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Sample records for standardised titanium citrate

  1. The effect of standardised implantoplasty protocol on titanium surface roughness: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Kota, Akash; Jayaweera, Yathen; Vuuren, Wendy Jansen van; Ma, Sunyoung

    2016-12-22

    To analyse the changes of surface characteristics of machined and moderately roughened titanium disks following a standardised implantoplasty protocol. Forty titanium discs (machined: n = 20; moderately roughened: n = 20) were instrumented with one half of each disc maintained as the control (non-instrumented). The standardised implantoplasty protocol was carried out using a custom jig with the sequential change of burs: 1) Regular grit diamond [10s], 2) Super-fine grit diamond [10s], 3) Brownie(tm) silicone polisher [15s], 4) Greenie(tm) silicone polisher [15s]. Surface topography was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to measure the elemental profiles of each disc. Quantitative analysis showed similar changes in level of roughness between the machined and moderately roughened titanium discs. CLSM demonstrated an increased roughness (Ra and Sa values) after polishing with a regular grit diamond bur when compared to the uninstrumented surfaces. Although the roughness decreased after the further polishing with the super-fine grit diamond bur, subsequent instrumentation using silicon burs tended to increase the roughness, albeit being statistically insignificant. There was a residue of silicon particles despite the irrigation after each polishing stage. The proposed implantoplasty protocol did not achieve a sufficient level of smoothness on the machined or moderately roughened titanium surfaces when compared to the Ra threshold. Further research is recommended to test the efficacy of each bur on titanium surfaces with longer duration using actual oral implants to allow better comparison.

  2. The effect of standardised implantoplasty protocol on titanium surface roughness: an in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew TAWSE-SMITH

    Full Text Available Abstract: To analyse the changes of surface characteristics of machined and moderately roughened titanium disks following a standardised implantoplasty protocol. Forty titanium discs (machined: n = 20; moderately roughened: n = 20 were instrumented with one half of each disc maintained as the control (non-instrumented. The standardised implantoplasty protocol was carried out using a custom jig with the sequential change of burs: 1 Regular grit diamond [10s], 2 Super-fine grit diamond [10s], 3 Brownie(tm silicone polisher [15s], 4 Greenie(tm silicone polisher [15s]. Surface topography was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS was used to measure the elemental profiles of each disc. Quantitative analysis showed similar changes in level of roughness between the machined and moderately roughened titanium discs. CLSM demonstrated an increased roughness (Ra and Sa values after polishing with a regular grit diamond bur when compared to the uninstrumented surfaces. Although the roughness decreased after the further polishing with the super-fine grit diamond bur, subsequent instrumentation using silicon burs tended to increase the roughness, albeit being statistically insignificant. There was a residue of silicon particles despite the irrigation after each polishing stage. The proposed implantoplasty protocol did not achieve a sufficient level of smoothness on the machined or moderately roughened titanium surfaces when compared to the Ra threshold. Further research is recommended to test the efficacy of each bur on titanium surfaces with longer duration using actual oral implants to allow better comparison.

  3. A standardised approach for the dispersion of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurozzi, Julian S; Hackley, Vincent A; Wiesner, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    We describe a comprehensive optimisation study culminating in a standardised and validated approach for the preparation of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticle dispersions in relevant biological media. This study utilises a TiO₂ reference nanomaterial based on a commercially available powder that has been widely examined in both acute and chronic toxicity studies. The dispersion approach as presented here satisfies four key harmonisation requirements not previously addressed: (1) method transferability, based in part on the use of a sonication energy calibration method that allows for power measurement and reporting in a device-independent manner; (2) optimisation of sonication parameters and thorough method validation in terms of particle size distribution, pH, isoelectric point, concentration range and batch variability; (3) minimisation of sonolysis side effects by elimination of organics during sonication and (4) characterisation of nanoparticle agglomeration under various dispersion conditions by use of laser diffraction spectrometry, an in situ size characterisation technique that provides advantages over other techniques more commonly employed within the context of nanotoxicology (e.g. dynamic light scattering). The described procedure yields monomodal, nanoscale, protein-stabilised nanoparticle dispersions in biological media that remain stable for at least 48 h (acute testing timeframe) under typical incubation conditions.

  4. Standardisation education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of standardisation is growing. This might be reflected in a growth of standardisation education. In this paper we will elaborate on education in the field of standardisation.

  5. Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Bedinger, George M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Titanium is a mineral commodity that is essential to the smooth functioning of modern industrial economies. Most of the titanium produced is refined into titanium dioxide, which has a high refractive index and is thus able to impart a durable white color to paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and titanium metal alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.Ilmenite and rutile are currently the principal titanium-bearing ore minerals, although other minerals, including anatase, perovskite, and titanomagnetite, could have economic importance in the future. Ilmenite is currently being mined from two large magmatic deposits hosted in rocks of Proterozoic-age anorthosite plutonic suites. Most rutile and nearly one-half of the ilmenite produced are from heavy-mineral alluvial, fluvial, and eolian deposits. Titanium-bearing minerals occur in diverse geologic settings, but many of the known deposits are currently subeconomic for titanium because of complications related to the mineralogy or because of the presence of trace contaminants that can compromise the pigment production process.Global production of titanium minerals is currently dominated by Australia, Canada, Norway, and South Africa; additional amounts are produced in Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka. The United States accounts for about 4 percent of the total world production of titanium minerals and is heavily dependent on imports of titanium mineral concentrates to meet its domestic needs.Titanium occurs only in silicate or oxide minerals and never in sulfide minerals. Environmental considerations for titanium mining are related to waste rock disposal and the impact of trace constituents on water quality. Because titanium is generally inert in the environment, human health risks from titanium and titanium

  6. Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth’s crust and can be found in nearly all rocks and sediments. It is a lithophile element with a strong affinity for oxygen and is not found as a pure metal in nature. Titanium was first isolated as a pure metal in 1910, but it was not until 1948 that metal was produced commercially using the Kroll process (named after its developer, William Kroll) to reduce titanium tetrachloride with magnesium to produce titanium metal.

  7. Titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Muris, Joris; Jakobsen, Stig S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to titanium (Ti) from implants and from personal care products as nanoparticles (NPs) is common. This article reviews exposure sources, ion release, skin penetration, allergenic effects, and diagnostic possibilities. We conclude that human exposure to Ti mainly derives from dental...

  8. Standardisation of spirometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, M. R; Hankinson, J; Brusasco, V; Burgos, F; Casaburi, R; Coates, A; Crapo, R; Enright, P; van der Grinten, C. P. M; Gustafsson, P; Jensen, R; Johnson, D. C; MacIntyre, N; McKay, R; Navajas, D; Pedersen, O. F; Pellegrino, R; Viegi, G; Wanger, J

    2005-01-01

    ..., V.le Benedetto XV, 6, I-16132 Genova, Italy. Fax: 39 103537690. E-mail: vito.brusasco@unige.it Keywords: Peak expiratory flow, spirometry, spirometry standardisation, spirometry technique, spirometry traning, ventilation Received...

  9. Flemish Sign Language Standardisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Vermeerbergen, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the Flemish Deaf community officially rejected standardisation of Flemish Sign Language. It was a bold choice, which at the time was not in line with some of the decisions taken in the neighbouring countries. In this article, we shall discuss the choices the Flemish Deaf community has made in this respect and explore why the Flemish Deaf…

  10. Standardisation of 210Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods; Bowles; Jerome; de Lavison P; Lineham; Makepeace; Woodman; Woods

    2000-03-01

    The standardisation of 210Pb is complicated by the presence of the daughters, 210Bi and 210Po. In addition, the low energies of the beta emissions from 210Pb make it difficult to obtain high detection efficiencies in an atmospheric proportional counter and hence produce the need for large extrapolations with consequential large uncertainties when extrapolating to unit efficiency with the conventional 4pi(PC)-gamma-coincidence technique. In order to produce a reliable standardisation, it is necessary to remove the daughter products. A solution of 210Pb was therefore chemically separated from its daughters and then standardised using the conventional 4pi(LS)-gamma-coincidence technique. The low energy (46 keV) and low emission probability (4%) of the associated photon emissions effectively rules out the possibility of using ionisation chambers as secondary standard transfer instruments for this nuclide. A germanium spectrometer therefore was calibrated for this purpose using 241Am as a normalising agent. The results of this work are presented together with an analysis of the standardisation uncertainties that can be achieved in practice.

  11. Citrat og nyresten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1993-01-01

    Citrate is an important naturally occurring inhibitor of calcium stone formation in urine. Urinary citrate excretion was examined in 43 consecutive patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 50 normal controls by a specific enzymatic technique. Hypocitraturia (<1.6 mmol/24h...

  12. Standardised parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, Karen; Rakshasbhuvankar, Abhijeet; Deshpande, Girish

    2013-03-28

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has become an integral part of clinical management of very low birth weight premature neonates. Traditionally different components of PN are prescribed individually considering requirements of an individual neonate (IPN). More recently, standardised PN formulations (SPN) for preterm neonates have been assessed and may have advantages including better provision of nutrients, less prescription and administration errors, decreased risk of infection, and cost savings. The recent introduction of triple-chamber bag that provides total nutrient admixture for neonates may have additional advantage of decreased risk of contamination and ease of administration.

  13. Trisilver(I citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fischer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Trisilver(I citrate, 3Ag+·C6H5O73−, was obtained by evaporation of a saturated aqueous solution of the raw material that had been obtained from sodium dihydrogen citrate and silver nitrate. It features one formula unit in the asymmetric unit. There is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the OH group and one of the terminal carboxylate groups. Different citrate groups are linked via the three Ag+ ions, yielding a three-dimensional network with rather irregular [AgO4] polyhedra.

  14. The logic of Technical Standardisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    In this paper technical standardisation is understood and explained in a model where economic analysis is coupled with an analysis of the political system as proposed in rational choice theory. The aim is to answer both the question why various countries (e.g. the United States versus European...... countries) let either the market or public intervention determine the mode of technical standardisation and the possible implications of these two ways of organizing technical standardisation from an economic and a political point of view. Based upon the analysis of the paper a couple of general policy...... recommendations are made concerning the mode of technical standardisation....

  15. Breket titanium (Titanium bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianiwati Goenharto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a considerable discussion in the literature about corrosion and sensitivity to the nickel present in stainless steel brackets. Titanium has been heralded as a material totally compatible in the oral environment and superior in structural integrity compared to stainless steel. Many current applications in dentistry and medicine have made titanium an obvious choice for a possible substitute material. Titanium based brackets have shown excellent corrosion resistance and possessed good biocompatibility. Evaluation of titanium brackets for orthodontic therapy showed that titanium brackets were comparable to stainless steel brackets in passive and active configuration. Study about metallographic structure, hardness, bond strength to enamel substrate, etc. showed that titanium brackets exhibited a potential for clinical application. It was concluded that titanium brackets were suitable substitute for stainless steel brackets.

  16. Standardisation of digital human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gunther; Wischniewski, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Digital human models (DHM) have evolved as useful tools for ergonomic workplace design and product development, and found in various industries and education. DHM systems which dominate the market were developed for specific purposes and differ significantly, which is not only reflected in non-compatible results of DHM simulations, but also provoking misunderstanding of how DHM simulations relate to real world problems. While DHM developers are restricted by uncertainty about the user need and lack of model data related standards, users are confined to one specific product and cannot exchange results, or upgrade to another DHM system, as their previous results would be rendered worthless. Furthermore, origin and validity of anthropometric and biomechanical data is not transparent to the user. The lack of standardisation in DHM systems has become a major roadblock in further system development, affecting all stakeholders in the DHM industry. Evidently, a framework for standardising digital human models is necessary to overcome current obstructions. Practitioner Summary: This short communication addresses a standardisation issue for digital human models, which has been addressed at the International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee for Human Simulation and Virtual Environments. It is the outcome of a workshop at the DHM 2011 symposium in Lyon, which concluded steps towards DHM standardisation that need to be taken.

  17. Standardisation of {sup 210}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.H. E-mail: denise.woods@npl.co.uk; Bowles, N.E.; Jerome, S.M.; Lavison, P. de; Lineham, S.; Makepeace, J.L.; Woodman, A.P.; Woods, M.J

    2000-03-01

    The standardisation of {sup 210}Pb is complicated by the presence of the daughters, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po. In addition, the low energies of the beta emissions from {sup 210}Pb make it difficult to obtain high detection efficiencies in an atmospheric proportional counter and hence produce the need for large extrapolations with consequential large uncertainties when extrapolating to unit efficiency with the conventional 4{pi}(PC)-{gamma}-coincidence technique. In order to produce a reliable standardisation, it is necessary to remove the daughter products. A solution of {sup 210}Pb was therefore chemically separated from its daughters and then standardised using the conventional 4{pi}(LS)-{gamma}-coincidence technique. The low energy (46 keV) and low emission probability (4%) of the associated photon emissions effectively rules out the possibility of using ionisation chambers as secondary standard transfer instruments for this nuclide. A germanium spectrometer therefore was calibrated for this purpose using {sup 241}Am as a normalising agent. The results of this work are presented together with an analysis of the standardisation uncertainties that can be achieved in practice.

  18. 3GPP Standardisation 2007 - 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report reviews work carried out under SLA for NXP under the title Tracking and Analysis of 3GPP Standards” during 2007 and 2008. An overview of the status of the standardisation work in 3GPP is provided, together with an outline for its continuation. The report alsodetails the contributions

  19. Titanium 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and can be found in nearly all rocks and sediments. It is a lithophile element with a strong affinity for oxygen and is not found as a pure metal in nature. Titanium was first isolated as a pure metal in 1910, but it was not until 1948 that the metal was produced commercially using the Kroll process (named after its developer, William Kroll) to reduce titanium tetrachloride with magnesium to produce titanium metal.

  20. Parallel Professionalism in an Era of Standardisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-Johnson, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    Today's American educational context is characterised by increasing standardisation coupled with heightened accountability. While some view standardisation as a lever for equity, many view it as problematic for the work of teachers. Efforts to improve student achievement by focusing on the activities of teachers have resulted in an over-riding…

  1. Standardising Software Processes - An Obstacle for Innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 10 years CMM has achieved widespread use as a model for improving software organisations. Often CMM is used to standardise software processes across projects. In this paper we discuss this standardisation of SPI in relation to innovation, organisational size and company growth. Our...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and washed...

  4. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates; Preparacao do titanato zirconato de chumbo a partir dos citratos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C.M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 500{sup 0} C, 450{sup 0} C and 250{sup 0} C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 450{sup 0} C and 500{sup 0} C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 800{sup 0} C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 500{sup 0} C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 600{sup 0} C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 400{sup 0} C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 400{sup 0} C-800{sup 0} C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 1100{sup 0} C and 1200{sup 0} C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm{sup -3} at 1200{sup 0} C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs.

  5. The relationship between standardised test performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of compensation, metacognitive, affective and social strategies. The implications for language teaching in Curriculum 2005 context are briefly indicated. Key words: standardised test performance, language learning strategies, English Second Language, KwaZulu-Natal, underachievement, secondary school, case study

  6. Governance of electrotechnical standardisation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report provides recommendations about the governance of electrotechnical standardisation in Europe to seven independent National Committees: DKE (Germany), Electrosuisse (Switzerland), OVE (Austria), NEC (the Netherlands), NEK (Norway), SEK (Sweden), and SESKO

  7. Ranitidine bismuth citrate: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chiba

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastroduodenal disease has increased greatly in recent years. To avoid complications of H pylori infection, such as the development of recurrent duodenal and gastric ulcers, effective therapies are required for eradication of the infection. This article reviews ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC, a novel complex of ranitidine, bismuth and citrate, which was developed specifically for the purpose of eradicating H pylori. Dual therapy with RBC in combination with clarithromycin for 14 days yields eradication rates of 76%. Triple therapy bid for one week with a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and either amoxicillin or a nitroimidazole (tinidazole or metronidazole is advocated as the treatment of choice for H pylori eradication. Analogous regimens with RBC in place of proton pump inhibitors show effective eradication rates in comparative studies and with pooled data. RBC, used alone or in combination with other antibiotics, appears to be a safe and effective drug for the treatment of H pylori infection. Bismuth levels do not appear to rise to toxic levels.

  8. Standardisation of haemoglobinometry : History and new challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG

    1997-01-01

    During the 1950s several attempts were made to standardise the measurement of the haemoglobin concentration in human blood, for which numerous different methods were in use giving widely different results. In 1966, a consensus was reached on the general use of a photometric determination after

  9. The relationship between standardised test performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data gathering took place by means of the application of two standardised tests, the Writing Performance Test in English and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, an individual interview using a structured interview schedule and observation in the teaching and learning environment. It was found that a significant ...

  10. Arthropod venom citrate inhibits phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, A W; West, P R; Odell, G V; Hudiburg, S M; Ownby, C L; Mills, J N; Scroggins, B T; Shannon, S B

    1995-06-01

    Citrate has been identified as a major component of honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A citrate concentration of 9% was found for dried bee venom by a coupled enzyme assay, aconitase-isocitric dehydrogenase. A liquid honey bee venom would contain 140 mM citrate concentration (if the solids content were 30%). Bee venom phospholipase was inhibited at a 43% level with a citrate concentration of 20 mM and calcium ion at 3 mM with the enzyme assay. Citrate was also found in the venoms of bumble bee, Bombus fervidus, 7%; yellow jacket, Vespula maculifrons, 4%; scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus, 8%; tarantula, Grammastola cala, 8% and brown recluse spider venom gland extract, Loxoceles reclusa, 1.5% based on dried venom solids. Citrate may serve as an endogenous inhibitor of divalent metal ion-dependent enzymes in arthropod venoms as described by Francis et al. (1992, Toxicon 30, 1239-1246). Many arthropod venoms contain calcium-dependent phospholipases. A direct effect of citrate as a venom component may be possible. The presence of citrate in venoms must be considered in research on receptors, ion channels and divalent ion-dependent toxins.

  11. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Evidence Review

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2014-01-01

    The current report reviews the scientific evidence on standardised or “plain” packaging, and the extent to which plain packaging regulations would help Ireland to achieve its tobacco control objectives.   Plain packaging is a form of marketing restriction that prohibits the use of logos, colours, brand images and promotional information on tobacco packaging. Under plain packaging regulations, the colour of the pack is uniform across different brands and varieties. Regulations ma...

  12. Criteria for standardising counselling for HIV testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Luzi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we outline basic health counselling skills, specifically, those for performing pre-test and post-test counselling for HIV infection. The ultimate goal is to propose that counselling be performed in facilities that carry out screening for anti-HIV antibodies, following standardised (and thus replicable criteria, with consistent focus on the quality of the relationship between the healthcare professional and the individual undergoing testing and on the individual's specific needs.

  13. Standardisation of magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James; Kazakova, Olga; Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe; Petronis, Sarunas; Bogart, Lara K.; Southern, Paul; Pankhurst, Quentin; Johansson, Christer

    2017-09-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles offer diverse opportunities for technology innovation, spanning a large number of industry sectors from imaging and actuation based applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, through large-scale environmental remediation uses such as water purification, to engineering-based applications such as position-controlled lubricants and soaps. Continuous advances in their manufacture have produced an ever-growing range of products, each with their own unique properties. At the same time, the characterisation of magnetic nanoparticles is often complex, and expert knowledge is needed to correctly interpret the measurement data. In many cases, the stringent requirements of the end-user technologies dictate that magnetic nanoparticle products should be clearly defined, well characterised, consistent and safe; or to put it another way—standardised. The aims of this document are to outline the concepts and terminology necessary for discussion of magnetic nanoparticles, to examine the current state-of-the-art in characterisation methods necessary for the most prominent applications of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, to suggest a possible structure for the future development of standardisation within the field, and to identify areas and topics which deserve to be the focus of future work items. We discuss potential roadmaps for the future standardisation of this developing industry, and the likely challenges to be encountered along the way.

  14. Titanium Powder Metallurgy Forgings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TITANIUM ALLOYS, *FORGING), (* POWDER METALLURGY , TITANIUM ALLOYS), ENGINE COMPONENTS, INLET GUIDE VANES, JET ENGINES, RINGS, AIRFRAMES, ANCHORS(STRUCTURAL), COLD WORKING, SINTERING, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

  15. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl citrate...

  16. On the standardisation of Web service management operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sloten, J.; Harju, J.; Pras, Aiko; Moltchanov, D.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Silverajan, B.

    2004-01-01

    Given the current interest in TCP/IP network management research towards Web services, it is important to recognise how standardisation can be achieved. This paper mainly focuses on the standardisation of operations and not management information. We state that standardisation should be done by

  17. Anaphylaxis related to fentanyl citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is a fulminant, unexpected, immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reaction that can be triggered by multiple agents. Common causative agents include neuromuscular blocking drugs, latex, antibiotics, colloids, hypnotics, and opioids. Fentanyl citrate, however, is an extremely unusual cause of anaphylaxis. Pulmonary edema, although uncommon in anaphylaxis, can be a prominent feature, as was in one of the patient. An adverse drug reaction is a noxious or unintended reaction to a drug that is administered in standard doses by the proper route for the purpose of prophylaxis, diagnosis, or treatment. Reactions are classified into two major subtypes: type A, which are dose dependent and predictable; and type B, which are not dose dependent and unpredictable. Unpredictable reactions include immune (allergic or no immune drug hypersensitivity reactions and are related to genetic susceptibilities or undefined mechanisms (formally called idiosyncratic and intolerance reactions. A drug allergy is always associated with an immune mechanism for which evidence of drug-specific antibodies or activated T lymphocytes can be shown. In the last few years, many novel drugs have entered clinical practice (i.e., biologic agents generating novel patterns of drug hypersensitivity reactions. As old drugs continue to be used, new clinical and biologic techniques enable improvement in the diagnosis of these reactions.

  18. Treatment of norovirus particles with citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; White, Peter A; Hansman, Grant S

    2015-11-01

    Human norovirus is a dominant cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. Several norovirus disinfectants label citric acid as an active ingredient. In this study, we showed that norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) treated with citrate buffer caused the particles to alter their morphology, including increased diameters associated with a new ring-like structure. We also found that epitopes on the protruding (P) domain on these particles were more readily accessible to antibodies after the citrate treatment. These results suggested that citrate had a direct effect on the norovirus particles. Using X-ray crystallography, we showed that the P domain bound citrate from lemon juice and a disinfectant containing citric acid. Importantly, citrate binds at the histo-blood group antigen binding pocket, which are attachment factors for norovirus infections. Taken together, these new findings suggested that it might be possible to treat/reduce norovirus infections with citrate, although further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Standardised opt-out testing for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Danna

    2011-12-01

    This article offers a literature review of the benefits of, and problems associated with, a standardised opt-out screening programme for HIV, and the attitudes of healthcare professionals and patients to its potential introduction in emergency departments. There is a lack of research on the subject in the UK and so the article relies on work undertaken in the US and on opt-out testing in antenatal services in the UK. It reviews the potential benefits of such a programme, in particular the opportunities it offers to improve public health and reduced the stigma associated with HIV, and discusses the issue of consent.

  20. Standardisation and decay data of 186Re

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods; Ciocanel; Husband; Keightley; de Lavison P; Lineham; Woods; Woods

    2000-03-01

    A solution of 186Re was standardised using the 4pi(PC)-gamma-coincidence technique. Two gamma channels were employed to provide separate detection efficiency data arising from the two decay modes (beta and electron capture): the resulting data were analysed using a two-dimensional extrapolation. Calibration factors for a high pressure re-entrant ionisation chamber as well as for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator were also determined. An efficiency-calibrated germanium spectrometer was used to measure the emission probabilities of the X- and gamma-rays.

  1. Standardised metrics for global surgical surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Thomas G; Makary, Martin A; Haynes, Alex B; Dziekan, Gerald; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2009-09-26

    Public health surveillance relies on standardised metrics to evaluate disease burden and health system performance. Such metrics have not been developed for surgical services despite increasing volume, substantial cost, and high rates of death and disability associated with surgery. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative of WHO's Patient Safety Programme has developed standardised public health metrics for surgical care that are applicable worldwide. We assembled an international panel of experts to develop and define metrics for measuring the magnitude and effect of surgical care in a population, while taking into account economic feasibility and practicability. This panel recommended six measures for assessing surgical services at a national level: number of operating rooms, number of operations, number of accredited surgeons, number of accredited anaesthesia professionals, day-of-surgery death ratio, and postoperative in-hospital death ratio. We assessed the feasibility of gathering such statistics at eight diverse hospitals in eight countries and incorporated them into the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery, in which methods for data collection, analysis, and reporting are outlined.

  2. Regional citrate anticoagulation for pediatric CRRT using integrated citrate software and physiological sodium concentration solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liet, Jean-Michel; Allain-Launay, Emma; Gaillard-LeRoux, Bénédicte; Barrière, François; Chenouard, Alexis; Dejode, Jean-Marc; Joram, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    In continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), regional citrate anticoagulation offers an attractive alternative to heparinization, especially for children with a high bleeding risk. We report on a new management approach to CRRT using integrated citrate software and physiological sodium concentration solutions. Convective filtration was performed with pre-filter citrate anticoagulation using an 18 mmol/L citrate solution and a post-filter replacement fluid. The citrate flow rate was automatically adjusted to the blood flow rate by means of integrated citrate software. Similarly, calcium was automatically infused into children to maintain their blood calcium levels within normal range. Eleven CRRT sessions were performed (330 h) in seven critically ill children aged 3-15 years (extreme values 15-66 kg). Disease categories included sepsis with multiorgan dysfunction (n = 2) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (n = 5). Median effluent dose was 2.1 (extreme values 1.7-3.3) L/h/1.73 m2. No session had to be stopped because of metabolic complications. Calcium levels, both in the circuits and in the circulating blood of the children, remained stable and secure. Regional citrate anticoagulation can be used in children with a body weight of >15 kg using integrated citrate software and commercially available solutions with physiological sodium concentrations in a safe, effective and convenient procedure.

  3. Citrate Uptake in Exchange with Intermediates in the Citrate Metabolic Pathway in Lactococcus lactis IL1403

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    Carbohydrate/citrate cometabolism in Lactococcus lactis results in the formation of the flavor compound acetoin. Resting cells of strain IL1403(pFL3) rapidly consumed citrate while producing acetoin when substoichiometric concentrations of glucose or L-lactate were present. A proton motive force was

  4. Rerouting Citrate Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis to Citrate-Driven Transamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    Oxaloacetate is an intermediate of the citrate fermentation pathway that accumulates in the cytoplasm of Lactococcus lactis ILCitM(pFL3) at a high concentration due to the inactivation of oxaloacetate decarboxylase. An excess of toxic oxaloacetate is excreted into the medium in exchange for citrate

  5. Epidural failure rate using a standardised definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangamuthu, A; Russell, I F; Purva, M

    2013-11-01

    There is no globally-accepted definition of epidural failure; this leads to wide differences in reported failure rates. A definition of epidural failure was standardised using a modified Delphi approach involving senior obstetric anaesthetists in the UK. Using this definition, epidural failures were calculated in our institution. Following clinical governance approval, anonymised data from 1521 epidurals inserted between September 2010 and December 2011 were collected from our database. Details included pain relief 45 min from the start of the procedure, accidental dural puncture, epidural re-siting, maternal satisfaction, time of insertion and positioning for insertion. The overall failure rate was 23%. Individual failure rates for trainees were: Year 2, 26.8%; Year 3, 26.3%; Year 4, 21.4%; Year 5, 25%; Year 6, 18.5%; and Year 7, 13.5%. Epidural re-site rates for trainees were: Year 2, 6.5%; Year 3, 3.5%; Year 4, 4%; Year 5 and above, 1.5%. Cervical dilatation, time of day and position for insertion did not have a statistically significant association with the failure rate. However, the failure rate of the Year 2, Year 3, and Year 4 trainees was significantly higher when compared to that of Year 5 and above. The re-site rate was statistically higher for Year 2 and Year 4 trainees when compared to those of Year 5 and above. The accidental dural puncture rate was statistically higher among Year 3 trainees when compared to Year 5 and above. The study identified epidural failure rates using a standardised definition. This information could be used to guide training decisions and to support doctors during their training period. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Body plethysmography (I): Standardisation and quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H; Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R

    2015-08-01

    Whole body plethysmography is used to measure lung volumes, capacities and resistances. It is a well standardised technique, and although it is widely used in paediatric chest diseases units, it requires specific equipment, specialist staff, and some cooperation by the patient. Plethysmography uses Boyle's law in order to measure the intrathoracic gas volume or functional residual capacity, and once this is determined, the residual volume and total lung capacity is extrapolated. The measurement of total lung capacity is necessary for the diagnosis of restrictive diseases. Airway resistance is a measurement of obstruction, with the total resistance being able to be measured, which includes chest wall, lung tissue and airway resistance, as well as the specific airway resistance, which is a more stable parameter that is determined by multiplying the measured values of airway resistance and functional residual capacity. The complexity of this technique, the reference equations, the differences in the equipment and their variability, and the conditions in which it is performed, has led to the need for its standardisation. Throughout this article, the practical aspects of plethysmography are analysed, specifying recommendations for performing it, its systematic calibration and the calculations that must be made, as well as the interpretation of the results obtained. The aim of this article is to provide a better understanding of the principles of whole body plethysmography with the aim of optimising the interpretation of the results, leading to improved management of the patient, as well as a consensus among the speciality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Titanium and titanium alloys fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    This handbook is an excellent reference for materials scientists and engineers needing to gain more knowledge about these engineering materials. Following introductory chapters on the fundamental materials properties of titanium, readers will find comprehensive descriptions of the development, processing and properties of modern titanium alloys. There then follows detailed discussion of the applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace, medicine, energy and automotive technology.

  8. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyens, C; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    ... number of titanium alloys have paved the way for light metals to vastly expand into many industrial applications. Titanium and its alloys stand out primarily due to their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance, at just half the weight of steels and Ni-based superalloys. This explains their early success in the aerospace and the...

  10. Cytotoxicity of titanium and titanium alloying elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wong, C; Xiong, J; Hodgson, P; Wen, C

    2010-05-01

    It is commonly accepted that titanium and the titanium alloying elements of tantalum, niobium, zirconium, molybdenum, tin, and silicon are biocompatible. However, our research in the development of new titanium alloys for biomedical applications indicated that some titanium alloys containing molybdenum, niobium, and silicon produced by powder metallurgy show a certain degree of cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that the cytotoxicity is linked to the ion release from the metals. To prove this hypothesis, we assessed the cytotoxicity of titanium and titanium alloying elements in both forms of powder and bulk, using osteoblast-like SaOS(2) cells. Results indicated that the metal powders of titanium, niobium, molybdenum, and silicon are cytotoxic, and the bulk metals of silicon and molybdenum also showed cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, we established that the safe ion concentrations (below which the ion concentration is non-toxic) are 8.5, 15.5, 172.0, and 37,000.0 microg/L for molybdenum, titanium, niobium, and silicon, respectively.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  12. Redox Regulation of Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Citrate Synthase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elisabeth Schmidtmann Ann-Christine Konig Anne Orwat Dario Leister Markus Hartl Iris Finkemeier

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase has a key role in the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle of mitochondria of all organisms, as it cata- lyzes the first committed step which is the fusion of a carbon-carbon bond between oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA...

  13. Fracture penis : A complication of sildenafil citrate!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Kundu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Our experience with 6 consecutive cases of fracture penis, a rare urological injury, in normal male without any erectile dysfunction, who consumed Sildenafil Citrate for prolonged sexual enjoyment out of curiosity. All of them were properly worked up and treated surgi-cally resulting in excellent recovery of function.

  14. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on...

  15. [Standardised environmental conditions for neurocognitive laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros-Tuma, M; Alvarez-González, M

    The exploration of neurocognition in neurology departments has gone a long way from the traditional psychometric tests to the present day use of high technology methods in cognitive neurophysiology, as is the case of event related potentials. Given the increased sensitivity of these procedures, it has become absolutely essential to control the influence of environmental variables that may exert non controlled effects on the patient s response. Many neurocognitive laboratories have been set up in premises in which the spatial layout and the environmental characteristics have been determined beforehand and consequently technical staff has had to prepare these rooms in an empirical way. This gives rise to two types of drawbacks: interferences in the patient s concentration and low reproducibility of the results in other laboratories. In this paper we present a proposed set of standardised conditions for a neurocognitive laboratory from an architectural perspective, and more specifically with regard to interior design. We outline the functional design of the premises, the conditions for workplaces where VDU computers (Video Display Units) are used and where psychometric evaluation is carried out. We also discuss the criteria to be followed when placing the laboratory within a hospital, lighting parameters, air conditioning and suggestions about psychological input. Although we do not seek to establish a rigid set of norms, these conditions will raise the quality of evaluations and facilitate the comparison of results because of the reduced variability from the environment.

  16. Lessons from Small-scale Standardised Testing of English Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale standardised testing for ESL performance is an assessment strategy that can contribute to identifying specific needs at a particular school. Standardised testing, as a sub-component of the broader concept of assessment which includes a range of assessment options, is defined as any form of test that requires all ...

  17. Minority Language Standardisation and the Role of Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Developing a standard for a minority language is not a neutral process; this has consequences for the status of the language and how the language users relate to the new standard. A potential inherent problem with standardisation is whether the language users themselves will accept and identify with the standard. When standardising minority…

  18. Reduction and aggregation of silver ions in aqueous citrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Ridhima; Maiti, Nandita; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2014-05-01

    Radiolytic reduction of Ag(+) ions and the subsequent formation of Ag clusters were studied in aqueous citrate solutions. Pulse-radiolysis studies show that the presence of citrate in the solution affects the early processes, via complexation of Ag(+) ions with the carboxyl moieties of the citrate. The ratio of citrate to Ag(+) determines the kinetic consequences of the reduction and agglomeration processes. The complexation reduces somewhat the rate of reduction by hydrated electrons. However, when all the ions are complexed to the citrate, the surface plasmon absorption band becomes broader, albeit small, but nevertheless it provides extreme stability to the formed nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Standardisation and "Quick Languages": The Shape-Shifting of Standardised Measurement of Pupil Achievement in Sweden and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Christian; Waldow, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the entry of standardised measurement into the educational systems of Sweden and Germany and the processes of shape-shifting associated with this process. In the first part of the article, we investigate how standardised measurement challenged existing ways of conceiving education in Sweden and Germany during the first half…

  20. Citrate anticoagulation for CRRT in children: comparison with heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Sara Nicole; Santiago, Maria José; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Miriam; Del Castillo, Jimena; Alcaraz, Andrés José; Bellón, Jose María

    2014-01-01

    Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P = 0.028). 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I) of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin.

  1. Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT in Children: Comparison with Heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nicole Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P=0.028. 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin.

  2. The standardised copy of pentagons test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The 'double-diamond copy' task is a simple paper and pencil test part of the Bender-Gestalt Test and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Although it is a widely used test, its method of scoring is crude and its psychometric properties are not adequately known. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and reliable method of administration and scoring. Methods The study sample included 93 normal control subjects (53 women and 40 men) aged 35.87 ± 12.62 and 127 patients suffering from schizophrenia (54 women and 73 men) aged 34.07 ± 9.83. Results The scoring method was based on the frequencies of responses of healthy controls and proved to be relatively reliable with Cronbach's α equal to 0.61, test-retest correlation coefficient equal to 0.41 and inter-rater reliability equal to 0.52. The factor analysis produced two indices and six subscales of the Standardised Copy of Pentagons Test (SCPT). The total score as well as most of the individual items and subscales distinguished between controls and patients. The discriminant function correctly classified 63.44% of controls and 75.59% of patients. Discussion The SCPT seems to be a satisfactory, reliable and valid instrument, which is easy to administer, suitable for use in non-organic psychiatric patients and demands minimal time. Further research is necessary to test its psychometric properties and its usefulness and applications as a neuropsychological test. PMID:21481250

  3. Citrate Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zheng

    Full Text Available Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA is gaining popularity in continous renal replacement therapy (CRRT for critically ill patients. The risk of citrate toxicity is a primary concern during the prolonged process. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of citrate in critically ill patients with AKI, and used the kinetic parameters to predict the risk of citrate accumulation in this population group undergoing continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH with RCA.Critically ill patients with AKI (n = 12 and healthy volunteers (n = 12 were investigated during infusing comparative dosage of citrate. Serial blood samples were taken before, during 120 min and up to 120 min after infusion. Citrate pharmacokinetics were calculated and compared between groups. Then the estimated kinetic parameters were applied to the citrate kinetic equation for validation in other ten patients' CVVH sessions with citrate anticoagulation.Total body clearance of citrate was similar in critically ill patients with AKI and healthy volunteers (648.04±347.00 L/min versus 686.64±353.60 L/min; P = 0.624. Basal and peak citrate concentrations were similar in both groups (p = 0.423 and 0.247, respectively. The predicted citrate curve showed excellent fit to the measurements.Citrate clearance is not impaired in critically ill patients with AKI in the absence of severe liver dysfunction. Citrate pharmacokinetic data can provide a basis for the clinical use of predicting the risk of citrate accumulation.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00948558.

  4. Standardised Embedded Data framework for Drones [SEDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyngaard, J.; Barbieri, L.; Peterson, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    A number of barriers to entry remain for UAS use in science. One in particular is that of implementing an experiment and UAS specific software stack. Currently this stack is most often developed in-house and customised for a particular UAS-sensor pairing - limiting its reuse. Alternatively, when adaptable a suitable commercial package may be used, but such systems are both costly and usually suboptimal.In order to address this challenge the Standardised Embedded Data framework for Drones [SEDD] is being developed in μpython. SEDD provides an open source, reusable, and scientist-accessible drop in solution for drone data capture and triage. Targeted at embedded hardware, and offering easy access to standard I/O interfaces, SEDD provides an easy solution for simply capturing data from a sensor. However, the intention is rather to enable more complex systems of multiple sensors, computer hardware, and feedback loops, via 3 primary components.A data asset manager ensures data assets are associated with appropriate metadata as they are captured. Thereafter, the asset is easily archived or otherwise redirected, possibly to - onboard storage, onboard compute resource for processing, an interface for transmission, another sensor control system, remote storage and processing (such as EarthCube's CHORDS), or to any combination of the above.A service workflow managerenables easy implementation of complex onboard systems via dedicated control of multiple continuous and periodic services. Such services will include the housekeeping chores of operating a UAS and multiple sensors, but will also permit a scientist to drop in an initial scientific data processing code utilising on-board compute resources beyond the autopilot. Having such capabilities firstly enables easy creation of real-time feedback, to the human- or auto- pilot, or other sensors, on data quality or needed flight path changes. Secondly, compute hardware provides the opportunity to carry out real-time data triage

  5. Electrowinning molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 4 Rationale - Advantages • Feed: Safe, transportable, alternative supplies (sulphate and chloride routes), decoupled from TiCl4... and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitivenessorting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 1 Electrowinning Molten Titanium from Titanium Dioxide DS van...

  6. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Bordin, Angelo Rafael de Vito; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    .... Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium...

  7. Recommendations for using standardised phenotypes in genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylor Melissa G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic association studies of complex traits often rely on standardised quantitative phenotypes, such as percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume and body mass index to measure an underlying trait of interest (eg lung function, obesity. These phenotypes are appealing because they provide an easy mechanism for comparing subjects, although such standardisations may not be the best way to control for confounders and other covariates. We recommend adjusting raw or standardised phenotypes within the study population via regression. We illustrate through simulation that optimal power in both population- and family-based association tests is attained by using the residuals from within-study adjustment as the complex trait phenotype. An application of family-based association analysis of forced expiratory volume in one second, and obesity in the Childhood Asthma Management Program data, illustrates that power is maintained or increased when adjusted phenotype residuals are used instead of typical standardised quantitative phenotypes.

  8. Assessment framework for standardisation activities ResiStand

    OpenAIRE

    Stolk, D.J.; Lee, M.D.E. van der; Petiet, P.J.; Liedtke, C; Lindner, R.; Zetten, J. van; Karppinen, A.; Anson, S.; Kroener, I.

    2017-01-01

    Standardisation is a powerful tool to achieve better interoperability. However, it needs to overcome a lack of interest and modest participation from stakeholders. Also, promising research results are not always used as the basis for new standards. The overall goal of ResiStand is to find new ways to improve the crisis management and disaster resilience capabilities of the European Union and individual Member States through standardisation. ResiStand contributes to an improved disaster resili...

