pool has four main fluid rings including two fluid rings provided by the outer fluid coming from the bottom outlets into the liquid pool and two small fluid rings prepared by the fluid coming from the upper inlets into the liquid pool. The flow pattern agrees well with real measurements obtained by water model. The pool simulation shows asymmetries between two sides of the flow, mainly in the lower recirculation zone. The predictions of slag/liquid interface at the top side of the nozzle and its fluctuations show good agreement with the experimental results. The maximum upward wave flow occurred because of the liquid contact to the upper ports. Hence, a maximum upward flow wave was defined to prevent any unsteady state at the highest casting speed and lowest submergence depth.

  6. Palladium on Carbon-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling Reaction Using an Efficient and Continuous Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Hattori


    Full Text Available The continuous flow Suzuki-Miyaura reaction between various haloarenes and arylboronic acids was successfully achieved within only ca. 20 s during the single-pass through a cartridge filled with palladium on carbon (Pd/C. No palladium leaching was observed in the collected reaction solution by atomic absorption spectrometry (detection limit: 1 ppm.

  7. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements on atmospheric methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brass, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823600; Roeckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233


    We describe a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) technique for high-precision δD and δ13C measurements of atmospheric methane on 40 mL air samples. CH4 is separated from other air components by utilizing purely physical processes based on temperature, time and mechanical valve

  8. The continuous-flow synthesis of carbazate hydrazones using a simplified computer-vision controlled liquid-liquid extraction system


    O'Brien, M.; Cooper, D.; Mhembere, P


    A computer-vision controlled liquid-liquid extraction system was used in the continuous-flow synthesis of a series of carbazate hydrazones. The system uses open-source software components (Python, OpenCV) and is simpler and potentially more economical, in terms of hardware, than one we have described previously.


    Lee, Mike; Akashi, Hirokazu; Kato, Tomoko S.; Takayama, Hiroo; Wu, Christina; Xu, Katherine; Collado, Elias; Weber, Matthew P.; Kennel, Peter J.; Brunjes, Danielle L; Ji, Ruiping; Naka, Yoshifumi; George, Isaac; Mancini, Donna; Farr, Maryjane; Schulze, P. Christian


    Objective Left ventricular assist devices are increasingly used in patients with advanced heart failure as both destination therapy and bridge-to-transplantation. We aimed to analyze histomorphometric, structural and inflammatory changes following pulsatile and continuous flow left ventricular assist device placement. Method Clinical and echocardiographic data were collected from medical records. Aortic wall diameter, cellularity and inflammation were assessed by immunohistochemistry on aortic tissue collected at left ventricular assist device placement and at explantation during heart transplantation. Expression of adhesion molecules was quantified by western blot. Results Decellularization of the aortic tunica media was observed in patients receiving continuous flow support. Both device types showed an increased inflammatory response following left ventricular assist device placement with variable T cell and macrophage accumulations and increased expression of vascular E-selectin, ICAM and VCAM in the aortic wall. Conclusion Left ventricular assist device implantation is associated with distinct vascular derangements with development of vascular inflammation. These changes are pronounced in patients on continuous flow left ventricular assist and associated with aortic media decellularization. These findings help to explain the progressive aortic root dilation and vascular dysfunction in patients following continuous flow device placement. PMID:26899764

  10. Exercise hemodynamics during extended continuous flow left ventricular assist device support: the response of systemic cardiovascular parameters and pump performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Jerson; Jonge, Nicolaas; Rutten, Marcel; Kirkels, J. Hans; Klöpping, Corinne; Rodermans, Ben; Sukkel, Eveline; Hulstein, Nelienke; Mol, Bas; Lahpor, Jaap


    Patients on continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) are able to return to an active lifestyle and perform all sorts of physical activities. This study aims to evaluate exercise hemodynamics in patients with a HeartMate II cf-LVAD (HM II). Thirty (30) patients underwent a bicycle

  11. The synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using continuous flow chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumann, Marcus; Baxendale, Ian R


    .... This review article aims to illustrate the holistic systems approach and diverse applications of flow chemistry to the preparation of pharmaceutically active molecules, demonstrating the value...

  12. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining... the table titled Table 10--HIGH VOLTAGE TRAILING CABLE AMPACITIES AND OUTSIDE DIAMETERS, the first...

  13. Raster-Mode Continuous-Flow Liquid Microjunction Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Proteins in Thin Tissue Sections. (United States)

    Griffiths, Rian L; Randall, Elizabeth C; Race, Alan M; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J


    Mass spectrometry imaging by use of continuous-flow liquid microjunction sampling at discrete locations (array mode) has previously been demonstrated. In this Letter, we demonstrate continuous-flow liquid microjunction mass spectrometry imaging of proteins from thin tissue sections in raster mode and discuss advantages (a 10-fold reduction in analysis time) and challenges (suitable solvent systems, data interpretation) of the approach. Visualization of data is nontrivial, requiring correlation of solvent-flow, mass spectral data acquisition rate, data quality, and liquid microjunction sampling area. The latter is particularly important for determining optimum pixel size. The minimum achievable pixel size is related to the scan time of the instrument used. Here we show a minimum achievable pixel size of 50 μm (x-dimension) when using an Orbitrap Elite; however a pixel size of 600 μm is recommended in order to minimize the effects of oversampling on image accuracy.

  14. Investigation on hemolytic effect of poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles synthesized using continuous flow and batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libi, Sumit; Calenic, Bogdan; Astete, Carlos E.; Kumar, Challa; Sabliov, Cristina M.



    With the increasing interest in polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications, there is a need for continuous flow methodologies that allow for the precise control of nanoparticle synthesis. Poly(lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with diameters of 220–250 nm were synthesized using a lab-on-a-chip, exploiting the precise flow control offered by a millifluidic platform. The association and the effect of PLGA nanoparticles on red blood cells (RBCs) were compared for fluorescent PLGA nanoparticles made by this novel continuous flow process using a millifluidic chip and smaller PLGA nanoparticles made by a batch method. Results indicated that all PLGA nanoparticles studied, independent of the synthesis method and size, adhered to the surface of RBCs but had no significant hemolytic effect at concentrations lower than 10 mg/ml.

  15. Continuous positive airway pressure alters cranial blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at the craniovertebral junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia I. Yiallourou


    Conclusion: Application of CPAP via a full-fitted mask at 15 cm H2O was found to have a significant effect on intracranial venous outflow and spinal CSF flow at the C2 vertebral level in healthy adult-age awake volunteers. CPAP can be used to non-invasively provoke changes in intracranial and CSF flow dynamics.

  16. A new method for immunoassays using field-flow fractionation with on-line, continuous chemiluminescence detection. (United States)

    Melucci, D; Guardigli, M; Roda, B; Zattoni, A; Reschiglian, P; Roda, A


    Chemiluminescence detection has already been combined with different separation techniques such as HPLC and capillary electrophoresis. In this work, it was applied to gravitational field-flow fractionation, a low-cost, flow-assisted separation technique for micronsized particles suited to further on-line detection of the separated analytes. Horseradish peroxidase was used as model sample, either free in solution or immobilized onto micronsized, polystyrene beads. The chemiluminescent substrates were added directly into the mobile phase, and the continuous, steady-state chemiluminescence generated during elution was detected on-line by either a flow-through luminometer or a CCD camera. Ultra-low detection limits, two orders of magnitude lower than those achievable with spectrophotometric detection, were found. The possibility to fully separate and quantitate free and bead-immobilized enzymes is reported, as a step towards the development of multianalyte, ultra-sensitive, micronsized beads-based flow-assisted immunoassays.

  17. Comparison of standard- and nano-flow liquid chromatography platforms for MRM-based quantitation of putative plasma biomarker proteins. (United States)

    Percy, Andrew J; Chambers, Andrew G; Yang, Juncong; Domanski, Dominik; Borchers, Christoph H


    The analytical performance of a standard-flow ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and a nano-flow high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, interfaced to the same state-of-the-art triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, were compared for the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitation of a panel of 48 high-to-moderate-abundance cardiovascular disease-related plasma proteins. After optimization of the MRM transitions for sensitivity and testing for chemical interference, the optimum sensitivity, loading capacity, gradient, and retention-time reproducibilities were determined. We previously demonstrated the increased robustness of the standard-flow platform, but we expected that the standard-flow platform would have an overall lower sensitivity. This study was designed to determine if this decreased sensitivity could be compensated for by increased sample loading. Significantly fewer interferences with the MRM transitions were found for the standard-flow platform than for the nano-flow platform (2 out of 103 transitions compared with 42 out of 103 transitions, respectively), which demonstrates the importance of interference-testing when nano-flow systems are used. Using only interference-free transitions, 36 replicate LC/MRM-MS analyses resulted in equal signal reproducibilities between the two platforms (9.3 % coefficient of variation (CV) for 88 peptide targets), with superior retention-time precision for the standard-flow platform (0.13 vs. 6.1 % CV). Surprisingly, for 41 of the 81 proteotypic peptides in the final assay, the standard-flow platform was more sensitive while for 9 of 81 the nano-flow platform was more sensitive. For these 81 peptides, there was a good correlation between the two sets of results (R(2) = 0.98, slope = 0.97). Overall, the standard-flow platform had superior performance metrics for most peptides, and is a good choice if sufficient sample is available.

  18. Drug evaluation and the permissive principle: continuities and contradictions between standards and practices in antidepressant regulation. (United States)

    Abraham, John; Davis, Courtney


    Pharmaceuticals are not permitted on to the market unless they are granted regulatory approval. The regulatory process is, therefore, crucial in whether or not a drug is widely prescribed. Regulatory agencies have developed standards of performance that pharmaceuticals are supposed to meet before entering the market. Regulation of technologies is often discussed by reference to the precautionary principle. In contrast, this paper develops the concept of the 'permissive principle' as a way of understanding the departure of regulators' practices from standards of drug efficacy to which regulatory agencies themselves subscribe. By taking a case study of antidepressant regulation in the UK and the USA, the mechanisms of permissive regulatory practices are examined. An STS methodology of both spatial (international) and temporal comparisons of regulatory practices with regulatory standards is employed to identify the nature and extent of the permissive regulation. It is found that the permissive principle was adopted by drug regulators in the UK and the USA, but more so by the former than the latter. Evidently, permissive regulation, which favours the commercial interests of the drug manufacturer, but is contrary to the interests of patients, may penetrate to the heart of regulatory science. On the other hand, permissive regulation of specific drugs should not be regarded as an inevitable result of marketing strategies and concomitant networks deployed by powerful pharmaceutical companies, because the extent of permissive regulation may vary according to the intra-institutional normative commitments of regulators to uphold their technical standards against the commercial interests of the manufacturer. Likely sociological factors that can account for such permissive regulatory practices are 'corporate bias', secrecy and excessive regulatory trust in the pharmaceutical industry in the UK, political expediency and ideological capture in the USA, combined in both countries

  19. Standardizing Flow Cytometry Immunophenotyping Analysis from the Human ImmunoPhenotyping Consortium. (United States)

    Finak, Greg; Langweiler, Marc; Jaimes, Maria; Malek, Mehrnoush; Taghiyar, Jafar; Korin, Yael; Raddassi, Khadir; Devine, Lesley; Obermoser, Gerlinde; Pekalski, Marcin L; Pontikos, Nikolas; Diaz, Alain; Heck, Susanne; Villanova, Federica; Terrazzini, Nadia; Kern, Florian; Qian, Yu; Stanton, Rick; Wang, Kui; Brandes, Aaron; Ramey, John; Aghaeepour, Nima; Mosmann, Tim; Scheuermann, Richard H; Reed, Elaine; Palucka, Karolina; Pascual, Virginia; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Nestle, Frank; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Brinkman, Ryan Remy; Gottardo, Raphael; Maecker, Holden; McCoy, J Philip


    Standardization of immunophenotyping requires careful attention to reagents, sample handling, instrument setup, and data analysis, and is essential for successful cross-study and cross-center comparison of data. Experts developed five standardized, eight-color panels for identification of major immune cell subsets in peripheral blood. These were produced as pre-configured, lyophilized, reagents in 96-well plates. We present the results of a coordinated analysis of samples across nine laboratories using these panels with standardized operating procedures (SOPs). Manual gating was performed by each site and by a central site. Automated gating algorithms were developed and tested by the FlowCAP consortium. Centralized manual gating can reduce cross-center variability, and we sought to determine whether automated methods could streamline and standardize the analysis. Within-site variability was low in all experiments, but cross-site variability was lower when central analysis was performed in comparison with site-specific analysis. It was also lower for clearly defined cell subsets than those based on dim markers and for rare populations. Automated gating was able to match the performance of central manual analysis for all tested panels, exhibiting little to no bias and comparable variability. Standardized staining, data collection, and automated gating can increase power, reduce variability, and streamline analysis for immunophenotyping.

  20. Biological attenuation of arsenic and iron in a continuous flow bioreactor treating acid mine drainage (AMD). (United States)

    Fernandez-Rojo, L; Héry, M; Le Pape, P; Braungardt, C; Desoeuvre, A; Torres, E; Tardy, V; Resongles, E; Laroche, E; Delpoux, S; Joulian, C; Battaglia-Brunet, F; Boisson, J; Grapin, G; Morin, G; Casiot, C


    Passive water treatments based on biological attenuation can be effective for arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). However, the key factors driving the biological processes involved in this attenuation are not well-known. Here, the efficiency of arsenic (As) removal was investigated in a bench-scale continuous flow channel bioreactor treating As-rich AMD (∼30-40 mg L(-1)). In this bioreactor, As removal proceeds via the formation of biogenic precipitates consisting of iron- and arsenic-rich mineral phases encrusting a microbial biofilm. Ferrous iron (Fe(II)) oxidation and iron (Fe) and arsenic removal rates were monitored at two different water heights (4 and 25 mm) and with/without forced aeration. A maximum of 80% As removal was achieved within 500 min at the lowest water height. This operating condition promoted intense Fe(II) microbial oxidation and subsequent precipitation of As-bearing schwertmannite and amorphous ferric arsenate. Higher water height slowed down Fe(II) oxidation, Fe precipitation and As removal, in relation with limited oxygen transfer through the water column. The lower oxygen transfer at higher water height could be partly counteracted by aeration. The presence of an iridescent floating film that developed at the water surface was found to limit oxygen transfer to the water column and delayed Fe(II) oxidation, but did not affect As removal. The bacterial community structure in the biogenic precipitates in the bottom of the bioreactor differed from that of the inlet water and was influenced to some extent by water height and aeration. Although potential for microbial mediated As oxidation was revealed by the detection of aioA genes, removal of Fe and As was mainly attributable to microbial Fe oxidation activity. Increasing the proportion of dissolved As(V) in the inlet water improved As removal and favoured the formation of amorphous ferric arsenate over As-sorbed schwertmannite. This study proved the ability of this bioreactor

  1. Continuous-Flow Synthesis and Materials Interface Engineering of Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots for Photovoltaic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala’a O.


    Harnessing the Sun’s energy via the conversion of solar photons to electricity has emerged as a sustainable energy source to fulfill our future demands. In this regard, solution-processable, size-tunable PbS quantum dots (QDs) have been identified as a promising active materials for photovoltaics (PVs). Yet, there are still serious challenges that hinder the full exploitation of QD materials in PVs. This dissertation addresses two main challenges to aid these QDs in fulfilling their tremendous potential in PV applications. First, it is essential to establish a large-scale synthetic technique which maintains control over the reaction parameters to yield QDs with well-defined shape, size, and composition. Rigorous protocols for cost-effective production on a scale are still missing from literature. Particularly, previous reports of record-performance QD-PVs have been based on small-scale, manual, batch syntheses. One way to achieve a controlled large-scale synthesis is by reducing the reaction volume to ensure uniformity. Accordingly, we design a droplet-based continuous-flow synthesis of PbS QDs. Only upon separating the nucleation and growth phases, via a dual-temperature-stage reactor, it was possible to achieve high-quality QDs with high photoluminescence quantum yield (50%) in large-scale. The performance of these QDs in a PV device was comparable to batch-synthesized QDs, thus providing a promise in utilizing automated synthesis of QDs for PV applications. Second, it is crucial to study and control the charge transfer (CT) dynamics at QD interfaces in order to optimize their PV performance. Yet, the CT investigations based on PbS QDs are limited in literature. Here, we investigate the CT and charge separation (CS) at size-tunable PbS QDs and organic acceptor interfaces using a combination of femtosecond broadband transient spectroscopic techniques and steady-state measurements. The results reveal that the energy band alignment, tuned by the quantum

  2. Beneficial aspects of real time flow measurements for the management of acute right ventricular heart failure following continuous flow ventricular assist device implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiliopoulos Sotirios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal management of acute right heart failure following the implantation of a left ventricular assist device requires a reliable estimation of left ventricular preload and contractility. This is possible by real-time pump blood flow measurements. Clinical case We performed implantation of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device in a 66 years old female patient with an end-stage heart failure on the grounds of a dilated cardiomyopathy. Real-time pump blood flow was directly measured by an ultrasonic flow probe placed around the outflow graft. Diagnosis The progressive decline of real time flow and the loss of pulsatility were associated with an increase of central venous pressure, inotropic therapy and progressive renal failure suggesting the presence of an acute right heart failure. Diagnosis was validated by echocardiography and thermodilution measurements. Treatment Temporary mechanical circulatory support of the right ventricle was successfully performed. Real time flow measurement proved to be a useful tool for the diagnosis and ultimately for the management of right heart failure including the weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  3. 100 W continuous linearly polarized, high beam quality output from standard side-pumped Nd:YAG laser modules (United States)

    Bereczki, Allan; Wetter, Niklaus Ursus


    Dynamically stable operation with joined stability zones of a linearly polarized resonator is shown for a laser containing two diode side-pumped Nd:YAG rods. The unpolarized resonator generated 115 W of output. When polarized by a Brewster plate, it reached 100.5 W of output power at a beam quality M2 power achieved is, to our knowledge, the highest reported for continuous polarized, fundamental-mode lasers using standard side-pumped Nd:YAG modules.

  4. A homecare application based on the ASTM E2369-05 Standard Specification for Continuity of Care Record. (United States)

    Botsivaly, M; Spyropoulos, B; Koutsourakis, K; Mertika, K


    The purpose of this study is the presentation of a system appropriate to be used upon the transition of a patient from hospital to homecare. The developed system is structured according to the ASTM E2369-05 Standard Specification for Continuity of Care Record and its function is based upon the creation of a structured subset of data, containing the patient's most relevant clinical information, enabling simultaneously the planning and the optimal documentation of the provided homecare.

  5. Continuous flow technology vs. the batch-by-batch approach to produce pharmaceutical compounds. (United States)

    Cole, Kevin P; Johnson, Martin D


    For the manufacture of small molecule drugs, many pharmaceutical innovator companies have recently invested in continuous processing, which can offer significant technical and economic advantages over traditional batch methodology. This Expert Review will describe the reasons for this interest as well as many considerations and challenges that exist today concerning continuous manufacturing. Areas covered: Continuous processing is defined and many reasons for its adoption are described. The current state of continuous drug substance manufacturing within the pharmaceutical industry is summarized. Current key challenges to implementation of continuous manufacturing are highlighted, and an outlook provided regarding the prospects for continuous within the industry. Expert commentary: Continuous processing at Lilly has been a journey that started with the need for increased safety and capability. Over twelve years the original small, dedicated group has grown to more than 100 Lilly employees in discovery, development, quality, manufacturing, and regulatory designing in continuous drug substance processing. Recently we have focused on linked continuous unit operations for the purpose of all-at-once pharmaceutical manufacturing, but the technical and business drivers that existed in the very beginning for stand-alone continuous unit operations in hybrid processes have persisted, which merits investment in both approaches.

  6. Feasibility analysis of As(III) removal in a continuous flow fixed bed system by modified calcined bauxite (MCB). (United States)

    Bhakat, P B; Gupta, A K; Ayoob, S


    This study examine the feasibility of As(III) removal from aqueous environment by an adsorbent, modified calcined bauxite (MCB) in a continuous flow fixed bed system. MCB exhibited excellent adsorption capacity of 520.2 mg/L (0.39 mg/g) with an adsorption rate constant 0.7658 L/mgh for an influent As(III) concentration of 1mg/L. In a 2 cm diameter continuous flow fixed MCB bed, a depth of only 1.765 cm was found necessary to produce effluent As(III) concentration of 0.01 mg/L, from an influent of 1 mg/L at a flow rate of 8 mL/min. Also, bed heights of 10, 20, and 30 cm could treat 427.85, 473.88 and 489.17 bed volumes of water, respectively, to breakthrough. A reduction in adsorption capacity of MCB was observed with increase in flow rates. The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different flow rates and influent As(III) concentrations had shown good correlation with the corresponding experimental values. The theoretical breakthrough curve developed from constantly mixed batch reactor (CMBR) isotherm data also correlated well with experimental breakthrough curve.

