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Sample records for standard definition white

  1. High definition versus standard definition white light endoscopy for detecting dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, S S; Subramanian, V; Butt, W M; Bejkar, G; Coleman, J; Mannath, J; Ragunath, K

    2015-01-01

    High-definition endoscopy systems provide superior image resolution. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of high definition compared with standard definition endoscopy system for detecting dysplastic lesions in patients with Barrett's esophagus. A retrospective cohort study of patients with non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus undergoing routine surveillance was performed. Data were retrieved from the central hospital electronic database. Procedures performed for non-surveillance indications, Barrett's esophagus Prague C0M1 classification with no specialized intestinal metaplasia on histology, patients diagnosed with any dysplasia or cancer on index endoscopy, and procedures using advanced imaging techniques were excluded. Logistic regression models were constructed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing outcomes with standard definition and high-definition systems. The high definition was superior to standard definition system in targeted detection of all dysplastic lesions (odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidence interval 1.27-8.40) as well as overall dysplasia detected on both random and target biopsies (odds ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.72). More non-dysplastic lesions were detected with the high-definition system (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.33). There was no difference between high definition and standard definition endoscopy in the overall (random and target) high-grade dysplasia or cancers detected (odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.04). Trainee endoscopists, number of biopsies taken, and male sex were all significantly associated with a higher yield for dysplastic lesions. The use of the high-definition endoscopy system is associated with better targeted detection of any dysplasia during routine Barrett's esophagus surveillance. However, high-definition endoscopy cannot replace random biopsies at present time. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. Standardized Definitions for Code Verification Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This document contains standardized definitions for several commonly used code verification test problems. These definitions are intended to contain sufficient information to set up the test problem in a computational physics code. These definitions are intended to be used in conjunction with exact solutions to these problems generated using Exact- Pack, www.github.com/lanl/exactpack.

  3. 18 CFR 801.1 - Standard definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard definitions. 801.1 Section 801.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.1 Standard definitions. (a) Many terms that will be used in official Commission...

  4. White coat hypertension in definition of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvaci, Mehmet Rami; Kaya, Hasan; Seyhanli, Mahmut; Yalcin, Atilla

    2008-07-01

    Although white coat hypertension (WCH) is believed to have an effect on health, there is no term defining WCH in metabolic syndrome. Consecutive patients 20 years old or older who underwent a check-up were included. The study included 1068 cases. The prevalences of hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and WCH were similar to excess weight in that they increased significantly until the seventh decade of life and decreased thereafter significantly (P hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) always increased significantly with age without any decrease (P definition of metabolic syndrome should include reversible metabolic risk factors such as excess weight (overweight and obesity), hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH, instead of irrevesible diseases such as DM, HT, CHD, and stroke that have already developed and require drug therapy. After development of one of the final metabolic diseases, the term metabolic syndrome probably loses most of its significance, since from that point on, nonpharmaceutical approaches such as lifestyle changes, diet, and exercise will provide little benefit to prevent development of the others, most likely due to the cumulative effects of the risk factors on body systems over a long period of time.

  5. Standard definitions of terms relating to dosimetry - approved standard 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions are presented for terms related to radiation dosimetry. These definitions are the same as, or similar to, those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) as presented in the National Bureau of Sandards Handbook 62, but attempt has been made to define some of the terms more exactly

  6. The comparison of high and standard definition computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparison of high and standard definition computed tomography techniques regarding coronary artery imaging. A Aykut, D Bumin, Y Omer, K Mustafa, C Meltem, C Orhan, U Nisa, O Hikmet, D Hakan, K Mert ...

  7. Examining African American and white outdoor recreation participation after demographic standardization on selected characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer

    1995-01-01

    The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...

  8. Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucien Teunckens; Kurt Pflugrad; Candace Chan-Sands; Ted Lazo

    2000-01-01

    The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

  9. DIN 51003: the standard of TXRF basics and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the world-wide effort to standardize analytical methods, a team of TXRF users has elaborated the draft of a new DIN standard (German Industry Standard) on basic terms and definitions related to TXRF analysis. This draft ('yellow-print') is now open for discussion, and its structure and principal contents will be presented here. The new standard is subdivided into the following subjects: introduction, scope of application and normative remarks; general terms (in x-ray spectroscopy); physics, of TXRF; x-ray sources; conditioning of the primary x-ray beam; measurement of x-ray fluorescence with energy-dispersive spectrometers; samples; measurement and evaluation of data; traceability; applications of TXRF. The more important items will be discussed in the present paper. It should be pointed out that this standard is meant primarily to give a common basis for physical terms and general denotations to be used in TXRF analysis, i.e. it does not include specific working prescriptions for analytical tasks. However, such prescriptions will be given - in a more generalized form - in a number of appendices to the main document, thus covering the major fields of application of TXRF. In order to enable acceptance of the standard on an international basis, an ISO standard is also in preparation. (author)

  10. A comparison of standard definitions and sagittal abdominal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MeTS) is the cluster of several clinical symptoms that together represent the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of MeTS in adolescents is difficult to estimate given that there are several, but no agreed upon definition of MeTS for this age group. It is important to estimate MeTS and identify at-risk adolescents early in order to provide effective interventions prior to the development of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Objective: Study objectives are to: (1) estimate the prevalence of MeTS in U.S. adolescents using three widely adopted definitions and (2) compare changes in prevalence of MeTS when utilizing sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as a component of MeTS. Methods: Data from U.S. adolescents ages 12–19 years (N=970) in the NHANES (2011–2014) were analyzed. MeTS standard definitions developed by Cook et al. (2003), deFerranti et al. (2007), and the International Disease Federation (IDF, 2007) were applied to estimate the sex-stratified, weighted prevalence of MeTS and its individual components (i.e., high waist circumference (WC), hypertension, blood lipid abnormalities, and high fasting blood glucose (FBG)). The definitions were modified by substituting SAD for WC, and weighted MeTS prevalence was re-estimated. Results: Regardless of gender and definition, abnormal blood lipids and high WC were the most prevalent MeTS components. For both sexes, estimated prevalence of componen

  11. Standard compliant channel selection scheme for TV white space networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CHANNEL DECISION SCHEME The proposed channel selection model is performed based on the flowchart shown in Fig. 1. We assume that the TVWS- BS is authorised and registered with the national GSDB. The model starts when the TVWS-BS queries the GSDB after...-BS will query the GSDB after a predefined period of time until at least more than one channel is available to allow the channel allocation process to start. Fig. 1: Proposed channel selection scheme flowchart A. White Space Channel Attributes Collection Based...

  12. Reproducible segmentation of white matter hyperintensities using a new statistical definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damangir, Soheil; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew; Vrenken, Hugo; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Spulber, Gabriela

    2017-06-01

    We present a method based on a proposed statistical definition of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), which can work with any combination of conventional magnetic resonance (MR) sequences without depending on manually delineated samples. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, FLAIR, and PD sequences acquired at 1.5 Tesla from 119 subjects from the Kings Health Partners-Dementia Case Register (healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease) were used. The segmentation was performed using a proposed definition for WMH based on the one-tailed Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The presented method was verified, given all possible combinations of input sequences, against manual segmentations and a high similarity (Dice 0.85-0.91) was observed. Comparing segmentations with different input sequences to one another also yielded a high similarity (Dice 0.83-0.94) that exceeded intra-rater similarity (Dice 0.75-0.91). We compared the results with those of other available methods and showed that the segmentation based on the proposed definition has better accuracy and reproducibility in the test dataset used. Overall, the presented definition is shown to produce accurate results with higher reproducibility than manual delineation. This approach can be an alternative to other manual or automatic methods not only because of its accuracy, but also due to its good reproducibility.

  13. 76 FR 28434 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 40, Definitional Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial... of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 6, Accounting for Property, Plant, and Equipment AGENCY... Advisory Board (FASAB) has issued Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 40, Definitional...

  14. Quantifying white matter structural integrity with high-definition fiber tracking in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presson, Nora; Krishnaswamy, Deepa; Wagener, Lauren; Bird, William; Jarbo, Kevin; Pathak, Sudhir; Puccio, Ava M; Borasso, Allison; Benso, Steven; Okonkwo, David O; Schneider, Walter

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent, unmet demand for definitive biological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to pinpoint the location and extent of damage. We have developed High-Definition Fiber Tracking, a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging-based diffusion spectrum imaging and tractography analysis protocol, to quantify axonal injury in military and civilian TBI patients. A novel analytical methodology quantified white matter integrity in patients with TBI and healthy controls. Forty-one subjects (23 TBI, 18 controls) were scanned with the High-Definition Fiber Tracking diffusion spectrum imaging protocol. After reconstruction, segmentation was used to isolate bilateral hemisphere homologues of eight major tracts. Integrity of segmented tracts was estimated by calculating homologue correlation and tract coverage. Both groups showed high correlations for all tracts. TBI patients showed reduced homologue correlation and tract spread and increased outlier count (correlations>2.32 SD below control mean). On average, 6.5% of tracts in the TBI group were outliers with substantial variability among patients. Number and summed deviation of outlying tracts correlated with initial Glasgow Coma Scale score and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score. The correlation metric used here can detect heterogeneous damage affecting a low proportion of tracts, presenting a potential mechanism for advancing TBI diagnosis. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. [Comparing the ranges of defect measured with standard white on white and Pulsar perimetries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de la Rosa, M; González-Hernández, M; García-Feijoo, J; Sánchez Méndez, M; García-Sánchez, J

    2011-04-01

    Normal thresholds on Pulsar perimetry fall faster than those of standard perimetry in the peripheral visual field. Two related studies were performed. Firstly, the frequency distributions of glaucoma defects on standard automated perimetry (SAP) and the relationship of the centre and periphery (Study A) were studied first, followed by an attempt to establish the limits of pulsar perimetry (Study B). A: frequency of defects was calculated in 78.663 SAP perimetries (G1-TOP, Octopus 1-2-3, Haag-Streit). Study B: 204 eyes with mean defect (MD-SAP) lower than 9 dB were examined 8.92 ± 4.19 times with SAP (TOP-32, Octopus 311) and temporal modulation perimetry (T30W, Pulsar Perimeter, Haag-Streit). Study A: 50.7% of the SAP examinations showed MD values lower than 9 dB and 32.7% bellow 6 dB. The MD correlation of the central 20° with the MD of the most peripheral points was r=0.933. Study B: in cases with MD-TOP-32 lower than 6 dB, SAP had the maximum possibility of detecting defect in 0.02% of points and Pulsar in 0.29%. In subjects with MD-TOP-32 between 6 and 9 dB frequencies were 0.38% in SAP and 3.5% in Pulsar (5.1% for eccentricities higher than 20°). Pulsar allows detecting defects, without range limitations, in the initial half of SAP frequencies expected on glaucoma patients. In order to study the progression of deeper defects the examination should focus on the central points, where the dynamic range of both systems is more equivalent. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparing Black, Hispanic, and White Mothers with a National Standard of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.; Beckert, Troy E.

    2008-01-01

    Black, Hispanic, and White mothers (N = 739) and adolescents (N = 806) completed a Parent Success Indicator to assess maternal behavior related to Communication, Use of Time, Teaching, Frustration, Satisfaction, and Information Needs. Comparisons between each ethnic group and a previously established national parenting standard revealed that both…

  17. Detection of white matter injury in concussion using high-definition fiber tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Samuel S; Pathak, Sudhir; Presson, Nora; Bird, William; Wagener, Lauren; Schneider, Walter; Okonkwo, David O; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, structural imaging techniques of the human brain have undergone significant strides. High resolution provided by recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows improved detection of injured regions in patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, diffusion imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has gained much interest recently due to its possible utility in detecting structural integrity of white matter pathways in mild TBI (mTBI) cases. However, the results from recent DTI studies in mTBI patients remain equivocal. Also, there are important shortcomings for DTI such as limited resolution in areas of multiple crossings and false tract formation. The detection of white matter damage in concussion remains challenging, and development of imaging biomarkers for mTBI is still in great need. In this chapter, we discuss our experience with high-definition fiber tracking (HDFT), a diffusion spectrum imaging-based technique. We also discuss ongoing developments and specific advantages HDFT may offer concussion patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. 21 CFR 130.8 - Conformity to definitions and standards of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identity. 130.8 Section 130.8 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Conformity to definitions and standards of identity. In the following conditions, among others, a food does not conform to the definition and standard of identity therefor: (a) If it contains an ingredient for...

  19. The analysis and rationale behind the upgrading of existing standard definition thermal imagers to high definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Tristan M.

    2016-05-01

    With 640x512 pixel format IR detector arrays having been on the market for the past decade, Standard Definition (SD) thermal imaging sensors have been developed and deployed across the world. Now with 1280x1024 pixel format IR detector arrays becoming readily available designers of thermal imager systems face new challenges as pixel sizes reduce and the demand and applications for High Definition (HD) thermal imaging sensors increases. In many instances the upgrading of existing under-sampled SD thermal imaging sensors into more optimally sampled or oversampled HD thermal imaging sensors provides a more cost effective and reduced time to market option than to design and develop a completely new sensor. This paper presents the analysis and rationale behind the selection of the best suited HD pixel format MWIR detector for the upgrade of an existing SD thermal imaging sensor to a higher performing HD thermal imaging sensor. Several commercially available and "soon to be" commercially available HD small pixel IR detector options are included as part of the analysis and are considered for this upgrade. The impact the proposed detectors have on the sensor's overall sensitivity, noise and resolution is analyzed, and the improved range performance is predicted. Furthermore with reduced dark currents due to the smaller pixel sizes, the candidate HD MWIR detectors are operated at higher temperatures when compared to their SD predecessors. Therefore, as an additional constraint and as a design goal, the feasibility of achieving upgraded performance without any increase in the size, weight and power consumption of the thermal imager is discussed herein.

  20. The use of high definition colonoscopy versus standard definition: does it affect polyp detection rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John; Thaventhiran, Anthony; Mackenzie, Hugh; Stubbs, Benjamin

    2017-11-03

    Polyp detection rate (PDR) during lower gastrointestinal endoscopy (LGIE) is of clinical importance. Detecting adenomatous polyps early in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence can halt disease progression, enabling treatment at a favourable stage. High definition colonoscopy (HDC) has been used in our hospital alongside standard definition equipment since 2011. We aim to determine what affect the use of HDC has on PDR. Post-hoc analysis of a prospectively maintained database on all patients undergoing LGIE was performed (01/01/2012-31/12/2015), n = 15,448. Analysis tested the primary outcome of HD's effect on PDR across LGIE and secondary outcome stratified this by endoscopist group (Physician (PE), Surgeon (SE) and Nurse Endoscopist (NE)). Of 15,448 patients, 1353 underwent HDC. Unmatched analysis showed PDR increased by 5.3% in this group (p < 0.001). Matched analysis considered 2288 patients from the total cohort (1144 HDC) and showed an increase of 1% in PDR with HDC (p = 0.578). Further unmatched analysis stratified by endoscopist groups showed a PDR increase of 1.8% (p = 0.375), 5.4% (p = 0.008) and 4.6% (p = 0.021) by PE, SE and NE respectively. Matched analysis demonstrated an increase of 1% (p = 0.734) and 1.5% (p = 0.701) amongst PE and NE, with a decrease of 0.6% (p = 0.883) by SE. The introduction of HDC increased PDR across all LGIE in our hospital, though this was not clinically significant. This marginal benefit was present across all endoscopist groups with no group benefiting over another in matched analysis.

  1. TOWARD A NETWORK OF FAINT DA WHITE DWARFS AS HIGH-PRECISION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STANDARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, G.; Matheson, T.; Saha, A.; Claver, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Axelrod, T.; Olszewski, E. [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Holberg, J. B. [University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stubbs, C. W. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bohlin, R. C.; Deustua, S.; Rest, A., E-mail: gnarayan@noao.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    We present the initial results from a program aimed at establishing a network of hot DA white dwarfs to serve as spectrophotometric standards for present and future wide-field surveys. These stars span the equatorial zone and are faint enough to be conveniently observed throughout the year with large-aperture telescopes. The spectra of these white dwarfs are analyzed in order to generate a non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmosphere normalized to Hubble Space Telescope colors, including adjustments for wavelength-dependent interstellar extinction. Once established, this standard star network will serve ground-based observatories in both hemispheres as well as space-based instrumentation from the UV to the near IR. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this concept and show how two different approaches to the problem using somewhat different assumptions produce equivalent results. We discuss the lessons learned and the resulting corrective actions applied to our program.

  2. White matter lesions and brain atrophy in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: correlation to cognitive dysfunction in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients using different definition models for neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannerfelt, B; Nystedt, J; Jönsen, A; Lätt, J; van Westen, D; Lilja, A; Bengtsson, A; Nilsson, P; Mårtensson, J; Sundgren, P C

    2018-06-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of white matter lesions, atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum, and their correlation with cognitive dysfunction (CD), in patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Seventy SLE patients and 25 healthy individuals (HIs) were included in the study. To evaluate the different SLE and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) definition schemes, patients were grouped both according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition, as well as the more stringent ACR-Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics definition. Patients and HIs underwent a 3 Tesla brain MRI and a standardized neuropsychological test. MRI data were evaluated for number and volume of white matter lesions and atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum. Differences between groups and subgroups were evaluated for significance. Number and volume of white matter lesions and atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum were correlated to cognitive dysfunction. Results The total volume of white matter lesions was significantly larger in SLE patients compared to HIs ( p = 0.004). However, no significant differences were seen between the different SLE subgroups. Atrophy of the bilateral hippocampus was significantly more pronounced in patients with NPSLE compared to those with non-NPSLE (right: p = 0.010; left p = 0.023). Significant negative correlations between cognitive test scores on verbal memory and number and volume of white matter lesions were present. Conclusion SLE patients have a significantly larger volume of white matter lesions on MRI compared to HIs and the degree of white matter lesion volume correlates to cognitive dysfunction, specifically to verbal memory. No significant differences in the number or volume of white matter lesions were identified between subgroups of SLE patients regardless of the definition model used.

  3. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  4. Polarization properties and microfacet-based modelling of white, grey and coloured matte diffuse reflection standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, T.; Schirmacher, A.; Hauer, K.-O.; Koo, A.

    2018-02-01

    To elucidate the influence of polarization in diffuse reflectometry, we performed a series of measurements in several bidirectional geometries and determined the Stokes parameters of the diffusely reflected radiation. Different types of matte reflection standards were used, including several common white standards and ceramic colour standards. The dependence of the polarization on the sample type, wavelength and geometry have been studied systematically, the main influence factors have been identified: The effect is largest at large angles of incidence or detection and at wavelengths where the magnitude of the reflectance is small. The results for the colour standards have been modelled using a microfacet-based reflection theory which is derived from the well-known model of Torrance and Sparrow. Although the theory is very simple and only has three free parameters, the agreement with the measured data is very good, all essential features of the data can be reproduced by the model.

  5. Comparing definitions in guidelines and written standards - a case study: 'Trueness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, F

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of a repository initiated by IMEKO TC21 to allow the comparison of different definitions and use of the same term or concept in written standards and guidelines available internationally. The method used is illustrated for a case study: the critical concept of 'trueness' and its definitions.

  6. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamm, D.; Persad, R.; Brausi, M.; Buckley, R.; Witjes, J.A.; Palou, J.; Bohle, A.; Kamat, A.M.; Colombel, M.; Soloway, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A

  7. Neutron dosimetry. Terms and definitions. Preliminary standard. Neutronendosimetrie. Begriffe und Benennungen. Vornorm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    With this standard, definitions and terms are introduced without references. Radiation field quantities and dose quantities are defined as differential quotients like in the consecutive parts of DIN 6814. The stochastic nature of radiation and of its interactions has been accounted for by the fact that each differential quotient is to be understood as the limiting value of the statistic expectancy value of the corresponding differential quotient. The present standard is limited to the definition of non-stochastic quantities for radiation field and dose. It does not include definitions of micro-dose quantities valid for all types of radiation.

  8. Enhanced definition and required examples of common datum imposed by ISO standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiqing; Bohn, Martin

    2017-12-01

    According to the ISO Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS), the establishment and definition of common datum for geometrical components are not fully defined. There are two main limitations of this standard. Firstly: the explications of ISO examples of common datums are not matched with their corresponding definitions, and secondly: a full definition of common datum is missing. This paper suggests a new approach for an enhanced definition and concrete examples of common datum and proposes a holistic methodology for establishment of common datum for each geometrical component. This research is based on the analysis of physical behaviour of geometrical components, orientation constraints and invariance classes of datums. This approach fills the definition gaps of common datum based on ISO GPS, thereby eliminating those deficits. As a result, an improved methodology for a fully functional defined definition of common datum was formulated.

  9. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Donald; Persad, Raj; Brausi, Maurizio; Buckley, Roger; Witjes, J Alfred; Palou, Joan; Böhle, Andreas; Kamat, Ashish M; Colombel, Marc; Soloway, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A standard definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as determined by reproducible and reliable procedures is needed. We examine current definitions of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression, and propose a new definition that will be more clinically useful in determining patient prognosis and comparing treatment options. The IBCG (International Bladder Cancer Group) analyzed published clinical trials and meta-analyses that examined nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as of December 2012. The limitations of the definitions of progression used in these trials were considered, as were additional parameters associated with the advancement of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The most commonly used definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression is an increase in stage from nonmuscle invasive to muscle invasive disease. Although this definition is clinically important, it fails to include other important parameters of advancing disease such as progression to lamina propria invasion and increase in grade. The IBCG proposes the definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as an increase in T stage from CIS or Ta to T1 (lamina propria invasion), development of T2 or greater or lymph node (N+) disease or distant metastasis (M1), or an increase in grade from low to high. Investigators should consider the use of this new definition to help standardize protocols and improve the reporting of progression. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ham.â 381.171 Section 381.171 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.171 Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.” (a) “Turkey Ham... label shall show the word “Turkey” in the same size, style, color, and with the same background as the...

  11. What is "grazing"? Reviewing its definition, frequency, clinical characteristics, and impact on bariatric surgery outcomes, and proposing a standardized definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Eva M; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Machado, Paulo P P; Lancaster, Kathryn; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Grazing, characterized by a repetitive eating pattern, has received increased attention among bariatric surgery patients. However, different definitions and terminology have been used, preventing the accurate measurement of this phenomenon and comparison of data across studies. To review existing definitions and associated clinical features of grazing among different samples and to propose a standardized definition that will allow for consistency in future work. University and Clinical Research Institute. Of the 39 studies found, 9 provided an original definition and 12 provided data of its association with weight outcomes. Six were studies of nonbariatric surgery populations. Based on this literature review, the most common criteria used in previous studies to define grazing were included in a survey that was sent to 24 individuals who have published work in the field. These experts were asked to provide their opinion on what should constitute grazing. Grazing is a frequent behavior in the bariatric surgery population as well as in eating disordered and community samples. Its association with psychopathology is not clear, but its negative impact on weight outcomes after bariatric surgery generally has been supported. Survey data provided a consensus regarding the definition of grazing as an eating behavior characterized by the repetitive eating (more than twice) of small/modest amounts of food in an unplanned manner, with what we characterize as compulsive and noncompulsive subtypes. Given the clinical relevance of grazing among bariatric surgery patients, a unique definition is crucial to better study its associated features and impact on different populations. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-peak standard white organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunping; Wei, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Standard white organic light-emitting device (OLED) lighting provides a warm and comfortable atmosphere and shows mild effect on melatonin suppression. A high-efficiency red OLED employing phosphorescent dopant has been investigated. The device generates saturated red emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.66, 0.34), characterized by a low driving voltage of 3.5 V and high external quantum efficiency of 20.1% at 130 cd m-2. In addition, we have demonstrated a two-peak cold white OLED by combining with a pure blue emitter with the electroluminescent emission of 464 nm, 6, 12-bis{[N-(3,4-dimethylpheyl)-N-(2,4,5-trimethylphenyl)]} chrysene (BmPAC). It was found that the man-made lighting device capable of yielding a relatively stable color emission within the luminance range of 1000-5000 cd m-2. And the chromaticity coordinates, varying from (0.25, 0.21) to (0.23, 0.21). Furthermore, an ultrathin layer of green-light-emitting tris (2-phenylpyridinato)iridium(Ⅲ) Ir(ppy)3 in the host material was introduced to the emissive region for compensating light. By appropriately controlling the layer thickness, the white light OLED achieved good performance of 1280 cd m-2 at 5.0 V and 5150 cd m-2 at 7.0 V, respectively. The CIE coordinates of the emitted light are quite stable at current densities from 759 cd m-2 to 5150 cd m-2, ranging from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.33).

  13. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of white-coat hypertension based on different definition criteria in untreated and treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, José R; Segura, Julián; Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Cruz, Juan J; Ruilope, Luis M

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence and associated risks of white-coat hypertension (WCH) are still a matter of debate. We aimed to assess differences in prevalence and associated conditions of WCH defined on the basis of the normality of all daytime, night-time, and 24-h blood pressure (BP), only daytime, or only 24-h BP. We selected 115 708 patients (45 020 untreated and 70 688 treated) from the Spanish Ambulatory BP Monitoring Registry. WCH was estimated in patients with elevated office BP (≥140 and/or 90 mmHg) by using normal daytime (definition criteria. Only diagnostic criteria which considers the normality of all ambulatory periods identifies patients with cardiovascular risk similar to normotensive patients. These results support using such criteria for a more accurate definition of WCH.

  14. Establishing a Network of Next Generation SED standards with DA White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit

    2014-10-01

    Photometric calibration uncertainties are the dominant source of error in current type Ia supernova dark energy studies, and other forefront cosmology efforts, e.g., photo-redshifts for weak lensing mass tomography. Modern 'all-sky' surveys require a network of calibration stars with 1) known SEDs (to properly and unambiguously account for filter differences), and 2) that are on a common photometric zero-point scale. HST enables us to establish this essential network of faint spectrophotometric standards, by eliminating the time-variable Earth's atmosphere, and by exploiting the well-understood energy distributions of DA white dwarfs. We have selected a set of DA WD targets that will have SNR ~200 in the LSST (and PanSTARRS and Dark Energy Survey) survey images, while avoiding saturation. This means they will be included in the surveys, and will directly calibrate the data products. By using ground-based spectra of Balmer lines to obtain the two parameters (temperature and log(g)) that determine the SED, we can use broadband HST photometry to set the overall flux scale for each source, and determine any applicable reddening. Thus calibrated, these standards can then be used as flux standards at wavelengths well beyond the range of HST, and in any arbitrary, but defined passband. This precision photometric heritage from HST benefits essentially all existing and upcoming surveys, standardizes (spectro)photometry across observatories and facilities, and directly addresses one of the current barriers to understanding the nature of dark energy. In our Cycle 20 program we achieve sub-percent accuracy. Here we propose improvements in experimental design from lessons learned.

  15. Call for standardized definitions of osteoarthritis and risk stratification for clinical trials and clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous disorder. The goals of this review are (1) To stimulate use of standardized nomenclature for OA that could serve as building blocks for describing OA and defining OA phenotypes, in short to provide unifying disease concepts for a heterogeneous disorder; and ...... sophisticated definitions, terminology and tools....

  16. Equivalence of the Traditional and Non-Standard Definitions of Concepts from Real Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cowles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ACL2(r is a variant of ACL2 that supports the irrational real and complex numbers. Its logical foundation is based on internal set theory (IST, an axiomatic formalization of non-standard analysis (NSA. Familiar ideas from analysis, such as continuity, differentiability, and integrability, are defined quite differently in NSA–some would argue the NSA definitions are more intuitive. In previous work, we have adopted the NSA definitions in ACL2(r, and simply taken as granted that these are equivalent to the traditional analysis notions, e.g., to the familiar epsilon-delta definitions. However, we argue in this paper that there are circumstances when the more traditional definitions are advantageous in the setting of ACL2(r, precisely because the traditional notions are classical, so they are unencumbered by IST limitations on inference rules such as induction or the use of pseudo-lambda terms in functional instantiation. To address this concern, we describe a formal proof in ACL2(r of the equivalence of the traditional and non-standards definitions of these notions.

  17. Living standards in Black and White: evidence from the heights of Ohio Prison inmates, 1829-1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Thomas N; Carson, Scott Alan

    2008-07-01

    The use of height data to measure living standards is now a well-established method in the economic history literature. Moreover, a number of core findings are widely agreed upon. There are still some populations, places, and times, however, for which anthropometric evidence remains limited. One such example is 19th century African-Americans in the Northern US. Here, we use new data from the Ohio state prison to track heights of Black and White men incarcerated between 1829 and 1913. We corroborate the well-known mid-century height decline among White men. We find that Black men were shorter than White men, throughout the century controlling for a number of characteristics. We also find a pattern of height decline among Black men in mid-century similar to that found for White men.