  9. Functional characterization and Me2+ ion specificity of a Ca2+-citrate transporter from Enterococcus faecalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blancato, Victor S.; Magni, Christian; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary transporters of the bacterial CitMHS family transport citrate in complex with a metal ion. Different members of the family are specific for the metal ion in the complex and have been shown to transport Mg2+-citrate, Ca2+-citrate or Fe3+-citrate. The Fe3+-citrate transporter of

  10. Aspergillus niger Secretes Citrate to Increase Iron Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoni, Dorett I.; van Gaal, Merlijn P.; Schonewille, Tom; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an innate ability to secrete various organic acids, including citrate. The conditions required for A. niger citrate overproduction are well described, but the physiological reasons underlying extracellular citrate accumulation are not yet fully understood. One of the less understood culture conditions is the requirement of growth-limiting iron concentrations. While this has been attributed to iron-dependent citrate metabolizing enzymes, this straightforward relationship does not always hold true. Here, we show that an increase in citrate secretion under iron limited conditions is a physiological response consistent with a role of citrate as A. niger iron siderophore. We found that A. niger citrate secretion increases with decreasing amounts of iron added to the culture medium and, in contrast to previous findings, this response is independent of the nitrogen source. Differential transcriptomics analyses of the two A. niger mutants NW305 (gluconate non-producer) and NW186 (gluconate and oxalate non-producer) revealed up-regulation of the citrate biosynthesis gene citA under iron limited conditions compared to iron replete conditions. In addition, we show that A. niger can utilize Fe(III) citrate as iron source. Finally, we discuss our findings in the general context of the pH-dependency of A. niger organic acid production, offering an explanation, besides competition, for why A. niger organic acid production is a sequential process influenced by the external pH of the culture medium. PMID:28824560

  11. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  12. Lithium citrate as treatment of Canavan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solsona, María Dolores Edo; Fernández, Laura Lorente; Boquet, Emilio Monte; Andrés, José Luís Poveda

    2012-01-01

    Canavan disease is a rare autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterized by abnormal accumulation of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in brain white matter. Currently, there is no cure for this disease, and management of patients consists mainly of treating symptoms. We describe a 3-month-old girl who was hospitalized for poor head control and decreased muscle tone. A battery of laboratory and genetic (homozygous mutation p.C218X) analysis revealed the presence of Canavan disease. Lithium citrate was initiated at a dosage of 45 mg/kg per day after diagnosis. Periodic controls of thyroid and liver function, and lithium levels in blood showed that this drug was sure and well tolerated. After 1 year of treatment, NAA levels decreased by approximately 20% in the brain region, urinary NAA levels showed a reduction of 80%, and patient improved alertness and visual tracking but continued with no heat support, axial hypotonia, and spastic diplegia. In our patient, the results obtained after drug administration are important with respect to the decrease in NAA and more discreet in clinical improvement. However, given the absence of adverse effects and limited treatment options, lithium citrate may be a good alternative to stop the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life of patients.

  13. Importance of citrate and the calcium : citrate ratio in patients with calcium renal lithiasis and severe lithogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; Poyatos-Andujar, Antonio; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2013-04-01

    Different studies have shown the importance of citrate in the formation of calcium stones. It has further been shown that the states of metabolic acidosis result in an increase in bone resorption and lower urinary citrate levels. Increasing the intake of citrate in these patients can reduce the lithogenic risk and improve bone mineral density (BMD), contributing to control of both diseases. The study shows the importance of citrate in patients with calcium stones and BMD loss. The deficit in citrate excretion is associated with a decrease in bone mineralization and increased β-crosslaps. A calcium : citrate ratio >0.25 in patients with calcium stones and loss of mineral density may predict severe lithogenic activity. To analyse the importance of urinary citrate and the urinary calcium : citrate ratio in patients with calcium renal lithiasis and severe lithogenesis compared with a control group of patients without lithiasis. A cross-sectional study of 115 patients in eastern Andalusia, Spain was conducted. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A: 56 patients aged 25-60 years without calcium renal lithiasis; Group B: 59 patients aged 25-60 years, presenting with calcium renal lithiasis and severe lithogenesis. The citrate levels and the calcium : citrate ratio in the patients' urine and the relationship of these two factors to lithiasic activity were analysed and compared. In Group B, 32.2% of the patients presented with hypocitraturia, compared with 14.3% of the patients in Group A (P = 0.02). The urinary citrate levels were lower in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.001) and the calcium : citrate ratio was higher in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.005). The results suggest that a patient urinary calcium : citrate ratio > 0.25 indicates severe lithogenesis (with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 57%). After linear regression analysis, we found that the urinary citrate level is an independent factor associated with the changes in bone densitometry T

  14. [sup 99m]Tc-Citrate versus [sup 67]Ga-citrate for the scintigraphic visualization of inflammatory lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercan, M.T.; Aras, T.; Unlenen, E.; Unsal, I.S.; Hascelik, Z. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)); Unlu, M. (Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1993-10-01

    Citric acid was labeled with [sup 99m]Tc with an efficiency of > 99%. The biodistribution of [sup 99m]Tc-citrate was studied in mice with turpentine-induced abscesses in comparison to [sup 67]Ga-citrate. The max. abscess/muscle concentration ratios were 4.61 [+-] 1.92 (3 h) for [sup 99m]Tc-citrate and 4.76 [+-] 2.04 (4 h) for [sup 67]Ga-citrate. Arthritis was induced in 10 rabbits by intra-articular injection of ovalbumin Scintigrams obtained 4 days later and at 3 h post-injection of [sup 99m]Tc-citrate showed increased activity involving the synovium. The max. arthritic/contralateral knee ratio was 3.19 [+-] 1.29 (3 h) and 6.47 [+-] 3.71 (24 h) for [sup 99m]Tc- and [sup 67]Ga-citrate, respectively. The blood clearance curve of [sup 99m]Tc-citrate in rabbits was biexponential with a fast and a slow component, compared to mono-exponential clearance of [sup 67]Ga-citrate. In 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis whole-body scintigrams and spot images of involved joints indicated localization of the tracer in inflamed tissues. The mean target-to-soft tissue ratios were 3.04 [+-] 0.81 and 4.95 [+-] 2.56 for [sup 99m]Tc-citrate and [sup 99m]Tc-MDP, respectively. Renal clearance of radioactivity was evident from the scintigrams. Our results demonstrated that [sup 99m]Tc-citrate is effective as a radiopharmaceutical for the visualization of inflammatory lesions and may be preferred to [sup 67]Ga-citrate due to the ideal physical characteristics of the radionuclide, easy preparation, low cost, early accumulation and the preference for the renal route of excretion. (Author).

  15. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522....300 Carfentanil citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution..., shoulder, back, or hindquarter. Avoid intrathoracic, intra-abdominal, or subcutaneous injection. To reverse...

  16. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. ...

  17. Pre-process desilication of wheat straw with citrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    Effects of treatment time, citrate concentration, temperature, and pH on Si extraction from wheat straw prior to hydrothermal pretreatment were investigated for maximising Si removal and biomass recovery before biomass refining. With citrate, an almost linear negative correlation between Si conte...

  18. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon

    2017-01-30

    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test <1% with a disintegration time <5 min. The sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.

  19. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  20. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIAID)

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  1. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the

  2. Association between clomiphene citrate and central retinal vein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder associated with cardiovascular disorders and other related risk factors. A case of CRVO secondary to clomiphene citrate has been reported. We present a case that also illustrates the association between clomiphene citrate and CRVO, and hope ...

  3. Standardised neonatal parenteral nutrition formulations - an Australasian group consensus 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolisetty, Srinivas; Osborn, David; Sinn, John; Lui, Kei

    2014-02-18

    Standardised parenteral nutrition formulations are routinely used in the neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. In 2010, a multidisciplinary group was formed to achieve a consensus on the formulations acceptable to majority of the neonatal intensive care units. Literature review was undertaken for each nutrient and recommendations were developed in a series of meetings held between November 2010 and April 2011. Three standard and 2 optional amino acid/dextrose formulations and one lipid emulsion were agreed by majority participants in the consensus. This has a potential to standardise neonatal parenteral nutrition guidelines, reduce costs and prescription errors.

  4. Uniport of Anionic Citrate and Proton Consumption in Citrate Metabolism Generates a Proton Motive Force in Leuconostoc oenos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RAMOS, A; POOLMAN, B; SANTOS, H; LOLKEMA, JS; KONINGS, WN

    The mechanism and energetics of citrate transport in Leuconostoc oenos were investigated. Resting cells of L. oenos generate both a membrane potential (Delta Psi) and a pH gradient (Delta pH) upon addition of citrate. After a lag time, the internal alkalinization is followed by a continuous

  5. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  6. Standardised patient-simulated practice learning: A rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Nursing education needs to adapt to be relevant to student nurses' learning needs. This study investigates the use of standardised patients (SPs) in a simulated patient interview as a learning strategy to bridge the theory-practice gap. Simulation helps students to develop skills such as communication, higher ...

  7. Dialogic Teaching to the High-Stakes Standardised Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Aliza; Snell, Julia; Lefstein, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Within current educational discourse, dialogic pedagogy is diametrically opposed to "teaching to the test", especially the high-stakes standardised test. While dialogic pedagogy is about critical thinking, authenticity and freedom, test preparation evokes all that is narrow, instrumental and cynical in education. In this paper, we argue…

  8. Standardisation of Bull's Mental Skills Questionnaire in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contemporary science of sport and exercise psychology requires the standardisation of mental skills questionnaires to facilitate accurate assessment of and intervention for individuals and groups in various health and sport related contexts. The study presents international research findings regarding the ...

  9. Standardised testing in South Africa: the annual national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standardised testing in South Africa: the annual national assessments under the microscope. ... Governments worldwide use standardized tests to address educational deficiencies and improve public accountably and quality of education in their countries. In South Africa the Department of Basic Education resorted to ...

  10. The “diamond port configuration”: A standardised laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is particularly important when undertaking complex bowel resections. We report a standardised protocol that includes theatre layout, patient position and port insertion, which we believe facilitates excellent abdominal access and ergonomics and has the potential to shorten the duration of the team-learning curve.

  11. Assessment framework for standardisation activities ResiStand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, D.J.; Lee, M.D.E. van der; Petiet, P.J.; Liedtke, C.; Lindner, R.; Zetten, J. van; Karppinen, A.; Anson, S.; Kroener, I.

    2017-01-01

    Standardisation is a powerful tool to achieve better interoperability. However, it needs to overcome a lack of interest and modest participation from stakeholders. Also, promising research results are not always used as the basis for new standards. The overall goal of ResiStand is to find new ways

  12. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  13. Development of a standardised methodology for event impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Western Cape, supporting events to maximise brand building potential and triple bottom line benefits. WCG acknowledges that assessing the impacts of events in the province has become increasingly complex and there is a lack of a standardised methodology to measure the economic, social and environmental impacts.

  14. On Automating and Standardising Corpus Callosum Analysis in Brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Corpus callosum analysis is influenced by many factors. The effort in controlling these has previously been incomplete and scattered. This paper sketches a complete pipeline for automated corpus callosum analysis from magnetic resonance images, with focus on measurement standardisation. The prese...

  15. Circadian urinary citrate excretion in a rat model of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Paula; Diaz, Irene; Perillan, Carmen; Arguelles, Juan; Diaz, Elena

    2017-01-15

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. Circadian rhythms unquestionably play critical roles in metabolic homeostasis and the exercise has emerged as a strong non-photic time cue or zeitgeber in animal models and humans. Numerous studies about the effects of exercise on the citrate synthase activity have been published. Citrate is used to assess energy production or expenditure because it is a substrate of the Krebs Cycle, a cycle for oxidative energy production. We tested the existence of a rhythmic urinary citrate excretion in a rat model that is made to exercise at six different points during the day. The data obtained by the enzyme assays were fitted to a mathematical model (Fourier series), showing for the first time, the existence of a distinct ultradian rhythm in the urinary citrate excretion. The aerobic exercise led to the increase in the period length of the ultradian rhythm and raised the acrophase value of the urinary citrate excretion. Therefore, the urinary citrate excretion pattern changed after exercise, showing a clear circadian rhythm fitted to the mathematical model. The citrate urine samples could provide accurate data for ranking an individual's metabolic status. Using exercise to maintain the circadian clock at an appropriate phase and amplitude might be effective to prevent cardiometabolic disease development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Standardised proformas improve patient handover: Audit of trauma handover practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Andrew J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the European Working Time Directive has meant the introduction of shift patterns of working for junior doctors. Patient handover between shifts has become a necessary part of practice in order to reduce the risk of medical errors. Data handed over between shifts are used to prioritise clinical jobs outstanding, and to create theatre lists. We present a closed-loop audit of handover practice to assess whether standardised proformas improve clinical data transfer between shifts during handover in our Orthopaedic Unit. Methods We collected data handed over between shifts for a period of one week at our department. The data were in the form of hand written data on plain paper used to assist verbal handover. Data were analysed and a standardised handover sheet was trialled. After feedback from juniors the sheet was revised and implemented. A re-audit, of handover data, was then undertaken using the revised standardised proforma during a period of 1 week. Results Forty-eight patients were handed over in week 1 while 55 patients were handed over during re-audit. The standardised proformas encouraged use of pre-printed patient labels which contained legible patient identifiers, use of labels increased from 72.9% to 93.4%. Handover of outstanding jobs increased from 31.25% to 100%. Overall data handed over increased from 72.6% to 93.2%. Handover of relevant blood results showed little improvement from 18.8% to 20.7% Conclusion This audit highlights the issue of data transfer between shifts. Standardised proformas encourage filling of relevant fields and increases the data transferred between shifts thereby reducing the potential for clinical error cause by shift patterns.

  17. Standardising Assessment to Meet Student Needs in Foreign Language Modules in a University Context: Is Standardisation Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The Applied Language Centre at University College Dublin offers foreign language modules to students in ten languages at CEFR [Common European Framework of Reference for Languages] levels ranging from A1 to B2. Efforts have been underway in the Centre to standardise the assessment components across languages to ensure parity between module credits…

  18. PbSO4 Leaching in Citric Acid/Sodium Citrate Solution and Subsequent Yielding Lead Citrate via Controlled Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead citrate is a key precursor for the green recycling of spent lead acid battery paste in a citric acid/sodium citrate (CA/SC solution. In this study, the main paste component, PbSO4, was leached and crystallized to yield lead citrate. Results showed that the leaching of PbSO4 in citric acid/sodium citrate solution was remarkably enhanced by an increase in temperature from 35 °C to 95 °C and an increase in sodium citrate (SC concentration from 50 to 650 g/L. In comparison, increasing the citric acid/sodium citrate molar ratio inhibited this leaching. Controlled crystallization through cooling the solution or adjusting the pH of the solution can effectively produce lead citrate crystals. The X-ray diffraction patterns of four products obtained in a comparison test were all consistent with Pb3(C6H5O72. However, the scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that the morphology was distinct from rods to sheets, which were mainly affected by the temperature variation.

  19. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria; Angelo Rafael de Vito Bordin; Vinícius Pedrazzi; Renata Cristina Silveira Rodrigues; Ricardo Faria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Dental implants have increased the use of titanium and titanium alloys in prosthetic applications. Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium is prone to fluoride ion attack. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare Ti-5Ta alloy to cp Ti after toothbrushing with whitening and conventional toothpastes. Ti-5Ta (%wt) alloy was melted in ...

  20. Cardiovascular autonomic function testing under non-standardised and standardised conditions in cardiovascular patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keet, S W M; Bulte, C S E; Sivanathan, A; Verhees, L; Allaart, C P; Boer, C; Bouwman, R A

    2014-05-01

    Autonomic function tests require standardised test conditions. We compared testing under non-standardised and standardised conditions and investigated the agreement between heart and pulse rate variability in 30 subjects with diabetes mellitus. Deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre and quick standing tests showed non-standardised reproducibility intraclass correlations (95% CI) of 0.96 (0.82-0.99), 0.96 (0.81-0.99) and 0.75 (-0.98 to 0.94), respectively. Intraclass correlations for sustained handgrip and quick standing were poor. Heart and pulse rate variability showed high-frequency band intraclass correlations (95% CI) of 0.65 (-0.07 to 0.89) and 0.47 (-0.88 to 0.85) for the very low-frequency band, respectively, 0.68 (0.00-0.90) and 0.70 (-0.09 to 0.91) for the low-frequency band, and 0.86 (0.57-0.95) and 0.82 (0.39-0.95) for the high-frequency band. Reproducibility under standardised conditions was comparable. The mean difference (95% limits of agreement) between heart and pulse rate variability was 0.99 (0.80-1.22) for very low frequency, 1.03 (0.88-1.21) for low frequency and 1.35 (0.84-2.16) for high frequency, with a Spearman's correlation coefficient of 1.00, 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. We demonstrated a high agreement between heart and pulse rate variability and acceptable reproducibility with most autonomic function tests, heart and pulse rate variability. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  2. Preparation of titanium diboride powders from titanium alkoxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Titanium diboride powders were prepared through a sol–gel and boron carbide reduction route by using TTIP and B4C as titanium and boron sources. The influence of TTIP concentration, reaction temperature and molar ratio of precursors on the synthesis of titanium diboride was investigated. Three different concentrations ...

  3. Joining of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeslack, William

    2002-01-01

    ... aluminides, are broadly applicable. Generally, the basic welding processes and techniques utilized in the fusion and solid -state friction welding of conventional titanium alloys can also be applied to the welding of gamma titanium aluminides...

  4. Simplified Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT Without Calcium Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Marcus; Klarin, Bengt; Sandin, Karin; Carlsson, Ola; Wieslander, Anders; Sternby, Jan; Godaly, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Since 2012, citrate anticoagulation is the recommended anticoagulation strategy for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The main drawback using citrate as anticoagulant compared with heparin is the need for calcium replacement and the rigorous control of calcium levels. This study investigated the possibility to achieve anticoagulation while eliminating the need for calcium replacement. This was successfully achieved by including citrate and calcium in all CRRT solutions. Thereby the total calcium concentration was kept constant throughout the extracorporeal circuit, whereas the ionized calcium was kept at low levels enough to avoid clotting. Being a completely new concept, only five patients with acute renal failure were included in a short, prospective, intensely supervised nonrandomized pilot study. Systemic electrolyte levels and acid-base parameters were stable and remained within physiologic levels. Ionized calcium levels declined slightly initially but stabilized at 1.1 mmol/L. Plasma citrate concentrations stabilized at approximately 0.6 mmol/L. All postfilter ionized calcium levels were CRRT.

  5. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatemeh Fattahi; Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods...

  6. Post Ejaculatory Effects of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) On Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viagra) administration on sexual dysfunctions associated with diabetic neuropathy/ erectile impotence prevailing in the male population. Aim: To investigate whether sildenafil citrate administration maintains improved erectile functions in diabetic ...

  7. Genomic diversity of citrate fermentation in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yen-Ming

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has long been recognized that Klebsiella pneumoniae can grow anaerobically on citrate. Genes responsible for citrate fermentation of K. pneumoniae were known to be located in a 13-kb gene cluster on the chromosome. By whole genome comparison of the available K. pneumoniae sequences (MGH 78578, 342, and NTUH-K2044, however, we discovered that the fermentation gene cluster was present in MGH 78578 and 342, but absent in NTUH-K2044. In the present study, the previously unknown genome diversity of citrate fermentation among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates was investigated. Results Using a genomic microarray containing probe sequences from multiple K. pneumoniae strains, we investigated genetic diversity among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates and found that a genomic region containing the citrate fermentation genes was not universally present in all strains. We confirmed by PCR analysis that the gene cluster was detectable in about half of the strains tested. To demonstrate the metabolic function of the genomic region, anaerobic growth of K. pneumoniae in artificial urine medium (AUM was examined for ten strains with different clinical histories and genomic backgrounds, and the citrate fermentation potential was found correlated with the genomic region. PCR detection of the genomic region yielded high positive rates among a variety of clinical isolates collected from urine, blood, wound infection, and pneumonia. Conserved genetic organizations in the vicinity of the citrate fermentation gene clusters among K. pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli suggest that the13-kb genomic region were not independently acquired. Conclusion Not all, but nearly half of the K. pneumoniae clinical isolates carry the genes responsible for anaerobic growth on citrate. Genomic variation of citrate fermentation genes in K. pneumoniae may contribute to metabolic diversity and adaptation to variable nutrient conditions in different

  8. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Fattahi; Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tabl...

  9. Coconut milk - citrate as extender for West African dwarf buck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    motility of 52.6% was highly significant (p = 0.018) at 2 hours post-extension in preserving motility of extended buck semen un-refrigerated compared to both D3 (40% coconut milk and 60% citrate buffer) and D4 (50% coconut milk and 50% citrate buffer). D2 also maintained mean sperm cell motility of 45% and was highly ...

  10. Teachers’ explanations of learners’ errors in standardised mathematics assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Shalem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increased use of standardised mathematics assessments at the classroom level, teachers are encouraged, and sometimes required, to use data from these assessments to inform their practice. As a consequence, teacher educators and researchers are starting to focus on the development of analytical tools that will help them determine how teachers interpret learners’ work, in particular learners’ errors in the context of standardised and other assessments. To detect variation and associations between and within the different aspects of teacher knowledge related to mathematical error analysis, we developed an instrument with six criteria based on aspects of teachers’ knowledge related to explaining and diagnosing learners’ errors. In this study we provide evidence of the usability of the criteria by coding 572 explanations given by groups of mathematics educators (teachers and district officials in a professional development context. The findings consist of observable trends and associations between the different criteria that describe the nature of teachers’ explanations of learners’ errors.

  11. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  12. Mineral of the month: titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    From paint to airplanes, titanium is important in a number of applications. Commercial production comes from titanium-bearing ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene (altered ilmenite). These minerals are used to produce titanium dioxide pigment, as well as an assortment of metal and chemical products.

  13. Educating Students About Standardisation Relating to Universal Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzentas, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Standardisation education is rarely taught to students in the design disciplines in academic settings, and consequently there is not much evidence about best practices. This paper examines this situation, and elaborates on some of the possible reasons for this situation. Further, it gives an example of how students may be instructed and encouraged to further their interests in standards and the standardization-making process as a means for increasing Universal Design in practice.

  14. [Adverse events in neonatology, contribution of a standardised register].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Marie-Madeleine; Ejarque Albuquerque, Margarida; Grouazel, Anne-Laure; Cottereau, Marie-Noëlle

    Despite the recommendation to report all adverse events to the risk management unit, such reporting is far from consistent. An internal, standardised register of adverse events, was put in place in a neonatology unit for six months. An analysis of the reports has led to the reorganisation of the unit and practices as part of a drive to improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo on induction of ovulation in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised double blind clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Etelka; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trial. SETTING: Multicentre trial in 20 Dutch hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 228 women with polycystic ovary

  16. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms.

  17. TITANIUM DAN PADUAN TITANIUM MATERIAL PILIHAN KEDOKTERAN GIGI MASA DEPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Titanium is used for dental implants, orthodontic wires an denture bases. In Indonesia they have been widely use especially for the orthodontic treatment. Survey conducted by students from University of Indonesia showed that users have little understanding in properties of Titanium. The article describes various matters on characteristic of Titanium. Titanium has low density, low elastic modulus, high tensile strength make attractive for use in dentistry. Titanium forms a very stable oxide layers and it repassivates in a time on order of nanoseconds. Titanium oxie formation is basis for the excellent corrosion resistance an good biocompatibility. Because of their advatages and unique properties. Titanium has therefore ben called as the material of choice in dentistry.

  18. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-02

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  19. Citrate-release-mediated aluminum resistance is coupled to the inducible expression of mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Paraserianthes falcataria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Hiroki; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) resistance in some leguminous plants is achieved by enhanced citrate release from roots. Enhancement requires several hours for complete activation and is postulated to involve Al-responsive genes or components. We examined the mechanism of Al-induced citrate release by studying the relationship between citrate release and expression of the mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) gene in three leguminous trees. Root elongation in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was arrested within 24 h by 30 microM Al, whereas root elongation in Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Neilson and Acacia mangium Willd. was inhibited mangium maintained enhanced release and accumulation of citrate for at least 28 days in response to Al treatment. Aluminum increased the accumulation of mCS transcripts in P. falcataria roots, but not in L. leucocephala roots, and thus up-regulation decreased following removal of Al. Lanthanum did not alter the expression level of mCS. Aluminum increased mCS activity concomitantly with enhanced mCS gene expression in P. falcataria, whereas it did not affect mCS activity in L. leucocephala. Aluminum content in root apices of P. falcataria was increased by cycloheximide, supporting the idea that de novo synthesis of proteins is a prerequisite for Al resistance. Our findings suggest that Al-inducible expression of mCS coupled with enhanced citrate release mediates Al resistance in P. falcataria.

  20. Ocular safety of Viagra, (sildenafil citrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, A M; Fraunfelder, F T

    1999-01-01

    To date, sildenafil citrate (Viagra) gives every evidence of being a safe drug for the eye despite a series of expressed concerns. A review of how its ocular safety profile has been identified offers insights into the strengths and weaknesses of present systems and resources for judging the ocular safety of Viagra or, for that matter, of any new drug. Such insights include: The great value of careful, informed assessment of preclinical information gleaned from laboratory experiments. By and large, such assessments point the way toward appropriate clinical evaluation. For Viagra, early in its development it was noted that besides exerting a major inhibitory effect on the intended target, the vascular-associated enzyme phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the drug also exerts a lesser but definite inhibitory effect on the closely related PDE6, located in the retina. For this reason, preclinical evaluation of the drug included electroretinography plus postmortem histology. In addition, an extended eye examination was incorporated into clinical protocols. The often chaotic but invaluable information stream that becomes available once marketing approval has been gained and large populations begin to use a drug. False alarms, misattribution, and erroneous information are the order of the day. Nevertheless, as information accumulates, patterns of response clarify and the true nature of special susceptibility for subpopulations, if any, becomes apparent. A role for the astute clinician remains: Subtle changes or unusual risks for subpopulations can be missed entirely for long periods of time. A manifest need for improvement in evaluation of postmarketing side-effects. This need has led to the establishment of a new discipline: pharmacoepidemiology. In ophthalmology, the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects maintains a constant and invaluable surveillance. Examples are supplied to illustrate each of these major points: Our presentation will include data gleaned from

  1. Application of Triethyl Citrate to Filters in Virginia Type Cigarettes*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triethyl citrate (TEC was applied in the preparation of cigarette filter rods by two approaches. One was to utilize TEC as a plasticizer sprayed onto the surface of cellulose acetate (CA fibers. The other was to apply TEC as an additive coated onto the cellulosic paper of acetate-paper dual filters. Three types of cigarette filter rods, namely, triethyl citrate-cellulose acetate (TEC-CA filter rods, triethyl citrate-cellulose acetate-paper (TEC-CA-paper dual filter rods and cellulose acetate-paper-triethyl citrate (CA-paper-TEC dual filter rods, were manufactured. In order to promote the curing of CA rods, high-frequency radiation was introduced into the procedure of filter manufacture. Then Virginia type cigarettes, combined with the three kinds of prepared filter rods were manufactured and the removal efficiency of phenols from the cigarette mainstream smoke was investigated. The results revealed that no matter where the triethyl citrate was applied as plasticizer or coating additive, the content of phenol, o-, m-and p-cresol in cigarette mainstream smoke could be greatly reduced. The optimal removal efficiency for phenol was 50% compared with the control. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014 176-182

  2. Inpatient citrate-based hemodialysis in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Cecile; Sanchez, Cheryl P; Cutler, Drew; Sahney, Shobha; Sheth, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Citrate-based dialysate is an effective method of hemodialysis (HD) anticoagulation in adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate this therapy as an alternative to heparin anticoagulation in pediatric patients in the inpatient setting requiring HD. We performed a prospective, non-randomized study of citrate-based dialysate HD treatments (N = 119) over a 9-month period in 18 pediatric patients (age range 0-18 years) admitted to hospital. Primary outcome measures were thrombosis incidence rates that resulted in circuit loss, catheter loss or early dialysis termination. Secondary outcome measures were hypocalcemia incidence and heparin use. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and comparative statistics. There was a thrombosis incidence rate of 2.5 % circuit loss, 2.5 % catheter loss and 5.9 % early dialysis termination due to the thrombosis risk. In 64 % of treatments a circuit clot developed but with no circuit loss, and mild asymptomatic hypocalcemia deveoped in 58 % of the monitored HD sessions . No patient required additional heparin during the citrate-based HD treatments, but 11.1 % were subsequently converted to heparin anticoagulation. Our study showed a low percentage of thrombotic episodes resulting in catheter or circuit loss. Hypocalcemia was common but remained mild and asymptomatic. Citrate-based dialysate was well tolerated by our patients. We therefore conclude that citrate-based dialysate is a safe alternative to heparin-based hemodialysis anticoagulation.

  3. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) enhances vasodilatation in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareing, Mark; Myers, Jenny E; O'Hara, Maureen; Baker, Philip N

    2005-05-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects up to 8% of all pregnancies and has massive short-term (increased fetal morbidity and mortality) and long-term (increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in adulthood) health implications. Doppler waveform analysis of pregnancies complicated by FGR suggests compromised uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoperfusion. Our aim was to determine whether myometrial small artery function was aberrant in FGR and to assess whether sildenafil citrate could improve vasodilatation in FGR pregnancies. Small arteries dissected from myometrial biopsies obtained at cesarean section from normal pregnant women (n = 27) or women whose pregnancies were complicated by FGR (n = 12) were mounted on wire myographs. Vessels were constricted (with arginine vasopressin or U46619) and relaxed (with bradykinin) before and after incubation with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil citrate. We demonstrated increased myometrial small artery vasoconstriction and decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in vessels from women whose pregnancies were complicated by FGR. Sildenafil citrate significantly reduced vasoconstriction and significantly improved relaxation of FGR small arteries. We conclude that sildenafil citrate improves endothelial function of myometrial vessels from women whose pregnancies are complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Sildenafil citrate may offer a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in FGR pregnancies.

  4. Education governance and standardised tests in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian; Kelly, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study we identify and compare the impact of standardised student assessment in England, an established neoliberal context, and in Denmark where a neoliberal education reform agenda is emerging in response to both national concerns and international governance. National reading tests...... and analysed to identify the extent to which neoliberal reform is mobilised through testing in each context and how testing shapes curriculum and pedagogy. Significantly, we find that in Denmark, where professional judgement still dominates, teachers often deploy pedagogical approaches to service what...

  5. A standardised language code for rail freight operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin MARINOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a standardised language code for rail freight operations is developed that aims to facilitate communication between dispatchers, train drivers and traffic managers when running freight trains abroad. In developing the language code the existing situation in the bi-lingual Belgian railways has been taken as a starting point. Communication codes from public services like police, fire brigade, ambulance and military services have been studied. It is believed that, if implemented, the code will improve significantly integrated rail freight services in Europe.

  6. Standardisation and decay data of {sup 186}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.H. E-mail: denise.woods@npl.co.uk; Ciocanel, M.; Husband, L.J.; Keightley, J.D.; Lavison, P. de; Lineham, S.; Woods, M.J.; Woods, S.A

    2000-03-01

    A solution of {sup 186}Re was standardised using the 4{pi}(PC)-{gamma}-coincidence technique. Two gamma channels were employed to provide separate detection efficiency data arising from the two decay modes (beta and electron capture): the resulting data were analysed using a two-dimensional extrapolation. Calibration factors for a high pressure re-entrant ionisation chamber as well as for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator were also determined. An efficiency-calibrated germanium spectrometer was used to measure the emission probabilities of the X- and gamma-rays.

  7. Standardisation Versus Adaptation in Canton’s Luxury Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang

    2009-01-01

    In view of the dynamic growth in the luxury market and the availability of luxury goods to a wider range of consumers than ever before, it is critically important for luxury researchers and marketers to understand why consumers buy luxury, what they believe luxury is and how their perception of luxury value impacts their buying behavior. In a global context, it is faced with a very important marketing decision: to standardise or to adapt its marketing mix? This study draws a wide range of lit...

  8. Head-to-Head Comparison of 68Ga-Citrate and 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detection of Infectious Foci in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soile P. Salomäki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the potential of 68Ga-citrate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT for the detection of infectious foci in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia by comparing it with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG PET/CT. Methods. Four patients admitted to hospital due to S. aureus bacteraemia underwent both 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate whole-body PET/CT scans to detect infectious foci. Results. The time from hospital admission and the initiation of antibiotic treatment to the first PET/CT was 4–10 days. The time interval between 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate PET/CT was 1–4 days. Three patients had vertebral osteomyelitis (spondylodiscitis and one had osteomyelitis in the toe; these were detected by both 18F-FDG (maximum standardised uptake value [SUVmax] 6.0±1.0 and 68Ga-citrate (SUVmax  6.8±3.5, P=0.61. Three patients had soft tissue infectious foci, with more intense 18F-FDG uptake (SUVmax  6.5±2.5 than 68Ga-citrate uptake (SUVmax  3.9±1.2, P=0.0033. Conclusions. Our small cohort of patients with S. aureus bacteraemia revealed that 68Ga-citrate PET/CT is comparable to 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of osteomyelitis, whereas 18F-FDG resulted in a higher signal for the detection of soft tissue infectious foci.

  9. Improving and standardising assessment of patients with immune-mediated neuropathies: Peripheral Neuropathy outcome measures Standardisation study (PeriNomS study – part 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. van Nes (Sonja)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, the outline and the results of the fi rst part of the Peripheral Neuropathy outcome measures Standardisation (PeriNomS) study are described. The PeriNomS study aims to improve and standardise the assessment of patients with immune-mediated neuropathies. These disorders

  10. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...... truncated, cytosolic targeted, fumarases (Fum1s and FumRs) from S. cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively, and the cytosolic soluble fumarate reductase (Frds1) from S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of these genes in their native strain backgrounds has been reported to lead to alterations...... in the intracellular cytosolic dicarboxylate concentrations. It was found that all the transformant strains had enhanced yield and productivities of citrate compared with the wild-type strain. The transformants also had the ability to produce citrate in trace-manganese-contaminated medium, where the wild type...

  11. Adsorption of DNA oligonucleotides by titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Biwu; Kelly, Erin Y; Servos, Mark R; Liu, Juewen

    2014-01-28

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) or titania shows great promise in detoxification and drug delivery. To reach its full potential, it is important to interface TiO2 with biomolecules to harness their molecular recognition function. To this end, DNA attachment is an important topic. Previous work has mainly focused on long double-stranded DNA or single nucleotides. For biosensor development and targeted drug delivery, it is more important to use single-stranded oligonucleotides. Herein, the interaction between fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides and TiO2 nanoparticles is reported. The point of zero charge (PZC) of TiO2 is around 6 in water or acetate buffer; therefore, the particles are positively charged at lower pH. However, if in phosphate or citrate buffer, the particles are negatively charged, even at pH ∼2, suggesting strong adsorption of buffer anions. DNA adsorption takes place mainly via the phosphate backbone, although the bases might also have moderate contributions. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) with an amide backbone cannot be adsorbed. DNA adsorption is strongly affected by inorganic anions, where phosphate and citrate can strongly inhibit DNA adsorption. DNA adsorption is promoted by adding salt or lowering pH. DNA adsorption is accompanied with fluorescence quenching, and double-stranded DNA showed reduced quenching, allowing for the detection of DNA using TiO2 nanoparticles.

  12. Titanium alloys for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.; Leyens, C. [DLR-German Aerospace Center, D-51170 Koeln (Germany); Kumpfert, J. [Airbus Industrie, F-31707 Blagnac (France); Ward, C.H. [US Air Force Research Laboratory, London NW1 5TH (United Kingdom)

    2003-06-01

    There is probably no other material more closely related to aerospace than titanium and its alloys. With a density of 4.5 g/cm{sup 3}, titanium alloys are only about half as heavy as steel or Ni-based superalloys, yielding an excellent strength-to-weight ratio. Furthermore, they have exceptional corrosion resistance. The use of titanium alloys in the aerospace sector will be highlighted including airframe, engine, helicopter, and space applications. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  14. CRRT Regional Anticoagulation Using Citrate in the Liver Failure and Liver Transplant Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Rob; Josephs, Brandi; Jamieson, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Regional citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) use in patients with liver failure or post-liver transplant has been considered a contraindication because of the risk of citrate toxicity development. Regional citrate has the benefit of decreased bleeding risks over systemic anticoagulation; therefore, it is of great benefit to the coagulopathic and surgical populations. This article analyzes current empiric data and compares with a case study specifically related to liver failure, liver transplant, and CRRT use. We found that the use of a total serum to ionized calcium ratio was much more reliable in measuring liver function than liver enzyme figures. This when paired with a citrate-reduction guideline based on serum to ionized calcium ratios provided effective, early management of citrate toxicity. Using new measurements to calculate liver metabolism of citrate and using a new citrate-reducing guideline allow the bedside practitioner to use regional citrate anticoagulation in patients with liver failure and liver transplant who require CRRT.

  15. Hemodiafiltration using pre-dilutional on-line citrate dialysate: A new technique for regional citrate anticoagulation: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhouane Bousselmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, observational, feasibility study was carried out on four patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing bicarbonate hemodialysis to study the feasibility of an on-line hemodiafiltration technique using a citrate dialysate with pre-dilutional infusion of citrate as a technique for regional citrate anticoagulation. All patients had contraindication to systemic heparin anticoagulation. The dialysis technique consisted of an on-line hemodiafiltration with a citrate dialysate without calcium using a Fresenius 4008S dialysis machine and Fresenius Polysulfone F60 dialyzers. The infusion solution was procured directly from the dialysate and was infused into the arterial line. To avoid the risk of hypocalcemia, calcium gluconate was infused to the venous return line. The study was carried out in two stages. During the first stage, the citrate infusion rate was 80 mL/min and the calcium infusion rate was 9 mmol/h. At the second stage, the rates were 100 mL/min and 11 mmol/h, respectively. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of thrombosis in the extracorporeal blood circuit and/or the dialyzer. A total of 78 sessions were conducted. All the sessions were well tolerated clinically and there were no major incidents in any of the four patients. At the first stage of the study, there were five incidences of small clots in the venous blood chamber, an incidence of extracorporeal blood circuit thrombosis of 12.5%. At the second stage of the study, no cases of extracorporeal blood circuit or dialyzer thrombosis were noted. Hemodiafiltration with on-line citrate dialysate infusion to the arterial line is safe and allows an effective regional anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit without the need for systemic anticoagulation.

  16. Citrate anticoagulation for CRRT: don?t always trust the postfilter iCa results!

    OpenAIRE

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ostermann, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    Citrate has been recommended as the first-line anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients. Compared with heparin, citrate anticoagulation is safer and more efficacious. Citrate inhibits the coagulation cascade by lowering the ionized calcium (iCa) concentration in the filter. Monitoring of systemic iCa concentrations is inherent to the protocol, and monitoring of postfilter iCa is recommended to adjust citrate flow and optimize anticoagulation. Wh...

  17. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romins Brasca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0 oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+ chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+.

  18. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp. DATES... increasing the permitted use level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring...

  19. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Certification; Bismuth Citrate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food... level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp. This.... 73.2110 Bismuth citrate (21 CFR 73.2110) by increasing the maximum permitted use level of bismuth...

  20. Enzyme Basis for pH Regulation of Citrate and Pyruvate Metabolism by Leuconostoc oenos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Ana; Lolkema, Juke S.; Konings, Wilhelmus; Santos, Helena

    Citrate and pyruvate metabolism by nongrowing cells of Leuconostoc oenos was investigated. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to elucidate the pathway of citrate breakdown and to probe citrate or pyruvate utilization, noninvasively, in living cell suspensions. The utilization

  1. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ..., which are intermediate products in the production of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and...

  2. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S.

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of

  3. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified in the Harmonized...

  4. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada.\\1\\ The review... period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate...

  5. Soil Texture Aanalysis by Laser Diffraction – Standardisation Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Palviainen, Marjo; Kjoenaas, O. Janne

    2017-01-01

    -sized fraction results obtained by laser diffraction analysis of fine-textured soil samples are not comparable to those obtained with sedimentation and sieving methods, when translating to the traditional particle size limits clay, silt and sand. Also, operating procedures for pretreatment of soil samples......Soil texture is a key soil physical property for soil quality and used in modeling studies through pedotransfer functions (PTF) for the prediction of physical, e.g. hydraulic, soil properties. Soil texture is quantified by a particle size distribution (PSD) of the fine earth fraction and often...... translated into a texture class using defined separates of clay (0 - 2 µm), silt (2 µm to 20 µm, 50 µm or 63 µm) and sand (20 µm, 50 µm or 63 µm up to 2 mm) illustrated in a texture triangle. Until now pretreatment methods (e.g. humus and carbonate removal and dispersion) followed by standardised...

  6. International Standardisation in the Field of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy standards, regularly reviewed and updated by international committees of technical experts, can help policy makers as an instrument to demonstrate national regulatory compliance, as well as ensuring successful deployment of renewable energy technologies (RET). This study identifies over 570 standards in the current RET landscape, yet finds gaps in the existing standards, particularly for post-installation aspects of RET, such as operation, maintenance and repair. The study calls for a more structured information platform to make appropriate standards accessible to a variety of users. All stakeholders, including those from developing countries, need to be engaged in the standardisation process. IRENA's analysis also underlines the importance of RET certification schemes as a risk-mitigation tool, particularly to help small-scale projects obtain financing.

  7. Education governance and standardised tests in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Kelly, Peter; McNess, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this study we identify and compare the impact of standardised student assessment in England, an established neoliberal context, and in Denmark where a neoliberal education reform agenda is emerging in response to both national concerns and international governance. National reading tests...... for students aged 11–12 years, long established in England, were introduced in Denmark in 2010. The form they take differs considerably, being primarily formative in Denmark and largely summative in England. Culturally sensitive extended semi-structured interviews are conducted with both teachers and students...... they believe to be their students’ best interests. In England, however, teachers try to accommodate a concern for both their students’ and their own interests, and the pedagogy they enact is more often controlling, instrumental and reductionist; their wish to be proactive is compromised by their need...

  8. Student Standardised Testing: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses the most relevant issues concerning student standardised testing in which there are no-stakes for students ("standardised testing") through a literature review and a review of the trends in standardised testing in OECD countries. Unlike standardised tests in which there are high-stakes for students, no-stakes implies that…

  9. Ovarian capsular drilling in the treatment of clomiphene citrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling (LOD) is an effective and a well evaluated surgical Treatment of Clomiphene Citrate resistant Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (TVHL) is a relatively new simple method of exploring the pelvis and has recently been introduced as a transvaginal ...