  7. A collaborative approach to standards, practices. Setting the stage for continuous quality improvement. (United States)

    Krueger, N E; Mazuzan, J E


    In retrospect, the most important thing we did was work together. We analyzed, refined, and validated our philosophical approach to patient care. We provided an information data base that is readily available for on-the-job reference and serves as a starting point for CQI activities. The very act of joint documentation of practices encourages open discussions about improvements to patient care. One physician states, We know that flaws in the process through which we produce care are everywhere--waste, duplication of effort, unnecessary complexity, and unpredictability . . . I believe that modern total quality management offers enormous hope to a medical care field that is rather desperate. . . . Collaborative practice and CQI activities are one hope. The scope of what nurses and physicians traditionally consider when discussing standards and practices must widen. We should no longer look only at patient care. We must simultaneously focus on how the management of total systems influences quality care for all patients. The CQI process, a proactive method, requires an accurate data base of information that is easily retrieved when looking for systems and individual patient care improvements. Our Computerized Collaborative Standards and Practices Manual is the reservoir for documenting practice plans developed and approved by all the disciplines involved. The process described here began with two closely knit operating room disciplines; this framework, however, offers the potential for expansion into a hospital-wide system of information organization and use.

  8. The importance of bicarbonate and nonbicarbonate buffer systems in batch and continuous flow bioreactors for articular cartilage tissue engineering. (United States)

    Khan, Aasma A; Surrao, Denver C


    In cartilage tissue engineering an optimized culture system, maintaining an appropriate extracellular environment (e.g., pH of media), can increase cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. We have previously reported on a continuous-flow bioreactor that improves tissue growth by supplying the cells with a near infinite supply of medium. Previous studies have observed that acidic environments reduce ECM synthesis and chondrocyte proliferation. Hence, in this study we investigated the combined effects of a continuous culture system (bioreactor) together with additional buffering agents (e.g., sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO₃]) on cartilaginous tissue growth in vitro. Isolated bovine chondrocytes were grown in three-dimensional cultures, either in static conditions or in a continuous-flow bioreactor, in media with or without NaHCO₃. Tissue constructs cultivated in the bioreactor with NaHCO₃-supplemented media were characterized with significantly increased (pbioreactor with NaHCO₃-supplemented media were significantly thicker than all other constructs (pTissue outgrowth was negligible in all other culturing conditions. Thus this study demonstrates the advantage of employing a continuous flow bioreactor coupled with NaHCO₃ supplemented media for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

  9. Crystal and Particle Engineering Strategies for Improving Powder Compression and Flow Properties to Enable Continuous Tablet Manufacturing by Direct Compression. (United States)

    Chattoraj, Sayantan; Sun, Changquan Calvin


    Continuous manufacturing of tablets has many advantages, including batch size flexibility, demand-adaptive scale up or scale down, consistent product quality, small operational foot print, and increased manufacturing efficiency. Simplicity makes direct compression the most suitable process for continuous tablet manufacturing. However, deficiencies in powder flow and compression of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) limit the range of drug loading that can routinely be considered for direct compression. For the widespread adoption of continuous direct compression, effective API engineering strategies to address power flow and compression problems are needed. Appropriate implementation of these strategies would facilitate the design of high-quality robust drug products, as stipulated by the Quality-by-Design framework. Here, several crystal and particle engineering strategies for improving powder flow and compression properties are summarized. The focus is on the underlying materials science, which is the foundation for effective API engineering to enable successful continuous manufacturing by the direct compression process. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient [2+2] photocycloadditions under equimolar conditions by employing a continuous UV-flow reactor


    Conradi, Matthias; Junkers, Thomas


    The [2 + 2] photocycloaddition between maleimide and various alkenes was optimized in a simple custom-made UV flow reactor. While complete maleimide conversion is only achieved with excesses of at least 10 eq. of alkene and reaction times of 12-24 h in batch, complete reactions with yields in the range >98% could be obtained in 5 min in the flow reactor under strictly equimolar conditions. Functional alkenes carrying allyl, alcohol, amine and ether moieties were successfully conjugated in goo...

  11. Continuous enrichment of circulating tumor cells using a microfluidic lateral flow filtration chip. (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Hyun, Kyung-A; Kim, Seung-Il; Kang, Ji-Yoon; Jung, Hyo-Il


    The isolation and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is of great importance in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Highly sensitive detection of CTCs can be very difficult because they are extremely rare (i.e., 1-5 CTCs per 10(9) erythrocytes) in blood. Recently, various devices have been developed that exploit biochemical (affinity-based) and physical (size or density) methods. Antibody-based isolation has its own limitations, as the expression level of the epitopes for an antibody varies due to the heterogeneity of cancer cells. Harsh conditions associated with physical methods can cause the deformation and damage of CTCs during the isolation process. Here, we propose a microfluidic lateral flow filtration (μ-LaFF) chip in which lateral flow was combined with vertical flow into the filter to capture the CTCs gently. The CTCs experienced weak shear flow owing to the lateral flow and traveled alongside the filter channel until finally being captured. The vertical flow in the filter held the captured cells tightly and served as an exit for uncaptured hematological cells (white and red blood cells). From our μ-LaFF chip we obtained a high capture efficiency (95%) and purity (99%), minimizing any damage to the CTCs. Our μ-LaFF technology is expected to be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of various cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Capacity Expansion and Reliability Evaluation on the Networks Flows with Continuous Stochastic Functional Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hamzezadeh


    Full Text Available In many systems such as computer network, fuel distribution, and transportation system, it is necessary to change the capacity of some arcs in order to increase maximum flow value from source s to sink t, while the capacity change incurs minimum cost. In real-time networks, some factors cause loss of arc’s flow. For example, in some flow distribution systems, evaporation, erosion or sediment in pipes waste the flow. Here we define a real capacity, or the so-called functional capacity, which is the operational capacity of an arc. In other words, the functional capacity of an arc equals the possible maximum flow that may pass through the arc. Increasing the functional arcs capacities incurs some cost. There is a certain resource available to cover the costs. First, we construct a mathematical model to minimize the total cost of expanding the functional capacities to the required levels. Then, we consider the loss of flow on each arc as a stochastic variable and compute the system reliability.

  13. Use of a continuous-flow microreactor for thiol-ene functionalization of RAFT-derived poly(butyl acrylate)


    Vandenbergh, Joke; Junkers, Thomas


    This study describes the synthesis of functionalized RAFT-derived poly(n-butyl acrylate) polymers via the use of a continuous-flow microreactor, in which aminolysis as well as thiol-ene reactions are executed in reaction times of just 20 minutes. Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (M-n = 3800 g mol(-1), PDI = 1.10) with a trithiocarbonate end group was prepared via a conventional RAFT process. The polymer was then functionalized via aminolysis/thiol-ene reactions in the micro-flow reactor with isobornyl ...

  14. Continuous flow augments reactivity of rabbit carotid artery by reducing bioavailability of NO despite an increase in release of EDHF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Enkebølle; Vanhoutte, Paul M. G.; Jensen, Boye L.


    Experiments were designed to investigate the influence of steady flow and pressure on endothelial function in the rabbit carotid artery. Increases and decreases in isometric force were compared in static rings and perfused (5 or 50 ml/min) segments of the same arteries in the presence and absence...... of endothelium. The alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine and the muscarinic agonist acetylcholine were applied as vasoconstrictor and vasodilator stimuli, respectively. Continuous flow (5 and 50 ml/min) reduced the cGMP content and shifted the concentration-response curve to phenylephrine to the left...

  15. Flow induced formation of dual-phase continuity in polymer blends and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Chtcherbakova, E.A.; Utracki, L.A.


    A hypothesis for formation of bi-continuous phase structures in immiscible polymer blends is proposed. It is based on the observation that a critical volume fraction phi(cr) for the dual continuity of phases may be calculated considering the geometry of the dispersed phase. The knowledge...... showed that an addition of block copolymer may narrow the volume fraction range where bi-continuous phase structures are formed. Both annealing in the molten stale and shearing history influence the measured phi(cr) for formation of bi-continuous phase structure in amorphous immiscible polymer blends....

  16. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued? (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish


    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  17. Sedation and analgesia in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates: continue standard of care or experiment? (United States)

    McPherson, Christopher


    Attention to comfort and pain control are essential components of neonatal intensive care. Preterm neonates are uniquely susceptible to pain and agitation, and these exposures have a negative impact on brain development. In preterm neonates, chronic pain and agitation are common adverse effects of mechanical ventilation, and opiates or benzodiazepines are the pharmacologic agents most often used for treatment. Questions remain regarding the efficacy, safety, and neurodevelopmental impact of these therapies. Both preclinical and clinical data suggest troubling adverse drug reactions and the potential for adverse longterm neurodevelopmental impact. The negative impacts of standard pharmacologic agents suggest that alternative agents should be investigated. Dexmedetomidine is a promising alternative therapy that requires further interprofessional and multidisciplinary research in this population.

  18. An in vitro evaluation of flow from multihole epidural catheters during continuous infusion with four different infusion pumps. (United States)

    McAtamney, D; O'Hare, C; Fee, J P


    We have observed in vitro the distribution of flow from 10 identical multihole epidural catheters during continuous infusion with four different infusion pumps. The pumps chosen were the B Braun Perfusor Secura FT syringe driver and three volumetric infusion pumps utilising different pumping mechanisms (Dekra 3000 BL, Graseby 500 and CADD-Prizm). These pumps infused 0.9% saline through each catheter at 5 ml.h-1, 15 ml.h-1, 50 ml.h-1 and 99 ml.h-1 for 3 min. The number of holes through which flow occurred and the catheter hole where flow predominated during each test were recorded. The pressure waveform generated during each infusion was displayed and the peak pressure recorded. In 38 of the 160 tests (24%) the largest proportion of flow was seen at the hole closest to the catheter tip. The CADD pump generated multihole flow during significantly more tests (p < 0.0001) than the other pumps and produced significantly higher driving pressures (p < 0.001) at all infusion rates compared with the Graseby and Perfusor pumps. The CADD was the only pump to produce flow from all three holes of the catheter at 5 ml.h-1.

  19. Growth of Myxococcus xanthus in continuous-flow-cell bioreactors as a method for studying development. (United States)

    Smaldone, Gregory T; Jin, Yujie; Whitfield, Damion L; Mu, Andrew Y; Wong, Edward C; Wuertz, Stefan; Singer, Mitchell


    Nutrient sensors and developmental timers are two classes of genes vital to the establishment of early development in the social soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. The products of these genes trigger and regulate the earliest events that drive the colony from a vegetative state to aggregates, which ultimately leads to the formation of fruiting bodies and the cellular differentiation of the individual cells. In order to more accurately identify the genes and pathways involved in the initiation of this multicellular developmental program in M. xanthus, we adapted a method of growing vegetative populations within a constant controllable environment by using flow cell bioreactors, or flow cells. By establishing an M. xanthus community within a flow cell, we are able to test developmental responses to changes in the environment with fewer concerns for effects due to nutrient depletion or bacterial waste production. This approach allows for greater sensitivity in investigating communal environmental responses, such as nutrient sensing. To demonstrate the versatility of our growth environment, we carried out time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize M. xanthus biofilm growth and fruiting body development, as well as fluorescence staining of exopolysaccharides deposited by biofilms. We also employed the flow cells in a nutrient titration to determine the minimum concentration required to sustain vegetative growth. Our data show that by using a flow cell, M. xanthus can be held in a vegetative growth state at low nutrient concentrations for long periods, and then, by slightly decreasing the nutrient concentration, cells can be allowed to initiate the developmental program.

  20. A comparison of discrete versus continuous adjoint states to invert groundwater flow in heterogeneous dual porosity systems (United States)

    Delay, Frederick; Badri, Hamid; Fahs, Marwan; Ackerer, Philippe


    Dual porosity models become increasingly used for simulating groundwater flow at the large scale in fractured porous media. In this context, model inversions with the aim of retrieving the system heterogeneity are frequently faced with huge parameterizations for which descent methods of inversion with the assistance of adjoint state calculations are well suited. We compare the performance of discrete and continuous forms of adjoint states associated with the flow equations in a dual porosity system. The discrete form inherits from previous works by some of the authors, as the continuous form is completely new and here fully differentiated for handling all types of model parameters. Adjoint states assist descent methods by calculating the gradient components of the objective function, these being a key to good convergence of inverse solutions. Our comparison on the basis of synthetic exercises show that both discrete and continuous adjoint states can provide very similar solutions close to reference. For highly heterogeneous systems, the calculation grid of the continuous form cannot be too coarse, otherwise the method may show lack of convergence. This notwithstanding, the continuous adjoint state is the most versatile form as its non-intrusive character allows for plugging an inversion toolbox quasi-independent from the code employed for solving the forward problem.

  1. Integration of lyoplate based flow cytometry and computational analysis for standardized immunological biomarker discovery. (United States)

    Villanova, Federica; Di Meglio, Paola; Inokuma, Margaret; Aghaeepour, Nima; Perucha, Esperanza; Mollon, Jennifer; Nomura, Laurel; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria; Cope, Andrew; Prevost, A Toby; Heck, Susanne; Maino, Vernon; Lord, Graham; Brinkman, Ryan R; Nestle, Frank O


    Discovery of novel immune biomarkers for monitoring of disease prognosis and response to therapy in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is an important unmet clinical need. Here, we establish a novel framework for immunological biomarker discovery, comparing a conventional (liquid) flow cytometry platform (CFP) and a unique lyoplate-based flow cytometry platform (LFP) in combination with advanced computational data analysis. We demonstrate that LFP had higher sensitivity compared to CFP, with increased detection of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10) and activation markers (Foxp3 and CD25). Fluorescent intensity of cells stained with lyophilized antibodies was increased compared to cells stained with liquid antibodies. LFP, using a plate loader, allowed medium-throughput processing of samples with comparable intra- and inter-assay variability between platforms. Automated computational analysis identified novel immunophenotypes that were not detected with manual analysis. Our results establish a new flow cytometry platform for standardized and rapid immunological biomarker discovery with wide application to immune-mediated diseases.

  2. Integration of lyoplate based flow cytometry and computational analysis for standardized immunological biomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villanova

    Full Text Available Discovery of novel immune biomarkers for monitoring of disease prognosis and response to therapy in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is an important unmet clinical need. Here, we establish a novel framework for immunological biomarker discovery, comparing a conventional (liquid flow cytometry platform (CFP and a unique lyoplate-based flow cytometry platform (LFP in combination with advanced computational data analysis. We demonstrate that LFP had higher sensitivity compared to CFP, with increased detection of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10 and activation markers (Foxp3 and CD25. Fluorescent intensity of cells stained with lyophilized antibodies was increased compared to cells stained with liquid antibodies. LFP, using a plate loader, allowed medium-throughput processing of samples with comparable intra- and inter-assay variability between platforms. Automated computational analysis identified novel immunophenotypes that were not detected with manual analysis. Our results establish a new flow cytometry platform for standardized and rapid immunological biomarker discovery with wide application to immune-mediated diseases.

  3. Supercritical hydrothermal synthesis and in situ organic modification of indium tin oxide nanoparticles using continuous-flow reaction system. (United States)

    Lu, Jinfeng; Minami, Kimitaka; Takami, Seiichi; Shibata, Masatoshi; Kaneko, Yasunobu; Adschiri, Tadafumi


    ITO nanoparticles were synthesized hydrothermally and surface modified in supercritical water using a continuous flow reaction system. The organic modification of the nanoparticles converted the surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, making the modified nanoparticles easily dispersible in organic solvent. The addition of a surface modifier into the reaction system impacted the crystal growth and particle size as well as dispersion. The particle size was 18 nm. Highly crystalline cubic ITO with a narrow particle size distribution was obtained. The advantages of short reaction time and the use of a continuous reaction system make this method suitable for industrial scale synthesis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Analysis of Temperature Field, Heat and Fluid Flow of Two-Phase Zone Continuous Casting Cu–Sn Alloy Wire


    Luo J.; Liu X; Wang X


    Cu–4.7 wt. % Sn alloy wire with Ø10 mm was prepared by two-phase zone continuous casting technology, and the temperature field, heat and fluid flow were investigated by the numerical simulated method. As the melting temperature, mold temperature, continuous casting speed and cooling water temperature is 1200 °C, 1040 °C, 20 mm/min and 18 °C, respectively, the alloy temperature in the mold is in the range of 720 °C–1081 °C, and the solid/liquid interface is in the mold. In the center of the mo...

  5. Single incision laparoscopic TAPP with standard laparoscopic instruments and suturing of flaps: A continuing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Sinha


    Full Text Available Background: Single incision laparoscopic surgery, especially transumbilical, should be the closest to replicate the minimal access results achieved by natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES. This study of single incision transabdominal preperitoneal (SITAPP inguinal hernia repair is a continuing study exploring the peroperative variables and short and long term complications of this procedure. Patients and Methods: All the 183 patients were operated by the same surgeon through a horizontal transumbilical incision positioned across the lower third of the umbilicus. Port access was through three separate transfacial punctures. Routine rigid instruments were used and the peritoneal flaps were either tacked or sutured into place. Patients with irreducible hernia and obstructed hernia were included, while those with strangulated hernia were excluded. Results: All the patients were male with an average age of 41.4 years. Twenty four patients had bilateral hernia, 15 patients had irreducible and 6 patients had obstructed hernia. The mean operating time was 38.3 mins for unilateral hernias completed with tackers and 42.8 mins in those with intracorporeal suturing. The corresponding operating time for bilateral hernias was 53.2 and 62.7 minutes. There was minimal serous discharge from the umbilicus in 8 patients, port site infection in 1 patient and recurrence in 2 patients over a 36 months period. Conclusions: SITAPP for groin hernias, performed with conventional instruments is feasible, easy to learn, has a very high patient acceptance and is cosmetically superior to conventional TAPP. The use of tackers reduces the operating time significantly.

  6. Startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow reactor with granules. (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie


    The startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a continuous-flow reactor (CFR) with granules were investigated in this study. Through reducing the settling time from 9min to 3min gradually, the startup of EBPR in a CFR with granules was successfully realized in 16days. Under continuous-flow operation, the granules with good phosphorus and COD removal performance were stably operated for more than 6months. And the granules were characterized with particle size of around 960μm, loose structure and good settling ability. During the startup phase, polysaccharides (PS) was secreted excessively by microorganisms to resist the influence from the variation of operational mode. Results of relative quantitative PCR indicated that granules dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were easier accumulated in the CFR because more excellent settling ability was needed in the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dual-mode hydrodynamic railing and arraying of microparticles for multi-stage signal detection in continuous flow biochemical microprocessors. (United States)

    Sochol, Ryan D; Corbett, Daniel; Hesse, Sarah; Krieger, William E R; Wolf, Ki Tae; Kim, Minkyu; Iwai, Kosuke; Li, Song; Lee, Luke P; Lin, Liwei


    Continuous flow particulate-based microfluidic processors are in critical demand for emerging applications in chemistry and biology, such as point-of-care molecular diagnostics. Challenges remain, however, for accomplishing biochemical assays in which microparticle immobilization is desired or required during intermediate stages of fluidic reaction processes. Here we present a dual-mode microfluidic reactor that functions autonomously under continuous flow conditions to: (i) execute multi-stage particulate-based fluidic mixing routines, and (ii) array select numbers of microparticles during each reaction stage (e.g., for optical detection). We employ this methodology to detect the inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), via a six-stage aptamer-based sandwich assay.

  8. Continuous improvement in national ART standards by the RTAC accreditation system in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Harrison, Keith; Peek, John; Chapman, Michael; Bowman, Mark


    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics in Australia and New Zealand are accredited and licensed against a Code of Practice audited by certifying bodies accredited by the Joint Accreditation System for Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ). The system is administered by the Reproductive Technology Accreditation Committee (RTAC) of the Fertility Society of Australia. To review the incidence of variances and findings identified by certifying bodies in Australian and New Zealand ART clinics within the currency of a single version of the Code of Practice. Retrospective analysis of certifying body findings against the RTAC Code of Practice incorporating 15 Critical Criteria audited annually and 16 Good Practice Criteria including a Quality Management System audited over a three year cycle. The incidence of clinics with variances against the Critical Criteria fell from 77 to 14% over two years, as did the mean number of variances per clinic which fell from 1.54 to 0.14. Implementation of the RTAC accreditation system in Australia and New Zealand has contributed to steady improvement in standards and a reduction in risk in ART treatments. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

  10. Effect of Electromagnetic Ruler Braking (EMBr) on Transient Turbulent Flow in Continuous Slab Casting using Large Eddy Simulations (United States)

    Chaudhary, R.; Thomas, B. G.; Vanka, S. P.