  18. 45 CFR 680.10 - Definitions; cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions; cross-references to employee ethical... Foundation § 680.10 Definitions; cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial...-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members of the...

  19. Governmental standard drink definitions and low-risk alcohol consumption guidelines in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Humphreys, Keith

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges of international alcohol research and policy is the variability in and lack of knowledge of how governments in different nations define a standard drink and low-risk drinking. This study gathered such information from governmental agencies in 37 countries. A pool of 75 countries that might have definitions was created using World Health Organization (WHO) information and the authors' own judgement. Structured internet searches of relevant terms for each country were supplemented by efforts to contact government agencies directly and to consult with alcohol experts in the country. Most of the 75 national governments examined were not identified as having adopted a standard drink definition. Among the 37 that were so identified, the modal standard drink size was 10 g pure ethanol, but variation was wide (8-20 g). Significant variability was also evident for low-risk drinking guidelines, ranging from 10-42 g per day for women and 10-56 g per day for men to 98-140 g per week for women and 150-280 g per week for men. Researchers working and communicating across national boundaries should be sensitive to the substantial variability in 'standard' drink definitions and low-risk drinking guidelines. The potential impact of guidelines, both in general and in specific national cases, remains an important question for public health research. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Standardizing terminology and definitions of medication adherence and persistence in research employing electronic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raebel, Marsha A; Schmittdiel, Julie; Karter, Andrew J; Konieczny, Jennifer L; Steiner, John F

    2013-08-01

    To propose a unifying set of definitions for prescription adherence research utilizing electronic health record prescribing databases, prescription dispensing databases, and pharmacy claims databases and to provide a conceptual framework to operationalize these definitions consistently across studies. We reviewed recent literature to identify definitions in electronic database studies of prescription-filling patterns for chronic oral medications. We then develop a conceptual model and propose standardized terminology and definitions to describe prescription-filling behavior from electronic databases. The conceptual model we propose defines 2 separate constructs: medication adherence and persistence. We define primary and secondary adherence as distinct subtypes of adherence. Metrics for estimating secondary adherence are discussed and critiqued, including a newer metric (New Prescription Medication Gap measure) that enables estimation of both primary and secondary adherence. Terminology currently used in prescription adherence research employing electronic databases lacks consistency. We propose a clear, consistent, broadly applicable conceptual model and terminology for such studies. The model and definitions facilitate research utilizing electronic medication prescribing, dispensing, and/or claims databases and encompasses the entire continuum of prescription-filling behavior. Employing conceptually clear and consistent terminology to define medication adherence and persistence will facilitate future comparative effectiveness research and meta-analytic studies that utilize electronic prescription and dispensing records.

  1. The application of standard definitions of sound to the fields of underwater acoustics and acoustical oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, William M.

    2004-05-01

    Recent societal concerns have focused attention on the use of sound as a probe to investigate the oceans and its use in naval sonar applications. The concern is the impact the use of sound may have on marine mammals and fishes. The focus has changed the fields of acoustical oceanography (AO) and underwater acoustics (UW) because of the requirement to communicate between disciplines. Multiple National Research Council publications, Dept. of Navy reports, and several monographs have been written on this subject, and each reveals the importance as well as the misapplication of ASA standards. The ANSI-ASA standards are comprehensive, however not widely applied. The clear definition of standards and recommendations of their use is needed for both scientists and government agencies. Traditionally the U.S. Navy has been responsible for UW standards and calibration; the ANSI-ASA standards have been essential. However, recent changes in the Navy and its laboratory structure may necessitate a more formal recognition of ANSI-ASA standards and perhaps incorporation of UW-AO in the Bureau of Standards. A separate standard for acoustical terminology, reference levels, and notation used in the UW-AO is required. Since the problem is global, a standard should be compatible and cross referenced with the International Standard (CEI/IEC 27-3).

  2. Time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer in Latina and non-Hispanic white women: the six cities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Penedo, Frank J; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernandez, Maria E; Muñoz, Edgar; Long Parma, Dorothy; Holden, Alan Ec; San Miguel de Majors, Sandra; Nápoles, Anna; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gallion, Kipling J

    2013-12-01

    Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities. As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En Acción research network, clinical records of 186 Latinas and 74 NHWs who received abnormal screening mammogram results were reviewed to determine the time to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Data was obtained from participating clinics in six U.S. cities and included demographics, clinical history, and mammogram characteristics. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in median time to definitive diagnosis by ethnicity after adjusting for clinic site, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Time-to-event analysis showed that Latinas took 2.2 times longer to reach 50% definitively diagnosed with breast cancer relative to NHWs, and three times longer to reach 80% diagnosed (p=0.001). Latinas' median time to definitive diagnosis was 60 days compared to 27 for NHWs, a 59% gap in diagnosis rates (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.31; p=0.015). BI-RADS-4/5 women's diagnosis rate was more than twice that of BI-RADS-3 (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.78; p=0.011). Disparities in time between receipt of abnormal screening result and definitive diagnosis adversely affect Latinas compared to NHWs, and remain significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. With cancer now the leading cause of mortality among Latinos, a greater need exists for ethnically and culturally appropriate interventions like patient navigation to facilitate Latinas' successful entry into, and progression through, the cancer care

  3. Practical support for Lean Six Sigma software process definition using IEEE software engineering standards

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Susan K; Walz, John W

    2012-01-01

    Practical Support for Lean Six Sigma Software Process Definition: Using IEEE Software Engineering Standards addresses the task of meeting the specific documentation requirements in support of Lean Six Sigma. This book provides a set of templates supporting the documentation required for basic software project control and management and covers the integration of these templates for their entire product development life cycle. Find detailed documentation guidance in the form of organizational policy descriptions, integrated set of deployable document templates, artifacts required in suppo

  4. Toward a definition of masked hypertension and white-coat hypertension among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Sinha, Arjun D; Light, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    Among people with essential hypertension, ambulatory BP measurement is superior to BP obtained in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular outcomes. In part, this is because it can detect white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension. Whether the same is true for hemodialysis patients is not known. Using a threshold of 140/80 mmHg for median midweek dialysis-unit BP and 135/85 mmHg for 44-hour ambulatory BP, we defined four categories of BP: sustained normotension (SN), white-coat hypertension (WCH), masked hypertension (MHTN), and sustained hypertension (SHTN). Among 355 long-term hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of SN was 35%, WCH 15%, MHTN 15%, and SHTN 35%. Over a mean follow-up of 29.6 (SD 21.7) months, 102 patients died (29%), yielding a crude mortality rate of 121/1000 patient-years. Unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted analyses showed increasing all-cause mortality with increasing severity of hypertension (unadjusted hazard ratios from SN, WCH, MHTN, SHTN: 1, 1.12, 1.70, 1.80, respectively [P for trend hypertension population, MHTN and WCH have prognostic significance. The prognostic value of BP obtained in the dialysis unit can be refined with ambulatory BP monitoring.

  5. Impact of the Definition of Peak Standardized Uptake Value on Quantification of Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoek, Matt; Perlman, Scott B.; Jeraj, Robert

    2012-01-01

    PET-based treatment response assessment typically measures the change in maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which is adversely affected by noise. Peak SUV (SUVpeak) has been recommended as a more robust alternative, but its associated region of interest (ROIpeak) is not uniquely defined. We investigated the impact of different ROIpeak definitions on quantification of SUVpeak and tumor response. Methods Seventeen patients with solid malignancies were treated with a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor resulting in a variety of responses. Using the cellular proliferation marker 3′-deoxy-3′-18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT), whole-body PET/CT scans were acquired at baseline and during treatment. 18F-FLT–avid lesions (~2/patient) were segmented on PET images, and tumor response was assessed via the relative change in SUVpeak. For each tumor, 24 different SUVpeaks were determined by changing ROIpeak shape (circles vs. spheres), size (7.5–20 mm), and location (centered on SUVmax vs. placed in highest-uptake region), encompassing different definitions from the literature. Within each tumor, variations in the 24 SUVpeaks and tumor responses were measured using coefficient of variation (CV), standardized deviation (SD), and range. For each ROIpeak definition, a population average SUVpeak and tumor response were determined over all tumors. Results A substantial variation in both SUVpeak and tumor response resulted from changing the ROIpeak definition. The variable ROIpeak definition led to an intratumor SUVpeak variation ranging from 49% above to 46% below the mean (CV, 17%) and an intratumor SUVpeak response variation ranging from 49% above to 35% below the mean (SD, 9%). The variable ROIpeak definition led to a population average SUVpeak variation ranging from 24% above to 28% below the mean (CV, 14%) and a population average SUVpeak response variation ranging from only 3% above to 3% below the mean (SD, 2%). The size of ROIpeak caused more

  6. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  7. Ventriculostomy-associated infection: a new, standardized reporting definition and institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, Yair M; Farley, Chad W; Hanseman, Dennis J; Harwell, Daniel; Magner, Mark; Andaluz, Norberto; Shutter, Lori

    2014-08-01

    Shortcomings created by the lack of both a uniform definition of ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) and reporting standards have led to widely ranging infections rates (2-24%) whose significance is uncertain. We propose a standardized definition of VAI and a consistent reporting format compliant with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for device-related infections. Using those parameters to establish an infection-control surveillance program, we report our 4-year institutional VAI rates. In this prospective study covering ventriculostomy utilization (October 2006-December 2010), 498 patients had a total of 4,673 ventriculostomy days. By review of the literature and our institutional analysis, we defined VAI as a positive CSF culture in a patient with ventriculostomy catheter, plus one or more of the following (1) fever recorded >101.5 °F or (2) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose level, either definition and CDC format seems promising toward facilitating future study and guideline development. Given our strict protocol of sterile catheter placement and care, and our institution's low 2.0% infection rates, we propose an infection-rate target of ≤5 per 1,000 device days. Our results suggest that the use of antibiotics or antibiotic-impregnated catheters is unwarranted--a positive given concerns of evolving anti-microbial resistance.

  8. Degree of facial and body terminal hair growth in unselected black and white women: toward a populational definition of hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeUgarte, Catherine Marin; Woods, K S; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Azziz, Ricardo

    2006-04-01

    Hirsutism (i.e. facial and body terminal hair growth in a male-like pattern in women) is the principal clinical sign of hyperandrogenism, although its definition remains unclear. The purposes of the present study were to define 1) the degree of facial and body terminal hair, as assessed by the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score, in unselected women from the general population; 2) the effect of race (Black and White) on the same; and 3) the normative cutoff values. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary academic medical center. Participants included 633 unselected White (n = 283) and Black (n = 350) women presenting for a preemployment physical exam. Interventions included history and physical examination. Terminal body hair growth was assessed using the mFG scoring system; nine body areas were scored from 0-4 for terminal hair growth distribution. The mFG scores were not normally distributed; although cluster analysis failed to identify a natural cutoff value or clustering of the population, principal component and univariate analyses denoted two nearly distinct clusters that occurred above and below an mFG value of 2, with the bulk of the scores below. Overall, an mFG score of at least 3 was observed in 22.1% of all subjects (i.e. the upper quartile); of these subjects, 69.3% complained of being hirsute, compared with 15.8% of women with an mFG score below this value, and similar to the proportion of women with an mFG score of at least 8 who considered themselves to be hirsute (70.0%). Overall, there were no significant differences between Black and White women. Our data indicate that the prevalence and degree of facial and body terminal hair growth, as assessed by the mFG score, is similar in Black and White women and that an mFG of at least 3 signals the population of women whose hair growth falls out of the norm.

  9. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of Spectralon white reflectance standard illuminated by incoherent unpolarized and plane-polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Anak; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øvynd; Zhao, Lu; Stamnes, Jakob J; Kildemo, Morten

    2011-06-01

    A Lambert surface would appear equally bright from all observation directions regardless of the illumination direction. However, the reflection from a randomly scattering object generally has directional variation, which can be described in terms of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). We measured the BRDF of a Spectralon white reflectance standard for incoherent illumination at 405 and 680 nm with unpolarized and plane-polarized light from different directions of incidence. Our measurements show deviations of the BRDF for the Spectralon white reflectance standard from that of a Lambertian reflector that depend both on the angle of incidence and the polarization states of the incident light and detected light. The non-Lambertian reflection characteristics were found to increase more toward the direction of specular reflection as the angle of incidence gets larger.

  10. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Socha; Dorota Kołodziejczyk; Ewa Kondraciuk; Danuta Wójcik; Aldona Gontarz

    2010-01-01

    The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license eva...

  11. 17 CFR 275.222-2 - Definition of “client” for purposes of the national de minimis standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1940 § 275.222-2 Definition of “client” for purposes of the national de minimis standard. For purposes... definition of “client” provided by section 275.203(b)(3)-1 without giving regard to paragraph (b)(6) of that...

  12. Definition of Success after Surgery for Female Stress Incontinence or Voiding Dysfunction: An Attempt at Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Maude E; Deng, Donna Y; Greenwell, Tamsin J; Zimmern, Philippe E

    2016-08-01

    There is currently no standardized definition of success for surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and voiding dysfunction (VD) in women. To review the use of outcome measures (OMs) and definitions of success in the literature on SUI and VD surgery in women in an attempt to provide recommendations for future publications. A PubMed search of all English language full-text articles on SUI and VD surgery in women published between 2010 and 2015 was performed. A list of randomized trials and prospective and retrospective studies was obtained. Specific objective and subjective OMs used to define success were reviewed. Some 95 articles met the inclusion criteria for SUI surgery outcomes. Most trials reported outcomes at 12 mo after surgery. The majority (n=48) reported their primary outcomes using both objective and subjective success measures, 24 defined success using subjective OMs alone, and 23 using objective OMs alone. The OMs most frequently used for objective success were a negative cough stress test (CST), a negative pad test, and the absence of retreatment for SUI. The definition of subjective success most often involved questionnaires. The questionnaires most frequently used were Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I), Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI)/UDI-6, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and Medical Epidemiologic and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA). Only 11 studies on OMs used for VD surgery were published between 2010 and 2015. The two most common criteria used for success were measurement of postvoid residual urine (PVR) and subjective resolution of VD symptoms. There is great heterogeneity in the definition of success used after surgery for SUI or VD in women. For SUI surgery, we recommend use of the CST and a 1-h pad test for the definition of objective success, and of the UDI/UDI-6, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ), King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), ICIQ-SF, or PGI-I questionnaire for

  13. Influences of Personal Standards and Perceived Parental Expectations on Worry for Asian American and White American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875

  14. Standardized End Point Definitions for Coronary Intervention Trials: The Academic Research Consortium-2 Consensus Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; McFadden, Eugène P; Farb, Andrew; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W; Spertus, John; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Morel, Marie-Angèle; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Zuckerman, Bram; Fearon, William F; Taggart, David; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vranckx, Pascal; Windecker, Stephan; Cutlip, Donald; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-06-14

    The Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-2 initiative revisited the clinical and angiographic end point definitions in coronary device trials, proposed in 2007, to make them more suitable for use in clinical trials that include increasingly complex lesion and patient populations and incorporate novel devices such as bioresorbable vascular scaffolds. In addition, recommendations for the incorporation of patient-related outcomes in clinical trials are proposed. Academic Research Consortium-2 is a collaborative effort between academic research organizations in the United States and Europe, device manufacturers, and European, US, and Asian regulatory bodies. Several in-person meetings were held to discuss the changes that have occurred in the device landscape and in clinical trials and regulatory pathways in the last decade. The consensus-based end point definitions in this document are endorsed by the stakeholders of this document and strongly advocated for clinical trial purposes. This Academic Research Consortium-2 document provides further standardization of end point definitions for coronary device trials, incorporating advances in technology and knowledge. Their use will aid interpretation of trial outcomes and comparison among studies, thus facilitating the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of these devices.

  15. High-definition fiber tractography for the evaluation of perilesional white matter tracts in high-grade glioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhinav, Kumar; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Mansouri, Alireza; Zadeh, Gelareh; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Conventional white matter (WM) imaging approaches, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been used to preoperatively identify the location of affected WM tracts in patients with intracranial tumors in order to maximize the extent of resection and potentially reduce postoperative morbidity. DTI, however, has limitations that include its inability to resolve multiple crossing fibers and its susceptibility to partial volume effects. Therefore, recent focus has shifted to more advanced WM imaging techniques such as high-definition fiber tractography (HDFT). In this paper, we illustrate the application of HDFT, which in our preliminary experience has enabled accurate depiction of perilesional tracts in a 3-dimensional manner in multiple anatomical compartments including edematous zones around high-grade gliomas. This has facilitated accurate surgical planning. This is illustrated by using case examples of patients with glioblastoma multiforme. We also discuss future directions in the role of these techniques in surgery for gliomas. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Recurring pressure ulcers: identifying the definitions. A National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Cindy; Hettrick, Heather; Holden-Mount, Sarah; Grigsby, Rebekah; Rhodovi, Julie; Moore, Lyn; Ghaznavi, Amir M; Siddiqui, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the accepted terminology pertaining to the pressure ulcer healing progression and recidivism. This lack of uniformity can negatively impact initiation of treatment pathways, completion of appropriate interventions, clinical documentation, medical coding, patient education, discharge planning and healthcare revenue through out the healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a standard nomenclature as it pertains to pressure ulcer healing progression and any recidivism that may occur. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel has formulated a framework of terms regarding pressure ulcer progression. We also developed a clearer nomenclature for lack of progress and recidivism of pressure ulcers. This document should serve as a starting point for the discussion of the pressure ulcer care, research, and terminology. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  17. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  18. Clinically significant cardiopulmonary events and the effect of definition standardization on apnea of prematurity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M B F; Ahlers-Schmidt, C R; Engel, M; Bloom, B T

    2017-01-01

    To define the impact of care standardization on caffeine and cardiorespiratory monitoring at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. Electronic records were abstracted for infants aged 24-36 weeks gestation with birth weights appropriate for gestational age. Infants who died, transferred prior to discharge, had major pulmonary anomalies, required a home monitor for mechanical ventilation or had a family history of sudden infant death syndrome were excluded. Data and records were used to indicate when the new definition of clinically significant cardiopulmonary events (CSCPEs) and concurrent education was implemented. Preimplementation and postimplementation cohorts were compared. Incidence fell from 74% diagnosed with apnea of prematurity at baseline to 49% diagnosed with CSCPE postimplementation (Pdefinitions and treatments reduced the use of caffeine and cardiorespiratory monitors upon NICU dismissal.

  19. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Socha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license evaluation were obtained by males in majority of the traits. Statistic analysis of body weight showed that the highest body weight characterized males of platinum and white Hedlunda colour types. Minks of standard and pastel colour types were characterised by lower body weight. The mean body weight of males was 2581.17g and of females 1401.42g (there is a clear sexual dimorphism in minks. Minks of white Hedlunda colour type were characterised by the highest means of colour purity, both males and females. Other colour types obtained lower means. The best fur quality characterised platinum minks. Variability of traits, measured by variability coefficient, had the highest values in animal weight (in grams and ranged from 6.0 to 32.0%. Variability of total number of scores ranged from 2.00 to 8.20%. Positive phenotypic correlations were the highest between body size (in points and total number of scores (0.676, while the lowest were obtained between body size (in points and fur quality (–0.178.

  20. Similarity in percent body fat between white and Vietnamese women: implication for a universal definition of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2010-06-01

    It has been widely assumed that for a given BMI, Asians have higher percent body fat (PBF) than whites, and that the BMI threshold for defining obesity in Asians should be lower than the threshold for whites. This study sought to test this assumption by comparing the PBF between US white and Vietnamese women. The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation. In the first study, 210 Vietnamese women ages between 50 and 85 were randomly selected from various districts in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). In the second study, 419 women of the same age range were randomly selected from the Rancho Bernardo Study (San Diego, CA). In both studies, lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (QDR 4500; Hologic). PBF was derived as FM over body weight. Compared with Vietnamese women, white women had much more FM (24.8 +/- 8.1 kg vs. 18.8 +/- 4.9 kg; P or=30, 19% of US white women and 5% of Vietnamese women were classified as obese. Approximately 54% of US white women and 53% of Vietnamese women had their PBF >35% (P = 0.80). Although white women had greater BMI, body weight, and FM than Vietnamese women, their PBF was virtually identical. Further research is required to derive a more appropriate BMI threshold for defining obesity for Asian women.

  1. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalbeth, N.; Schumacher, H.R.; Fransen, J.; Neogi, T.; Jansen, T.L; Brown, M.; Louthrenoo, W.; Vazquez-Mellado, J.; Eliseev, M.; McCarthy, G.; Stamp, L.K.; Perez-Ruiz, F.; Sivera, F.; Ea, H.K.; Gerritsen, M.; Scire, C.A.; Cavagna, L.; Lin, C.; Chou, Y.Y.; Tausche, A.K.; Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G. da; Janssen, M; Chen, J.H.; Cimmino, M.A.; Uhlig, T.; Taylor, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study.

  2. Influence of the lack of a standard definition of “family business” on research into their international strategies☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Cano-Rubio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research into the internationalisation strategies of family businesses is plagued by the excessive use of many and varied concepts to define these companies, and often leads to diverse and disparate results. The conceptual spectrum used by researchers is very broad, ranging from the simplest definition, in which a company is classified as a family business on the basis of the perception of its owners and/or managers, to others which consider variables such as ownership, management, involvement of the family in the business, continuity and combinations thereof. The results obtained highlight the need for those researching family business internationalisation strategies to use a standard definition of family business, so enabling us to continue advancing in our knowledge of this topic and avoid coming to different conclusions merely as a result of having based our research on different definitions.

  3. Testing Pneumonia Vaccines in the Elderly: Determining a Case Definition for Pneumococcal Pneumonia in the Absence of a Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jukka; Snellman, Marja; Palmu, Arto A; Saukkoriipi, Annika; Verlant, Vincent; Pascal, Thierry; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie; Hausdorff, William P; Kilpi, Terhi M

    2017-12-15

    Clinical assessments of vaccines to prevent pneumococcal (Pnc) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require sensitive and specific case definitions, but there is no gold standard diagnostic test. To develop a new case definition suitable for vaccine efficacy studies, we applied latent class analysis (LCA) to the results from seven diagnostic tests for Pnc etiology on clinical specimens from 323 elderly radiologically-confirmed pneumonia cases enrolled in The Finnish Community-Acquired Pneumonia Epidemiology study during 2005-2007. Compared to the conventional use of LCA, which is mainly to determine sensitivities and specificities of different tests, we instead used LCA as an appropriate instrument to predict the probability of Pnc etiology for each CAP case based on their test profiles, and utilized the predictions to minimize the sample size that would be needed for a vaccine efficacy trial. When compared to the conventional laboratory criteria of encapsulated Pnc in blood culture or in high-quality sputum culture or urine antigen positivity, our optimized case definition for PncCAP resulted in a trial sample size which was almost 20,000 subjects smaller. We believe that our novel application of LCA detailed here to determine a case definition for PncCAP could also be similarly applied to other diseases without a gold standard. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  4. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux) and standard bright light (10 000 lux) are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Dekker, Vera; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Bos, Elske H.; Ruiter, Martine J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT) of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT). Both treatments used the same

  5. The "Shape" of Teacher Professionalism in England: Professional Standards, Performance Management, Professional Development and the Changes Proposed in the 2010 White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teacher professionalism in England may be considered to have been shaped by the set of professional standards, and the accompanying statutory performance management system, introduced by the Labour government in 2007. More recently the coalition government's 2010 White Paper, "The Importance of Teaching", announced reforms that will…

  6. High-definition multidetector computed tomography for evaluation of coronary artery stents: comparison to standard-definition 64-detector row computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James K; Swaminathan, Rajesh V; Vass, Melissa; Gallagher, Scott; Weinsaft, Jonathan W

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of coronary stents with present-generation 64-detector row computed tomography scanners that use filtered backprojection and operating at standard definition of 0.5-0.75 mm (standard definition, SDCT) is limited by imaging artifacts and noise. We evaluated the performance of a novel, high-definition 64-slice CT scanner (HDCT), with improved spatial resolution (0.23 mm) and applied statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for evaluation of coronary artery stents. HDCT and SDCT stent imaging was performed with the use of an ex vivo phantom. HDCT was compared with SDCT with both smooth and sharp kernels for stent intraluminal diameter, intraluminal area, and image noise. Intrastent visualization was assessed with an ASIR algorithm on HDCT scans, compared with the filtered backprojection algorithms by SDCT. Six coronary stents (2.5, 2.5, 2.75, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0mm) were analyzed by 2 independent readers. Interobserver correlation was high for both HDCT and SDCT. HDCT yielded substantially larger luminal area visualization compared with SDCT, both for smooth (29.4+/-14.5 versus 20.1+/-13.0; P<0.001) and sharp (32.0+/-15.2 versus 25.5+/-12.0; P<0.001) kernels. Stent diameter was higher with HDCT compared with SDCT, for both smooth (1.54+/-0.59 versus1.00+/-0.50; P<0.0001) and detailed (1.47+/-0.65 versus 1.08+/-0.54; P<0.0001) kernels. With detailed kernels, HDCT scans that used algorithms showed a trend toward decreased image noise compared with SDCT-filtered backprojection algorithms. On the basis of this ex vivo study, HDCT provides superior detection of intrastent luminal area and diameter visualization, compared with SDCT. ASIR image reconstruction techniques for HDCT scans enhance the in-stent assessment while decreasing image noise.

  7. Definition of Iron Deficiency Based on the Gold Standard of Bone Marrow Iron Staining in Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote Beverborg, Niels; Klip, IJsbrand T; Meijers, Wouter C; Voors, Adriaan A; Vegter, Eline L; van der Wal, Haye H; Swinkels, Dorine W; van Pelt, Joost; Mulder, Andre B; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Vellenga, Edo; Mariani, Massimo A; de Boer, Rudolf A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Meer, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The most commonly used definition of iron deficiency (ID; ferritin the biomarker-based definition of ID in HF, using bone marrow iron staining as the gold standard. Second, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of the optimized definition. Bone marrow aspiration with iron staining was performed in 42 patients with HF and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤45%) undergoing median sternotomy for coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients were mostly male (76%) with mild-to-moderate HF and a mean age of 68±10 years. Bone marrow ID was found in 17 (40%) of the HF patients. The most commonly used definition of ID had a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 72%. A definition solely based on TSAT ≤19.8% or serum iron ≤13 µmol/L had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 84% and 88%, respectively ( P the former definition). Subsequently, we assessed the incidence of all-cause mortality in 387 consecutive outpatient HF patients (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%). In these patients, TSAT ≤19.8% and serum iron ≤13 µmol/L, and not ferritin, were independently associated with mortality. A TSAT ≤19.8% or a serum iron ≤13 µmol/L shows the best performance in selecting patients with ID and identifies HF patients at the highest risk of death. Our findings validate the currently used TSAT cutoff of the identification of ID in HF patients, but question the diagnostic value of ferritin. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Can optical diagnosis of small colon polyps be accurate? Comparing standard scope without narrow banding to high definition scope with narrow banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Etaati, Firoozeh; Rezaeean, Farahnaz; Nouraie, Mehdi; Paydar, Mansour; Namin, Hassan Hassanzadeh; Sanderson, Andrew; Begum, Rehana; Alkhalloufi, Kawtar; Brim, Hassan; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O

    2016-07-28

    To study the accuracy of using high definition (HD) scope with narrow band imaging (NBI) vs standard white light colonoscope without NBI (ST), to predict the histology of the colon polyps, particularly those high definition colonoscopes with NBI. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported by pathologists as part of routine care. Of participants in the study, 55 (37%) were male and median (interquartile range) of age was 56 (19-80). Demographic, clinical characteristics, past medical history of patients, and the data obtained by two instruments were not significantly different and two methods detected similar number of polyps. In ST scope 89% of polyps were scope (P = 0.7). The ST scope had a positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of 86% and 4.0 for adenoma compared to 74% and 2.6 for HD scope. There was a trend of higher sensitivity for HD scope (68%) compare to ST scope (53%) with almost the same specificity. The ST scope had a PPV and PLR of 38% and 1.8 for hyperplastic polyp (HPP) compared to 42% and 2.2 for HD scope. The sensitivity and specificity of two instruments for HPP diagnosis were similar. Our results indicated that HD scope was more sensitive in diagnosis of adenoma than ST scope. Clinical diagnosis of HPP with either scope is less accurate compared to adenoma. Colonoscopy diagnosis is not yet fully matched with pathologic diagnosis of colon polyp. However with the advancement of both imaging and training, it may be possible to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the scopes and hence save money for eliminating time and the cost of Immunohistochemistry/pathology.