  10. The Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on Citrate Crosslinked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on Citrate. Crosslinked Chitosan Films for Site-Specific Delivery of a Non-Polar Drug. Soheyla Honary*, Behnam Hoseinzadeh and Payman. Shalchian. Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Sari,. Iran. Abstract.

  11. Acute effect of citrate bath on postdialysis alkalaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia De Sequera Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Dialysis with citrate provides better control of postdialysis acid-base balance, decreases/avoids postdialysis alkalaemia, and lowers the increase in Cac and Cai. This finding is of special interest in patients with predisposing factors for arrhythmia and patients with respiratory failure, carbon dioxide retention, calcifications and advanced liver disease.

  12. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... animal has finished eating the dosed food, the remainder of the food may be given. Dogs and cats may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  13. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a Section 520.622a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... mouth. For the treatment of ascarid infections, repeat in 10 to 20 days to remove immature worms that...

  14. 21 CFR 520.622c - Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. 520.622c Section 520.622c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... should be given in 10 to 20 days to remove immature worms which may enter the intestine from the lungs...

  15. The Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight on Citrate Crosslinked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Films prepared with different molecular weights of chitosan and incorporating indomethacin as a non-polar model drug were obtained by a casting/solvent evaporation method. The chitosan films were crosslinked by dipping in varying concentrations of sodium citrate solution and for different crosslinking times.

  16. Workshop report: Immunoassay standardisation for "universal" influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sophia; D'Alessio, Flavia; Houard, Sophie; Remarque, Edmond J; Stockhofe, Norbert; Engelhardt, Othmar G

    2017-05-01

    The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. More than fifty experts from the global influenza vaccine research and development field met to initiate such discussion at a workshop co-organised by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop audience agreed that it was not possible to establish a single immunoassay for "universal" influenza vaccines because the current approaches differ in the vaccines' nature and immunogenicity properties. Therefore, different scientific rationales for the immunoassay selection are required. To avoid dilution of efforts, the choice of the primary evaluation criteria (eg serological assays or T-cell assays) should drive the effort of harmonisation. However, at an early phase of clinical development, more efforts on exploratory assessments should be undertaken to better define the immune profile in response to immunisation with new vaccines. The workshop concluded that each laboratory should aim towards validation of the appropriate immunoassays used during the entire process of vaccine development from antigen discovery up to establishment of correlates of protection, including the different steps of quality control (eg potency assays), animal studies and human clinical development. Standardisation of the immunoassays is the ultimate goal, and there is a long way to go. © 2017 Crown copyright. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Distant cancer effects on standardised testing of peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, W W; Jordan, B L; Marsh, R D; Hazariwala, K; Flowers, F P; Fang, T

    2001-03-01

    Profound central-retinal visual losses have been a major presenting factor reported in cancer and melanoma associated retinopathies (CAR, MAR). However, it is well established that standardised tests of peripheral retinal function are often the most sensitive detectors of early eye disease. This is a preliminary investigation of the responsiveness of the peripheral retina to "distant" (non-eye or CNS) cancers using easily obtained standardised tests. The design is a single blind study where test results are compared with published norms and a small age matched control group. Of 120 ambulatory cancer outpatients who were interviewed at routine follow up examinations, 111 volunteered and admitted a range of mild visual changes. 25 cancer patients completed all tests of peripheral vision function and a clinical screening. There were seven control subjects of the same age range. 98% (49 of 50) of eyes from the patient cohort were judged clinically normal following examinations which emphasised the central retina, fundus appearance, and static fields. On testing which emphasised the visual periphery, 46 (92%) eyes showed one or more quantitative abnormalities >2 SD from the age adjusted norm means. These abnormalities clustered mainly about dark adaptation (rod cell) sensitivity (31, 62% of measured sites), the blue sensitive retinal cells (17, 34% of measured eyes), and the oscillatory component (OP) of the electroretinogram (23, 46% of measured eyes). One control eye (7%) showed a significant dark adaptation abnormality and ERG reduction. There was no identifiable interaction between chemotherapy mode and the cancer associated retinal deficits (CARD). Antiretinal antibodies were found in sera from most patients and controls. CARD is common in the retinal periphery of many cancer patients, and is distinct from rare CAR, MAR central-retinal responses. CARD has numerous potential clinical uses which justify expanded research with more defined large samples.

  18. The Impact of Standardised Testing on Later High Stakes Test Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Regan-Stansfield, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Standardised tests are a common, yet contentious, feature of many countries’ schooling systems. In May 2010, over one-quarter of English primary schools boycotted that year’s mandatory age eleven standardised tests (colloquially known as SATs tests). This paper investigates the plausibly causal effect of participation in standardised testing on later end-of-schooling qualification (GCSE) attainment. After controlling for non-random boycott participation, and relying on a selection-on-observab...

  19. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ude, Sabina N [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Jones, Gregory L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  20. Molecular characterization of microbial population dynamics during sildenafil citrate degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Bruna; Argenziano, Carolina; Guida, Marco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Russo, Francesca; Condorelli, Valerio; Inglese, Mafalda

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about pharmaceutical and personal care products pollutants (PPCPs), but there is a growing interest in how they might impact the environment and microbial communities. The widespread use of Viagra (sildenafil citrate) has attracted great attention because of the high usage rate, the unpredictable disposal and the unknown potential effects on wildlife and the environment. Until now information regarding the impact of Viagra on microbial community in water environment has not been reported. In this research, for the first time, the genetic profile of the microbial community, developing in a Viagra polluted water environment, was evaluated by means of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes, for bacteria and fungi, respectively, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separated using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. The DGGE results revealed a complex microbial community structure with most of the population persisting throughout the experimental period. DNA sequences from bands observed in the different denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles exhibited the highest degree of identity to uncultured bacteria and fungi found previously mainly in polluted environmental and treating bioreactors. Biotransformation ability of sildenafil citrate by the microbial pool was studied and the capability of these microorganisms to detoxify a polluted water ecosystem was assessed. The bacterial and fungal population was able to degrade sildenafil citrate entirely. Additionally, assays conducted on Daphnia magna, algal growth inhibition assay and cell viability determination on HepG2 human cells showed that biotransformation products obtained from the bacterial growth was not toxic. The higher removal efficiency for sildenafil citrate and the lack of toxicity by the biotransformation products obtained showed that the microbial community identified here represented a composite population that might have biotechnological relevance to

  1. A role for ATP-citrate lyase, malic enzyme, and pyruvate/citrate cycling in glucose-induced insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Claudiane; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Aumais, Alexandre; Joly, Erik; Prentki, Marc

    2007-12-07

    In pancreatic beta-cells, metabolic coupling factors generated during glucose metabolism and pyruvate cycling through anaplerosis/cataplerosis processes contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Pyruvate/citrate cycling across the mitochondrial membrane leads to the production of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, two candidate coupling factors. To examine the implication of pyruvate/citrate cycling in glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS), different steps of the cycle were inhibited in INS 832/13 cells by pharmacological inhibitors and/or RNA interference (RNAi) technology: mitochondrial citrate export, ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), and cytosolic malic enzyme (ME1). The inhibitors of the di- and tri-carboxylate carriers, n-butylmalonate and 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylate, respectively, reduced GIIS, indicating the importance of transmitochondrial transport of tri- and dicarboxylates in the action of glucose. To directly test the role of ACL and ME1 in GIIS, small hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to selectively decrease ACL or ME1 expression in transfected INS 832/13 cells. shRNA-ACL reduced ACL protein levels by 67%, and this was accompanied by a reduction in GIIS. The amplification/K(ATP)-independent pathway of GIIS was affected by RNAi knockdown of ACL. The ACL inhibitor radicicol also curtailed GIIS. shRNA-ME1 reduced ME1 activity by 62% and decreased GIIS. RNAi suppression of either ACL or ME1 did not affect glucose oxidation. However, because ACL is required for malonyl-CoA formation, inhibition of ACL expression by shRNA-ACL decreased glucose incorporation into palmitate and increased fatty acid oxidation in INS 832/13 cells. Taken together, the results underscore the importance of pyruvate/citrate cycling in pancreatic beta-cell metabolic signaling and the regulation of GIIS.

  2. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  3. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  4. Probability density functions for use when calculating standardised drought indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Time series of drought indices like the standardised precipitation index (SPI) and standardised flow index (SFI) require a statistical probability density function to be fitted to the observed (generally monthly) precipitation and river flow data. Once fitted, the quantiles are transformed to a Normal distribution with mean = 0 and standard deviation = 1. These transformed data are the SPI/SFI, which are widely used in drought studies, including for drought monitoring and early warning applications. Different distributions were fitted to rainfall and river flow data accumulated over 1, 3, 6 and 12 months for 121 catchments in the United Kingdom. These catchments represent a range of catchment characteristics in a mid-latitude climate. Both rainfall and river flow data have a lower bound at 0, as rains and flows cannot be negative. Their empirical distributions also tend to have positive skewness, and therefore the Gamma distribution has often been a natural and suitable choice for describing the data statistically. However, after transformation of the data to Normal distributions to obtain the SPIs and SFIs for the 121 catchments, the distributions are rejected in 11% and 19% of cases, respectively, by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Three-parameter distributions traditionally used in hydrological applications, such as the Pearson type 3 for rainfall and the Generalised Logistic and Generalised Extreme Value distributions for river flow, tend to make the transformed data fit better, with rejection rates of 5% or less. However, none of these three-parameter distributions have a lower bound at zero. This means that the lower tail of the fitted distribution may potentially go below zero, which would result in a lower limit to the calculated SPI and SFI values (as observations can never reach into this lower tail of the theoretical distribution). The Tweedie distribution can overcome the problems found when using either the Gamma or the above three-parameter distributions. The

  5. Acute effect of citrate bath on postdialysis alkalaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Patricia De Sequera; Ramón, Marta Albalate; Pérez-García, Rafael; Prats, Elena Corchete; Cobo, Patricia Arribas; Arroyo, Roberto Alcázar; Díaz, Maira Ortega; Carretero, Marta Puerta

    2015-01-01

    The correction of metabolic acidosis caused by renal failure is achieved by adding bicarbonate during dialysis. In order to avoid the precipitation of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate that takes place in the dialysis fluid (DF) when adding bicarbonate, it is necessary to add an acid, usually acetate, which is not free of side effects. Thus, citrate appears as an advantageous alternative to acetate, despite the fact that its acute effects are not accurately known. To assess the acute effect of a dialysis fluid containing citrate instead of acetate on acid-base balance and calcium-phosphorus metabolism parameters. A prospective crossover study was conducted with twenty-four patients (15 male subjects and 9 female subjects). All patients underwent dialysis with AK-200-Ultra-S monitor with SoftPac® dialysis fluid, made with 3 mmol/L of acetate and SelectBag Citrate®, with 1 mmol/L of citrate and free of acetate. The following were measured before and after dialysis: venous blood gas monitoring, calcium (Ca), ionic calcium (Cai), phosphorus (P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Differences (p<0.05) were found when using the citrate bath (C) compared to acetate (A) in the postdialysis values of: pH, C: 7.43 (0.04) vs. A: 7.47 (0.05); bicarbonate, C: 24.7 (2.7) vs. A: 27.3 (2.1) mmol/L; base excess (BEecf), C: 0.4 (3.1) vs. A: 3.7 (2.4) mmol/L; corrected calcium (Cac), C: 9.8 (0.8) vs. A: 10.1 (0.7) mg/dL; and Cai, C: 1.16 (0.05) vs. A: 1.27 (0.06) mmol/L. No differences were found in either of the parameters measured before dialysis. Dialysis with citrate provides better control of postdialysis acid-base balance, decreases/avoids postdialysis alkalaemia, and lowers the increase in Cac and Cai. This finding is of special interest in patients with predisposing factors for arrhythmia and patients with respiratory failure, carbon dioxide retention, calcifications and advanced liver disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Metformin-clomiphene citrate vs. clomiphene citrate alone: Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqueela Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest endocrinopathy in women that is associated with reproductive and metabolic disorders. Objectives: We compared the ovulation and conception rates after the treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC alone and in combination with metformin in infertile patients presented with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial of independent cases and controls was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 01 to December 31, 2008. The 42 subjects diagnosed as PCOS were divided into group A and B (21 subjects in each for management with CC + metformin and CC alone, respectively. Group A received 500 mg three times a day of metformin continuously from the first cycle for 6 months or till pregnancy was confirmed. In both groups CC was started at a dose of 50 mg from day-2 till day-6 of the menstrual cycle. The dose of CC was increased to 100 mg in second and 150 mg in third cycle, and then remained 150 mg for the remaining three cycles. With ovulation the dose of CC was unaltered in both groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: More than 50% females in both groups were had body mass index > 25. Group A achieved high rate of regular cycles, ovulation success, and conception than group B (71.4% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.03, (76.2% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.021, and (66.6% vs. 28.6%; P = 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Management with metformin + CC increased the ovulation and conception rates.

  7. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... citrate tetrahydrate, which are intermediate products in the production of citric acid, sodium citrate... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's...

  8. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

  9. Research and Development on Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-08-31

    61 No. 733 LWE: ec/mk/ma September 14, 1949 13ATTK- LLE MESMORIAL INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE HEADOUARTERS AERONAUTICAL SYSTEMS CENTER (AFMC...period reported, titanium binary alloys of germanium and nickel vere studied, as venl as tltanium-molybdenum and titanium- manganese ternary alloys. Carbon...September 18, 1949, titanium binary alloys of germanium and nickel were studied. Also investigated were titanium-molybdenum and titanium-manganese ternary

  10. Quantitative standardised analysis of advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, G P; Sjoerdsma, W; Jansen, A; Grimbergen, C A

    1995-08-01

    To support the improvement of advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures, we designed a quantitative analysis method to monitor surgical activities. The emphasis lies on the time spent on these activities and on the instruments controlled by the hands of the surgeon. Our method uses combined video images originating from the laparoscope, an overview CCD camera placed in the operating theatre and, when available, a video colonoscope. After the operation is finished, the images are evaluated by means of a standardised analysis routine based on a spreadsheet program and a set of standard terms (thesaurus), to minimise subjectivity of the analysis. After calculations, the data are presented in tables and graphs, resulting in objective information for research on the operation. Seven advanced laparoscopic procedures, in this case colon resections, have been analysed, and it was demonstrated that the analysis method is capable of describing different laparoscopic procedures using the limited thesaurus. Possible areas of application of the method are the evaluation of time-consuming parts of the operation, of surgical tasks and measurement of the surgeon's learning curve. Other applications are the prediction and measurement of the impact of new instruments and techniques.

  11. Direct data-transformation calculation of Standardised Precipitation Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Robin; Holt, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Standardised Precipitation Indices (SPIs), a form of Drought Index, were first proposed by McKee, Doesken and Kleist in 1993. In using SPIs calculated according to their original specification, we observed that SPI-sets for UK precipitation data in general are negatively skewed and have non-zero means and non-unity standard deviations, i.e. are not standard-normally distributed. We also observed that the deviations of SPIs from the standard normal distribution increase with increasing magnitude, positive or negative. We attribute these observations to the equiprobability mapping between the cumulative Gamma distribution, used to fit the precipitation data, and the cumulative standard normal distribution, from which the SPIs are derived as abscissae. We present a new method for calculating SPIs. This is based on a generalisation of the square-root normal and cube-root normal distributions used elsewhere to model precipitation data. The resulting sets of SPIs are standard-normally distributed, having (very close to) zero skewness, zero mean and unity standard deviations. The resulting root-normal distributions are, in general, also better fits to the data than the Gamma distribution used by McKee et al. For small-magnitude SPIs, these root-normal SPIs are in agreement with those calculated according to McKee et al.'s specification, but that agreement decreases with increasing SPI magnitude, in accordance with our observations of SPI distributions which triggered the research..

  12. Standardisation of sheep model for endodontic regeneration/revitalisation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaii, Milad; Broberg, Marita; Cathro, Peter; Richards, Lindsay

    2016-05-01

    Different endodontic regeneration/revitalisation protocols have been suggested for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with pulp necrosis. Many aspects of these protocols require further investigating necessitating a suitable standardised animal model for research purposes. The focus of this study was to examine the anatomy and histology of sheep teeth at different stages of development to find an appropriate dental age for endodontic regeneration/revitalisation research. Sheep teeth at mature and immature dental ages were investigated. Standardized radiography, computed tomography, and histology were used to measure root length, apical-third dentine thickness and apex diameter, and to evaluate tissue development stages. A mature sheep tooth has an apical area which consists of a major foramen, intermediate dilatation and minor foramen. From the time of eruption to maturation no major changes occur in the incisor root lengths, but the apical foramen width decreases and the dentinal wall thickness increases. The two-tooth age exhibited the most similar features to that of an immature permanent human tooth. Sheep appears to be an appropriate animal model for endodontic regeneration/revitalization research with similar dimension and characteristics to human anterior teeth. Each dental age has its advantages and disadvantages. The two-tooth age showed the most favourable criteria making this age the most suitable for in vivo regeneration/revitalisation research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. FRACTAL ANALYSIS OF TRABECULAR BONE: A STANDARDISED METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Parkinson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A standardised methodology for the fractal analysis of histological sections of trabecular bone has been established. A modified box counting method has been developed for use on a PC based image analyser (Quantimet 500MC, Leica Cambridge. The effect of image analyser settings, magnification, image orientation and threshold levels, was determined. Also, the range of scale over which trabecular bone is effectively fractal was determined and a method formulated to objectively calculate more than one fractal dimension from the modified Richardson plot. The results show that magnification, image orientation and threshold settings have little effect on the estimate of fractal dimension. Trabecular bone has a lower limit below which it is not fractal (λ<25 μm and the upper limit is 4250 μm. There are three distinct fractal dimensions for trabecular bone (sectional fractals, with magnitudes greater than 1.0 and less than 2.0. It has been shown that trabecular bone is effectively fractal over a defined range of scale. Also, within this range, there is more than 1 fractal dimension, describing spatial structural entities. Fractal analysis is a model independent method for describing a complex multifaceted structure, which can be adapted for the study of other biological systems. This may be at the cell, tissue or organ level and compliments conventional histomorphometric and stereological techniques.

  14. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1, brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2, sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3, ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4, bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5, and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6. Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P<0.01. Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0% and 5 (4% were significantly less than the other groups (P<0.01. Furthermore, group 6 (69% was significantly higher than group 1 (48% (P<0.05 and group 4 (47% (P<0.05. There was no difference between group 3 (60% and group 6 (P=0.2. From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models.

  15. Standardised methods for amino acid analysis of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Don E

    2012-08-01

    Amino acids (AA) are essential nutritional components of a balanced diet and occur in foods in either the free AA form or as the building blocks of proteins. The analysis of AAs in foods is composed of a number of unit operations; the release of the AAs from the food matrix, the separation of the individual AAs and their quantification using calibration standards. Each of these steps has their own idiosyncrasies, e.g. different hydrolysis conditions are required for the optimal release of different AAs and there are a diverse number and type of food matrices, such that most laboratories adapt methods to best suit their applications. There is currently no official standardised method for AA analysis, although the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) has validated methods for a number of individual AA components. The established analytical techniques of HPLC (ion exchange or reversed phase) and GC-MS have recently been supplemented by a number of new methods. These include capillary electrophoresis MS and Ultra HPLC-MS, and LC with other detectors. This review will address the intricacies and concerns of the protein hydrolysis step, discuss what specifications or prerequisites need to be placed on the existing and new methods and laboratories using these methods, comment on whether one method can successfully satisfy the exacting requirements of the various unit operations, and finally pose the question 'Is there any merit in 'developing' a validated (e.g. AOAC) official method of analysis for AAs in food?'

  16. Antibacterial coatings on titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingzhou; Chu, Paul K; Zhang, Yumei; Wu, Zhifen

    2009-10-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are key biomedical materials because of their good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Nevertheless, infection on and around titanium implants still remains a problem which is usually difficult to treat and may lead to eventual implant removal. As a result, preventive measures are necessary to mitigate implant-frelated infection. One important strategy is to render the implant surface antibacterial by impeding the formation of a biofilm. A number of approaches have been proposed for this purpose and they are reviewed in this article. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Multi-mode standardisation : A critical review and a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmann, Paul Moritz; de Vries, H.J.; Blind, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Standardisation is key to shaping new technologies and supporting major ongoing trends, such as the increased importance of platforms, developing 'smart' technologies and innovating large-scale complex systems. Standardisation plays a key role in shaping the rules that govern these developments

  18. Interaction of horse-spleen ferritin with aluminium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, M; Chawtur, V

    1988-11-01

    Horse-spleen ferritin was found to bind Al systematically following gel filtration in buffered Al citrate 30 microM, and up to molar ratio 98 when incubated at 37 degrees C with Al citrate, buffered to pH 7.4. Pre-incubation with 3 concentrations of neutral sodium phosphate (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 mM) had no significant effect on binding. Apotransferrin interaction with the Al-ferritin complex to release Fe but not Al. Protein-digestion and EDTA washing procedures showed that the Al was firmly bound to the ferritin, probably to the core. Since ferritin species from different organs are relatively alike, we suggest that in the gut ferritin may scavenge Al followed by its re-excretion into the lumen with the mucosal cells, thus protecting against absorption of the metal.

  19. Renal Localization of {sup 67}Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    {sup 67}Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of {sup 67}Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal {sup 67}Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher {sup 67}Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal {sup 67}Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal {sup 67}Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, {sup 67}Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  20. Acute effect of citrate bath on postdialysis alkalaemia

    OpenAIRE

    De Sequera Ortiz, Patricia; Albalate Ramón, Marta; Pérez-García, Rafael; Corchete Prats, Elena; Arribas Cobo, Patricia; Alcázar Arroyo, Roberto; Ortega Díaz, Maira; Puerta Carretero, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The correction of metabolic acidosis caused by renal failure is achieved by adding bicarbonate during dialysis. In order to avoid the precipitation of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate that takes place in the dialysis fluid (DF) when adding bicarbonate, it is necessary to add an acid, usually acetate, which is not free of side effects. Thus, citrate appears as an advantageous alternative to acetate, despite the fact that its acute effects are not accurately known. Obj...

  1. Advanced titanium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Alan D.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Schrems, Karol K.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; Turner, Paul C.

    2001-01-01

    The Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy has been investigating a means to form useful wrought products by direct and continuous casting of titanium bars using cold-wall induction melting rather than current batch practices such as vacuum arc remelting. Continuous ingots produced by cold-wall induction melting, utilizing a bottomless water-cooled copper crucible, without slag (CaF2) additions had minor defects in the surface such as ''hot tears''. Slag additions as low as 0.5 weight percent were used to improve the surface finish. Therefore, a slag melted experimental Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingot was compared to a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingot in the areas of physical, chemical, mechanical, and corrosion attributes to address the question, ''Are any detrimental effects caused by slag addition''?

  2. A randomized clinical trial of treatment of clomiphene citrate-resistant anovulation with the use of oral contraceptive pill suppression and repeat clomiphene citrate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Emmett F; Estes, M Antoinette

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and endocrine response of oral contraceptive ovarian suppression followed by clomiphene citrate in patients who previously were clomiphene citrate resistant. Forty-eight patients from a private tertiary infertility clinic were assigned randomly prospectively to either group 1 (oral contraceptive/clomiphene citrate), which received continuous oral contraceptives followed by clomiphene citrate, or to group 2 (control) received no treatment in the cycle before clomiphene citrate treatment. On day 3, 17 beta-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and androgens were assayed before and after treatment. Follicle growth, ovulation, and pregnancy were evaluated. The Student t test and analysis of variance were used for statistical significance. The oral contraceptive/clomiphene citrate group had a significantly higher percentage of patients who ovulated and of ovulatory cycles and pregnancies. Significantly lower levels of 17 beta-estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and androgen levels were seen in the oral contraceptive/clomiphene citrate group, with no significant changes in group 2. Suppression of the ovary with oral contraceptives results in excellent rates of ovulation and pregnancy in patients who previously were resistant to clomiphene citrate. The decreases in ovarian androgens, luteinizing hormone, and 17 beta-estradiol may be responsible for the improved response.

  3. Transport of citrate catalyzed by the sodium-dependent citrate carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae is obligatorily coupled to the transport of two sodium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.; Enequist, Hans; Rest, Michel E. van der

    1994-01-01

    Aerobically grown Escherichia coli GM48 harboring plasmid pKScitS that codes for the sodium-dependent citrate carrier from Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) allows initial-rate measurements of citrate uptake in whole cells. The cation stoichiometry and selectivity of CitS was studied using this

  4. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  5. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplin, John R.; Frick, Kevin K.; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D.; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  6. Low cost titanium--myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.

  7. Citrate uptake into tonoplast vesicles from acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) juice cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, A; Gonzalez, P; Goren, R; Zehavi, U; Echeverria, E

    1998-12-01

    Citrate transport into the vacuoles of acid lime juice cells was investigated using isolated tonoplast vesicles. ATP stimulated citrate uptake in the presence or in the absence of a Delta mu H+. Energization of the vesicles only by an artificial K+ gradient (establishing an inside-positive Delta psi) also resulted in citrate uptake as was the case of a Delta pH dominated Delta mu H+. Addition of inhibitors to endomembrane ATPases showed no direct correlation between the inhibition to the tonoplast bound H+/ATPase and citrate uptake. The data indicated that, although some citrate uptake can be accounted for by Delta psi and by a direct primary active transport mechanism involving ATP, under in vivo conditions of vacuolar pH of 2.0, citrate uptake is driven by Delta pH.

  8. Ferric Citrate Hydrate as a Phosphate Binder and Risk of Aluminum Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Ferric citrate hydrate was recently approved in Japan as an oral phosphate binder to be taken with food for the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The daily therapeutic dose is about 3 to 6 g, which comprises about 2 to 4 g of citrate. Oral citrate solubilizes aluminum that is present in food and drinking water, and opens the tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing aluminum absorption and urinary excretion. In healthy animals d...

  9. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, L; Pozio, E; Boes, J; Boireau, P; Boué, F; Claes, M; Cook, A J C; Dorny, P; Enemark, H L; van der Giessen, J; Hunt, K R; Howell, M; Kirjusina, M; Nöckler, K; Rossi, P; Smith, G C; Snow, L; Taylor, M A; Theodoropoulos, G; Vallée, I; Viera-Pinto, M M; Zimmer, I A

    2011-05-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore considered very low. This work reviewed the current Trichinella status across the EU as well as the national level of monitoring and reporting. It also reviewed which animal species were affected by Trichinella and in which species it should be surveyed. This information was used to design a cost-effective surveillance programme that enables a standardised monitoring approach within the EU. The proposed surveillance programme relies on identifying sub-populations of animals with a distinct risk. Low-risk pigs are finisher pigs that originate from so-called controlled housing. All other pigs are considered high-risk pigs. Controlled housing is identified by the application of a specific list of management and husbandry practices. We suggest that member states (MS) be categorised into three classes based on the confidence that Trichinella can be considered absent, in the specified sub-population of pigs above a specified design prevalence which we set to 1 per million pigs. A simple and transparent method is proposed to estimate this confidence, based on the sensitivity of the surveillance system, taking into account the sensitivity of testing and the design prevalence. The probability of detecting a positive case, if present, must be high (>95 or >99%) to ensure that there is a low or negligible risk of transmission to humans through the food chain. In MS where the probability of a positive pig is demonstrated to be negligible, testing of fattening pigs from a sub-population consisting of pigs from controlled housing can be considered unnecessary. Furthermore, reduced testing of finishers from the sub-population consisting of pigs from non-controlled housing might even be

  10. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  11. Citrate versus heparin anticoagulation in continuous renal replacement therapy in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymakers-Janssen, Paulien A M A; Lilien, Marc; van Kessel, Ingrid A; Veldhoen, Esther S; Wösten-van Asperen, Roelie M; van Gestel, Josephus P J

    2017-10-01

    Citrate is preferred over heparin as an anticoagulant in adult continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, its potential adverse effects and data on use in CRRT in infants and toddlers is limited. We conducted a prospective study on using citrate in CRRT in critically ill small children. Children who underwent CRRT with the smallest filter in our PICU between November 2011 and November 2016 were included. Both heparin and citrate were applied according to a strict protocol. Our primary outcome was circuit survival time. Secondary outcomes were alkalosis, citrate toxicity, and number of red blood cell transfusions. Heparin was used in six patients (121 circuits, total CRRT time 3723 h). Citrate was used in 14 patients (105 circuits, total CRRT time 4530 h). Median circuit survival time with heparin was 21 h (IQR 14.5-27.5) compared to 45.2 h (IQR 37.5-52.8) with citrate (p CRRT regimes. In the heparin group, a median of 6.5 units of red blood cells (IQR 1.5-23.8) were given during CRRT, compared to three in the citrate group (IQR 2.0-5.0, p = 0.12). Use of regional citrate significantly prolongs circuit survival time and thereby should increase CRRT efficiency when compared to heparin. In addition, citrate appears safe for CRRT in critically ill small children.

  12. Citrate synthase purified from Tetrahymena mitochondria is identical with Tetrahymena 14-nm filament protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, H; Chiba, J; Watanabe, Y; Numata, O

    1995-07-01

    A 14-nm filament protein (designated as 49K protein) was purified from a ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena, using the polymerization and depolymerization procedure. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that its primary structure shared a high sequence identity with citrate synthases known so far and that the 49K protein possessed citrate synthase activity. To ascertain whether or not Tetrahymena's mitochondrial citrate synthase is identical to the 49K protein, citrate synthase was purified from Tetrahymena mitochondria using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Butyl-Toyopearl and SP-Toyopearl column chromatographies, based on monitoring of the enzymatic activity. The molecular weight of the purified citrate synthase was estimated to be 49 kDa, as was that of the 49K protein and the enzyme cross-reacted with an anti-49K protein antiserum. The purified citrate synthase showed much the same optimum pH, optimum KCl concentration, effects of substrate concentrations (acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate), and inhibitory effect by ATP as those of purified 49K protein. Furthermore, an anti-49K protein monoclonal antibody strongly suppressed the enzymatic activity of the purified citrate synthase. Thus, we suggest that mitochondrial citrate synthase and the 49K protein are identical and that the 49K protein has dual functions in the cytoskeleton in cytoplasm and as a TCA cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mitochondria.

  13. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Ewald

    Full Text Available Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation.

  14. Photochemistry of iron citrates initiated by UV-VIS light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Dou, Jing; Alpert, Peter; Krieger, Ulrich; Ammann, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol aging refers to the multitude of physical and chemical transformation atmospheric particles undergo, which play an important role in the impact of aerosols on climate, air quality and health. Aging processes may be started by chromophores, which act as photocatalysts that induce the oxidation of non-absorbing molecules [1]. Iron (Fe(III)) carboxylate complexes absorb light below about 500 nm, which is followed by ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) resulting in the reduction of iron to Fe(II) and oxidation of the carboxylate ligands, a process that represents an important sink of organic acids in the troposphere [2]. Our goal is to investigate how these photochemical processes contribute to the change of chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles. To achieve this scope, we carry out coated wall flow tube experiments, exposing films with iron citrate to UV light, which will give information about the radical and LVOC production (connecting the CWFT to a Chemiluminescent Detector or PTR-TOF-MS respectively). From extracting and analyzing the films after irradiation with UV light, we obtain a profile of low-volatility products evolving from the photochemistry of iron citrates. By Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microspectroscopy (STXM) we analyze changes in the C K-edge and Fe L-edge in particles loaded with iron citrate upon exposure to light and follow their chemical and structural evolution upon photochemical oxidation in situ to investigate the degradation kinetics under varying environmental conditions. [1] George G., Ammann M., D'Anna B., Donaldson D. J., Nizkorodov S. A., Heterogeneous photochemistry in the Atmosphere, Chem. Rev., 2015, 115 (10), pp 4218-4258 [2] Weller, C., Horn, S., and Herrmann, H.: Photolysis of Fe(III) carboxylate complexes: Fe(II) quantum yields and reaction mechanisms, Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 268, 24-36, 2013.

  15. Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures for perfect absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Kinsey, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material...

  16. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  17. Citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy in small children

    OpenAIRE

    Soltysiak, Jolanta; Warzywoda, Alfred; Kociński, Bartłomiej; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Benedyk, Anna; Silska-Dittmar, Magdalena; Zachwieja, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Background Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is one of the methods used to prevent clotting in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes and complications of RCA-CRRT in comparison to heparin anticoagulation (HA)-CRRT in critically ill children. Methods This study was a retrospective review of 30 critically ill children (16 on RCA- and 14 on HA-CRRT) who underwent at least 24 h of CRRT. The mean body weight of the children was 8.69 ± ...

  18. Bilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S

    2008-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.

  19. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    published in 2008 with several new recommendations, but a standardised test protocol was not included. Also, this new version has not been translated into Danish. The aims of the present study were to develop a standardised English test protocol for the newly modified CS, and to translate and cross...... physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. RESULTS: Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic...... internationally for standardised assessment of the CS. Testing of validity, reliability and responsiveness of both versions needs to be done in future research. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  20. Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanostructures via Nitridation of Nanopatterned Titanium Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kim, Jongbum

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures are obtained via nitridation of titanium dioxide. Nanoparticles acquired a cubic shape with sharper edges following the rock-salt crystalline structure of TiN. Lattice constant of the resulting TiN nanoparticles matched well with the tabulated data. Energy-filtered...... TEM images and XPS results showed that oxygen was replaced by nitrogen. In contrast to nanoscale processing challenges of refractory TiN, well-understood material synthesis of TiO2 provides an attractive route to large-scale fabrication of refractory plasmonic materials with complex designs...

  1. Anodic growth of titanium dioxide nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) by anodisation of titanium (Ti) in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: immersing a non-conducting substrate coated with a layer of titanium, defined as the anode, in an electrolyte solution...... an electrical contact to the layer of titanium on the anode, where the electrical contact is made in the electrolyte solution...

  2. Using standardised patients in an objective structured clinical examination as a patient safety tool

    OpenAIRE

    Battles, J; Wilkinson, S; Lee, S

    2004-01-01

    Standardised patients (SPs) are a powerful form of simulation that has now become commonplace in training and assessment in medical education throughout the world. Standardised patients are individuals, with or without actual disease, who have been trained to portray a medical case in a consistent manner. They are now the gold standard for measuring the competence of physicians and other health professionals, and the quality of their practice. A common way in which SPs are used in performance...

  3. The Bologna process - governing higher education in Europe through standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fejes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the rationalities of governing that makes it possible to govern higher education in Europe through a voluntarily process such as the Bologna process. 45 nations have signed it and try to accommodate to the ideas in it without anyone telling them they have to. Drawing on the Foucaultian notion of governmentality official documents concerning the Bologna process, higher- and adult education on the European and Swedishlevels are analysed. In the first part «planetspeak» discourses such asknowledge society, employability, lifelong learning, quality assurance and mobility are analysed. They create a configuration of thought that makes following the Bologna process a rational way to act. In the second part we analyse this process as a standardisation technique which creates a tension related to the idea of freedom. The narratives create exclusion; those nations who chose not to participate are created as «the other», in need of remedy. Inthe third part we problematize how these ideas mesh with, and challenge local ideas about education. Even though the narratives produced in Sweden to major parts seem to adapt to the process, there is a creation of the«specific» Swedish. It acts as a persuasive technique for implement the ideas in the Bologna declaration.Este artículo analiza las razones de gobierno o gubernamentalidad que hacen posible la legislación de la educación superior en Europa, a través de su configuración en una suerte de proceso voluntario como el de Bolonia, cuarenta y cinco países han ratificado tal proceso e intentan acomodarse a las ideas en él expuestas, sin que nadie les haya dicho que deban hacerlo. Partiendo de la noción foucaultiana de gubernamentabilidad, se analizan los documentos oficiales referentes al proceso de Bolonia y la educación superior y de adultos a niveles europeos y suecos. En su primera parte, se estudian discursos y términos mundialmente aceptados tales como la saciedad del

  4. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  5. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.575 Section 73.575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide is synthetically prepared TiO2, free from admixture with other substances. (2) Color...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  7. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891, shall...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on...

  9. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  10. Nurse's use of power to standardise nursing terminology in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Samira; Sieloff, Christina L

    2017-07-01

    To describe nurses' use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. Little is known about nurses' potential use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The theory of group power within organisations informed the design of the descriptive, cross-sectional study used a survey method to assess nurses' use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations© and Nursing Power Scale was used. A total of 232 nurses responded to the survey. The mean power capability score was moderately high at 134.22 (SD 18.49), suggesting that nurses could use power to achieve the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The nurses' power capacity was significantly correlated with their power capability (r = 0.96, P power to achieve their goals, such as the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. Nurse administrators may use their power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. If nurses lack power, this could decrease nurses' ability to achieve their goals and contribute to the achievement of effective patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon and (strawberry - raspberry had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.

  12. Formulation, characterization and physicochemical evaluation of potassium citrate effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pHtablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.

  13. Experimental titanium alloys for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adriana C L; Rodrigues, Renata C S; Rosa, Adalberto L; Ribeiro, Ricardo F

    2014-12-01

    Although the use of titanium has increased, casting difficulties limit routine use. The purpose of the present study was to compare the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the experimental titanium alloys titanium-5-zirconium, titanium-5-tantalum, and titanium-5-tantalum-5-zirconium (in wt%) with those of commercially pure titanium. Specimens of titanium alloys and commercially pure titanium were cast by using plasma. Their modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength were determined in a universal testing machine. Biocompatibility was evaluated with SCC9 cells. In periods of 1, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days, cell proliferation was evaluated by the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium reduction assay, and cell viability was evaluated in the 7-day period. Cell morphology was evaluated at 2, 12, and 24 hours. Modulus of elasticity, ultimate tensile strength, and cell viability were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni test; cell proliferation data were compared by 2-way ANOVA (alloy versus time) and by the Bonferroni test; and the cell morphology data were analyzed by split-plot design. All statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence level (Ptantalum presented the lowest modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength, whereas titanium-5-zirconium and titanium-5-tantalum-5-zirconium were statistically similar to commercially pure titanium. Cell proliferation and viability were not affected by any alloy being similar to those observed for commercially pure titanium. No noticeably differences were found in the morphology of cells cultured on any alloy and commercially pure titanium. Experimental alloys, especially titanium-5-zirconium and titanium-5-tantalum-5-zirconium, presented promising mechanical results for future studies and clinical applications. In addition, these alloys, evaluated by cell proliferation, viability, and morphology, were found to be biocompatible in vitro. Copyright © 2014

  14. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Bordin, Angelo Rafael de Vito; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    Dental implants have increased the use of titanium and titanium alloys in prosthetic applications. Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium is prone to fluoride ion attack. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare Ti-5Ta alloy to cp Ti after toothbrushing with whitening and conventional toothpastes. Ti-5Ta (%wt) alloy was melted in an arc melting furnace and compared with cp Ti. Disks and toothbrush heads were embedded in PVC rings to be mounted onto a toothbrushing test apparatus. A total of 260,000 cycles were carried out at 250 cycles/minute under a load of 5 N on samples immersed in toothpaste slurries. Surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were evaluated before and after toothbrushing. One sample of each material/toothpaste was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and compared with a sample that had not been submitted to toothbrushing. Surface roughness increased significantly after toothbrushing, but no differences were noted after toothbrushing with different toothpastes. Toothbrushing did not significantly affect sample microhardness. The results suggest that toothpastes that contain and those that do not contain peroxides in their composition have different effects on cp Ti and Ti-5Ta surfaces. Although no significant difference was noted in the microhardness and roughness of the surfaces brushed with different toothpastes, both toothpastes increased roughness after toothbrushing.

  15. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants have increased the use of titanium and titanium alloys in prosthetic applications. Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium is prone to fluoride ion attack. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare Ti-5Ta alloy to cp Ti after toothbrushing with whitening and conventional toothpastes. Ti-5Ta (%wt alloy was melted in an arc melting furnace and compared with cp Ti. Disks and toothbrush heads were embedded in PVC rings to be mounted onto a toothbrushing test apparatus. A total of 260,000 cycles were carried out at 250 cycles/minute under a load of 5 N on samples immersed in toothpaste slurries. Surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were evaluated before and after toothbrushing. One sample of each material/toothpaste was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and compared with a sample that had not been submitted to toothbrushing. Surface roughness increased significantly after toothbrushing, but no differences were noted after toothbrushing with different toothpastes. Toothbrushing did not significantly affect sample microhardness. The results suggest that toothpastes that contain and those that do not contain peroxides in their composition have different effects on cp Ti and Ti-5Ta surfaces. Although no significant difference was noted in the microhardness and roughness of the surfaces brushed with different toothpastes, both toothpastes increased roughness after toothbrushing.

  16. Evaluating the efficacy of citrate anticoagulation during CRRT in cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Караськов

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic anticoagulation during renal replacement therapy in cardiac patients increases the risk of postoperative complications. Citrate anticoagulation is a promising alternative. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of citrate anticoagulation and its influence on the parameters of hemostasis and complications.

  17. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  18. Citrate versus heparin anticoagulation in continuous renal replacement therapy in small children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymakers-Janssen, Paulien A M; Lilien, Marc; van Kessel, Ingrid A.; Veldhoen, Esther S.; Wösten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; van Gestel, Josephus P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Citrate is preferred over heparin as an anticoagulant in adult continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, its potential adverse effects and data on use in CRRT in infants and toddlers is limited. We conducted a prospective study on using citrate in CRRT in critically ill small

  19. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... tricalcium citrate tetrahydrate, which are intermediate products in the production of citric acid, sodium... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... preliminary results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and...

  20. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and certain...