    Static electromagnetic braking (EMBr) fields affect greatly the turbulent flow pattern in steel continuous casting, which leads to potential benefits such as decreasing flow instability, surface defects, and inclusion entrapment if applied correctly. To gain a fundamental understanding of how EMBr affects transient turbulent flow, the current work applies large eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the effect of three EMBr ruler brake configurations on transient turbulent flow through the bifurcated nozzle and mold of a liquid-metal GaInSn model of a typical steel slab-casting process, but with deep nozzle submergence and insulated walls with no solidifying shell. The LES calculations are performed using an in-house graphic-processing-unit-based computational-fluid-dynamics code (LES-CU-FLOW) on a mesh of ~7 million brick cells. The LES model is validated first via ultrasonic velocimetry measurements in this system. It is then applied to quantify the mean and instantaneous flow structures, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and its budgets, and proper orthogonal modes of four cases. Positioning the strongest part of the ruler magnetic field over the nozzle bottom suppresses turbulence in this region, thus reducing nozzle well swirl and its alternation. This process leads to strong and focused jets entering the mold cavity making large-scale and low-frequency (mold with detrimental surface velocity variations. Lowering the ruler below nozzle deflects the jets upward, leading to faster surface velocities than the other cases. The double-ruler and no-EMBr cases have the most stable flow. The magnetic field generates large-scale vortical structures tending toward two-dimensional (2-D) turbulence. To avoid detrimental large-scale, low-frequency flow variations, it is recommended to avoid strong magnetic fields across the nozzle well and port regions.

  11. Flow Asymmetric Propargylation: Development of Continuous Processes for the Preparation of a Chiral β-Amino Alcohol. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Sheeran, Jillian W; Clausen, Andrew M; Fang, Yuan-Qing; Bio, Matthew M; Bader, Scott


    The development of a flow chemistry process for asymmetric propargylation using allene gas as a reagent is reported. The connected continuous process of allene dissolution, lithiation, Li-Zn transmetallation, and asymmetric propargylation provides homopropargyl β-amino alcohol 1 with high regio- and diastereoselectivity in high yield. This flow process enables practical use of an unstable allenyllithium intermediate. The process uses the commercially available and recyclable (1S,2R)-N-pyrrolidinyl norephedrine as a ligand to promote the highly diastereoselective (32:1) propargylation. Judicious selection of mixers based on the chemistry requirement and real-time monitoring of the process using process analytical technology (PAT) enabled stable and scalable flow chemistry runs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Randomized Trial of Low-Flow Oxygen versus Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiring, Christian; Steensberg, Jesper; Bjerager, Mia


    BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) stabilizes the residual volume and may decrease the risk of 'atelectotrauma', potentially promoting lung development in neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether replacing nCPAP by low-flow O2 by nasal cannula affects lung function...... expressed as the arterial/alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A pO2 ratio) on postnatal day 28. METHODS: Preterm infants (birth weight 26 + 0 weeks) stable on nCPAP between postnatal days 4 and 7 were randomized to nCPAP or low-flow O2 by nasal cannula (....001. There was no difference between groups in the fraction needing any respiratory support at 36 weeks' corrected age, length of stay, weight at discharge, and relative weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Replacing nCPAP by low-flow O2 in preterm infants with GA >26 weeks at the end of the first week of life did not seem to affect...

  13. Maximizing the productivity of the microalgae Scenedesmus AMDD cultivated in a continuous photobioreactor using an online flow rate control. (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; MacQuarrie, Scott P; Choi, Jerome; Tartakovsky, Boris


    In this study, production of the microalga Scenedesmus AMDD in a 300 L continuous flow photobioreactor was maximized using an online flow (dilution rate) control algorithm. To enable online control, biomass concentration was estimated in real time by measuring chlorophyll-related culture fluorescence. A simple microalgae growth model was developed and used to solve the optimization problem aimed at maximizing the photobioreactor productivity. When optimally controlled, Scenedesmus AMDD culture demonstrated an average volumetric biomass productivity of 0.11 g L-1 d-1 over a 25 day cultivation period, equivalent to a 70 % performance improvement compared to the same photobioreactor operated as a turbidostat. The proposed approach for optimizing photobioreactor flow can be adapted to a broad range of microalgae cultivation systems.

  14. Continuous flowing micro-reactor for aqueous reaction at temperature higher than 100 °C


    Xie, Fei; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Tian; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong; Wu, Wengang; Li, Zhihong


    Some aqueous reactions in biological or chemical fields are accomplished at a high temperature. When the reaction temperature is higher than 100 °C, an autoclave reactor is usually required to elevate the boiling point of the water by creating a high-pressure environment in a closed system. This work presented an alternative continuous flowing microfluidic solution for aqueous reaction with a reaction temperature higher than 100 °C. The pressure regulating function was successfully fulfilled ...

  15. In situ synthesis of Cu-BTC (HKUST-1) in macro-/mesoporous silica monoliths for continuous flow catalysis. (United States)

    Sachse, Alexander; Ameloot, Rob; Coq, Bernard; Fajula, François; Coasne, Benoît; De Vos, Dirk; Galarneau, Anne


    The metal-organic framework Cu-BTC has been successfully synthesized as nanoparticles inside the mesopores of silica monoliths featuring a homogeneous macropore network enabling the use of Cu-BTC for continuous flow applications in liquid phase with low pressure drop. High productivity was reached with this catalyst for the Friedländer reaction. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  16. Amine-Functionalized Sugarcane Bagasse: A Renewable Catalyst for Efficient Continuous Flow Knoevenagel Condensation Reaction at Room Temperature. (United States)

    Qiao, Yanhui; Teng, Junjiang; Wang, Shuangfei; Ma, Hao


    A biomass-based catalyst with amine groups (-NH₂), viz., amine-functionalized sugarcane bagasse (SCB-NH₂), was prepared through the amination of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) in a two-step process. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized through FT-IR, elemental analysis, XRD, TG, and SEM-EDX techniques, which confirmed the -NH₂ group was grafted onto SCB successfully. The catalytic performance of SCB-NH₂ in Knoevenagel condensation reaction was tested in the batch and continuous flow reactions. Significantly, it was found that the catalytic performance of SCB-NH₂ is better in flow system than that in batch system. Moreover, the SCB-NH₂ presented an excellent catalytic activity and stability at the high flow rate. When the flow rate is at the 1.5 mL/min, no obvious deactivation was observed and the product yield and selectivity are more than 97% and 99% after 80 h of continuous reaction time, respectively. After the recovery of solvent from the resulting solution, a white solid was obtained as a target product. As a result, the SCB-NH₂ is a promising catalyst for the synthesis of fine chemicals by Knoevenagel condensation reaction in large scale, and the modification of the renewable SCB with -NH₂ group is a potential avenue for the preparation of amine-functionalized catalytic materials in industry.

  17. Mechanism of Self-Regulation and In Vivo Performance of the Cleveland Clinic Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart. (United States)

    Horvath, David; Byram, Nicole; Karimov, Jamshid H; Kuban, Barry; Sunagawa, Gengo; Golding, Leonard A R; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka


    Cleveland Clinic's continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) provides systemic and pulmonary circulations using one assembly (one motor, two impellers). The right pump hydraulic output to the pulmonary circulation is self-regulated by the rotating assembly's passive axial movement in response to atrial differential pressure to balance itself to the left pump output. This combination of features integrates a biocompatible, pressure-balancing regulator with a double-ended pump. The CFTAH requires no flow or pressure sensors. The only control parameter is pump speed, modulated at programmable rates (60-120 beats/min) and amplitudes (0 to ±25%) to provide flow pulses. In bench studies, passive self-regulation (range: -5 mm Hg ≤ [left atrial pressure - right atrial pressure] ≤ 10 mm Hg) was demonstrated over a systemic/vascular resistance ratio range of 2.0-20 and a flow range of 3-9 L/min. Performance of the most recent pump configuration was demonstrated in chronic studies, including three consecutive long-term experiments (30, 90, and 90 days). These experiments were performed at a constant postoperative mean speed with a ±15% speed modulation, demonstrating a totally self-regulating mode of operation, from 3 days after implant to explant, despite a weight gain of up to 40%. The mechanism of self-regulation functioned properly, continuously throughout the chronic in vivo experiments, demonstrating the performance goals. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Characterization and optimization of the visualization performance of continuous flow overhauser DNP hyperpolarized water MRI: Inversion recovery approach. (United States)

    Terekhov, Maxim; Krummenacker, Jan; Denysenkov, Vasyl; Gerz, Kathrin; Prisner, Thomas; Schreiber, Laura Maria


    Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) allows the production of liquid hyperpolarized substrate inside the MRI magnet bore as well as its administration in continuous flow mode to acquire MR images with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. We implemented inversion recovery preparation in order to improve contrast-to-noise ratio and to quantify the overall imaging performance of Overhauser DNP-enhanced MRI. The negative enhancement created by DNP in combination with inversion recovery (IR) preparation allows canceling selectively the signal originated from Boltzmann magnetization and visualizing only hyperpolarized fluid. The theoretical model describing gain of MR image intensity produced by steady-state continuous flow DNP hyperpolarized magnetization was established and proved experimentally. A precise quantification of signal originated purely from DNP hyperpolarization was achieved. A temperature effect on longitudinal relaxation had to be taken into account to fit experimental results with numerical prediction. Using properly adjusted IR preparation, the complete zeroing of thermal background magnetization was achieved, providing an essential increase of contrast-to-noise ratio of DNP-hyperpolarized water images. To quantify and optimize the steady-state conditions for MRI with continuous flow DNP, an approach similar to that incorporating transient-state thermal magnetization equilibrium in spoiled fast field echo imaging sequences can be used. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer in flow past a continuous moving plate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.

    The study of thermal boundary layer on taking into account the viscous dissipative heat, on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate is presented here.Similarity solutions are derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...

  20. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham


    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  1. Effects of rainfall on water quality in six sequentially disposed fishponds with continuous water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during the rainy period in six semi-intensive production fish ponds in which water flowed from one pond to another without undergoing any treatment. Eight sampling sites were assigned at pond outlets during the rainy period (December-February. Lowest and highest physical and chemical parameters of water occurred in pond P1 (a site near the springs and in pond P4 (a critical site that received allochthonous material from the other ponds and also from frog culture ponds, respectively. Pond sequential layout caused concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll-a and conductivity. Seasonal rains increased the water flow in the ponds and, consequently, silted more particles and other dissolved material from one fish pond to another. Silting increased limnological variables from P3 to P6. Although results suggest that during the period under analysis, rainfall affected positively the ponds' water quality and since the analyzed systems have been aligned in a sequential layout with constant water flow from fish ponds and parallel tanks without any previous treatment, care has to be taken so that an increase in rain-induced water flow does not have a contrary effect in the fish ponds investigated.

  2. CO2 capture in a continuous gas–solid trickle flow reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, Rens; Hilbers, T.J.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Kersten, Sascha R.A.


    This paper describes the selection, design and experimental validation of a gas–solid trickle flow adsorber for post-combustion CO2 capture using a supported amine sorbents (Lewatit® VP OC 1065). The experimental work presented here summarizes over 300 h of operating experience, which is equivalent

  3. Application of Heterogeneous Copper Catalyst in a Continuous Flow Process: Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexanol (United States)

    Glin´ski, Marek; Ulkowska, Urszula; Iwanek, Ewa


    In this laboratory experiment, the synthesis of a supported solid catalyst (Cu/SiO2) and its application in the dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol performed under flow conditions was studied. The experiment was planned for a group of two or three students for two 6 h long sessions. The copper catalyst was synthesized using incipient wetness…

  4. A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Mehmet A., E-mail: [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kowalski, Gregory J., E-mail: [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fiering, Jason, E-mail: [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larson, Dale, E-mail: [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Highlights: • A co-flow microreactor is modeled in flow, reaction/diffusion, and thermal domains. • Analysis shows how arrayed temperature sensors can provide enthalpy of reaction. • Optical plasmonic temperature sensors could be arrayed suitably for calorimetry. • The reactor studied has a volume of 25 nL. - Abstract: A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction.

  5. Cavitating flow control through continuous tangential mass injection on a 2D hydrofoil at a small attack angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoshevskiy Mikhail V.


    Full Text Available We studied cavitating flow over the suction side of a symmetric 2D foil – a scaled-down model of high-pressure hydroturbine guide vanes (GV – in different cavitation regimes at the attack angle of 3°. High-speed imaging was used to analyze spatial patterns and time dynamics of the gas-vapour cavities. A hydroacoustic pressure transducer was employed to register time-spectra of pressure fluctuations nearby the hydrofoil. A PIV technique was applied to measure the velocity fields and its fluctuations. The active flow control was implemented by means of a continuous liquid supply with different flow rates through a slot channel located in the GV surface. It was found that the active mass injection does not influence the primary flow upstream of the slot channel position. For the cavitation-free and cavitation inception cases, the injection was shown to make the turbulent wake past the GV section more intense. However, at the developed cavitation regimes the active flow management made it possible to reduce substantially the amplitude or even totally suppress the periodic cavity length oscillations and pressure pulsations associated with them.

  6. Body position and activity, but not heart rate, affect pump flows in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. (United States)

    Muthiah, Kavitha; Gupta, Sunil; Otton, James; Robson, Desiree; Walker, Robyn; Tay, Andre; Macdonald, Peter; Keogh, Anne; Kotlyar, Eugene; Granger, Emily; Dhital, Kumud; Spratt, Phillip; Jansz, Paul; Hayward, Christopher S


    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of pre-load and heart rate to pump flow in patients implanted with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cfLVADs). Although it is known that cfLVAD pump flow increases with exercise, it is unclear if this increment is driven by increased heart rate, augmented intrinsic ventricular contraction, or enhanced venous return. Two studies were performed in patients implanted with the HeartWare HVAD. In 11 patients, paced heart rate was increased to approximately 40 beats/min above baseline and then down to approximately 30 beats/min below baseline pacing rate (in pacemaker-dependent patients). Ten patients underwent tilt-table testing at 30°, 60°, and 80° passive head-up tilt for 3 min and then for a further 3 min after ankle flexion exercise. This regimen was repeated at 20° passive head-down tilt. Pump parameters, noninvasive hemodynamics, and 2-dimensional echocardiographic measures were recorded. Heart rate alteration by pacing did not affect LVAD flows or LV dimensions. LVAD pump flow decreased from baseline 4.9 ± 0.6 l/min to approximately 4.5 ± 0.5 l/min at each level of head-up tilt (p heart rate, but they change significantly with body position and passive filling. Previously demonstrated exercise-induced changes in pump flows may be related to altered loading conditions, rather than changes in heart rate. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John Blacker


    Full Text Available The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72–100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates.

  8. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors. (United States)

    Blacker, A John; Jolley, Katherine E


    The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72-100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates.

  9. Modeling of Quasi-Four-Phase Flow in Continuous Casting Mold Using Hybrid Eulerian and Lagrangian Approach (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Sun, Zhenbang; Li, Baokuan


    Lagrangian tracking model combined with Eulerian multi-phase model is employed to predict the time-dependent argon-steel-slag-air quasi-four-phase flow inside a slab continuous casting mold. The Eulerian approach is used for the description of three phases (molten steel, liquid slag, and air at the top of liquid slag layer). The dispersed argon bubble injected from the SEN is treated in the Lagrangian way. The complex interfacial momentum transfers between various phases are considered. Validation is supported by the measurement data of cold model experiments and industrial practice. Close agreements were achieved for the gas volume fraction, liquid flow pattern, level fluctuation, and exposed slag eye phenomena. Many known phenomena and new predictions were successfully reproduced using this model. The vortex slag entrapment phenomenon at the slag-steel interface was obtained using this model, some small slag drops are sucked deep into the liquid pool of molten steel. Varying gas flow rates have a large effect on the steel flow pattern in the upper recirculation zone. Three typical flow patterns inside the mold with different argon gas flow rates have been obtained: double roll, three roll, and single roll. Effects of argon gas flow rate, casting speed, and slag layer thickness on the exposed slag eye and level fluctuation at the slag-steel interface were studied. A dimensionless value of H ave/ h was proposed to describe the time-averaged level fluctuation of slag-steel interface. The exposed slag eye near the SEN would be formed when the value of H ave/ h is larger than 0.4.

  10. A Leaf-Inspired Luminescent Solar Concentrator for Energy-Efficient Continuous-Flow Photochemistry. (United States)

    Cambié, Dario; Zhao, Fang; Hessel, Volker; Debije, Michael G; Noël, Timothy


    The use of solar light to promote chemical reactions holds significant potential with regard to sustainable energy solutions. While the number of visible light-induced transformations has increased significantly, the use of abundant solar light has been extremely limited. We report a leaf-inspired photomicroreactor that constitutes a merger between luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) and flow photochemistry to enable green and efficient reactions powered by solar irradiation. This device based on fluorescent dye-doped polydimethylsiloxane collects sunlight, focuses the energy to a narrow wavelength region, and then transports that energy to embedded microchannels where the flowing reactants are converted. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of nozzle outlet angle on flow and temperature field in a slab continuous casting mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sowa


    Full Text Available The mathematical and numerical simulation model of the growth of the solid metal phase within a continuous cast slab is presented in thispaper. The problem was treated as a complex one. The velocity fields are obtained by solving the momentum equations and the continuityequation, whereas the thermal fields are calculated by solving the conduction equation with the convection term. One takes intoconsideration in the mathematical model the changes of thermophysical parameters depending on the temperature and the solid phasevolume fractions in the mushy zone. The problem was solved by the finite element method. A numerical simulation of the cast slabsolidification process was made for different cases of continuous casting mould pouring by molten metal. The effect of nozzle outlet angle on the velocity fields in liquid phase and the solid phase growth kinetics of the cast slab were investigated, because these magnitudes have essential an influence on high-quality of a continuous steel cast slab.

  12. Gold film-catalysed benzannulation by Microwave-Assisted, Continuous Flow Organic Synthesis (MACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjergji Shore


    Full Text Available Methodology has been developed for laying down a thin gold-on-silver film on the inner surface of glass capillaries for the purpose of catalysing benzannulation reactions. The cycloaddition precursors are flowed through these capillaries while the metal film is being heated to high temperatures using microwave irradiation. The transformation can be optimized rapidly, tolerates a wide number of functional groups, is highly regioselective, and proceeds in good to excellent conversion.

  13. Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of Functional Oxide Nanomaterials Used in Energy Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yu

    , dense continuous layers (4)0.99CoO3 – Gd0.2Ce0.8O2-δ (LSC-GDC) core-shell type particles were prepared and their high-temperature microstructural evolution...... as materials are continuously produced, and the technology can be scaled-up to an industrial-relevant production capacity. The thesis starts with investigating the most appropriate mixer design for a novel two-stage reactor by computational fluid dynamics modelling. On basis of the modelling results, a two...

  14. Primary standard for liquid flow rates between 30 and 1500 nl/min based on volume expansion. (United States)

    Lucas, Peter; Ahrens, Martin; Geršl, Jan; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lötters, Joost


    An increasing number of microfluidic systems operate at flow rates below 1 μl/min. Applications include (implanted) micropumps for drug delivery, liquid chromatography, and microreactors. For the applications where the absolute accuracy is important, a proper calibration is required. However, with standard calibration facilities, flow rate calibrations below ~1 μl/min are not feasible because of a too large calibration uncertainty. In the current research, a traceable flow rate using a certain temperature increase rate is proposed. When the fluid properties, starting mass, and temperature increase rate are known, this principle yields a direct link to SI units, which makes it a primary standard. In this article, it will be shown that this principle enables flow rate uncertainties in the order of 2-3% for flow rates from 30 to 1500 nl/min.

  15. A High-Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Kjær, Helle Astrid


    signals of abrupt climate change in deep polar ice cores. To test its performance, we used the system to analyze different climate intervals in ice drilled at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) site, Greenland. The quality of our continuous measurement of stable water isotopes has been...... at NEEM camp....

  16. Optimization of High-Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis for Transient Climate Signals in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigler, Matthias; Svensson, Anders; Kettner, Ernesto


    meltwater conductivity detection modules. The system is optimized for high- resolution determination of transient signals in thin layers of deep polar ice cores. Based on standard measurements and by comparing sections of early Holocene and glacial ice from Greenland, we find that the new system features...