  9. A comparative study of standard vs. high definition colonoscopy for adenoma and hyperplastic polyp detection with optimized withdrawal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J E; Stavrindis, M; Thomas-Gibson, S; Guenther, T; Tekkis, P P; Saunders, B P

    2008-09-15

    Colonoscopy has a known miss rate for polyps and adenomas. High definition (HD) colonoscopes may allow detection of subtle mucosal change, potentially aiding detection of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. To compare detection rates between HD and standard definition (SD) colonoscopy. Prospective, cohort study with optimized withdrawal technique (withdrawal time >6 min, antispasmodic, position changes, re-examining flexures and folds). One hundred and thirty patients attending for routine colonoscopy were examined with either SD (n = 72) or HD (n = 58) colonoscopes. Groups were well matched. Sixty per cent of patients had at least one adenoma detected with SD vs. 71% with HD, P = 0.20, relative risk (benefit) 1.32 (95% CI 0.85-2.04). Eighty-eight adenomas (mean +/- standard deviation 1.2 +/- 1.4) were detected using SD vs. 93 (1.6 +/- 1.5) with HD, P = 0.12; however more nonflat, diminutive (9 mm) hyperplastic polyps was 7% (0.09 +/- 0.36). High definition did not lead to a significant increase in adenoma or hyperplastic polyp detection, but may help where comprehensive lesion detection is paramount. High detection rates appear possible with either SD or HD, when using an optimized withdrawal technique.

  10. Definition and specification for PACS. A checklist based on the standard ''IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.; Klose, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Problem: The formulation of requirements is necessary to control the goals of a PACS project. Furthermore, in this way, the scope of functionality necessary to support radiological working processes becomes clear. Method: Definitions of requirements and specification are formulated independently of systems according to the IEEE standard 'Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications'. Definitions are given in the Request for Information, specifications in the Request for Proposal. Functional and non-functional requirements are distinguished. The solutions are rated with respect to scope, appropriateness and quality of implementation. Results: A PACS checklist was created according to the methods described above. It is published on the homepage of the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Informationstechnologie' (AGIT) within the 'Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft' (DRG) (http://www.uni-marburg.de/mzr.agit). Conclusion: The checklist provides a discussion forum which should contribute to an agreement on accepted basic PACS functionalities. (orig.) [de

  11. Differences in Approach between Nuclear and Conventional Seismic Standards with regard to Hazard Definition - CSNI Integrity And Ageing Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaoudi, Ali; Labbe, Pierre; Murphy, Andrew; Kitada, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on the safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD-NEA co-ordinates the NEA activities related to maintaining and advancing the scientific and technological knowledge base of the safety of nuclear installations. The Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures Working Group of the CSNI is responsible for work related to the development and use of methods, data and information to assess the behaviour of materials and structures. It has three sub-groups, dealing with the integrity of metal components and structures, ageing of concrete structures, and the seismic behaviour of structures. The CSNI, at its meeting in June 2003, agreed to initiate an activity aimed to identify any difference between nuclear and non-nuclear conventional standards and their potential significance with regard to seismic hazards and design methods. There was a perception, mainly in some of the European countries that nuclear seismic hazard and design standards may be lagging behind developments in similar standards for conventional facilities. Adequate answer to such perception, need the examination of the following aspects and their significance on the seismic assessment of structures and components: - The safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. - The differences in approach regarding the seismic hazard definition. - The difference in approach regarding the design and the methods of analysis. These topics are examined in this report. Appendices A to H of this report contain a brief description of the conventional and the nuclear approaches in the NEA member countries: Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Spain,and USA. The following general conclusions can be drawn: - The approach adopted by the nuclear seismic standards is more conservative and more reliable (in particular for meeting the continued operation criteria) than the recommended by the currently applicable force based conventional seismic codes

  12. Standardizing terms, definitions and concepts for describing and interpreting unwanted immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rup, B; Pallardy, M; Sikkema, D

    2015-01-01

    scientists are involved in: interpretation and management of clinical and biological outcomes of BP immunogenicity, improvement of methods for describing, predicting and mitigating immunogenicity risk and elucidation of underlying causes. Collaboration and alignment of efforts across these communities...... the Risk; www.abirisk.eu] was formed by leading clinicians, academic scientists and EFPIA (European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations) members to elucidate underlying causes, improve methods for immunogenicity prediction and mitigation and establish common definitions around terms...

  13. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count probability, white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count probability, the estimated risk of AAS based on the number of alterations amongst white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count probability to fine-tune risk assessment of AAS.

  14. Standard CMMIsm Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPIsm), Version 1.1: Method Definition Document

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI(Service Mark)) is designed to provide benchmark quality ratings relative to Capability Maturity Model(registered) Integration (CMMI(Service Mark)) models...

  15. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... (GIPSA) is revising the United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change...

  16. 77 FR 23420 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 810 RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY..., 2012, regarding a proposal to revise the U.S. Standards for Wheat under the U.S. Grain Standards Act. The proposed rule would change the definition of Contrasting classes in Hard White wheat and change...

  17. Beyond Externalising and Finalising Definitions: Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia (STELLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Brenton

    2007-01-01

    This article explores issues relating to the development of the Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia (STELLA). STELLA is the product of work by members of the Australian Association for the Teaching of English (AATE) and the Australian Literacy Educators' Association (ALEA), the two key professional bodies in…

  18. Automatic Conversion of a Conceptual Model to a Standard Multi-view Web Services Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass Misbah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are becoming more and more heterogeneous and here comes the need to have more generic transformation algorithms and more automatic generation Meta rules. In fact, the large number of terminals, devices, operating systems, platforms and environments require a high level of adaptation. Therefore, it is becoming more and more difficult to validate, generate and implement manually models, designs and codes.Web services are one of the technologies that are used massively nowadays; hence, it is considered as one of technologies that require the most automatic rules of validation and automation. Many previous works have dealt with Web services by proposing new concepts such as Multi-view Web services, standard WSDL implementation of Multi-view Web services and even further Generic Meta rules for automatic generation of Multi-view Web services.In this work we will propose a new way of generating Multi-view Web ser-vices, which is based on an engine algorithm that takes as input both an initial Conceptual Model and user’s matrix and then unroll a generic algorithm to gen-erate dynamically a validated set of points of view. This set of points of view will be transformed to a standard WSDL implementation of Multi-view Web services by means of the automatic transformation Meta rules.

  19. Definition and compositions of standard wastestreams for evaluation of Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.O.

    1993-06-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Project was organized at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to support research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of emerging technologies that offer promising solutions to remediation of buried waste. BWID will identify emerging technologies, screen them for applicability to the identified needs, select technologies for demonstration, and then evaluate the technologies based on prescribed performance objectives. The technical objective of the project is to establish solutions to Environmental Restoration and Waste Management's technological deficiencies and improve baseline remediation systems. This report establishes a set of standard wastestream compositions that will be used by BWID to evaluate the emerging technologies. Five wastestreams are proposed that use four types of waste and a nominal case that is a homogenized combination of the four wastes. The five wastestreams will provide data on the compositional extremes and indicate the technologies' effectiveness over the complete range of expected wastestream compositions

  20. The Definition of Pneumonia, the Assessment of Severity, and Clinical Standardization in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, Chizoba; Moïsi, Jennifer C.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Karron, Ruth A.; Bhat, Niranjan; Murdoch, David R.; Crawley, Jane; Levine, Orin S.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    To develop a case definition for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project, we sought a widely acceptable classification that was linked to existing pneumonia research and focused on very severe cases. We began with the World Health Organization’s classification of severe/very severe pneumonia and refined it through literature reviews and a 2-stage process of expert consultation. PERCH will study hospitalized children, aged 1–59 months, with pneumonia who present with cough or difficulty breathing and have either severe pneumonia (lower chest wall indrawing) or very severe pneumonia (central cyanosis, difficulty breastfeeding/drinking, vomiting everything, convulsions, lethargy, unconsciousness, or head nodding). It will exclude patients with recent hospitalization and children with wheeze whose indrawing resolves after bronchodilator therapy. The PERCH investigators agreed upon standard interpretations of the symptoms and signs. These will be maintained by a clinical standardization monitor who conducts repeated instruction at each site and by recurrent local training and testing. PMID:22403224

  1. Assessment of severe malaria in a multicenter, phase III, RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine trial: case definition, standardization of data collection and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekemans, Johan; Marsh, Kevin; Greenwood, Brian; Leach, Amanda; Kabore, William; Soulanoudjingar, Solange; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Ansong, Daniel; Evans, Jennifer; Sacarlal, Jahit; Bejon, Philip; Kamthunzi, Portia; Salim, Nahya; Njuguna, Patricia; Hamel, Mary J; Otieno, Walter; Gesase, Samwel; Schellenberg, David

    2011-08-04

    An effective malaria vaccine, deployed in conjunction with other malaria interventions, is likely to substantially reduce the malaria burden. Efficacy against severe malaria will be a key driver for decisions on implementation. An initial study of an RTS, S vaccine candidate showed promising efficacy against severe malaria in children in Mozambique. Further evidence of its protective efficacy will be gained in a pivotal, multi-centre, phase III study. This paper describes the case definitions of severe malaria used in this study and the programme for standardized assessment of severe malaria according to the case definition. Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a literature review and a consensus meeting of expert consultants and the RTS, S Clinical Trial Partnership Committee, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. The same groups, with input from an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, developed and implemented a programme for standardized data collection.The case definitions developed reflect the typical presentations of severe malaria in African hospitals. Markers of disease severity were chosen on the basis of their association with poor outcome, occurrence in a significant proportion of cases and on an ability to standardize their measurement across research centres. For the primary case definition, one or more clinical and/or laboratory markers of disease severity have to be present, four major co-morbidities (pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia or gastroenteritis with severe dehydration) are excluded, and a Plasmodium falciparum parasite density threshold is introduced, in order to maximize the specificity of the case definition. Secondary case definitions allow inclusion of co-morbidities and/or allow for the presence of parasitaemia at any density. The programmatic implementation of standardized case assessment included a clinical algorithm for evaluating seriously sick children

  2. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux) and standard bright light (10,000 lux) are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Ybe; Dekker, Vera; Schlangen, Luc J M; Bos, Elske H; Ruiter, Martine J

    2011-01-28

    Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT) of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT). Both treatments used the same illuminance (10,000 lux) and were equally highly effective. It is still possible, however, that neither the newly-discovered photoreceptor cells, nor the biological clock play a major role in the therapeutic effects of light on SAD. Alternatively, these effects may at least be partly mediated by these receptor cells, which may have become saturated as a result of the high illuminances used in the therapy. This randomized controlled study compares the effects of low-intensity BLT to those of high-intensity SLT. In a 22-day design, 22 patients suffering from a major depression with a seasonal pattern (SAD) were given light treatment (10,000 lux) for two weeks on workdays. Subjects were randomly assigned to either of the two conditions, with gender and age evenly distributed over the groups. Light treatment either consisted of 30 minutes SLT (5000 °K) with the EnergyLight® (Philips, Consumer Lifestyle) with a vertical illuminance of 10,000 lux at eye position or BLT (17,000 °K) with a vertical illuminance of 750 lux using a prototype of the EnergyLight® which emitted a higher proportion of short-wavelengths. All participants completed questionnaires concerning mood, activation and sleep quality on a daily basis. Mood and energy levels were also assessed on a weekly basis by means of the SIGH-SAD and other assessment tools. On day 22, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (SLT 65.2% and BLT 76.4%). On the basis of all assessments no statistically significant differences were found between the two conditions. With sample size being small, conclusions can only be preliminary. Both treatment conditions were found to be highly effective. The therapeutic effects of low

  3. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux and standard bright light (10 000 lux are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bos Elske H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT. Both treatments used the same illuminance (10 000 lux and were equally highly effective. It is still possible, however, that neither the newly-discovered photoreceptor cells, nor the biological clock play a major role in the therapeutic effects of light on SAD. Alternatively, these effects may at least be partly mediated by these receptor cells, which may have become saturated as a result of the high illuminances used in the therapy. This randomized controlled study compares the effects of low-intensity BLT to those of high-intensity SLT. Method In a 22-day design, 22 patients suffering from a major depression with a seasonal pattern (SAD were given light treatment (10 000 lux for two weeks on workdays. Subjects were randomly assigned to either of the two conditions, with gender and age evenly distributed over the groups. Light treatment either consisted of 30 minutes SLT (5000°K with the EnergyLight® (Philips, Consumer Lifestyle with a vertical illuminance of 10 000 lux at eye position or BLT (17 000°K with a vertical illuminance of 750 lux using a prototype of the EnergyLight® which emitted a higher proportion of short-wavelengths. All participants completed questionnaires concerning mood, activation and sleep quality on a daily basis. Mood and energy levels were also assessed on a weekly basis by means of the SIGH-SAD and other assessment tools. Results On day 22, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (SLT 65.2% and BLT 76.4%. On the basis of all assessments no statistically significant differences were found between the two conditions. Conclusion With sample size being small, conclusions can only be preliminary. Both treatment conditions were found

  4. Standardization of terminology, definitions and outcome criteria in immune thrombocytopenic purpura of adults and children: report from an international working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeghiero, Francesco; Stasi, Roberto; Gernsheimer, Terry; Michel, Marc; Provan, Drew; Arnold, Donald M; Bussel, James B; Cines, Douglas B; Chong, Beng H; Cooper, Nichola; Godeau, Bertrand; Lechner, Klaus; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; McMillan, Robert; Sanz, Miguel A; Imbach, Paul; Blanchette, Victor; Kühne, Thomas; Ruggeri, Marco; George, James N

    2009-03-12

    Diagnosis and management of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) remain largely dependent on clinical expertise and observations more than on evidence derived from clinical trials of high scientific quality. One major obstacle to the implementation of such studies and in producing reliable meta-analyses of existing data is a lack of consensus on standardized critical definitions, outcome criteria, and terminology. Moreover, the demand for comparative clinical trials has dramatically increased since the introduction of new classes of therapeutic agents, such as thrombopoietin receptor agonists, and innovative treatment modalities, such as anti-CD 20 antibodies. To overcome the present heterogeneity, an International Working Group of recognized expert clinicians convened a 2-day structured meeting (the Vicenza Consensus Conference) to define standard terminology and definitions for primary ITP and its different phases and criteria for the grading of severity, and clinically meaningful outcomes and response. These consensus criteria and definitions could be used by investigational clinical trials or cohort studies. Adoption of these recommendations would serve to improve communication among investigators, to enhance comparability among clinical trials, to facilitate meta-analyses and development of therapeutic guidelines, and to provide a standardized framework for regulatory agencies.

  5. Relaxation time measurements of white and grey matter in multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Appel, B.; Moens, E.; Academisch Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp

    1987-01-01

    In a patient population of some 450 with definite, probable, and possible multiple sclerosis referred to us for MRI, some 40 suffering from definite MS were chosen randomly for relaxation time measurements of plaque-free grey and white matter. T 1 values could not be used for diagnostic purposes owing to their broad standard deviation. Overall white matter T 2 was slightly higher in MS patients than in a non-MS population (94 ms versus 89 ms). Because these changes are not visible in MR images, relaxation time measurements may prove valuable for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  6. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Consistent Reduction in Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction With Cangrelor as Assessed by Multiple Definitions: Findings From CHAMPION PHOENIX (Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Matthew A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Stone, Gregg W; White, Harvey D; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Gibson, C Michael; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Leonardi, Sergio; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Harrington, Robert A

    2016-09-06

    Cangrelor is an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor approved to reduce periprocedural ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention not pretreated with a P2Y12 inhibitor. A total of 11 145 patients were randomized to cangrelor or clopidogrel in the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial (Cangrelor versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition). We explored the effects of cangrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) using different definitions and performed sensitivity analyses on the primary end point of the trial. A total of 462 patients (4.2%) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention had an MI as defined by the second universal definition. The majority of these MIs (n=433, 93.7%) were type 4a. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the incidence of MI at 48 hours (3.8% versus 4.7%; odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.97; P=0.02). When the Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition of periprocedural MI was applied to potential ischemic events, there were fewer total MIs (n=134); however, the effects of cangrelor on MI remained significant (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92; P=0.01). Similar effects were seen in the evaluation of the effects of cangrelor on MIs with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.91) and those with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal, ischemic symptoms, or ECG changes (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). MIs defined by any of these definitions were associated with increased risk of death at 30 days. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the composite end point of death, MI (Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition), ischemia-driven revascularization, or Academic Research Consortium definite stent thrombosis (1.4% versus 2.1%; OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92). MI in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, regardless of definition, remains associated with increased risk of death

  8. Updated standardized endpoint definitions for transcatheter aortic valve implantation: The Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); S.J. Head (Stuart); P. Généreux (Philippe); N. Piazza (Nicolo); N.M. van Mieghem (Nicolas); E.H. Blackstone (Eugene); T.G. Brott (Thomas); D.J. Cohen (David J.); D.E. Cutlip (Donald); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); R.T. Hahn (Rebecca); A.J. Kirtane (Ajay); M. Krucoff (Mitchell); S. Kodali (Susheel); M.J. Mack (Michael); R. Mehran (Roxana); J. Rodés-Cabau (Josep); P. Vranckx (Pascal); J.G. Webb (John); S.W. Windecker (Stephan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.B. Leon (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The aim of the current Valvular Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 initiative was to revisit the selection and definitions of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)- clinical endpoints to make them more suitable to the present and future needs of clinical trials.

  9. The definition of pneumonia, the assessment of severity, and clinical standardization in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, J. Anthony G.; Wonodi, Chizoba; Moïsi, Jennifer C.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Karron, Ruth A.; Bhat, Niranjan; Murdoch, David R.; Crawley, Jane; Levine, Orin S.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Black, Robert E.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Campbell, Harry; Cherian, Thomas; Crook, Derrick W.; de Jong, Menno D.; Dowell, Scott F.; Graham, Stephen M.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Martin, Paul; Nataro, James P.; Piazza, Franco M.; Qazi, Shamim A.; Zar, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    To develop a case definition for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project, we sought a widely acceptable classification that was linked to existing pneumonia research and focused on very severe cases. We began with the World Health Organization's classification of severe/very

  10. [Definition and specification requirements for PAC-systems (picture archiving and communication system). A performance index with reference to the standard "IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirement Specifications"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, H; Klose, K J

    1999-04-01

    The formulation of requirements is necessary to control the goals of a PACS project. Furthermore, in this way, the scope of functionality necessary to support radiological working processes becomes clear. Definitions of requirements and specification are formulated independently of systems according to the IEEE standard "Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications". Definitions are given in the Request for Information, specifications in the Request for Proposal. Functional and non-functional requirements are distinguished. The solutions are rated with respect to scope, appropriateness and quality of implementation. A PACS checklist was created according to the methods described above. It is published on the homepage of the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Informationstechnologie" (AGIT) within the "Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft" (DRG) (http://www.uni-marburg.de/mzr/agit). The checklist provides a discussion forum which should contribute to an agreement on accepted basic PACS functionalities.

  11. A review of the literature and discussion: establishing a consensus for the definition of post-mastectomy pain syndrome to provide a standardized clinical and research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackstone, Murial

    2016-09-01

    Chronic pain presents a management challenge for physicians and patients alike, and post-mastectomy pain is no exception. In this issue, Waltho and Rockwell present a review of post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) and propose a standard definition that should allow future studies to be comparable. The proposed definition of "post-breast surgery pain syndrome" includes pain after any type of breast surgery that is of at least moderate intensity and comprises neuropathic qualities, that is present in the ipsilateral breast/chest/arm, that lasts longer than 6 months and is present at least half the time. Further work is needed to clarify whether this pain syndrome is in fact driven by neuralgia resulting from the axillary dissection component of breast cancer surgery.

  12. Influence of the lack of a standard definition of “family business” on research into their international strategies☆

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Cano-Rubio; Guadalupe Fuentes-Lombardo; Manuel Carlos Vallejo-Martos

    2017-01-01

    Research into the internationalisation strategies of family businesses is plagued by the excessive use of many and varied concepts to define these companies, and often leads to diverse and disparate results. The conceptual spectrum used by researchers is very broad, ranging from the simplest definition, in which a company is classified as a family business on the basis of the perception of its owners and/or managers, to others which consider variables such as ownership, management, involvemen...

  13. NODC Standard Product: Climatic atlas of the Arctic Seas 2004 - Database of the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas - Oceanography and marine biology (NODC Accession 0098061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Atlas presents primary data on meteorology, oceanography, and hydrobiology from the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas, which were collected during the...

  14. Admission time to hospital: a varying standard for a critical definition for admissions to an intensive care unit from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shane; Weiss, Heike; Bailey, Michael; van Lint, Allison; Cameron, Peter; Pilcher, David

    2014-11-01

    Time spent in the emergency department (ED) before admission to hospital is often considered an important key performance indicator (KPI). Throughout Australia and New Zealand, there is no standard definition of 'time of admission' for patients admitted through the ED. By using data submitted to the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, the aim was to determine the differing methods used to define hospital admission time and assess how these impact on the calculation of time spent in the ED before admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Between March and December of 2010, 61 hospitals were contacted directly. Decision methods for determining time of admission to the ED were matched to 67,787 patient records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between decision method and the reported time spent in the ED. Four mechanisms of recording time of admission were identified, with time of triage being the most common (28/61 hospitals). Reported median time spent in the ED varied from 2.5 (IQR 0.83-5.35) to 5.1 h (2.82-8.68), depending on the decision method. After adjusting for illness severity, hospital type and location, decision method remained a significant factor in determining measurement of ED length of stay. Different methods are used in Australia and New Zealand to define admission time to hospital. Professional bodies, hospitals and jurisdictions should ensure standardisation of definitions for appropriate interpretation of KPIs as well as for the interpretation of studies assessing the impact of admission time to ICU from the ED. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: There are standards for the maximum time spent in the ED internationally, but these standards vary greatly across Australia. The definition of such a standard is critically important not only to patient care, but also in the assessment of hospital outcomes. Key performance indicators rely on quality data to improve decision

  15. Standardizing terms, definitions and concepts for describing and interpreting unwanted immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals: recommendations of the Innovative Medicines Initiative ABIRISK consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rup, B; Pallardy, M; Sikkema, D; Albert, T; Allez, M; Broet, P; Carini, C; Creeke, P; Davidson, J; De Vries, N; Finco, D; Fogdell-Hahn, A; Havrdova, E; Hincelin-Mery, A; C Holland, M; H Jensen, P E; Jury, E C; Kirby, H; Kramer, D; Lacroix-Desmazes, S; Legrand, J; Maggi, E; Maillère, B; Mariette, X; Mauri, C; Mikol, V; Mulleman, D; Oldenburg, J; Paintaud, G; R Pedersen, C; Ruperto, N; Seitz, R; Spindeldreher, S; Deisenhammer, F

    2015-09-01

    Biopharmaceuticals (BPs) represent a rapidly growing class of approved and investigational drug therapies that is contributing significantly to advancing treatment in multiple disease areas, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, genetic deficiencies and cancer. Unfortunately, unwanted immunogenic responses to BPs, in particular those affecting clinical safety or efficacy, remain among the most common negative effects associated with this important class of drugs. To manage and reduce risk of unwanted immunogenicity, diverse communities of clinicians, pharmaceutical industry and academic scientists are involved in: interpretation and management of clinical and biological outcomes of BP immunogenicity, improvement of methods for describing, predicting and mitigating immunogenicity risk and elucidation of underlying causes. Collaboration and alignment of efforts across these communities is made difficult due to lack of agreement on concepts, practices and standardized terms and definitions related to immunogenicity. The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI; www.imi-europe.org), ABIRISK consortium [Anti-Biopharmaceutical (BP) Immunization Prediction and Clinical Relevance to Reduce the Risk; www.abirisk.eu] was formed by leading clinicians, academic scientists and EFPIA (European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations) members to elucidate underlying causes, improve methods for immunogenicity prediction and mitigation and establish common definitions around terms and concepts related to immunogenicity. These efforts are expected to facilitate broader collaborations and lead to new guidelines for managing immunogenicity. To support alignment, an overview of concepts behind the set of key terms and definitions adopted to date by ABIRISK is provided herein along with a link to access and download the ABIRISK terms and definitions and provide comments (http://www.abirisk.eu/index_t_and_d.asp). © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Developing a Standard Definition of Whole-Grain Foods for Dietary Recommendations: Summary Report of a Multidisciplinary Expert Roundtable Discussion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Liu, Simin; Marquart, Len; McKeown, Nicola; Reicks, Marla; Riccardi, Gabriele; Seal, Chris; Slavin, Joanne; Thielecke, Frank; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; Webb, Densie

    2014-01-01

    Although the term “whole grain” is well defined, there has been no universal standard of what constitutes a “whole-grain food,” creating challenges for researchers, the food industry, regulatory authorities, and consumers around the world. As part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Technical Advisory Committee issued a call to action to develop definitions for whole-grain foods that could be universally accepted and applied to dietary recommendations and planning. The Committee’s call to action, and the lack of a global whole-grain food definition, was the impetus for the Whole Grain Roundtable held 3–5 December 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The objective was to develop a whole-grain food definition that is consistent with the quartet of needs of science, food product formulation, consumer behavior, and label education. The roundtable’s expert panel represented a broad range of expertise from the United States and Europe, including epidemiology and dietary intervention researchers, consumer educators, government policy makers, and food and nutrition scientists from academia and the grain food industry. Taking into account the totality, quality, and consistency of available scientific evidence, the expert panel recommended that 8 g of whole grain/30 g serving (27 g/100 g), without a fiber requirement, be considered a minimum content of whole grains that is nutritionally meaningful and that a food providing at least 8 g of whole grains/30-g serving be defined as a whole-grain food. Having an established whole-grain food definition will encourage manufacturers to produce foods with meaningful amounts of whole grain, allow consistent product labeling and messaging, and empower consumers to readily identify whole-grain foods and achieve whole-grain dietary recommendations. PMID:24618757

  17. Definition of a process standardization framework for a scientific journal based on a literature review and its performance objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Campos Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study that aimed to establish a framework to standardize the process of a scientific journal. It has a team that performs operational routines regulated by standards (external and patterns (internal and external. The high turnover rate of the supportive team has generated information loss and increased service variability. The research started from the assumption that the process standardization (which includes the formalization could be a way to reduce this secondary effect. Standardization techniques were identified through a literature review of the main national and international databases of journals and congresses. The identified standardization techniques were analyzed considering the number of times they appeared in the papers analyzed and performance objectives proposed by Slack et al. (2009. As result of this research, a framework was obtained for the standardization of processes adapted to the needs of the journal studied. The model is feasible to be used more widely, given its structural similarity to the one proposed by Campos (2004, a Brazilian model that is a reference in the field.

  18. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  19. Definition and quantification of acute inflammatory white matter injury in the immature brain by MRI/MRS at high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodygensky, Gregory A; Kunz, Nicolas; Perroud, Elodie; Somm, Emmanuel; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Hüppi, Petra S; Gruetter, Rolf; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2014-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in the corpus callosum (CC) of rat pups results in diffuse white matter injury similar to the main neuropathology of preterm infants. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural and metabolic markers of acute inflammatory injury by high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo. Twenty-four hours after a 1-mg/kg injection of LPS in postnatal day 3 rat pups, diffusion tensor imaging and proton nuclear magnetic spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) were analyzed in conjunction to determine markers of cell death and inflammation using immunohistochemistry and gene expression. MRI and MRS in the CC revealed an increase in lactate and free lipids and a decrease of the apparent diffusion coefficient. Detailed evaluation of the CC showed a marked apoptotic response assessed by fractin expression. Interestingly, the degree of reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient correlated strongly with the natural logarithm of fractin expression, in the same region of interest. LPS injection further resulted in increased activated microglia clustered in the cingulum, widespread astrogliosis, and increased expression of genes for interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor. This model was able to reproduce the typical MRI hallmarks of acute diffuse white matter injury seen in preterm infants and allowed the evaluation of in vivo biomarkers of acute neuropathology after inflammatory challenge.

  20. On Describing Human White Matter Anatomy: The White Matter Query Language

    OpenAIRE

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist’s expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The d...

  1. Differences in safety margins between nuclear and conventional design standards with regards to seismic hazard definition and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Orbovic, N.; Dejan, D.