  1. Effects of citrate on hexavalent chromium reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Dong, Hailiang; Yang, Xuewei; Kovarik, Libor; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Qiang

    2018-02-05

    Previous studies have shown that organic ligands could influence Cr(VI) reduction by aqueous Fe(2+) and pyrite. In this study, the effects of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite (NAu-2) were investigated at pH 6. Our results showed that the presence of citrate decreased the rate but increased the amount of Cr(VI) reduction. The decreased rate was likely due to competitive sorption of citrate and anionic dichromate (Cr2O7(-)) to NAu-2 surface sites, because sorption of dichromate appeared to be the first step for subsequent Cr(VI) reduction. The increased amount of Cr(VI) reduction was likely because citrate served as an additional electron donor to reduce Cr(VI) through ligand-metal electron transfer in the presence of soluble Fe(3+), which was possibly derived from dissolution of reduced NAu-2. Soluble Cr(III)-citrate complex was a possible form of reduced Cr(VI) when citrate was present. Without citrate, nanometer-sized Cr2O3 particles were the product of Cr(VI) reduction. Our study highlights the importance of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization when iron-rich smectite is applied to treat Cr(VI) contaminant in organic carbon rich environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fingerprinting of sildenafil citrate and tadalafil tablets in pharmaceutical formulations via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rafael S; Mariotti, Kristiane C; Schwab, Nicolas V; Sabin, Guilherme P; Rocha, Werickson F C; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; Limberger, Renata P; Mayorga, Paulo; Bueno, Maria Izabel M S; Romão, Wanderson

    2012-01-25

    The production of counterfeited drugs is a criminal problem that carries serious risks to public health in the worldwide. In Brazil, Viagra and Cialis are the most counterfeit medicines, being used to inhibit the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5), treating thus, problems related to erectile dysfunction. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a suitable technique to control the quality of new pharmaceutical formulations and distinguish between authentic and counterfeit tablets. XRF has advantageous features like multielemental capability, good detectivity, high precision, short analysis times, and is nondestructive, which makes it suitable to be extended to a great variety of samples. In this work, the inorganic fingerprinting chemical of forty-one commercial samples (Viagra, Cialis, Lazar, Libiden, Maxfil, Plenovit, Potent 75, Rigix, V-50, Vimax and Pramil) and fifty-six counterfeit samples (Viagra and Cialis) were obtained from XRF data. XRF presented an excellent analytical methodology for semi-quantitative determination of active ingredient (in case of sildenafil citrate that presents S in its structure) and excipients such as calcium phosphate, titanium oxide and iron oxide (P, Ca, Ti and Fe). The matrix data were allied to chemometric methods (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) to classify the tablets investigated between authentic and counterfeit, grouping the samples into of seven groups: A, B, C, D and E (counterfeit group) and F and G (authentic group). Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Method of making multilayered titanium ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, George T., II; Hansen; Jeffrey S.; Oden; Laurance L.; Turner; Paul C.; Ochs; Thomas L.

    1998-08-25

    A method making a titanium ceramic composite involves forming a hot pressed powder body having a microstructure comprising at least one titanium metal or alloy layer and at least one ceramic particulate reinforced titanium metal or alloy layer and hot forging the hot pressed body follwed by hot rolling to substantially reduce a thickness dimension and substantially increase a lateral dimension thereof to form a composite plate or sheet that retains in the microstructure at least one titanium based layer and at least one ceramic reinforced titanium based layer in the thickness direction of the composite plate or sheet.

  4. Including post-discharge mortality in calculation of hospital standardised mortality ratios: retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouw, Maurice E; Peelen, L M; Moons, K G M; Kalkman, C J; Lingsma, H F

    2013-10-21

    To assess the consequences of applying different mortality timeframes on standardised mortality ratios of individual hospitals and, secondarily, to evaluate the association between in-hospital standardised mortality ratios and early post-discharge mortality rate, length of hospital stay, and transfer rate. Retrospective analysis of routinely collected hospital data to compare observed deaths in 50 diagnostic categories with deaths predicted by a case mix adjustment method. 60 Dutch hospitals. 1 228 815 patients discharged in the period 2008 to 2010. In-hospital standardised mortality ratio, 30 days post-admission standardised mortality ratio, and 30 days post-discharge standardised mortality ratio. Compared with the in-hospital standardised mortality ratio, 33% of the hospitals were categorised differently with the 30 days post-admission standardised mortality ratio and 22% were categorised differently with the 30 days post-discharge standardised mortality ratio. A positive association was found between in-hospital standardised mortality ratio and length of hospital stay (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.33; P=0.01), and an inverse association was found between in-hospital standardised mortality ratio and early post-discharge mortality (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.37; P=0.004). Applying different mortality timeframes resulted in differences in standardised mortality ratios and differences in judgment regarding the performance of individual hospitals. Furthermore, associations between in-hospital standardised mortality rates, length of stay, and early post-discharge mortality rates were found. Combining these findings suggests that standardised mortality ratios based on in-hospital mortality are subject to so-called "discharge bias." Hence, early post-discharge mortality should be included in the calculation of standardised mortality ratios.

  5. Standardisation of the FAERS database: a systematic approach to manually recoding drug name variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K; Ho, Samuel S; Saini, Bandana; Hibbs, David E; Fois, Romano A

    2015-07-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), one of the world's largest spontaneous reporting systems, is difficult to use because of report duplication and a lack of standardisation in the recording of drug names. Unresolved data quality issues may distort statistical analyses, rendering the results difficult to interpret when detecting and monitoring adverse effects of pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a data cleaning protocol to identify and resolve drug nomenclature issues. The key 'data treatment' plan involved standardising drug names held in the FAERS database. Four million five hundred and six thousand five hundred and seventy-seven. Individual Safety Reports submitted to the FAERS between 1 January 2003 and 31 August 2012 were included for this study. OpenRefine was used to standardise drug name variants in the database such that they were consistent with international non-proprietary nomenclature defined by the World Health Organisation Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification. Drug variants where generic constituents could not be confidently determined, undecipherable drug names and non-medicinal products were retained verbatim. After the standardisation process, more than 16 611 916 drug entries were cleaned to their relevant international non-proprietary name. The cleaned drug table comprised 71 858 drug name variants and includes both standardised and original terms. Ninety-nine per cent of drug names was standardised using this method. The millions of reports enclosed in the FAERS contain valuable information that is of interest to pharmacovigilance, toxicology and post-marketing surveillance researchers. With the standardisation of the drug nomenclature, the database can be better utilised by research groups around the world. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Thirty-minute compared to standardised office blood pressure measurement in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke; van der Wel, Mark; Schoenmakers, Gijs; Boudewijns, Steve; Peer, Petronella; van Weel, Chris; Thien, Theo; Bakx, Carel

    2011-01-01

    Background Although blood pressure measurement is one of the most frequently performed measurements in clinical practice, there are concerns about its reliability. Serial, automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement has the potential to reduce measurement bias and white-coat effect' Aim To study agreement of 30-minute office blood pressure measurement (OBPM) with standardised OBPM, and to compare repeatability Design and setting Method comparison study in two general practices in the Netherlands Method Thirty-minute and standardised OBPM was carried out with the same, validated device in 83 adult patients, and the procedure was repeated after 2 weeks. During 30-minute OBPM, blood pressure was measured automatically every 3 minutes, with the patient in a sitting position, alone in a quiet room. Agreement between 30-minute and standardised OBPM was assessed by Bland–Altman analysis. Repeatability of the blood pressure measurement methods after 2 weeks was expressed as the mean difference in combination with the standard deviation of difference (SDD) Results Mean 30-minute OBPM readings were 7.6/2.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.1 to 9.1/1.5 to 3.4 mmHg) lower than standardised OBPM readings. The mean difference and SDD between repeated 30-minute OBPMs (mean difference = 3/1 mmHg, 95% CI = 1 to 5/0 to 2 mmHg; SDD 9.5/5.3 mmHg) were lower than those of standardised OBPMs (mean difference = 6/2 mmHg, 95% CI = 4 to 8/1 to 4 mmHg; SDD 10.9/6.3 mmHg). Conclusion Thirty-minute OBPM resulted in lower readings than standardised OBPM and had a better repeatability. These results suggest that 30-minute OBPM better reflects the patient's true blood pressure than standardised OBPM does. PMID:22152748

  7. Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger and metabolic engineering for citrate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xian; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Despite a long and successful history of citrate production in Aspergillus niger, the molecular mechanism of citrate accumulation is only partially understood. In this study, we used comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of citrate-producing strains—namely, A. niger H915-1 (citrate titer: 157 g L−1), A1 (117 g L−1), and L2 (76 g L−1)—to gain a genome-wide view of the mechanism of citrate accumulation. Compared with A. niger A1 and L2, A. niger H915-1 contained 92 mutated genes, including a succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt pathway and an aconitase family protein involved in citrate synthesis. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of A. niger H915-1 revealed that the transcription levels of 479 genes changed between the cell growth stage (6 h) and the citrate synthesis stage (12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h). In the glycolysis pathway, triosephosphate isomerase was up-regulated, whereas pyruvate kinase was down-regulated. Two cytosol ATP-citrate lyases, which take part in the cycle of citrate synthesis, were up-regulated, and may coordinate with the alternative oxidases in the alternative respiratory pathway for energy balance. Finally, deletion of the oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase gene in H915-1 eliminated oxalate formation but neither influence on pH decrease nor difference in citrate production were observed. PMID:28106122

  8. Citrate shows protective effects on cardiovascular and renal function in ischemia-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienholz, Anja; Reis, Jonas; Sanli, Pinar; de Groot, Herbert; Petrat, Frank; Guberina, Hana; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Saner, Fuat H; Kribben, Andreas; Weinberg, Joel M; Feldkamp, Thorsten

    2017-04-10

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of acute kidney injury (AKI). Citrate reduces hypoxia-induced mitochondrial energetic deficits in isolated proximal tubules. Moreover, citrate anticoagulation is now frequently used in renal replacement therapy. In the present study a rat model of I/R-induced AKI was utilized to examine renal protection by citrate in vivo. AKI was induced by bilateral renal clamping (40 min) followed by reperfusion (3 h). Citrate was infused at three different concentrations (0.3 mmol/kg/h; 0.6 mmol/kg/h and 1.0 mmol/kg/h) continuously for 60 min before and 45 min after ischemia. Plasma calcium concentrations were kept stable by infusion of calcium gluconate. The effect of citrate was evaluated by biomonitoring, blood and plasma parameters, histopathology and tissue ATP content. In comparison to the normoxic control group bilateral renal ischemia led to an increase of creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase activity and a decrease in tissue ATP content and was accompanied by a drop in mean arterial blood pressure. Infusion of 1.0 mmol/kg/h citrate led to lower creatinine and reduced LDH activity compared to the I/R control group and a tendency for higher tissue ATP content. Pre-ischemic infusion of 1.0 mmol/kg/h citrate stabilized blood pressure during ischemia. Citrate has a protective effect during I/R-induced AKI, possibly by limiting the mitochondrial deficit as well as by beneficial cardiovascular effects. This strengthens the rationale of using citrate in continuous renal replacement therapy and encourages consideration of citrate infusion as a therapeutic treatment for AKI in humans.

  9. Cell Attachment Following Instrumentation with Titanium and Plastic Instruments, Diode Laser, and Titanium Brush on Titanium, Titanium-Zirconium, and Zirconia Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melissa S; Cerutis, D Roselyn; Miyamoto, Takanari; Nunn, Martha E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface characteristics and gingival fibroblast adhesion of disks composed of implant and abutment materials following brief and repeated instrumentation with instruments commonly used in procedures for implant maintenance, stage-two implant surgery, and periimplantitis treatment. One hundred twenty disks (40 titanium, 40 titaniumzirconium, 40 zirconia) were grouped into treatment categories of instrumentation by plastic curette, titanium curette, diode microlaser, rotary titanium brush, and no treatment. Twenty strokes were applied to half of the disks in the plastic and titanium curette treatment categories, while half of the disks received 100 strokes each to simulate implant maintenance occurring on a repetitive basis. Following analysis of the disks by optical laser profilometry, disks were cultured with human gingival fibroblasts. Cell counts were conducted from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Differences in surface roughness across all instruments tested for zirconia disks were negligible, while both titanium disks and titaniumzirconium disks showed large differences in surface roughness across the spectrum of instruments tested. The rotary titanium brush and the titanium curette yielded the greatest overall mean surface roughness, while the plastic curette yielded the lowest mean surface roughness. The greatest mean cell counts for each disk type were as follows: titanium disks with plastic curettes, titanium-zirconium disks with titanium curettes, and zirconia disks with the diode microlaser. Repeated instrumentation did not result in cumulative changes in surface roughness of implant materials made of titanium, titanium-zirconium, or zirconia. Instrumentation with plastic implant curettes on titanium and zirconia surfaces appeared to be more favorable than titanium implant curettes in terms of gingival fibroblast attachment on these surfaces.

  10. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... intermediate products in the production of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate. The scope of the... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on citric acid and...

  11. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's...

  12. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic... order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

  13. Presence of Fe3+ and Zn2+ promoted biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex and removal of metals from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun-Wei; Tao, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; He, Xiao-Hong; Gao, Ping; Li, Da-Ping

    2013-12-15

    The promotion to Cd-citrate complex biotransformation via addition of Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) was investigated. Single Fe(III)- or Zn-citrate complex was completely degraded by Pseudomonas sp. MBR, Cd-citrate complex was not. In the Cd-citrate media with molar ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, pH increase obtained from the metabolism of excess citrate slightly promoted the biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex, Cd remained in solutions. The presence of Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) resulted in complete biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex in the 1:1:2 Fe:Cd:citrate and Zn:Cd:citrate and 1:1:1:3 Fe:Zn:Cd:citrate media. Alkaline pH obtained from biotransformation of metal-citrate complexes caused almost complete removal of metals (>98%) through precipitation and co-precipitation. Pseudomonas sp. MBR potentially could be used to treat wastewater containing mixed citrate complexes of Fe(III), Zn and Cd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2013-04-01

    The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore published in 2008 with several new recommendations, but a standardised test protocol was not included. Also, this new version has not been translated into Danish. The aims of the present study were to develop a standardised English test protocol for the newly modified CS, and to translate and cross-culturally adapt this version into Danish. An English test protocol was developed and translated into Danish at two independent centres according to international recommendations. Consensus on a preliminary version was achieved. The subjective part was tested on six patients, while two physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic differences. One of the authors of the modified CS approved both the English and the Danish test protocol. A simple test protocol of the modified CS was developed in both English and Danish. With precise terminology and definitions, the test protocol is the first of its kind. We suggest its use internationally for standardised assessment of the CS. Testing of validity, reliability and responsiveness of both versions needs to be done in future research. not relevant. not relevant.

  15. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  16. Use of Blemaren citrate formula in gout patients with nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Eliseev

    2008-01-01

    Results. After completion of a course of Blemaren therapy, there was an 8% reduction in the mean serum UA levels, which correlated with an increase in its daily excretion (by an average of 20%. The highest increase in UA excretion was observed in 20 patients with baseline hypoex-cretion (<700 mg/day: from 226,3 (range 201,6-436,8 to 635,0 (range 272,2-705,6 mg/day (p = 0,01. UA excretion substantially unchanged in patients with normal uricosuria (>700 mg/day. Side effects that could cause the agent to be discontinued were absent. Conclusion. The Blemaren citrate formula used in gout patients with nephrolithiasis causes a significant increase in the renal excretion of UA (p = 0,01, normalizes its metabolic parameters, and shows a high safety, without worsening hepatic and renal functions and electrolyte metabolism.

  17. Usefulness of gallium-67 citrate scanning in testicular seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willan, B.D.; Penney, H.; Castor, W.R.; McGowan, D.G.

    1987-10-01

    An analysis of 77 consecutive patients with a histologic diagnosis of seminoma testis, assessed and treated at the Cross Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1982, is presented. Ga-67 citrate was first used in the assessment of patients with malignant testicular tumors in 1973. Following three years of study that supported the observation of the gallium-avid nature of seminoma, gallium scans became routine in the initial staging assessment and were used also when recurrence was suspected. From 1977 through 1982, 72 patients with biopsy-proven seminoma testis were assessed initially for extent of disease by Ga-67 scanning. Comparison with intravenous pyelography and bipedal lymphography was possible for accuracy of tumor assessment. The scan sensitivity was 83%, and the specificity was 95%. During the same period, gallium was studied in nonseminomatous testicular tumors but the results were disappointing and its use was discontinued. The gallium-avid nature of seminoma testis may be useful in determining the extent of disease.

  18. Internet-ordered viagra (sildenafil citrate) is rarely genuine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Neil; Clark, John P; Stecher, Vera J; Goldstein, Irwin

    2012-11-01

    Counterfeit medication is a growing problem. This study assessed the requirement for prescription, cost, origin, and content of medications sold via the Internet and purporting to be the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor Viagra (sildenafil citrate). Pfizer monitored top search results for the query "buy Viagra" on the two leading Internet search engines in March 2011. Orders were placed from 22 unique Web sites claiming to sell Viagra manufactured by Pfizer. Tablets received were assessed for chemical composition. No Web site examined required a prescription for purchase or a health screening survey; 90% offered illegal "generic Viagra." Cost per tablet ranged from $3.28-$33.00. Shipment origins of purchases were Hong Kong (N = 11), the United States (N = 6), and the United Kingdom (N = 2) as well as Canada, China, and India (N = 1 each). Notably, the four Internet pharmacies claiming to be Canadian did not ship medication from a Canadian address. Of 22 sample tablets examined, 17 (77%) were counterfeit, 4 (18%) were authentic, and 1 (5%) was an illegal generic. Counterfeit tablets were analyzed for sildenafil citrate, the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Viagra, and contents varied between 30% and 50% of the label claim. Counterfeits lacked product information leaflets, including appropriate safety warnings, and genuine Viagra formulations. Internet sites claiming to sell authentic Viagra shipped counterfeit medication 77% of the time; counterfeits usually came from non-U.S. addresses and had 30% to 50% of the labeled API claim. Caution is warranted when purchasing Viagra via the Internet. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Process for production of titanium dioxide from titaniferrous ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, T.A.

    1984-07-17

    Titanium tetrachloride is produced from titanium ore and reductant suspended in molten salt by the passage of chlorine therethrough. The titanium tetrachloride is scrubbed by passage through at least one scrubber of molten salt and oxidized to produce titanium oxide and chlorine. Chlorine is recaptured as a solute in cold titanium tetrachloride and then liberated and recycled.

  20. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment.

  1. Blood and ultrafiltrate dosage of citrate as a useful and routine tool during continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration in septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Filippo; Morselli, Maurizio; Bergamo, Daniela; Hollo, Zsuzsanna; Scella, Sandro; Maio, Mariella; Tetta, Ciro; Dellavalle, Ambrogio; Stella, Maurizio; Triolo, Giorgio

    2011-12-01

    Citrate anticoagulation is gaining popularity in renal replacement therapies (RRT) for critically ill patients. In order to study whether citrate accumulates in septic shock patients, we determined citrate in plasma and dialysate during continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). An automated routine determination of citrate was set up using a commercial kit (citrate lyase method). Twelve patients with septic shock on CVVHDF and citrate anticoagulation were studied ex vivo for citrate levels in systemic and circuit blood and in the ultrafiltrate (at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h). In vitro blood studies showed a near unit correlation between the plasma measured and predicted citrate concentrations for an exclusive extracellular distribution of citrate. Median systemic arterial citratemias were 0.09 (0.06-0.12) mmol/L (Time 0) and 0.23 (0.18-0.31) mmol/L during treatment; median sieving coefficient for citrate was 0.95 (0.88-1.02) and did not change with different volumes of CVVHDF effluent (from 1350 to 5100 mL/h). Net citrate and calcium removal by filter significantly correlated with effluent volume (r = 0.85 and 0.78, respectively). Median citrate load entering in the patients' bloodstream was 13.60 (9.1-19.6, n = 68) mmol/h. Although cost analysis of the citrate test demonstrated a minimally increased daily cost (from 2.96 to 3.51€), saving costs could be potentially relevant with more extended use of citrate anticoagulation. In septic shock patients with liver dysfunction citratemia is useful in guiding clinical application of RRT, where the citrate losses in the ultrafiltrate can be efficiently modulated by increasing the effluent volume.

  2. Time-limited hydrotubation combined with clomiphene citrate treatment for unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapca, O E; Delibas, I B; Karaca, I; Kumtepe, Y; Kadanali, S

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate time-limited hydrotubation combined with clomiphene citrate as treatment for unexplained infertility. In this unblinded, randomized controlled trial of patients who had unexplained infertility, 40 patients were treated with time-limited hydrotubation (saline, 20 ml; flushed within 20 to 30 seconds) and clomphene citrate (total, 70 cycles) and 40 patients were treated with clomiphene citrate alone (total, 74 cycles). All women underwent an ovulation induction protocol with clomiphene citrate (100 mg/d orally for five days, from day 3 to day 7 of the cycle). Hydrotubation was performed after detection of the dominant follicle. There were 15 pregnancies in the 80 patients (19%) (total, 144 stimulated cycles; 10% pregnancies per cycle). The frequency of clinical pregnancy per cycle was significantly greater in patients who were treated with hydrotubation and clomiphene citrate (nine pregnancies per cycle [13%]) than those treated with clomiphene citrate alone (two pregnancies per cycle [3%]; odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 25.5; p ≤ 0.05). The frequency of pregnancy per patient (total, clinical, or chemical) was similar for the two treatment groups. The frequency of live birth or abortion per cycle or patient was similar between the two treatment groups. Time-limited hydrotubation and clomiphene citrate may increase the frequency of clinical pregnancy per cycle in women who have unexplained infertility.

  3. Titanium-Oxygen Reactivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafey, J. E.; Scheck, W. G.; Witzell, W. E.

    1962-01-01

    A program has been conducted at Astronautics to investigate the likelihood of occurrence of the catastrophic oxidation of titanium alloy sheet under conditions which simulate certain cases of accidental failure of the metal while it is in contact with liquid or gaseous oxygen. Three methods of fracturing the metal were used; they consisted of mechanical puncture, tensile fracture of welded joints, and perforation by very high velocity particles. The results of the tests which have been conducted provide further evidence of the reactivity of titanium with liquid and gaseous oxygen. The evidence indicates that the rapid fracturing of titanium sheet while it is in contact with oxygen initiates the catastrophic oxidation reaction. Initiation occurred when the speed of the fracture was some few feet per second, as in both the drop-weight puncture tests and the static tensile fracture tests of welded joints, as well as when the speed was several thousand feet per second, as in the simulated micrometeoroid penetration tests. The slow propagation of a crack, however, did not initiate the reaction. It may logically be concluded that the localized frictional heat of rapid fracture and/or spontaneous oxidation (exothermic) of minute particles emanating from the fracture cause initiation of the reaction. Under conditions of slow fracture, however, the small heat generated may be adequately dissipated and the reaction is not initiated. A portion of the study conducted consisted of investigating various means by which the reaction might be retarded or prevented. Providing a "barrier" at the titanium-oxygen interface consisting of either aluminum metal or a coating of a petroleum base corrosion inhibitor appeared to be only partially effective in retarding the reaction. The accidental puncturing or similar rupturing of thin-walled pressurized oxygen tanks on missiles and space vehicle will usually constitute loss of function, and may sometimes cause their catastrophic destruction

  4. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. RESULTS: Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic...... published in 2008 with several new recommendations, but a standardised test protocol was not included. Also, this new version has not been translated into Danish. The aims of the present study were to develop a standardised English test protocol for the newly modified CS, and to translate and cross-culturally...... adapt this version into Danish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An English test protocol was developed and translated into Danish at two independent centres according to international recommendations. Consensus on a preliminary version was achieved. The subjective part was tested on six patients, while two...

  5. Neutron activation analysis with k{sub 0}-standardisation : general formalism and procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomme, S.; Hardeman, F. [Centre de l`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Robouch, P.; Etxebarria, N.; Arana, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k{sub 0}-standardisation is a powerful tool for multi-element analysis at a broad range of trace element concentrations. An overview is given of the basic principles, fundamental equations, and general procedure of this method. Different aspects of the description of the neutron activation reaction rate are discussed, applying the Hogdahl convention. A general activation-decay formula is derived and its application to INAA is demonstrated. Relevant k{sub 0}-definitions for different activation decay schemes are summarised and upgraded to cases of extremely high fluxes. The main standardisation techniques for INAA are discussed, emphasizing the k{sub 0}-standardisation. Some general aspects of the basic equipment and its calibration are discussed, such as the characterisation of the neutron field and the tuning of the spectrometry part. A method for the prediction and optimisation of the analytical performance of INAA is presented.

  6. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  7. The US hospital standardised mortality ratio: Retrospective database study of Massachusetts hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Roxana; Bottle, Alex; Hua Jen, Min; Jarman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To present a case-mix adjustment model that can be used to calculate Massachusetts hospital standardised mortality ratios and can be further adapted for other state-wide data-sets. Design We used binary logistic regression models to predict the probability of death and to calculate the hospital standardised mortality ratios. Independent variables were patient sociodemographic characteristics (such as age, gender) and healthcare details (such as admission source). Statistical performance was evaluated using c statistics, Brier score and the Hosmer–Lemeshow test. Setting Massachusetts hospitals providing care to patients over financial years 2005/6 to 2007/8. Patients 1,073,122 patients admitted to Massachusetts hospitals corresponding to 36 hospital standardised mortality ratio diagnosis groups that account for 80% of in-hospital deaths nationally. Main outcome measures Adjusted in-hospital mortality rates and hospital standardised mortality ratios. Results The significant factors determining in-hospital mortality included age, admission type, primary diagnosis, the Charlson index and do-not-resuscitate status. The Massachusetts hospital standardised mortality ratios for acute (non-specialist) hospitals ranged from 60.3 (95% confidence limits 52.7–68.6) to 130.3 (116.1–145.8). The reference standard hospital standardised mortality ratio is 100 with the values below and above 100 suggesting either random or special cause variation. The model was characterised by excellent discrimination (c statistic 0.87), high accuracy (Brier statistics 0.03) and close agreement between predicted and observed mortality rates. Conclusions We have developed a case-mix model to give insight into mortality rates for patients served by hospitals in Massachusetts. Our analysis indicates that this technique would be applicable and relevant to Massachusetts hospital care as well as to other US hospitals. PMID:25852951

  8. Standardised tobacco packaging: a health policy case study of corporate conflict expansion and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchard, Jenny L; Fooks, Gary J; Gilmore, Anna B

    2016-10-07

    To investigate opposition to standardised tobacco packaging in the UK. To increase understanding of how transnational corporations are adapting to changes in their access to policymakers precipitated by Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Case study web-based documentary analysis, using NVivo V.10. Examination of relationships between opponents of standardised packaging and transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) and of the volume, nature, transparency and timing of their activities. UK standardised packaging policy debate 2011-2013. Organisations selected on basis of opposition to, or facilitation thereof, standardised tobacco packaging in the UK; 422 associated documents. Excluding tobacco manufacturing and packaging companies (n=12), 109 organisations were involved in opposing standardised packaging, 82 (75%) of which had a financial relationship with 1 or more TTC. These 82 organisations (43 actively opposing the measure, 39 facilitating opposition) were responsible for 60% of the 404 activities identified, including the majority of public communications and research production. TTCs were directly responsible for 28% of total activities, predominantly direct lobbying, but also financially underwrote third party research, communication, mass recruitment and lobbying. Active organisations rarely reported any financial relationship with TTCs when undertaking opposition activities. The multifaceted opposition to standardised packaging was primarily undertaken by third parties with financial relationships with major tobacco manufacturers. Low levels of transparency regarding these links created a misleading impression of diverse and widespread opposition. Countries should strengthen implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC by systematically requiring conflict of interest declarations from all organisations participating in political or media debates on tobacco control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  9. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of titanium oxide and sulfated titanium oxide obtained by thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Benito,H.; Del Ángel Sánchez, T.; R. García Alamilla; Hernández Enríquez, J. M.; Sandoval Robles,G.; F. Paraguay Delgado

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the synthesis of titanium oxide (TiO2) and sulfated titanium oxide (TiO2-SO4(2-)) obtained by thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride. Titanium hydroxide synthesized by this method was impregnated with a 1 N H2SO4 solution, to give amounts of sulfate ions (SO4(2-)) of 3 and 7 wt%. The synthesized samples were dried at 120 °C during 24 h and then calcined for 3 h at 400 °C. Thermal analyses, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, infrared spectroscopy, potentiometric...

  10. [Metabonomic study of plasma after intratracheally instilling titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Ming-ming; Lei, Hao; Yang, Yang; Lu, Min-yu; Kong, Lu; Xue, Yu-ying

    2009-05-01

    1H magnetic resonance (1H MR) spectroscopic technique in combination with pattern recognition technique were applied to analyze toxic effects of rats which were intratracheally instilled with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) as well as to detect the target organs and biomarkers associated with the toxic effects. Twenty-four SD male rats were divided into 4 groups randomly which were high dose group (40 mg/kg nano-TiO2), moderate dose group (4 mg/kg nano-TiO2), low dose group (0.4 mg/kg nano-TiO2) and control group (0.9% NaCl solution) respectively, there were six rats per group. All rats were exposed to the object by single intratracheally instilling at a volume of 0.1 ml/100 g. After one week observation, 1H MR spectra of plasma were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis. Histopathologic examination for tissues such as heart, lung, liver, and kidney were performed simultaneously. The relative content of lactate [(37.86+/-2.58)x10(-3)], citrate [(2.21+/-0.45)x10(-3)], choline [(7.74+/-0.76)x10(-3)] and creatine [(4.17+/-1.15)x10(-3)] in high dose group were significantly decreased as compared with those [(52.07+/-5.12)x10(-3), (3.01+/-0.21)x10(-3), (9.28+/-0.78)x10(-3), (8.59+/-2.64)x10(-3)] in control group (t values were -6.024, -3.177, -3.374, -4.215 respectively, Pkidney and heart were the target organs of rats which were intratracheally instilling titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Lactate, pyruvate, glucose, citrate, choline and creatine can be presumed as the biomarkers when searching the target organs of the toxic effects.

  11. Standardisation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the estimation of body composition in healthy paediatric populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantlov, Steven; Jødal, Lars; Lange, Aksel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) requires a high degree of standardisation in order to ensure valid and reproducible impedance measurements. The overall aim of this review was to study the degree to which BIA papers conducted in healthy paediatric populations (aged 0-17 years......) were standardised. METHODS: Literature was identified on the basis of a systematic search of internationally-recognised electronic databases and hand searching of the reference lists of the included papers in order to identify additional relevant papers. The review was limited to lead-type BIA devices...

  12. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consec......Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed...

  13. Standardised neonatal parenteral nutrition formulations – an Australasian group consensus 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Standardised parenteral nutrition formulations are routinely used in the neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. In 2010, a multidisciplinary group was formed to achieve a consensus on the formulations acceptable to majority of the neonatal intensive care units. Literature review was undertaken for each nutrient and recommendations were developed in a series of meetings held between November 2010 and April 2011. Three standard and 2 optional amino acid/dextrose formulations and one lipid emulsion were agreed by majority participants in the consensus. This has a potential to standardise neonatal parenteral nutrition guidelines, reduce costs and prescription errors. PMID:24548745

  14. Multicentre chest computed tomography standardisation in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuo, Wieying; Kemner-van de Corput, Mariette P. C.; Perez-Rovira, Adria

    2016-01-01

    Progressive cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is the main cause of mortality in CF patients. CF lung disease starts in early childhood. With current standards of care, respiratory function remains largely normal in children and more sensitive outcome measures are needed to monitor early CF lung...... disease. Chest CT is currently the most sensitive imaging modality to monitor pulmonary structural changes in children and adolescents with CF. To quantify structural lung disease reliably among multiple centres, standardisation of chest CT protocols is needed. SCIFI CF (Standardised Chest Imaging...

  15. Continuous venovenous hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation in patients with liver failure: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Liver failure patients might be at risk for citrate accumulation during continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) with regional citrate anticoagulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive capability of baseline liver function parameters regarding citrate accumulation, expressed as an increase in the calcium total/calcium ionized (Catot/Caion) ratio ≥2.5, and to describe the feasibility of citrate CVVHD in liver failure patients. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study in medical ICU patients treated in a German university hospital. We performed 43 CVVHD runs using citrate for regional anticoagulation in 28 critically ill patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis or acute liver failure (maximum of two CVVHD runs per patient). Liver function was characterized before CVVHD using laboratory parameters, calculation of Child-Pugh and Model of End-stage Liver Disease scores, and determination of the plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green. In addition to blood gas analysis, we measured total calcium and citrate in serum at baseline and after definitive time points for each CVVHD run. Results Accumulation of citrate in serum correlated with an increase in the Catot/Caion ratio. Although the critical upper threshold of Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5 was exceeded 10 times in seven different CVVHD runs, equalization of initial metabolic acidosis was possible without major disturbances of acid-base and electrolyte status. Standard laboratory liver function parameters showed poor predictive capabilities regarding citrate accumulation in terms of an elevated Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5. In contrast, serum lactate ≥3.4 mmol/l and prothrombin time ≤26% predicted an increase in the Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5 with high sensitivity (86% for both lactate and prothrombin time) and specificity (86% for lactate, 92% for prothrombin time). Conclusions Despite substantial accumulation of citrate in serum, CVVHD with regional citrate

  16. [Dissolution of pancreatic calcifications with oral citrates in a woman with chronic idiopathic pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscanga, L; Galván Guerra, E; Robles-Díaz, G; Campuzano Fernández, M

    1992-01-01

    Pain control is one of the most important objectives in the medical treatment of patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis (CCP). It is generally accepted that pain in CCP is secondary to the obstruction of the pancreatic duct by calcifications, protein plugs and stenotic areas. Experimental studies have shown that calculi and protein plugs are soluble in citrates. We report here the case of a young non alcoholic woman with idiopathic CCP who after a pancreatojejunostomy developed again pain and pancreatic calcifications which were dissolved with oral citrates. The case confirms previous observations and illustrates the potential use of citrates in subjects with CCP.

  17. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Etienne

    Full Text Available Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  18. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of clomifene citrate, metformin, and pioglitazone versus letrozole, metformin, and pioglitazone for clomifene-citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-khayat, Waleed; Abdel Moety, Ghada; Al Mohammady, Maged; Hamed, Dalia

    2016-02-01

    To examine the efficacy of clomifene citrate, metformin, and pioglitazone versus letrozole, metformin, and pioglitazone among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) resistant to clomifene citrate. A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial of women younger than 40 years who had primary/secondary infertility associated with PCOS and had not ovulated in response to clomifene citrate regimens previously was conducted at a center in Cairo, Egypt, between August 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014. Computer-generated random number tables and opaque envelopes were used to assign participants to group A or group B. Participants allocated to group A received 100mg clomifene citrate daily for 5 days from the third day of the menstrual cycle, whereas those in group B received 5mg letrozole daily in the same regimen. All patients received 850 mg metformin and 15 mg pioglitazone for 10 days from the first day of the menstrual cycle. The primary outcome was cumulative ovulation rate. Analyses were by intention to treat. Fifty women were assigned to each group. Ovulation occurred in 108 (92.3%) of 117 cycles in group A and 93 (86.9%) of 107 cycles in Group B (P=0.184). Combined treatment with letrozole, metformin, and pioglitazone was efficacious among women with PCOS resistant to clomifene citrate. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01909141. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Titanium - ceramic restoration: How to improve the binding between titanium and ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Laksono

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Titanium alloys has been used as an alternative to nickel-chromium alloys for metal-ceramic restorations because of its good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. This indicated that it was possible to design coping according to standards established for metal-ceramics. However, titanium is chemically reacting strongly with gaseous elements which causes problems when ceramics are fused to titanium. Purpose: To provide information about improving the bonding between titanium and ceramic. Review: Titanium has two crystal modifications, the close-packed hexagonal (α structure, up to 880° C, and above this temperature the bodycentered cubic (β structure. The principal problems is the extensive dissolution of oxygen resulting in thick, oxygen-rich titanium layers called α-case that harms the bonding of ceramic to titanium and the great mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion of conventional ultra-low fusing ceramic. Methods have been developed for fusing ceramic to titanium like processing methods, the used of ultra-low fusing titanium ceramic, bonding agent, and protocol for ceramic bonding to titanium. Conclusion: Titanium and titanium alloys, based on their physical and chemical properties suitable for titanium-ceramic restorations, but careful selection of processing methods, ceramic materials, laboratory skill and strict protocol for ceramic bonding to titanium are necessary to improve the bonding between titanium and ceramic.Latar Belakang: Logam campur titanium telah dipakai sebagai salah satu bahan alternatif untuk logam nikel-krom pada pembuatan restorasi keramik taut logam karena mempunyai biokompatibilitas dan sifat mekanik yang baik. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa logam titanium dapat dipakai untuk pembuatan koping logam berdasarkan standar yang dipakai untuk pembuatan restorasi keramik taut logam. Meskipun, secara kimiawi logam titanium bereaksi dengan elemen-elemen gas yang menyebabkan masalah pada perlekatan

  1. Production of titanium from ilmenite: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, R.

    1981-12-01

    The general principles for beneficiation of titanium ores are reviewed and the specific processes used in individual units in various countries are discussed. This is followed by a critical evaluation of various current and potential reduction methods for the production of titanium metal from the processed concentrates. Finally, the report outlines a research program for the development of a commercially viable alternative method for the production of titanium metal.

  2. Towards a new titanium sector: Aerospace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sector: Aerospace 4th Biennial Conference Presented by: Dr Willie du Preez Director: Titanium Centre of Competence Date: 9 October 2012 Outline ? Why Titanium? ? The Opportunity for South Africa ? The SA Titanium Industry Strategy ? Primary... 3 USD/kg Ti Ti Powder 40 USD/kg Ti SA Opportunity ? Technology-led Industry Development ? CSIR 2012 Slide 9 Raw material Market 2nd largest Ti producer 3rd largest V producer Aerospace Automotive Medical Recreational Industrial Power...

  3. Cranioplasty with individual titanium implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishinov, S.; Stupak, V.; Sadovoy, M.; Mamonova, E.; Koporushko, N.; Larkin, V.; Novokshonov, A.; Dolzhenko, D.; Panchenko, A.; Desyatykh, I.; Krasovsky, I.

    2017-09-01

    Cranioplasty is the second procedure in the history of neurosurgery after trepanation, and it is still relevant despite the development of civilization and progress in medicine. Each cranioplasty operation is unique because there are no two patients with identical defects of the skull bones. The development of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technique opened up the possibility of direct implant printing of titanium, a biocompatible metal used in medicine. This eliminates the need for producing any intermediate products to create the desired implant. We have produced 8 patient-specific titanium implants using this technique for patients who underwent different decompressive cranioectomies associated with bone tumors. Follow-up duration ranged from 6 to 12 months. We observed no implant-related reactions or complications. In all cases of reconstructive neurosurgery we achieved good clinical and aesthetic results. The analysis of the literature and our own experience in three-dimensional modeling, prototyping, and printing suggests that direct laser sintering of titanium is the optimal method to produce biocompatible surgical implants.

  4. The impact of citrate introduction at UK syringe exchange programmes: a retrospective cohort study in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareing Michelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP function. Here, we examine whether the introduction of citrate in Cheshire and Merseyside SEPs has altered the number of heroin/crack injectors accessing SEPs, the frequency at which heroin/crack injectors visited SEPs and the number of syringes dispensed. Methods Eleven SEPs in Cheshire and Merseyside commenced citrate provision in 2003. SEP-specific data for the six months before and six months after citrate was introduced were extracted from routine monitoring systems relating to heroin and crack injectors. Analyses compared all individuals attending pre and post citrate and matched analyses only those individuals attending in both periods (defined as 'longitudinal attenders'. Non-parametric tests were used throughout. Results Neither new (first seen in either six months period nor established clients visited SEPs more frequently post citrate. New clients collected significantly less syringes per visit post citrate, than pre citrate (14.5,10.0; z = 1.992, P Conclusion The introduction of citrate did not negatively affect SEP attendance. 'Longitudinal attenders' visited SEPs more frequently post citrate, providing staff with greater opportunity for intervention and referral. As the number of syringes they collected each visit remained unchanged the total number of clean syringes made available to this group of injectors increased very slightly between the pre and post citrate periods. However, new clients collected significantly less syringes post citrate than pre citrate, possibly due to staff concerns regarding the amount of citrate (and thus syringes to dispense safely to new clients. These concerns should not be allowed to negatively impact on the number of syringes dispensed.

  5. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  6. Titanium Matrix Composite Pressure Vessel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For over 15 years, FMW Composite Systems has developed Metal Matrix Composite manufacturing methodologies for fabricating silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium...