  17. Preliminary study on aerobic granular biomass formation with aerobic continuous flow reactor (United States)

    Yulianto, Andik; Soewondo, Prayatni; Handajani, Marissa; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi


    A paradigm shift in waste processing is done to obtain additional benefits from treated wastewater. By using the appropriate processing, wastewater can be turned into a resource. The use of aerobic granular biomass (AGB) can be used for such purposes, particularly for the processing of nutrients in wastewater. During this time, the use of AGB for processing nutrients more reactors based on a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Studies on the use of SBR Reactor for AGB demonstrate satisfactory performance in both formation and use. SBR reactor with AGB also has been applied on a full scale. However, the use use of SBR reactor still posses some problems, such as the need for additional buffer tank and the change of operation mode from conventional activated sludge to SBR. This gives room for further reactor research with the use of a different type, one of which is a continuous reactor. The purpose of this study is to compare AGB formation using continuous reactor and SBR with same operation parameter. Operation parameter are Organic Loading Rate (OLR) set to 2,5 Kg COD/ with acetate as substrate, aeration rate 3 L/min, and microorganism from Hospital WWTP as microbial source. SBR use two column reactor with volumes 2 m3, and continuous reactor uses continuous airlift reactor, with two compartments and working volume of 5 L. Results from preliminary research shows that although the optimum results are not yet obtained, AGB can be formed on the continuous reactor. When compared with AGB generated by SBR, then the characteristics of granular diameter showed similarities, while the sedimentation rate and Sludge Volume Index (SVI) characteristics showed lower yields.

  18. Continuous Flow Polymer Synthesis toward Reproducible Large-Scale Production for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells. (United States)

    Pirotte, Geert; Kesters, Jurgen; Verstappen, Pieter; Govaerts, Sanne; Manca, Jean; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter


    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) have attracted great interest as a solar cell technology with appealing mechanical, aesthetical, and economies-of-scale features. To drive OPV toward economic viability, low-cost, large-scale module production has to be realized in combination with increased top-quality material availability and minimal batch-to-batch variation. To this extent, continuous flow chemistry can serve as a powerful tool. In this contribution, a flow protocol is optimized for the high performance benzodithiophene-thienopyrroledione copolymer PBDTTPD and the material quality is probed through systematic solar-cell evaluation. A stepwise approach is adopted to turn the batch process into a reproducible and scalable continuous flow procedure. Solar cell devices fabricated using the obtained polymer batches deliver an average power conversion efficiency of 7.2 %. Upon incorporation of an ionic polythiophene-based cathodic interlayer, the photovoltaic performance could be enhanced to a maximum efficiency of 9.1 %. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Continuous-flow ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process: An efficient diesel treatment by injection of the aqueous phase. (United States)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh; Movahedirad, Salman


    A new continuous-flow ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process was developed in order to decrease energy and aqueous phase consumption. In this process the aqueous phase is injected below the horn tip leading to enhanced mixing of the phases. Diesel fuel as the oil phase with sulfur content of 1550ppmw and an appropriate mixture of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid as the aqueous phase were used. At the first step, the optimized condition for the sulfur removal has been obtained in the batch mode operation. Hence, the effect of more important oxidation parameters; oxidant-to-sulfur molar ratio, acid-to-sulfur molar ratio and sonication time were investigated. Then the optimized conditions were obtained using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique. Afterwards, some experiments corresponding to the best batch condition and also with objective of minimizing the residence time and aqueous phase to fuel volume ratio have been conducted in a newly designed double-compartment reactor with injection of the aqueous phase to evaluate the process in a continuous flow operation. In addition, the effect of nozzle diameter has been examined. Significant improvement on the sulfur removal was observed specially in lower sonication time in the case of dispersion method in comparison with the conventional contact between two phases. Ultimately, the flow pattern induced by ultrasonic device, and also injection of the aqueous phase were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by capturing the sequential images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrochemical study of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells under fed-batch and continuous flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao


    Power production of four hydraulically connected microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was compared with the reactors operated using individual electrical circuits (individual), and when four anodes were wired together and connected to four cathodes all wired together (combined), in fed-batch or continuous flow conditions. Power production under these different conditions could not be made based on a single resistance, but instead required polarization tests to assess individual performance relative to the combined MFCs. Based on the power curves, power produced by the combined MFCs (2.12 ± 0.03 mW, 200 ω) was the same as the summed power (2.13 mW, 50 ω) produced by the four individual reactors in fed-batch mode. With continuous flow through the four MFCs, the maximum power (0.59 ± 0.01 mW) produced by the combined MFCs was slightly lower than the summed maximum power of the four individual reactors (0.68 ± 0.02 mW). There was a small parasitic current flow from adjacent anodes and cathodes, but overall performance was relatively unaffected. These findings demonstrate that optimal power production by reactors hydraulically and electrically connected can be predicted from performance by individual reactors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High fidelity computational simulation of thrombus formation in Thoratec HeartMate II continuous flow ventricular assist device. (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Yang, Fang; Wu, Jingchun; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F


    Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) provide a life-saving therapy for severe heart failure. However, in recent years, the incidence of device-related thrombosis (resulting in stroke, device-exchange surgery or premature death) has been increasing dramatically, which has alarmed both the medical community and the FDA. The objective of this study was to gain improved understanding of the initiation and progression of thrombosis in one of the most commonly used cfVADs, the Thoratec HeartMate II. A computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD) was performed using our recently updated mathematical model of thrombosis. The patterns of deposition predicted by simulation agreed well with clinical observations. Furthermore, thrombus accumulation was found to increase with decreased flow rate, and can be completely suppressed by the application of anticoagulants and/or improvement of surface chemistry. To our knowledge, this is the first simulation to explicitly model the processes of platelet deposition and thrombus growth in a continuous flow blood pump and thereby replicate patterns of deposition observed clinically. The use of this simulation tool over a range of hemodynamic, hematological, and anticoagulation conditions could assist physicians to personalize clinical management to mitigate the risk of thrombosis. It may also contribute to the design of future VADs that are less thrombogenic.

  2. The efficiency of turn-over processes in degraded peat as investigated under continuous flow conditions (United States)

    Kleimeier, Christian; Karsten, Ulf; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd


    Nitrate removal from run-off from agricultural land is in general required to reach a "good chemical status" of surface and groundwater bodies according to the European Water Framework Directive. Removing nitrates via heterotrophic denitrification is highly effective but requires stable anoxic environmental conditions as well as available organic carbon as an electron donator. Constructed wetlands, established on peat soils, through which the nitrate-loaded water is routed, may provide denitrification favorable conditions. A long-term flow experiment (mesocosm) was conducted employing a laboratory container set-up filled with decomposed peat aiming at quantifying the nitrate removal efficiency at various nitrate influx rates. The redox potential was measured at different depths to determine the spatial distribution of denitrificating zones. This new methodological approach allows the observation of biological nitrate turn over without interrupting the adjusted flow rate. We investigated the hydraulic properties and derived transport parameters for the mesocosm by analyzing experimental data from tracer tests. The obtained bromide breakthrough curves (BTC) were subjected to model analysis using the CXTFIT routine of the STANMOD software package. It could be demonstrated that the degraded peat has a dual porosity structure with roughly 40% of the pore water not participating in convective flow and transport processes. Further, the first flushing of mineralized nitrate upon rewetting and onset of flux may compromise any positive clean-up and nitrate removal effects occurring during long-term operation of peat wetlands. The development of the spatial sequence of bacterial cultures is characterized by the redox potential. It is dominated by the available substrates that serve as electron acceptors in bacterial respiration and occurs in a thermodynamically determined top-down order. The zonal development of the nitrate-consuming bacteria was observed and used to describe

  3. Photo-induced copper-mediated polymerization of methyl acrylate in continuous flow reactors


    Wenn, Benjamin; CONRADI, Matthias; Carreiras, Andre Demetrio; Haddleton, David M.; Junkers, Thomas


    Photo-induced copper-mediated radical polymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) is carried out in DMSO at 15 °C in a tubular photo-flow reactor as well as in a glass-chip based microreactor. Polymerization reactions proceed rapidly to approximately 90% monomer conversion within 20 minutes of reactor residence time. Control of reactions is high as evidenced by ideal polymerization kinetics, low dispersities of the obtained polymers (in the range of 1.1) and linear evolution of number average mole...

  4. Amine and tin fluoride inhibition of Streptococcus sanguis adhesion under continuous flow. (United States)

    Embleton, J V; Newman, H N; Wilson, M


    This study evaluated the ability of topically applied amine fluoride (AmF) and AmF-tin fluoride to inhibit the adhesion of Streptococcus sanguis within a parallel plate flow cell system. One of three AmF compounds and two tin fluoride preparations significantly reduced the net bacterial adhesion to conditioned glass over a 1-h period. Tin(IV) fluoride inhibited S. sanguis adhesion to the greatest extent, and this was shown to be dependent on the formation of the conditioning film prior to agent application.

  5. Continuous Polyol Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR). (United States)

    Testino, Andrea; Pilger, Frank; Lucchini, Mattia Alberto; Quinsaat, Jose Enrico Q; Stähli, Christoph; Bowen, Paul


    Over the last years a new type of tubular plug flow reactor, the segmented flow tubular reactor (SFTR), has proven its versatility and robustness through the water-based synthesis of precipitates as varied as CaCO3, BaTiO3, Mn(1-x)NixC2O4·2H2O, YBa oxalates, copper oxalate, ZnS, ZnO, iron oxides, and TiO2 produced with a high powder quality (phase composition, particle size, and shape) and high reproducibility. The SFTR has been developed to overcome the classical problems of powder production scale-up from batch processes, which are mainly linked with mass and heat transfer. Recently, the SFTR concept has been further developed and applied for the synthesis of metals, metal oxides, and salts in form of nano- or micro-particles in organic solvents. This has been done by increasing the working temperature and modifying the particle carrying solvent. In this paper we summarize the experimental results for four materials prepared according to the polyol synthesis route combined with the SFTR. CeO2, Ni, Ag, and Ca3(PO4)2 nanoparticles (NPs) can be obtained with a production rate of about 1-10 g per h. The production was carried out for several hours with constant product quality. These findings further corroborate the reliability and versatility of the SFTR for high throughput powder production.

  6. Continuous Polyol Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Testino


    Full Text Available Over the last years a new type of tubular plug flow reactor, the segmented flow tubular reactor (SFTR, has proven its versatility and robustness through the water-based synthesis of precipitates as varied as CaCO3, BaTiO3, Mn(1−xNixC2O4·2H2O, YBa oxalates, copper oxalate, ZnS, ZnO, iron oxides, and TiO2 produced with a high powder quality (phase composition, particle size, and shape and high reproducibility. The SFTR has been developed to overcome the classical problems of powder production scale-up from batch processes, which are mainly linked with mass and heat transfer. Recently, the SFTR concept has been further developed and applied for the synthesis of metals, metal oxides, and salts in form of nano- or micro-particles in organic solvents. This has been done by increasing the working temperature and modifying the particle carrying solvent. In this paper we summarize the experimental results for four materials prepared according to the polyol synthesis route combined with the SFTR. CeO2, Ni, Ag, and Ca3(PO42 nanoparticles (NPs can be obtained with a production rate of about 1–10 g per h. The production was carried out for several hours with constant product quality. These findings further corroborate the reliability and versatility of the SFTR for high throughput powder production.

  7. The hydrodynamic basis of the vacuum cleaner effect in continuous-flow PCNL instruments: an empiric approach and mathematical model. (United States)

    Mager, R; Balzereit, C; Gust, K; Hüsch, T; Herrmann, T; Nagele, U; Haferkamp, A; Schilling, D


    Passive removal of stone fragments in the irrigation stream is one of the characteristics in continuous-flow PCNL instruments. So far the physical principle of this so-called vacuum cleaner effect has not been fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to empirically prove the existence of the vacuum cleaner effect and to develop a physical hypothesis and generate a mathematical model for this phenomenon. In an empiric approach, common low-pressure PCNL instruments and conventional PCNL sheaths were tested using an in vitro model. Flow characteristics were visualized by coloring of irrigation fluid. Influence of irrigation pressure, sheath diameter, sheath design, nephroscope design and position of the nephroscope was assessed. Experiments were digitally recorded for further slow-motion analysis to deduce a physical model. In each tested nephroscope design, we could observe the vacuum cleaner effect. Increase in irrigation pressure and reduction in cross section of sheath sustained the effect. Slow-motion analysis of colored flow revealed a synergism of two effects causing suction and transportation of the stone. For the first time, our model showed a flow reversal in the sheath as an integral part of the origin of the stone transportation during vacuum cleaner effect. The application of Bernoulli's equation provided the explanation of these effects and confirmed our experimental results. We widen the understanding of PCNL with a conclusive physical model, which explains fluid mechanics of the vacuum cleaner effect.

  8. Quantifying the Reactive Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in aContinuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Dung L.; Smith, Jared D.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.


    Here we report a new method for measuring the heterogeneous chemistry of submicron organic aerosol particles using a continuous flow stirred tank reactor. This approach is designed to quantify the real time heterogeneous kinetics, using a relative rate method, under conditions of low oxidant concentration and long reaction times that more closely mimic the real atmosphere. A general analytical expression, which couples the aerosol chemistry with the flow dynamics in the chamber is developed and applied to the heterogeneous oxidation of squalane particles by hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the presence of O2. The particle phase reaction is monitored via photoionization aerosol mass spectrometry and yields a reactive uptake coefficient of 0.51+-0.10, using OH concentrations of 1-7x108 molec cdot cm-3 and reaction times of 1.5+-3 hours. This uptake coefficient is larger than that found for the reaction carried out under high OH concentrations (~;;1x1010 molec cdot cm-3) and short reaction times in a flow tube reactor. This difference suggests that oxidant concentration and reaction time are not interchangeable quantities in reactions of organic aerosols with radicals. In general, this approach provides a new way to examine how the chemical aging of organic particles measured at short reaction times and high oxidant concentrations in flow tubes might differ from the long reaction times and low oxidant levels found in the real atmosphere.

  9. Arrays of horizontally-oriented mini-reservoirs generate steady microfluidic flows for continuous perfusion cell culture and gradient generation. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyue; Yi Chu, Leonard; Chueh, Bor-han; Shen, Mingwu; Hazarika, Bhaskar; Phadke, Nandita; Takayama, Shuichi


    This paper describes the use of arrays of horizontally-oriented reservoirs to deliver liquids through microchannels at a constant flow rate over extended periods of time (hours to days). The horizontal orientation maintains a constant hydraulic pressure drop across microfluidic channels even as the volumes of liquids within the reservoirs change over time. For a given channel-reservoir system, the magnitude of the flow velocity depends linearly on the height difference between reservoirs. The simple structure and operation mechanism make this pumping system versatile. A one-inlet-one-outlet system was used to continuously deliver media for perfusion cell culture, and an array of inlet reservoirs coupled to an outlet reservoir via microchannels was used to drive flows of multiple laminar streams. The parallel pumping scheme conveniently generated various smooth and step concentration gradients, and allowed evaluation of the effect of colchicine on myoblasts. Since the reservoir arrays are configured to be compatible with commercialized multichannel pipettors designed for 96 well plate handling, this simple pumping scheme is envisioned to be broadly useful for medium to high throughput microfluidic perfusion cell culture assays, cell migration assays, multiple laminar flow drug tests, and any other applications needing multiple microfluidic streams.

  10. Multistep continuous-flow synthesis in medicinal chemistry: discovery and preliminary structure-activity relationships of CCR8 ligands. (United States)

    Petersen, Trine P; Mirsharghi, Sahar; Rummel, Pia C; Thiele, Stefanie; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Ritzén, Andreas; Ulven, Trond


    A three-step continuous-flow synthesis system and its application to the assembly of a new series of chemokine receptor ligands directly from commercial building blocks is reported. No scavenger columns or solvent switches are necessary to recover the desired test compounds, which were obtained in overall yields of 49-94%. The system is modular and flexible, and the individual steps of the sequence can be interchanged with similar outcome, extending the scope of the chemistry. Biological evaluation confirmed activity on the chemokine CCR8 receptor and provided initial structure-activity-relationship (SAR) information for this new ligand series, with the most potent member displaying full agonist activity with single-digit nanomolar potency. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first published example of efficient use of multistep flow synthesis combined with biological testing and SAR studies in medicinal chemistry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza


    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  12. Design and evaluation of a continuous flow, integrated nebulizer-hydride generator for flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Murillo


    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of a continuous flow hydride generator-nebulizer for flame atomic absorption spectrometry was carried out. Optimization of nebulizer gas flow rate, sample acid concentration, sample and tetrahydroborate uptake rates and reductant concentration, on the As and Se absorbance signals was carried out. A hydrogen-argon flame was used. An improvement of the analytical sensitivity relative to the conventional bead nebulizer used in flame AA was obtained (2 (As and 4.8 (Se µg L-1. Detection limits (3σb of 1 (As and 1.3 (Se µg L-1 were obtained. Accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing an oyster tissue reference material.

  13. Gas sensing with nano-indium oxides (In2O3) prepared via continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis. (United States)

    Elouali, Sofia; Bloor, Leanne G; Binions, Russell; Parkin, Ivan P; Carmalt, Claire J; Darr, Jawwad A


    A rapid, clean, and continuous hydrothermal route to the synthesis of ca. 14 nm indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) nanoparticles using a superheated water flow at 400 °C and 24.1 MPa as a crystallizing medium and reagent is described. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the particles revealed that they were highly crystalline despite their very short time under hydrothermal flow conditions. Gas sensing substrates were prepared from an In(2)O(3) suspension via drop-coating, and their gas sensing properties were tested for response to butane, ethanol, CO, ammonia, and NO(2) gases. The sensors showed excellent selectivity toward ethanol, giving a response of 18-20 ppm.

  14. Nanoengineering of Ruthenium and Platinum-based Nanocatalysts by Continuous-Flow Chemistry for Renewable Energy Applications

    KAUST Repository

    AlYami, Noktan Mohammed


    This thesis presents an integrated study of nanocatalysts for heterogenous catalytic and electrochemical processes using pure ruthenium (Ru) with mixed-phase and platinum-based nanomaterials synthesized by continuous-flow chemistry. There are three major challenges to the application of nanomaterials in heterogenous catalytic reactions and electrocatalytic processes in acidic solution. These challenges are the following: (i) controlling the size, shape and crystallography of nanoparticles to give the best catalytic properties, (ii) scaling these nanoparticles up to a commercial quantity (kg per day) and (iii) making stable nanoparticles that can be used catalytically without degrading in acidic electrolytes. Some crucial limitations of these nanostructured materials in energy conversion and storage applications were overcome by continuous-flow chemistry. By using a continuous-flow reactor, the creation of scalable nanoparticle systems was achieved and their functionality was modified to control the nanoparticles’ physical and chemical characteristics. The nanoparticles were also tested for long-term stability, to make sure these nanoparticles were feasible under realistic working conditions. These nanoparticles are (1) shape- and crystallography-controlled ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles, (2) size-controlled platinum-metal (Pt-M= nickel (Ni) & copper (Cu)) nanooctahedra (while maintaining morphology) and (3) core-shell platinum@ruthenium (Pt@Ru) nanoparticles where an ultrathin ruthenium shell was templated onto the platinum core. Thus, a complete experimental validation of the formation of a scalable amount of these nanoparticles and their catalytic activity and stability towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in acid medium, hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB) along with plausible explanations were provided.