    2006-01-01

    With the surging interest in new build nuclear all over the world and a permanent interest in earthquake resistance of nuclear plants, there is a need to quantify the safety margins in nuclear buildings design in comparison to conventional buildings in order to increase the public confidence in the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear (CAN3-N289 series) and conventional (NBCC 2005) seismic standards have different approaches regarding the design of civil structures. The origin of the differences lays in the safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. Conventional seismic codes contain the minimal requirement destined primarily to safeguard against major structural failure and loss of life. It doesn't limit damage to a certain acceptable degree or maintain function. Nuclear seismic code requires that structures, systems and components important to safety, withstand the effects of earthquakes. The requirement states that for equipment important to safety, both integrity and functionality should be ascertained. The seismic hazard is generally defined on the basis of the annual probability of exceedence (return period). There is a major difference on the return period and the confidence level for design earthquakes between the conventional and the nuclear seismic standards. The seismic design criteria of conventional structures are based on the use of Force Modification Factors to take into account the energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain and the reserve of strength. The use of such factors to lower intentionally the seismic input is consistent with the safety philosophy of the conventional seismic standard which is the 'non collapse' rather than the integrity and/or the operability of the structures or components. Nuclear seismic standard requires that the structure remain in the elastic domain; energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain is not allowed for design basis earthquake conditions. This is

  2. Comparison of Vital Statistics Definitions of Suicide against a Coroner Reference Standard: A Population-Based Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Kurdyak, Paul; Sinyor, Mark; Holder, Laura; Schaffer, Ayal

    2018-03-01

    We sought to determine the utility of health administrative databases for population-based suicide surveillance, as these data are generally more accessible and more integrated with other data sources compared to coroners' records. In this retrospective validation study, we identified all coroner-confirmed suicides between 2003 and 2012 in Ontario residents aged 21 and over and linked this information to Statistics Canada's vital statistics data set. We examined the overlap between the underlying cause of death field and secondary causes of death using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for deliberate self-harm (i.e., suicide) and examined the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of misclassified records. Among 10,153 linked deaths, there was a very high degree of overlap between records coded as deliberate self-harm in the vital statistics data set and coroner-confirmed suicides using both ICD-9 and ICD-10 definitions (96.88% and 96.84% sensitivity, respectively). This alignment steadily increased throughout the study period (from 95.9% to 98.8%). Other vital statistics diagnoses in primary fields included uncategorised signs and symptoms. Vital statistics records that were misclassified did not differ from valid records in terms of sociodemographic characteristics but were more likely to have had an unspecified place of injury on the death certificate ( P statistics and coroner classification of suicide deaths suggests that health administrative data can reliably be used to identify suicide deaths.

  3. Differential characterization of emerging skin diseases of rainbow trout--a standardized approach to capturing disease characteristics and development of case definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Lapatra, S E; Verner-Jeffreys, D; Pond, M; Peeler, E J; Noguera, P A; Bruno, D W; St-Hilaire, S; Schubiger, C B; Snekvik, K; Crumlish, M; Green, D M; Metselaar, M; Rodger, H; Schmidt-Posthaus, H; Galeotti, M; Feist, S W

    2013-11-01

    Farmed and wild salmonids are affected by a variety of skin conditions, some of which have significant economic and welfare implications. In many cases, the causes are not well understood, and one example is cold water strawberry disease of rainbow trout, also called red mark syndrome, which has been recorded in the UK since 2003. To date, there are no internationally agreed methods for describing these conditions, which has caused confusion for farmers and health professionals, who are often unclear as to whether they are dealing with a new or a previously described condition. This has resulted, inevitably, in delays to both accurate diagnosis and effective treatment regimes. Here, we provide a standardized methodology for the description of skin conditions of rainbow trout of uncertain aetiology. We demonstrate how the approach can be used to develop case definitions, using coldwater strawberry disease as an example. © 2013 Crown copyright.

  4. Merging fluxgate and induction coil data to produce low-noise geomagnetic observatory data meeting the INTERMAGNET definitive 1 s data standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Heinz-Peter; Widmer-Schnidrig, Rudolf; Korte, Monika

    2017-11-01

    For frequencies above 30 mHz the instrument intrinsic noise level of typical fluxgate magnetometers used at geomagnetic observatories usually masks ambient magnetic field variations on magnetically quiet days. This is especially true for stations located at middle and low latitudes, where variations are generally smaller than at high latitudes. INTERMAGNET has set a minimum quality standard for definitive 1 s data. Natural field variations referred to as pulsations (Pc-1, Pc-2, Pi-1) fall in this band. Usually their intensity is so small that they rarely surpass the instrumental noise of fluxgate magnetometers. Moreover, high-quality magnetic field observations in the band 30 mHz-0.5 Hz contain interesting information, e.g., for the study of ionospheric electron interactions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron plasma waves. We propose a method to improve 1 Hz observatory data by merging data from the proven and tested fluxgate magnetometers currently in use with induction coil magnetometers into a single data stream. We show how measurements of both instruments can be combined without information loss or phase distortion. The result is a time series of the magnetic field vector components, combining the benefits of both instruments: long-term stability (fluxgate) and low noise at high frequencies (induction coil). This new data stream fits perfectly into the data management procedures of INTERMAGNET and meets the requirements defined in the definitive 1 s data standard. We describe the applied algorithm and validate the result by comparing power spectra of the fluxgate magnetometer output with the merged signal. Daily spectrograms from the Niemegk observatory show that the resulting data series reveal information at frequencies above 30 mHz that cannot be seen in raw fluxgate data.

  5. Merging fluxgate and induction coil data to produce low-noise geomagnetic observatory data meeting the INTERMAGNET definitive 1 s data standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Brunke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For frequencies above 30 mHz the instrument intrinsic noise level of typical fluxgate magnetometers used at geomagnetic observatories usually masks ambient magnetic field variations on magnetically quiet days. This is especially true for stations located at middle and low latitudes, where variations are generally smaller than at high latitudes. INTERMAGNET has set a minimum quality standard for definitive 1 s data. Natural field variations referred to as pulsations (Pc-1, Pc-2, Pi-1 fall in this band. Usually their intensity is so small that they rarely surpass the instrumental noise of fluxgate magnetometers. Moreover, high-quality magnetic field observations in the band 30 mHz–0.5 Hz contain interesting information, e.g., for the study of ionospheric electron interactions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron plasma waves. We propose a method to improve 1 Hz observatory data by merging data from the proven and tested fluxgate magnetometers currently in use with induction coil magnetometers into a single data stream. We show how measurements of both instruments can be combined without information loss or phase distortion. The result is a time series of the magnetic field vector components, combining the benefits of both instruments: long-term stability (fluxgate and low noise at high frequencies (induction coil. This new data stream fits perfectly into the data management procedures of INTERMAGNET and meets the requirements defined in the definitive 1 s data standard. We describe the applied algorithm and validate the result by comparing power spectra of the fluxgate magnetometer output with the merged signal. Daily spectrograms from the Niemegk observatory show that the resulting data series reveal information at frequencies above 30 mHz that cannot be seen in raw fluxgate data.

  6. Thoughtflow: Standards and Tools for Provenance Capture and Workflow Definition to Support Model-Informed Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J J; Chan, Pls; Chard, J; Smith, G; Smith, M K; Beer, M; Dunn, A; Flandorfer, C; Franklin, C; Gomeni, R; Harnisch, L; Kaye, R; Moodie, S; Sardu, M L; Wang, E; Watson, E; Wolstencroft, K; Cheung, Sya

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacometric analyses are complex and multifactorial. It is essential to check, track, and document the vast amounts of data and metadata that are generated during these analyses (and the relationships between them) in order to comply with regulations, support quality control, auditing, and reporting. It is, however, challenging, tedious, error-prone, and time-consuming, and diverts pharmacometricians from the more useful business of doing science. Automating this process would save time, reduce transcriptional errors, support the retention and transfer of knowledge, encourage good practice, and help ensure that pharmacometric analyses appropriately impact decisions. The ability to document, communicate, and reconstruct a complete pharmacometric analysis using an open standard would have considerable benefits. In this article, the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium proposes a set of standards to facilitate the capture, storage, and reporting of knowledge (including assumptions and decisions) in the context of model-informed drug discovery and development (MID3), as well as to support reproducibility: "Thoughtflow." A prototype software implementation is provided. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Nuclear technology terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The terms and definitions in this standard are part of the catalogue of definitions 'Nuclear technology, terms and definitions', in eight parts; they are the latest version of the standards and draft standards of DIN 25 401, part 10 to 19, published at irregular intervals until now. (orig.) [de

  8. Identification of ecological thresholds from variations in phytoplankton communities among lakes: contribution to the definition of environmental standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubeix, Vincent; Danis, Pierre-Alain; Feret, Thibaut; Baudoin, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, the identification of ecological thresholds may be useful for managers as it can help to diagnose ecosystem health and to identify key levers to enable the success of preservation and restoration measures. A recent statistical method, gradient forest, based on random forests, was used to detect thresholds of phytoplankton community change in lakes along different environmental gradients. It performs exploratory analyses of multivariate biological and environmental data to estimate the location and importance of community thresholds along gradients. The method was applied to a data set of 224 French lakes which were characterized by 29 environmental variables and the mean abundances of 196 phytoplankton species. Results showed the high importance of geographic variables for the prediction of species abundances at the scale of the study. A second analysis was performed on a subset of lakes defined by geographic thresholds and presenting a higher biological homogeneity. Community thresholds were identified for the most important physico-chemical variables including water transparency, total phosphorus, ammonia, nitrates, and dissolved organic carbon. Gradient forest appeared as a powerful method at a first exploratory step, to detect ecological thresholds at large spatial scale. The thresholds that were identified here must be reinforced by the separate analysis of other aquatic communities and may be used then to set protective environmental standards after consideration of natural variability among lakes.

  9. Neonatal Near Miss: the need for a standard definition and appropriate criteria and the rationale for a prospective surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latin American, there is currently a regional action with the main purposes of putting the concept of severe neonatal morbidity in practice and formulating proposals for interventions. A general overview of neonatal health conditions, including morbidity and mortality, is provided to update regional knowledge on the topic. An example of the development and implementation of the concept of maternal near miss is also provided, followed by results from a systematic review covering all previously published studies on Neonatal Near Miss. Finally, some proposals for building a common concept on the topic and for launching a prospective surveillance study are presented. A Neonatal Near Miss is a neonate who had a severe morbidity (organ dysfunction or failure but who survived this condition within the first 27 days of life. The pragmatic criteria recommended to be used are as follows: birth weight below 1700 g, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes of life and gestational age below 33 weeks. As a proxy for organ dysfunction, the following management criteria are also confirmed: parenteral therapeutic antibiotics; nasal continuous positive airway pressure; any intubation during the first 27 days of life; phototherapy within the first 24 h of life; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; the use of vasoactive drugs, anticonvulsants, surfactants, blood products and steroids for refractory hypoglycemia and any surgical procedure. Although this study starts from a regional perspective, this topic is clearly globally relevant. All nations, especially low and middle-income countries, could benefit from the proposed standardization.

  10. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  11. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  12. Implementing an innovated preservation technology: The American Society of Transplant Surgeons' (ASTS) Standards Committee White Paper on Ex Situ Liver Machine Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintini, Cristiano; Martins, Paulo N; Shah, Shimul; Killackey, Mary; Reed, Alan; Guarrera, James; Axelrod, David A

    2018-05-23

    The pervasive shortage of deceased donor liver allografts contributes to significant waitlist mortality despite efforts to increase organ donation. Ex vivo liver perfusion appears to enhance preservation of donor organs, extending viability and potentially evaluating function in organs previously considered too high risk for transplant. These devices pose novel challenges for organ allocation, safety, training, and finances. This white paper describes the American Society of Transplant Surgeons' belief that organ preservation technology is a vital advance, but its use should not change fundamental aspects of organ allocation. Additional data elements need to be collected, made available for organ assessment by transplant professionals to allow determination of organ suitability in the case of reallocation and incorporated into risk adjustment methodology. Finally, further work is needed to determine the optimal strategy for management and oversight of perfused organs prior to transplantation. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Proposed standardized definitions for vertical resolution and uncertainty in the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature algorithms - Part 2: Ozone DIAL uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; Sica, Robert J.; van Gijsel, Joanna A. E.; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haefele, Alexander; Trickl, Thomas; Payen, Guillaume; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    A standardized approach for the definition, propagation, and reporting of uncertainty in the ozone differential absorption lidar data products contributing to the Network for the Detection for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) database is proposed. One essential aspect of the proposed approach is the propagation in parallel of all independent uncertainty components through the data processing chain before they are combined together to form the ozone combined standard uncertainty. The independent uncertainty components contributing to the overall budget include random noise associated with signal detection, uncertainty due to saturation correction, background noise extraction, the absorption cross sections of O3, NO2, SO2, and O2, the molecular extinction cross sections, and the number densities of the air, NO2, and SO2. The expression of the individual uncertainty components and their step-by-step propagation through the ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) processing chain are thoroughly estimated. All sources of uncertainty except detection noise imply correlated terms in the vertical dimension, which requires knowledge of the covariance matrix when the lidar signal is vertically filtered. In addition, the covariance terms must be taken into account if the same detection hardware is shared by the lidar receiver channels at the absorbed and non-absorbed wavelengths. The ozone uncertainty budget is presented as much as possible in a generic form (i.e., as a function of instrument performance and wavelength) so that all NDACC ozone DIAL investigators across the network can estimate, for their own instrument and in a straightforward manner, the expected impact of each reviewed uncertainty component. In addition, two actual examples of full uncertainty budget are provided, using nighttime measurements from the tropospheric ozone DIAL located at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Table Mountain Facility, California, and nighttime measurements from the JPL

  14. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  15. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  16. Comparison between the Correlations of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Defects in Standard Automated White-on-White Perimetry versus Pulsar Perimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnawaiseh, Maged; Hömberg, Lisann; Eter, Nicole; Prokosch, Verena

    2017-01-01

    To compare the structure-function relationships between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and visual field defects measured either by standard automated perimetry (SAP) or by Pulsar perimetry (PP). 263 eyes of 143 patients were prospectively included. Depending on the RNFLT, patients were assigned to the glaucoma group (group A: RNFL score 3-6) or the control group (group B: RNFL score 0-2). Structure-function relationships between RNFLT and mean sensitivity (MS) measured by SAP and PP were analyzed. Throughout the entire group, the MS assessed by PP and SAP correlated significantly with RNFLT in all sectors. In the glaucoma group, there was no significant difference between the correlations RNFL-SAP and RNFL-PP, whereas a significant difference was found in the control group. In the control group, the correlation between structure and function based on the PP data was significantly stronger than that based on SAP.

  17. The Virtual Observatory Service TheoSSA: Establishing a Database of Synthetic Stellar Flux Standards I. NLTE Spectral Analysis of the DA-Type White Dwarf G191-B2B *,**,***,****

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims. We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at Teff =60 000 +/- 2000K and log g=7.60 +/- 0.05.We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions. The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare.

  18. Post-breast surgery pain syndrome: establishing a consensus for the definition of post-mastectomy pain syndrome to provide a standardized clinical and research approach - a review of the literature and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltho, Daniel; Rockwell, Gloria

    2016-09-01

    Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a frequent complication of breast surgery. There is currently no standard definition for this chronic pain syndrome. The purpose of this review was to establish a consensus for defining PMPS by identifying the various elements included in the definitions and how they vary across the literature, determining how these definitions affect the methodological components therein, and proposing a definition that appropriately encompasses all of the appropriate elements. We searched PubMed to retrieve all studies and case reports on PMPS, and we analyzed definitions of PMPS, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and methods of measuring PMPS. Twenty-three studies were included in this review. We identified 7 independent domains for defining PMPS: surgical breast procedure, neuropathic nature, pain of at least moderate intensity, protracted duration, frequent symptoms, appropriate location of the symptoms and exacerbation with movement. These domains were used with varying frequency. Inclusion/exclusion criteria and methods for assessing PMPS also varied markedly. To prevent future discrepancies in both the clinical and research settings, we propose a new and complete definition based on the results of our review: PMPS is pain that occurs after any breast surgery; is of at least moderate severity; possesses neuropathic qualities; is located in the ipsilateral breast/chest wall, axilla, and/or arm; lasts at least 6 months; occurs at least 50% of the time; and may be exacerbated by movements of the shoulder girdle.

  19. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  20. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. Evaluation of Whiteness in Linen and Semi-linen Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Liucina Kot; Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ; Audronė RAGAIŠIENĖ; Žaneta RUKUIŽIENĖ

    2015-01-01

    Whiteness of textiles is one of the main "white" product quality indicators described by the following parameters: lightness of a colour, colour tone (white shade), white uniformity and stability under the influence of physical factors. “White” textile products can be perceived by comparing them with a white standard (Pantone colour palette). On the other hand, the whiteness of the fabric can be estimated using the colorimeter and determining lightness of a fabric L. The purpose of a research...

  2. Proposed standardized definitions for vertical resolution and uncertainty in the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature algorithms - Part 3: Temperature uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; Sica, Robert J.; van Gijsel, Joanna A. E.; Haefele, Alexander; Payen, Guillaume; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    A standardized approach for the definition, propagation, and reporting of uncertainty in the temperature lidar data products contributing to the Network for the Detection for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) database is proposed. One important aspect of the proposed approach is the ability to propagate all independent uncertainty components in parallel through the data processing chain. The individual uncertainty components are then combined together at the very last stage of processing to form the temperature combined standard uncertainty. The identified uncertainty sources comprise major components such as signal detection, saturation correction, background noise extraction, temperature tie-on at the top of the profile, and absorption by ozone if working in the visible spectrum, as well as other components such as molecular extinction, the acceleration of gravity, and the molecular mass of air, whose magnitudes depend on the instrument, data processing algorithm, and altitude range of interest. The expression of the individual uncertainty components and their step-by-step propagation through the temperature data processing chain are thoroughly estimated, taking into account the effect of vertical filtering and the merging of multiple channels. All sources of uncertainty except detection noise imply correlated terms in the vertical dimension, which means that covariance terms must be taken into account when vertical filtering is applied and when temperature is integrated from the top of the profile. Quantitatively, the uncertainty budget is presented in a generic form (i.e., as a function of instrument performance and wavelength), so that any NDACC temperature lidar investigator can easily estimate the expected impact of individual uncertainty components in the case of their own instrument. Using this standardized approach, an example of uncertainty budget is provided for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawai'i, which is

  3. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  4. The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards. I. NLTE spectral analysis of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims: We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods: In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results: TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at and log g = 7.60 ± 0.05. We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions: The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope

  5. Suggested improvements to the definitions of Standardized Plant Analysis of Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) performance shaping factors, their levels and multipliers and the nominal tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laumann, Karin; Rasmussen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the definitions and content of eight performance shaping factors (PSFs) used in Standardized Plant Analysis of Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) and their levels and multipliers. Definitions of nominal tasks are also discussed. The discussion is based on a review of literature on PSFs, interviews with consultants who have carried out SPAR-H analysis in the petroleum industry and an evaluation of human reliability analysis reports based on SPAR-H analysis. We concluded that SPAR-H definitions and descriptions of the PSFs are unclear and overlap too much, making it difficult for the analyst to choose between them and select the appropriate level. This reduces inter-rater reliability and thus the consistency of SPAR-H analyses. New definitions of the PSFs, levels and multipliers are suggested with the aim to develop more specific definitions of the PSFs in order to increase the inter-rater reliability of SPAR-H. Another aim was to construct more varied and more nuanced levels and multipliers to improve the capacity of SPAR-H analysis to capture the degree of difficulty faced by operators in different scenarios. We also suggest that only one of two nominal SPAR-H tasks should be retained owing to the difficulty in distinguishing between them. - Highlights: • The SPAR-H guidelines should be revised. • Descriptions of the PSFs should be improved. • New definitions should reduce overlap between the PSFs. • The multipliers are based on an “old” method and should be revised. • Some PSF levels and multipliers in SPAR-H are not logical.

  6. Will the changes proposed to the conceptual framework’s definitions and recognition criteria provide a better basis for the IASB standard setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Naarding, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) efforts, in a discussion paper (DP) of 2013, to develop a new conceptual framework (CF) in the light of its stated ambition to establish a robust and consistent basis for future standard setting, thereby guiding standard

  7. Reliability of individual doses relating to the epidemiological studies on nuclear industry workers in Japan (1). Historical changes on definition of radiation dose, historical changes on technical standards of measurement and radiation workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakunai, Takao; Ishiguro, Hideharu; Kawada, Yasushi; Minami, Kentaro; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko.

    1997-01-01

    Records of radiation workers collected in the Research Organization for Information of Science and Technology, concerning individual doses from 1957 to 1992 were used for epidemiological studies for obtaining the scientific information of the effect of low dose radiation. Since many changes were made on definition of radiation dose, dosimetry technology and so on during such a long time period, reliability of recorded individual doses and of their measurement should be evaluated for validation, which is the purpose of this paper. Followings were discussed and validation was made. Historical changes on standards for radiation protection: ICRP Recommendation and ICRU Report, and changes of law concerning radiation dose in Japan and of dose standards. Changes on dosimetry for radiation protection: ICRP Recommendation and working place dosimetry, trends of investigations for introduction of measured practical doses, ICRU sphere as a receptor, and introduction of measured practical doses. Characteristics of radiation field and radiation exposure: Radiation source and characteristics of radiation field; Research and development organizations for atomic power, atomic power plants, facilities for nuclear fuel, Classification of radiation works and characteristics of the exposure; BWR, PWR, GCR. Changes on the standards of individual dosemeter and on its use: method to use individual dosemeter and its installation, measurement of individual dose and Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS); Standard of the film badge for X and gamma rays, Standard of the film badge for neutron, Standard for thermoluminescence dosemeter, and changes on selection of the major apparatus and on its use. (K.H.)

  8. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  9. Nuclear engineering terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The most important nuclear engineering's terms and definitions are given in this standard. The definitions take into account the Austrian Regulations for Radiation Protection, for and pertinent ISO and DIN-Standards as also the OENORM A7006 and OENORM A6601. (M.T.)

  10. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. ... and 12.75 ± 3.65% respectively. Mineral contents of white grub in terms of relative concentration .... of intracellular Ca, bone mineralization, blood coagulation, and plasma membrane potential ...

  11. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  12. Exposing Whiteness in Higher Education: White Male College Students Minimizing Racism, Claiming Victimization, and Recreating White Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan León

    2014-01-01

    This research critically examines racial views and experiences of 12 white men in a single higher education institution via semi-structured interviews. Participants tended to utilize individualized definitions of racism and experience high levels of racial segregation in both their pre-college and college environments. This corresponded to…

  13. Dual, use-based definition of "system"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gonçalves, DP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard definition (ISO 15288, 2008) of the concept of a system is not complete and is the definition of a closed system. Such a definition is inadequate for systems engineering. A use-based definition is proposed which spans the open...

  14. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  15. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  16. Cephalometric-radiographic study, in lateral norm, considering the established standards of white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusions and mal-occlusions of Class I and Class II, 1st Division and the ones from Ricketts' analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismarck, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, our purpose was make a cephalometric-radiographic study, comparing white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusion and the ones who presented malocclusions of Class I and Class II, according to RICKETT'S analysis (1960). (author) [pt

  17. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  18. Oral leukoplakia: the ongoing discussion on definition and terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades several definitions of oral leukoplakia have been proposed, the last one, being authorized by the World Health Organization (WHO), dating from 2005. In the present treatise an adjustment of that definition and the 1978 WHO definition is suggested, being : "A predominantly white

  19. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D.M.; Calancha, C.; Fujii, K.; Graf, N.; Haber, H.E.; Ishikawa, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawada, S.; Kurata, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Neal, H.; Ono, H.; Potter, C.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, J.; Tsumura, J.; Watanuki, S.; Weiglein, G.; Yagyu, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.

  20. Definitions of Frequency and Timing Terms, Satellite Navigation and Timing Systems, and the Behavior and Analyses of Precision Crystal and Atomic Frequency Standards and their Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    expected value of a measurement or property when operating in a normal expected environment. For example, the nominal value of a 51 ohm, 20% resistor ...operating at room temperature is 51 ohms. However, the actual resistance of any single 51 ohm, 20% resistor may be any value between 46 and 56...NIST Technical Note 1337, March 1990. 6. Piezo Crystal Company, (September 1990). Frequency Sources That Set the Standard. RCC Document 214-09

  1. What is modern standard Arabic NLP? Definition and tools (or how to understand Arabic even if you do not know a word)

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Morales, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been an increase of the interest on Modern Standard Arabic. There is where computational linguistics fits in. This paper analyses the intersection between Arabic and computational linguistics, focusing on text processing and the tools developed for this purpose. The fundamental functions of Arabic computational processing are: sentence segmentation, tokenization, morphosyntactic tagging, lemmatization, diacritization and base phrase chunking. After analysing e...

  2. The galactic population of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiwotzki, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial- mass- function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of Galactic structure. This model will be used to estimate the space densities of thin disc, thick disc and halo white dwarfs and their contribution to the baryonic mass budget of the Milky Way. One result of this investigation is that white dwarfs of the halo population contribute a large fraction of the Galactic white dwarf number count, but they are not responsible for the lion's share of stellar mass in the Milky Way. Another important result is the substantial contribution of the - often neglected - population of thick disc white dwarfs. Misclassification of thick disc white dwarfs is responsible for overestimates of the halo population in previous investigations.

  3. Lung recruitability is better estimated according to the Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome at standard 5 cm H2O rather than higher positive end-expiratory pressure: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caironi, Pietro; Carlesso, Eleonora; Cressoni, Massimo; Chiumello, Davide; Moerer, Onner; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Brioni, Matteo; Bottino, Nicola; Lazzerini, Marco; Bugedo, Guillermo; Quintel, Michael; Ranieri, V Marco; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome has introduced three classes of severity according to PaO2/FIO2 thresholds. The level of positive end-expiratory pressure applied may greatly affect PaO2/FIO2, thereby masking acute respiratory distress syndrome severity, which should reflect the underlying lung injury (lung edema and recruitability). We hypothesized that the assessment of acute respiratory distress syndrome severity at standardized low positive end-expiratory pressure may improve the association between the underlying lung injury, as detected by CT, and PaO2/FIO2-derived severity. Retrospective analysis. Four university hospitals (Italy, Germany, and Chile). One hundred forty-eight patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the American-European Consensus Conference criteria. Patients underwent a three-step ventilator protocol (at clinical, 5 cm H2O, or 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure). Whole-lung CT scans were obtained at 5 and 45 cm H2O airway pressure. Nine patients did not fulfill acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria of the novel Berlin definition. Patients were then classified according to PaO2/FIO2 assessed at clinical, 5 cm H2O, or 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure. At clinical positive end-expiratory pressure (11±3 cm H2O), patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome had a greater lung tissue weight and recruitability than patients with mild or moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (pBerlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome assessed at 5 cm H2O allows a better evaluation of lung recruitability and edema than at higher positive end-expiratory pressure clinically set.

  4. Standard software for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the U.S. Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories have jointly specified standard software for use with CAMAC. Three general approaches were followed: the definition of a language called IML for use in CAMAC systems, the definition of a standard set of subroutine calls, and real-time extensions to the BASIC language. This paper summarizes the results of these efforts. 1 table

  5. 48 CFR 9904.410-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.410-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.408-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.404-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.405-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.406-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.402-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.401-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.409-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.409-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.409-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.407-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.403-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.403-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms...