  7. Appcelerator Titanium patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Pollentine, Boydlee

    2013-01-01

    The book takes a step-by-step approach to help you understand CommonJS and Titanium architecture patterns, with easy to follow samples and plenty of in-depth explanations If you're an existing Titanium developer or perhaps a new developer looking to start off your Titanium applications "the right way", then this book is for you. With easy to follow examples and a full step-by-step account of architecting a sample application using CommonJS and MVC, along with chapters on new features such as ACS, you'll be implementing enterprise grade Titanium solutions in no time. You should have some JavaSc

  8. A discrete neutral transition-metal citrate cubane with an M₄O₄ core; coordinative versatility of the [M(II)₄(citrate)₄]⁸⁻ fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvello, Larry R; Forcén-Vázquez, Elena; Palacio, Fernando; Sanz, Sergio; Tomás, Milagros

    2014-07-28

    The neutral cluster [Mn(II)8(citrate)4(H2O)18] is formed by the [M4(citrate)4](8-) fragment, with an Mn4O4 cubane core, which bonds four peripheral aquomanganese units--two [Mn(H2O)4](2+) and two [Mn(H2O)5](2+)--through a total of six metal-ligand bonds, giving a discrete neutral compound. The compound presents a unique coordination mode in which the citrate cubane acts as a chelate to each of the two peripheral [Mn(H2O)4](2+) (tetra-aquo) units. A detailed analysis of the central and peripheral geometries is given in terms of the tetrahedral distortions of key structural features. A reversible dehydration-rehydration process has been observed in a polycrystalline sample of the complex, whose structure lacks pores or channels.

  9. Tamoxifen citrate: a glimmer of hope for silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldas, Omer; Karaca, Turgut; Bilgin, Bulent Caglar; Yilmaz, Omer Hinc; Simsek, Gulcin Guler; Alici, Ibrahim Onur; Uzdogan, Andaç; Karaca, Nihal; Akin, Tezcan; Yoldas, Suna; Akbiyik, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of crystalline silica nanoparticles causes pulmonary damage resulting in progressive lung fibrosis. Currently, there is no effective treatment for silicosis. Tamoxifen citrate is a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which is one of the adjuvant treatment choices for breast cancer. It is also known with its inhibitory effect on the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and studied for the anti-fibrotic effect in some fibrotic diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of tamoxifen citrate on the prevention of pulmonary fibrosis and the treatment of silicosis. A total of 100 adult female Wistar Albino rats (200-250 g) were used in this study. The rats were divided into five groups including 20 rats in each. Rats were exposed to silica for 84 d in all groups. In group 1, rats were sacrificed on the day 84 without receiving treatment. In group 2, rats received 1 mg/kg tamoxifen (tmx1 + 1), from the first day of the study for the whole 114 d of the study. In group 3, (tmx10 + 10) rats were given 10 mg/kg tamoxifen from the first day of the study for the whole 114 d of the study. In group 4 (tmx1), rats were started 1 mg/kg of tamoxifen on day 84 and were given until day 114. In group 5 (tmx10), rats were fed with 10 mg/kg tamoxifen starting from day 84 to day 114. All rats except group 1 were sacrificed on 114 day of the study. Lung inflammation and fibrosis scores, serum TGF β levels, lung smooth muscle antigen and tissue transforming growth factor β (t-TGF-β) antibody staining levels, and number of silicotic rats were compared between groups. Silicosis was caused successfully in all rats in group 1. There were six silicotic rats in group 3 and it was the lowest number of all groups. Plasma TGF-ß levels and fibrosis score were significantly lower in all groups when compared with the control group. Tamoxifen could have preventive or treating effects in silicosis and found that lung fibrosis score was

  10. Closed circuit recovery of copper, lead and iron from electronic waste with citrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2017-02-01

    An integral closed circuit hydrometallurgical process is presented for base metal recovery from electronic waste. The leaching medium consists of a sodium citrate solution, from which base metals are retrieved by direct electrowinning, and the barren solution is recycled back to the leaching stage. This leaching-electrowinning cycle was repeated four times. The redox properties of the fresh citrate solution, as well as the leach liquors, were characterized by cyclic voltammetry to determine adequate conditions for metal reduction, as well as to limit citrate degradation. The leaching efficiency of electronic waste, employing the same solution after four complete cycles was 71, 83 and 94% for copper, iron and lead, respectively, compared to the original leach with fresh citrate solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intranasal Microemulsion of Sildenafil Citrate: In Vitro Evaluation and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Study in Rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Bendas, Ehab R; Mohamed, Osama H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare intranasal delivery system of sildenafil citrate and estimate its relative bioavailability after nasal administration in rabbits to attain rapid onset...

  12. Electrodeposition and characterisation of Ni/Cu nanostructured multilayers from citrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Meuleman, W R A

    2002-01-01

    A study of the effect of chemical and electrochemical parameters such as solution composition, pH, and current and potential waveforms on magnetic metal multi-layers plated from citrate electrolytes was carried out. Until now, magnetic multilayers have usually been electrodeposited mainly form sulfamate electrolytes; far less information is available on Cu-Ni multilayers obtained from citrate electrolytes. Since copper is deposited at its diffusion limiting current during multilayer deposition from citrate electrolytes, a rotating disc electrode study was carried out. It was found that the apparent diffusion coefficient changes significantly depending on the citrate ion concentration and pH, indicating the importance of metal speciation. In order to identify the rate controlling species, speciation calculations were carried out in order to model the dependence of the limiting current on the solution composition. The model is based on the assumption that complexes in solution are either labile or inert. A vert...

  13. Atomic force microscopy reveals hydroxyapatite-citrate interfacial structure at the atomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenge; Pan, Haihua; Cai, Yurong; Tao, Jinhui; Liu, Peng; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2008-11-04

    An approach to organic-inorganic interfacial structure at the atomic level is a great challenge in the studies of biomineralization. We demonstrate that atomic force microscopy (AFM) is powerful tool to discover the biomineral interface in detail. By using a model system of (100) hydroxyapatite (HAP) face and citrate, it reveals experimentally that only a side carboxylate and a surface calcium ion are involved in the binding effect during the citrate adsorption, which is against the previous understandings by using Langmuir adsorption and computer simulation. Furthermore, the adsorbed citrate molecules can use their free carboxylate and hydroxyl groups to be self-assembled on the HAP surface. AFM examination also finds that the presence of citrate molecules on the HAP crystal faces can enhance the adhesion force of the HAP surface. We suggest that the established AFM method can be used for a precise and direct understanding of biointerfaces at the atomic level.

  14. Effect of temperature on copper, iron and lead leaching from e-waste using citrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robinson; Segura-Bailón, Brenda; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2018-01-01

    E-waste is a potential source of large quantities of metals. The ability of citrate solutions to recover base metals from these materials has been demonstrated. In the present study, the effect of the temperature on base metal leaching capacity by the citrate solutions is determined. The material employed consisted of a mechanically prepared, gravity concentrated e-waste, with a metallic content greater than 90%. The leaching conditions were selected based on previous research performed by the authors (0.5 M sodium citrate, pH 4.5 and 20 g per liter e-waste concentrate). Leaching tests were performed at temperatures between 0° and 70 °C. The initial leaching rates for the three metals increased with temperature. However, these tapered off with time for temperatures above 30 °C, which can be associated to citrate destruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DnaK protein alleviates toxicity induced by citrate-coated gold nanoparticles in Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makumire, Stanley; Revaprasadu, Neerish; Shonhai, Addmore

    2015-01-01

    ... (called DnaK in prokaryotes) is one of the most prominent molecular chaperones. Since gold nanoparticles exhibit chaperone-like function in vitro, we investigated the effect of citrate-coated gold nanoparticles on the growth of E...

  16. Citrate salts for preventing and treating calcium containing kidney stones in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rebecca; Hanchanale, Vishwanath S; Myatt, Andy; Somani, Bhaskar; Nabi, Ghulam; Biyani, C Shekhar

    2015-10-06

    Kidney stones affect people worldwide and have a high rate of recurrence even with treatment. Recurrences are particularly prevalent in people with low urinary citrate levels. These people have a higher incidence of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate stones. Oral citrate therapy increases the urinary citrate levels, which in turn binds with calcium and inhibits the crystallisation thus reduces stone formation. Despite the widespread use of oral citrate therapy for prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stones, the evidence to support its clinical efficacy remains uncertain. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy and adverse events associated with citrate salts for the treatment and prevention of calcium containing kidney stones. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 29 July 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy and adverse events associated with citrate salts for the treatment and prevention of calcium containing kidney stones in adults treated for a minimum of six months. Two authors assessed studies for inclusion in this review. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. We included seven studies that included a total of 477 participants, most of whom had oxalate stones. Of these, three studies (247 participants) compared potassium citrate with placebo or no intervention; three (166 participants) compared potassium-sodium citrate with no intervention; and one (64 participants) compared potassium-magnesium citrate with placebo. Overall, quality of the reporting of the included studies was considered moderate to

  17. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: uptake of iron from ferric citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messenger, A.J.M.; Ratledge, C.

    1982-01-01

    In mycobacterial growth medium 40 to 400 ..mu..M citrate was required to solubilize 2 ..mu..M /sup 55/Fe. This solubilized /sup 55/Fe was taken up into both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient washed cell suspensions of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Although the /sup 55/Fe was taken up into the cell, the citrate was not. The uptake system with M. smegmatis was not inhibited by electron transport inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, or thiol reagents and was saturable with iron at approximately 35 ..mu..M. The system was independent of the iron transport systems already known to exist in M. smegmatis: i.e., the two exochelin routes of assimilation as well as the mycobactin-salicylate system. It was not induced by the presence of 400 ..mu..M citrate in the growth medium, nor did the presence of citrate in the medium affect the production of either exochelin or mycobactin.

  18. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary flow in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Nehra, Ajay; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary function in normal subjects. The study assessed mean blood pressure, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow, and echocardiographic variables before and 30 and 60 minutes after taking 50 mg of sildenafil citrate. The mean velocity of LAD flow was assessed with Doppler flow imaging. The study subjects were 6 healthy male volunteers (mean age 37 years). The mean velocity of LAD flow increased 60 minutes after taking sildenafil citrate, but there were no other changes. Two volunteers felt mild flashing and one had mild headache during the study. Sildenafil citrate caused vasodilatation in a normal coronary artery without systemic pressure drops. These results suggest that the agent itself did not have negative effects on the heart in normal subjects.

  19. Vocational Training and European Standardisation of Qualifications: The Case of Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Joachim; Ourtau, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Initiatives to standardise the conditions for practising certain regulated activities are being taken at European level, particularly in light of the free movement of people and the recognition of qualifications in Member states. This paper looks at the introduction of european licences for aircraft maintenance engineers. It follows an in-depth…

  20. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  1. Euthanatics: implementation of a protocol to standardise euthanatics among pharmacists and GPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, B.D.; Muller, M.T.; van der Wal, G.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a protocol to standardise euthanatics among pharmacists and general practitioners (GPs). Data over 1993 and 1994 were collected by means of an anonymous postal questionnaire sent to all pharmacists (n = 37) and all GPs (n = 283) working

  2. A review of imaging protocols for suspected skeletal dysplasia and a proposal for standardisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Sarah G. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey (United Kingdom); Calder, Alistair D. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Offiah, Amaka C. [Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, The University of Sheffield Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Negus, Samantha [St George' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Expert radiology opinions are often requested to aid diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias or dysostoses, but due to variability in the imaging protocols used at different centres the views presented may be considered inadequate or incomplete resulting in diagnostic delays and increased patient and family anxiety. We propose the introduction of a standardised protocol that may be adapted in certain specific situations. (orig.)

  3. Standardising the Chinese Language in Singapore: Issues of Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Guowen; Zhao, Shouhui

    2017-01-01

    The selection of standards and norms constitutes the first and most important step for language standardisation. In this paper, we examine the standard establishment for Huayu (or Singapore Mandarin), a new Chinese variety that has emerged in Singapore as a result of centralised planning and inter-linguistic contact. Huayu is the officially…

  4. Walking and Talking with Living Texts: Breathing Life against Static Standardisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise Gwenneth; Willis, Linda-Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Current educational reform, policy and public discourse emphasise standardisation of testing, curricula and professional practice, yet the landscape of literacy practices today is fluid, interactive, multimodal, ever-changing, adaptive and collaborative. How then can English and literacy educators negotiate these conflicting terrains? The nature…

  5. Letter to the Editor: Standardised use of the terms “sedentary” and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letter to the Editor: Standardised use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviours”. M Tremblay. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  6. Students' Interpersonal Trust and Attitudes towards Standardised Tests: Exploring Affective Variables Related to Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Man-Wai; Guo, Qi; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and psychometric variables have directed research on student test performance. However, student learning involves a substantial affective component. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between two kinds of affective variables--interpersonal trust and attitudes towards standardised tests--likely to underlie student…

  7. The Impact of Mobile Learning on Student Performance as Gauged by Standardised Test (NAPLAN) Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Steven; Bate, Frank; Macnish, Jean

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the National Assessment Program for Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) performance of Years Five, Seven and Nine students in standardised tests prior and post the implementation of a mobile learning initiative in a Western Australian school for boys. The school sees the use of ICT as important in enhancing its potential to deliver…

  8. Reproducibility of non-standardised autonomic function testing in the pre-operative assessment screening clinic*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keet, S W M; Bulte, C S E; Boer, C; Bouwman, R A

    2011-01-01

    By convention, autonomic function tests are undertaken under standard test conditions that limit their implementation during routine pre-operative assessment. We therefore evaluated the comparability of autonomic function tests under both non-standardised and standardised test conditions in 20 healthy male subjects. Autonomic function was assessed using an ECG monitor and a continuous non-invasive blood pressure measurement device. Under non-standardised conditions, intraclass correlation for heart rate variability analysis was good for the low and high frequency bands (0.87; 95% CI 0.58-0.96 and 0.83; 95% CI 0.56-0.94, respectively), but moderate (0.65; 95% CI 0.14-0.86) for the very low frequency band; reproducibility was high for the expiration/inspiration ratio (0.89; 95% CI 0.71-0.96), Valsalva ratio (0.76; 95% CI 0.37-0.91) and handgrip test (0.76; 95% CI 0.35-0.91) (all pstandardised conditions was comparable to the above values. We demonstrated that reproducibility for most autonomic tests under non-standardised conditions is acceptable and suggest that implementation of these tests during pre-operative assessment may be feasible. © 2010 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Standardisation and Diversity in International Assessments: Barking up the Wrong Tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, César

    2017-01-01

    This article organises potential areas of criticism or challenges embedded in the design and administration of standardised assessments of learning levels in order to promote dialogue and research on educational assessments. The article begins by addressing debates around epistemological claims: issues that pertain to testing in general and issues…

  10. Trends in Examination Performance and Exposure to Standardised Tests in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George

    2016-01-01

    Schools in England and Wales since the late 1980s have been compared in terms of their performances in public examinations and standardised test scores in the form of "school league tables", with Wales ceasing to produce these after 2001. One of the factors related to performance in examinations is the choice of the examination board,…

  11. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore...

  12. The Misdirection of Public Policy: Comparing and Combining Standardised Effect Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Increased attention on "what works" in education has led to an emphasis on developing policy from evidence based on comparing and combining a particular statistical summary of intervention studies: the standardised effect size. It is assumed that this statistical summary provides an estimate of the educational impact of interventions and…

  13. Pressure-standardised mammography does not affect visibility, contrast and sharpness of stable lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J. E.; Hopman, I. G. M.; van Lier, M. G. J. T. B.; Branderhorst, W.; Grimbergen, C. A.; den Heeten, G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A recent technological development allows pressure-standardised mammography by personalizing the compression force to the breast size and firmness. The technique has been shown to reduce pain and compression variability between consecutive exams, but also results in a slightly thicker

  14. European seroepidemiology network 2: Standardisation of assays for seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ory, Fernando de; Echevarría, José Manuel; Kafatos, George; Anastassopoulou, Cleo; Andrews, Nick; Backhouse, Josephine; Berbers, Guy A M; Bruckova, Blazena; Cohen, Daniel I; Melker, Hester E de; Davidkin, Irja; Gabutti, Giovanni; Hesketh, Louise M; Johansen, Kari; Jokinen, Sari; Jones, Lindsay; Linde, Anika; Miller, Elisabeth; Mossong, Joël; Nardone, Anthony; Rota, Maria Cristina; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Schneider, François; Smetana, Zahava; Tischer, Annedore; Tsakris, Athanassios; Vranckx, Robert

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN2) is to harmonise the serological surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To allow comparison of antibody prevalence in different countries by standardising results into common units. STUDY DESIGN: For

  15. Effectiveness of a standardised oral Vitamin D dosing regimen for somatic and psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toren-Wielema, M.L.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Kappelle, J.W.; Veeger, N.J.G.M.; Van Roon, E.N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in nursing home residents (NHR) ranges from 79 to 98%. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of a standardised oral Vitamin D dosing regimen (VDDRI consisting of a loading dose (ID) of 200,000 IU followed by a maintenance dose (MD) of 100.000 IU every

  16. The Political Economy of E-Learning Educational Development Strategies, Standardisation and Scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Jacqueline; Hermens, Antoine; Clarke, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The development of e-learning by government through policy, funding allocations, research-based collaborative projects and alliances has increased recently in both developed and under-developed nations. The paper notes that government, industry and corporate users are increasingly focusing on standardisation issues and the scalability of…

  17. The Knowledge Work of Professional Associations: Approaches to Standardisation and Forms of Legitimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerland, Monika; Karseth, Berit

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how professional associations engage themselves in efforts to develop, regulate and secure knowledge in their respective domains, with special emphasis on standardisation. The general emphasis on science in society brings renewed attention to the knowledge base of professionals, and positions professional bodies as key…

  18. Tensions and Fissures: The Politics of Standardised Testing and Accountability in Ontario, 1995-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While Ontario has received international accolades for its enactment of province-wide standardised testing upon the formation of the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), a closer look at provincial assessments over a 20-year span reveals successes as well as systemic tensions and fissures. The purpose of this paper is twofold.…

  19. WoSIS: providing standardised soil profile data for the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.; Carvalho Ribeiro, E.D.; Oostrum, van A.J.M.; Leenaars, J.G.B.; Hengl, T.; Mendes de Jesus, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the World Soil Information Service (WoSIS) is to serve quality-assessed, georeferenced soil data (point, polygon, and grid) to the international community upon their standardisation and harmonisation. So far, the focus has been on developing procedures for legacy point data with special

  20. Problematising the Standardisation of Leadership and Management Development in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…

  1. The Copenhagen Standardised MRI protocol to assess the pubic symphysis and adductor regions of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund

    2015-01-01

    radiologists developed an 11-element MRI evaluation protocol defined according to precise criteria and illustrated in a pictorial atlas. Eighty-six male athletes (soccer players and non-soccer players) underwent standardised 3 Tesla MRI of the pelvis. Two external musculoskeletal radiologists were trained...

  2. A process-stakeholder analysis of B2B industry standardisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodon, J.; Ramis-Pujol, J.; Christiaanse, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Interoperability standards are a crucial aspect in the development of B2B e-business. The aim of this paper is to understand how standardisation evolves by analysing the interplay between activities and stakeholders within the process. Unlike most of the IS research that focuses on the

  3. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Chun eSu; Zhiwei eXie; Yi eZhang; Kytai Truong Nguyen; Jian eYang

    2014-01-01

    Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controlla...

  4. Citrate anticoagulation for CRRT: don't always trust the postfilter iCa results!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Ostermann, Marlies

    2015-12-04

    Citrate has been recommended as the first-line anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients. Compared with heparin, citrate anticoagulation is safer and more efficacious. Citrate inhibits the coagulation cascade by lowering the ionized calcium (iCa) concentration in the filter. Monitoring of systemic iCa concentrations is inherent to the protocol, and monitoring of postfilter iCa is recommended to adjust citrate flow and optimize anticoagulation. While systemic iCa targets are in the physiological range, postfilter iCa concentrations are targeted between 0.20 and 0.35 mmol/l. In a previous issue of Critical Care, Schwarzer et al. compared systemic and postfilter iCa measurements of patients receiving citrate-based CRRT between six devices. They highlight the unreliability of iCa concentrations in the postfilter range, because the instruments cannot be validated in the low iCa range. The maximum mean difference between two instruments was as high as 0.33 mmol/l (range 0.21-0.50 mmol/l). The authors call for dialysis companies to revise their protocols. However, the first implication of their study is that the accuracy of blood gas analyzers to measure iCa in the low range needs to improve; and, secondly, clinicians using citrate anticoagulation need to be aware that the postfilter iCa result may be falsely high or low. This is particularly relevant when frequent premature filter clotting is observed despite postfilter iCa results in the seemingly target range. In these situations, citrate flow can be safely increased up to 4 mmol/l blood flow under monitoring of signs of citrate accumulation.

  5. Testosterone restoration using enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism: a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiehle, Ronald; Cunningham, Glenn R; Pitteloud, Nelly; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Fontenot, Gregory K; Rosner, Michele; Dwyer, Andrew; Podolski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the pharmacodynamic profile of serum total testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in men with secondary hypogonadism after initial and chronic daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate vs transdermal testosterone. To determine the effects of daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate in comparison with transdermal testosterone on other hormones and markers in men with secondary hypogonadism. Patients and Methods This was a randomized, single-blind, two-centre, p...

  6. [Cloning and tissue expression pattern analysis of the human citrate synthase cDNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Yu, L; Han, X F; Fu, Q; Zhang, J X; Tang, H; Zhao, S Y

    2000-09-01

    Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is an important way to generate ATP, which is widely distributed in the cells of animal, plant or microorganism. It catalyses the catabolism of sugar as well as protein and fat. Citrate synthase plays a key role in regulating TCA cycle and is responsible for catalysing the synthesis of citrate from oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA. Screening of genomic informatics was performed by using pig citrate synthase cDNA as a probe and a contig which is 1636 bp long and has highly homologous to the pig citrate synthase cDNA was obtained from selected ESTs with the ASSEMBLY program. According to the sequence of this contig, a pair of primers was designed and used to amplify cDNA libraries. A 1492 bp cDNA containing an open reading frame encoding 466 amino acids was cloned from human testis and skeletal muscle cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA showed 95%, 92% and 60.9% identity to pig, chicken and yeast citrate synthase respectively. Because the deduced amino acids sequence contains a highly conserved motif of citrate synthase from three different species, it is believed that this cDNA may be a transcript of human citrate synthase gene. Northern analysis showed that the human citrate synthase was expressed at high level in heart and muscle, at middle level in brain, kidney and pancreas tissues, not detectable in thymus and small intestine tissues, and at low level in other nine tested human tissues.

  7. Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data we...

  8. Effects of citrate on hexavalent chromium reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Dong, Hailiang; Yang, Xuewei; Kovarik, Libor; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Iron-bearing clay minerals and organic matter are two important components in natural environments that influence hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction. Previous studies have shown that organic ligands could influence Cr(VI) reduction by aqueous Fe2+ and pyrite. However, the effects of organic ligands on Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in clays are not well understood. In this study, the effects of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction by nontronite (NAu-2) were investigated under near neutral pH condition (pH=6). Our results showed that the presence of citrate decreased the rate but increased the amount of Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in NAu-2. The decreased reaction rate was likely due to competitive sorption of citrate and polyanionic dichromate (Cr2O7- ), because sorption of dichromate appeared to be the first step for subsequent Cr(VI) reduction. The increased amount of Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of citrate was likely because citrate provided additional reducing power through ligand-metal electron transfer in the presence of soluble Fe 3+ derived from dissolution of reduced NAu-2. Soluble Cr(III)-citrate complex was the possible form of reduced chromium when citrate was present. In contrast, nanometer-sized Cr2O3 particles were the product of Cr(VI) reduction by reduced NAu-2 without citrate. Our study highlights the importance of organic ligands on Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization when iron-bearing clay minerals are applied to treat Cr(VI) contaminant in organic matter rich environments.

  9. Striving for best practice: standardising New Zealand nursing procedures, 1930-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Pamela J; Nelson, Katherine

    2013-11-01

    To identify how nurses in the past determined best practice, using the context of New Zealand, 1930-1960. In the current context of evidence-based practice, nurses strive to provide the best care, based on clinical research. We cannot assume that nurses in the past, prior to the evidence-based practice movement, did not also have a deliberate process for pursuing best practice. Discovering historical approaches to determining best practice will enrich our understanding of how nurses' current efforts are part of a continuing commitment to ensuring quality care. Historical research. The records of the Nursing Education Committee of the New Zealand Registered Nurses' Association, 1940-1959, and the 309 issues of New Zealand's nursing journal, Kai Tiaki, 1930-1960, were analysed to identify the profession's approach to ensuring best practice. This approach was then interpreted within the international context, particularly Canada and the USA. For nearly 30 years, nurse leaders collaborated in undertaking national surveys of training hospitals requesting information on different nursing practices. They subsequently distributed instructions for a range of procedures and other aspects of nursing care to standardise practice. Standardising nursing care was an effective way to ensure quality nursing at a time when hospital care was delivered mostly by nurses in training. The reasons for and timing of standardisation of nursing care in New Zealand differed from the international move towards standardisation, particularly in the USA. Historically, nurses also pursued best practice, based on standardising nursing procedures. Examining the antecedents of the present evidence-based approach to care reminds us that the process and reasons for determining best practice change through time. As knowledge and practice continually change, current confident assertions of best practice should and will continue to be challenged in future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Some Mechanical and Ballistic Properties of Titanium and Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-03-07

    unalloyed, commercially pure titanium have lIdicated that this material has a high strength/weight ratio. This would make it of value to the Ordnance...SA’r f J., VE ,’SV SUVh .( A. IN VIG. 6 AFt(A NC.R;’..ING £4. V -6 1 C.-’ I ’NdC.. 𔃺 C) 𔃺 𔃽 N Alp ’:7, 7 A T A- -C.. C 4C I At LY PLqF 71

  11. Clomiphene citrate treatment for late onset hypogonadism: rise and fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Marcelo; Souper, Renato; Hartmann, Jonathan; Alvarez, Matías; Fuentes, Ignacio; Guarda, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Previous series have demonstrated that Clomiphene Citrate (CC) is an effective treatment to increase Total Testosterone (TT) in Late Onset Hypogonadism (LOH) patients. However, what happens to TT levels after ending CC treatment is still debatable. The objective of this study is to evaluate TT levels 3 months after the discontinuation of CC in patients with LOH who were previously successfully treated with the same drug. Twenty-seven patients with LOH that were successfully treated (achieved TT levels >11nmol/l) with CC 50mgs daily for 50 days were prospectively recruited in our Andrological outpatient clinic. CC was then stopped for 3 months and TT levels were measured at the end of this period. Mean TT level before discontinuation of CC was 22.7±8.1nmol/L (mean±SD). Three months after discontinuation, mean TT level significantly decreased in all pa¬tients, 10.2±3.9nmol/l (p < 0.01). Twenty-one patients (78%) decreased TT levels under 11nmol/L. Six patients (22%) had TT levels that remained within the normal recommended range (≥11nmol/l). No statistical significant differences were observed between both groups. In the short term LOH does not seem to be a reversible condition in most patients after CC treatment. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to evaluate the kinetics of TT in LOH. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  12. Compartmentation of ATP:citrate lyase in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, D; Ratledge, C

    2000-04-01

    Extracts prepared from young leaves of Pea (Pisum sativum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), rape (Brassica napus), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) all contained ATP:citrate lyase (ACL) activity, which was most active in rape leaflets (130 nmol min(-1) g fresh weight). In rape and spinach, ACL activity was predominantly localized in the plastids (between about 78% and 90% of the total activity), whereas in pea and tobacco, distribution was mainly cytosolic (about 85% and 78%, respectively, of the total). These distributions were calculated from the relative distributions of plastid and cytosol marker enzymes. Cross-reactivity between plant and rat ACL antibody was carried out by immunoblot analysis and, in rape and spinach, showed that a 120-kD protein, presumably indicating homomeric ACL proteins, was present in both cytosolic and plastidic fractions. In pea, two cross-reacting proteins were detected, the major material being in the cytosol fraction. Therefore, ACL occurs both in the cytosol and plastids of higher plants, but the distribution of activity changes according to the species. The plastidic ACL is proposed to function for the supply of acetyl-coenzyme A for lipid biosynthesis de novo, whereas the cytosolic ACL may provide acetyl-coenzyme A for the mevalonate pathway or fatty acid elongation.

  13. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70, previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g. Cacit (0.25% and TMP (0.25% were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

  14. Pseudohypernatremia secondary to trisodium citrate (Citra-LockTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliere, Janice; Corriveau, Daryl; Parmar, Malvinder S

    2016-01-01

    Hypernatremia is common among hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units and presents an independent risk factor for mortality. Mild hypernatremia is often asymptomatic but severe hypernatremia causes central nervous system dysfunction with initial non-specific symptoms of encephalopathy that may progress to seizures, coma and death, if left untreated. Severe hypernatremia is a medical emergency and requires emergent medical attention. A haemodialysis patient who arrived for his scheduled haemodialysis treatment had monthly blood work drawn and was reported to have severe hypernatremia with serum sodium concentration of 183 mmol/L. The possibility of technique or laboratory error was considered and systematically evaluated. The serum sodium measurement using another analyser showed similar value of 182 mmolL. A repeat serum sodium level on a sample drawn 2 h later showed normal value of 139-140 mmol/L. A step-wise evaluation of the complete procedure from blood collection to analysis of the sample revealed this to be spuriously elevated serum sodium concentration secondary to contamination of the sample during sample collection with trisodium citrate, a catheter-lock solution, commonly used in dialysis units to maintain patency of dialysis catheters. Spuriously elevated plasma sodium concentration (pseudohypernatremia) of mild degree is common but severe pseudohypernatremia is rare and the possibility of sample contaminations or laboratory error should be considered. Vigilance is required by both the medical and the laboratory staff to resolve such issues in a timely fashion to avoid unintended consequences.

  15. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Aghanejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (68Ga citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC, chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS, radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe, and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC, specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM, chemical purity (Sn, FeConclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country.

  16. Transport of citrate across renal brush border membrane: effects of dietary acid and alkali loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A.D.; Dousa, T.P.; Smith, L.H.

    1985-10-01

    Dietary acid or alkali loading was given to rats by providing 150 mM NH4Cl or 150 mM NaHCO3 in place of drinking water for 6 days; control animals received 150 mM NaCl. After 6 days, the citrate clearance was 0.04 +/- 0.01 ml/min (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 0.9 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control group, and 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min in the alkali-loaded group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed, and the Na gradient-dependent citrate uptake was measured in brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from each group. At 0.3 min, the ( UC)citrate uptake was 198 +/- 8 pmol/mg protein (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 94 +/- 16 pmol/mg protein in the control group, and 94 +/- 13 pmol/mg protein in the alkali-loaded group. The rate of Na -independent (NaCl in medium replaced by KCl) ( UC)-citrate uptake by BBM vesicles was the same for acid-loaded, control, and alkali-loaded animals. Thus, the increased capacity of the proximal tubular BBM to transport citrate from the tubular lumen into the cell interior may be an important factor that contributes to decreased urinary citrate in the presence of metabolic acidosis induced by chronic dietary acid loading.

  17. Is it safe to prescribe clomiphene citrate without ultrasound monitoring facilities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coughlan, C

    2010-05-01

    The majority of triplet and higher order multiple pregnancies now result from ovulation induction\\/superovulation rather than in vitro fertilisation. However, clomiphene citrate is still widely prescribed by gynaecologists and general practitioners who do not have access to ultrasound monitoring. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of multifollicular development with different doses of clomiphene citrate. A retrospective review of transvaginal ultrasound monitoring of 425 cycles in 182 women receiving clomiphene citrate from January 2002 to December 2003, was studied. Three or more follicles of >or= 14 mm were identified in 58 cycles (14%). Patients received 50 mg of clomiphene citrate in 52 of these 58 cycles and 25 mg in the remaining six. One patient was noted to have developed five follicles and 10 patients developed four follicles. One patient developed six follicles, despite receiving only 25 mg clomiphene citrate daily. It was concluded that a significant number of women (14%) developed three or more follicles, despite receiving low doses of clomiphene citrate.

  18. Preparation and Quality Control of (68)Ga-Citrate for PET Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghanejad, Ayuob; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Ardaneh, Khosro; Bolourinovin, Fatemeh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Samani, Ali Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 ((8)Ga) citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, by applying an in-house produced (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of (68)Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. (68)GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC), chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS), radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe), and breakthrough. (68)Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted (68)GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. (68)Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC), specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM), chemical purity (Sn, Fequality control of (68)Ga-citrate, using a commercially available (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country.

  19. Spirocyclic character of ixazomib citrate revealed by comprehensive XRD, NMR and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorepova, Eliska; Čerňa, Igor; Vlasáková, Růžena; Zvoníček, Vít; Tkadlecová, Marcela; Dušek, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Ixazomib citrate is a very recently approved anti-cancer drug. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, no one has been able to solve any crystal structures of this compound. In this work, we present the crystal structures of two isostructural solvates of ixazomib citrate. In all currently available literature, the molecule is characterized as containing a single optically active carbon atom and a borate cycle formed when ixazomib is reacted with citric acid to form a stabilized ixazomib citrate that can be administered orally. However, the crystal structures revealed that none of the up-to-date presented structural formulas of ixazomib citrate are fully accurate. In addition to the citrate ring, another 5-membered ring is formed. These two rings are connected by the boron atom, making this compound a spirocyclic borate. By spirocyclization, the boron atom becomes tetrahedral and therefore optically active. In the crystal structures, ixazomib citrate was found to be in forms of two RR and RS stereoisomers. The results are supported by solid-state and solution NMR and DFT quantum mechanical calculations.

  20. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) enhances vasodilatation by atrial natriuretic peptide in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Seward, James B; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2007-12-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, which might enhance the vasorelaxant and natriuretic actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with heart failure. The objective of this study was to examine the combined effect of Viagra on hemodynamic changes during infusion of exogenous ANP. Healthy male beagles were used to assess systemic blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and plasma levels of cGMP. After hemodynamic variables were measured, 0.1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) of ANP was given during this study. One hour after initiating infusion of ANP, 2 mg/kg of sildenafil citrate or vehicle was given orally via a nasogastric tube. Hemodynamic changes were measured before and 1 h after these administrations. Mean systemic and PAP decreased during infusion of ANP, and further decreased after sildenafil citrate administration, however, mean systemic blood pressure decreased within 10 mmHg. Plasma levels of cGMP also increased after sildenafil citrate administration. In normal dogs, sildenafil citrate enhances the vasodilator effect of ANP by increasing the cGMP level, however, the concomitant use of sildenafil citrate with ANP will not induce severe hypotension.

  1. Characterisation of titanium tetrachloride and titanium sulfate flocculation in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okour, Y; Shon, H K; El Saliby, I

    2009-01-01

    Flocculation with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl(4)) and titanium sulfate (Ti(SO(4))(2)) was investigated in terms of different coagulant doses, pH, turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-254, colour, zeta potential, particle size and molecular weight distribution. The two coagulants were compared with the commonly used coagulants such as ferric chloride (FeCl(3)) and aluminium sulfate (Al(2)(SO(4))(3)). Titanium tetrachloride showed the highest turbidity removal, while titanium sulfate showed the highest reduction of UV-254 and colour at all pH values. The four coagulants were found to have similar organic removal up to 60-67% and resulted in similar organic removal in terms of various MW ranges. The decantability of the settled flocs was very high for titanium tetrachloride, titanium sulfate and ferric chloride compared with aluminium sulfate. The dominating coagulation mechanisms for titanium tetrachloride and titanium sulfate are still to be studied, since different precipitation reactions might take place at different pH even without flocculant addition. Titanium tetrachloride and titanium sulfate were found as effective new coagulants in wastewater treatment not only in terms of organic matter removal, but also in sludge reduction through the production of titanium dioxide.

  2. Durability of polyimide to titanium bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Bhowmik, S.; Ernst, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are usually bonded together using a high temperature resistant polyimide or epoxy adhesives. Such adhesives can withstand temperatures from 200°C to300°C. Earlier research work indicates that Surface modification of titanium with mechanical treatment and atmospheric pressure

  3. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1990-07-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99% gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  4. [Dental welding titanium and its clinical usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Xiao, M; Zhao, Y

    1998-09-01

    Due to its excellent biocompatibility, desirable chemical and mechanical properties, Titanium has been used for implant denture, RPD and FPD, where welding techniques were indispensable. This paper introduces 5 useful modern ways to weld Titanium and their clinical usage. They are: laser, plasma welding, TIG, infraned brazing and Hruska electrowelding.

  5. Amorphouslike diffraction pattern in solid metallic titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.; Fang, Y.Z.; Kikegawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphouslike diffraction patterns of solid elemental titanium have been detected under high pressure and high temperature using in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction and a multianvil press. The onset pressure and the temperature of formation of amorphous titanium is found to be close to th...

  6. Mineral resource of the month: titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Titanium is hip - at least when it comes to airplanes and jewelry. Known for its high strength-to weight ratio and its resistance to corrosion, titanium and its alloys can also be found in everything from knee replacements to eyeglass frames to baseball bats to fighter planes.

  7. Appcelerator Titanium business application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Presented in easy to follow, step by step recipes, this guide is designed to lead you through the most important aspects of application design.Titanium developers who already have a basic knowledge of working with Appcelerator Titanium but want to further develop their knowledge for use with business applications

  8. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D. K.; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  9. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Qi, Junlei; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2014-01-01

    Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials. PMID:28788113

  10. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Qi, Junlei; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2014-06-25

    Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing-microstructure-property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.

  11. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.

  12. Stress-corrosion cracking of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, M. J.; Feeney, J. A.; Beck, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    In the light of research material published up to May 1970, the current understanding of the experimental variables involved in the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of titanium and its alloys is reviewed. Following a brief summary of the metallurgy and electrochemistry of titanium alloys, the mechanical, electrochemical, and metallurgical parameters influencing SCC behavior are explored with emphasis on crack growth kinetics. Macro- and microfeatures of fractures are examined, and it is shown that many transgranular SCC failures exhibit morphological and crystallographic features similar to mechanical cleavage failures. Current SCC models are reviewed with respect to their ability to explain the observed SCC behavior of titanium and its alloys. Possible methods for eliminating or minimizing stress corrosion hazards in titanium or titanium alloy components are described.

  13. Weld-brazing of titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Arnold, W. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A joining process, designated weld-brazing, which combines resistance spotwelding and brazing has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Resistance spot-welding is employed to position and align the parts and to establish a suitable faying surface gap for brazing; it contributes to the integrity of the joint. Brazing enhances the properties of the joint and reduces the stress concentrations normally associated with spotwelds. Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy joints have been fabricated using 3003 aluminum braze both in a vacuum furnace and in a retort containing an inert gas environment.

  14. A COMPARISON OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND SEQUENTIAL CLOMIPHENE CITRATE PLUS HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPIN FOR USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rashidi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There are currently ‎many different protocols in use for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, but the optimal method has ‎not yet been determined. To compare the outcome of COH using ‎clomiphene citrate (CC versus CC plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in conjunction with intrauterine insemination (IUI, we studied 117 infertile couples‎. IUI with CC was used in 92 cycles ‎(group A and IUI with CC plus hMG was used in 66 cycles (group B. ‎Data analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the two ‎groups with respect to patients’ age, duration and type of infertility, prior COH and endometrial thickness and pattern. Group A had a little ‎longer follicular phase length than group B. ‎Pregnancy rate for group A and B were 6.52% and 12.12%, respectively (P= 0.22. ‎Endometrial pattern and thickness had no impact on pregnancy rate. ‎There were no multiple gestation and obvious hyperstimulation syndrome. ‎For patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with IUI, ‎CC plus hMG protocol yields higher pregnancy rate than one using CC, although this ‎difference was not statistically significant because of limitation of number of ‎cycles.

  15. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of titanium oxide and sulfated titanium oxide obtained by thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Esteban Benito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the synthesis of titanium oxide (TiO2 and sulfated titanium oxide (TiO2-SO4(2- obtained by thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride. Titanium hydroxide synthesized by this method was impregnated with a 1 N H2SO4 solution, to give amounts of sulfate ions (SO4(2- of 3 and 7 wt%. The synthesized samples were dried at 120 °C during 24 h and then calcined for 3 h at 400 °C. Thermal analyses, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, infrared spectroscopy, potentiometric titration with n-butylamine, U.V.-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the materials. The results of physicochemical characterization revealed that a mixture of crystalline structures, anatase, brookite and rutile developed in the titanium oxide, stabilizing the anatase structure in the sulfated titanium oxides, and coexisting with a small amount of brookite structure. The synthesized mesoporous materials developed specific surface areas between 62 and 70 m² g-1, without detecting an important influence of sulfation on this parameter. The presence of sulfate ions improved the acidity of titanium oxide and modified the characteristics of light absorption in the 425-600 nm region, which suggests the possibility of using these materials in reactions assisted by visible light.