  15. Immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles as stable and reusable catalysts for hydrazine-mediated nitro reductions in continuous flow. (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mojtaba Mirhosseini; Pieber, Bartholomäus; Glasnov, Toma; Kappe, C Oliver


    An experimentally easy to perform method for the generation of alumina-supported Fe3O4 nanoparticles [(6±1) nm size, 0.67 wt %]and the use of this material in hydrazine-mediated heterogeneously catalyzed reductions of nitroarenes to anilines under batch and continuous-flow conditions is presented. The bench-stable, reusable nano-Fe3O4@Al2O3 catalyst can selectively reduce functionalized nitroarenes at 1 mol % catalyst loading by using a 20 mol % excess of hydrazine hydrate in an elevated temperature regime (150 °C, reaction time 2-6 min in batch). For continuous-flow processing, the catalyst material is packed into dedicated cartridges and used in a commercially available high-temperature/-pressure flow device. In continuous mode, reaction times can be reduced to less than 1 min at 150 °C (30 bar back pressure) in a highly intensified process. The nano-Fe3O4@Al2O3 catalyst demonstrated stable reduction of nitrobenzene (0.5 M in MeOH) for more than 10 h on stream at a productivity of 30 mmol h(-1) (0.72 mol per day). Importantly, virtually no leaching of the catalytically active material could be observed by inductively coupled plasma MS monitoring. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Normalisation of haemodynamics in patients with end-stage heart failure with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device therapy. (United States)

    Gupta, Sunil; Woldendorp, Kei; Muthiah, Kavitha; Robson, Desiree; Prichard, Roslyn; Macdonald, Peter S; Keogh, Anne M; Kotlyar, Eugene; Jabbour, Andrew; Dhital, Kumud; Granger, Emily; Spratt, Phillip; Jansz, Paul; Hayward, Christopher S


    New generation continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) utilise centrifugal pumps. Data concerning their effect on patient haemodynamics, ventricular function and tissue perfusion is limited. We aimed to document these parameters following HeartWare centrifugal continuous-flow LVAD (HVAD) implantation and to assess the impact of post-operative right heart failure (RHF). We reviewed 53 consecutive patients (mean age 49.5 ± 14.1 yrs) with HVAD implanted in the left ventricle, at St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, between January 2007 and August 2012. Available paired right heart catheterisation (n=35) and echocardiography (n=39) data was reviewed to assess response of invasive haemodynamics and ventricular function to LVAD support. A total of 28 patients (53%) were implanted from interim mechanical circulatory support. Seventeen patients (32%) required short-term post-implant veno-pulmonary artery extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. At 100 ± 61 days post-implant, mean pulmonary artery pressure and mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure decreased from 38.8 ± 7.7 to 22.9 ± 7.7 mmHg and 28.3 ± 6.4 to 13.4 ± 5.4 mmHg respectively (pRHF patients (72.2%, n=18) compared to those without (96.9%, n=35, p=0.01). HVAD support improves haemodynamics, LV dimensions and renal function. Following implantation with a centrifugal continuous-flow LVAD, RHF remains a significant risk with a tendency to worse outcomes in the short to medium term. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and clinical significance of late right heart failure during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device support. (United States)

    Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Colombo, Paolo C; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Fukuhara, Shinichi; Han, Jiho; Kurlansky, Paul; Mancini, Donna M; Naka, Yoshifumi


    Right heart failure (RHF) is an unresolved issue during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. Little is known about the incidence and clinical significance of late RHF during LVAD support. Between May 2004 and December 2013, 336 patients underwent continuous-flow LVAD implantation. Of these, 293 patients (87%) discharged with isolated LVAD support were included in this study. Late RHF was defined as HF requiring re-admission and medical or surgical intervention after initial surgery. Late RHF occurred in 33 patients (11%) at a median of 99 days after discharge (range 19 to 1,357 days). Freedom from late RHF rates were 87%, 84% and 79% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. RHF recurred in 15 patients. Three patients required right ventricular assist device insertion. Univariable Cox proportional hazards regression model showed diabetes mellitus (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.06, p = 0.04), body mass index >29 (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.94, p = 0.01) and blood urea nitrogen level >41 mg/dl (HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.10 to 4.36; p = 0.025) as significant predictors for late RHF. Estimated on-device survival rates at 2 years were 73% in the RHF group and 82% in the non-RHF group (p = 0.20). However, overall survival at 2 years was significantly worse in patients who developed late RHF (60% vs 85%, p = 0.016). This reduction was mostly attributed to worse overall outcomes in the bridge-to-transplant (BTT) population. Late RHF is common after continuous-flow LVAD implantation, but does not affect survival during LVAD support. However, it is associated with worse overall outcomes in the BTT population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Prediction Based on Continuous Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Tewolde


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the third most common neurological illness, affecting 1% of the world’s population. Despite advances in medicine, about 25 to 30% of the patients do not respond to or cannot tolerate the severe side effects of medical treatment, and surgery is not an option for the majority of patients with epilepsy. The objective of this article is to review the current state of research on seizure detection based on cerebral blood flow (CBF data acquired by thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF, and CBF-based seizure prediction. A discussion is provided on the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of TDF in detecting and localizing seizure foci, as well as its role in seizure prediction. Also presented are an overview of the present challenges and possible future research directions (along with methodological guidelines of the CBF-based seizure detection and prediction methods.

  19. [Preparation of granulocyte concentrates from healthy donors using a continuous-flow centrifuge (CFC)]. (United States)

    Grgicević, D; Pistotnik, M; Flego, I


    By means of continous flow centrifuge the authors have obtained suspensions of granulocytes from the blood of healthy donors. Results of granulocytophereses are presented here with the main points in the therapy of granulocytopenic patients with granulocytes rich suspension. The mean volume of the obtained suspension was 418ml. and it contained 9,78 X 10(9) leukocytes. 70 percent of them were granulocytes, the said volume contained 48 ml of red blood cells. All the donors had been premedicated with i.v. dexamethason (4mg./kg body weight). No one of the 51 donors developed anaemia or hypoproteinemia. After the application of the protamin sulphate, however, two donors had face flushing breathlessness and gastric ache. These symptoms disappeared after the administration of corticosteroids. Although they are connected with the administration of protamin sulphate we can not explain them.

  20. A coupled analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer and deformation behavior of solidifying shell in continuously cast beam blank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Eui; Yeo, Tae Jung; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Jong Kyu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul Nat`l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heung Nam [Oxford Center for Advanced Materials and Composites, Department of Materials, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)


    A mathematical model for a coupled analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer and deformation behavior in the continuously cast beam blank has been developed. The fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification in the mold region were analyzed with 3-dimensional finite difference method (FDM) based on control volume method. A body fitted coordinate system was introduced for the complex geometry of the beam blank. The effects of turbulence and natural convection of molten steel were taken into account in determining the fluid flow in the strand. The thermo-elasto-plastic deformation behavior in the cast strand and the formation of air gap between the solidifying shell and the mold were analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) using the 2-dimensional slice temperature profile calculated by the FDM. The heat flow between the strand and the mold was evaluated by the coupled analysis between the fluid flow-heat transfer analysis and the thermo-elasto-plastic stress analysis. In order to determine the solid fraction in the mushy zone, the microsegregation of solute element was assessed. The effects of fluid flow on the heat transfer, the solidification of steel and the distribution of shell thickness during the casting of the beam blank were simulated. The deformation behavior of the solidifying shell and the possibility of cracking of the strand were also investigated. The recirculating flows were developed in the regions of the web and the flange tip. The impinging of the inlet flow from the nozzle retarded the growing of solidifying shell in the regions of the fillet and the flange. The air gap between the strand and the mold was formed near the region of the corner of the flange tip. At the initial stage of casting, the probability of the surface cracking was high in the regions of the fillet and the flange tip. After the middle stage of casting, the internal cracking was predicted in the regions of the flange tip, and between the fillet and the flange tip. (author) 38

  1. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system. (United States)

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P


    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions of individual

  2. Possible complication regarding phosphorus removal with a continuous flow biofilm system: Diffusion limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkentoft, C.M.; Arnz, P.; Henze, Mogens


    Diffusion limitation of phosphate possibly constitutes a serious problem regarding the use of a biofilm reactor for enhanced biological phosphorus removal. A lab-scale reactor for simultaneous removal of phosphorus and nitrate was operated in a continuous alternating mode of operation. For a steady.......4 ± 0.4% (equal to 24 ± 4 mg P/g TS). A simplified computer model indicated the reason to be phosphate diffusion limitation and the model revealed a delicate balance between the obtainable phosphorus contents of the biomass and operating parameters, such as backwash interval, biofilm thickness after...

  3. Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Deuterium-Labeled Antidiabetic Chalcones: Studies towards the Selective Deuteration of the Alkynone Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor B. Ötvös


    Full Text Available Flow chemistry-based syntheses of deuterium-labeled analogs of important antidiabetic chalcones were achieved via highly controlled partial C≡C bond deuteration of the corresponding 1,3-diphenylalkynones. The benefits of a scalable continuous process in combination with on-demand electrolytic D2 gas generation were exploited to suppress undesired over-reactions and to maximize reaction rates simultaneously. The novel deuterium-containing chalcone derivatives may have interesting biological effects and improved metabolic properties as compared with the parent compounds.

  4. Reagent-free determination of amikacin content in amikacin sulfate injections by FTIR derivative spectroscopy in a continuous flow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Ovalles


    Full Text Available The quantitative estimation of amikacin (AMK in AMK sulfate injection samples is reported using FTIR-derivative spectrometric method in a continuous flow system. Fourier transform of mid-IR spectra were recorded without any sample pretreatment. A good linear calibration (r>0.999, %RSD<2.0 in the range of 7.7–77.0 mg/mL was found. The results showed a good correlation with the manufacturer's and overall they all fell within acceptable limits of most pharmacopoeial monographs on AMK sulfate.

  5. Tube-in-tube reactor as a useful tool for homo- and heterogeneous olefin metathesis under continuous flow mode. (United States)

    Skowerski, Krzysztof; Czarnocki, Stefan J; Knapkiewicz, Paweł


    A tube-in-tube reactor was successfully applied in homo- and heterogeneous olefin metathesis reactions under continuous flow mode. It was shown that the efficient removal of ethylene facilitated by connection of the reactor with a vacuum pump significantly improves the outcome of metathesis reactions. The beneficial aspects of this approach are most apparent in reactions performed at low concentration, such as macrocyclization reactions. The established system allows achievement of both improved yield and selectivity, and is ideal for industrial applications. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method


    LIU Yun-xia; WEN Yun-jie; HUANG Jin-li; LI Gui-hua; CHAI Xiao; WANG Hong


    The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method) is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P) in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA) is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the dige...

  7. Photochemical Synthesis of Complex Carbazoles: Evaluation of Electronic Effects in Both UV- and Visible-Light Methods in Continuous Flow. (United States)

    Hernandez-Perez, Augusto C; Caron, Antoine; Collins, Shawn K


    An evaluation of both a visible-light- and UV-light-mediated synthesis of carbazoles from various triarylamines with differing electronic properties under continuous-flow conditions has been conducted. In general, triarylamines bearing electron-rich groups tend to produce higher yields than triarylamines possessing electron-withdrawing groups. The incorporation of nitrogen-based heterocycles, as well as halogen-containing arenes in carbazole skeletons, was well tolerated, and often synthetically useful complementarity was observed between the UV-light and visible-light (photoredox) methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Ramp Study Hemodynamics, Functional Capacity, and Outcome in Heart Failure Patients with Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Gustafsson, Finn; Houston, Brian


    Ramp studies-measuring changes in cardiac parameters as a function of serial pump speed changes (revolutions per minute [rpm])-are increasingly used to evaluate function and malfunction of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). We hypothesized that ramp studies can predict...... patients (HeartMate II, Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA). Functional status was evaluated in 70% (31/44); average 6 minute walk test (6MWT) was 312 ± 220 min, New York Heart Association (NYHA) I-II/III-IV (70/30%) and activity scores very low-low/moderate-very high (55/45%). Decrease in pulmonary...

  9. Nanocomposite YSZ-NiO Particles with Tailored Structure Synthesized in a Two-Stage Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Xu, Yu; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar


    -composites. Here we report on the design of the two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor and first results on obtaining structured nano-composite consisting of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and NiO materials. These materials are commonly applied in the fuel electrodes of today’s state......-of-the-art solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells. The prepared particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, (high resolution) transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunnel transmission microscopy and Raman spectroscopy in order to determine crystal structure, particle size, surface morphology...

  10. Ambient infrared laser ablation mass spectrometry (AIRLAB-MS) with plume capture by continuous flow solvent probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Jeremy T.; Williams, Evan R.; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.


    A new experimental setup for spatially resolved ambient infrared laser ablation mass spectrometry (AIRLAB-MS) that uses an infrared microscope with an infinity-corrected reflective objective and a continuous flow solvent probe coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer is described. The efficiency of material transfer from the sample to the electrospray ionization emitter was determined using glycerol/methanol droplets containing 1 mM nicotine and is .about.50%. This transfer efficiency is significantly higher than values reported for similar techniques.

  11. Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Deuterium-Labeled Antidiabetic Chalcones: Studies towards the Selective Deuteration of the Alkynone Core. (United States)

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Wu, Yang-Chang; Li, Jih-Heng; Chang, Fang-Rong; Fülöp, Ferenc


    Flow chemistry-based syntheses of deuterium-labeled analogs of important antidiabetic chalcones were achieved via highly controlled partial C≡C bond deuteration of the corresponding 1,3-diphenylalkynones. The benefits of a scalable continuous process in combination with on-demand electrolytic D2 gas generation were exploited to suppress undesired over-reactions and to maximize reaction rates simultaneously. The novel deuterium-containing chalcone derivatives may have interesting biological effects and improved metabolic properties as compared with the parent compounds.

  12. Continuous flow synthesis and cleaning of nano layered double hydroxides and the potential of the route to adjust round or platelet nanoparticle morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegler, A.; Schneider, M.; Prieschl, J.; Stevens, R.; Vinnay, T.; Mandel, K.


    Here, we report a continuous flow synthesis of nano LDH, comprising a continuous precipitation process using static mixers and followed by an immediate cleaning process via a semi-continuous centrifuge to obtain the final product in one-go. Via this synthesis setup, it is possible to independently

  13. Survival and growth of newly transformed Lampsilis cardium and Lampsilis siliquoidea in a flow-through, continuous feeding test system (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Hess, Karina R.; Bartsch, Michelle


    A test system was evaluated for assessing chronic toxicity of waterborne chemicals with early life stage mussels. To determine if the test system could result in ≥80% survival in a control (unexposed) group, fat mucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea Barnes, 1823) and plain pocketbook mussels (L. cardium Rafinesque, 1820) 1 day post transformation were stocked into test chambers (250 mL beakers, water volume, 200 mL, 21 °C, 40 mussels of 1 species per chamber) within a test system constructed for conducting chronic, continuous exposure, flow-through toxicity tests. The test system contained 60 chambers containing silica sand, 30 chambers with L. siliquoidea, and 30 with L. cardium. Each chamber in the continuous feeding system received 1 of 6 food types prepared with concentrated algal products. After 28 days, mussels were harvested from chambers to assess survival and growth. For L. siliquoidea, mean survival ranged from 34 to 80% and mean shell length ranged from 464 to 643 µm. For L. cardium, mean survival ranged from 12 to 66% and mean shell length ranged from 437 to 612 µm. The maximum mean growth rate for L. siliquoidea was 12.7 µm/d and for L. cardium was 11.8 µm/d. When offered a continuous diet of Nannochloropsis, Tetraselmis, and Chlorella for 28 days in the test system, the survival of 1 day post transformation L. siliquoidea was 80%. The test system can be easily enhanced with a pumping system continuously delivering test chemical to the test system's flow stream allowing for chronic toxicity tests with 1 day post transformation mussels.

  14. The Virtual Hospital: an IAIMS integrating continuing education into the work flow. (United States)

    D'Alessandro, M P; Galvin, J R; Erkonen, W E; Curry, D S; Flanagan, J R; D'Alessandro, D M; Lacey, D L; Wagner, J R


    Researchers at the University of Iowa are developing an integrated academic information management system (IAIMS) for use on the World Wide Web. The focus is on integrating continuing medical education (CME) into the clinicians' daily work and incorporating consumer health information into patients' life styles. Phase I of the project consists of loosely integrating patients' data, printed library information, and digital library information. Phase II consists of more tightly integrating the three types of information, and Phase III consists of awarding CME credits for reviewing educational, material at the point of patient care, when it has the most potential for improving outcomes. This IAIMS serves a statewide population. Its design and evolution have been heavily influenced by user-centered evaluation.

  15. Rapid trifluoromethylation and perfluoroalkylation of five-membered heterocycles by photoredox catalysis in continuous flow. (United States)

    Straathof, Natan J W; Gemoets, Hannes P L; Wang, Xiao; Schouten, Jaap C; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy


    Trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles are important building blocks for the synthesis of numerous pharmaceutical products, agrochemicals and are widely applied in material sciences. To date, trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated hetero-aromatic systems can be prepared utilizing visible light photoredox catalysis methodologies in batch. While several limitations are associated with these batch protocols, the application of microflow technology could greatly enhance and intensify these reactions. A simple and straightforward photocatalytic trifluoromethylation and perfluoroalkylation method has been developed in continuous microflow, using commercially available photocatalysts and microflow components. A selection of five-membered hetero-aromatics were successfully trifluoromethylated (12 examples) and perfluoroalkylated (5 examples) within several minutes (8-20 min). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Residence time distribution (RTD) of particulate foods in a continuous flow pilot-scale ohmic heater. (United States)

    Sarang, Sanjay; Heskitt, Brian; Tulsiyan, Priyank; Sastry, Sudhir K


    The residence time distribution (RTD) of a model particulate-fluid mixture (potato in starch solution) in the ohmic heater in a continuous sterilization process was measured using a radio frequency identification (RFID) methodology. The effect of solid concentration and the rotational speed of the agitators on the RTD were studied. The velocity of the fastest particle was 1.62 times the mean product velocity. In general, particle velocity was found to be greater than the product bulk average velocity. Mean particle residence time (MPRT) increased with an increase in the rotational speed of the agitators (P distribution curves E (theta) were skewed to the right suggesting slow moving zones in the system.

  17. Continuous-Flow Multistep Synthesis of Cinnarizine, Cyclizine, and a Buclizine Derivative from Bulk Alcohols. (United States)

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Noël, Timothy; Hessel, Volker


    Cinnarizine, cyclizine, buclizine, and meclizine belong to a family of antihistamines that resemble each other in terms of a 1-diphenylmethylpiperazine moiety. We present the development of a four-step continuous process to generate the final antihistamines from bulk alcohols as the starting compounds. HCl is used to synthesize the intermediate chlorides in a short reaction time and excellent yields. This methodology offers an excellent way to synthesize intermediates to be used in drug synthesis. Inline separation allows the collection of pure products and their immediate consumption in the following steps. Overall isolated yields for cinnarizine, cyclizine, and a buclizine derivative are 82, 94, and 87 %, respectively. The total residence time for the four steps is 90 min with a productivity of 2 mmol h(-1) . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Transfer of gas from the acinus during continuous flow and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. (United States)

    Forrest, F C; Randalls, P B; Barnas, G M; Hoff, B H; Oletsky, J; Mackenzie, C F


    We used a technique of measuring Xenon133 washout (XeW) from the alveolar space to evaluate transfer of gas from the acinus (Mackenzie et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 2013-2018, 1990) during 2 min of apnea, 2 min of tracheal insufflation with oxygen (TRIO) and 90 sec of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) in 6 anesthetized and paralyzed dogs. Xenon133 dissolved in saline was injected into an occluded acinar region through a pulmonary artery catheter, and XeW was measured by gamma scintillation scanning. With this technique, XeW during apnea represents the contribution of cardiogenic oscillations in regional flow. The XeW rate constant (min-1 +/- SE) was 0.37 +/- 0.03 during apnea. This was not different (P > 0.05) with TRIO (0.29 +/- 0.04). With IPPV, the rate constant increased to 3.49 +/- 0.39, faster than with either apnea or TRIO (P < 0.001). We conclude that: (1) TRIO does not increase convective gas transfer from the acini compared to apnea; and (2) transfer of gas out of the acini due to cardiogenic oscillations is a very small portion of the total gas eliminated during IPPV.

  19. Numerical modeling of flow in continuous bends from Daliushu to Shapotou in Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-fang JING


    Full Text Available The upper reach of the Yellow River from Daliushu to Shapotou consists of five bends and has complex topography. A two-dimensional Re-Normalisation Group (RNG k-ε model was developed to simulate the flow in the reach. In order to take the circulation currents in the bends into account, the momentum equations were improved by adding an additional source term. Comparison of the numerical simulation with field measurements indicates that the improved two-dimensional depth-averaged RNG k-ε model can improve the accuracy of the numerical simulation. A rapid adaptive algorithm was constructed, which can automatically adjust Manning’s roughness coefficient in different parts of the study river reach. As a result, not only can the trial computation time be significantly shortened, but the accuracy of the numerical simulation can also be greatly improved. Comparison of the simulated and measured water surface slopes for four typical cases shows that the longitudinal and transverse slopes of the water surface increase with the average velocity upstream. In addition, comparison was made between the positions of the talweg and the main streamline, which coincide for most of the study river reach. However, deviations between the positions of the talweg and the main streamline were found at the junction of two bends, at the position where the river width suddenly decreases or increases.