  15. Assessment of the accuracy and consistency in the application of standardized surveillance definitions: A summary of the American Journal of Infection Control and National Healthcare Safety Network case studies, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marc-Oliver; Allen-Bridson, Katherine; Hebden, Joan N

    2017-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definitions are the most widely used criteria for health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance. NHSN participants agree to conduct surveillance in accordance with the NHSN protocol and criteria. To assess the application of these standardized surveillance specifications and offer infection preventionists (IPs) opportunities for ongoing education, a series of case studies, with questions related to NHSN definitions and criteria were published. Beginning in 2010, case studies with multiple-choice questions based on standard surveillance criteria and protocols were written and published in the American Journal of Infection Control with a link to an online survey. Participants anonymously submitted their responses before receiving the correct answers. The 22 case studies had 7,950 respondents who provided 27,790 responses to 75 questions during the first 6 years. Correct responses were selected 62.5% of the time (17,376 out of 27,290), but ranged widely (16%-87%). In a subset analysis, 93% of participants self-identified as IPs (3,387 out of 3,640), 4.5% were public health professionals (163 out of 3,640), and 2.5% were physicians (90 out of 3,640). IPs responded correctly (62%) more often than physicians (55%) (P = .006). Among a cohort of voluntary participants, accurate application of surveillance criteria to case studies was suboptimal, highlighting the need for continuing education, competency development, and auditing. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aiming for a holistic integrated service for men diagnosed with prostate cancer - Definitions of standards and skill sets for nurses and allied healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Alastair D; Thompson, Sue; Kinsella, Netty; Gerbitz, Ingmar; Chapman, Elaine; Putt, Lisa; Bennett, Sophie; Thankappannair, Vineetha; Geoghegan, Lisa; Wright, Naomi; Stirton-Croft, Alison; Nixon, Penny; Styling, Andrew; Whitney, Diane; Hodgson, Lindsay; Punt, Lisa; Longmore, Jenny; Carter, Mike; Petch, Bill; Rimmer, Yvonne; Russell, Simon; Hughes-Davies, Luke; Mazhar, Danish; Shah, Nimish C; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J; Doble, Andrew; Bratt, Ola; Kastner, Christof

    2017-08-01

    To establish a comprehensive set of recommendations for the service structure and skill set of nurses and allied healthcare professionals in prostate cancer care. Using components of formal consensus methodology, a 30-member multidisciplinary panel produced 53 items for discussion relating to the provision of care for prostate cancer patients by specialist nurses and allied healthcare professionals. Items were developed by two rounds of email correspondence in which, first, items were generated and, second, items refined to form the basis of a consensus meeting which constituted the third round of review. The fourth and final round was an email review of the consensus output. The panel agreed on 33 items that were appropriate for recommendations to be made. These items were grouped under categories of "Environment" and "Patient Pathway" and included comments on training, leadership, communication and quality assessment as well as specific items related to prostate diagnosis clinics, radical treatment clinics and follow-up survivor groups. Specialist nurses and allied healthcare professionals play a vital role alongside urologists and oncologists to provide care to men with prostate cancer and their families. We present a set of standards and consensus recommendations for the roles and skill-set required for these practitioners to provide gold-standard prostate cancer care. These recommendations could form the basis for development of comprehensive integrated prostate cancer pathways in prostate cancer centres as well as providing guidance for any units treating men with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Radiation protection. Terms and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    An alphabetical list in German is given of all terms and definitions important to radiation protection under consideration of all Austrian laws concerning this subject scope as also pertinent standards of ISO, DIN and OENORM.

  18. 40 CFR 421.251 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Precious Metals and Mercury Subcategory § 421.251 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart the general...

  19. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  20. LD Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The position paper (1981) of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities presents a revised definition of learning disabilities and identifies issues and concerns (such as the limitation to children and the exclusion clause) associated with the definition included in P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (DB)

  1. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  2. Public relations: a re-examination of definition, role, and function based on community relations of the Standard Oil (Indiana) refinery at Sugar Creek, MO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruckeberg, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study describes public relations as it is commonly practiced today as: a vocation utilizing persuasive communication to obtain a vested nonmarketing goal on behalf of a represented client. It argues that public relation is better defined and practiced as: the active attempt to restore/maintain a sense of community. To illustrate what this dissertation advocates, a case study is used. Probably no organization had designed a community relations program with the specific and express purpose of fostering a sense of community, at least to the extent this dissertation calls for. However, the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) refinery at Sugar Creek, MO, has done this sufficiently to merit study. Based on the findings of the case study, which covers a 75-year period of time, specific recommendations are made in practicing public relations as advocated in this dissertation: the active attempt to restore/maintain a sense of community. The theoretical basis comes from the writings of the Chicago School of Social Thought. It is demonstrated that the Chicago School can provide an excellent theoretical basis to provide insight into public relations practice from a perspective that eliminates the problems that now exist in the role and function of public relations.

  3. Definition of a Standard Protocol to Determine the Growth Potential of Listeria Monotgenes and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Pork Sausage Produced in Abruzzo Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandii, Anna Franca; Neri, Diana; Romantini, Romina; Santarelli, Gino Angelo; Prencipe, Vincenza

    2015-11-02

    Pork meat products consumed raw or after a short period of fermentation can be considered at risk for food safety. Sausages (fresh sausage made from pork meat) are produced in several Italian regions, with variation in ingredients. In some Italian Regions, including Abruzzo, these products are frequently consumed raw or undercooked, after a variable period of fermentation. The European Community food regulation promotes the use of challenge tests to determine safety levels. This study is aimed to ensure safety of Abruzzo's sausages, compared with growth potential (δ) of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica , and also aims to define an experimental standard protocol document to carry out challenge tests. Guidelines classify ready-to-eat foods in categories that are able to support (δ>0.5 log 10 ufc/g) and not support (δ≤0.5 log 10 ufc/g) the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The products were manufactured according to traditional recipes and were contaminated in laboratory. Results from the experiment yielded information useful to assess the ability of these products to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The batches of sausages were stored at 8, 12, 18 and 20°C to get statistical evaluation. The results showed that, despite the conditioning of the storage temperature and the level of water activity, both organisms remain in the product in concentrations similar to those leading or being able to increase its charge. In particular, the period of greatest consumption of this product (7/8 days of preparation) corresponds to the period of greatest growth of pathogenic microorganisms studied, except for those stored at a temperature of 8°C, which are safer for the consumer.

  4. 40 CFR 51.1000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 51.1000 Section 51.1000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1000 Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this...

  5. Environmental radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs

  6. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  7. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  8. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  9. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV 4 , with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV 4 , which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others

  10. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  11. Scope Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items...... making up a scope definition are elaborately explained: (1) Deliverables. (2) Object of assessment, (3) LCI modelling framework and handling of multifunctional processes, (4) System boundaries and completeness requirements, (5) Representativeness of LCI data, (6) Preparing the basis for the impact...... assessment, (7) Special requirements for system comparisons, (8) Critical review needs and (9) Planning reporting of results. The instructions relate both to the performance and reporting of a scope definition and are largely based on ILCD....

  12. 7 CFR 8.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 8.3 Section 8.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.3 Definitions. 4-H Club Name and Emblem as used in this part means the emblem consisting of a green four-leaf clover with stem and the letter “H” in white...

  13. Evaluation of Whiteness in Linen and Semi-linen Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liucina Kot

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whiteness of textiles is one of the main "white" product quality indicators described by the following parameters: lightness of a colour, colour tone (white shade, white uniformity and stability under the influence of physical factors. “White” textile products can be perceived by comparing them with a white standard (Pantone colour palette. On the other hand, the whiteness of the fabric can be estimated using the colorimeter and determining lightness of a fabric L. The purpose of a research is to assess the whiteness of a linen and semi-linen fabric using two different methods, to carry out a comparative analysis of the results and to associate fabric whiteness with the fabric structure parameters. Two methods were used for experiment (colorimeter Spectraflash SF450X and expert assessment of whiteness. The analysed colours of a fabric were divided into five colours: white, whitish, light grey, grey and dark grey. The examination of the two methods, different results were obtained: testing with colorimeter, white colour was found in only one fabric, while the experts found the fabrics of white colour much more. The opinions of experts vary also. Fabric lightness L was associated with fabric structure parameters – the warp and weft settings and fabric weave. It was found that these fabric structure parameters affect the lightness of a colour of a fabric L very little.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5348

  14. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  15. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  16. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  17. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  18. Case definition and classification of leukodystrophies and leukoencephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderver, Adeline; Prust, Morgan; Tonduti, Davide; Mochel, Fanny; Hussey, Heather M.; Helman, Guy; Garbern, James; Eichler, Florian; Labauge, Pierre; Aubourg, Patrick; Rodriguez, Diana; Patterson, Marc C.; van Hove, Johan L. K.; Schmidt, Johanna; Wolf, Nicole I.; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Schiffmann, Raphael; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2015-01-01

    An approved definition of the term leukodystrophy does not currently exist. The lack of a precise case definition hampers efforts to study the epidemiology and the relevance of genetic white matter disorders to public health. Thirteen experts at multiple institutions participated in iterative

  19. Case definition and classification of leukodystrophies and leukoencephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderver, A.; Prust, M.; Tonduti, D.; Mochel, F.; Hussey, H.M.; Helman, G.; Garbern, J.; Eichler, F.; Labauge, P.; Aubourg, P.; Rodriguez, D.; Patterson, M.C.; van Hove, J.LK.; Schmidt, J; Wolf, N.I.; Boespflug-Tanguy, O.; Schiffmann, R.; van der Knaap, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An approved definition of the term leukodystrophy does not currently exist. The lack of a precise case definition hampers efforts to study the epidemiology and the relevance of genetic white matter disorders to public health. Method: Thirteen experts at multiple institutions participated

  20. E.B. White: Aspects of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses the writing style of a famous author of children's books, concluding that E.B. White's informal tone uses anaphora, simple sentences, doubling and redundancy, and mixes colloquial with standard English. Provides examples of his style, from 10 years old to maturity. (NKA)

  1. Definitions of night eating in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, D; Franko, DL; Barton, B; Affenito, S; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of night eating in a community cohort of black and white girls, using different definitions of night eating as described in the literature. Research Methods and Procedures: Three-day food diaries collected as part of the National Growth and Health Study were

  2. 21 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Food and Drugs FOOD... gloss white means a suspension in water of co-precipitated aluminum hydroxide and barium sulfate. (j... interpretations of terms contained in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall be applicable...

  3. Reviewing the definition of crisis in dementia care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacNeil-Vroomen, J.L.; Bosmans, J.E.; van Hout, H.P.J.; de Rooij, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Crisis is a term frequently used in dementia care lacking a standardized definition. This article systematically reviews existing definitions of crisis in dementia care literature to create a standardized definition that can be utilized for research, policy and clinical practice.

  4. Reviewing the definition of crisis in dementia care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, Janet MacNeil; Bosmans, Judith E.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Crisis is a term frequently used in dementia care lacking a standardized definition. This article systematically reviews existing definitions of crisis in dementia care literature to create a standardized definition that can be utilized for research, policy and clinical practice. We systematically

  5. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  6. ON THE EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, P.-E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C. P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Freytag, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy at Uppsala University, Regementsvägen 1, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Steiner, O. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Ludwig, H.-G. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Steffen, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Wedemeyer, S., E-mail: tremblay@stsci.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-10-10

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-β parameter, the thermal-to-magnetic-pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1–50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1–1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B ≳ 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (T{sub eff}) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection due to the convective coupling between the outer layers and the degenerate reservoir of thermal energy. Since no magnetic white dwarfs are currently known at the low temperatures where this coupling significantly changes the evolution, the effects of magnetism on cooling rates are not expected to be observed. This result contrasts with a recent suggestion that magnetic white dwarfs with T{sub eff} ≲ 10,000 K cool significantly slower than non-magnetic degenerates.

  7. ESCO White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  8. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  9. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  10. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  11. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  12. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  13. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  14. White Noise Assumptions Revisited : Regression Models and Statistical Designs for Simulation Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Classic linear regression models and their concomitant statistical designs assume a univariate response and white noise.By definition, white noise is normally, independently, and identically distributed with zero mean.This survey tries to answer the following questions: (i) How realistic are these

  15. White-black and white-Hispanic differences on fluid and crystallized abilities by age across the 11- to 94-year range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J C; McLean, J E; Kaufman, A S; Kaufman, N L

    1994-12-01

    Standardization data for the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were used to examine white-black and white-Hispanic differences on the Horn-Cattell crystallized and fluid constructs at several age groups across the broad 11- to 94-year span. Samples included 1,547 white, 241 black, and 140 Hispanic persons. Multivariate analyses with educational attainment covaried yielded only one significant finding: the white-black difference on the Crystallized Famous Faces subtest became smaller with increasing age.

  16. Universal definition of perioperative bleeding in adult cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Cornelius; Aronson, Solomon; Dietrich, Wulf; Hofmann, Axel; Karkouti, Keyvan; Levi, Marcel; Murphy, Gavin J.; Sellke, Frank W.; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; von Heymann, Christian; Ranucci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative bleeding is common among patients undergoing cardiac surgery; however, the definition of perioperative bleeding is variable and lacks standardization. We propose a universal definition for perioperative bleeding (UDPB) in adult cardiac surgery in an attempt to precisely describe and

  17. White space communication advances, developments and engineering challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a collection of major developments leading toward the implementation of white space technology - an emerging wireless standard for using wireless spectrum in locations where it is unused by licensed users. Some of the key research areas in the field are covered. These include emerging standards, technical insights from early pilots and simulations, software defined radio platforms, geo-location spectrum databases and current white space spectrum usage in India and South Africa.

  18. Renormalized powers of quantum white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accardi, L.; Boukas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Giving meaning to the powers of the creation and annihilation densities (quantum white noise) is an old and important problem in quantum field theory. In this paper we present an account of some new ideas that have recently emerged in the attempt to solve this problem. We emphasize the connection between the Lie algebra of the renormalized higher powers of quantum white noise (RHPWN), which can be interpreted as a suitably deformed (due to renormalization) current algebra over the 1-mode full oscillator algebra, and the current algebra over the centerless Virasoro (or Witt)-Zamolodchikov-ω ∞ Lie algebras of conformal field theory. Through a suitable definition of the action on the vacuum vector we describe how to obtain a Fock representation of all these algebras. We prove that the restriction of the vacuum to the abelian subalgebra generated by the field operators gives an infinitely divisible process whose marginal distribution is the beta (or continuous binomial). (authors)

  19. Standardized terminology in electronic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallas, R.

    1985-01-01

    The correct definitions of the most usual terms on standardization and homologation are given. Then the factors concerning the safety of electrical equipments are reviewed, as they are considered in most of the present legislations. Last, the state of homologations in Spain and Europe is included. (author)

  20. Calibration of Flick standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmann, Ruedi; Spiller, Jürg; Küng, Alain; Jusko, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Flick standards or magnification standards are widely used for an efficient and functional calibration of the sensitivity of form measuring instruments. The results of a recent measurement comparison have shown to be partially unsatisfactory and revealed problems related to the calibration of these standards. In this paper the influence factors for the calibration of Flick standards using roundness measurement instruments are discussed in detail, in particular the bandwidth of the measurement chain, residual form errors of the device under test, profile distortions due to the diameter of the probing element and questions related to the definition of the measurand. The different contributions are estimated using simulations and are experimentally verified. Also alternative methods to calibrate Flick standards are investigated. Finally the practical limitations of Flick standard calibration are shown and the usability of Flick standards both to calibrate the sensitivity of roundness instruments and to check the filter function of such instruments is analysed. (paper)

  1. Can adaptive threshold-based metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and lean body mass corrected standard uptake value (SUL) predict prognosis in head and neck cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagunduz, Ozlem Ozkaya; Savas, Recep; Yalman, Deniz; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Esassolak, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of adaptive threshold-based metabolic tumor volume (MTV), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and maximum lean body mass corrected SUV (SULmax) measured on pretreatment positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in head and neck cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy. Pretreatment PET/CT of the 62 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer who were treated consecutively between May 2010 and February 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The maximum FDG uptake of the primary tumor was defined according to SUVmax and SULmax. Multiple threshold levels between 60% and 10% of the SUVmax and SULmax were tested with intervals of 5% to 10% in order to define the most suitable threshold value for the metabolic activity of each patient's tumor (adaptive threshold). MTV was calculated according to this value. We evaluated the relationship of mean values of MTV, SUVmax and SULmax with treatment response, local recurrence, distant metastasis and disease-related death. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was done to obtain optimal predictive cut-off values for MTV and SULmax which were found to have a predictive value. Local recurrence-free (LRFS), disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined according to these cut-offs. Forty six patients had complete response, 15 had partial response, and 1 had stable disease 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. Median follow-up of the entire cohort was 18 months. Of 46 complete responders 10 had local recurrence, and of 16 partial or no responders 10 had local progression. Eighteen patients died. Adaptive threshold-based MTV had significant predictive value for treatment response (p=0.011), local recurrence/progression (p=0.050), and disease-related death (p=0.024). SULmax had a predictive value for local recurrence/progression (p=0.030). ROC curves analysis revealed a cut-off value of 14.00 mL for

  2. 7 CFR 51.2339 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Kiwifruit § 51.2339 Definitions. Similar varietal characteristics means the fruit in...

  3. 40 CFR 63.361 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.362 is required to be in compliance with the standard. Deviation means any instance in which an... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 63.361 Section 63.361... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Ethylene Oxide Emissions Standards...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 1910.21 Section 1910.21 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.21 Definitions. (a) As used in § 1910... ladder. A through ladder is one from which a man getting off at the top must step through the ladder in...

  5. 40 CFR 406.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.21 Section 406.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.21 Specialized definitions...

  6. 40 CFR 406.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.11 Section 406.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.11 Specialized definitions...

  7. 40 CFR 406.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.51 Section 406.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.51 Specialized definitions...

  8. 40 CFR 191.02 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Management and Storage § 191.02 Definitions. Unless... process associated with the management and storage of spent nuclear fuel or radioactive waste is conducted... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 191.02 Section 191.02...

  9. 12 CFR 930.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract means a derivative contract that transfers credit risk. Credit risk means the risk that the market... Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL REGULATIONS § 930.1 Definitions. As used in this...

  10. 29 CFR 575.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 575.2 Section 575.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR... § 575.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended...

  11. 16 CFR 1031.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.10 Definitions. For... employees may be authorized, the following definitions apply: (a) Membership. Membership is the status of an...

  12. 40 CFR 264.1031 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used to separate a mixture of several volatile components of different boiling points in successive... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 264.1031 Section 264.1031... Standards for Process Vents § 264.1031 Definitions. As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein...

  13. 48 CFR 1830.7002-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION Facilities Capital Employed for Facilities in Use and For Facilities Under Construction 1830.7002-1 Definitions. (a) Cost of money rate is... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 1830.7002-1...

  14. 48 CFR 30.001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 30.001 Section 30.001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION 30.001 Definitions. As used in this part— Affected CAS...

  15. 48 CFR 430.070 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 430.070 Section 430.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION 430.070 Definitions. ACO, as used in this part and in FAR...

  16. 29 CFR 1450.20 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards jointly published by the Justice Department and the General Accounting... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 1450.20 Section 1450.20 Labor Regulations... UNITED STATES Salary Offset § 1450.20 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart— Agency means the Federal...

  17. 5 CFR 179.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 179.302 Section 179.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.302 Definitions. Administrative offset, as defined in 31 U.S.C. 3701(a)(1), means...

  18. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  19. 45 CFR 170.402 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.402 Definitions. For...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2560 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2560 Definitions. (a) Well dried means the kernel is... than pistachio kernels. No allowable tolerances for metal or glass. (d) Whole kernel means 3/4 of a...

  1. Quality assurance terms and definitions - approved 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Standards for certain terms and their definitions that are important to the uniform understanding of the intent of required quality assurance practices for the construction of nuclear power plants are presented

  2. 40 CFR 405.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.81 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Except...

  3. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  4. High Definition Colonoscopy Combined with i-SCAN Imaging Technology Is Superior in the Detection of Adenomas and Advanced Lesions Compared to High Definition Colonoscopy Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Erik A; Pfau, Patrick R; Mitra, Arnab; Reichelderfer, Mark; Gopal, Deepak V; Hall, Benjamin S; Benson, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Background. Improved detection of adenomatous polyps using i-SCAN has mixed results in small studies. Utility of i-SCAN as a primary surveillance modality for colorectal cancer screening during colonoscopy is uncertain. Aim. Comparing high definition white light endoscopy (HDWLE) to i-SCAN in their ability to detect adenomas during colonoscopy. Methods. Prospective cohort study of 1936 average risk patients who had a screening colonoscopy at an ambulatory procedure center. Patients underwent colonoscopy with high definition white light endoscopy withdrawal versus i-SCAN withdrawal during endoscopic screening exam. Primary outcome measurement was adenoma detection rate for i-SCAN versus high definition white light endoscopy. Secondary measurements included polyp size, pathology, and morphology. Results. 1007 patients underwent colonoscopy with i-SCAN and 929 with HDWLE. 618 adenomas were detected in the i-SCAN group compared to 402 in the HDWLE group (p definition white light endoscopy.

  5. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  6. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  7. P3a from white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David W; Yee, Ryan B; Polich, John

    2012-08-01

    P3a and P3b event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited with an auditory three-stimulus (target, distracter, and standard) discrimination task in which subjects responded only to the target. Distracter stimuli consisted of white noise or novel sounds with stimulus characteristics perceptually matched. Target/standard discrimination difficulty was manipulated by varying target/standard pitch differences to produce relatively easy, medium, and hard tasks. Error rate and response time increased with increases in task difficulty. P3a was larger for the white noise compared to novel sounds, maximum over the central/parietal recording sites, and did not differ in size across difficulty levels. P3b was unaffected by distracter type, decreased as task difficulty increased, and maximum over the parietal recording sites. The findings indicate that P3a from white noise is robust and should be useful for applied studies as it removes stimulus novelty variability. Theoretical perspectives are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear technology terms and definitions. Radiation protection. Draft. Kerntechnik. Begriffe. Strahlenschutz. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The terms and definitions in this standard are part of the catalogue of definitions 'Nuclear technology, terms and definitions', in eight parts; they are the latest version of the standards and draft standards of DIN 25 401, part 10 to 19, published at irregular intervals until now. (orig.).

  9. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  11. 46 CFR Appendix B to Part 154 - Stress Analyses Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stress Analyses Definitions B Appendix B to Part 154...—Stress Analyses Definitions The following are the standard definitions of stresses for the analysis of an independent tank type B: Normal stress means the component of stress normal to the plane of reference...

  12. 40 CFR 92.102 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the number of carbon atoms in a molecule of that compound. Precision means the standard deviation of... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 92.102... Definitions and abbreviations. The definitions and abbreviations of subpart A of this part apply to this...

  13. NASA Technology Readiness Level Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will cover the basic Technology Readiness Level (TRL) definitions used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and their specific wording. We will discuss how they are used in the NASA Project Life Cycle and their effectiveness in practice. We'll also discuss the recent efforts by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to develop a broadly acceptable set of TRL definitions for the international space community and some of the issues brought to light. This information will provide input for further discussion of the use of the TRL scale in manufacturing.

  14. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  15. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  16. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  17. White in architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hašič, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, human beings are continuously in contact with colours and shapes. Some people are well aware of and understand their influence, while others are not aware or do not pay attention. Our feelings are often associated with certain colours. We tend to paint our living environment in mood-enhancing shades and cover ourselves with our favourite colours and materials. The colour that attracts my emotions is white, therefore I set out to dedicate my research to its nature and to find ...

  18. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙, any planets within about 1 − 5 AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ∼ 2 AU for a 1  M⊙ progenitor and ∼ 10 AU for a 5 M⊙ progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  19. A note on the definition and the development of cerebellar purkinje cell zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Voogd (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe definition of Purkinje cell zones by their white matter comprtments, their physiological properties, and their molecular identity and the birthdate of their Purkinje cells will be reviewed.

  20. A Note on the Definition and the Development of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Voogd, J.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe definition of Purkinje cell zones by their white matter comprtments, their physiological properties, and their molecular identity and the birthdate of their Purkinje cells will be reviewed.

  1. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmina Halis,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were first inoculated with each fungus separately using corn steep liquor as a fungal growth promoter. The kenaf chips were inoculated with white rot fungus for a period of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, after which they were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Chemical analyses were conducted following TAPPI Standard Methods and Fourier Transmission Infra Red (FTIR. SEM observations showed evidence of fungal colonization. When calculating weight loss, both P. sanguineus and O. latemarginatus FRIM 31 showed the greatest reduction. Amounts by mass of cellulose, hemicelluloses, extractives, and lignin in the treated kenaf chips all were lowered. The results show that O. latemarginatus FRIM 31 had a greater ability to degrade lignin when compared to P. sanguineus.

  2. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  3. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Milan S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf and pre-white dwarfs are the best types of stars for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, since in the atmospheres of these stars physical conditions are very favorable for this line broadening mechanism - in hot hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs Teff = 75 000–180 000 K and log g = 5.5–8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with the typical effective temperatures 10 000-20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered, and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/, containing the parameters needed for analysis and synthesis of white dwarf spectra, as well as for the collective efforts to develop the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  4. Standard English and Language Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    ソランキ, ネイディン

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudes and opinions surrounding Standard English (SE) within the United Kingdom. The definition of SE, for the purposes of this study, is standard grammar and standard pronunciation of southern English, commonly referred to as 'BBC English'. The subject of SE and attitudes towards different accents and dialects of British English is emotive and attracts strong opinions. The main issues discussed here are the place of language in society, the social implications ...

  5. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase 2® is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread. Methods An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests to the white bread control. Results For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023 Conclusion Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345

  6. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Singh, Betsy B; Barrett, Marilyn L; Preuss, Harry G

    2009-10-28

    Phase 2((R)) is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI) of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread). An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests) to the white bread control. For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023) Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345.

  7. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  8. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent or...

  9. 10 CFR 435.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Residential Buildings § 435.302 Definitions. (a) ANSI... energy consumption and energy costs of a residential building for a particular location, building type...

  10. 7 CFR 28.901 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Definitions § 28.901.... 471-476), unless otherwise noted. (b) Service means the Agricultural Marketing Service of the United...

  11. 16 CFR 1203.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.4 Definitions. (a) Basic plane means an anatomical plane... bottom edges of the eye sockets). The ISO headforms are marked with a plane corresponding to this basic...

  12. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velden, D.P.; Mansvelt, E.P.G.; Troup, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  13. Collapse models with non-white noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L; Bassi, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    We set up a general formalism for models of spontaneous wavefunction collapse with dynamics represented by a stochastic differential equation driven by general Gaussian noises, not necessarily white in time. In particular, we show that the non-Schroedinger terms of the equation induce the collapse of the wavefunction to one of the common eigenstates of the collapsing operators, and that the collapse occurs with the correct quantum probabilities. We also develop a perturbation expansion of the solution of the equation with respect to the parameter which sets the strength of the collapse process; such an approximation allows one to compute the leading-order terms for the deviations of the predictions of collapse models with respect to those of standard quantum mechanics. This analysis shows that to leading order, the 'imaginary noise' trick can be used for non-white Gaussian noise

  14. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  15. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  16. White dwarfs and revelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Lopes, Ilidio

    2018-05-01

    We use the most recent, complete and independent measurements of masses and radii of white dwarfs in binaries to bound the class of non-trivial modified gravity theories, viable after GW170817/GRB170817, using its effect on the mass-radius relation of the stars. We show that the uncertainty in the latest data is sufficiently small that residual evolutionary effects, most notably the effect of core composition, finite temperature and envelope structure, must now accounted for if correct conclusions about the nature of gravity are to be made. We model corrections resulting from finite temperature and envelopes to a base Hamada-Salpeter cold equation of state and derive consistent bounds on the possible modifications of gravity in the stars' interiors, finding that the parameter quantifying the strength of the modification Y< 0.14 at 95% confidence, an improvement of a factor of three with respect to previous bounds. Finally, our analysis reveals some fundamental degeneracies between the theory of gravity and the precise chemical makeup of white dwarfs.

  17. White piedra in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Sekaran, Anand; Antaya, Richard J; Davis, Amy; Imaeda, Suguru; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2006-12-01

    White piedra is a fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by species of Trichosporon. Rarely has this infection been reported in the United States. Historically, infected individuals required shaving of their hair to achieve clearance of the infection. We sought to describe 8 cases of Trichosporon scalp infections seen in the northeastern United States. We conducted chart review and prospective evaluation of 7 girls and 1 boy seen in two dermatology practices in New Haven, Conn, and New York, NY. Seven girls, ages 4 to 16 years old, and one 4-year-old boy were determined to have Trichosporon scalp infection, all through culture. Of the 8 children who were available for follow-up, 7 had clearance of their infection with a combination of oral azole antifungal medication and azole antifungal shampoo, without shaving the scalp hair. This was a sample of patients from a localized region of the United States. White piedra is emerging as a commonly seen hair and scalp infection in the northeastern United States. Contrary to prior publications, scalp and hair infection may be successfully treated with a combination of oral azole antifungals and shampoos without shaving the scalp.

  18. Consciousness: function and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, E

    1994-07-01

    The term "consciousness" plays an enormous role in the clinical assessment of patients and also in psychophysiological considerations. It has often been said that consciousness is a term that defies definition. This lack of definability, however, might be more apparent than real. In the multitude of facets, three main components can be singled out: a) vigilance, b) mental contents and c) selective attention. Vigilance, not to be equated with consciousness, is most amenable to electrophysiological studies. The stages of sleep have fairly well standardized EEG correlates, unlike the comatose states. The overflowing wealth of mental contents is constantly adjusted to momentary needs by the mechanism of selective attention. Awareness is a subcomponent and differs from both vigilance and consciousness. Emotionality is particularly important among the variety of further subcomponents. The time factor must be taken into account in order to understand the dynamics and fluctuations of consciousness.