  16. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahor, Samuel K., E-mail: samuel.kumahor@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Hron, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hron@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, Raum 422, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Vogel, Hans-Jörg, E-mail: hans-joerg.vogel@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO{sub 3} as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the

  17. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger, E-mail: inger.vikholm-lundin@uta.fi [University of Tampere, BioMediTech, Tampere (Finland); Fimlab Laboratories Ltd., Tampere (Finland); Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri [Abo Akademi University, Center for Functional Materials, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Finland); Munter, Tony [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Process Chemistry end Environmental Engineering, Tampere (Finland); Honkimaa, Anni [University of Tampere, Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Tampere (Finland); Marjomäki, Varpu [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Nanoscience Center, Jyväskylä (Finland); Albers, Willem M. [BioNavis Oy Ltd., Ylöjärvi, Tampere (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko [Abo Akademi University, Center for Functional Materials, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Finland)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The self-assembled layers were all hydrophilic with Lipa-pTHMMAA exhibiting close to full wetting. • The polyacrylamide layers smoothen the gold surface to a higher extent than the polyethylene glycol and lipoic acid terminated with an amino group. • SPR resonance curves shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. • Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. • By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface. - Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more

  18. The effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on visual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Andrew; Sharpe, Lindsay T; Tufail, Adnan; Kell, Philip D; Ripamonti, Caterina; Jeffery, Glen

    2007-06-08

    The erectile dysfunction medicine sildenafil citrate (Viagra) inhibits phosphodiesterase type 6 (PDE6), an essential enzyme involved in the activation and modulation of the phototransduction cascade. Although Viagra might thus be expected to impair visual performance, reports of deficits following its ingestion have so far been largely inconclusive or anecdotal. Here, we adopt tests sensitive to the slowing of the visual response likely to result from the inhibition of PDE6. We measured temporal acuity (critical fusion frequency) and modulation sensitivity in four subjects before and after the ingestion of a 100-mg dose of Viagra under conditions chosen to isolate the responses of either their short-wavelength-sensitive (S-) cone photoreceptors or their long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive (L- and M-) cones. When vision was mediated by S-cones, all subjects exhibited some statistically significant losses in sensitivity, which varied from mild to moderate. The two individuals who showed the largest S-cone sensitivity losses also showed comparable losses when their vision was mediated by the L- and M-cones. Some of the losses appear to increase with frequency, which is broadly consistent with Viagra interfering with the ability of PDE6 to shorten the time over which the visual system integrates signals as the light level increases. However, others appear to represent a roughly frequency-independent attenuation of the visual signal, which might also be consistent with Viagra lengthening the integration time (because it has the effect of increasing the effectiveness of steady background lights), but such changes are also open to other interpretations. Even for the more affected observers, however, Viagra is unlikely to impair common visual tasks, except under conditions of reduced visibility when objects are already near visual threshold.

  19. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of titanium-tantalum alloy versus titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, H; Pellen-Mussi, P; Cathelineau, G; Bonnaure-Mallet, M

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of a new titanium-tantalum alloy, with qualities superior to titanium alone, for use in oral implantology, fibroblast and epithelial cell lines were grown on plastic, titanium, copper, and titanium-tantalum supports. Studies using scanning electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity assays were conducted to compare the different supports. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed high densities of fibroblasts and epithelial cells with well-developed attachment systems in the form of cytoplasmic projections. Cell densities were lower on titanium and titanium-tantalum surfaces than on plastic. Cell numbers, as determined by cytotoxicity assays, were significantly higher on plastic than on titanium or titanium-tantalum surfaces while fibroblasts proliferated better than epithelial cells on both metal surfaces. Flow cytometric analyses of cell cycles did not reveal any significant variations in the distribution of cells among the cycle phases on the three materials. We found no differences with regard to the parameters studied between titanium and the titanium-tantalum alloy.

  20. Citrate-Permeable Channels in the Plasma Membrane of Cluster Roots from White Lupin1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Ryan, Peter R.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is well adapted to phosphorus deficiency by developing cluster roots that release large amounts of citrate into the rhizosphere to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphorus. To determine the mechanism underlying citrate release from cluster roots, we isolated protoplasts from different types of roots of white lupin plants grown in phosphorus-replete (+P) and phosphorus-deficient (−P) conditions and used the patch-clamp technique to measure the whole-cell currents flowing across plasma membrane of these protoplasts. Two main types of anion conductance were observed in protoplasts prepared from cluster root tissue: (1) an inwardly rectifying anion conductance (IRAC) activated by membrane hyperpolarization, and (2) an outwardly rectifying anion conductance (ORAC) that became more activated with membrane depolarization. Although ORAC was an outward rectifier, it did allow substantial inward current (anion efflux) to occur. Both conductances showed citrate permeability, with IRAC being more selective for citrate3− than Cl− (PCit/PCl = 26.3), while ORAC was selective for Cl− over citrate (PCl/PCit = 3.7). Both IRAC and ORAC were sensitive to the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These currents were also detected in protoplasts derived from noncluster roots of −P plants, as well as from normal (noncluster) roots of plants grown with 25 μm phosphorus (+P). No differences were observed in the magnitude or frequency of IRAC and ORAC currents between the cluster roots and noncluster roots of −P plants. However, the IRAC current from +P plants occurred less frequently than in the −P plants. IRAC was unaffected by external phosphate, but ORAC had reduced inward current (anion efflux) when phosphate was present in the external medium. Our data suggest that IRAC is the main pathway for citrate efflux from white lupin roots, but ORAC may also contribute to citrate efflux. PMID:15516510

  1. Localization of the calcium-regulated citrate transport process in proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M; Hamm, L Lee

    2014-06-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium-stone formation. Most of the citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical >basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However, by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles.

  2. Secreted Citrate Serves as Iron Carrier for the Marine Pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp damselae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Balado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photobacterium damselae subsp damselae (Pdd is a Vibrionaceae that has a wide pathogenic potential against many marine animals and also against humans. Some strains of this bacterium acquire iron through the siderophore vibrioferrin. However, there are virulent strains that do not produce vibrioferrin, but they still give a strong positive reaction in the CAS test for siderophore production. In an in silico search on the genome sequences of this type of strains we could not find any ORF which could be related to a siderophore system. To identify genes that could encode a siderophore-mediated iron acquisition system we used a mini-Tn10 transposon random mutagenesis approach. From more than 1,400 mutants examined, we could isolate a mutant (BP53 that showed a strong CAS reaction independently of the iron levels of the medium. In this mutant the transposon was inserted into the idh gene, which encodes an isocitrate dehydrogenase that participates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The mutant did not show any growth impairment in rich or minimal media, but it accumulated a noticeable amount of citrate (around 7 mM in the culture medium, irrespective of the iron levels. The parental strain accumulated citrate, but in an iron-regulated fashion, being citrate levels 5–6 times higher under iron restricted conditions. In addition, a null mutant deficient in citrate synthase showed an impairment for growth at high concentrations of iron chelators, and showed almost no reaction in the CAS test. Chemical analysis by liquid chromatography of the iron-restricted culture supernatants resulted in a CAS-positive fraction with biological activity as siderophore. HPLC purification of that fraction yielded a pure compound which was identified as citrate from its MS and NMR spectral data. Although the production of another citrate-based compound with siderophore activity cannot be ruled out, our results suggest that Pdd secretes endogenous citrate and use it for

  3. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Tadhg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. Study Design Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. Results Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  4. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  5. Standardised procedures can improve the validity of susceptibility testing of uropathogenic bacteria in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, L; Grinsted, P; Petersen, P H; Søgaard, P

    2000-12-01

    To investigate whether the validity of susceptibility testing in general practice would improve when preceded by an intervention. Instruction in standardised susceptibility testing procedures given by laboratory instructors. Urine specimens containing monocultures of typical uropathogenic bacteria were sent to 23 general practices before and after the intervention. Practices performed susceptibility testing by the Sensicult and the Iso-Res agar methods and the validity of the results before and after the intervention was compared. Results from susceptibility testing at the bacteriological laboratory, Odense University Hospital, were used as gold standard. The median frequency of correct results increased from 82% to 98% for susceptibility testing based on Sensicult (p = 0.001) and from 90% to 96% based on Iso-Res agar (p = 0.05). The validity of susceptibility testing in general practice improves when preceded by instruction in standardised procedures.

  6. The Dibber: Designing a standardised handheld tool for lay-up tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helene; Roudaut, Anne; Chatzimichali, Anna; Potter, Kevin; Ward, Carwyn

    2017-11-01

    We present an application of engineering and ergonomics principles in the design of a standardised tool, The Dibber, which is a tool with multiple geometric features to fit the diversity of lay-up tasks used in the composites industry. The Dibber is the result of a design process, which consists of a series of observations and prototyping to extract geometric requirements for lay-up tasks. To demonstrate that it is possible to design a standardised tool prototypes of the Dibber were distributed and 91 participants gave feedback. Our results are positive and show consistent patterns of use across industry sectors, as well as between novice and expert laminators. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Respiratory rates measured by a standardised clinical approach, ward staff, and a wireless device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, A; Pedersen, N E; Lippert, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory rate is among the first vital signs to change in deteriorating patients. The aim was to investigate the agreement between respiratory rate measurements by three different methods. METHODS: This prospective observational study included acutely admitted adult patients...... in a medical ward. Respiratory rate was measured by three methods: a standardised approach over 60 s while patients lay still and refrained from talking, by ward staff and by a wireless electronic patch (SensiumVitals). The Bland-Altman method was used to compare measurements and three breaths per minute (BPM...... of agreement were -13.3 (95% CI: -17.2 to -9.5) BPM and 16.8 (95% CI: 13.0 to 20.6) BPM. CONCLUSION: A concerning lack of agreement was found between a wireless monitoring system and a standardised clinical approach. Ward staff's measurements also seemed to be inaccurate....

  8. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore......-culturally adapt this version into Danish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An English test protocol was developed and translated into Danish at two independent centres according to international recommendations. Consensus on a preliminary version was achieved. The subjective part was tested on six patients, while two...... physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. RESULTS: Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic...

  9. Intensity standardisation of 7T MR images for intensity-based segmentation of the human hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schindler

    Full Text Available The high spatial resolution of 7T MRI enables us to identify subtle volume changes in brain structures, providing potential biomarkers of mental disorders. Most volumetric approaches require that similar intensity values represent similar tissue types across different persons. By applying colour-coding to T1-weighted MP2RAGE images, we found that the high measurement accuracy achieved by high-resolution imaging may be compromised by inter-individual variations in the image intensity. To address this issue, we analysed the performance of five intensity standardisation techniques in high-resolution T1-weighted MP2RAGE images. Twenty images with extreme intensities in the GM and WM were standardised to a representative reference image. We performed a multi-level evaluation with a focus on the hypothalamic region-analysing the intensity histograms as well as the actual MR images, and requiring that the correlation between the whole-brain tissue volumes and subject age be preserved during standardisation. The results were compared with T1 maps. Linear standardisation using subcortical ROIs of GM and WM provided good results for all evaluation criteria: it improved the histogram alignment within the ROIs and the average image intensity within the ROIs and the whole-brain GM and WM areas. This method reduced the inter-individual intensity variation of the hypothalamic boundary by more than half, outperforming all other methods, and kept the original correlation between the GM volume and subject age intact. Mixed results were obtained for the other four methods, which sometimes came at the expense of unwarranted changes in the age-related pattern of the GM volume. The mapping of the T1 relaxation time with the MP2RAGE sequence is advertised as being especially robust to bias field inhomogeneity. We found little evidence that substantiated the T1 map's theoretical superiority over the T1-weighted images regarding the inter-individual image intensity

  10. Desmopressin in haemophilia: The need for a standardised clinical response and individualised test regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, S C M; Schütte, L M; Leebeek, F W G; Cnossen, M H; Kruip, M J H A

    2017-06-21

    Due to interindividual variation in desmopressin response, non-severe haemophilia A patients require desmopressin testing prior to therapeutic treatment. However, adequate response or frequency of blood sampling is not standardised in international guidelines. Consequently, various definitions and blood sampling protocols are currently applied. Interestingly, sustainability of desmopressin response is not incorporated into these definitions. To study desmopressin response rates in a cohort of non-severe haemophilia A patients using currently accepted desmopressin response definitions. This, in order to formulate a standardised, uniform response which includes information on sustainability and to design a standardised blood sampling protocol. Currently used desmopressin responses in non-severe haemophilia A patients were derived from a literature search. Actual desmopressin response rates were individualised in 105 non-severe HA patients from the Erasmus University Medical Centre and classified according to current varying definitions. Five response definitions were evaluated, three of which included only factor VIII (FVIII):C cut-off levels and two also incorporated FVIII:C-fold increase over baseline. C-fold increase showed no association with desmopressin response sustainability. C 1 hour after infusion (standardised desmopressin response based on clinically relevant FVIII:C levels, e.g. 0.30 and 0.50 IU/mL. In addition, patients with <0.30 IU/mL FVIII:C after 1 hour (non-responder) or ≥0.80 IU/mL (sustained responder) do not require subsequent blood sampling. However, patients with ≥0.30-0.79 IU/mL FVIII:C after 1 hour should undergo blood sampling after 6 hours to additionally determine response sustainability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. WoSIS: providing standardised soil profile data for the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batjes, Niels H.; Ribeiro, Eloi; van Oostrum, Ad; Leenaars, Johan; Hengl, Tom; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the World Soil Information Service (WoSIS) is to serve quality-assessed, georeferenced soil data (point, polygon, and grid) to the international community upon their standardisation and harmonisation. So far, the focus has been on developing procedures for legacy point data with special attention to the selection of soil analytical and physical properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications (e.g. organic carbon, soil pH, soil texture (sand, silt, and clay), coarse fragments ( Profile data managed in WoSIS were contributed by a wide range of soil data providers; the data have been described, sampled, and analysed according to methods and standards in use in the originating countries. Hence, special attention was paid to measures for soil data quality and the standardisation of soil property definitions, soil property values, and soil analytical method descriptions. At the time of writing, the full WoSIS database contained some 118 400 unique shared soil profiles, of which some 96 000 are georeferenced within defined limits. In total, this corresponds with over 31 million soil records, of which some 20 % have so far been quality-assessed and standardised using the sequential procedure discussed in this paper. The number of measured data for each property varies between profiles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Overall, the data lineage strongly determined which data could be standardised with acceptable confidence in accord with WoSIS procedures, corresponding to over 4 million records for 94 441 profiles. The publicly available data - WoSIS snapshot of July 2016 - are persistently accessible from ISRIC WDC-Soils through doi:10.17027/isric-wdcsoils.20160003.

  12. The influence of standardisation and task load on team coordination patterns during anaesthesia inductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala-Mezö, E; Wacker, J; Künzle, B; Brüesch, M; Grote, G

    2009-04-01

    The use of different forms of coordination according to situational demands plays a crucial role in teams working in complex environments. This study aimed to describe patterns of coordinative actions (CAs) as they occur during anaesthesia induction and to analyse the influence of two crucial situational factors on these patterns, namely the amount of existing standards and the level of task load. 23 anaesthesia inductions were videotaped, and CAs of the anaesthesia teams were coded. The coding system distinguished between implicit and explicit coordination, coordination via leadership and heedful inter-relating as the individual effort to reach smooth coordination. Five phases within anaesthesia inductions were determined according to their level of standardisation and task load. Overall, 67.7% of all CAs were rated as explicit CA and 32.3% as implicit CAs. When we considered the duration of those CAs, we found the reverse tendency (coordination was explicit 40% of the time and implicit 60% of the time). In highly standardised phases, we observed less explicit coordination, less leadership behaviour and less heedful interrelating compared with less standardised phases. In high-task-load phases, we observed more heedful interrelating than in low-task-load phases. The anaesthesia teams relied greatly on implicit coordination, which contrasts with findings indicating a performance benefit through explicit coordination in other work settings. Standardisation in the form of written departmental directives may have a supportive effect on coordination by partially substituting for other forms of coordination. The effect of high task load should be tested further in a simulator setting, where high task load can be induced in a more controlled fashion.

  13. A CAN Solution Supporting Satcom Payload Evolution: Design, Validation and Standardisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes-Lasnet, Sev; Furano, Gianluca; Vidaud, Olivier; Dalenq, Jean; Notebaert, Olivier

    2011-08-01

    The optimisation of telecom satellites payload through the use of efficient standard serial buses is under renewed interest especially as harness optimisation together with the ability to accommodate complex payload are key competitivity drivers. CAN has been selected as suitable for payload architecture upgrade, and further to an architecture demonstration is under full electrical characterisation and deployment. The satcom CAN will benefit from ECSS standardisation insuring harmonisation of CAN implementations in European space projects, and reduced engineering effort for interface development and compatibility.

  14. Standardisation and measurement of the decay scheme data of 237Np

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods; Woods; de Lavison P; Jerome; Makepeace; Woods; Husband; Lineham

    2000-03-01

    Within the framework of a EUROMET project, a solution of 237Np/233Pa at equilibrium has been standardised by 4pi(PC)-gamma counting. An intrinsic Ge spectrometer was employed to measure relevant gamma-ray emission probabilities. Good agreement was obtained for those pertaining to the decay of 233Pa, but not for the gamma-ray emissions following the decay of 237Np. The cause of such discrepancies is discussed.

  15. Strategic Standardisation of Smart Systems: Roadmapping Process in Support of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jae-Yun; O'Sullivan, Eoin

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.04.014 With increasing awareness among policymakers and other stakeholders of the importance of standards in supporting innovation, many national governments and standards organisations are taking strategic foresight approaches to standardisation . This is especially the case for ICT-based ‘smart systems’, where an increasing number of different technologies and ...

  16. Standardised criteria improve accuracy of ECG interpretation in competitive athletes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel J; Elley, C Raina; Fulcher, Mark L; Lee, Arier C; Drezner, Jonathan A; Asif, Irfan M

    2014-08-01

    Screening to prevent sudden cardiac death remains a contentious topic in sport and exercise medicine. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of a standardised criteria tool improves the accuracy of ECG interpretation by physicians screening athletes. Design: Randomised control trial. Study Population: General practitioners with an interest in sports medicine, sports physicians, sports medicine registrars and cardiologists from Australia and New Zealand were eligible to participate. Outcome Measures: Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and false-positive rates of screening ECG interpretation of athletes. Intervention: A two-page standardised ECG criteria tool was provided to intervention participants. Control participants undertook 'usual' interpretation. 62 physicians, with a mean duration of practice of 16 years, were randomised to intervention and control. 10 baseline and 30 postrandomisation athlete ECGs were interpreted by the participants. Intervention participants were more likely to be correct: OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.31 to 2.27, pathletes can be improved by using a standardised ECG criteria tool. Use of the tool results in lower false-positive rates; this may have implications for screening recommendations. ACTRN12612000641897. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Towards standardised evaluative measurement of nature impacts: two spatial planning case studies for major Dutch lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Puijenbroek, P J T M; Sijtsma, F J; Wortelboer, F G; Ligtvoet, W; Maarse, M

    2015-02-01

    In the assessment of complex spatial planning projects, the ecological impacts and socio-economic impacts are fundamental to the evaluation. The measurements of ecological impacts of spatial plans have to be integrated in a standardised way. In the present paper, we analyse two Dutch case studies and apply the standardised Threat-Weighted Ecological Quality Area measurement. This measurement is developed to evaluate projects with terrestrial impacts but has not yet been applied for water evaluations. We aim to show how the use of a common measurement tool incorporates both ecological quality and degree of threat on criteria in the EU Water Framework Directive and Nature 2000. The measurements discussed here derive from two cases of cost-benefit analysis: The first case is the Markermeer, the second largest lake of The Netherlands, and a study on water quality improvement and nature restoration; an artificial island will also be the setting for a new residential area. The second case study is on water level management carried out on the IJsselmeer, the largest lake in the country. Results of our analysis show the potential impacts with a standardised method to the spatial distribution and quality of the ecosystems.

  18. Mortality measurement in transition: proof of principle for standardised multi-country comparisons*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottrell, Edward; Kahn, Kathleen; Ng, Nawi; Sartorius, Benn; Huong, Dao Lan; Van Minh, Hoang; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Byass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the viability and value of comparing cause-specific mortality across four socioeconomically and culturally diverse settings using a completely standardised approach to VA interpretation. Methods Deaths occurring between 1999 and 2004 in Butajira (Ethiopia), Agincourt (South Africa), FilaBavi (Vietnam) and Purworejo (Indonesia) health and socio-demographic surveillance sites were identified. VA interviews were successfully conducted with the caregivers of the deceased to elicit information on signs and symptoms preceding death. The information gathered was interpreted using the InterVA method to derive population cause-specific mortality fractions for each of the four settings. Results The mortality profiles derived from 4784 deaths using InterVA illustrate the potential of the method to characterise sub-national profiles well. The derived mortality patterns illustrate four populations with plausible, markedly different disease profiles, apparently at different stages of health transition. Conclusions Given the standardised method of VA interpretation, the observed differences in mortality cannot be because of local differences in assigning cause of death. Standardised, fit-for-purpose methods are needed to measure population health and changes in mortality patterns so that appropriate health policy and programmes can be designed, implemented and evaluated over time and place. The InterVA approach overcomes several longstanding limitations of existing methods and represents a valuable tool for health planners and researchers in resource-poor settings. PMID:20701726

  19. Building Information Modelling and Standardised Construction Contracts: a Content Analysis of the GC21 Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Manderson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modelling (BIM is seen as a panacea to many of the ills confronting the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC sector. In spite of its well documented benefits the widespread integration of BIM into the project lifecycle is yet to occur. One commonly identified barrier to BIM adoption is the perceived legal risks associated with its integration, coupled with the need for implementation in a collaborative environment. Many existing standardised contracts used in the Australian AEC industry were drafted before the emergence of BIM. As BIM continues to become ingrained in the delivery process the shortcomings of these existing contracts have become apparent. This paper reports on a study that reviewed and consolidated the contractual and legal concerns associated with BIM implementation. The findings of the review were used to conduct a qualitative content analysis of the GC21 2nd edition, an Australian standardised construction contract, to identify possible changes to facilitate the implementation of BIM in a collaborative environment. The findings identified a number of changes including the need to adopt a collaborative contract structure with equitable risk and reward mechanisms, recognition of the model as a contract document and the need for standardisation of communication/information exchange.

  20. XML-based clinical data standardisation in the National Health Service Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Bunduchi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to clarify the role that socio-economic factors played in shaping the development of XML-based clinical data standards in the National Health Service in Scotland from 2000 to 2004. The paper discusses the NHS Scotland approach to clinical data standardisation, emphasising the actors involved, their choices during the standard development process and the factors that have shaped these choices. The case suggests that the NHS Scotland approach to clinical data standardisation is shaped by strong political pressures for fast development of an integrated electronic patient care system, economic pressures for high efficiency and cost reductions, and organisational requirements for strong clinical support. Such economic, political and organisational pressures explain the informal approach to standard development, the emphasis on fast system development and strong clinical involvement. At the same time, market factors explain the low commitment of the IT vendors, which might have otherwise put significant pressure onNHSScotland to pursue a more formalised standardisation approach within an internationally recognised standard-setting body.

  1. IT-supported skill-mix change and standardisation in integrated eyecare: lessons from two screening projects in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen de Mul

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information Technology (IT has the potential to significantly support skill-mix change and, thereby, to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of integrated care. Theory and methods: IT and skill-mix change share an important precondition: the standardisation of work processes. Standardisation plays a crucial role in IT-supported skill-mix change. It is not a matter of more or less standardisation than in the ‘old’ situation, but about creating an optimal fit. We used qualitative data from our evaluation of two integrated-care projects in Dutch eyecare to identify domains where this fit is important. Results: While standardisation was needed to delegate screening tasks from physicians to non-physicians, and to assure the quality of the integrated-care process as a whole, tensions arose in three domains: the performance of clinical tasks, the documentation, and the communication between professionals. Unfunctional standardisation led to dissatisfaction and distrust between the professionals involved in screening. Discussion and conclusion: Although the integration seems promising, much work is needed to ensure a synergistic relationship between skill-mix change and IT. Developing IT-supported skill-mix change by means of standardisation is a matter of tailoring standardisation to fit the situation at hand, while dealing with the local constraints of available technology and organisational context.

  2. Titanium Coating of the Boston Keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Culla, Borja; Jeong, Kyung Jae; Kolovou, Paraskevi Evi; Chiang, Homer H; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H; Kohane, Daniel S

    2016-04-01

    We tested the feasibility of using titanium to enhance adhesion of the Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), ultimately to decrease the risk of implant-associated complications. Cylindrical rods were made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), PMMA coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) over a layer of polydopamine (PMMATiO2), smooth (Ti) and sandblasted (TiSB) titanium, and titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox and TiSBox). Topography and surface chemistry were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adhesion force between rods and porcine corneas was measured ex vivo. Titanium sleeves, smooth and sandblasted, were inserted around the stem of the B-KPro and implanted in rabbits. Tissue adhesion to the stem was assessed and compared to an unmodified B-Kpro after 1 month. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated successful deposition of TiO2 on polydopamine-coated PMMA. Oxygen plasma treatment did not change the XPS spectra of titanium rods (Ti and TiSB), although it increased their hydrophilicity. The materials did not show cell toxicity. After 14 days of incubation, PMMATiO2, smooth titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox), and sandblasted titanium rods (TiSB, TiSBox) showed significantly higher adhesion forces than PMMA ex vivo. In vivo, the use of a TiSB sleeve around the stem of the B-KPro induced a significant increase in tissue adhesion compared to a Ti sleeve or bare PMMA. Sandblasted titanium sleeves greatly enhanced adherence of the B-KPro to the rabbit cornea. This approach may improve adhesion with the donor cornea in humans as well. This approach may improve adhesion with donor corneas in humans.

  3. Citrate compared to low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M J; Deegens, J K; Kapinga, T H; Beukhof, J R; Huijgens, P C; van Loenen, A C; van der Meulen, J

    1996-03-01

    Citrate and nadroparin calcium, a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), were compared in a randomized cross-over trial in 21 chronic hemodialysis patients regarding anticoagulation, calcium and magnesium kinetics, biocompatibility, dialysis efficiency, and aluminum contamination. Citrate was infused into the arterial line at a minimum rate of 0.68 mmol/min, combined with a calcium and magnesium-free dialysate and intravenous supplementation of calcium and magnesium at rates of 0.22 and 0.10 mmol/min, respectively. Seven patients with a dialysis session of six hours, received 2/3 of the nadroparin dose predialysis, and 1/3 after 2.5 hours (divided dose (DD) group). A single predialysis bolus injection of nadroparin was administered to eight patients not on coumarins [single dose (SD) group] and to six patients on coumarins [single dose + coumarins (SD + C) group], all with a dialysis session of four hours. Nineteen patients received a nadroparin dose of 200 ICU/kg. Two patients with a single dose, one of them on coumarins, received a dose of 150 ICU/kg because of a hematocrit containing 1.5 mmol/liter calcium and 0.75 mmol/liter magnesium used in combination with nadroparin. Ionized calcium increments during citrate were significant after the end of dialysis, while the dialysate containing 1.5 mmol/liter calcium induced significant increments during and postdialysis. No differences were observed between citrate and nadroparin regarding biocompatibility), (expressed as dialysis-induced leukopenia and thrombocytopenia), and dialysis efficiency [measured as dialyzer urea and creatinine clearance, normalized weekly whole body urea clearance (Kt/Vurea) and time averaged urea concentration (TACurea)]. The citrate solution, if sterilized in glass bottles, contained 2 to 3 micrograms aluminum per mmol citrate, the nadroparin solution 0.009 microgram per 1,000 ICU. Aluminum contamination of the citrate solution was prevented by sterilizing the solution in polypropylene

  4. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  5. [The surface roughness analysis of the titanium casting founding by a new titanium casting investment material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-ye; Wu, Xia-yi; Lin, Xue-feng

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the surface roughness property of the titanium castings cast in a new investment for titanium casting. Six wax patterns (20 mm × 20 mm × 0.5 mm) were invested using two investments: three in a new titanium investment material and three in the control material (Rematitan Plus). Six titanium specimens were obtained by conventional casting. After casting, surface roughness of the specimens were evaluated with a surface profilometer. The surface roughness of the specimens cast in new titanium investment material was (1.72 ± 0.08) µm, which was much smaller than that from Rematitan Plus [(1.91 ± 0.15) µm, P cast using these two investment materials are both smooth enough to fulfill the demand of the titanium precision-casting for prosthodontic clinical use.

  6. Selection of crucible oxides in molten titanium and titanium aluminum alloys by thermo-chemistry calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and its alloys interstitially dissolve a large amount of impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen, which degrade the mechanical and physical properties of alloys. On the other hand crucible oxides based on CaO, ZrO2 Y2O3, etc., and their spinels (combination of two or more oxides can be used for melting titanium and its alloys. However, the thermodynamic behavior of calcium, zirconium, yttrium on the one side, and oxygen on the other side, in molten Ti and Ti-Al alloys have not been made clear and because of that, it is very interesting for research. Owing of literature data, as well as these crucibles are cheaper than standard crucibles for melting titanium and titanium alloys, in this paper will be presented the results of selection of thermo-chemistry analysis with the aim to determine the crucible oxide stability in contact with molten titanium and titanium-aluminum alloys.

  7. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lee-Chun; Xie, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yi; Nguyen, Kytai Truong; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate) showed ~70-80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20 and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that the citrate-based polymers are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired.

  8. Ferric Citrate Hydrate as a Phosphate Binder and Risk of Aluminum Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferric citrate hydrate was recently approved in Japan as an oral phosphate binder to be taken with food for the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. The daily therapeutic dose is about 3 to 6 g, which comprises about 2 to 4 g of citrate. Oral citrate solubilizes aluminum that is present in food and drinking water, and opens the tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing aluminum absorption and urinary excretion. In healthy animals drinking tap water, oral citrate administration increased aluminum absorption and, over a 4-week period, increased aluminum deposition in brain and bone by about 2- and 20-fold, respectively. Renal excretion of aluminum is impaired in patients with chronic kidney disease, thereby increasing the risk of toxicity. Based on human and animal studies it can be surmised that patients with CKD who are treated with ferric citrate hydrate to control hyperphosphatemia are likely to experience enhanced absorption of aluminum from food and drinking water, thereby increasing the risk of aluminum overload and toxicity.

  9. Ferric citrate hydrate as a phosphate binder and risk of aluminum toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ajay

    2014-09-26

    Ferric citrate hydrate was recently approved in Japan as an oral phosphate binder to be taken with food for the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The daily therapeutic dose is about 3 to 6 g, which comprises about 2 to 4 g of citrate. Oral citrate solubilizes aluminum that is present in food and drinking water, and opens the tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing aluminum absorption and urinary excretion. In healthy animals drinking tap water, oral citrate administration increased aluminum absorption and, over a 4-week period, increased aluminum deposition in brain and bone by about 2- and 20-fold, respectively. Renal excretion of aluminum is impaired in patients with chronic kidney disease, thereby increasing the risk of toxicity. Based on human and animal studies it can be surmised that patients with CKD who are treated with ferric citrate hydrate to control hyperphosphatemia are likely to experience enhanced absorption of aluminum from food and drinking water, thereby increasing the risk of aluminum overload and toxicity.

  10. Comparison of 24-hour urinary citrate excretion in stone formers and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor in stone formers (SF. This study aimed to measure the urinary citrate excretion in SF and healthy volunteers at our center from 12 June 2008 to 20 August 2009. There were 28 SF patients (18 males and ten females and 27 (18 males and nine females age-matched healthy adult volunteers who participated in this study. Both groups had a similar living environment, extrinsic factors, diet and genetic descent. After collecting 24-h urine, citrate was measured using an enzymatic kit. Routine urinalysis and 24-h creatinine and uric acid were also performed. There was a significant difference in urinary citrate excretion level among SF (mean 310, SD 260 mg/L and normal volunteer subjects (mean 800, SD 300 mg/L. By applying the previously defined normal values (320 mg/24 h of urinary citrate in the local population, 43% of the SF in our study group was hypocitric, and none among the controls. We conclude that prevalence of hypocitraturia in stone formers was higher than that in healthy volunteers in our population.

  11. Sodium citrate blood contamination by K2 -ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): impact on routine coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, G; Salvagno, G L; Danese, E; Favaloro, E J; Guidi, G C; Lippi, G

    2015-06-01

    The potential cross-contamination of additives between primary blood tubes is a well-known problem during sample collection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of citrated blood contamination with different amounts of dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic (K2 EDTA blood) on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen. Blood was collected from 15 ostensibly healthy volunteers into four 0.109 m citrate blood tubes followed by one K2 EDTA blood tube. The citrate tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in five aliquots. The whole blood of the K2 EDTA tube was then added in scalar amounts to autologous citrated blood aliquots, to obtain K2 EDTA contamination ranging from 0% to 43%, and thus mimic potential pre-analytical contamination. A statistically and clinically significant prolongation was observed for both APTT and PT between 29% and 43% K2 EDTA contamination, whereas the decrease of fibrinogen values became statistically and clinically significant at 43% K2 EDTA contamination. The results of this investigation show that contamination of citrated blood with as much as 29% of K2 EDTA blood generates a significant bias in results of routine clotting assays. This has serious implications for patient safety and management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of topically applied sildenafil citrate on wound healing: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Gürsoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex process that necessitates organization of different cell types and several signalling molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sildenafil citrate, which decreases cGMP degradation, on wound healing by secondary intention.This study was performed using 25 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 grams. 4 dorsal defects were created. Four different treatment modalities which were 1% and 5% sildenafil citrate gel prepared with carbopol, pure carbopol gel without any drug in it and 0,9% NaCl solution; were applied to each lesion of the same rat. Randomly selected five rats (25 rats in total were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 14th days; and the effect of each modality was evaluated by means of defect area measurement, histopathological examination and measurement of tissue hydroxyproline levels.Sildenafil citrate gel application decreased the defect areas in a dose independent manner starting from 3rd day and dose dependent manner after 7th day. By means of vascularization, sildenafil citrate increased vascularity starting from 3rd day. The strength of acute inflammation was superior in sildenafil groups starting from 5th day; and the amount and maturation of granulation in the wound bed, as well as the strength of chronic inflammation were superior in defects treated with sildenafil citrate as early as 7th day.

  13. Effects of commercial citrate-containing juices on urolithiasis in a Drosophila model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yi Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet modification plays an important role in nephrolithiasis. Development of an easy, ready-to-use beverage such as a commercial juice drink to use as a preventive treatment for renal calculi formation would be widely welcomed. We previously developed a novel Drosophila model for the study of nephrolithiasis. It provides a new well-established drug discovery platform for this common disease. In our current study, we used the Drosophila model to investigate the preventive effects of various commercial juices as potential treatments for nephrolithiasis. Our results showed that apple, cranberry, orange, and pomegranate juices failed to reduce calcium oxalate (CaOx crystal formation, whereas our positive control—potassium citrate (K-citrate—significantly prevented CaOx crystal formation. Unlike the commercial fruit juices that were tested, the administration of K-citrate significantly ameliorated the ethylene glycol (EG-induced life-span reduction in treated flies. These results indicate that EG-induced CaOx nephrolithiasis in Drosophila can be prevented by K-citrate, but not by commercial citrate-containing juices. However, the inhibitory capability of citrate-containing juices to reduce renal stone formation in humans requires further elucidation.

  14. Concentration of citrate in the mammary secretion of sows during lactogenesis II and established lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M A; Hartmann, P E

    1993-08-01

    The functional significance of citrate in the mammary secretion of six sows was investigated during the second stage of lactogenesis (lactogenesis II) and established lactation. The changes in the concentrations of progesterone and lactose in the maternal blood, and lactose, Na and K in the mammary secretion, suggested that lactogenesis II began during the final day of pregnancy. The concentration of citrate in the mammary secretion of the sows during lactogenesis II was high and varied from 5.4 (SEM 0.5) mM at day 0.5 post partum to 6.8 (SEM 0.4) mM at day 1.5 post partum. There was a decline of approximately 30% in the concentration of citrate in the milk of sows during the first week of lactation. These findings suggest that, in contrast to all other species studied previously, milk citrate is not a harbinger of lactogenesis II in the sow. However, the changes in the concentration of citrate in the mammary secretions of sows may reflect changes in the rate of de novo synthesis of fatty acids that take place in the mammary glands of sows during lactogenesis II and established lactation.

  15. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lee-Chun; Xie, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yi; Nguyen, Kytai Truong; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate) showed ~70–80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20 and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that the citrate-based polymers are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired. PMID:25023605

  16. Effect of topically applied sildenafil citrate on wound healing: experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Koray; Oruç, Melike; Kankaya, Yüksel; Ulusoy, M. Gürhan; Koçer, Uğur; Kankaya, Duygu; Gürsoy, R. Neslihan; Çevik, Özge; Öğüş, Elmas; Fidanci, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that necessitates organization of different cell types and several signalling molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sildenafil citrate, which decreases cGMP degradation, on wound healing by secondary intention. This study was performed using 25 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 grams. 4 dorsal defects were created. Four different treatment modalities which were 1% and 5% sildenafil citrate gel prepared with carbopol, pure carbopol gel without any drug in it and 0,9% NaCl solution; were applied to each lesion of the same rat. Randomly selected five rats (25 rats in total) were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 14th days; and the effect of each modality was evaluated by means of defect area measurement, histopathological examination and measurement of tissue hydroxyproline levels. Sildenafil citrate gel application decreased the defect areas in a dose independent manner starting from 3rd day and dose dependent manner after 7th day. By means of vascularization, sildenafil citrate increased vascularity starting from 3rd day. The strength of acute inflammation was superior in sildenafil groups starting from 5th day; and the amount and maturation of granulation in the wound bed, as well as the strength of chronic inflammation were superior in defects treated with sildenafil citrate as early as 7th day. PMID:25172969

  17. Dose-dependent effects of mosapride citrate on duodenal and cecal motility in donkeys (Equus asinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa A. Gomaa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prokinetic drugs are used for the management of gastrointestinal motility disorders in horses; however, little is known about their efficacy in donkeys. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of mosapride citrate on duodenal and cecal motility in normal donkeys. Six donkeys (n = 6 were used in a crossover study. Mosapride citrate was administered orally via a nasogastric tube at dose rate of 1, 2 and 3 mg kg−1. Duodenal and cecal motility were evaluated using ultrasonography before administration and at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min post-administration. There was a significant increase of duodenal contractions (p < 0.05 after 30 min of mosapride citrate administration at 3 mg kg−1 with a prolonged (p < 0.05 prokinetic effect at 2 mg kg−1. Cecal contractions were significantly increased (p < 0.05 after 15 min at different doses of mosapride with a prolonged effect at 3 mg kg−1. The results of the present study indicate that mosapride citrate has a dose-dependent prokinetic effect on the duodenal and cecal contractions in healthy donkeys. Further studies need to determine whether mosapride citrate is effective in treatment of intestinal disorders in donkey.

  18. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, C; Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2013-04-15

    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg(-1)). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg(-1) soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of tannic acid and sodium citrate in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Socha, Ewelina; Krzyczmonik, Pawel; Ignaczak, Anna; Orlowski, Piotr; Krzyzowska, Małgorzata; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw

    2017-08-01

    We describe herein the significance of a sodium citrate and tannic acid mixture in the synthesis of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Monodisperse AgNPs were synthesized via reduction of silver nitrate using a mixture of two chemical agents: sodium citrate and tannic acid. The shape, size and size distribution of silver particles were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Special attention is given to understanding and experimentally confirming the exact role of the reagents (sodium citrate and tannic acid present in the reaction mixture) in AgNP synthesis. The oxidation and reduction potentials of silver, tannic acid and sodium citrate in their mixtures were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Possible structures of tannic acid and its adducts with citric acid were investigated in aqueous solution by performing computer simulations in conjunction with the semi-empirical PM7 method. The lowest energy structures found from the preliminary conformational search are shown, and the strength of the interaction between the two molecules was calculated. The compounds present on the surface of the AgNPs were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results are compared with the IR spectrum of tannic acid theoretically calculated using PM6 and PM7 methods. The obtained results clearly indicate that the combined use of sodium citrate and tannic acid produces monodisperse spherical AgNPs, as it allows control of the nucleation, growth and stabilization of the synthesis process. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Hemodynamic effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on segmental branches of bilateral renal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardicoglu, Arslan; Kocakoc, Ercan; Yuzgec, Veysel; Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Canatan, Halit; Kiris, Adem

    2005-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most encountered male health problem and sildenafil citrate is used worldwide for treatment of ED. Aim of the present study was to determine and evaluate hemodynamic effects of sildenafil citrate on segmental branches of bilateral renal arteries of cases with ED. Total of 35 male patients aging between 34 and 56 years were recruited into study. Patients were evaluated with renal color Doppler sonography (CDS) before and after (45-75 min) peroral sildenafil citrate (50 mg) administration. Peak systolic flow rate (V(max)), end diastolic flow rate (V(min)), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of renal artery segmental branches were determined before and after sildenafil citrate administration. V(min) measured at right lower segment was significantly reduced after sildenafil administration (p = 0.030). Accordingly mean RI and PI of right lower segment of renal artery slightly increased after drug administration (p = 0.007 and p = 0.012, respectively). The measurements on other segments had no significant change after sildenafil treatment when compared to baseline values. On this single dose administration no side effect was recorded. Findings of the present study demonstrated that peroral sildenafil citrate usage had slight effects on hemodynamic parameters of lower segmental branch of right renal artery. This result could not be interpreted as robust evidence for hemodynamic changes of renal arteries associated with sildenafil usage nevertheless warrants more comprehensive research with larger number of patients.

  1. Effect Of Clomiphene Citrate On Hematology And Serum Biochemistry Of Nigerian Indigenous Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different doses of clomiphene citrate on haematology and serum biochemistry of Nigerian indigenous chicken were evaluated at the poultry Unit Department of Animal Science and Fisheries Abia State University Umuahia using 48 sexually matured 26 weeks old local cocks each group was divided into 4 treatment groups of 4 matured chickens in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Four levels of Clomiphene citrate treatments represented as T1 0mg T2 10.00mg T3 20.00mg and T4 30.00mg were administered to the birds. Haematology and Serum biochemical indices of the treated birds were determined at the end of the study. The result showed that there were significant differences P0.05 among the treatment groups in haematology and serum biochemical parameters except for the following parameters hemoglobin red blood cell mean corpuscular volume of the birds. It was concluded that the administration of Clomiphene citrate Clomid led to changes in heamatology and serum biochemistry in Nigerian indigenous chicken which showed that clomiphene citrate can be considered safe for chicken. 10mg and 20mg levels of clomiphene citrate can bring about improved hematological indices of Nigeria indigenous chicken

  2. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, G. R.; Spretnak, J. W.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the properties of metals, including titanium and its alloys, was investigated. The basic theories of stress corrosion of titanium alloys are reviewed along with the literature concerned with the effect of absorbed hydrogen on the mechanical properties of metals. Finally, the basic modes of metal fracture and their importance to this study is considered. The experimental work was designed to determine the effects of hydrogen concentration on the critical strain at which plastic instability along pure shear directions occurs. The materials used were titanium alloys Ti-8Al-lMo-lV and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn.