  20. Scale-up of the Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT Polymerization Using Continuous Flow Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Micic


    Full Text Available A controlled radical polymerization process using the Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT approach was scaled up by a factor of 100 from a small laboratory scale of 5 mL to a preparative scale of 500 mL, using batch and continuous flow processing. The batch polymerizations were carried out in a series of different glass vessels, using either magnetic or overhead stirring, and different modes of heating: Microwave irradiation or conductive heating in an oil bath. The continuous process was conducted in a prototype tubular flow reactor, consisting of 6 mm ID stainless steel tubing, fitted with static mixers. Both reactor types were tested for polymerizations of the acid functional monomers acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-1-sulfonic acid in water at 80 °C with reaction times of 30 to 40 min. By monitoring the temperature during the exothermic polymerization process, it was observed that the type and size of reactor had a significant influence on the temperature profile of the reaction.

  1. The effect of a single or double dose of dexamethasone on granulocyte collection with the continuous flow centrifuge. (United States)

    Higby, D J; Mishler, J M; Rhomberg, W; Nicora, R W; Holland, J F


    A total of 33 leukaphereses were performed with the IBM continuous flow centrifuge on 28 normal healthy donors for the purpose of obtaining increased yields of granulocytes for infusion into leukopenic recipients. The pretreatment of donors within a 10- to 12-hour period prior to pheresis with a double dose of dexamethasone and the addition of hydroxyethyl starch to the input line of the continuous flow centrifuge, significantly increased the total quantity and efficiency of granulocyte collected as compared to a donor group receiving a single dose of dexamethasone in addition to hydroxyethyl starch. A mean of 25.5 times 10-9 total granulocytes were collected in addition to an efficiency of 2.11 times 10-9 granulocytes harvested per liter of blood processed in the double-dose-treated donors, in contrast to 19.6 times 10-9 total granulocytes collected and an efficiency of 1.82 times 10-9 granulocytes harvested per liter of blood processed in the single dose donor group. The results of the present study demonstrate that elevated quantities of granulocytes can be collected from normal donors by scheduling a double dose of dexamethasone prior to the pheresis procedure.

  2. Mechanical circulatory support of a univentricular Fontan circulation with a continuous axial-flow pump in a piglet model. (United States)

    Wei, Xufeng; Sanchez, Pablo G; Liu, Yang; Li, Tieluo; Watkins, A Claire; Wu, Zhongjun J; Griffith, Bartley P


    Despite the significant contribution of the Fontan procedure to the therapy of complex congenital heart diseases, many patients progress to failure of their Fontan circulation. The use of ventricular assist devices to provide circulatory support to these patients remains challenging. In the current study, a continuous axial-flow pump was used to support a univentricular Fontan circulation. A modified Fontan circulation (atrio-pulmonary connection) was constructed in six Yorkshire piglets (8-14 kg). A Dacron conduit (12 mm) with two branches was constructed to serve as a complete atrio-pulmonary connection without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The Impella pump was inserted into the conduit through an additional Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft in five animals. Hemodynamic data were collected for 6 hours under the supported Fontan circulation. The control animal died after initiating the Fontan circulation independent of resuscitation. Four pump supported animals remained hemodynamically stable for 6 hours with pump speeds between 18,000 rpm and 22,000 rpm (P1-P3). Oxygen saturation was maintained between 95% and 100%. Normal organ perfusion was illustrated by blood gas analysis and biochemical assays. A continuous axial-flow pump can be used for temporal circulatory support to the failing Fontan circulation as "bridge" to heart transplantation or recovery.

  3. The catalytic nanodiode: detecting continuous electron flow at oxide-metal interfaces generated by a gas-phase exothermic reaction. (United States)

    Park, Jeong Young; Somorjai, Gabor A


    Continuous flow of ballistic charge carriers is generated by an exothermic chemical reaction and detected using the catalytic metal-semiconductor Schottky diode. We obtained a hot electron current for several hours using two types of catalytic nanodiodes, Pt/TiO2 or Pt/GaN, during carbon monoxide oxidation at pressures of 100 Torr of O2 and 40 Torr of CO at 413-573 K. This result reveals that the chemical energy of an exothermic catalytic reaction is directly converted into hot electrons flux in the catalytic nanodiode. By heating the nanodiodes in He, we could measure the thermoelectric current which is in the opposite direction to the flow of the hot electron current. The chemicurrent is well correlated with the turnover rate of CO oxidation, which is separately measured with gas chromatography. The influence of the flow of hot charge carriers on the chemistry at the oxide-metal interface, and the turnover rate in the chemical reaction are discussed.

  4. Simultaneous Measurements of Geometric and Viscoelastic Properties of Hydrogel Microbeads Using Continuous-Flow Microfluidics with Embedded Electrodes. (United States)

    Niu, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Si, Ting; Zhang, Yuntian; Qi, Lin; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Ronald X; He, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yi


    Geometric and mechanical characterizations of hydrogel materials at the microscale are attracting increasing attention due to their importance in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery applications. Contemporary approaches for measuring the these properties of hydrogel microbeads suffer from low-throughput, complex system configuration, and measurement inaccuracy. In this work, a continuous-flow device is developed to measure geometric and viscoelastic properties of hydrogel microbeads by flowing the microbeads through a tapered microchannel with an array of interdigitated microelectrodes patterned underneath the channel. The viscoelastic properties are derived from the trajectories of microbeads using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. The measurement is independent of the applied volumetric flow rate. The results show that the geometric and viscoelastic properties of Ca-alginate hydrogel microbeads can be determined independently and simultaneously. The bulky high-speed optical systems are eliminated, simplifying the system configuration and making it a truly miniaturized device. A throughput of up to 394 microbeads min-1 is achieved. This study may provide a powerful tool for mechanical profiling of hydrogel microbeads to support their wide applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A standard approach to continuous glucose monitor data in pregnancy for the study of fetal growth and infant outcomes. (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Barbour, Linda A


    The power of continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) technology to profile glycemic patterns throughout a 24-h period has benefited the care of individuals with diabetes mellitus for over 10 years. Recently, this technology has been utilized to better understand glucose patterns in pregnancy, especially as they relate to abnormal fetal growth given that adiposity at birth is associated with increased risks for childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the lack of a standardized approach to defining glucose measures associated with maternal outcomes and fetal growth has greatly limited comparison and pooling of CGMS data among pregnancy trials, hindering our ability to take advantage of the enormous amount of data available to explore these relationships. The purpose of this article is to offer a methodical approach to the identification and extraction of CGMS-derived glucose variables for the characterization of glycemic profiles in pregnant women, particularly focusing on women with gestational diabetes or obesity who are at risk for abnormal fetal growth. A review of the properties of CGMS data and examples of how CGMS data in pregnancy have been reported to date are included. We further define several pregnancy-relevant, CGMS-derived glucose variables and directly apply them to unpublished data to illustrate how these measures might be utilized. This approach offers one possible standardized method to define and analyze these time-sensitive glucose measures to facilitate comparisons among studies and to increase our understanding of how glycemic profiles contribute to excess infant adiposity in pregnant women with and without diabetes.

  6. Quantitative analysis of continuous intravenous infusions in pediatric anesthesia: safety implications of dead volume, flow rates, and fluid delivery. (United States)

    Ma, Haobo; Lovich, Mark A; Peterfreund, Robert A


    Quantitative characterization of continuous pediatric drug infusions. The dynamics of drug delivery by continuous infusion to pediatric patients have not been systematically examined. This study extends previously described analytic models to propofol and remifentanil delivery, focusing on infants and toddlers. We postulated that infusion system dead volume, and drug and carrier flow rates, significantly influence drug delivery. We studied effects of patient weight, infusion system dead volume, drug and carrier flow rates, along with drug stock concentration and dose, on propofol and remifentanil delivery to the circulation. We calculated the drug mass available for inadvertent bolus in the dead volume, the volume of fluid supplied by drug infusions, and model-based estimates of the range of lag times to achieve a targeted steady-state rate of drug delivery. The drug mass in the dead volume at steady state increased with dead volume size and drug dose. For infants, this drug mass could exceed 100% of commonly used loading doses. Predicted lag times to steady state depend on patient size, fluid flow rates, and the mixing behavior of the drug entering the main fluid pathway. Neonates have the longest lag times to achieve steady state. Fluid quantities delivered by drug infusions increase with drug flow rate and can represent a large fraction of estimated maintenance fluid requirements. Fluid delivery increases if stock drug concentrations are diluted. These relationships were qualitatively similar for propofol and remifentanil. Traditional studies focus on drug disposition once a drug enters the circulation. Our analysis shows the potential importance of factors influencing drug delivery to the patient's circulation, focusing on propofol and remifentanil administration to small patients. The drug mass available for inadvertent bolus residing in the reservoir of the dead volume at steady state may be large and clinically relevant. Lag times to achieve steady

  7. Biochemical responses of Solea senegalensis after continuous flow exposure to urban effluents. (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Perales, J A; Biel-Maeso, M; Pintado-Herrera, M G; Lara-Martin, P A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L


    Urban effluent potential toxicity was assessed by a battery of biomarkers aimed at determining sub-lethal effects after continuous exposure on the marine organism Solea senegalensis. Specimens were exposed to five effluent concentrations (1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32) during 7-days, simulating the dispersion plume at the discharge point. Three different groups of biomarkers were selected in the present study: biomarkers of exposure (Phase I: EROD and DBF; Phase II: GST), biomarkers with antioxidant responses (GR and GPX) and biomarkers of effects (DNA damage and LPO). Additionally, a biological depuration treatment (photobiotreatment (PhtBio)) was tested in order to reduce the adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Effluent exposure caused sub-lethal responses in juvenile fish suggesting oxidative stress. After PhtBio application, concentrations of the major part of measured contaminants were reduced, as well as their bioavailability and adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel combined solar pasteurizer/TiO2 continuous-flow reactor for decontamination and disinfection of drinking water. (United States)

    Monteagudo, José María; Durán, Antonio; Martín, Israel San; Acevedo, Alba María


    A new combined solar plant including an annular continuous-flow compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor and a pasteurization system was designed, built, and tested for simultaneous drinking water disinfection and chemical decontamination. The plant did not use pumps and had no electricity costs. First, water continuously flowed through the CPC reactor and then entered the pasteurizer. The temperature and water flow from the plant effluent were controlled by a thermostatic valve located at the pasteurizer outlet that opened at 80 °C. The pasteurization process was simulated by studying the effect of heat treatment on the death kinetic parameters (D and z values) of Escherichia coli K12 (CECT 4624). 99.1% bacteria photo-inactivation was reached in the TiO2-CPC system (0.60 mg cm-2 TiO2), and chemical decontamination in terms of antipyrine degradation increased with increasing residence time in the TiO2-CPC system, reaching 70% degradation. The generation of hydroxyl radicals (between 100 and 400 nmol L-1) was a key factor in the CPC system efficiency. Total thermal bacteria inactivation was attained after pasteurization in all cases. Chemical degradation and bacterial photo-inactivation in the TiO2-CPC system were improved with the addition of 150 mg L-1 of H2O2, which generated approximately 2000-2300 nmol L-1 of HO● radicals. Finally, chemical degradation and bacterial photo-inactivation kinetic modelling in the annular CPC photoreactor were evaluated. The effect of the superficial liquid velocity on the overall rate constant was also studied. Both antipyrine degradation and E. coli photo-inactivation were found to be controlled by the catalyst surface reaction rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.


    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  10. Reduction by sonication of excess sludge production in a conventional activated sludge system: continuous flow and lab-scale reactor. (United States)

    Vaxelaire, S; Gonze, E; Merlin, G; Gonthier, Y


    Conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants currently produce a large quantity of excess sludge. To reduce this sludge production and to improve sludge characteristics in view of their subsequent elimination, an ultrasonic cell disintegration process was studied. In a lab-scale continuous flow pilot plant, part of the return sludge was sonicated by low-frequency and high-powered ultrasound and then recycled to the aeration tank. Two parallel lines were used: one as a control and the other as an assay with ultrasonic treatment. The reactors were continuously fed with synthetic domestic wastewater with a COD (chemical oxygen demand) of approximately 0.5 g l(-) corresponding to a daily load of 0.35-0.50 kg COD kg(-1) TS d(-1). Removal efficiencies (carbon, particles), excess sludge production and sludge characteristics (particle size distribution, mineralization, respiration rate, biological component) were measured every day during the 56-day experiment. This study showed that whilst organic removal efficiency did not deteriorate, excess sludge production was decreased by about 25-30% by an ultrasonic treatment. Several hypotheses are advanced: (i) the treatment made a part of the organic matter soluble as a consequence of the floc disintegration, and optimised the conversion of the carbonaceous pollutants into carbon dioxide and (ii) the treatment modified the physical characteristics of sludge by a mechanical effect: floc size was reduced, increasing the exchange surface and sludge activity. The originality of this study is that experiments were conducted in a continuous-flow activated sludge reactor rather than in a batch reactor.

  11. Building a resistance to ignition testing device for sunglasses and analysing data: a continuing study for sunglasses standards. (United States)

    Magri, Renan; Masili, Mauro; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Ventura, Liliane


    Sunglasses popularity skyrocketed since its advent. The ongoing trend led to the creation of standards to protect consumers from injuries and secondary hazards due to spectacles use. In Brazil, the corresponding standard is NBR ISO 12312-1:2015 and since there is no mandatory testing, evaluating sunglasses performance provides an insight into compliance with the standard. In a continuing revision of sunglasses standards requirements, resistance to ignition is one of the concerns, since sunglasses should be protected from burning into flames at a pre-determined temperature, which may protect user of getting their sunglasses into flames if some, cigarette sparks reaches the spectacles, as an example. This paper describes the building of a resistance to ignition system and the results of 410 samples that have been tested accordingly to ISO 12312-1. The procedure is in accordance with the resistance to ignition test. It consists of heating a steel rod to 650 °C and pressing it against the sample surface for 5 s, with a force equivalent to the rod weight. For carrying out the assessments, we have build resistance to ignition testing system and assured the testing requirements of the standard. The apparatus has an electrical furnace with a temperature acquisition circuit and electronic control that maintains the temperature of the steel rod at 650 °C. A linear actuator was designed for the project to drive the steel rod vertically and pressing it against the sunglasses samples. The control system is composed by a Freescale development board FRDM-KL25Z with an ARM Cortex-M0 embedded. We have also provided a LabView PC interface for acquiring, displaying, and storing data as well as added a physical control panel to the equipment for performing the evaluations. We assessed 410 sunglasses frames at the built apparatus, where the 410 lenses came out to be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the ignition to resistance test. Out of the 410 tested frames, 50

  12. Standardization of a Continuous Assay for Glycosidases and Its Use for Screening Insect Gut Samples at Individual and Populational Levels. (United States)

    Profeta, Gerson S; Pereira, Jessica A S; Costa, Samara G; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Eloi S; Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Genta, Fernando A


    Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae). Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus anterior midgut

  13. Standardization of a Continuous Assay for Glycosidases and Its Use for Screening Insect Gut Samples at Individual and Populational Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson S. Profeta


    Full Text Available Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae. Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus

  14. Chronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to Daphnia magna in a continuous exposure, flow-through test system (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Greseth, Shari L.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Schmidt, L.J.


    A flow-through, continuous exposure test system was developed to expose Daphnia magna to an unstable compound. 35% Perox-Aid?? is a specially formulated hydrogen peroxide (a highly oxidative chemical) product approved for use in U.S. aquaculture and therefore has the potential to be released from aquaculture facilities and pose a risk to aquatic invertebrates. The study objective was to assess the effects of 35% Perox-Aid?? on an aquatic invertebrate by evaluating the survival, growth, production, and gender ratio of progeny from a representative aquatic invertebrate continuously exposed to 35% Perox-Aid??. The study design consisted of 6 treatment groups (10 test chambers each) with target hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 0.0, 0.32, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0??mg L- 1. The study was initiated with effect on Daphnia time to death compared to controls and no significant effect on the time to first brood production and the number of broods produced. Concentrations ??? 0.63??mg L- 1 had no significant effect on the total number of young produced. Concentrations ??? 0.32??mg L- 1 had a negative effect on Daphnia growth. Hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on the gender ratio of young produced. All second generation Daphnia were female. A continuous discharge of hydrogen peroxide into aquatic ecosystems is not likely to affect cladocerans if the concentration is maintained at ??? 0.63??mg L- 1 for less than 21??days.

  15. Continuous flow production of concentrated hyperpolarized xenon gas from a dilute xenon gas mixture by buffer gas condensation. (United States)

    Imai, Hirohiko; Yoshimura, Hironobu; Kimura, Atsuomi; Fujiwara, Hideaki


    We present a new method for the continuous flow production of concentrated hyperpolarized xenon-129 (HP (129)Xe) gas from a dilute xenon (Xe) gas mixture with high nuclear spin polarization. A low vapor pressure (i.e., high boiling-point) gas was introduced as an alternative to molecular nitrogen (N2), which is the conventional quenching gas for generating HP (129)Xe via Rb-Xe spin-exchange optical-pumping (SEOP). In contrast to the generally used method of extraction by freezing Xe after the SEOP process, the quenching gas separated as a liquid at moderately low temperature so that Xe was maintained in its gaseous state, allowing the continuous delivery of highly polarized concentrated Xe gas. We selected isobutene as the candidate quenching gas and our method was demonstrated experimentally while comparing its performance with N2. Isobutene could be liquefied and removed from the Xe gas mixture using a cold trap, and the concentrated HP (129)Xe gas exhibited a significantly enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal. Although the system requires further optimization depending on the intended purpose, our approach presented here could provide a simple means for performing NMR or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements continuously using HP (129)Xe with improved sensitivity.

  16. Chloroform aerobic cometabolism by butane-growing Rhodococcus aetherovorans BCP1 in continuous-flow biofilm reactors. (United States)

    Ciavarelli, R; Cappelletti, M; Fedi, S; Pinelli, D; Frascari, D


    This work focuses on chloroform (CF) cometabolism by a butane-grown aerobic pure culture (Rhodococcus aetherovorans BCP1) in continuous-flow biofilm reactors. The goals were to obtain preliminary information on the feasibility of CF biodegradation by BCP1 in biofilm reactors and to evaluate the applicability of the pulsed injection of growth substrate and oxygen to biofilm reactors. The attached-cell tests were initially conducted in a 0.165-L bioreactor and, then, scaled-up to a 1.772-L bioreactor. Glass cylinders were utilized as biofilm carriers. The continuous supply of growth substrate (butane), which led to the attainment of the highest CF degradation rate (8.4 mg(CF) day(-1) m (biofilm surface)(-2)), was compared with four schedules of butane and oxygen pulsed feeding. The pulsed injection technique allowed the attainment of a ratio of CF mass degraded per unit mass of butane supplied equal to 0.16 mg(CF) mg (butane)(-1), a value 4.4 times higher than that obtained with the continuous substrate supply. A procedure based on the utilization of integral mass balances and of average concentrations along the bioreactors resulted in a satisfactory match between the predicted and the experimental CF degradation performances, and can therefore be utilized to provide a guideline for optimizing the substrate pulsed injection schedule.

  17. Post-explant visualization of thrombi in outflow grafts and their junction to a continuous-flow total artificial heart using a high-definition miniaturized camera. (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Horvath, David; Sunagawa, Gengo; Byram, Nicole; Moazami, Nader; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka


    Post-explant evaluation of the continuous-flow total artificial heart in preclinical studies can be extremely challenging because of the device's unique architecture. Determining the exact location of tissue regeneration, neointima formation, and thrombus is particularly important. In this report, we describe our first successful experience with visualizing the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart using a custom-made high-definition miniature camera.