  19. Pulsations in white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Van Grootel, Valérie; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    I will present a description of the six distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs that are currently known. Pulsations are present at various stages of the evolution (from hot, pre-white dwarfs to cool white dwarfs), at various stellar masses, and for various atmospheric compositions. In all of them, a mechanism linked to opacity changes along the evolution drives the oscillations. The existence of these oscillations offers the opportunity to apply asteroseismology for constraining physics ...

  20. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research.

  1. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  2. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  3. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  4. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  5. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  6. 78 FR 45096 - Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Related to Terms, Definition and 24 Acronyms 6. Commission Proposal 24 D. Implementation 24 III. Notice of... between the two markets \\5\\ and re-organized and revised definitions to create a standard set of terms, definitions and acronyms applicable to all NAESB WEQ standards.\\6\\ NAESB states that the Version 003 Standards...

  7. Definition of terms for practical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickett, F.R.; Kaplan, S.B.; Powell, R.L.; Radebaugh, R.; Clark, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    The definitions of terms used in describing the phenomenology and measurement practices of practical superconductive materials are proposed. The definitions cover the subject categories of: 1, fundamental states and flux phenomena, 2, critical parameters, 3, fabrication, stabilization, and transient losses, and 4, Josephson phenomena. It is intended that these terms will become the basis for development of standard measurement practices and responses are invited. (author)

  8. Definitions of terms for practical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, D.T.; Ekin, J.W.; Powell, R.L.; Clark, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    The definitions of terms used in describing the phenomenology and measurement practices of practical superconductive materials are proposed. The definitions cover the subject categories of: (1) fundamental states and flux phenomena; (2) critical parameters; (3) fabrication, stabilization, and transient losses; and (4) Josephson phenomena. It is intended that these terms will become the basis for the development of standard measurement practices and responses are invited. (author)

  9. Definitions of terms for practical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.; Clark, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The definitions of terms used in describing the phenomenology and measurement practices of practical superconductive materials are proposed. The definitions cover the subject categories of: (1) fundamental states and flux phenomena, (2) critical parameters, (3) fabrication, stabilization, and transient losses, and (4) Josephson phenomena. It is intended that these terms become the basis for the development of standard measurement practices and responses are invited. (author)

  10. Study on the sterilization of egg white powder by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan; Xu Dechun; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong; Pei Ying

    2011-01-01

    The article studied the killing microorganism result, the influence of main essential nutrient and sense organ of egg white powder by Co-60 γ-ray irradiation. The microorganism index of the egg white powder samples can meet the government food 1 sanitation standard by 4 kGy irradiation, and the killing microorganism rare can reach 100%. The irradiation dose from 4 to 10 kGy has little influence to the egg white powder protein, crude fiber and amino acids contrasting to comparison, and the sensory quality such as color and luster, scent has little change below 6 kGy irradiation. Compositing the result of physical chemistry and sense organ, the optimal irradiation dose of egg white powder killing microorganism is 4 to 6 kGy. (authors)

  11. Study on the sterilization of egg white powder by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan; Xu Dechun; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong; Wang Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    The sterilizing effect, influence on main essential nutrient and sensory qualities of egg white powder treated with 60 Co γ-ray irradiation were studied. The microorganism index of egg white powder samples treated with 4 kGy irradiation could meet the government food sanitation standard, and the sterilization rate could reach 100%. The irradiation doses from 4 to 10 kGy had little influence on egg white powder protein, crude fiber and amino acidscontent, and the sensory quality such as color, luster, and scent changed little below 6 kGy irradiation. Considering the result of this study, the optimal irradiation dose for egg white powder sterilization was 4 to 6 kGy. (authors)

  12. Study on the sterilization of egg white powder by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan; Xu Dechun; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong; Pei Ying

    2012-01-01

    The article studied the killing microorganism result, the influence of main essential nutrient and sense organ of egg white powder by Co-60 γ-ray irradiation. The microorganism index of the egg white powder samples can meet the government food sanitation standard by 4 kGy irradiation, and the killing microorganism rare can reach 100%. The irradiation dose from 4 to 10 kGy has little influence to the egg white powder protein, crude fiber and amino acids contras ting to comparison, and the sensory quality such as color and luster, scent has little change below 6 kGy irradiation. Synthesizing the results of physical chemistry and sense organ, the optimal irradiation dose of egg white powder killing microorganism is 4 to 6 kGy. (authors)

  13. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  14. Study of white noise; Hakushoku zatsuon ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, R; Tada, R [Teikoku Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A study was made on conditions available for white noise belonging to a finite power function with the use of a power spectrum conception. It was defined that a real variable function with a finite waveform energy was a finite energy function while that with a finite waveform power was a finite power function. A noncorrelative white noise was defined as a real variable function in which an autocorrelation function took a specific value at a certain point; however, the autocorrelation function was different between the finite energy function and the finite power function. In other words, the definition of white noise was such that `an energy spectrum was a fixed value` in the finite energy function, and that `a power spectrum was a fixed value` in the finite power function. It was pointed out, by Matsuyama (1994) with the use of the energy spectrum conception, that the white noise belonging to the finite energy function took only the form of `an arbitrary impulse function that all turned to zero except a certain point`. The same conclusion was obtained with respect to the white noise belonging to the finite power function. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  15. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  16. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--Berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  17. Optical appearance of white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  18. High definition endoscopy with or without I-Scan increases the detection of celiac disease during routine endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Hugo A; Mooney, Peter D; Burden, Mitchell; Patel, Nisha; Johnston, Alexander J; Wong, Simon H; Teare, Julian; Sanders, David S

    2016-06-01

    Celiac disease remains underdiagnosed at endoscopy. We aimed to assess the utility of I-Scan (virtual chromo-endoscopy) to improve sensitivity of endoscopy to detect markers of villous atrophy in this condition. Patients from 2 UK hospitals were studied in 3 groups. Group 1: standard high definition, white light endoscopy (WLE); Group 2: WLE plus I-Scan; Group 3: non-high definition control group. The presence of endoscopic markers was recorded. At least 4 duodenal biopsies were taken from all patients. Serology was performed concurrently and observations were compared with histology. 758 patients (62% female, mean age 52) were recruited (Group 1: 230; Group 2: 228; Group 3: 300). 135 (17.8%) new diagnoses of coeliac disease were made (21 Group 1; 24 Group 2; 89 Group 3). The sensitivity for detection of endoscopic markers of villous atrophy was significantly higher in both Group 1 (85.7%, p=0.0004) and Group 2 (75%, p=0.005) compared to non-high definition controls (41.6%). There was no significant difference between high definition only and I-Scan groups (p=0.47). In non-high definition endoscopy a missed diagnosis was associated with lesser degrees of villous atrophy (p=0.019) and low tTG titre (p=0.007). High definition endoscopy with or without I-Scan increases the detection of celiac disease during routine endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is white-coat hypertension a harbinger of increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S

    2014-09-01

    White-coat hypertension is defined by elevated office and normal out-of-office blood pressure (home or ambulatory) in untreated subjects. This condition is common in clinical practice and requires appropriate work-up for detection and management. Many studies have examined the relationship between white-coat hypertension and cardiovascular risk but with marked heterogeneity in the definitions and methodology applied. Thus, the results have been inconsistent leading to confusion in scientific research and clinical practice. Some but not all the relevant studies suggested that white-coat hypertension is associated with subclinical target-organ damage, yet the cross-sectional design of these studies and the fact that these indices are only surrogate end points do not allow firm conclusions to be drawn. In recent years, longitudinal studies have examined the prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most of them indicate that white-coat hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects present a moderate-in most cases not significant-increase in risk. Meta-analyses of raw data from large databases, such as the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO) and the International Database on HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDHOCO) allowed separate powered analyses in untreated subjects and provided a clearer picture regarding the modest risk associated with white-coat hypertension, especially in the long term. White-coat hypertension is regarded as an intermediate phenotype between normotension and hypertension associated with increased risk of developing sustained hypertension, and therefore requires regular follow-up using nonpharmacological measures.

  20. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

  1. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  2. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  3. Emergency cesarean section and the 30-minute rule: definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Charles W; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2009-03-01

    We explored the role that lack of a standard definition and heterogeneity in patient selection criteria in the literature might have on the apparent inability to routinely begin an emergency cesarean section in less than 30 minutes. A review of the literature on emergency cesarean delivery was performed. Although there are some similarities in definitions and the criteria used for patient selection in multiple studies, the variability in the definitions could be responsible for some of the apparent timeliness performance deficiency in the literature. A standard definition and directions for future research are suggested.

  4. Do as I say! …but who says what i should say-or do? On the definition of a standard spoken command vocabulary for ICT devices and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niman, B. von; Chaplin, C.; Collado-Vega, J.A.; Groh, L.; McGlashan, S.; Mellors, W.; Leeuwen, D.A. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new ETSI Standard (ES): Generic spoken command vocabulary for ICT devices and services. It’s basic approach focuses on simplifying the learning procedure for end-users, there by allowing for reuse of basic knowledge between different terminal devices and

  5. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  6. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  7. Determination of the upper mass limit for stars producing white-dwarf remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Angel, J.R.P.

    1980-01-01

    We have searched ultraviolet and red plates of four open clusters (NGC 2168, 2287, 2422, and 6633) for faint blue objects which might be white dwarf members of the clusters. The most massive stars in these clusters range from 3 to 6 M/sub sun/. We find a definite concentration of faint blue objects in the clusters. This fact, plus initial photoelectric photometry, provides strong support for the identification of many of these objects as cluster white dwarfs. By modeling the expected number of possible white dwarfs in each cluster, we are able to put some limits on m/sub w/, the upper stellar mass limit for formation of white dwarfs. Our data require that some stars of at least 5 M/sub sun/ have evolved into white dwarfs and give a most probable value of 7 M/sub sun/ for m/sub w/

  8. Fully automatic detection of deep white matter T1 hypointense lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Lothar; Tewes, Anja; Suppa, Per; Opfer, Roland; Buchert, Ralph; Winkler, Gerhard; Raji, Alaleh

    2013-12-01

    A novel method is presented for fully automatic detection of candidate white matter (WM) T1 hypointense lesions in three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. By definition, T1 hypointense lesions have similar intensity as gray matter (GM) and thus appear darker than surrounding normal WM in T1-weighted images. The novel method uses a standard classification algorithm to partition T1-weighted images into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a consequence, T1 hypointense lesions are assigned an increased GM probability by the standard classification algorithm. The GM component image of a patient is then tested voxel-by-voxel against GM component images of a normative database of healthy individuals. Clusters (≥0.1 ml) of significantly increased GM density within a predefined mask of deep WM are defined as lesions. The performance of the algorithm was assessed on voxel level by a simulation study. A maximum dice similarity coefficient of 60% was found for a typical T1 lesion pattern with contrasts ranging from WM to cortical GM, indicating substantial agreement between ground truth and automatic detection. Retrospective application to 10 patients with multiple sclerosis demonstrated that 93 out of 96 T1 hypointense lesions were detected. On average 3.6 false positive T1 hypointense lesions per patient were found. The novel method is promising to support the detection of hypointense lesions in T1-weighted images which warrants further evaluation in larger patient samples.

  9. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning

  10. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  11. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions White sponge nevus White sponge nevus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarf stars. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, M.E. [Faculty of Astronomy and Geophysics, University of La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s.n., La Plata (Argentina); Department of Physics, University of La Plata, c.c. 67 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Civitarese, O., E-mail: osvaldo.civitarese@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Department of Physics, University of La Plata, c.c. 67 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Benvenuto, O.G.; De Vito, M.A. [Faculty of Astronomy and Geophysics, University of La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s.n., La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Astrofisica La Plata, CCT (Argentina)

    2010-01-18

    The formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the interior of helium white dwarfs stars is discussed. Following the proposal made by Gabadadze and Rosen, we have explored the consequences of such a mechanism by calculating the cooling time of the stars. We have found that it is shorter than the value predicted by the standard model.

  14. White Sands Missile Range 2011 Drinking Water Quality Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    acerca de su agua potable . Haga que alguien lo traduzca para usted, o hable con alguien que lo entienda. Main Post White Sands Missile Range 2011...standards. What is This Water Quality Report? Este informe contiene informacion importante acerca de su agua potable . Haga que alguien lo traduzca

  15. serum immunoglobulin levels in white, asiatic and bantu blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all assays were calculated as a percentage of the mean of. TABLE I. RESULTS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ASSAYS OF tOO WHITE, tOO ASIATIC AND 100 BANTU DONORS, EXPRESSED AS A. PERCENTAGE OF A CONTROL SERUM. Parameter. Range. Mean. Variance. Standard deviation. CoefI. of variation.

  16. Y WHITE CHITWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cervantes-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White Chit- wood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hidroponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos, e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nó- dulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82 % de variación y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13 % de variación. Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo.

  17. Race in Buenos Aires. Blackness, Whiteness, African Descent and Mestizaje in the White Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Geler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how racial categories are produced and reproduced in Buenos Aires, Argentina’s capital city. To that end, this article focuses on the cases of three Afro-Descendant porteña women who, by local standards, are fully white.  Their stories allow us to explore, in the first place, how categories like “black,” “white,” and others are used and understood in contemporary Buenos Aires and how this use configures two types of blackness (racial blackness and popular blackness and makes it impossible for mestizaje categories to emerge. In the second place, through these cases this article explores how people’s very “ways of being” are at play, creating a discriminatory and oppressive environment for people at risk of not matching the ideal of the nation.

  18. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  19. Clear requirements in standard house ventilation by Aedes. No more discussions on final quality definition; Heldere PvE's in standaardwoningventilatie van Aedes. Geen discussie meer over definitie eindkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerstra, A.C. [BBA Binnenmilieu, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    Ventilation systems in dwellings are performing sub-standard in practice. That is why Aedes has drafted two specifications for dwelling ventilation. These specifications for the two most frequently used ventilation systems have been published in a publicly available report: (1) mechanical supply and return air (balanced ventilation) [Dutch] In de praktijk blijkt dat ventilatiesystemen in gebouwen onder de maat presteren. Daarom zijn door Aedes twee PVE's (Programma van Eisen) opgesteld voor woningventilatie. De PVE's zijn voor de twee meest voorkomende typen ventilatiesystemen gepubliceerd in een openbaar rapport: (1) mechanische luchttoevoer en luchtafvoer met warmteterugwinning (balansventilatie); en (2) natuurlijke luchttoevoer met mechanische luchtafvoer (mechanische afzuiging)

  20. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  1. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  2. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols,

  3. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  4. How much market do market-based instruments create? An analysis for the case of 'white' certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langniss, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Discussions about 'green' certificates for renewable energy forms are under way for some time now. In contrast, tradable 'white' certificates have only lately been celebrated as a market-based tool to foster energy efficiency. Theoretically, there is little doubt about this. In practice, however, some fundamental problems and doubts about the usefulness of certificates arise: How 'competitive' are markets for certificates in reality? Is a 'white' certificate scheme only a new name for an old hat rooted in control and command regulation? With this suspicion, a number of questions and aspects arise: - Market mechanism: Which criteria guarantee that an - artificial - market for certificates really becomes competitive? Will trading be characterized by spot markets or by rather anti-competitive long-term over-the-counter contracts? Which minimum market size is needed, and which are the conditions regarding the tradability of the certificate that have to be met? - Target group: Who should be obliged to purchase certificates? Are electricity suppliers the right target group, or should fuel and heat suppliers be addressed, or the consumer himself? - Additionality and measurability: Which efficiency technologies should be eligible for certificates? What exactly is an efficient technology? A narrow definition might ease measuring problems but at the same time reduce innovation incentives. We use the theoretical framework of Transaction Cost Economics to discuss these issues. A brief review of the design of tradable certificate schemes in Italy and the UK is given. Lessons can also be learned from renewable portfolio standards recently implemented in a number of countries

  5. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties and evolutionary state of the underlying white dwarfs in CVs are explored. Observations of 25 white dwarfs with effective temperature upper limits of 9000-75,000 K are discussed. Correlations between effective temperature, orbital period, accretion rate, and CV type with respect to the CV period gap are considered. Quasi-static and hydrodynamic evolutionary models are used to explain the surface temperature/luminosity distribution ratios. 42 references

  6. Evolution of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. Althaus

    2001-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting the main results we have obtained for the study of the evoution of white dwarf stars. The calculations are carried out by means of a detailed evolutionary code based on an updated physical description. In particular, we briefly discuss the results for the evolution of white dwarfs of different stellar masses and chemical composition, and the evolution of whit e dwarfs in the framework of a varying gravitational constant G scenario as well.

  7. Economists and White House Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart E. Eizenstat

    1992-01-01

    While I served in the White House, [as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs and Policy and Executive Director of the White House Domestic Policy Staff from 1977-81], Ph.D. economists occupied the positions of Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Treasury, Director of the Council on Wage and Price Stability, the President's anti-inflation adviser, Chairman and Council Members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and many other senior positions throughout the gover...

  8. Screening for the metabolic syndrome using simple anthropometric measurements in south Asian and white Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khunti, Kamlesh; Taub, Nick; Tringham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    more predictive of metabolic syndrome than body mass index or waist-hip ratio. The area under the curve for waist circumference was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.69-0.80) and 0.76 (0.72-0.81) for south Asian men and women; 0.83 (0.80-0.85) and 0.80 (0.77-0.82) for white European men and women. Conclusions......Aims: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a general population sample of south Asians and white Europeans and compare predictors of metabolic syndrome, using ethnic specific definitions of obesity. Methods: 3099 participants (71.4% white European, 28.6% south Asian) aged 40-75 years......-hip ratio. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the definitions above was 29.9% (29.2% south Asian, 30.2% white European), and 34.4% (34.2% south Asian, 34.5% white European), respectively. Using the National Cholesterol Education Programme definition, waist circumference was significantly...

  9. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  10. Preliminary definition of improvement in juvenile arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, E H; Ruperto, N; Ravelli, A; Lovell, D J; Felson, D T; Martini, A

    1997-07-01

    To identify a core set of outcome variables for the assessment of children with juvenile arthritis (JA), to use the core set to develop a definition of improvement to determine whether individual patients demonstrate clinically important improvement, and to promote this definition as a single efficacy measure in JA clinical trials. A core set of outcome variables was established using a combination of statistical and consensus formation techniques. Variables in the core set consisted of 1) physician global assessment of disease activity; 2) parent/patient assessment of overall well-being; 3) functional ability; 4) number of joints with active arthritis; 5) number of joints with limited range of motion; and 6) erythrocyte sedimentation rate. To establish a definition of improvement using this core set, 21 pediatric rheumatologists from 14 countries met, and, using consensus formation techniques, scored each of 72 patient profiles as improved or not improved. Using the physicians' consensus as the gold standard, the chi-square, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated for each of 240 possible definitions of improvement. Definitions with sensitivity or specificity of definitions to discriminate between the effects of active agent and those of placebo, using actual trial data, was then observed. Each definition was also ranked for face validity, and the sum of the ranks was then multiplied by the kappa statistic. The definition of improvement with the highest final score was as follows: at least 30% improvement from baseline in 3 of any 6 variables in the core set, with no more than 1 of the remaining variables worsening by >30%. The second highest scoring definition was closely related to the first; the third highest was similar to the Paulus criteria used in adult rheumatoid arthritis trials, except with different variables. This indicates convergent validity of the process used. We propose a definition of improvement for JA. Use of a uniform definition will help

  11. 76 FR 63216 - Small Business Size Standards: Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Federal small business assistance, SBA establishes small business definitions (referred to as size... business definition or size standard established by the SBA Administrator. The SBA considers as part of its... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG26 Small Business Size Standards...

  12. Let's Talk about Race, Baby: How a White Professor Teaches White Students about White Privilege and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of methods by which the themes of White privilege and racism can be presented to White students. By using the concept of racial identity a continuum of racism can be considered. Furthermore, addressing White privilege and racism in the context of a multicultural psychology course allows White students to have a greater…

  13. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  14. Do transient white holes have a place in Nature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J; Jannes, Gil

    2015-01-01

    The white-hole sector of Kruskal's solution is almost never used in physical applications. However, it can provide a radically different take on the gravitational collapse process, avoiding the problems appearing within the standard paradigm. In this contribution we will try to draw attention to some bouncing geometries that make a democratic usage of the black and white sectors of Kruskal's solution. We will argue that this type of behaviour could be perfectly natural in some approaches to the next physical level beyond classical General Relativity. (paper)

  15. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  16. Anti-White Slavery Legislation and its Legacies in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lammasniemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the foundation of modern anti-trafficking laws in England and Wales was created at the turn of the twentieth century, during the peak of white slavery hysteria. It shows that a series of interrelated legal interventions formed that foundation. While white slavery as a myth has been analysed, this paper turns the focus on legal regulation and shows why it is important to analyse its history in order to understand modern responses to trafficking. It focuses, in particular, on the first legal definition of victims of trafficking, involvement of vigilance associations in law reform, and on restrictions put in place on women’s immigration. Finally, it reflects on how laws enacted at the turn of the twentieth century still resonate with those of today.

  17. Intrinsic white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohner, Emma R; Jaffe, Adam; Bradshaw, Liam R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2014-09-24

    We report on the second family of layered perovskite white-light emitters with improved photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs). Upon near-ultraviolet excitation, two new Pb-Cl and Pb-Br perovskites emit broadband "cold" and "warm" white light, respectively, with high color rendition. Emission from large, single crystals indicates an origin from the bulk material and not surface defect sites. The Pb-Br perovskite has a PLQE of 9%, which is undiminished after 3 months of continuous irradiation. Our mechanistic studies indicate that the emission has contributions from strong electron-phonon coupling in a deformable lattice and from a distribution of intrinsic trap states. These hybrids provide a tunable platform for combining the facile processability of organic materials with the structural definition of crystalline, inorganic solids.

  18. Recursive Definitions of Monadic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krauss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Using standard domain-theoretic fixed-points, we present an approach for defining recursive functions that are formulated in monadic style. The method works both in the simple option monad and the state-exception monad of Isabelle/HOL's imperative programming extension, which results in a convenient definition principle for imperative programs, which were previously hard to define. For such monadic functions, the recursion equation can always be derived without preconditions, even if the function is partial. The construction is easy to automate, and convenient induction principles can be derived automatically.

  19. Developing syndrome definitions based on consensus and current use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, John N; Baer, Atar; Buckeridge, David L; Cochrane, Dennis; Conway, Michael A; Elkin, Peter; Espino, Jeremy; Gunn, Julia E; Hales, Craig M; Hutwagner, Lori; Keller, Mikaela; Larson, Catherine; Noe, Rebecca; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Olson, Karen; Paladini, Marc; Scholer, Matthew; Sniegoski, Carol; Thompson, David; Lober, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Objective Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. Design Clinical condition–syndrome pairs were catalogued for 10 surveillance systems across the United States and the representatives of these systems were brought together for a workshop to discuss consensus syndrome definitions. Results Consensus syndrome definitions were generated for the four syndromes monitored by the majority of the 10 participating surveillance systems: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, constitutional, and influenza-like illness (ILI). An important element in coming to consensus quickly was the development of a sensitive and specific definition for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. After the workshop, the definitions were refined and supplemented with keywords and regular expressions, the keywords were mapped to standard vocabularies, and a web ontology language (OWL) ontology was created. Limitations The consensus definitions have not yet been validated through implementation. Conclusion The consensus definitions provide an explicit description of the current state-of-the-art syndromes used in automated surveillance, which can subsequently be systematically evaluated against real data to improve the definitions. The method for creating consensus definitions could be applied to other domains that have diverse existing definitions. PMID:20819870

  20. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  1. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  2. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality standards...

  3. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and at...

  4. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...

  5. 7 CFR 810.801 - Definition of mixed grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of mixed grain. 810.801 Section 810.801 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Terms Defined § 810.801 Definition of mixed grain. Any...

  6. Definition of Videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tavinor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Can videogames be defined? The new field of games studies has generated three somewhat competing models of videogaming that characterize games as new forms of gaming, narratives, and interactive fictions. When treated as necessary and sufficient condition definitions, however, each of the three approaches fails to pick out all and only videogames. In this paper I argue that looking more closely at the formal qualities of definition helps to set out the range of definitional options open to the games theorist. A disjunctive definition of videogaming seems the most appropriate of these definitional options. The disjunctive definition I offer here is motivated by the observation that there is more than one characteristic way of being a videogame.

  7. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  8. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  9. 40 CFR 432.101 - Special definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... slaughterhouse, packinghouse or poultry dressing or processing operation, uses raw material at rates greater than... STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Renderers § 432.101 Special definitions. For the... animal and poultry trimmings, bones, meat scraps, dead animals, feathers and related usable by-products...

  10. 40 CFR 60.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 60.601 Section 60.601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF..., transportation, collection, concentration, and purification of organic solvents. It may include enclosures, hoods...

  11. 7 CFR 210.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the cost of that lunch. Yogurt means commercially prepared coagulated milk products obtained by the fermentation of specific bacteria, that meet milk fat or milk solid requirements and to which...'s Definition and Standard of Identity for yogurt, lowfat yogurt, and nonfat yogurt, 21 CFR 131.200...

  12. 7 CFR 220.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... department of education. Yogurt means commercially prepared coagulated milk products obtained by the fermentation of specific bacteria, that meet milk fat or milk solid requirements and to which flavoring foods... Definition and Standard of Identity for yogurt, lowfat yogurt, and nonfat yogurt, 21 CFR 131.200, 21 CFR 131...

  13. Definition of a Storage Accounting Record

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, H. T.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Nilsen, J. K.; Zsolt, M.; Zappi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this document a storage accounting record StAR is defined reflecting practical, financial and legal requirements of storage location, usage and space and data flow. The definition might be the base for a standardized schema or an extension of an existing record like the OGF UR.

  14. 10 CFR 851.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM General Provisions § 851.3 Definitions. (a) As used in this part: AEA means the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, 42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq. Affected worker means a worker who... action to be appropriate. National defense variance means relief from a safety and health standard, or...

  15. 30 CFR 20.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.2 Definitions. (a) Adequate... its lamp has been adjudged satisfactory under the requirements of this part. (c) Explosion-proof... or discharge of flame and without ignition of surrounding explosive methane-air mixtures. (d...

  16. 40 CFR 407.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 407.51 Section 407.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato...

  17. 40 CFR 407.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 407.41 Section 407.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products...

  18. 40 CFR 407.31 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 407.31 Section 407.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products...

  19. 40 CFR 407.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 407.21 Section 407.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products...

  20. 40 CFR 407.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 407.11 Section 407.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.251 Definitions. As used in this subpart: (a) Welder and welding operator mean any operator of electric or gas welding and cutting equipment. (b) Approved means listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to...

  2. 40 CFR 406.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.41 Section 406.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.41 Specialized...

  3. 40 CFR 406.31 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.31 Section 406.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.31 Specialized...

  4. 20 CFR 726.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 726.301 Section 726.301 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Civil...

  5. 20 CFR 726.8 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 726.8 Section 726.8 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE General...

  6. 20 CFR 702.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 702.601 Section 702.601 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which...

  7. 21 CFR 146.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES General Provisions § 146.3 Definitions. For the purposes of this part: (a) The... hydrolyzed starch. (c) The term dried glucose sirup means the product obtained by drying glucose sirup. (d... following: Unless otherwise provided in a standard, a lot of canned fruits shall be deemed in compliance for...

  8. 40 CFR 461.2 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) “Battery” means a modular electric power source where part or all of the fuel is contained within the unit... STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 461.2 General definitions. In... heat cycle engine. In this regulation there is no differentiation between a single cell and a battery...

  9. 30 CFR 74.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 74.2 Section 74.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE... consensus standards used worldwide. (f) Precision: the relative variability of measurements from a...

  10. 15 CFR 290.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operational, management and financial sensse to improve the levels of technology they employ. ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL CENTERS FOR THE TRANSFER OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY § 290.2 Definitions. (a) The phrase advanced manufacturing technology...

  11. 40 CFR 427.31 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 427.31 Section 427.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory...

  12. 40 CFR 427.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 427.41 Section 427.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder...

  13. 5 CFR 550.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.703 Definitions. In this subpart: Agency means an agency as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5595(a... expectations of the local community. When an employee's residence is within the standard commuting area for a...

  14. Automatic extraction of legal concepts and definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Hoekstra, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an experiment in automatic concept and definition extraction from written sources of law using relatively simple natural language and standard semantic web technology. The software was tested on six laws from the tax domain.