  4. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  5. Low-valent pentafulvene titanium dinitrogen complex as a precursor for cationic titanium complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherer, Axel; Haase, Detlev; Saak, Wolfgang; Beckhaus, Ruediger; Meetsma, Auke; Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Beckhaus, Rüdiger

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of titanium dinitrogen complex [Cp*(eta(6)-C(5)H(4)=C(10)H(14))Ti](2)(mu-N(2)) (1) with ferrocenium borate, [Cp(2)Fe][BPh(4)], in THF results in oxidation of the titanium center, affording the titanium(IV) pentafulvene compound [Cp*(eta(6)-C(5)H(4)=C(10)H(14))Ti(THF)][BPh(4)] (2).

  6. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  7. Neutron scattering and models: Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.

    1997-07-01

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental titanium were measured from 4.5 {r_arrow} 10.0 MeV in incident energy increments of {approx} 0.5 MeV. At each energy the measurements were made at forty or more scattering angles distributed between {approx} 17 and 160{degree}. Concurrently, differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured for observed excitations of 0.975 {+-} 0.034, 1.497 {+-} 0.033, 2.322 {+-} 0.058, 3.252 {+-} 0.043, 3.700 {+-} 0.093, 4.317 {+-} 0.075 and 4.795 {+-} 0.100 MeV. All of the observed inelastically-scattered neutron groups were composites of contributions from several isotopes and/or levels. The experimental results were used to develop energy-average optical, statistical and coupled-channels models.

  8. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  9. Women taking the “blue pill” (sildenafil citrate: such a big deal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Monte G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Lo Monte, Angela Graziano, Isabella Piva, Roberto Marci Department of Morphology, Surgery, and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Abstract: For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra® in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate should be kept as the last option. Keywords: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD, sildenafil citrate

  10. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  11. Challenges of titanium metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . With the increased availability of higher quality titanium powder, metal injection moulding offers an attractive method for producing small, intricate components at a reasonable cost. This paper will present an overview of the metal injection moulding process...

  12. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, R. C.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study (1) the basic electrochemical behavior of titanium in acid chloride solutions and (2) the response of the metal to dynamic straining in the same evironment. The aim of this group of experiments was to simulate, as nearly as possible, the actual conditions which exist at the tip of a crack. One of the foremost theories proposed to explain the propagation of stress corrosion cracks is a hydrogen embrittlement theory involving the precipitation of embrittling titanium hydrides inside the metal near the crack tip. An initial survey of the basic electrochemical literature indicated that surface hydrides play a critical role in the electrochemistry of titanium in acid solutions. A comprehensive analysis of the effect of surface films, particularly hydrides, on the electrochemical behavior of titanium in these solution is presented.

  14. Titanium nitride nanoparticles for therapeutic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Titanium nitride nanoparticles exhibit plasmonic resonances in the biological transparency window where high absorption efficiencies can be obtained with small dimensions. Both lithographic and colloidal samples are examined from the perspective of nanoparticle thermal therapy. © 2014 OSA....

  15. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  16. Synthesis and quality control of 68Ga citrate for routine clinical PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Anna; Di Pierro, Donato; Lodi, Filippo; Trespidi, Silvia; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Pancaldi, Davide; Nanni, Cristina; Marengo, Mario; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Boschi, Stefano

    2009-07-01

    Scintigraphic imaging of infection and inflammation with 67Ga-citrate is an established and powerful diagnostic tool in the management of patients with infectious or inflammatory diseases. 68Ga is a short-lived positron-emitting radionuclide (half-life 67.6 min, positron energy 2.92 MeV), which allows better imaging qualities than 67Ga using the high spatial resolution and the quantitative features of PET. The aim of this study was to develop a method of synthesis for 68Ga citrate with high and reproducible radiochemical yield using a commercial 68Ga-labelling module. The resultant 68Ga citrate would be suitable for use in the detection of infectious or inflammatory diseases in routine clinical practice. A simplified method of producing 68Ga citrate is described. Radiochemical purity, pyrogen testing were performed as per the standard protocols. After performing 10 syntheses of 68Ga citrate, the radiochemical yield was 64.1+/-6.0% (mean+/-standard deviation) with an average activity of 971.2+/-103.4 MBq available for labelling. Radiochemical purity determined by instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel was higher than 98%. All the synthesized products were found to be sterile and pyrogen-free. In this study, the quality control step provided good and reproducible results. This is worth noting, especially in view of the stringent new rules adopted in most European countries for the in-house good manufacturing practice (GMP) synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals. The high radiochemical yield and purity showed that this method is a reliable tool for the production of 68Ga citrate to be used in the detection of inflammatory and infectious diseases using high resolution and qualitative PET.

  17. Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagis, Selda; Karabiber, Mehmet; As, Ismet; Tamer, Lülüfer; Erdogan, Canan; Atalay, Ayçe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms and to determine the effect of magnesium citrate treatment on these symptoms. Sixty premenopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria and 20 healthy women whose age and weight matched the premenopausal women were evaluated. Pain intensity, pain threshold, the number of tender points, the tender point index, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores and patient symptoms were evaluated in all the women. Serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were also measured. The patients were divided into three groups. The magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) was given to the first group (n = 20), amitriptyline (10 mg/day) was given to the second group (n = 20), and magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) + amitriptyline (10 mg/day) treatment was given to the third group (n = 20). All parameters were reevaluated after the 8 weeks of treatment. The serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. Also there was a negative correlation between the magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms. The number of tender points, tender point index, FIQ and Beck depression scores decreased significantly with the magnesium citrate treatment. The combined amitriptyline + magnesium citrate treatment proved effective on all parameters except numbness. Low magnesium levels in the erythrocyte might be an etiologic factor on fibromyalgia symptoms. The magnesium citrate treatment was only effective tender points and the intensity of fibromyalgia. However, it was effective on all parameters when used in combination with amitriptyline.

  18. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  19. Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-10-01

    Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data were gathered using Female Sexual Function Index and through measurement of TSH and prolactin. The first intervention group had to consume 4.5 gr E. angustifolia extract in two divided doses for 35 days and the second one had to use 50 mg sildenafil citrate tablets for 4 weeks one hour before their sexual relationship. However, the control group had to consume the placebo. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni posthoc test and porgasmic disorder before the intervention was 41.5%, 40.5%, and 57.1% in E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate, and control groups, respectively (p=0.23). However, these measures were respectively 29.3%, 16.7%, and 50% after the intervention (p=0.004). A significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction after the intervention (p=0.003) compared to the beginning of the study (p=0.356). Besides, the highest reduction of changes after the intervention (58.82%) was observed in the sildenafil citrate group. Both E. angustifolia extract and sildenafil citrate were effective in reduction of the frequency of orgasmic disorder in women.

  20. Aggregation Kinetics of Citrate and Polyvinylpyrrolidone Coated Silver Nanoparticles in Monovalent and Divalent Electrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Khanh An; Chen, Kai Loon

    2011-01-01

    The aggregation kinetics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that were coated with two commonly used capping agents—citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)—were investigated. Time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) was employed to measure the aggregation kinetics of the AgNPs over a range of monovalent and divalent electrolyte concentrations. The aggregation behavior of citrate-coated AgNPs in NaCl was in excellent agreement with the predictions based on Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory, and the Hamaker constant of citrate-coated AgNPs in aqueous solutions was derived to be 3.7 × 10-20 J. Divalent electrolytes were more efficient in destabilizing the citrate-coated AgNPs, as indicated by the considerably lower critical coagulation concentrations (2.1 mM CaCl2 and 2.7 mM MgCl2 vs. 47.6 mM NaCl). The PVP-coated AgNPs were significantly more stable than citrate-coated AgNPs in both NaCl and CaCl2, which is likely due to steric repulsion imparted by the large, non-charged polymers. The addition of humic acid resulted in the adsorption of the macromolecules on both citrate- and PVP-coated AgNPs. The adsorption of humic acid induced additional electrosteric repulsion that elevated the stability of both nanoparticles in suspensions containing NaCl or low concentrations of CaCl2. Conversely, enhanced aggregation occurred for both nanoparticles at high CaCl2 concentrations due to interparticle bridging by humic acid clusters. PMID:21630686

  1. The effect of caffeine citrate on neural breathing pattern in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, Vilhelmiina; Beck, Jennifer; Zhai, Qian; Leppäsalo, Juha; Lehtonen, Liisa; Soukka, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Caffeine citrate is widely used to prevent and treat prematurity-associated apnea. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of caffeine citrate on the neural control of breathing, especially central apnea, in premature infants. Preterm infants were evaluated for 30min before and 30min after caffeine citrate loading (20mg/kg). A feeding tube including miniaturized sensors was used to measure the diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) waveform. Central apnea was defined as any period where the Edi waveform was flat for >5s. Seventeen preterm infants with a mean age of three days and mean birth weight of 900 grams were evaluated. In addition to central apnea, several parameters including neural inspiratory time, neural respiratory rate, peak Edi, delta inspiratory change in Edi (phasic Edi) and minimum Edi on exhalation were measured. The majority of the apnea were short (5 to 10s) and the number of apnea correlated with birth weight (p=0.039). Caffeine citrate reduced significantly the number of 5-to-10-second-long central apnea during the 30-minute periods (12±11 to 7±7; p=0.02). Caffeine citrate increased both peak and phasic Edi leading to a significant increase in the diaphragm energy expenditure. Edi signal can be reliably measured and processed to study changes in premature infants' neural breathing. The beneficial effect of caffeine citrate on the reduction of the number of apnea is mediated through stimulated neural breathing increasing the diaphragm energy expenditure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endometrial Receptivity Markers in Mice Stimulated With Raloxifene Versus Clomiphene Citrate and Natural Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cairong; Yan, Qiuxia; Liu, Kunping; Zhou, Xiuqin; Xian, Yingjie; Liang, Dali; Zhao, Xiaoying; Guo, Xiaoyan; Quan, Song

    2016-06-01

    Ovulation induction therapy with clomiphene citrate can suppress endometrial receptivity. Raloxifene may be an alternative therapeutic for women with ovulatory disorders. This study aimed to compare the expression of endometrial receptivity markers, including homeobox gene 10 (HOXA10), integrin β3, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), as well as pinopode production during the implantation window in mice stimulated with raloxifene and clomiphene citrate and natural cycles. Thirty-six 8-week-old female Kunming mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 12) and administered daily raloxifene (22 mg/kg), clomiphene citrate (18 mg/kg), and normal saline (1 mL), respectively, by gavage. Two days later, mice were injected with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin and mated. Successfully mated female animals were identified with vaginal plugs designated gestation day 1. At day 4.5, pregnant donor mice were euthanized, and uterus samples were collected for immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Homeobox gene 10, integrin β3, and LIF messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were significantly higher in the raloxifene-treated animals compared with the clomiphene citrate group (all P raloxifene and saline groups; however, in the clomiphene citrate-treated mice, fewer and poorly developed pinopodes were obtained. In mice, raloxifene had no effect on HOXA10, integrin β3, and LIF expression as well as pinopode production, suggesting it has no adverse effects on endometrial receptivity. Raloxifene may provide a viable alternative oral ovulation induction agent to clomiphene citrate. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Studies on sildenafil citrate (Viagra) interaction with DNA using electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Sakandar; Nawaz, Haq; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Ghauri, Muhammad A; Khalid, Ahmad M

    2007-05-15

    The interaction of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) with DNA was studied by using an electrochemical DNA biosensor. The binding mechanism of sildenafil citrate was elucidated by using constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry at DNA-modified glassy carbon electrode. The decrease in the guanine oxidation peak area or peak current was used as an indicator for the interaction in 0.2M acetate buffer (pH 5). The binding constant (K) values obtained were 2.01+/-0.05 x 10(5) and 1.97+/-0.01 x 10(5)M(-1) with constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. A linear dependence of the guanine peak area or peak current was observed within the range of 1-40 microM sildenafil citrate with slope=-2.74 x 10(-4)s/microM, r=0.989 and slope=-2.78 x 10(-3)microA/microM, r=0.995 by using constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. Additionally, binding constant values for sildenafil citrate-DNA interaction were determined for the pH range of 4-8 and in biological fluids (serum and urine) at pH 5. The influence of sodium and calcium ions was also studied to elucidate the mechanism of sildenafil citrate-DNA interaction under different solution conditions. The present study may prove to be helpful in extending our understanding of the anticancer activity of sildenafil citrate from cellular to DNA level.

  4. Research and Development on Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-10-31

    are being prepared by the Norton Company for evaluation. Titanium boride , tantalum boride , zirconium boride , tungsten boride , and molybdenum boride ...alloying additionO will be ex- tended. 9 Ternary alloys of manganese and carbon, manganese and vanadium, and molybdenum and tungsten, prepared by...graphite crucibles lined with tantalum carbide and turgsten boride as refractories for molten titanium,. Melts were prepared In crucibles made of zirconium

  5. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuob Aghanejad; Amir Jalilian; Khosro Ardaneh; Fatemeh Bolourinovin; Hassan Yousefnia; Ali Bahrami-Samani

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (8Ga) citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPL...

  6. A study of titanium sulfate flocculation for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Wen; Gao, Nai-Yun; Tao, Tao

    2011-06-01

    There are limited studies available on titanium salt flocculation. In this research, coagulation experiments of titanium sulfate were conducted using both distilled water and kaolin clay suspension. Results showed that titanium sulfate flocculation was most effective in the pH range 4-6, and negligible concentrations of titanium were found in the well-flocculated water. The floc isoelectric point (IEP) was found to be near pH 5. Measurements showed that the titanium flocs possessed greater density, diameter and settling velocity than the aluminum flocs. The titanium flocs were composed of TiO(OH)(2), which would change from the amorphous phase into anatase titanium dioxide under elevated temperatures. Floc images showed the structural similarity of titanium and aluminum flocs. Laboratory results and a pilot experiment showed that titanium sulfate could be an alternative coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrocarbon Deposition Attenuates Osteoblast Activity on Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ueno, T.; Migita, S.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Doi, H.; Ogawa, T.; Hanawa, T.; Wakabayashi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Although the reported percentage of bone-implant contact is far lower than 100%, the cause of such low levels of bone formation has rarely been investigated. This study tested the negative biological effect of hydrocarbon deposition onto titanium surfaces, which has been reported to be inevitable. Osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on titanium disks on which the carbon concentration was experimentally regulated to achieve carbon/titanium (C/Ti) ratios of 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0. Initial cellular activities such as cell attachment and cell spreading were concentration-dependently suppressed by the amount of carbon on the titanium surface. The osteoblastic functions of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were also reduced by more than 40% on the C/Ti (1.0) surface. These results indicate that osteoblast activity is influenced by the degree of hydrocarbon contamination on titanium implants and suggest that hydrocarbon decomposition before implant placement may increase the biocompatibility of titanium. PMID:24868012

  8. The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Van Zwet, AA; Kooy, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    Aim: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. Methods: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400

  9. The safety and efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with antibiotics for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyeth, J. W.; Pounder, R. E.; Duggan, A. E.; O'Morain, C. A.; Schaufelberger, H. D.; de Koster, E. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Gilvarry, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Gummett, P. A.; Logan, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate is a novel salt of ranitidine and a bismuth citrate complex. It has intrinsic antisecretory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, but monotherapy rarely eradicates H. pylori infection in man. A pilot study to investigate rates of H. pylori eradication achieved by

  10. Comparative evaluation of the methods of continuous hemodiafiltration and hemofiltration with citrate anticoagulation in cardiac surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Борисов

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CRRT with citrate anticoagulation can be conducted in various modalities. Each of them has its own characteristics of. Comparative evaluation of hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration was the aim of this work. It was found that for the regime hemodiafiltration as less citrate dose.

  11. 76 FR 33219 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... production of a specialized medical grade citric acid, and that it expired at the end of 2008. See GOC... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's...

  12. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... Department'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See...

  13. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts...

  14. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... Department'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On...

  15. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Countervailing Duty Orders and Amendments of Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric Acid...

  16. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit. Among other things, additional time is...

  17. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate sales from People's Republic of China, covering the period September 19, 2008, through December 31, 2009. See Citric Acid and...

  18. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published its Preliminary Results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Post- Preliminary Analysis...

  19. 78 FR 34642 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR...

  20. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1...). Scope of the Order The scope of the order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid...

  1. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation of...

  2. Complementary metal ion specificity of the metal-citrate transporters CitM and CitH of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, BP; Warner, JB; Konings, WN; Lolkema, JS; Warner, Jessica B.

    2000-01-01

    Citrate uptake in Bacillus subtilis is stimulated by a wide range of divalent metal ions. The metal ions were separated into two groups based on the expression pattern of the uptake system. The two groups correlated with the metal ion specificity of two homologous B, subtilis secondary citrate

  3. Pulmonary scintigraphy by citrate of Ga67 for HIV(+) patients or AIDS. Scintigraphie pulmonaire au citrate de Ga67 chez des patients VIH(+) ou sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daumal, J.; Pena, C.; Mata, F.; Paternostro, C.; Penafiel, A. (Hopital Son Dureta, Palma de Mallorca (Spain))

    1993-04-01

    Pulmonary scintigraphy with citrate of gallium 67 is useful when combined with a thorax radiography to establish the presence of an infection. When the two examinations are negative we can conclude there is no infection, but if the radiography is positive with a scintiscanning negative the most possible diagnosis is tuberculosis. If the scintiscanning is positive with a diffuse model we can envisage a pneumonia by Pneumocystis Carinii and if the model is ganglionic we can think to tuberculosis. 4 tabs.

  4. Thermosensitive bioadhesive gels for the vaginal delivery of sildenafil citrate: in vitro characterization and clinical evaluation in women using clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ghareb M; Fetih, Gihan; Abbas, Ahmed M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and characterize in situ thermosensitive gels for the vaginal administration of sildenafil as a potential treatment of endometrial thinning occurring as a result of using clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with type II eugonadotrophic anovulation. While sildenafil has shown promising results in the treatment of infertility in women, the lack of vaginal pharmaceutical preparation and the side effects associated with oral sildenafil limit its clinical effectiveness. Sildenafil citrate in situ forming gels were prepared using different grades of Pluronic® (PF-68 and PF-127). Mucoadhesive polymers as sodium alginate and hydroxyethyl cellulose were added to the gels in different concentrations and the effect on gel properties was studied. The formulations were evaluated in terms of viscosity, gelation temperature (Tsol-gel), mucoadhesion properties, and in vitro drug release characteristics. Selected formulations were evaluated in women with clomiphene citrate failure due to thin endometrium (Clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT02766725). The Tsol-gel decreased with increasing PF-127 concentration and it was modulated by addition of PF-68 to be within the acceptable range of 28-37 °C. Increasing Pluronic® concentration increased gel viscosity and mucoadhesive force but decreased drug release rate. Clinical results showed that the in situ sildenafil vaginal gel significantly increased endometrial thickness and uterine blood flow with no reported side effects. Further, these results were achieved at lower frequency and duration of drug administration. Sildenafil thermosensitive vaginal gels might result in improved potential of pregnancy in anovulatory patients with clomiphene citrate failure due to thin endometrium.

  5. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  6. A critical discourse analysis of the attitudes of occupational therapists and physiotherapists towards the systematic use of standardised outcome measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger Pedersen, Tonny; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate discourses relating to the implementation of standardised outcome measurement within rehabilitation practise. METHOD: It is a critical discourse analysis of texts in professional occupational therapist (OT) and physiotherapist (PT) journals, along with transcriptions from...... to make use of research in knowledge translation and adapt it to fit with the ways in which new ideas and recommendations are implemented in local rehabilitation contexts. Implications for Rehabilitation Successful implementation of standardised outcome measurements depends on whether occupational...

  7. Usefulness and acceptability of a standardised orientation and mobility training for partially-sighted older adults using an identification cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballemans, Judith; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; van Rens, Ger H M B; Schouten, Jan S A G; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2012-06-08

    Orientation and mobility (O&M) training in using an identification (ID) cane is provided to partially-sighted older adults to facilitate independent functioning and participation in the community. Recently, a protocolised standardised O&M-training in the use of the ID cane was developed in The Netherlands. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and acceptability of both the standardised training and the regular training for participants and O&M-trainers in a randomised controlled trial (NCT00946062). The standardised O&M-training consists of two structured face-to-face sessions and one telephone follow-up, in which, in addition to the regular training, self-management and behavioural change techniques are applied. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data on the training's usefulness, e.g. the population reached, self-reported benefits or achievements, and acceptability, e.g. the performance of the intervention according to protocol and participants' exposure to and engagement in the training. Data was collected from 29 O&M-trainers and 68 participants. Regarding the self-reported benefits, outcomes were comparable for the standardised training and the regular training according the trainers and participants e.g., about 85% of the participants in both groups experienced benefits of the cane and about 70% gained confidence in their capabilities. Participants were actively involved in the standardised training. Nearly 40% of the participants in the standardised training group was not exposed to the training according to protocol regarding the number of sessions scheduled and several intervention elements, such as action planning and contracting. The standardised and regular O&M-training showed to be useful and mostly acceptable for the partially-sighted older adults and trainers. Yet, a concern is the deviation from the protocol of the standardised O&M-training by the O&M-trainers regarding distinguishing elements such as action planning

  8. Plasma Membrane Na+-Coupled Citrate Transporter (SLC13A5 and Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom D. Bhutia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available SLC13A5 is a Na+-coupled transporter for citrate that is expressed in the plasma membrane of specific cell types in the liver, testis, and brain. It is an electrogenic transporter with a Na+:citrate3− stoichiometry of 4:1. In humans, the Michaelis constant for SLC13A5 to transport citrate is ~600 μM, which is physiologically relevant given that the normal concentration of citrate in plasma is in the range of 150–200 μM. Li+ stimulates the transport function of human SLC13A5 at concentrations that are in the therapeutic range in patients on lithium therapy. Human SLC13A5 differs from rodent Slc13a5 in two important aspects: the affinity of the human transporter for citrate is ~30-fold less than that of the rodent transporter, thus making human SLC13A5 a low-affinity/high-capacity transporter and the rodent Slc13a5 a high-affinity/low-capacity transporter. In the liver, SLC13A5 is expressed exclusively in the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes, where it plays a role in the uptake of circulating citrate from the sinusoidal blood for metabolic use. In the testis, the transporter is expressed only in spermatozoa, which is also only in the mid piece where mitochondria are located; the likely function of the transporter in spermatozoa is to mediate the uptake of citrate present at high levels in the seminal fluid for subsequent metabolism in the sperm mitochondria to generate biological energy, thereby supporting sperm motility. In the brain, the transporter is expressed mostly in neurons. As astrocytes secrete citrate into extracellular medium, the potential function of SLC13A5 in neurons is to mediate the uptake of circulating citrate and astrocyte-released citrate for subsequent metabolism. Slc13a5-knockout mice have been generated; these mice do not have any overt phenotype but are resistant to experimentally induced metabolic syndrome. Recently however, loss-of-function mutations in human SLC13A5 have been found to cause severe epilepsy

  9. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Torsional Properties of Proprietary Heat Treated Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments versus Conventional Nickel Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    rotational degrees (o) at separation were measured with a custom-built torsiometer instrument (Sabri Dental Enterprises, Inc, Downers Grove, IL) in...Torsional Properties of Proprietary Heat-Treated Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments versus Conventional Nickel-Titanium Principle Author...investigations at the USAF Dental Evaluation & Consultation Services (DECS) Laboratory. Responsible for calculating and analyzing all data collected during

  11. The effect of titanium surface treatment on the interfacial strength of titanium – Thermoplastic composite joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Yibo; de Rooij, Matthijn; Grouve, Wouter; Akkerman, Remko

    2017-01-01

    Co-consolidated titanium – carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite hybrid joints show potential for application in aerospace structures. The strength of the interface between the titanium and the thermoplastic composite is crucial for the strength of the entire hybrid joint. Application of a

  12. Artefacts in multimodal imaging of titanium, zirconium and binary titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ralf; Schöllchen, Maximilian; Gauer, Tobias; Aarabi, Ghazal; Assaf, Alexandre T; Rendenbach, Carsten; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Semmusch, Jan; Sedlacik, Jan; Heiland, Max; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    To analyze and evaluate imaging artefacts induced by zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants. Zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants were embedded in gelatin and MRI, CT and CBCT were performed. Standard protocols were used for each modality. For MRI, line-distance profiles were plotted to quantify the accuracy of size determination. For CT and CBCT, six shells surrounding the implant were defined every 0.5 cm from the implant surface and histogram parameters were determined for each shell. While titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy induced extensive signal voids in MRI owing to strong susceptibility, zirconium implants were clearly definable with only minor distortion artefacts. For titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy, the MR signal was attenuated up to 14.1 mm from the implant. In CT, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy resulted in less streak artefacts in comparison with zirconium. In CBCT, titanium-zirconium alloy induced more severe artefacts than zirconium and titanium. MRI allows for an excellent image contrast and limited artefacts in patients with zirconium implants. CT and CBCT examinations are less affected by artefacts from titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants compared with MRI. The knowledge about differences of artefacts through different implant materials and image modalities might help support clinical decisions for the choice of implant material or imaging device in the clinical setting.

  13. The "diamond port configuration": A standardised laparoscopic technique for adolescent intestinal resection and anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familiarity with technique and repetition enhance efficiency during laparoscopic surgery. This is particularly important when undertaking complex bowel resections. We report a standardised protocol that includes theatre layout, patient position and port insertion, which we believe facilitates excellent abdominal access and ergonomics and has the potential to shorten the duration of the team-learning curve. Materials and Methods: A strategic unit development plan led to the commencement of a laparoscopic service for adolescents with bowel disorders. A standardised protocol for intestinal resections was agreed upon at a monthly Paediatric Minimal Access Group meeting. This covered patient position, port insertion, technical aspects of intestinal resection and perioperative management. In particular, a diamond configuration for ports was agreed upon. Data were prospectively collected, and included patient demographics, operative times, conversion rates and postoperative outcomes. Unless otherwise indicated, data are presented as medians with ranges. Results: Seven procedures were carried out in six patients (three female aged 14 (11-14 years. Access to the entire abdominal cavity, vision and ergonomics were excellent in all. There were no conversions to open surgery. In all procedures, the technique was considered safe and effective. The length of hospital stay was 6.5 (5.8-14 days. Conclusion: A standardised protocol including the use of the diamond port configuration has several putative advantages for laparoscopic bowel resections and anastomoses. These include efficiency, reproducibility, predictability, good visibility and excellent ergonomics. We recommend this approach as a means to shorten the procedure-specific learning curve of the laparoscopic team.

  14. Opportunities for Integrated Ecological Analysis across Inland Australia with Standardised Data from Ausplots Rangelands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg R Guerin

    Full Text Available Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition. Cover estimates are robust and repeatable, allowing comparisons among environments and detection of modest change. The 442 field plots presented here span a rainfall gradient of 129-1437 mm Mean annual precipitation with varying seasonality. Vegetation measurements include vouchered vascular plant species, growth form, basal area, height, cover and substrate type from 1010 point intercepts as well as systematically recorded absences, which are useful for predictive modelling and validation of remote sensing applications. Leaf and soil samples are sampled for downstream chemical and genomic analysis. We overview the sampling of vegetation parameters and environments, applying the data to the question of how species abundance distributions (SADs vary over climatic gradients, a key question for the influence of environmental change on ecosystem processes. We found linear relationships between SAD shape and rainfall within grassland and shrubland communities, indicating more uneven abundance in deserts and suggesting relative abundance may shift as a consequence of climate change, resulting in altered diversity and ecosystem function. The standardised data of AusPlots enables such analyses at large spatial scales, and the testing of predictions through time with longitudinal sampling. In future, the AusPlots field program will be directed towards improving coverage of space, under-represented environments

  15. Opportunities for Integrated Ecological Analysis across Inland Australia with Standardised Data from Ausplots Rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Greg R; Sparrow, Ben; Tokmakoff, Andrew; Smyth, Anita; Leitch, Emrys; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition. Cover estimates are robust and repeatable, allowing comparisons among environments and detection of modest change. The 442 field plots presented here span a rainfall gradient of 129-1437 mm Mean annual precipitation with varying seasonality. Vegetation measurements include vouchered vascular plant species, growth form, basal area, height, cover and substrate type from 1010 point intercepts as well as systematically recorded absences, which are useful for predictive modelling and validation of remote sensing applications. Leaf and soil samples are sampled for downstream chemical and genomic analysis. We overview the sampling of vegetation parameters and environments, applying the data to the question of how species abundance distributions (SADs) vary over climatic gradients, a key question for the influence of environmental change on ecosystem processes. We found linear relationships between SAD shape and rainfall within grassland and shrubland communities, indicating more uneven abundance in deserts and suggesting relative abundance may shift as a consequence of climate change, resulting in altered diversity and ecosystem function. The standardised data of AusPlots enables such analyses at large spatial scales, and the testing of predictions through time with longitudinal sampling. In future, the AusPlots field program will be directed towards improving coverage of space, under-represented environments, vegetation types

  16. Titanium interaction with zirconium during hydrolysis in nitric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurov, A.A.; Sinegribova, O.A.; Yagodin, G.A. (Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-05-01

    The titanium behaviour in nitric acid solutions in the presence of zirconium is studied. The fact of stabilization of titanium nitric acid solutions by zirconium is found that permits to obtain highly concentrated (> 100 g/l TiO/sub 2/) titanium nitric acid solutions with low acidity (< 1.0 mol./l HNO/sub 3/) stable for 1.5-2.0 moths. The reason of stabilization is the interaction between hydrolized compounds of zirconium and titanium. Precipitates from mixed zirconium-titanium nitric acid solutions following a long-term hold-up present mainly hydrated polymerized titanium dioxide.

  17. Effect of gas flow rate on titanium sponge reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Feng, Gaoping; Wang, Mingdong; Hong, Yanji

    2017-08-01

    This paper expounds the important application of titanium sponge adsorption in inert gas purification, the reaction mechanism of titanium with nitrogen and oxygen was introduced. Explored the relationship between the absorption capacity of sponge titanium on the active gas in air samples and the gas flow rate. The model of sponge titanium for flowing air absorption was established by data analysis. The designed experiment verified the relationship between the titanium processing capacity and the gas collecting device. Finally, the influence of the mass of the sponge titanium on the degassing capacity was studied through experiments.

  18. A method for developing standardised interactive education for complex clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Janet I

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic use of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand internationally endorsed Clinical Practice Guideline for Perinatal Mortality (PSANZ-CPG improves health outcomes, implementation is inadequate. Its complexity is a feature known to be associated with non-compliance. Interactive education is effective as a guideline implementation strategy, but lacks an agreed definition. SCORPIO is an educational framework containing interactive and didactic teaching, but has not previously been used to implement guidelines. Our aim was to transform the PSANZ-CPG into an education workshop to develop quality standardised interactive education acceptable to participants for learning skills in collaborative interprofessional care. Methods The workshop was developed using the construct of an educational framework (SCORPIO, the PSANZ-CPG, a transformation process and tutor training. After a pilot workshop with key target and stakeholder groups, modifications were made to this and subsequent workshops based on multisource written observations from interprofessional participants, tutors and an independent educator. This participatory action research process was used to monitor acceptability and educational standards. Standardised interactive education was defined as the attainment of content and teaching standards. Quantitative analysis of positive expressed as a percentage of total feedback was used to derive a total quality score. Results Eight workshops were held with 181 participants and 15 different tutors. Five versions resulted from the action research methodology. Thematic analysis of multisource observations identified eight recurring education themes or quality domains used for standardisation. The two content domains were curriculum and alignment with the guideline and the six teaching domains; overload, timing, didacticism, relevance, reproducibility and participant engagement. Engagement was the most

  19. A method for developing standardised interactive education for complex clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Janet I; Jeffery, Heather E; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Gordon, Adrienne; Hirst, Jane; Hill, David A; Arbuckle, Susan

    2012-11-06

    Although systematic use of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand internationally endorsed Clinical Practice Guideline for Perinatal Mortality (PSANZ-CPG) improves health outcomes, implementation is inadequate. Its complexity is a feature known to be associated with non-compliance. Interactive education is effective as a guideline implementation strategy, but lacks an agreed definition. SCORPIO is an educational framework containing interactive and didactic teaching, but has not previously been used to implement guidelines. Our aim was to transform the PSANZ-CPG into an education workshop to develop quality standardised interactive education acceptable to participants for learning skills in collaborative interprofessional care. The workshop was developed using the construct of an educational framework (SCORPIO), the PSANZ-CPG, a transformation process and tutor training. After a pilot workshop with key target and stakeholder groups, modifications were made to this and subsequent workshops based on multisource written observations from interprofessional participants, tutors and an independent educator. This participatory action research process was used to monitor acceptability and educational standards. Standardised interactive education was defined as the attainment of content and teaching standards. Quantitative analysis of positive expressed as a percentage of total feedback was used to derive a total quality score. Eight workshops were held with 181 participants and 15 different tutors. Five versions resulted from the action research methodology. Thematic analysis of multisource observations identified eight recurring education themes or quality domains used for standardisation. The two content domains were curriculum and alignment with the guideline and the six teaching domains; overload, timing, didacticism, relevance, reproducibility and participant engagement. Engagement was the most challenging theme to resolve. Tutors identified all themes for

  20. Preliminary Insights into the Implementation of Standardised IT in Franchise Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angele Cavaye

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The franchise context provides a rich background for studying the implementation of standardised, interlinked IT systems. Benefits of IT implementation in franchises appear obvious, but the small business context and potential tension between the two main stakeholders (franchisor and franchisees tend to create difficulties in the implementation process. Case study methods were used to investigate IT implementation in franchise systems. Franchisee-related factors that clearly impact on implementation include perceived need for the IT system, cost of the system and the level of IT literacy among franchisees. Franchisor-related factors like coercion of franchisees and education of franchisees strongly facilitate implementation.

  1. A method for developing standardised interactive education for complex clinical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although systematic use of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand internationally endorsed Clinical Practice Guideline for Perinatal Mortality (PSANZ-CPG) improves health outcomes, implementation is inadequate. Its complexity is a feature known to be associated with non-compliance. Interactive education is effective as a guideline implementation strategy, but lacks an agreed definition. SCORPIO is an educational framework containing interactive and didactic teaching, but has not previously been used to implement guidelines. Our aim was to transform the PSANZ-CPG into an education workshop to develop quality standardised interactive education acceptable to participants for learning skills in collaborative interprofessional care. Methods The workshop was developed using the construct of an educational framework (SCORPIO), the PSANZ-CPG, a transformation process and tutor training. After a pilot workshop with key target and stakeholder groups, modifications were made to this and subsequent workshops based on multisource written observations from interprofessional participants, tutors and an independent educator. This participatory action research process was used to monitor acceptability and educational standards. Standardised interactive education was defined as the attainment of content and teaching standards. Quantitative analysis of positive expressed as a percentage of total feedback was used to derive a total quality score. Results Eight workshops were held with 181 participants and 15 different tutors. Five versions resulted from the action research methodology. Thematic analysis of multisource observations identified eight recurring education themes or quality domains used for standardisation. The two content domains were curriculum and alignment with the guideline and the six teaching domains; overload, timing, didacticism, relevance, reproducibility and participant engagement. Engagement was the most challenging theme to resolve

  2. The impact of sodium citrate on dialysis catheter function and frequency of catheter-related bacteriemia and haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Szymczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is one of the most important problems of hemodialysis therapy. It is known that an arteriovenous fi sutla provides the best vascular access, but its creation is not always possible. Other solutions, such as the insertion of a central venous catheter, are then required. Adequate protection of such catheters by interdialytic fi ll with locking solution affects the frequency of hemodialysis-related complications. The most widespread catheter locking solution is heparin. Sodium citrate is being used more frequent recently. Available data indicate that hemorrhage is 11.9 times more frequent if the catheter locking solution is 5000 IU/ml heparin than if 4�0sodium citrate or 1000 IU/ml heparin is used. Other data indicate that the frequency of infection is statistically decreased when 30�0sodium citrate is used to fi ll the catheter instead of 5000 IU/ml heparin. Analogous data on 46.7�0sodium citrate are not consistent. It seems that the use of 4�0sodium citrate instead of 5000 IU/ml heparin does not decrease the frequency of infections. Numerous studies indicate that sodium citrate at various concentrations exerts a positive infl lence on catheter function. However, not all data are in accord. The spill of sodium citrate from the catheter to the systemic circulation is connected with a risk of adverse events. It may be dangerous if the citrate concentration is 46.7�20However, adequate fi lling of the catheter should prezent such events. Available data indicate that fi lling of the catheter with a solution of citrate of a concentration of no more than 30�0should be safe. Data on 46.7�0citrate are not conclusive, so precautions should be taken.

  3. Enhanced citric acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by overexpression of the Escherichia coli citrate synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Aditi D; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2009-08-01

    Citric acid secretion by fluorescent pseudomonads has a distinct significance in microbial phosphate solubilization. The role of citrate synthase in citric acid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism in pseudomonads was investigated by overexpressing the Escherichia coli citrate synthase (gltA) gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525. The resultant approximately 2-fold increase in citrate synthase activity in the gltA-overexpressing strain Pf(pAB7) enhanced the intracellular and extracellular citric acid yields during the stationary phase, by about 2- and 26-fold, respectively, as compared to the control, without affecting the growth rate, glucose depletion rate or biomass yield. Decreased glucose consumption was paralleled by increased gluconic acid production due to an increase in glucose dehydrogenase activity. While the extracellular acetic acid yield increased in Pf(pAB7), pyruvic acid secretion decreased, correlating with an increase in pyruvate carboxylase activity and suggesting an increased demand for the anabolic precursor oxaloacetate. Activities of two other key enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, remained unaltered, and the contribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate lyase to glucose catabolism was negligible. Strain Pf(pAB7) demonstrated an enhanced phosphate-solubilizing ability compared to the control. Co-expression of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and E. coli gltA genes in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, so as to supplement oxaloacetate for citrate biosynthesis, neither significantly affected citrate biosynthesis nor caused any change in the other physiological and biochemical parameters measured, despite approximately 1.3- and 5-fold increases in citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate that citrate synthase is rate-limiting in enhancing citrate biosynthesis in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525

  4. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Spacesuit Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Raymond, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z-series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z-series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 lbs per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing race designs, without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race- 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approx. 3 years), design parameters for maximum contact stress need to be identified. To identify these design parameters, bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination and design around a cycle life requirement for an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an

  5. Creating nanoshell on the surface of titanium hydride bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO Vyacheslav Ivanovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the modification of titanium hydride bead by creating titanium nanoshell on its surface by ion-plasma vacuum magnetron sputtering. To apply titanium nanoshell on the titanium hydride bead vacuum coating plant of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings QVADRA 500 located in the center of high technology was used. Analysis of the micrographs of the original surface of titanium hydride bead showed that the microstructure of the surface is flat, smooth, in addition the analysis of the microstructure of material surface showed the presence of small porosity, roughness, mainly cavities, as well as shallow longitudinal cracks. The presence of oxide film in titanium hydride prevents the free release of hydrogen and fills some micro-cracks on the surface. Differential thermal analysis of both samples was conducted to determine the thermal stability of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell. Hydrogen thermal desorption spectra of the samples of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell show different thermal stability of compared materials in the temperature range from 550 to 860о C. Titanium nanoshells applied in this way allows increasing the heat resistance of titanium hydride bead – the temperature of starting decomposition is 695о C and temperature when decomposition finishes is more than 1000о C. Modified in this way titanium hydride bead can be used as a filler in the radiation protective materials used in the construction or upgrading biological protection of nuclear power plants.

  6. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Chun eSu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate (POC showed approximately 70-80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers (CUPEs and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20% and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that they are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired.

  7. The structure and binding mode of citrate in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Johani, Hind

    2017-03-27

    Elucidating the binding mode of carboxylate-containing ligands to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is crucial to understand their stabilizing role. A detailed picture of the three-dimensional structure and coordination modes of citrate, acetate, succinate and glutarate to AuNPs is obtained by 13C and 23Na solid-state NMR in combination with computational modelling and electron microscopy. The binding between the carboxylates and the AuNP surface is found to occur in three different modes. These three modes are simultaneously present at low citrate to gold ratios, while a monocarboxylate monodentate (1κO1) mode is favoured at high citrate:gold ratios. The surface AuNP atoms are found to be predominantly in the zero oxidation state after citrate coordination, although trace amounts of Auδ+ are observed. 23Na NMR experiments show that Na+ ions are present near the gold surface, indicating that carboxylate binding occurs as a 2e− L-type interaction for each oxygen atom involved. This approach has broad potential to probe the binding of a variety of ligands to metal nanoparticles.

  8. Effect of sodium citrate on red blood cell count in wistar rat | Oladipo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sodium citrate which is the sodium salt of citric acid, a preservative, an additive, an antioxidant and an anticoagulant used in blood transfusion was investigated in this study on red blood cell in wistar rat. Eighteen male adult rats of wistar strain (RattusNorvegicus) weighing between 150-200g were used.