  18. [Airway pressure monitoring by the continuous flow method in paediatric thoracoscopic surgery. A study in an animal model]. (United States)

    García-Montoto, F; Martín-Cancho, M F; Carrasco-Jiménez, M S; Soria, F; Lima, J R; Sánchez-Margallo, F M


    To compare the airway pressures obtained before the endotracheal tube with the intratracheal ones in the continuous flow ventilation mode, in thoracoscopic surgery for one lung ventilation, in a paediatric model in animals. A simple prospective observational study was conducted. Ten Large White pigs weighing 4.6 ± 0.8 kg were used. The animals were ventilated in neonatal mode (continuous flow) with a Temel Supra ventilator. Using tracheotomy, we completely sealed the respiratory system in order to use tubes without special endotracheal cuffs, which would enable tracheal pressures to be registered without interfering with ventilation. Collapse of the right lung was performed by videothoracoscopy and was maintained for 120 min. The variables were measured at 10 time periods: start and 5 min with both lungs, after collapse at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, and 5 and 15 min after lung re-expansion. We recorded the baseline, peak, plateau and positive end expiratory pressure in the mouth of the animal and intratracheal. The mean peak pressure in the mouth of the animal in one lung ventilation was 23.38 mmHg and tracheal ventilation was 21.24 mmHg, while the mean plateau pressure in the mouth of the animal in one lung ventilation it was 21.88 mmHg and tracheal was 21.39 mmHg, respectively, with significant differences in all of them (P<.05). We found statistically significant differences (P<.05) for peak and plateau pressure on comparing the record in the animal mouth with the tracheal record. The difference in absolute value was higher for the peak pressure record. The pressure parameters recorded in the animal mouth were acceptable for surgery, with a suitable respiratory and haemodynamic stability being maintained. We can state that the continuous flow mode according to the pressures study may be suitable for this type of surgery, and that the mouth of the animal (patient) record for the peak pressure does not reflect what really happens in the alveoli, but we can

  19. Application of a fluorescence-based continuous-flow bioassay to screen for diversity of cytochrome P450 BM3 mutant libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinen, J.; Ferman, S; Vottero, E.R.; Vermeulen, N.; Commandeur, J.N.M.


    A fluorescence-based continuous-flow enzyme affinity detection (EAD) setup was used to screen cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants on-line for diversity. The flow-injection screening assay is based on the BM3-mediated O-dealkylation of alkoxyresorufins forming the highly fluorescent product resorufin, and

  20. Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates. (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J


    In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH4/gVSadded/d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading. (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie


    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of Highly Selective Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Aerobic Oxidation of KA-Oil using Continuous-Flow Chemistry. (United States)

    Gill, Arran M; Hinde, Christopher S; Leary, Rowan K; Potter, Matthew E; Jouve, Andrea; Wells, Peter P; Midgley, Paul A; Thomas, John M; Raja, Robert


    Highly active and selective aerobic oxidation of KA-oil to cyclohexanone (precursor for adipic acid and ɛ-caprolactam) has been achieved in high yields using continuous-flow chemistry by utilizing uncapped noble-metal (Au, Pt & Pd) nanoparticle catalysts. These are prepared using a one-step in situ methodology, within three-dimensional porous molecular architectures, to afford robust heterogeneous catalysts. Detailed spectroscopic characterization of the nature of the active sites at the molecular level, coupled with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, reveals that the synthetic methodology and associated activation procedures play a vital role in regulating the morphology, shape and size of the metal nanoparticles. These active centers have a profound influence on the activation of molecular oxygen for selective catalytic oxidations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Continuous preparation of carbon-nanotube-supported platinum catalysts in a flow reactor directly heated by electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Schlange


    Full Text Available In this contribution we present for the first time a continuous process for the production of highly active Pt catalysts supported by carbon nanotubes by use of an electrically heated tubular reactor. The synthesized catalysts show a high degree of dispersion and narrow distributions of cluster sizes. In comparison to catalysts synthesized by the conventional oil-bath method a significantly higher electrocatalytic activity was reached, which can be attributed to the higher metal loading and smaller and more uniformly distributed Pt particles on the carbon support. Our approach introduces a simple, time-saving and cost-efficient method for fuel cell catalyst preparation in a flow reactor which could be used at a large scale.

  4. [Unsegmented continuous-flow sample processing and electrochemical detection of gaseous species]. Final report, March 1, 1985--February 28, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, H.A.


    Goals were a continuous-flow, unsegmented, all-gas carrier and/or a segmented liquid/gas interface system for sample introduction and transport to detection/determination point; a regenerable electrode probe base on redox reactions of Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes with 1, 10-phenanthroline and related ligands; and amperometric/coulometric current measurements providing analyte signals. Gases to be detected included NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}. This report is divided into 3 parts: preparation of new ligands of 1,10-phenanthroline family; glassy carbon surfaces coated with polymeric films prepared from monomeric units of tris[5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline]iron(II); and sulfite oxidase/hexacyanoferrate modified C paste electrode.

  5. A continuous flow strategy for the coupled transfer hydrogenation and etherification of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural using Lewis acid zeolites. (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Van de Vyver, Stijn; Crisci, Anthony J; Gunther, William R; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Griffin, Robert G; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy


    Hf-, Zr- and Sn-Beta zeolites effectively catalyze the coupled transfer hydrogenation and etherification of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural with primary and secondary alcohols into 2,5-bis(alkoxymethyl)furans, thus making it possible to generate renewable fuel additives without the use of external hydrogen sources or precious metals. Continuous flow experiments reveal nonuniform changes in the relative deactivation rates of the transfer hydrogenation and etherification reactions, which impact the observed product distribution over time. We found that the catalysts undergo a drastic deactivation for the etherification step while maintaining catalytic activity for the transfer hydrogenation step. (119) Sn and (29) Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies show that this deactivation can be attributed to changes in the local environment of the metal sites. Additional insights were gained by studying effects of various alcohols and water concentration on the catalytic reactivity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. [A rapid method for continuous flow measurement of cholesterol contained in high density lipoproteins (HDL) (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Ponsot, P; Yvert, J P; Chevrier, M; Bon, R


    The authors utilized a reagent containing concanavalin A, a vegetal lecithin, to selectively precipitate lipoproteins containing apoprotein B, a component of VLDL, LDL, and Lp (a) which are well known for their atherogenic risk. During this precipitation "true" high density lipoproteins remain in solution. HDL cholesterol determination which constitutes an indirect indication of HDL activity or concentrations is performed by an enzymatic method using an automated continuous flow technique carried out on an Auto Analyzer II (Technicon Corp.). This rapid, easy determination obtains results comparable to other methods, particularly those chosen by the Société Française de Biologie Clinique (French Society of Clinical Biology). This technique should permit all laboratories to confirm an atherogenic index.

  7. Primary standards for measuring flow rates from 100 nl/min to 1 ml/min - gravimetric principle. (United States)

    Bissig, Hugo; Petter, Harm Tido; Lucas, Peter; Batista, Elsa; Filipe, Eduarda; Almeida, Nelson; Ribeiro, Luis Filipe; Gala, João; Martins, Rui; Savanier, Benoit; Ogheard, Florestan; Niemann, Anders Koustrup; Lötters, Joost; Sparreboom, Wouter


    Microflow and nanoflow rate calibrations are important in several applications such as liquid chromatography, (scaled-down) process technology, and special health-care applications. However, traceability in the microflow and nanoflow range does not go below 16 μl/min in Europe. Furthermore, the European metrology organization EURAMET did not yet validate this traceability by means of an intercomparison between different National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The NMIs METAS, Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, IPQ, Danish Technological Institute, and VSL have therefore developed and validated primary standards to cover the flow rate range from 0.1 μl/min to at least 1 ml/min. In this article, we describe the different designs and methods of the primary standards of the gravimetric principle and the results obtained at the intercomparison for the upper flow rate range for the various NMIs and Bronkhorst High-Tech, the manufacturer of the transfer standards used.

  8. Frequency and Consequences of Right-Sided Heart Failure After Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation. (United States)

    Kurihara, Chitaru; Critsinelis, Andre C; Kawabori, Masashi; Sugiura, Tadahisa; Loor, Gabriel; Civitello, Andrew B; Morgan, Jeffrey A


    Postoperative right-sided heart failure (RHF) is a common complication after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation. Studies have examined RHF in the perioperative period, but few have assessed late-onset RHF. We analyzed the incidence of early and late RHF in patients with HeartMate II and HeartWare left ventricular assist devices and associated morbidity, mortality, and independent predictors of RHF. We retrospectively analyzed records of 526 patients with chronic heart failure who underwent continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation; 147 (27.9%) developed RHF (early RHF, n = 87, 16.5%; late RHF, n = 74, 14.4%). We examined demographics, postoperative complications, and long-term survival rate. Patients with RHF or late RHF had higher mortality (p RHF. Patients with RHF had a higher incidence of acute kidney injury (20.4% vs 11.9%, p = 0.01). Device type did not affect the incidence of early, late, or overall RHF. Patients with severe RHF requiring right ventricular assist device support had a low success of bridge to transplantation (11.1% vs 33.3%, p = 0.02). In Cox regression models, RHF was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 2.22, p RHF were identified. RHF was significantly associated with increased mortality and a higher incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury. RHF decreased the success rate of bridging patients to transplantation when a right ventricular assist device was required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous flow through a microwave oven for the large-scale production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. (United States)

    Tangy, Alex; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon


    This report presents a method for producing large quantities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). Preliminary studies on optimization of the WCO transesterification process in a continuous-flow microwave reactor are carried out using commercial SrO as a catalyst. The SrO catalyst can be separated and reused for five reaction cycles without loss in activity. Challenges like mass flow and pressure drop constraints need to be surmounted. SrO nanoparticles deposited on millimeter-sized (3-6mm) silica beads (41wt% SrO/SiO2) are prepared and evaluated as a substitute for the SrO catalyst. A WCO conversion value to biodiesel as high as 99.2wt% was achieved with the reactor packed with 15g of 41wt% SrO/SiO2 catalyst in 8.2min with 820mL of feed. Excellent performance of the fixed-bed catalyst without loss in activity for a lifetime of 24.6min converting a feed of 2.46L to FAME was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Support material dictates the attached biomass characteristics during the immobilization process in anaerobic continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactor. (United States)

    Kerčmar, Jasmina; Pintar, Albin


    Hydrogen is considered to be an ideal energy alternative to replace environmentally burdensome fossil fuels. For its long-term production the immobilized biofilm system is the most promising and to choose the right support material the most challenging. In this respect, the anaerobic up-flow bioreactors packed with four most used support materials (polyethylene, polyurethane, activated carbon and expanded clay) were tested to investigate the crucial bacteria sensitive period-the immobilization process. Seven-day-operation was necessary and sufficient to reach metabolic and microbial stability regardless of support material used. The support material had an influence on the microbial metabolic activity as well as on quantity and quality characteristics of the immobilized microbial community, being polyethylene and expanded clay more appropriate as supports among the materials evaluated; this could be attributed to pH alteration. The obtained results suggest that the support material dictates the outcome of the immobilization process in the anaerobic continuous-flow bioreactor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Solving Steady Evaporation-Driven Flow Through a Shallow Aquifer With Piecewise Continuous Forms of Hydraulic Relationships (United States)

    Sigda, J. M.; Wilson, J. L.; Holt, R. M.


    Nearly fifty years ago, Wilford Gardner provided analytical solutions to estimate steady evaporation-driven flow from a shallow aquifer. Using analytically tractable functions to describe the relationship between hydraulic conductivity, K, and matric potential, ψ, his solution provides the upward flux and the ψ profile. Though mathematically effective, Gardner's K(ψ) functions typically do not fit field or lab measurements as well as the Mualem-van Genuchten (MvG) or other hydraulic relationships, especially given the large ψ range expected for an evaporation-driven flow system. However, the same large ψ range can cause long run times or non-convergence in the numerical models required to use the MvG relationship. We present a rapid, semi-analytical method based on Gardner's 1958 solution to estimate the evaporation-driven flux through a one-dimensional shallow vadose zone described by the MvG K(ψ) relationship. Like others, piecewise continuous estimates of the MvG K(ψ) relationship are constructed from Gardner's exponential K(ψ) relationship. Unlike other methods, our method provides the unknown evaporation- driven upward flux and the ψ profile across the domain. A system of nonlinear equations is built from the individual Gardner exponential pieces and then solved using Mathematica. The method is rapid, accurate, and can be applied to other K(ψ) relationships. An application to centrifuge-measured hydraulic property data demonstrates the method's utility.

  12. Continuous-flow trapping and localized enrichment of micro- and nano-particles using induced-charge electrokinetics. (United States)

    Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun


    In this work, we report an effective microfluidic technique for continuous-flow trapping and localized enrichment of micro- and nano-particles by using induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) phenomena. The proposed technique utilizes a simple microfluidic device that consists of a straight microchannel and a conducting strip attached to the bottom wall of the microchannel. Upon application of the electric field along the microchannel, the conducting strip becomes polarized to introduce two types of ICEK phenomena, the ICEK flow vortex and particle dielectrophoresis, and they are identified by a theoretical model formulated in this study to be jointly responsible for the trapping of particles over the edge of the conducting strip. Our experiments showed that successful trapping requires an AC/DC combined electric field: the DC component is mainly to induce electroosmotic flow for transporting particles to the trapping location; the AC component induces ICEK phenomena over the edge of the conducting strip for particle trapping. The performance of the technique is examined with respect to the applied electric voltage, AC frequency and the particle size. We observed that the trapped particles form a narrow band (nearly a straight line) defined by the edge of the conducting strip, thereby allowing localized particle enrichment. For instance, we found that under certain conditions a high particle enrichment ratio of 200 was achieved within 30 seconds. We also demonstrated that the proposed technique was able to trap particles from several microns down to several tens of nanometer. We believe that the proposed ICEK trapping would have great flexibility that the trapping location can be readily varied by controlling the location of the patterned conducting strip and multiple-location trapping can be expected with the use of multiple conducting strips.

  13. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements on atmospheric methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brass


    Full Text Available We describe a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS technique for high-precision δD and δ13C measurements of atmospheric methane on 40 mL air samples. CH4 is separated from other air components by utilizing purely physical processes based on temperature, time and mechanical valve switching. Chemical agents are avoided. Trace amounts of interfering compounds can be separated by gas chromatography after pre-concentration of the CH4 sample. The purified sample is then either combusted to CO2 or pyrolyzed to H2 for stable isotope measurement. Apart from connecting samples and refilling liquid nitrogen as coolant the system is fully automated and allows an unobserved, continuous analysis of samples. The analytical system has been used for analysis of air samples with CH4 mixing ratios between ~100 and ~10 000 ppb, for higher mixing ratios samples usually have to be diluted.

  14. Study on ammonium and organics removal combined with electricity generation in a continuous flow microbial fuel cell. (United States)

    Liu, Shuxin; Li, Lan; Li, Huiqiang; Wang, Hui; Yang, Ping


    A continuous microbial fuel cell system was constructed treating ammonium/organics rich wastewater. Operational performance of MFC system, mechanisms of ammonium removal, effect of ammonium on organics removal and energy output, C and N balance of anode chamber and microbial community analysis of anode chamber were studied. It was concluded that 0.0914kg/m 3 d NH 4 + -N and 5.739kg/m 3 d COD were removed from anode chamber and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) occurred in cathode chamber resulting in COD, TN removal rate of 88.53%, 71.35% respectively. Excess ammonium affected energy output and the MFC system reached maximum energy output of 816.8mV and 62.94mW/m 3 . In anode chamber, Spirochaetes bacterium sp., Methanobacterium formicicum sp. was predominant in bacteria, archaea communities respectively which contributed to wastewater treatment and electricity generation. This study showed the potential for practical application of continuous flow MFC system treating ammonium/organics rich wastewater and achieving electricity generation simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard (United States)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim


    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device.

  16. Effects of Partial Replacement of Corn with Glycerin on Ruminal Fermentation in a Dual-Flow Continuous Culture System. (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Galoro da Silva, Lorrayny; Marostegan de Paula, Eduardo; Shenkoru, Teshome; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Monteiro, Hugo Fernando; Amorati, Brad; Yeh, Yenling; Poulson, Simon Roger; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dry ground corn with glycerin on ruminal fermentation using a dual-flow continuous culture system. Six fermenters (1,223 ± 21 ml) were used in a replicated 3x3 Latin square arrangement with three periods of 10 d each, with 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collections. All diets contained 75% concentrate and three dietary glycerin levels (0, 15, and 30% on dry matter basis), totaling six replicates per treatment. Fermenters were fed 72 g of dry matter/d equally divided in two meals/d, at 0800 and 2000 h. Solid and liquid dilution rates were adjusted daily to 5.5 and 11%/h, respectively. On d 8, 9, and 10, samples of 500 ml of solid and liquid digesta effluent were mixed, homogenized, and stored at -20°C. Subsamples of 10 ml were collected and preserved with 0.2 mL of a 50% H2SO4 solution for later determination of NH3-N and volatile fatty acids. Microbial biomass was isolated from fermenters for chemical analysis at the end of each experimental period. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with α = 0.05. Glycerin levels did not affect apparent digestibility of DM (PLin. = 0.13; PQuad. = 0.40), OM (PLin. = 0.72; PQuad. = 0.15), NDF (PLin. = 0.38; PQuad. = 0.50) and ADF (PLin. = 0.91; PQuad. = 0.18). Also, glycerin inclusion did not affect true digestibility of DM (PLin. = 0.35; PQuad. = 0.48), and OM (PLin. = 0.08; PQuad. = 0.19). Concentrations of propionate (P glycerin inclusion. Linear increases on NH3-N concentration in digesta effluent (P glycerin inclusion in the diets. Crude protein digestibility (P = 0.04) and microbial N flow (P = 0.04) were greater in the control treatment compared with the other treatments and responded quadratically with glycerin inclusion. Furthermore, the inclusion of glycerin linearly decreased (P = 0.02) non-ammonia N flow. Glycerin levels did not affect the flows of total N (PLin. = 0.79; PQuad. = 0.35), and dietary N (PLin. = 0

  17. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests. (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F


    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (<4mm particle size) and unsaturated, intermittent down-flow lysimeters (<40mm particle size). While standardised column tests are meant primarily to provide basic information on characteristic leaching properties and mechanisms and not to reproduce field conditions, the lysimeters were intended to mimic the actual leaching conditions when C&DW is used in unbound geotechnical layers. In practice, results from standardised percolation tests are often interpreted as estimations of actual release from solid materials in percolation scenarios. In general, the two tests yielded fairly similar results in terms of cumulative release at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10l·kgTS; however, significant differences were observed for P, Pb, Ba, Mg and Zn. Further differences emerged in terms of concentration in the early eluates (L/S<5l·kg(-1)TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Zn. Observed differences between tests are likely to be due to differences in pH related to crushing and exposure of fresh particle surfaces, as well as in equilibrium conditions. In the case of C&DW, the standardised column tests, which are more practical, are considered to acceptably describe cumulative releases at L/S 10l·kg(-1)TS in percolation scenarios. However, when the focus is on estimation of initial concentrations for (for example) risk assessment, data from standardised column tests may not be fully applicable, and data from lysimeters may be used for validation purposes. Se, Cr and, to a lesser extent, SO4 and Sb were leaching from C&DW in critical amounts compared with existing limit values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron in continuous-flow system Part 1: effect of feed solution pH. (United States)

    Gheju, M; Iovi, A; Balcu, I


    continuous-flow system was established at the value of 2.50.

  19. Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Tiptanasup, Kasipa; Shiowatana, Juwadee


    A continuous-flow system comprising a novel, custom-built extraction module and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection is proposed for assessing metal mobilities and geochemical associations in soil compartments as based on using the three step BCR (now...... the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission) sequential extraction scheme. Employing a peristaltic pump as liquid driver, alternate directional flows of the extractants are used to overcome compression of the solid particles within the extraction unit to ensure a steady partitioning flow rate...... and thus to maintain constant operationally defined extraction conditions. The proposed flow set-up is proven to allow for trouble-free handling of soil samples up to 1 g and flow rates ≤ 10 mL min–1. The miniaturized extraction system was coupled to ICP-MS through a flow injection interface in order...

  20. Adsorptive removal of arsenate from aqueous solutions by biochar supported zero-valent iron nanocomposite: Batch and continuous flow tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shengsen [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gao, Bin, E-mail: [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Li, Yuncong [Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Creamer, Anne Elise [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); He, Feng [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014 (China)


    Highlights: • Biochar supported nZVI (nZVI/BC) was synthesized. • nZVI/BC showed excellent As(V) removal efficiency in batch and CMR experiments. • 100% removal efficiency was achieved in CMRs. • Surface adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism. - Abstract: Arsenate (As(V)) removal ability by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is compromised by aggregation of nZVI particles. In this work, pine derived biochar (PB) was used as a supporting material to stabilize nZVI for As(V) removal. The biochar supported nZVI (nZVI/BC) was synthesized by precipitating the nanoparticles on carbon surfaces. Experiments using batch and continuous flow, completely mixed reactors (CMRs) were carried out to investigate the removal of As(V) by the nZVI/BC from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments showed that nZVI/BC had high As(V) removal capacity in a wide range of pH (3–8). Kinetic data revealed that equilibrium was reached within 1 h and the isotherm data showed that the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of the nZVI/BC for As(V) at pH 4.1 was 124.5 g kg{sup −1}. As(V) (100 mg L{sup −1}) adsorption in anoxic condition was about 8% more than in oxic conditions, where As(V) reduction was observed in anoxic condition. The performance of the nZVI/BC in flowing condition was evaluated in CMRs at influent As(V) concentrations of 2.1 and 5.5 mg L{sup −1} and the adsorbent removed 100% and 90% of the As(V), respectively. Furthermore, the nZVI/BC composite is magnetic which facilitates collection from aqueous solutions.