  15. 7 CFR 51.2547 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2547 Definitions. (a) Well dried means the kernel... to nuts, or any substance other than pistachio shells or kernels. Glass, metal or live insects shall... inch round opening. (5) Undersize means pistachio nuts in the shell which fall through a 30/64 inch...

  16. 18 CFR 725.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXECUTIVE ORDERS 11988, FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND 11990, PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Introduction § 725.4... definitions listed in the Glossary of the Council's Floodplain Management Guidelines for Implementing E.O... Council's Principles, Standards and Procedures (P,S,&P), provision of financial assistance for State...

  17. 40 CFR 417.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 417.81 Section 417.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory...

  18. 29 CFR 29.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., as provided for in the criteria described in § 29.3(g) and (h). Quality assurance assessment means a... technical assistance; conducting reviews for compliance with 29 CFR parts 29 and 30 and quality assurance... of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR THE REGISTRATION OF APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAMS § 29.2 Definitions...

  19. 40 CFR 415.641 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.641 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Except as... this chapter shall apply to this subpart. (b) The term product shall mean cadmium pigment or cadmium...

  20. 40 CFR 266.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 266.201 Section 266.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT...

  1. 22 CFR 231.02 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 231.02 Section 231.02 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... set forth in Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 133, Accounting for Derivative... AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5301 Definitions. For...) Undistributed earnings/unallocated surplus less, for associations only, an amount equal to the net investment in...

  3. 40 CFR 467.02 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coating and anodizing when performed as an integral part of the aluminum forming operations are considered... STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 467.02 General definitions. In...) Aluminum forming is a set of manufacturing operations in which aluminum and aluminum alloys are made into...

  4. 36 CFR 1194.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.4 Definitions. The following... limited to, Braille, ASCII text, large print, recorded audio, and electronic formats that comply with this... people with disabilities. Alternate methods may include, but are not limited to, voice, fax, relay...

  5. 40 CFR 405.101 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dry Milk Subcategory § 405.101... definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in part 401 of this chapter shall apply to this.... Composition of input materials may be based on either direct analysis or generally accepted published values. ...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 57.4000 Section 57.4000 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 57...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 56.4000 Section 56.4000 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 56.4000...

  8. 16 CFR 1211.22 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... definitions shall apply to this subpart: (a) Private labeler means an owner of a brand or trademark which is used on an operator subject to the standard and which is not the brand or trademark of the manufacturer of the operator, provided the owner of the brand or trademark caused or authorized the operator to be...

  9. 16 CFR 1204.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following definitions shall apply to this subpart B of part 1204: (a) Private labeler means an owner of a brand or trademark which is used on the label of a CB antenna subject to the standard, which bears a... means a period of time determined by the manufacturer or importer that is appropriate for conducting a...

  10. 7 CFR 2900.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.2... maintenance of food quality after processing. (b) Establishment means an economic unit, generally at a single... definition used in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972 edition). (c) Essential Agricultural...

  11. 40 CFR 439.11 - Special definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fermentation Products § 439.11 Special definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Fermentation means process operations that utilize a... occurring in unicellular plants such as yeast, molds, or fungi to produce a specified product. (b) Product...

  12. 20 CFR 702.172 - Certification; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification; definitions. 702.172 Section 702.172 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S... engaged in commerce but does not include military vessels or Coast Guard vessels. (b) “Federal Maritime...

  13. 40 CFR 463.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... usage flow rate” for a plant with more than one plastics molding and forming process that uses cleaning... AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.21 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) The “average process water usage flow rate” of a...

  14. 40 CFR 463.31 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... usage flow rate” for a plant with more than one plastics molding and forming process that uses finishing... AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory § 463.31 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) The “average process water usage flow rate” of a...

  15. 49 CFR 543.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTION FROM VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 543.4 Definitions. (a) Statutory terms. All terms defined in sections 2, 601, and 605 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost... a group of motor vehicles of the same make which have the same body or chassis, or otherwise are...

  16. 49 CFR 591.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (other than a damage settlement in connection with a recovered theft vehicle unless such motor vehicle..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) IMPORTATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS § 591.4 Definitions. All terms used in this part that are defined...

  17. 49 CFR 541.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.4 Definitions. (a... same make. (4) 1990/91 median theft rate means 3.5826 thefts per thousand vehicles produced. (5... surface means, with respect to a vehicle part, a surface that is not directly exposed to sun and...

  18. 16 CFR 314.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.2 Definitions. (a) In general. Except as modified by this part or unless the... Commission's rule governing the Privacy of Consumer Financial Information, 16 CFR part 313. (b) Customer...

  19. 40 CFR 63.822 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., labels, liners and wraps utilizing paper, plastic, film, aluminum foil, metalized or coated paper or film... Standards for the Printing and Publishing Industry § 63.822 Definitions. (a) All terms used in this subpart... device. Car-seal means a seal that is placed on a device that is used to change the position of a valve...

  20. 40 CFR 428.61 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 428.61 Section 428.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and...

  1. 40 CFR 436.241 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.241 Section 436.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Diatomite Subcategory § 436.241...

  2. 48 CFR 9905.505-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are definitions of terms which are prominent in this Standard. Other terms defined elsewhere in this... express provisions of an applicable law, regulation, or contract, is specifically named and stated to be... is allocable. (b) The following modifications of terms defined elsewhere in this chapter 99 are...

  3. 47 CFR 64.1701 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.1701 Section 64.1701 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... accredited standards development organization, funding party, generic requirement, and industry-wide have the...

  4. 30 CFR 75.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.201 Definitions. Automated temporary roof support (ATRS) system. A device to provide temporary roof support from a location where the equipment operator is protected from roof falls. Pillar recovery. Any reduction in pillar size during retreat mining. ...

  5. A high-definition fiber tracking report for patients with traumatic brain injury and their doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Jon; Presson, Nora; Benso, Steven; Puccio, Ava M; Fissel, Katherine; Hachey, Rebecca; Braun, Emily; Okonkwo, David O; Schneider, Walter

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a tablet-based application, the High-Definition Fiber Tracking Report App, to enable clinicians and patients in research studies to see and understand damage from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by viewing 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional images of their brain, with a focus on white matter tracts with quantitative metrics. The goal is to visualize white matter fiber tract injury like bone fractures; that is, to make the "invisible wounds of TBI" understandable for patients. Using mobile computing technology (iPad), imaging data for individual patients can be downloaded remotely within hours of a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. Clinicians and patients can view the data in the form of images of each tract, rotating animations of the tracts, 3-dimensional models, and graphics. A growing number of tracts can be examined for asymmetry, gaps in streamline coverage, reduced arborization (branching), streamline volume, and standard quantitative metrics (e.g., Fractional Anisotropy (FA)). Novice users can learn to effectively navigate and interact with the application (explain the figures and graphs representing normal and injured brain tracts) within 15 minutes of simple orientation with high accuracy (96%). The architecture supports extensive graphics, configurable reports, provides an easy-to-use, attractive interface with a smooth user experience, and allows for securely serving cases from a database. Patients and clinicians have described the application as providing dramatic benefits in understanding their TBI and improving their lives. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. [Problems with current hypertension definition in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco-Antić, Amira

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force data have added immeasurably to our understanding of the normal distribution of blood pressure in children. However, the manner in which arterial hypertension is defined in children is not without problems. The main problem is that the current definition of hypertension in children is not based on the end-organ damage assessment, but on the blood pressure height-related percentile distribution of healthy reference population. This could be overcome by introducing the relationship of blood pressure values with sensitive markers of hypertensive sequelae (such as carotid intimal-medial thickness, left ventricle mass index, retinal arteriolar narrowing and arteriovenous nicking as well as microalbumin urinary excretion) to define better the specific blood pressure values with outcomes. Furthermore, the current definition of hypertension based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the reference population does not consider the normal evolution of reference population, as well as its ethnic differences. In addition, being based on the single occasion measurement in quite position it does not account for the possibility of transient, stress induced elevations in blood pressure known as white coat hypertension. Therefore, incorporation ambulatory 24 h blood pressure data into the definition of arterial hypertension in children may increase the definition reliability for clinical decision - making, although for such reliability the paediatric normative ambulatory blood pressure data should be improved.

  7. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  8. Conscientious objection and refusal to provide reproductive healthcare: a White Paper examining prevalence, health consequences, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Wendy; Leitman, Liddy; Polin, Kate

    2013-12-01

    Global Doctors for Choice-a transnational network of physician advocates for reproductive health and rights-began exploring the phenomenon of conscience-based refusal of reproductive healthcare as a result of increasing reports of harms worldwide. The present White Paper examines the prevalence and impact of such refusal and reviews policy efforts to balance individual conscience, autonomy in reproductive decision making, safeguards for health, and professional medical integrity. The White Paper draws on medical, public health, legal, ethical, and social science literature published between 1998 and 2013 in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Estimates of prevalence are difficult to obtain, as there is no consensus about criteria for refuser status and no standardized definition of the practice, and the studies have sampling and other methodologic limitations. The White Paper reviews these data and offers logical frameworks to represent the possible health and health system consequences of conscience-based refusal to provide abortion; assisted reproductive technologies; contraception; treatment in cases of maternal health risk and inevitable pregnancy loss; and prenatal diagnosis. It concludes by categorizing legal, regulatory, and other policy responses to the practice. Empirical evidence is essential for varied political actors as they respond with policies or regulations to the competing concerns at stake. Further research and training in diverse geopolitical settings are required. With dual commitments toward their own conscience and their obligations to patients' health and rights, providers and professional medical/public health societies must lead attempts to respond to conscience-based refusal and to safeguard reproductive health, medical integrity, and women's lives. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on blue and white porcelain by EDXRF method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jianmin; Yu, P.K.N.; Li, M.T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The EDXRF method was used to find the concentration of component elements in blue and white porcelain. It was found that some elements in colorant were diffused towards glaze layer when the porcelain had been fired at high temperature. Through the half-value thickness calculation, the contribution of some elements from the porcelain's body to the measured intensity was also confirmed. The experiment also indicated that the contents of various elements in the glaze layer of non-decorated portions were definite in spite of the measuring sites, while those of some elements in decorated portions were dependent on positions

  10. Urogenital tuberculosis: definition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina

    2014-10-01

    To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author's own more than 30 years' experience in tuberculosis urology. The conception, terms and definition were consolidated into one system; classification stage by stage as well as complications are presented. Classification of any disease includes dispersion on forms and stages and exact definitions for each stage. Clinical features and symptoms significantly vary between different forms and stages of UGTB. A simple diagnostic algorithm was constructed. UGTB is multivariant disease and a standard unified approach to it is impossible. Clear definition as well as unique classification are necessary for real estimation of epidemiology and the optimization of therapy. The term 'UGTB' has insufficient information in order to estimate therapy, surgery and prognosis, or to evaluate the epidemiology.

  11. Overview of service oriented architecture: definition, use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview of service oriented architecture: definition, use in healthcare ... of service oriented architecture in Healthcare with focus on the pros and cons of its use as ... technologies adapted the required healthcare standards and challenges and ...

  12. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Sector Carbon Pollution Standards Executive Order 13647--Establishing the White House Council on Native... speeding the transition to more sustainable sources of energy. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-15941 Filed 6-28-13; 11:15 am...

  13. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  14. White Coat Hypertension: to Treat or Not to Treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuspidi, Cesare; Sala, Carla; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    Definition of white coat hypertension (WCH) traditionally relies on elevated office blood pressure (BP) during repeated visits concomitant with normal out-of-office BP values, as assessed by home and/or 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring measurements. Accumulating evidence focusing on the association of WCH with target organ damage and, more importantly, with cardiovascular events indicates that the risk conveyed by this condition is intermediate between normotension and sustained hypertension. This article will review a number of issues concerning WCH with particular emphasis on the following: (1) prevalence and clinical correlates, (2) association with target organ damage and cardiovascular events, (3) therapeutic interventions. Data will refer to the original WCH definition, based on out-of-office BP determined by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring; at variance from home BP measurement, this approach rules out the potentially confounding effect of a clinically relevant abnormal BP phenotype such as isolated nocturnal hypertension.

  15. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Medicare and Medicaid programs; modifications to the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for 2014 and other changes to EHR Incentive Program; and health information technology: revision to the certified EHR technology definition and EHR certification changes related to standards. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    This final rule changes the meaningful use stage timeline and the definition of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) to allow options in the use of CEHRT for the EHR reporting period in 2014. It also sets the requirements for reporting on meaningful use objectives and measures as well as clinical quality measure (CQM) reporting in 2014 for providers who use one of the CEHRT options finalized in this rule for their EHR reporting period in 2014. In addition, it finalizes revisions to the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs to adopt an alternate measure for the Stage 2 meaningful use objective for hospitals to provide structured electronic laboratory results to ambulatory providers; to correct the regulation text for the measures associated with the objective for hospitals to provide patients the ability to view online, download, and transmit information about a hospital admission; and to set a case number threshold exemption for CQM reporting applicable for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) beginning with FY 2013. Finally, this rule finalizes the provisionally adopted replacement of the Data Element Catalog (DEC) and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA) Category III standards with updated versions of these standards.

  17. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of ‘whole grain’

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J.; Richardson, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005–2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe – when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes. PMID:24505218

  18. Theory of Neutrinos: a White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Antusch, S.; Babu, K.S.; Barenboim, G.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Davidson, S.; de Gouvea, A.; de Holanda, P.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Grossman, Y.; Joshipura, A.; Kayser,; Kersten, J.; Keum, Y.Y.; King, S.F.; Langacker, P.; Lindner, M.; Loinaz, W.; Masina, I.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohanty, S.; /Maryland U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Southampton U. /Oklahoma

    2006-01-11

    During 2004, four divisions of the American Physical Society commissioned a study of neutrino physics to take stock of where the field is at the moment and where it is going in the near and far future. Several working groups looked at various aspects of this vast field. The summary was published as a main report entitled ''The Neutrino Matrix'' accompanied by short 50 page versions of the report of each working group. Theoretical research in this field has been quite extensive and touches many areas and the short 50 page report [1] provided only a brief summary and overview of few of the important points. The theory discussion group felt that it may be of value to the community to publish the entire study as a white paper and the result is the current article. After a brief overview of the present knowledge of neutrino masses and mixing and some popular ways to probe the new physics implied by recent data, the white paper summarizes what can be learned about physics beyond the Standard Model from the various proposed neutrino experiments. It also comments on the impact of the experiments on our understanding of the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and the basic nature of neutrino interactions as well as the existence of possible additional neutrinos. Extensive references to original literature are provided.

  19. Theory of neutrinos: A White paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Antusch, S.; Babu, K.S.; Barenboim, G.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Davidson, S.; de Gouvea, A.; de Holanda, P.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Grossman, Y.; Joshipura, A.; Kayser,; Kersten, J.; Keum, Y.Y.; King, S.F.; Langacker, P.; Lindner, M.; Loinaz, W.; Masina, I.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohanty, S.; /Maryland U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Southampton U. /Oklahoma

    2005-10-01

    During 2004, four divisions of the American Physical Society commissioned a study of neutrino physics to take stock of where the field is at the moment and where it is going in the near and far future. Several working groups looked at various aspects of this vast field. The summary was published as a main report entitled ''The Neutrino Matrix'' accompanied by short 50 page versions of the report of each working group. Theoretical research in this field has been quite extensive and touches many areas and the short 50 page report [1] provided only a brief summary and overview of few of the important points. The theory discussion group felt that it may be of value to the community to publish the entire study as a white paper and the result is the current article. After a brief overview of the present knowledge of neutrino masses and mixing and some popular ways to probe the new physics implied by recent data, the white paper summarizes what can be learned about physics beyond the Standard Model from the various proposed neutrino experiments. It also comments on the impact of the experiments on our understanding of the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and the basic nature of neutrino interactions as well as the existence of possible additional neutrinos. Extensive references to original literature are provided.

  20. Theory of neutrinos: A White paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Antusch, S.; Babu, K.S.; Barenboim, G.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Davidson, S.; de Gouvea, A.; de Holanda, P.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Grossman, Y.; Joshipura, A.; Kayser, B.; Kersten, J.; Keum, Y.Y.; King, S.F.; Langacker, P.; Lindner, M.; Loinaz, W.; Masina, I.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohanty, S.; Maryland U.; Madrid, Autonoma U.; Southampton U.; Oklahoma State U.; Valencia U.; Fermilab; Durham U., IPPP; Northwestern U.; Campinas State U.; Regina U.; SLAC; Ahmedabad, Phys. Res. Lab; Fermilab; DESY; Taiwan, Inst. Phys.; Pennsylvania U.; Munich, Tech. U.; Amherst Coll.; Enrico Fermi Ctr., Rome; INFN, Rome; Penn State U.; Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-01-01

    During 2004, four divisions of the American Physical Society commissioned a study of neutrino physics to take stock of where the field is at the moment and where it is going in the near and far future. Several working groups looked at various aspects of this vast field. The summary was published as a main report entitled ''The Neutrino Matrix'' accompanied by short 50 page versions of the report of each working group. Theoretical research in this field has been quite extensive and touches many areas and the short 50 page report [1] provided only a brief summary and overview of few of the important points. The theory discussion group felt that it may be of value to the community to publish the entire study as a white paper and the result is the current article. After a brief overview of the present knowledge of neutrino masses and mixing and some popular ways to probe the new physics implied by recent data, the white paper summarizes what can be learned about physics beyond the Standard Model from the various proposed neutrino experiments. It also comments on the impact of the experiments on our understanding of the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and the basic nature of neutrino interactions as well as the existence of possible additional neutrinos. Extensive references to original literature are provided

  1. Theory of Neutrinos A White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Babu, K.S.; Barenboim, G.; Chen, M.-C.; Davidson, S.; de Gouvêa, A.; de Holanda, P.; Dutta, B.; Grossman, Y.; Joshipura, A.; Kayser, B.; Kersten, J.; Keum, Y.Y.; King, S.F.; Langacker, P.; Lindner, M.; Loinaz, W.; Masina, I.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohanty, S.; Murayama, H.; Pascoli, S.; Petcov, S.T.; Pilaftsis, A.; Ramond, P.; Ratz, M.; Rodejohann, W.; Shrock, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Underwood, T.; Wolfenstein, L.

    2007-01-01

    During 2004, four divisions of the American Physical Society commissioned a study of neutrino physics to take stock of where the field is at the moment and where it is going in the near and far future. Several working groups looked at various aspects of this vast field. The summary was published as a main report entitled ``The Neutrino Matrix'' accompanied by short 50 page versions of the report of each working group. Theoretical research in this field has been quite extensive and touches many areas and the short 50 page report provided only a brief summary and overview of few of the important points. The theory discussion group felt that it may be of value to the community to publish the entire study as a white paper and the result is the current article. After a brief overview of the present knowledge of neutrino masses and mixing and some popular ways to probe the new physics implied by recent data, the white paper summarizes what can be learned about physics beyond the Standard Model from the various prop...

  2. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  3. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  4. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  5. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  6. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  7. Social imaginaries, sperm and whiteness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    media coverage of these new families, this article explores contemporary constructions of race, especially whiteness, and gender, and shows how imaginaries of Vikings, genes and white superiority circulate in British media and among British mothers. The article illustrates how a racial discourse, which......This article analyses narratives about so-called Viking babies and Viking sperm. Over the last few years an increasing number of British single women and lesbian couples have been creating families by becoming pregnant with Danish donor sperm, termed ‘Viking sperm’. Through analyses of British...

  8. Blanco White and Walter Scott Blanco white y Walter Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando DURÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley was published in Edinburgh in 1820. From the beginning of year 1823, José María Blanco White translated several excerpts from Ivanhoe in the numbers 1-3 of the magazine Variedades, owned by the publisher Rudolph Ackermann. in these articles and other later writings, the translator praised Scott as a model for a new way of painting history in a narrative. This paper studies his ideas on Scott’s historical novel, as well as his translation technique, compared with that of José Joaquín de Mora. En 1820 se publicó en Edimburgo la primera edición de Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley. Desde comienzos de 1823, en los tres primeros números de su revista Variedades, promovida por el editor Rudolph Ackermann, José María Blanco White tradujo varios fragmentos de Ivanhoe entre grandes elogios. Asimismo, Blanco White tomó a Scott como modelo de referencia de una nueva manera de pintar la historia por medio de la novela en otros varios escritos críticos de años posteriores. El artículo estudia las ideas de Blanco White acerca de la novela histórica de Scott y su técnica como traductor, comparada con la de José Joaquín Mora.

  9. Working through Whiteness: White, Male College Students Challenging Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…

  10. Defending definitions of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  11. Smoking topography in Korean American and white men: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first study of Korean Americans' smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 h. Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking with greater puff flows and shorter interpuff intervals than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day.

  12. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-01-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document

  13. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  14. The Definition and Classification of Universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.

    2004-01-01

    We assume that the concept of a multiverse makes sense, and suggest a specific, standardized definition for member universes which are similar to our own. Central to this description is the definition of size, which is taken to be the asymptotic value, at large times, of the inverse Hubble constant. Thus the cosmological constant plays a central role in defining the properties of the subset of universes similar to our own. We then assume that vacuum parameters and coupling constants of the standard model are dependent upon the size of a universe, and propose a specific form for the dependence. Anthropic considerations then limit the size of habitable universes (as we understand that concept) to be within a factor two of our own. Implications of this picture for understanding the standard-model ''hierarchy problem'' are discussed, as are general issues of falsifiability and/or verifiability of these ideas

  15. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  16. DUSEL Theory White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, S.; Walker, T.; Babu, K.S.; Baer, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Gabadadze, G.; Gal, A.; Gondolo, P.; Lande, K.; Olive, K.A.; Profumo, S.; Shrock, R.; Tavartkiladze, Z.; Whisnant, K.; Wolfenstein, L.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific case for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) located at the Homestake mine in Lead, South Dakota is exceptional. The site of this future laboratory already claims a discovery for the detection of solar neutrinos, leading to a Nobel Prize for Ray Davis. Moreover this work provided the first step to our present understanding of solar neutrino oscillations and a chink in the armor of the Standard Model of particle physics. We now know, from several experiments located in deep underground experimental laboratories around the world, that neutrinos have mass and even more importantly this mass appears to fit into the framework of theories which unify all the known forces of nature, i.e. the strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. Similarly, DUSEL can forge forward in the discovery of new realms of nature, housing six fundamental experiments that will test the frontiers of our knowledge: (1) Searching for nucleon decay (the decay of protons and neutrons predicted by grand unified theories of nature); (2) Searching for neutrino oscillations and CP violation by detecting neutrinos produced at a neutrino source (possibly located at Brookhaven National Laboratory and/or Fermi National Laboratory); (3) Searching for astrophysical neutrinos originating from the sun, from cosmic rays hitting the upper atmosphere or from other astrophysical sources, such a supernovae; (4) Searching for dark matter particles (the type of matter which does not interact electromagnetically, yet provides 24% of the mass of the Universe); (5) Looking for the rare process known as neutrino-less double beta decay which is predicted by most theories of neutrino mass and allows two neutrons in a nucleus to spontaneously change into two protons and two electrons; and (6) Searching for the rare process of neutron- anti-neutron oscillations, which would establish violation of baryon number symmetry. A large megaton water Cherenkov detector for neutrinos and

  17. DUSEL Theory White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raby, S.; /Ohio State U.; Walker, T.; /Ohio State U. /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Ohio State U., CCAPP; Babu, K.S.; /Oklahoma State U.; Baer, H.; /Florida State U.; Balantekin, A.B.; Barger, V.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Berezhiani, Z.; /Gran Sasso; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Dermisek, R.; /Princeton U.; Dolgov, A.; /Moscow, ITEP /Ferrara U.; Fileviez Perez, P.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Gabadadze, G.; /New York U.; Gal, A.; /Hebrew U.; Gondolo, P.; /Utah U.; Haxton, W.; /Washington U., Seattle; Kamyshkov, Y.; /Tennessee U.; Kayser, B.; /Fermilab; Kearns, E.; /Boston U.; Kopeliovich, B.; /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso; Lande, K.; /Pennsylvania U.; Marfatia, D.; /Kansas U. /Maryland U. /Northeastern U. /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Minnesota U. /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /SUNY, Stony Brook /Oklahoma State U. /Iowa State U. /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2011-11-14

    The scientific case for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory [DUSEL] located at the Homestake mine in Lead, South Dakota is exceptional. The site of this future laboratory already claims a discovery for the detection of solar neutrinos, leading to a Nobel Prize for Ray Davis. Moreover this work provided the first step to our present understanding of solar neutrino oscillations and a chink in the armor of the Standard Model of particle physics. We now know, from several experiments located in deep underground experimental laboratories around the world, that neutrinos have mass and even more importantly this mass appears to fit into the framework of theories which unify all the known forces of nature, i.e. the strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. Similarly, DUSEL can forge forward in the discovery of new realms of nature, housing six fundamental experiments that will test the frontiers of our knowledge: (1) Searching for nucleon decay (the decay of protons and neutrons predicted by grand unified theories of nature); (2) Searching for neutrino oscillations and CP violation by detecting neutrinos produced at a neutrino source (possibly located at Brookhaven National Laboratory and/or Fermi National Laboratory); (3) Searching for astrophysical neutrinos originating from the sun, from cosmic rays hitting the upper atmosphere or from other astrophysical sources, such a supernovae; (4) Searching for dark matter particles (the type of matter which does not interact electromagnetically, yet provides 24% of the mass of the Universe); (5) Looking for the rare process known as neutrino-less double beta decay which is predicted by most theories of neutrino mass and allows two neutrons in a nucleus to spontaneously change into two protons and two electrons; and (6) Searching for the rare process of neutron- anti-neutron oscillations, which would establish violation of baryon number symmetry. A large megaton water Cherenkov detector for neutrinos and

  18. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  19. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  20. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  1. Standard Fortran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its vast software investment in Fortran programs, the nuclear community has an inherent interest in the evolution of Fortran. This paper reviews the impact of the new Fortran 77 standard and discusses the projected changes which can be expected in the future

  2. Rotation of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    I discuss and consider the status of observational determinations of the rotation velocities of white dwarf stars via asteroseismology and spectroscopy. While these observations have important implications on our understanding of the angular momentum evolution of stars in their late stages of evolution, more direct methods are sorely needed to disentangle ambiguities.

  3. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  4. The Next White (NEW) Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrabal, F.; et al.

    2018-04-06

    Conceived to host 5 kg of xenon at a pressure of 15 bar in the fiducial volume, the NEXT- White (NEW) apparatus is currently the largest high pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescent amplification in the world. It is also a 1:2 scale model of the NEXT-100 detector scheduled to start searching for $\\beta\\beta 0\

  5. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  6. White adipose tissue: Getting nervous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Kreier, F.; Voshol, P. J.; Havekes, L. M.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Kalsbeek, A.; Buijs, R. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroendocrine research has altered the traditional perspective of white adipose tissue (WAT) as a passive store of triglycerides. In addition to fatty acids, WAT produces many hormones and can therefore be designated as a traditional endocrine gland actively participating in the integrative

  7. The Whiteness of Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two major debates in contemporary Australian discourses on the nation: climate change and whiteness studies. It is primarily concerned with establishing a framework for connecting the two discourses, and in that process it raises pivotal questions about how narratives about...

  8. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  9. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  10. The population of single and binary white dwarfs of the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, S.; García-Berro, E.; Cojocaru, R.; Calamida, A.

    2018-05-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations have unveiled the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge. Although the degenerate sequence can be well fitted employing the most up-to-date theoretical cooling sequences, observations show a systematic excess of red objects that cannot be explained by the theoretical models of single carbon-oxygen white dwarfs of the appropriate masses. Here, we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge that takes into account the populations of both single white dwarfs and binary systems containing at least one white dwarf. These calculations incorporate state-of-the-art cooling sequences for white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres, for both white dwarfs with carbon-oxygen and helium cores, and also take into account detailed prescriptions of the evolutionary history of binary systems. Our Monte Carlo simulator also incorporates all the known observational biases. This allows us to model with a high degree of realism the white dwarf population of the Galactic bulge. We find that the observed excess of red stars can be partially attributed to white dwarf plus main sequence binaries, and to cataclysmic variables or dwarf novae. Our best fit is obtained with a higher binary fraction and an initial mass function slope steeper than standard values, as well as with the inclusion of differential reddening and blending. Our results also show that the possible contribution of double degenerate systems or young and thick-discbulge stars is negligible.