  9. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  10. THE SURFACE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF PROCYMIDONE IN PRESENCE OF AMMONIUM FERRIC CITRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Osipov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Procymidone was chosen as the model compound and its phototransformation was followed under sunlight irradiation. The main photodegradation products on silica is 3,5-dichloroaniline and 3,5-diclorphenilisocyanate. The use of ammonium ferric citrate enhances the degradation of the procymidone.

  11. Diversity of RuBisCO and ATP citrate lyase genes in soda lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, O.L.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Kolganova, T.V.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from six soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) and from hypersaline alkaline lakes of Wadi Natrun (Egypt) were analyzed for the presence of cbb and aclB genes encoding key enzymes Ci assimilation (RuBisCO in Calvin-Benson and ATP citrate lyase in rTCA cycles, respectively). The

  12. Cupric citrate as growth promoter for broiler chickens in different rearing stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainer, Monica Maria de Almeida [EAFCe, Ceres, GO (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia; Menten, Jose Fernando Machado; Vale, Marcos Martinez do; Morais, Sonia Cristina Daroz de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: jfmmente@esalq.usp.br

    2003-07-01

    Feeding cupric citrate as alternative to cupric sulfate to broilers has been suggested in the literature. Day-old male broiler chicks (1,200) were used in an experiment to evaluate the efficacy of cupric citrate supplementation (75 mg Cu kg-1) during the 1-21, 22-42 or 1-42 d periods in comparison to an unsupplemented diet and a diet supplemented with cupric sulfate (200 mg Cu kg-1, 1-42 d). A randomized block design was used, with five treatments, six replicates and 40 birds per pen. The diets, based on corn and soybean meal, and water were offered ad libitum during the 42-day experimental period. Over the entire period, there was no effect of copper supplementation (P > 0.05) on bird live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and mortality. Cupric citrate supplementation on the 22-42 d period resulted in worse feed conversion as compared to broilers receiving cupric sulfate (2.014 vs. 1.967, P < 0.05). Copper residues in the litter were reduced when broilers were fed cupric citrate, as compared to cupric sulfate (P < 0.01). The absence of response to copper supplementation can be attributed to the environmental and sanitary rearing conditions.

  13. Polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation by Methylobacterium organophilum CZ-2 during methane degradation using citrate or propionate as cosubstrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Cristal; Morales, Marcia; Revah, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    Methylobacterium organophilum CZ-2 synthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under nitrogen limitation with CH4 as carbon source and when either citrate or propionate was added as cosubstrates. The highest PHAs content (yPHA) in closed flasks was obtained in the CH4-citrate and CH4-propionate experiments attaining values of 0.82 and 0.68, respectively. M. organophilum CZ-2 cultivated in bioreactors with citrate and continuous CH4 addition yielded a final PHAs concentration of 143 gm(-3) containing hydroxybutyrate (HB), hydroxyvalerate (HV) and hydroxyoctanoate (HO), in a 55:35:10 ratio, with, yPHA of 0.88 and a CH4 elimination capacity (EC) of 20 gm(-3) h(-1). With propionate, the yPHA was 0.3 and the EC around 8 gm(-3) h(-1). From 1H and 13C NMR experiments it was found that the polymer produced with CH4-citrate contained six different monomers: 3HB, 3HV, 4HV, 4-hydroxyheptanoate (4HH), 3HO and 4HO, showing the great versatility of this PHAs producing bacterium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase TEM-72 inhibited by citrate

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Jean-Denis; Benvenuti, Manuela; Calderone, Vito; Rossolini, Gian-Maria; Mangani, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    TEM-72 is a quadruple mutant of TEM-1 and shows extended-spectrum β-lactamase properties. The present structure shows the presence of a citrate anion bound to the TEM-72 active site and supports the use of polycarboxylates as a scaffold for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors of serine β-lactamases.

  15. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  16. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ... in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  17. Effect of strontium citrate on bone consolidation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin A; Bezuhly, Michael; Brace, Matthew; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) involves a lengthy consolidation phase where complications can occur. Strontium is an element that has been shown to improve bone healing. The objective of this study was to determine whether strontium citrate can be used to enhance bone healing during MDO in a rabbit model. Prospective animal model study. Custom-made MDO devices were placed on 20 New Zealand White rabbits. After a 7-day latency period, distraction was performed at 1 mm/day for 5 days. The study group rabbits (n = 10) received oral strontium citrate; the other 10 rabbits served as controls. Mandibles were removed at the end of the consolidation period (4 weeks). Formation and healing of new bone were evaluated with microcomputed tomography, histology, and a three-point bending mechanical test. New bone formed in all animals, but the consolidation process was enhanced in rabbits that received strontium. The histological analysis showed that study group rabbits had more mature bone. Microcomputed tomographic images demonstrated significantly higher bone density for study group animals, and the three-point bending test results demonstrated that the maximum load of the study group specimens was significantly greater than that of the control group mandibles. Strontium citrate improved the formation of new bone in the current rabbit model of MDO. The prolonged consolidation period may be shortened with strontium citrate, which may also have the potential to reduce complications. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E212-E218, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Calcium citrate improves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by acidosis in proximal tubular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodriguez Cabalgante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a key event in renal fibrosis. The aims of the study were to evaluate acidosis induced EMT, transforming-growth-factor (TGF β1 role and citrate effect on it. METHODS: HK2 cells (ATCC 2290 were cultured in DMEM/HAM F12 medium, pH 7.4. At 80% confluence, after 24 hr under serum free conditions, cells were distributed in three groups (24 hours: A Control: pH 7.4, B Acidosis: pH 7.0 and C Calcium citrate (0.2 mmol/L + pH 7.0. Change (Δ of intracellular calcium concentration, basal and after Angiotensin II (10-6M exposition, were measured to evaluate cellular performance. EMT was evaluated by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and E-cadherin by immunocytochemistry and/or Western blot. TGF-β1 secretion was determined by ELISA in cell supernatant. RESULTS: At pH 7.0 HK2 cells significantly reduced E-cadherin and increased α-SMA expression (EMT. Supernatant TGF-β1 levels were higher than in control group. Calcium citrate decreased acidosis induced EMT and improved cells performance, without reduction of TGF-β production. CONCLUSIONS: Acidosis induces EMT and secretion of TGF-β1 in tubular proximal cells in culture and citrate improves cellular performance and ameliorates acidosis induced EMT.

  19. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na(+)-citrate transporter CitS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2016-01-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na(+)-citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly

  20. Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis : Resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magni, Christian; Mendoza, Diego de; Konings, Wil N.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermenter at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the

  1. Efficacy of egg-yolk citrate extender fortified with aqueous garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to harness the potential of aqueous fresh and dried garlic extracts supplement in egg yolk extender for rooster semen to improve fertility and hatchability of egg. Aqueous extract of fresh and dry garlic were obtained and supplemented into egg yolk-citrate buffer at 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% for ...

  2. A europium luminescence assay of lactate and citrate in biological fluids†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Robert; Costello, Leslie C.

    2013-01-01

    Ratiometric methods of analysis have been developed for the selective determination of lactate or citrate in microlitre samples of human serum, urine or prostate fluids following comparison of anion binding affinities for a family of nine luminescent europium(III) complexes. PMID:19343236

  3. Sildenafil citrate for the management of fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rana Choudhary,1 Kavita Desai,2 Hetal Parekh,3 Kedar Ganla1 1Department of Reproductive Medicine, Ankoor Fertility Clinic, 2Department of Radiology, Dadar Imaging and Diagnostic Centre, 3IVF Department, Hiranandani Hospital, Mumbai, India Abstract: Fetal growth restriction (FGR and preeclampsia are the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which affect up to 8% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis in FGR is an abnormal trophoblastic invasion leading to compromised uteroplacental circulation. However, in spite of this understanding and identification of high-risk patients, the management options are limited. There are some new studies which have demonstrated the role of sildenafil citrate in improving vasodilatation of small myometrial vessels and therefore improvement in amniotic fluid index, fetal weight, and even uterine and umbilical artery Doppler patterns. We report here the case of a 31-year-old female with infertility and preconceptional thin endometrium responding well to sildenafil citrate, followed by conception. However, she presented with an early-onset FGR at 26 weeks of gestation, and again after treatment with sildenafil citrate, showed improvement in amniotic fluid index and fetal weight, finally resulting in delivery of a full-term healthy baby with uneventful neonatal course. Keywords: sildenafil citrate, fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, thin endometrium

  4. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts.

  5. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) impairs fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David R J; McClure, Neil; Cosby, S Louise; Stevenson, Michael; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2009-03-01

    To determine the effects of sildenafil citrate, a cyclic monophosphate-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor known to affect sperm function, on fertilization and early embryo cleavage. This acute mammal study included male and female mice assigned randomly, the females sacrificed after mating and their oocytes/embryos evaluated at four time periods after treatment. Academic research environment. Male and female CBAB(6) mice. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5 IU gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate follicular growth and induce ovulation. They were each caged with a male that had been gavaged with sildenafil citrate (0.06 mg/0.05 mL) and allowed to mate. After 12, 36, 60, and 84 h, females were killed, their oviducts were dissected out, and retrieved embryos were assessed for blastomere number and quality. Fertilization rates and numbers of embryos were evaluated after treatment. Fertilization rates (day 1) were markedly reduced (-33%) in matings where the male had taken sildenafil citrate. Over days 2-4, the numbers of embryos developing in the treated group were significantly fewer than in the control group. There was also a trend for impaired cleavage rates within those embryos, although this did not reach significance. The impairments to fertility caused by sildenafil citrate have important implications for infertility centers and for couples who are using this drug precoitally while attempting to conceive.

  6. The structure and binding mode of citrate in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Johani, Hind; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Widdifield, Cory M.; Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Sangaru, Shiv Shankar; Gajan, David; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Hedhili, Mohamed Nejib; Gurinov, Andrei; Kelly, Michael J.; El Eter, Mohamad; Cavallo, Luigi; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-09-01

    Elucidating the binding mode of carboxylate-containing ligands to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is crucial to understand their stabilizing role. A detailed picture of the three-dimensional structure and coordination modes of citrate, acetate, succinate and glutarate to AuNPs is obtained by 13C and 23Na solid-state NMR in combination with computational modelling and electron microscopy. The binding between the carboxylates and the AuNP surface is found to occur in three different modes. These three modes are simultaneously present at low citrate to gold ratios, while a monocarboxylate monodentate (1κO1) mode is favoured at high citrate:gold ratios. The surface AuNP atoms are found to be predominantly in the zero oxidation state after citrate coordination, although trace amounts of Auδ+ are observed. 23Na NMR experiments show that Na+ ions are present near the gold surface, indicating that carboxylate binding occurs as a 2e- L-type interaction for each oxygen atom involved. This approach has broad potential to probe the binding of a variety of ligands to metal nanoparticles.

  7. Citrate, a Ubiquitous Key Metabolite with Regulatory Function in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Belhage, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Citrate is key constituent of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, serves as substrate for fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis, and functions as a key regulator of intermediary energy metabolism. Ursula Sonnewald had initiated studies using for the first time both proton- and 13C-NMR to investigate...

  8. Amorphous titanium-oxide supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko

    2016-10-01

    The electric capacitance of an amorphous TiO2-x surface increases proportionally to the negative sixth power of the convex diameter d. This occurs because of the van der Waals attraction on the amorphous surface of up to 7 mF/cm2, accompanied by extreme enhanced electron trapping resulting from both the quantum-size effect and an offset effect from positive charges at oxygen-vacancy sites. Here we show that a supercapacitor, constructed with a distributed constant-equipment circuit of large resistance and small capacitance on the amorphous TiO2-x surface, illuminated a red LED for 37 ms after it was charged with 1 mA at 10 V. The fabricated device showed no dielectric breakdown up to 1,100 V. Based on this approach, further advances in the development of amorphous titanium-dioxide supercapacitors might be attained by integrating oxide ribbons with a micro-electro mechanical system.

  9. Comparison of {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 67}Ga-citrate in sarcoidosis imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, E.; Bisail, B.; Schwarz, T.; Lanz, H.; Aigner, R.M. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Wehrschuetz, M.; Sorantin, E. [Dept. of General and Pediatric Radiology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Woltsche, M. [Div. of Pulmonology, LKH Hoergas/Enzenbach (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Aim: {sup 67}Ga citrate has been used long and successfully to diagnose and stage sarcoidosis. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) has been suggested as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for sarcoidosis imaging. This study aimed to analyze possible advantages of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET over {sup 67}Ga citrate scintigraphy during the primary assessment of patients with sarcoidosis. Patients and methods: twenty-four patients (11 men, 13 women, aged 52 years {+-} 12.4) with histologically proven sarcoidosis were investigated with {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 67}Ga citrate. Equipment included a full-ring PET scanner (ECAT EXACT HR+, Siemens/CTI, Knoxville TN, USA) and a double-headed gamma camera (ECAM, Siemens, Illinois, USA) for scintigraphy. The mean time difference between the two studies was 6.5 days (range: 5-8 days). Results: there was a significant difference in the detection of pulmonary and nonpulmonary sarcoidosis lesions between planar {sup 67}Ga citrate scans and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET images (< 0.0021). A total of 64 lesions were detected with {sup 67}Ga citrate scans in the thorax and elsewhere with a mean of 2.6 lesions (4%) per patient, while 85 lesions were found with {sup 18}F-FDG-PET, with a mean of 3.5 lesions (4.1%) per patient. There was complete agreement between {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 67}Ga citrate in thoracic manifestations in four (16.6%) patients, and in non-thoracic manifestations in five (20.8%) patients. The interobserver variability showed a kappa value of 0.79. Conclusion: {sup 67}Ga citrate and {sup 18}F-FDG are useful tracers for diagnostic evaluation of thoracic sarcoidosis. {sup 18}F-FDG seems to be more suitable for imaging the mediastinum, the bi-hilar lymph nodes, the posterior regions of the lungs and non-thoracic lesions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of both tracers in early diagnosis and staging of sarcoidosis, and to resolve questions concerning medical treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  10. Outcome of treatment of MDR-TB patients with standardised regimens, Iran, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, M R; Tabarsi, P; Chitsaz, E; Baghaei, P; Mirsaeidi, M; Amiri, M V; Farnia, P; Javanmard, P; Mansouri, D; Velayati, A A

    2008-07-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) imposes a formidable burden on national health systems. There is still no consensus on the subject, with controversies regarding treatment protocols, treatment outcomes and the various treatment regimens. The present study describes Iran's second national cohort for treatment of MDR-TB. The study comprised all documented MDR-TB cases in Iran referred to our centre during the period 2002-2006. All patients received a standardised second-line regimen consisting of ofloxacin, cycloserine, prothionamide and amikacin. Based on drug susceptibility testing results, ethambutol and pyrazinamide were added to the regimen. Forty-three patients diagnosed with MDR-TB, with a mean age of 44.38 +/- 19.05 years, received treatment; of these, 27 (62.8%) were male. Twenty-three were (53.5%) Iranians and the remainder were Afghans. All patients were acquired MDR-TB cases. Of the 43 cases, 25 (58.1%) experienced severe clinically significant adverse effects; 29 (67.5%) had a successful outcome and 14 (32.5%) had a poor outcome (treatment failure in six [14%] and death in eight [18.6%]). Mortality was higher in Iranians (P = 0.039) and in patients whose initial regimen was changed due to adverse drug reactions (P = 0.01). Compared with previous studies, our study was able to obtain more favourable outcomes of MDR-TB treatment using a standardised regimen.

  11. Standardised evaluation of medicine acceptability in paediatric population: reliability of a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Thibault; Ruiz, Fabrice; Lavarde, Marc; Pensé-Lhéritier, Anne-Marie; Aoussat, Ameziane

    2017-10-26

    Our novel tool to standardise the evaluation of medicine acceptability was developed using observational data on medicines use measured in a paediatric population included for this purpose (0-14 years). Using this tool, any medicine may be positioned on a map and assigned to an acceptability profile. The present exploration aimed to verify its statistical reliability. Permutation test has been used to verify the significance of the relationships among measures highlighted by the acceptability map. Bootstrapping has been used to demonstrate the accuracy of the model (map, profiles and scores of acceptability) regardless of variations in the data. Lastly, simulations of enlarged data sets (×2; ×5; ×10) have been built to study the model's consistency. Permutation test established the significance of the meaningful pattern identified in the data and summarised in the map. Bootstrapping attested the accuracy of the model: high RV coefficients (mean value: 0.930) verified the mapping stability, significant Adjusted Rand Indexes and Jaccard coefficients supported clustering validity (with either two or four profiles), and agreement between acceptability scores demonstrated scoring relevancy. Regarding enlarged data sets, these indicators reflected a very high consistency of the model. These results highlighted the reliability of the model that will permit its use to standardise medicine acceptability assessments. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Understanding the 'Silver Book' - An important reference for standardised nomenclature in clinical laboratory sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatman, Robert; Férard, Georges; Dybkaer, René

    2017-04-01

    Clinical laboratories perform a wide menu of testing (examinations). Successful requesting, examination, and ordering in this environment requires clear standardised nomenclature. The Silver Book (SB) is an IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) publication, produced with the support of both IUPAC and the IFCC (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine), that makes recommendations on logical standardised nomenclature, symbols, properties, and units in many disciplines of the clinical laboratory sciences. These recommendations are founded on and in agreement with the principles and work of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), IUPAC, and the IFCC. Practical applications described are based on those scientific principles. The SB recommendations apply to all types of examination, not only to measurement of quantities but also examination of nominal properties where no magnitude is involved. The SB is applicable not only to clinical chemistry, but to many other clinical laboratory disciplines. For examples, reports regarding haemostasis, toxicology, clinical microbiology, reproduction and fertility, clinical pharmacology, clinical allergology, clinical molecular biology, and clinical immunohaematology have been published by the IUPAC and the IFCC. Peak scientific bodies such as the IUPAC and the IFCC have important roles in the development of sound international standards for nomenclature of examinations. Such standards support safe and effective representation of patient health information, foster portability, and empower future decision support systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Recency, primacy, and memory: reappraising and standardising the serial position curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, E; Della Sala, S; Logie, R H; Spinnler, H

    1992-09-01

    In this paper we consider the serial position curve in immediate verbal free recall. A large literature has argued that two components of the serial position curve, recency and primacy, reflect the functioning respectively of short-term and of long-term memory. However, there are a number of difficulties in interpreting the recency effect as a phenomenon uniquely associated with short-term memory. Moreover, the serial position curve has been used widely for clinical investigations in patients with memory deficits. This is despite the lack of norms for the measures derived from the curve. We present a set of standardised norms based on 321 Italian normal subjects. These norms are shown to be applicable both to an English speaking population, and to three groups of brain damaged-patients, namely Alzheimer's, amnesics, and frontals. The standardised norms offer a clinical and experimental tool which, coupled with a multiple single case approach, allows us to show dissociations and double dissociations among the performance patterns obtained from all three pathological groups. The paper concludes with a discussion of a possible interpretation of the recency effect as a emergent property of all types of memory system, including verbal short-term memory. Taking into account previous literature as well as our own data, the recency effect in immediate verbal free recall is here interpreted in terms of a two-component view of verbal short-term memory.

  14. Standardisation of {sup 124}SB and {sup 152}EU using software coincidence counting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havelka, Miroslav, E-mail: mhavelka@cmi.c [Czech Metrology Institute, Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation, Radiova 1, 102 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Sochorova, Jana [Czech Metrology Institute, Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation, Radiova 1, 102 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    Activities of the radionuclides {sup 124}Sb and {sup 152}Eu were determined by the efficiency extrapolation method applied to 4{pi}(PC)-{gamma} coincidence counting. The {sup 124}Sb sources were prepared from a solution with the chemical form of 50 {mu}g g{sup -1} SbCl{sub 3} in 2 M HCl. To inhibit the volatility of antimony chlorides, the sources were slowly dried in a H{sub 2}S atmosphere with relative humidity of 76% for about 48 h. This procedure increased the beta detection efficiency up to 0.98, which simplified the standardisation. In the {sup 152}Eu standardisation, the optimal {gamma}-ray energy window setting to achieve a linear dependency and the correct slope of the extrapolation curve were derived by means of software coincidence counting system using offline evaluation of data with different coincidence parameter settings. The results obtained by the software coincidence counting system were compared with those obtained by the conventional coincidence method.

  15. Development of a standardised approach to river habitat assessment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Melissa; Thoms, Martin C; Norris, R H

    2004-11-01

    Despite the demonstrated utility of the Australian River Assessment Scheme (AUSRIVAS) to provide national-scale information on the biological condition of rivers, there is no commensurate scheme that can provide standardised information on physical habitat. Existing habitat assessment methods are not suitable for implementation on a national scale, so we present a new habitat assessment protocol that incorporates favorable elements of existing methods. Habitat Predictive Modelling forms the basis for the protocol because it can predict the occurrence of local-scale features from large-scale data, uses the reference condition concept, can be modified to incorporate a range of biologically and geomorphologically relevant variables, and employs a rapid survey approach. However, the protocol has been augmented with geomorphological variables and incorporates principles of hierarchy and geomorphological river zonation. There are four sequential components to the implementation of the protocol: reference site selection, data collection, predictive model construction and assessment of test sites using the predictive models. Once implemented, the habitat assessment protocol will provide a standardised tool for the assessment of river habitat condition at a variety of governance levels.

  16. Using standardised patients in an objective structured clinical examination as a patient safety tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, J B; Wilkinson, S L; Lee, S J

    2004-10-01

    Standardised patients (SPs) are a powerful form of simulation that has now become commonplace in training and assessment in medical education throughout the world. Standardised patients are individuals, with or without actual disease, who have been trained to portray a medical case in a consistent manner. They are now the gold standard for measuring the competence of physicians and other health professionals, and the quality of their practice. A common way in which SPs are used in performance assessment has been as part of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The use of an SP based OSCE can be a powerful tool in measuring continued competence in human reliability and skill performance where such skills are a critical attribute to maintaining patient safety. This article will describe how an OSCE could be used as a patient safety tool based on cases derived from actual events related to postdonation information in the blood collection process. The OSCE was developed as a competency examination for health history takers. Postdonation information events in the blood collection process account for the majority of errors reported to the US Food and Drug Administration. SP based assessment is an important patient safety tool that could be applied to a variety of patient safety settings and situations, and should be considered an important weapon in the war on medical error and patient harm.

  17. Effects of pre-conditioning on behavior and physiology of horses during a standardised learning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fenner

    Full Text Available Rein tension is used to apply pressure to control both ridden and unridden horses. The pressure is delivered by equipment such as the bit, which may restrict voluntary movement and cause changes in behavior and physiology. Managing the effects of such pressure on arousal level and behavioral indicators will optimise horse learning outcomes. This study examined the effect of training horses to turn away from bit pressure on cardiac outcomes and behavior (including responsiveness over the course of eight trials in a standardised learning task. The experimental procedure consisted of a resting phase, treatment/control phase, standardised learning trials requiring the horses (n = 68 to step backwards in response to bit pressure and a recovery phase. As expected, heart rate increased (P = 0.028 when the handler applied rein tension during the treatment phase. The amount of rein tension required to elicit a response during treatment was higher on the left than the right rein (P = 0.009. Total rein tension required for trials reduced (P < 0.001 as they progressed, as did time taken (P < 0.001 and steps taken (P < 0.001. The incidence of head tossing decreased (P = 0.015 with the progression of the trials and was higher (P = 0.018 for the control horses than the treated horses. These results suggest that preparing the horses for the lesson and slightly raising their arousal levels, improved learning outcomes.

  18. A critical discourse analysis of the attitudes of occupational therapists and physiotherapists towards the systematic use of standardised outcome measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger Pedersen, Tonny; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    To investigate discourses relating to the implementation of standardised outcome measurement within rehabilitation practise. It is a critical discourse analysis of texts in professional occupational therapist (OT) and physiotherapist (PT) journals, along with transcriptions from three focus group interviews with 25 OTs and PTs in local rehabilitation settings. Although positive attitudes towards outcome measurement were expressed in the professional journals, OTs and PTs in local settings had professional reservations about standardisation of the rehabilitation practise. The therapists were caught in what they considered to be a dilemma between taking a holistic approach and performing standardised practise. Systematic outcome measurement challenged the core values of their practise. Therapists often felt that 'it did not make sense' to use outcome measurement and this became a barrier to its implementation. If the use of standardised outcome measurement is to be increased, reflection is needed on how the measurements can be integrated to provide a meaningful contribution to individual rehabilitation processes. To optimise implementation, it is essential to make use of research in knowledge translation and adapt it to fit with the ways in which new ideas and recommendations are implemented in local rehabilitation contexts. Implications for Rehabilitation Successful implementation of standardised outcome measurements depends on whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists have an experience of the measurements as being meaningful. Enforcement of standardised outcome measurements must be done by means of more than a few isolated arguments, if professional acceptance is to be gained. To reject established dogmas on, e.g. standardisation, deliberate and conscious reflections in local settings are needed. It is necessary to go beyond normal and familiar professional reflections. To this end, newcomers' opinions are valuable.

  19. Milk lactose, citrate, and glucose as markers of lactogenesis in normal and diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, P G; Smith, M; Hartmann, P E

    1989-11-01

    A study was undertaken to define an appropriate marker of lactogenesis II (the onset of copious milk secretion) in mothers, and to determine the effect of diabetes on this marker. Changes in the concentrations of three milk components--lactose, citrate, and glucose--were measured in 38 normal mothers and 6 type I diabetic mothers up to 10 days after birth. Milk yield was measured in 12 of the normal mothers, and all mothers were asked to note the time of milk "coming in" (the feeling of overfullness of the breasts). The average concentrations of lactose, citrate, and glucose in milk were low for the first 24 h after birth, then between 24 and 48 h after birth there was a rapid increase in the concentrations of lactose and citrate, and this transitional period was followed by a plateau period that began between 60 and 84 h after birth. For individual mothers the transitional period for citrate began 32 +/- 9 h (n = 13) and finished 77 +/- 10 h (n = 17) after birth, and for lactose the transitional period finished at 53 +/- 12 h (n = 29) after birth. For diabetic mothers these times were significantly later. The average 24-h milk intake by infants increased from 82 to 556 ml/24 h between 24 and 144 h after birth. Milk intakes were correlated with the concentration of lactose (r = 0.52, n = 51, p less than 0.001), citrate (r = 0.47, n = 47, p less than 0.001), and glucose (r = 0.69, n = 50, p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Evolution of allosteric citrate binding sites on 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Usenik

    Full Text Available As an important part of metabolism, metabolic flux through the glycolytic pathway is tightly regulated. The most complex control is exerted on 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1 level; this control overrules the regulatory role of other allosteric enzymes. Among other effectors, citrate has been reported to play a vital role in the suppression of this enzyme's activity. In eukaryotes, amino acid residues forming the allosteric binding site for citrate are found both on the N- and the C-terminal region of the enzyme. These site has evolved from the phosphoenolpyruvate/ADP binding site of bacterial PFK1 due to the processes of duplication and tandem fusion of prokaryotic ancestor gene followed by the divergence of the catalytic and effector binding sites. Stricter inhibition of the PFK1 enzyme was needed during the evolution of multi-cellular organisms, and the most stringent control of PFK1 by citrate occurs in vertebrates. By substituting a single amino acid (K557R or K617A as a component of the allosteric binding site in the C-terminal region of human muscle type PFK-M with a residue found in the corresponding site of a fungal enzyme, the inhibitory effect of citrate was attenuated. Moreover, the proteins carrying these single mutations enabled growth of E. coli transformants encoding mutated human PFK-M in a glucose-containing medium that did not support the growth of E. coli transformed with native human PFK-M. Substitution of another residue at the citrate-binding site (D591V of human PFK-M resulted in the complete loss of activity. Detailed analyses revealed that the mutated PFK-M subunits formed dimers but were unable to associate into the active tetrameric holoenzyme. These results suggest that stricter control over glycolytic flux developed in metazoans, whose somatic cells are largely characterized by slow proliferation.

  1. Developmental toxicity of orally administered sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in SWR/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohamed; Abdel-Samad, Mohamed Fathy; Al-Meteri, Mokhlid Hamed

    2011-04-01

    Normal adult inbred SWR/J mice were used to investigate the teratogenic and other possible toxic effects of various dose levels of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on fetuses. Multiple dose levels of 6.5, 13.0, 19.5, 26.0, 32.5 or 40.0 mg of sildenafil citrate/kg body weight (which correspond to the multiples of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 of human 50 mg Viagra, respectively) were orally administered into pregnant mice on days 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15 of gestation. On day 17 of pregnancy, all fetuses were removed and examined for toxic phenomena (embryo-fetal toxicity) and for external, internal and skeletal malformations. A total of 285 pregnant mice were used in the present study. None of the dams treated with sildenafil citrate at any of the oral dose levels used in the present study died during the experimental period and all dams treated with the drug failed to reveal overt signs of maternal toxicity. Moreover, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate that none of the multiple oral dose levels of the drug at any time interval used has induced any external, internal or skeletal malformations in the fetuses obtained from treated females. However, the dose level of 40 mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate has a growth suppressing effect on alive fetuses when it was administered at all the time intervals used in the present study. Furthermore, the dose levels 26.0, 32.5 and 40 mg/kg of the drug have embryo-fetal toxicity when the drug is applied on days 13-15 of gestation. The possible mechanisms involved in the embryo-fetal toxicity and fetal growth suppressing effects of sildenafil citrate were discussed. The results of this study have important implications for the widespread use of this drug.

  2. Fatigue Behavior of a Functionally-Graded Titanium Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Scott R

    2005-01-01

    Functionally-graded Titanium Matrix Composites are an attempt to utilize the high-strength properties of a titanium matrix composite with a monolithic alloy having the more practical machining qualities...

  3. Colloidal Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles: Properties and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Suslov, Sergey; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of colloidal plasmonic titanium nitride nanoparticles are examined with an eye on their photothermal and photocatalytic applications via transmission electron microscopy and optical transmittance measurements. Single crystal titanium nitride cubic nanoparticles with an average ...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Porous titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirikul Wisutmethangoon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Porous titanium with good strength and three-dimension pore structure was fabricated by using TiH2 as vesicantfoaming titanium powder. This kind of porous titanium with good bio-mechanical compatibility may have the potential toalleviate the problems caused by the mismatch of the strength and Young’s modulus between implant (110 GPa for titaniumand bone. Moreover, the pores (mainly in 100-700 µm are all interconnected. This porous structure would endow thematerials with better activity between bone and porous implant matrix. Furthermore, biocompatible porous titanium with aporosity of 33.51-49.09 vol.%, a compressive strength of 156.19-173.34 MPa and a hardness of 438.51-461.40 is known tobe a good candidate material for use as bone implants. In the present study, porous titanium was fabricated by using apowder metallurgical process. The effects of process variables, such as the size of the foaming agent and the sinteringtemperature, on the pore structure and the mechanical properties were investigated. The relationships between the porestructure and the mechanical properties were also studied.

  5. Tissue response to titanium implant using scanning electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Nautiyal, Vijay P; Mittal, Ankur; Agarwal, Amit; Pandey, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Most of the surgeons now use titanium miniplates because of its biocompatibility and corrosion resistant properties; studies have shown that these titanium particles are released in the surrounding tissues causing tissue necrosis and if these implants are placed for a long period, the adverse effect of these implants are more severe. It therefore necessitates a study to find out whether these titanium particles are released into surrounding tissues from titanium miniplates used for maxillofac...

  6. Individual prefabricated titanium implants and titanium mesh in skull base reconstructive surgery. A report of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, J; Ridder, G J; Spetzger, U; Teszler, C B; Fradis, M; Maier, W

    2004-05-01

    Titanium implants can be shaped by traditional hand forming, press shaping, modular construction by welding, construction on full-size models shaped from CT coordinates and, most recently, by computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that consist in the direct prefabrication of individual implants by milling them out of a solid block of titanium. The aim of our study was to present a set of preliminary cases of an ongoing program of reconstructive procedures of the skull base using titanium implants. The subjects underwent ablative procedures of the skull base with reconstruction either by titanium mesh or individual prefabricated CAD/CAM implants. Six patients have been operated on successfully since 2000: two received prefabricated CAD/CAM titanium plates and four others underwent reconstruction with titanium mesh. The stability of CAD/CAM plates is superior to that of mesh, thus it is more useful in reconstructing large lesions of the frontal skull base and the temporal and occipital bones. Titanium mesh was successfully used for defects smaller than 100 cm(2) or where selected viscerocranial defects are complicated in design and less reproducible by CAD/CAM. The intraoperative design, shaping and adjustment characteristic of titanium mesh can be dispensed with when CAD/CAM implants are used. The 3-D data set used in the CAD/CAM process also operates in the navigated simulation and planning of the ablation contours, the latter being of great assistance in establishing the optimal future defect. As a disadvantage, CAD/CAM technology is more expensive than titanium mesh, and the process is time-consuming as it is carried out in advance of surgery.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  10. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  11. Effects of thickness on electronic structure of titanium thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effects of thickness on the electronic structure of e-beam evaporated thin titanium films were studied using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) technique at titanium 2,3 edge in total electron yield (TEY) mode and transmission yield mode. Thickness dependence of 2,3 branching ratio (BR) of titanium was ...

  12. Applications of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ohama, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysis is based on the semiconducting nature of its anatase crystal type. Construction materials with titanium photocatalyst show performances of air purification, self-cleaning, water purification, antibacterial action. This book describes principles of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, its applications to cementitious and noncementitious materials, as well as an overview of standardization of testing methods.

  13. Genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs, <100 nm are increasingly being used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics due to the unique properties derived from their small sizes. However, their large surface-area to mass ratio and high redox potential may negatively impact human health and the environment. TiO2-NPs can cause inflammation, pulmonary damage, fibrosis, and lung tumors and they are possibly carcinogenic to humans. Because cancer is a disease involving mutation, there are a large number of studies on the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs. In this article, we review the results that have been reported in the literature, with a focus on data generated from the standard genotoxicity assays. The data include genotoxicity results from the Ames test, in vitro and in vivo Comet assay, in vitro and in vivo micronucleus assay, sister chromatid exchange assay, mammalian cell hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene assay, the wing somatic mutation and recombination assay, and the mouse phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A gene assay. Inconsistent results have been found in these assays, with both positive and negative responses being reported. The in vitro systems for assessing the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs have generated a greater number of positive results than the in vivo systems, and tests for DNA and chromosome damage have produced more positive results than the assays measuring gene mutation. Nearly all tests for measuring the mutagenicity of TiO2-NPs were negative. The current data indicate that the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs is mediated mainly through the generation of oxidative stress in cells.

  14. Adhesion, activation, and aggregation of blood platelets and biofilm formation on the surfaces of titanium alloys Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Przybyło, M; Klimek, L; Okrój, W; Jakubowski, W; Chwiłka, M; Czajka, A; Walkowiak, B

    2012-03-01

    Titanium alloys are still on the top list of fundamental materials intended for dental, orthopedics, neurological, and cardiovascular implantations. Recently, a special attention has been paid to vanadium-free titanium alloy, Ti6Al7Nb, that seems to represent higher biocompatibility than traditional Ti6Al4V alloy. Surprisingly, these data are not thoroughly elaborated in the literature; particularly there is a lack of comparative experiments conducted simultaneously and at the same conditions. Our study fills these shortcomings in the field of blood contact and microbiological colonization. To observe platelets adhesion and biofilm formation on the surfaces of compared titanium alloys, fluorescence microscope Olympus GX71 and scanning electron microscope HITACHI S-3000N were used. Additionally, flow cytometry analysis of platelets aggregation and activation in the whole blood after contact with sample surface, as an essential tool for biomaterial thrombocompatibility assessment, was proposed. As a result of our study it was demonstrated that polished surfaces of Ti6Al7Nb and Ti6Al4V alloys after contact with whole citrated blood and E. coli bacterial cells exhibit a considerable difference. Overall, it was established that Ti6Al4V has distinct tendency to higher thrombogenicity, more excessive bacterial biofilm formation and notable cytotoxic properties in comparison to Ti6Al7Nb. However, we suggest these studies should be extended for other types of cells and biological objects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  16. Titanium nitride thin films for minimizing multipactoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kimo M.

    1979-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  17. Assessment of citrate concentrations in citrus fruit-based juices and beverages: implications for management of hypocitraturic nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleblian, George E; Leitao, Victor A; Pierre, Sean A; Robinson, Marnie R; Albala, David M; Ribeiro, Anthony A; Preminger, Glenn M

    2008-06-01

    Dietary intake of citrate in the form of citrus juices (eg, lemonade, orange juice) will enhance urinary citrate excretion, a valuable benefit for patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. While information on citrate concentrations in select citrus juices is available, data on citrate concentrations of commercially available beverages (juice and otherwise) are limited. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), we report citrate concentrations of several beverages to help guide dietary recommendations aimed at increasing urinary citrate excretion and correcting hypocitraturia. Citrate concentrations of a squeezed lemon, several fruit juices, and common beverages were measured using 1H NMR. Spectra for each sample were obtained in duplicate; citrate peak was identified, measured, and quantified and compared with the citrate concentration in the juice of 1 medium lemon. Quantitative analysis revealed the highest concentration of citrate was in grapefruit juice (64.7 mmol/L), followed in decreasing concentrations by lemon juice (47.66 mmol/L), orange juice (47.36 mmol/L), pineapple juice (41.57 mmol/L), reconstituted lemonade (38.65 mmol/L), lemonade flavored Crystal Light (38.39 mmol/L), ready to consume not from concentrate lemonade (38.24 mmol/L), cranberry juice (19.87 mmol/L), lemon-flavored Gatorade (19.82 mmol/L), homemade lemonade (17.42 mmol/L), Mountain Dew (8.84 mmol/L), and Diet 7Up (7.98 mmol/L), respectively. According to 1H NMR, all of the tested "natural" citrus juices have high concentrations of citrate (38.3-67.4 mmol/L), with grapefruit juice having the highest concentration of the beverages chosen. Lemonade flavored Crystal Light had the highest concentration of citrate in the nonjuice category of tested beverages. In patients with mild to moderate hypocitraturia, dietary supplementation with citrus-based juices may be an effective alternative to medical management while not requiring large serving sizes. Further

  18. Standardised method for reporting exercise programmes: protocol for a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-12-30

    Exercise is integral to health across the lifespan and important for people with chronic health conditions. A systematic review of exercise trials for chronic conditions reported suboptimal descriptions of the evaluated interventions and concluded that this hinders interpretation and replication. The aim of this project is to develop a standardised method for reporting essential exercise programme details being evaluated in clinical trials. A modified Delphi technique will be used to gain consensus among international exercise experts. We will use three sequential rounds of anonymous online questionnaires to refine a standardised checklist. A draft checklist of potentially relevant items was developed based on the results of a systematic review of exercise systematic reviews. An international panel of experts was identified by exercise systematic review authorship, established international profile in exercise research and practice and by peer referral. In round 1, the international panel of experts will be asked to rate the importance of each draft item and provide additional suggestions for revisions or new items. Consensus will be considered reached if at least 70% of the panel strongly agree/disagree that an item should be included or excluded. Where agreement is not reached or there are suggestions for altered or new items, these will be taken to round 2 together with an aggregated summary of round 1 responses. Following the second round, a ranking of item importance will be made to rationalise the number of items. The final template will be distributed to panel members for approval. Ethics approval was received from The Cabrini Institute Ethics Committee, Melbourne, Australia (HREC 02-07-04-14). We plan to use a stepwise process to develop and refine a standardised and internationally agreed template for explicit reporting of exercise programmes. The template will be generalisable across all types of exercise interventions. The findings will be disseminated

  19. Superior calcium bioavailability of effervescent potassium calcium citrate over tablet formulation of calcium citrate after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar; Pak, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Calcium supplementation is commonly recommended for patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass to avert bone loss. To test the hypothesis that effervescent (liquid) potassium-calcium-citrate (PCC) might be more bioavailable than a tablet formulation of calcium citrate (Citracal Petite), the present study compared a single dose response of the 2 compounds. The present study was conducted at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas. A total of 15 patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in a 2-phase, crossover, randomized study comparing the single-dose bioavailability of PCC versus Citracal Petite. After following a restricted diet for 1 week, the participants ingested either a single dose of 400 mg elemental calcium as PCC or Citracal Petite. Sequential serum and urine samples were collected for a 6-hour period after the dose and analyzed for calcium, parathyroid hormone, and acid-base parameters. Compared with citracal petite, PCC significantly increased the serum calcium concentrations at 2, 3, and 4 hours after the oral load. The peak to baseline variation and increment in serum calcium (area under the curve) were significantly greater after PCC (P = .015 and P = .002, respectively). Concurrently, the baseline to nadir variation and decrement in serum parathyroid hormone (area over the curve) were significantly greater after PCC (P = .004 and P = .005, respectively). Moreover, compared with Citracal Petite, PCC caused a significantly greater increment in urinary citrate (P < .0001) and potassium (P = .0004) and a significantly lower increase in urinary ammonium (P = .045). In patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, PCC was superior to Citracal Petite in conferring bioavailable calcium and suppressing parathyroid hormone secretion. PCC also provided an alkali load. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Creating mobile apps with Appcelerator Titanium

    CERN Document Server

    Brousseau, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium provides a hands-on approach and working examples on creating apps and games as well as embedding them onto a social networking website. Developers can then move on from there to develop their own applications based on the ones they have developed throughout the course of this book.""Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium"" is for developers who have experience with modern languages and development environments. Also, if you are familiar with the concepts of Object-oriented Programming (OOP), reusable components, AJAX closures, and so on