  1. First Report of 90-Day Support of Two Calves with a Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka


    Objective The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. Methods CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamics, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure [LAP], 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure [RAP], 17 ± 3 mm Hg; RAP-LAP difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three recent animals with the CFTAH recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last two were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. Conclusions The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. PMID:26173607

  2. Fabrication of continuous flow microfluidics device with 3D electrode structures for high throughput DEP applications using mechanical machining. (United States)

    Zeinali, Soheila; Çetin, Barbaros; Oliaei, Samad Nadimi Bavil; Karpat, Yiğit


    Microfluidics is the combination of micro/nano fabrication techniques with fluid flow at microscale to pursue powerful techniques in controlling and manipulating chemical and biological processes. Sorting and separation of bio-particles are highly considered in diagnostics and biological analyses. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has offered unique advantages for microfluidic devices. In DEP devices, asymmetric pair of planar electrodes could be employed to generate non-uniform electric fields. In DEP applications, facing 3D sidewall electrodes is considered to be one of the key solutions to increase device throughput due to the generated homogeneous electric fields along the height of microchannels. Despite the advantages, fabrication of 3D vertical electrodes requires a considerable challenge. In this study, two alternative fabrication techniques have been proposed for the fabrication of a microfluidic device with 3D sidewall electrodes. In the first method, both the mold and the electrodes are fabricated using high precision machining. In the second method, the mold with tilted sidewalls is fabricated using high precision machining and the electrodes are deposited on the sidewall using sputtering together with a shadow mask fabricated by electric discharge machining. Both fabrication processes are assessed as highly repeatable and robust. Moreover, the two methods are found to be complementary with respect to the channel height. Only the manipulation of particles with negative-DEP is demonstrated in the experiments, and the throughput values up to 105 particles / min is reached in a continuous flow. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results and the limitations on the fabrication techniques are also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Output-based space-time mesh optimization for unsteady flows using continuous-in-time adjoints (United States)

    Fidkowski, Krzysztof J.


    We present a method for estimating spatial and temporal numerical errors in scalar outputs of unsteady fluid dynamics simulations using continuous-in-time adjoint solutions and general time-integration methods. A continuous formulation decouples the primal and adjoint temporal discretizations and allows for the use of standard time-integration schemes for the adjoint. For non-variational methods, a scheme-agnostic temporal reconstruction of the primal and adjoint solutions replaces the functional representation in between time nodes. The output error is still estimated through an adjoint-weighted residual, which takes the form of a space-time integral. Separate temporal and spatial error estimates arise from projection of the adjoint to semi-refined spaces. These estimates drive adaptive refinement, which first requires a calculation of the appropriate cost distribution between the spatial and temporal discretizations. The adaptive mechanics consist of uniform temporal refinement/coarsening, and several localized spatial refinements: order adaptation, hanging-node refinement, and unstructured mesh optimization. Results for scalar advection-diffusion and for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations demonstrate the effectivity of the error estimates, the efficiency of the adaptive refinement, independence of optimized meshes to the starting mesh, and the importance of high-order spatial and temporal approximations.

  4. Using a tracer technique to identify the extent of non-ideal flows in the continuous mixing of non-Newtonian fluids (United States)

    Patel, D.; Ein-Mozaffari, F.; Mehrvar, M.


    The identification of non-ideal flows in a continuous-flow mixing of non-Newtonian fluids is a challenging task for various chemical industries: plastic manufacturing, water and wastewater treatment, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Non-ideal flows such as channelling, recirculation, and dead zones significantly affect the performance of continuous-flow mixing systems. Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to develop an identification protocol to measure non-ideal flows in the continuous-flow mixing system. The extent of non-ideal flows was quantified using a dynamic model that incorporated channelling, recirculation, and dead volume in the mixing vessel. To estimate the dynamic model parameters, the system was excited using a frequency-modulated random binary input by injecting the saline solution (as a tracer) into the fresh feed stream prior to being pumped into the mixing vessel. The injection of the tracer was controlled by a computer-controlled on-off solenoid valve. Using the trace technique, the extent of channelling and the effective mixed volume were successfully determined and used as mixing quality criteria. Such identification procedures can be applied at various areas of chemical engineering in order to improve the mixing quality.

  5. Using a tracer technique to identify the extent of non-ideal flows in the continuous mixing of non-Newtonian fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrvar M.


    Full Text Available The identification of non-ideal flows in a continuous-flow mixing of non-Newtonian fluids is a challenging task for various chemical industries: plastic manufacturing, water and wastewater treatment, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Non-ideal flows such as channelling, recirculation, and dead zones significantly affect the performance of continuous-flow mixing systems. Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to develop an identification protocol to measure non-ideal flows in the continuous-flow mixing system. The extent of non-ideal flows was quantified using a dynamic model that incorporated channelling, recirculation, and dead volume in the mixing vessel. To estimate the dynamic model parameters, the system was excited using a frequency-modulated random binary input by injecting the saline solution (as a tracer into the fresh feed stream prior to being pumped into the mixing vessel. The injection of the tracer was controlled by a computer-controlled on-off solenoid valve. Using the trace technique, the extent of channelling and the effective mixed volume were successfully determined and used as mixing quality criteria. Such identification procedures can be applied at various areas of chemical engineering in order to improve the mixing quality.

  6. A new method for high-resolution methane measurements on polar ice cores using continuous flow analysis. (United States)

    Schüpbach, Simon; Federer, Urs; Kaufmann, Patrik R; Hutterli, Manuel A; Buiron, Daphné; Blunier, Thomas; Fischer, Hubertus; Stocker, Thomas F


    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Rapid variations of the CH4 concentration, as frequently registered, for example, during the last ice age, have been used as reliable time markers for the definition of a common time scale of polar ice cores. In addition, these variations indicate changes in the sources of methane primarily associated with the presence of wetlands. In order to determine the exact time evolution of such fast concentration changes, CH4 measurements of the highest resolution in the ice core archive are required. Here, we present a new, semicontinuous and field-deployable CH4 detection method, which was incorporated in a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. In CFA, samples cut along the axis of an ice core are melted at a melt speed of typically 3.5 cm/min. The air from bubbles in the ice core is extracted continuously from the meltwater and forwarded to a gas chromatograph (GC) for high-resolution CH4 measurements. The GC performs a measurement every 3.5 min, hence, a depth resolution of 15 cm is achieved atthe chosen melt rate. An even higher resolution is not necessary due to the low pass filtering of air in ice cores caused by the slow bubble enclosure process and the diffusion of air in firn. Reproducibility of the new method is 3%, thus, for a typical CH4 concentration of 500 ppb during an ice age, this corresponds to an absolute precision of 15 ppb, comparable to traditional analyses on discrete samples. Results of CFA-CH4 measurements on the ice core from Talos Dome (Antarctica) illustrate the much higher temporal resolution of our method compared with established melt-refreeze CH4 measurements and demonstrate the feasibility of the new method.

  7. Effect of time of cutting and maceration on nutrient flow, microbial protein synthesis, and digestibility in dual-flow continuous culture. (United States)

    Kokko, C; Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Hovey, R C; Berthiaume, R


    Maceration and evening-cutting are 2 forage management techniques that have independently improved forage quality and nutrient utilization in ruminants, but have not been evaluated in combination. Using a dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system, this preliminary study was designed to evaluate the individual and combined effects of time of cutting and maceration on in vitro ruminal digestion, nutrient flows, and microbial protein synthesis. Forages were harvested as hay from a timothy (Phleum pratense L.)-birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) stand in the morning (AM) or evening (PM). Half of each morning- and evening-cut treatment was macerated (AM-M, PM-M). The chemical composition (DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF), including nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), was determined for each of the 4 treatments (AM, AM-M, PM, PM-M). Forages were ground to 2 mm and allocated to separate fermenters at 60 g of DM/d in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Fermenters were operated over four 10-d periods with the first 7 d for adaptation followed by 3 d of sampling. Evening-cutting enhanced the apparent digestibility of NDF (P = 0.02) and ADF (P = 0.006), with a tendency (P digestibility and microbial protein synthesis. Molar proportions of individual VFA were not affected (P > 0.10) by time of cutting, though evening-cutting increased (P = 0.02) total concentration of VFA. Maceration had no effect (P > 0.10) on true nutrient digestibility or microbial protein synthesis. An interaction of time of cutting and maceration (P digestibilities in evening-cut treatments, but had no effect in morning-cut treatments. Similarly, maceration reduced total N supply (P digestibility and total VFA concentration, and independent use of maceration shifted molar proportions of VFA toward glucogenic fermentation. The combined use of these management techniques afforded no improvement for in vitro digestibility or metabolism when applied to morning-cut hay, and

  8. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.


    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.

  9. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading. (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie


    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of dissolved oxygen on biological nutrient removal by denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms in a continuous-flow system. (United States)

    Yuan, Qiuyan; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A


    A laboratory-scale continuous-flow system with an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic configuration was set up to study the effect of oxygen in the internal recycle stream; of particular interest was its performance of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs). It was found that, by using a degas device, the dissolved oxygen in the nitrate recycle stream was effectively decreased from 0.1 +/- 0.02 to 0.01 +/- 0.01 mg/L. This provided a favorable condition for DPAOs to grow under an anoxic condition and thus be sustained successfully in the system. When the degas device was removed from the system, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the anoxic reactor increased to 0.1 +/- 0.02 mg/L. The proliferation of the denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms (DGAOs) population and deterioration of DPAOs performance was observed. The increased population of DGAO/GAOs, which competed for the carbon source with DPAO/ PAOs, resulted in a poor performance of biological phosphorus removal.

  11. Double-side active TiO2-modified nanofiltration membranes in continuous flow photocatalytic reactors for effective water purification. (United States)

    Romanos, G Em; Athanasekou, C P; Katsaros, F K; Kanellopoulos, N K; Dionysiou, D D; Likodimos, V; Falaras, P


    A chemical vapour deposition (CVD) based innovative approach was applied with the purpose to develop composite TiO(2) photocatalytic nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The method involved pyrolytic decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) vapor and formation of TiO(2) nanoparticles through homogeneous gas phase reactions and aggregation of the produced intermediate species. The grown nanoparticles diffused and deposited on the surface of γ-alumina NF membrane tubes. The CVD reactor allowed for online monitoring of the carrier gas permeability during the treatment, providing a first insight on the pore efficiency and thickness of the formed photocatalytic layers. In addition, the thin TiO(2) deposits were developed on both membrane sides without sacrificing the high yield rates. Important innovation was also introduced in what concerns the photocatalytic performance evaluation. The membrane efficiency to photo degrade typical water pollutants, was evaluated in a continuous flow water purification device, applying UV irradiation on both membrane sides. The developed composite NF membranes were highly efficient in the decomposition of methyl orange exhibiting low adsorption-fouling tendency and high water permeability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A newly isolated strain capable of effectively degrading tetrahydrofuran and its performance in a continuous flow system. (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Meng; Zhou, Yu-Yang; Chen, Dong-Zhi; Jin, Xiao-Jun


    A Gram-negative strain DT4, capable of growing aerobically on tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. It was identified as Pseudomonas oleovorans by morphological and physiological characteristics as well as Biolog profiling and 16S rDNA sequence. Cells of P. oleovorans DT4 pre-cultured in THF could degrade 5 mM THF completely without lag phase. The generation time of 2.7 h and the maximum degradation rate of 203.9 mg THF/(h g dry weight) were observed, demonstrating that DT4 bears the highest THF-degrading activity in ever described strains. Furthermore, THF concentration as high as 100 mM was tolerated by the culture. Several important compounds including gamma-butyrrolactone and benzene could be directly metabolized, whereas other pollutants (e.g., tetrahydropyrane) could be cometabolized by DT4. THF removal was achieved in a continuous flow system with the maximum specific growth rate 0.113 h(-1) and half-saturation constant 1.224 mg/L, indicating the great potential of THF bioremediation in future full-scale application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous-flow column study of reductive dehalogenation of PCE upon bioaugmentation with the Evanite enrichment culture (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F.; Behrens, Sebastian; Sabalowsky, Andrew; Dolan, Mark E.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Semprini, Lewis


    A continuous-flow anaerobic column experiment was conducted to evaluate the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) in Hanford aquifer material after bioaugmentation with the Evanite (EV) culture. An influent PCE concentration of 0.09 mM was transformed to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) within a hydraulic residence time of 1.3 days. The experimental breakthrough curves were described by the one-dimensional two-site-nonequilibrium transport model. PCE dechlorination was observed after bioaugmentation and after the lactate concentration was increased from 0.35 to 0.67 mM. At the onset of reductive dehalogenation, cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) concentrations in the column effluent exceeded the influent PCE concentration indicating enhanced PCE desorption and transformation. When the lactate concentration was increased to 1.34 mM, c-DCE reduction to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) occurred. Spatial rates of PCE and VC transformation were determined in batch-incubated microcosms constructed with aquifer samples obtained from the column. PCE transformation rates were highest in the first 5 cm from the column inlet and decreased towards the column effluent. Dehalococcoides cell numbers dropped from ˜ 73.5% of the total Bacterial population in the original inocula, to about 0.5% to 4% throughout the column. The results were consistent with estimates of electron donor utilization, with 4% going towards dehalogenation reactions.

  14. The "Southmead System," a simple, fully-automated, continuous-flow system for immunoassays [Appendix: application to serum thyroxine radioimmunoassay]. (United States)

    Ismail, A A; West, P M; Goldie, D J


    A simple, fully-automated, continuous-flow system suitable for radioimmunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, and fluoro-immunoassay is described. The system is versatile, inexpensive, and requires only equipment and skills that already are available in most clinical chemistry laboratories. In this system, the antibody is covalently linked to solid-phase, porous particles of agarose (Sepharose, size 40-70 micrometer in the dry form). After sampling and mixing the assay reactants, the assay "cocktail" containing the solid-phase-bound antigen and the unbound fraction is directed to the separation block. Separation is achieved by use of a highly porous membrane (pore size, about 10 micrometer) and by controlling the volume of inflow and outflow a fixed and precise amount of fluid is filtered through the membrane containing only the free (unbound fraction), which can then be quantitated. The percentage of unbound fraction misclassified is negligible (less than 1.0%). Application of these principles to the assay of serum thyroxine is described in an appendix.

  15. ZnO-PLLA nanofiber nanocomposite for continuous flow mode purification of water from Cr(VI). (United States)

    Burks, T; Akthar, F; Saleemi, M; Avila, M; Kiros, Y


    Nanomaterials of ZnO-PLLA nanofibers have been used for the adsorption of Cr(VI) as a prime step for the purification of water. The fabrication and application of the flexible ZnO-PLLA nanofiber nanocomposite as functional materials in this well-developed architecture have been achieved by growing ZnO nanorod arrays by chemical bath deposition on synthesized electrospun poly-L-lactide nanofibers. The nanocomposite material has been tested for the removal and regeneration of Cr(IV) in aqueous solution under a "continuous flow mode" by studying the effects of pH, contact time, and desorption steps. The adsorption of Cr(VI) species in solution was greatly dependent upon pH. SEM micrographs confirmed the successful fabrication of the ZnO-PLLA nanofiber nanocomposite. The adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI) species were more likely due to the electrostatic interaction between ZnO and Cr(VI) ions as a function of pH. The adsorption and desorption experiments utilizing the ZnO-PLLA nanofiber nanocomposite have appeared to be an effective nanocomposite in the removal and regeneration of Cr(VI) species.

  16. ZnO-PLLA Nanofiber Nanocomposite for Continuous Flow Mode Purification of Water from Cr(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burks


    Full Text Available Nanomaterials of ZnO-PLLA nanofibers have been used for the adsorption of Cr(VI as a prime step for the purification of water. The fabrication and application of the flexible ZnO-PLLA nanofiber nanocomposite as functional materials in this well-developed architecture have been achieved by growing ZnO nanorod arrays by chemical bath deposition on synthesized electrospun poly-L-lactide nanofibers. The nanocomposite material has been tested for the removal and regeneration of Cr(IV in aqueous solution under a “continuous flow mode” by studying the effects of pH, contact time, and desorption steps. The adsorption of Cr(VI species in solution was greatly dependent upon pH. SEM micrographs confirmed the successful fabrication of the ZnO-PLLA nanofiber nanocomposite. The adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI species were more likely due to the electrostatic interaction between ZnO and Cr(VI ions as a function of pH. The adsorption and desorption experiments utilizing the ZnO-PLLA nanofiber nanocomposite have appeared to be an effective nanocomposite in the removal and regeneration of Cr(VI species.

  17. Performance evaluation of semi continuous vertical flow constructed wetlands (SC-VF-CWs) for municipal wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Rajesh


    The present study demonstrated the understating of municipal wastewater treatment in five types of CWs operated under semi continuous vertical flow mode. All CWs treatment conditions show the significantly lower pollutants concentrations. The average NH4+-N, TN, NO2--N, NO3--N, SO42-, and PO43- removal efficiency in the ISs-CWs were 83.60%, 82.43%, 15.61%, 48.93%, 80.45%, and 78.94% respectively. The average NO2--N removal efficiency shows that highest nitrite accumulation occurred in the Cont-CWs followed by C-CWs. The lowest increase in the biomass (127.5%) was observed in the Eichhornia crassipes planted in the ISs-CWs. The ISs filtration barrier created in the constructed wetlands was sufficient enough to remove all the pollutants. Principal components EFA 2D deformation plots show the distribution of the various nitrogenous species in the constructed wetlands along different components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and optical characterization of CuInS2 quantum dots synthesized by microwave-assisted continuous flow methods (United States)

    Fitzmorris, Robert C.; Oleksak, Richard P.; Zhou, Zheng; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Kurtin, Juanita N.; Herman, Gregory S.


    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently been incorporated into consumer displays and lighting technologies. Now that these materials are being produced on industrial scales, it is important to investigate scalable synthetic methods and less toxic materials and chemistries. To achieve these goals, we have synthesized cadmium-free, visible light-emitting QDs using a microwave-assisted continuous flow reactor. After synthesis, the CuInS2 QD cores underwent a near-complete Zn cation exchange reaction in a batch reactor, followed by the growth of a ZnS shell. Analysis of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the crystal structure changes from CuInS2 (chalcopyrite) to ZnS (zincblende) during the cation exchange reaction. Compositional analysis indicated that the core/shell QDs were 98 % ZnS, with Cu and In present at much lower concentrations. The photoluminescence (PL) peak position was blue shifted for longer cation exchange reactions, and it was found that the ZnS shell was necessary for improved PL stability. The synthesized QDs have a PL down conversion efficiency of 65 % when using a blue LED source.

  19. Continuous-specimen-flow, high-throughput, 1-hour tissue processing. A system for rapid diagnostic tissue preparation. (United States)

    Morales, Azorides R; Essenfeld, Harold; Essenfeld, Ervin; Duboue, Maria Carmen; Vincek, Vladimir; Nadji, Mehrdad


    Current conventional tissue-processing methods employ fixation of tissues with neutral buffered formalin, dehydration with alcohol, and clearing with xylene before paraffin impregnation. Because the time required for this procedure is usually 8 hours or longer, it is customary to process tissues in automated instruments throughout the night. Although this time-honored method continues to serve histology laboratories well, it has a number of shortcomings, such as a 1-day delay of diagnosis, the need to batch specimens, the relatively large volumes and toxicity of reagents used, and the extent of RNA degradation. To describe a rapid new method of tissue processing using a continuous-throughput technique. Design.-We used a combination of common histologic reagents, excluding formalin and xylene, as well as microwave energy, to develop a rapid processing method. The effect of this method on the quality of histomorphology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and RNA content of processed tissue was compared with that of adjacent tissue sections processed by the conventional processing technique. We also assessed the impact of this rapid processing system on our practice by comparing the turnaround times of surgical pathology reports before and after its implementation. The new processing method permitted preparation of paraffin blocks from fresh or prefixed tissue in about 1 hour. The procedure allowed continuous flow of specimens at 15-minute intervals. It eliminated the use of formalin and xylene in the processing and used considerably lower volumes of other chemical reagents. Histomorphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical results were comparable to the parallel sections prepared by the conventional method. The new technique, however, preserved higher quality RNA. Use of the new methodology led to the diagnosis and reporting of more than one third of surgical pathology specimens on the same day that they were received, as compared to 1% of same

  20. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...