  11. Revised White House Peer Review Guidelines Draw Generally Favorable Respons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-04-01

    A new bulletin from the White House Office of Management and Budget outlines minimum standards for peer review of scientific information that includes findings representing an official position of a department or agency of the federal government. The OMB Revised Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review, released on 15 April, substantially modifies a previous draft issued on 15 September 2003, which some had criticized as restrictive and imbalanced.

  12. White paper of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This document aims at proposing a synthetic presentation of nuclear medicine in France (definition, strengths and weaknesses, key figures about practices and the profession, stakes for years to come), a description of the corresponding education (speciality definition, abilities and responsibilities, diploma content, proposition by the European Society of Radiology and by the CNIPI, demography of the profession), and an overview of characteristics of nuclear medicine (radio-pharmacy, medical physics, paramedical personnel in nuclear medicine, hybrid imagery, therapy, relationships with industries of nuclear medicine, relationships with health authorities)

  13. ISO standardization in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, D [Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Cermak, O [Urad pro Normalizaci a Mereni, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1984-10-01

    The activity is described of the technical commission ISO/TC 85 which is currently divided into 4 subcommissions (SC) and 24 working groups. SC 1 ''Terminology, definitions, units, abbreviations'' has one working group. The most important document of this SC is ISO 921-1972 (Dictionary of nuclear technology). SC 2 ''Radiation protection'' has 9 working groups and has processed standards in dosimetry. SC 3 ''Technology of power reactors'' has 6 working groups and its work is related to IAEA activities within the NUSS program. SC 4 ''Technology of nuclear fuels'' has 8 working groups. SC 4 has compiled the basic standards for sealed sources and methods of testing their tightness. The results of the work of this group have been reflected into the standardization work of CMEA. A list is given of published international standards within TC 85.

  14. Equipment standards for interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, A.; Gallagher, A.; Walsh, C.; Malone, J.

    2005-01-01

    Interventional radiology has seen rapid growth in cardiology and represents an alternative to hazardous surgery. Recently there has been a substantial growth in the number of procedures being performed and interventional cardiology (IC) procedures are the most common interventional procedures in Europe. Advances in imaging technology have facilitated the development of increasingly complex radiological IC equipment. Currently, the technology is developing at a rate ahead of supporting research, equipment standards and a regulatory framework. International standards play a key role in the design, manufacture and performance of radiological IC equipment. A survey of 12 IC systems (15 imaging chains) was conducted in Irish hospitals. The aim of the study was to assess the imbalance between rapidly advancing technology and existing standards and to propose recommendations for new IC equipment standards. The results demonstrate the need for definitive equipment requirements and standardisation in the design, manufacture, acceptance and maintenance of IC equipment. (authors)

  15. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  16. White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis , Distribution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis , Distribution and Severity Status in East and West Wollega Zones, ... Among the insect pests attacking mango plant, white mango scale is the most devastating insect pest. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ...

  18. Genomic definition of species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  19. Definition of successful defibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.; Walker, Robert G.; van Alem, Anouk P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The definition of defibrillation shock "success" endorsed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation since the publication of Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care has been removal of ventricular fibrillation at 5 secs after shock

  20. Integral definition of the logarithmic function and the derivative of the exponential function in calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaninsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Defining the logarithmic function as a definite integral with a variable upper limit, an approach used by some popular calculus textbooks, is problematic. We discuss the disadvantages of such a definition and provide a way to fix the problem. We also consider a definition-based, rigorous derivation of the derivative of the exponential function that is easier, more intuitive, and complies with the standard definitions of the number e, the logarithmic, and the exponential functions.

  1. Explosive helium burning in white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlov, A.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1984-04-01

    Helium burning kinetics in white dwarfs has been considered at constant temperatures T >= 10/sup 9/ K and densities rho >10/sup 5/ g/cm/sup 3/. It is found, that helium detonation in white dwarfs does not lead to formation of light (A < 56) elements. Thus, helium white dwarf model for supernova 1 is inconsistent with observations.

  2. Multiculturalism, Teaching Slavery, and White Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bery, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that multiculturalism, especially when it is led and controlled by Whites, and in the absence of collective anti-racist struggles, can reproduce the ontologies, epistemologies, and practices of white supremacy. I use a case study of a reenactment of Atlantic black slavery, produced by white teachers to investigate whether…

  3. White noise excitation in a hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masataka

    1977-01-01

    In a low frequency range, a property of white noise in a hot plasma is studied experimentally. A frequency component of white noise is observed to propagate with a phase velocity which is equal to the ion accoustic wave velocity. The white noise, which is launched in a plasma, is considered as the sum of ion acoustic waves. (auth.)

  4. 77 FR 75598 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument... RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures to/from the en route environment at White Mountain... in Seattle, Washington, on November 13, 2012. Steven L. Vale, Acting Manager, Operations Support...

  5. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. White Nights rebuts Pravda claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that another Russo-foreign joint venture under attack in the Moscow press has denied charges of impropriety and mismanagement in its operations. The White Nights joint venture last month came under scathing attack from Moscow newspaper Pravda, which alleged the venture has reneged on its promises, is virtually bankrupt, and mistreats Russian employees. White Nights is a joint venture owned 50% by Varyeganneftegaz (VNG), a Russian oil and gas enterprise, and 50% by Salomon Inc. unit Phibro Energy Inc., Greenwich, Conn., and Anglo-Suisse (U.S.S.R.) Ltd., a subsidiary of Anglo-Suisse Inc., Houston. The venture started operations Apr. 1, 1991, with a program of workovers, redevelopment, and horizontal wells in West Varyegan and Tagrinsk oil fields in western Siberia

  7. [FRC measurement in intensive care patients. A definition of standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauer, H J; Lorenz, B A; Kox, W J

    1998-10-01

    Determination of Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) can be performed through washout methods, indicator gas dilution or bodyplethysmography. Some of these techniques have been adapted for use in intensive care patients whilst being mechanically ventilated. However, most measurement setups are bulky, cumbersome to use and their running costs are high. Hence FRC measurement has not become a routine method in intensive care although it offers considerable advantages in the management of ventilated patients such as the determination of "best PEEP", the detection of progressive alveolar collapse in the course of acute lung injury and during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Up to now most efforts to improve and simplify FRC measurement were made at the expense of accuracy. An ideal method ought to be accurate, easy to handle and cost-effective. It should supply not only FRC data but also information about intrapulmonary gas distribution and dead space. These demands can be met using modern data acquisition software. The pros and cons of all methods available for FRC measurement are discussed in view of their suitability for intensive care patients. A conventional nitrogen washout using emission spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen concentration gives satisfying exact values for the determination of the parameters mentioned above. The measurement error can be lowered under 5% by special corrections for flow and nitrogen signal (delay and rise times, changes of gas viscosity). For flow measurement a normal pneumotachograph can be used. Using a laptop computer for data acquisition the bed-side monitor fulfills most of the demands in intensive care. It is then also possible to measure indices of intrapulmonary gas distribution such as Alveolar Mixing Efficiency and Lung Clearance Index.

  8. The comparison of high and standard definition computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Material and methods: 28 patients with history of coronary artery disease scanned by HDCT (Discovery CT750 HD) and ... The radiation dose of HDCT was higher than that of SDCT. The mean ..... Because it is hard to find both devices in the.

  9. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Córsico, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity ...

  10. The Blue Box White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Tippett, Benjamin K; Tsang, David

    2013-01-01

    This white paper is an explanation of Ben and Dave's TARDIS time machine, written for laypeople who are interested in time travel, but have no technical knowledge of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. The first part of this paper is an introduction to the pertinent ideas from Einstein's theory of curved spacetime, followed by a review of other popular time machine spacetimes. We begin with an introduction to curvature and lightcones. We then explain the Alcubierre Warp Drive, the Morris...

  11. Black and White Women's Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to literature on ethnic identity and experiences in the workplace leadership and identity by examining how race, gender and class may confer disadvantage or bestow privilege in accessing leadership positions and enacting the role of leader. We interviewed 130 white and BME women leaders in public and private sector organisations in the UK to gather their reflections on how they defined leadership, how their identities as leaders had developed and their experiences of en...

  12. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU; B.SAI DOONDI; N. M .V .VAMSI KRISHNA; K.PRASANTHI

    2013-01-01

    India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green hous...

  13. Exploring Mathematical Definition Construction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrier-Buffet, Cecile

    2006-01-01

    The definition of "definition" cannot be taken for granted. The problem has been treated from various angles in different journals. Among other questions raised on the subject we find: the notions of "concept definition" and "concept image", conceptions of mathematical definitions, redefinitions, and from a more axiomatic point of view, how to…

  14. Making Whites from the Dark Side: Teaching Whiteness Studies at San Francisco State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Amy

    2013-01-01

    While whiteness studies at most institutions aims to expose the persistence of white supremacy to a disbelieving audience, whiteness studies within the College of Ethnic Studies (COES) at San Francisco State University (SFSU) begins with the assumption that racism still exists. The course then traces how whiteness is constructed and fortified to…

  15. Complexity in White Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    We restrict our attention to random complex systems and discuss degree their degree of complexity based on a white noise. The white noise is realized as the time derivative of a Brownian motion B(t), and denoted by Ḃ(t). The collection {Ḃ(t)}, is a system of idealized elementary variables and at the same time the system is a stochastic representation of the time t, in other words it is time-oriented. Having expressed the given evolutional random phenomena in question in terms of the Ḃ(t), we introduce the notion of spectral multiplicity, which describes how much the phenomena are complex. The multiplicity is the number of cyclic subspaces that are spanned by the given random phenomena. Each cyclic subspace has further structure. Typical property is multiple Markov property, although this property appears only particular cases. As a related property, in fact as a characteristic of a complex system, one can speak of the time reversibility and irreversibility of certain random phenomena in terms of the white noise. We expect an irreversible random complex system may be decomposed into reversible systems.

  16. White public regard: associations among eating disorder symptomatology, guilt, and White guilt in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Hubbard, Rebecca R; Tully, Carrie B; Utsey, Shawn O; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    As a novel investigation of the role of White racial identity, the current study explored the link between White guilt and disordered eating. Young adult women (N=375), 200 of whom self-identified as White. Measures assessed disordered eating, trait guilt, White guilt, and affect. White guilt is interrelated with disordered eating, particularly bulimic symptomatology. Distress tolerance and tendency to experience negative affect moderated the relation between White guilt and several disordered eating variables. Exploration of White guilt in clinical and research settings can inform understanding and treatment of disordered eating. © 2013.

  17. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais

    2013-01-01

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  18. Research misconduct definitions adopted by U.S. research institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Neal, Talicia; Raymond, Austin; Kissling, Grace E

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. federal government adopted a uniform definition of research misconduct as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism (FFP), which became effective in 2001. Institutions must apply this definition of misconduct to federally-funded research to receive funding. While institutions are free to adopt definitions of misconduct that go beyond the federal standard, it is not known how many do. We analyzed misconduct policies from 183 U.S. research institutions and coded them according to thirteen different types of behavior mentioned in the misconduct definition. We also obtained data on the institution's total research funding and public vs. private status, and the year it adopted the definition. We found that more than half (59%) of the institutions in our sample had misconduct policies that went beyond the federal standard. Other than FFP, the most common behaviors included in definitions were "other serious deviations" (45.4%), "significant or material violations of regulations" (23.0%), "misuse of confidential information" (15.8%), "misconduct related to misconduct" (14.8%), "unethical authorship other than plagiarism" (14.2%), "other deception involving data manipulation" (13.1%), and "misappropriation of property/theft" (10.4%). Significantly more definitions adopted in 2001 or later went beyond the federal standard than those adopted before 2001 (73.2% vs. 26.8%), and significantly more definitions adopted by institutions in the lower quartile of total research funding went beyond the federal standard than those adopted by institutions in the upper quartiles. Public vs. private status was not significantly associated with going beyond the federal standard.

  19. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    In a plant that employs remote handling techniques for equipment maintenance, operators perform maintenance tasks primarily by using the information from television systems. The efficiency of the television system has a significant impact on remote maintenance task performance. High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number of horizontal scan lines as standard-resolution television (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution NTSC television). The added scan lines dramatically improve the resolution of images on the HDTV monitors. This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (a) high-definition color television, (b) high-definition monochromatic television, (c) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (d) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television

  20. Lynn White Jr. and the greening-of-religion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bron; Van Wieren, Gretel; Zaleha, Bernard Daley

    2016-10-01

    Lynn White Jr.'s "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis," which was published in Science in 1967, has played a critical role in precipitating interdisciplinary environmental studies. Although White advances a multifaceted argument, most respondents focus on his claim that the Judeo-Christian tradition, especially Christianity, has promoted anthropocentric attitudes and environmentally destructive behaviors. Decades later, some scholars argue contrarily that Christianity in particular and the world's predominant religions in general are becoming more environmentally friendly, known as the greening-of-religion hypothesis. To test these claims, we conducted a comprehensive review of over 700 articles-historical, qualitative, and quantitative-that are pertinent to them. Although definitive conclusions are difficult, we identified many themes and dynamics that hinder environmental understanding and mobilization, including conservative theological orientations and beliefs about the role of divine agency in preventing or promoting natural events, whether the religion is an Abrahamic tradition or originated in Asia. On balance, we found the thrust of White's thesis is supported, whereas the greening-of-religion hypothesis is not. We also found that indigenous traditions often foster proenvironmental perceptions. This finding suggests that indigenous traditions may be more likely to be proenvironmental than other religious systems and that some nature-based cosmologies and value systems function similarly. Although we conclude White's thesis and subsequent claims are largely born out, additional research is needed to better understand under what circumstances and communication strategies religious or other individuals and groups may be more effectively mobilized to respond to contemporary environmental challenges. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  2. Different velocities in wave trains: early definitions and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Anna M

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments force us to re-examine the physical significance of the different velocities which one can introduce to describe the propagation of a wave train. In this paper we collect together the early definitions of these velocities, and their physical interpretations, dating back to the end of the 19th and to the first decades of the 20th century. Our purpose is to examine the scientific contexts in which some relevant definitions of velocities emerged, with particular attention paid to the early definitions of the group velocity. We recall some debates in which the group velocity had a dominant role, in order to follow the evolution of the physical meanings that have been ascribed to it. Finally, we focus our attention on the connection between the introduction of the group velocity and the problem of white light

  3. Engineering test facility design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, R. W.; Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is the major focus of the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Program to facilitate commercialization and to demonstrate the commercial operability of MHD/steam electric power. The ETF will be a fully integrated commercial prototype MHD power plant with a nominal output of 200 MW sub e. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations. The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.

  4. [Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: definitions and classifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Luna, M; Moreno Hernando, J; Botet Mussons, F; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Herranz Carrillo, G; Rite Gracia, S; Salguero García, E; Echaniz Urcelay, I

    2013-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common sequelae related to very low birth weight infants, mostly with those of extremely low birth weight. Even with advances in prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome associated with prematurity, there is still no decrease in the incidence in this population, although a change in its clinical expression and severity has been observed. There are, however, differences in its frequency between health centres, probably due to a non-homogeneously used clinical definition. In this article, the Committee of Standards of the Spanish Society of Neonatology wishes to review the current diagnosis criteria of bronchopulmonary dysplasia to reduce, as much as possible, these inter-centre differences. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. White dwarfs - the once and future suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1986-01-01

    The history and properties of white dwarfs (Bessel's conclusion that Sirius and Procyon have invisible companions, Clark's discovery of Sirius B, Adams and Russell's study of white dwarf spectra, Chandrasekhar's explanation of white dwarf structure by equations incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity) are treated. Formation of white dwarfs, degeneracy, binary white dwarfs (and novae and supernovae) are explained. A mystery nearly 50 years old regarding the spectrum of the star Greenwich +70 degrees-8247 has been solved: it involves a stationary line phenomenon and a magnetic field of 300-500 million gauss. Processes being studied in white dwarfs and white dwarf models include gravitational settling, accretion, dredge-up, radiation pressure, and diffusive hydrogen burning

  6. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-03-01

    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  7. A Formal Definition of VDM-SL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans; Damm, F.; Dawes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This joint report from the Danish Institute for Applied Computer Science (IFAD), the Technical Universities of Delft and Denmark and the University of Leicester contains the background and technical material used in the production of the ISO Standard that defines the specification language part...... and reviewers of the project - these changes have improved the style and technical correctness of the formal definitions used to define VDM-SL....

  8. Site of delivery contribution to black-white severe maternal morbidity disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Egorova, Natalia N; Balbierz, Amy; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Hebert, Paul L

    2016-08-01

    The black-white maternal mortality disparity is the largest disparity among all conventional population perinatal health measures, and the mortality gap between black and white women in New York City has nearly doubled in recent years. For every maternal death, 100 women experience severe maternal morbidity, a life-threatening diagnosis, or undergo a life-saving procedure during their delivery hospitalization. Like maternal mortality, severe maternal morbidity is more common among black than white women. A significant portion of maternal morbidity and mortality is preventable, making quality of care in hospitals a critical lever for improving outcomes. Hospital variation in risk-adjusted severe maternal morbidity rates exists. The extent to which variation in hospital performance on severe maternal morbidity rates contributes to black-white disparities in New York City hospitals has not been studied. We examined the extent to which black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity rates in New York City hospitals can be explained by differences in the hospitals in which black and white women deliver. We conducted a population-based study using linked 2011-2013 New York City discharge and birth certificate datasets (n = 353,773 deliveries) to examine black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity rates in New York City hospitals. A mixed-effects logistic regression with a random hospital-specific intercept was used to generate risk-standardized severe maternal morbidity rates for each hospital (n = 40). We then assessed differences in the distributions of black and white deliveries among these hospitals. Severe maternal morbidity occurred in 8882 deliveries (2.5%) and was higher among black than white women (4.2% vs 1.5%, P rates among New York City hospitals ranged from 0.8 to 5.7 per 100 deliveries. White deliveries were more likely to be delivered in low-morbidity hospitals: 65% of white vs 23% of black deliveries occurred in hospitals in the lowest

  9. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-11 - Subcontracts (Labor Standards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Subcontracts (Labor Standards) (JUL 2005) (a) Definition. Construction, alteration or repair, as used in this... dedicated to the construction of the building or work and is deemed part of the site of the work within the meaning of paragraph (2) of the “site of work” definition; and (5) Transportation of portions of the...

  11. Standardizing the Term "Strategy" in Retail and Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Strategy is a key concept in retail and business education. Yet, this important term has evolved to include many definitions, which can create confusion in the classroom environment. This paper proposes a standardized use of the term "strategy" in retail and business classrooms. It suggests a focused definition of strategy as "the…

  12. COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING: OVERVIEW OF MODERN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Рupena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with modern international standards ISA-95 and ISA-88 on the development of computer inegreted manufacturing. It is shown scope of standards in the context of a hierarchical model of the enterprise. Article is built in such a way to describe the essence of the standards in the light of the basic descriptive models: product definition, resources, schedules and actual performance of industrial activity. Description of the product definition is given by hierarchical presentation of products at various levels of management. Much attention is given to describe this type of resources like equipment, which is logical chain to all these standards. For example, the standard batch process control shows the relationship between the definition of product and equipment on which it is made. The article shows the hierarchy of planning ERP-MES / MOM-SCADA (in terms of standard ISA-95, which traces the decomposition of common production plans of enterprises for specific works at APCS. We consider the appointment of the actual performance of production at MES / MOM considering KPI. Generalized picture of operational activity on a level MES / MOM is shown via general circuit diagrams of the relationship of activities and information flows between the functions. The article is finished by a substantiation of necessity of distribution, approval and development of standards ISA-88 and ISA-95 in Ukraine. The article is an overview and can be useful to specialists in computer-integrated systems control and management of industrial enterprises, system integrators and suppliers.

  13. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ITER definition phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned as a fusion device which would demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. As a first step towards achieving this goal, the European Community, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America have entered into joint conceptual design activities under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. A brief summary of the Definition Phase of ITER activities is contained in this report. Included in this report are the background, objectives, organization, definition phase activities, and research and development plan of this endeavor in international scientific collaboration. A more extended technical summary is contained in the two-volume report, ''ITER Concept Definition,'' IAEA/ITER/DS/3. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Survey Helps Class to See, Understand Local Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Steve

    1986-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which students interview various groups of citizens--church leaders, school officials, government and business leaders--in order to give students a broader understanding of the definitions of obscenity and community standards. (HTH)

  16. Prebiotics: why definitions matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term. PMID:26431716

  17. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Berstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F.; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib

    2016-01-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town mee...

  18. Keeping Minorities Happy: Hierarchy Maintenance and Whites' Decreased Support for Highly Identified White Politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sora; Lowery, Brian S; Guillory, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that, to avoid provoking minorities, Whites will withhold their support for White political candidates who are highly identified with their race. In Study 1, we found that White Republicans were less supportive of White candidates the higher the perceived White identity of the candidate due to beliefs that such candidates would provoke racial minorities. In Study 2, we replicated this effect with a manipulation of candidates' White identity. Study 3 found that Whites reported less support for high-identity candidates when they were led to believe that the hierarchy was unstable rather than stable. Consistent with our hypothesis that those who have the most to lose are most likely to avoid provoking minorities, in Study 4, we found that Whites with high subjective socioeconomic status (SES) varied their support for provocative White candidates as a function of hierarchy stability, whereas those with low subjective SES did not.

  19. Impacts of Policies on Poverty: The Definition of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how poverty can be defined in the context of policy impact analysis. After reporting and discussing the definition of poverty as “the lack of, or the inability to achieve, a socially acceptable standard of living”, it discusses the mono-dimensional and multi-dimensional approaches to the definition of poverty. Furthermore, the module focuses on the absolute and the relative concept of poverty, also drawing some analogies and differences with the concept of food secu...

  20. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  1. Consensus Based Definition of Growth Restriction in the Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beune, Irene M; Bloomfield, Frank H; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Embleton, Nicholas D; Rozance, Paul J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wynia, Klaske; Gordijn, Sanne J

    2018-05-01

    To develop a consensus definition of growth restriction in the newborn that can be used clinically to identify newborn infants at risk and in research to harmonize reporting and definition in the current absence of a gold standard. An international panel of pediatric leaders in the field of neonatal growth were invited to participate in an electronic Delphi procedure using standardized methods and predefined consensus rules. Responses were fed back at group-level and the list of participants was provided. Nonresponders were excluded from subsequent rounds. In the first round, variables were scored on a 5-point Likert scale; in subsequent rounds, inclusion of variables and cut-offs were determined with a 70% level of agreement. In the final round participants selected the ultimate algorithm. In total, 57 experts participated in the first round; 79% completed the procedure. Consensus was reached on the following definition: birth weight less than the third percentile, or 3 out of the following: birth weight definition for growth restriction in the newborn. This definition recognizes that infants with birth weights 10th percentile can be growth restricted. This definition can be adopted in clinical practice and in clinical trials to better focus on newborns at risk, and is complementary to the previously determined definition of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... published on October 23, 2013. That final rule adopted changes to definitions and energy conservation... revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct high velocity central air... Congress has provided in the AEMTCA for the Secretary of Energy to revise definitions and energy...

  3. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... assistance programs, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred to as size standards) for... million should be the limit of a small business definition and anything larger than that, such as that SBA... Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632(a)) (Act) requires that small business size definitions vary to reflect...

  4. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... eligibility for Federal small business assistance, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred... operation; and (3) within a specific small business definition or size standard established by SBA... to SBA's Administrator the responsibility for establishing small business definitions. The Act also...

  5. Smoking Topography in Korean American and White Men: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study of Korean Americans’ smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. population. Methods Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 hours. Results Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p < 0.001) and have lower Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.04). Koreans smoked fewer cigarettes with the device (p = 0.01) than Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p < 0.001) than Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking more frequently with greater puff flows than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day. PMID:24068611

  6. White rice consumption and CVD risk factors among Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Asgari, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-06-01

    Association between white rice intake and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases remained uncertain. Most of the previous published studies have been done in western countries with different lifestyles, and scant data are available from the Middle East region, including Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the structure of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) to assess the association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, 3,006 men were included from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak by multistage cluster random-sampling method. Dietary intake was assessed with a 49-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Laboratory assessment was done in a standardized central laboratory. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and anthropometric variables. Socioeconomic and demographic data, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were considered covariates and were adjusted in analysis. In this study, Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Means of BMI among those subjects who consumed white rice less than 7 times per week and people who consumed 7-14 times per week were almost similar--24.8 +/- 4.3 vs 24.5 +/- 4.7 kg/m2. There was no significant association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as fasting blood sugar arid serum lipid profiles. Although whole grain consumption has undeniable effect on preventing cardiovascular disease risk, white rice consumption was not associated with cardiovascular risks among Iranian men in the present study. Further prospective studies with a semi-quantitative FFQ or dietary record questionnaire, representing type and portion-size of rice intake as well as cooking methods and other foods consumed with rice that affect glycaemic index (GI) of rice, are required to support our finding and to illustrate the probable mechanism.

  7. The integration of FPGA TDC inside White Rabbit node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Xue, T.; Gong, G.; Li, J.

    2017-01-01

    White Rabbit technology is capable of delivering sub-nanosecond accuracy and picosecond precision of synchronization and normal data packets over the fiber network. Carry chain structure in FPGA is a popular way to build TDC and tens of picosecond RMS resolution has been achieved. The integration of WR technology with FPGA TDC can enhance and simplify the TDC in many aspects that includes providing a low jitter clock for TDC, a synchronized absolute UTC/TAI timestamp for coarse counter, a fancy way to calibrate the carry chain DNL and an easy to use Ethernet link for data and control information transmit. This paper presents a FPGA TDC implemented inside a normal White Rabbit node with sub-nanosecond measurement precision. The measured standard deviation reaches 50ps between two distributed TDCs. Possible applications of this distributed TDC are also discussed.

  8. The integration of FPGA TDC inside White Rabbit node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Xue, T.; Gong, G.; Li, J.

    2017-04-01

    White Rabbit technology is capable of delivering sub-nanosecond accuracy and picosecond precision of synchronization and normal data packets over the fiber network. Carry chain structure in FPGA is a popular way to build TDC and tens of picosecond RMS resolution has been achieved. The integration of WR technology with FPGA TDC can enhance and simplify the TDC in many aspects that includes providing a low jitter clock for TDC, a synchronized absolute UTC/TAI timestamp for coarse counter, a fancy way to calibrate the carry chain DNL and an easy to use Ethernet link for data and control information transmit. This paper presents a FPGA TDC implemented inside a normal White Rabbit node with sub-nanosecond measurement precision. The measured standard deviation reaches 50ps between two distributed TDCs. Possible applications of this distributed TDC are also discussed.

  9. The white paper on radiation protection at Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, P.

    1996-01-01

    The general public is increasingly interested in questions concerning the environment, and people are particularly sensitive to the consequences arising from the operation of nuclear power plants. Radiation protection standards are becoming increasingly stringent: recommendations drafted in 1990 by ICRP (ICRP 60) will soon be applied on a general scale. In this context, EDF became aware of a deterioration in the results of dosimetry monitoring in its plants (an increase in the collective dose per nuclear power unit from 1989). This encouraged the company to undertake a critical analysis of the situation, and to comprehensively rethink all the questions linked to radiation protection. This work led to the publication of the White Paper on Radiation Protection in mid-1993. The White Paper deals with various aspects: - medical and biological fundamentals, - worker protection, -protection of the public and the environment, - information provision and training, - emergency situations. (author)

  10. Comparison of energy efficiency incentive programs: Rebates and white certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Transue, Morghan; Felder, Frank A. [Center for Energy, Economic, and Environmental Policy, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    With increased interest in energy efficiency in recent years, energy efficiency portfolio standards (EEPS) have gained popularity in state policymaking. This analysis employed New Jersey specific data to compare two incentive based approaches to EEPS implementation: rebates and white certificates. Quantitative modeling suggests that white certificate approaches that depend on market-clearing prices generate much larger upfront incentive outlays than rebate programs. They do not however increase societal burden. Both programs overcome high upfront efficiency measure costs and both recoup the expenses over the long run. Administration costs and participation rates can affect this dynamic however and require additional research to determine which approaches are most cost effective for various energy efficiency measures. (author)

  11. Physics of white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, D.; Chanmugam, G. (Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    White dwarf stars, compact objects with extremely high interior densities, are the most common end product in the evolution of stars. In this paper we review the history of their discovery, and of the realisation that their structure is determined by the physics of the degenerate electron gas. Spectral types and surface chemical composition show a complicated pattern dominated by diffusion processes and their interaction with accretion, convection and mass loss. While this interaction is not completely understood in all its detail at present, the study may ultimately lead to important constraints on the theory of stellar evolution in general. Variability, caused by non-radial oscillations of the star, is a common phenomenon and is shown to be a powerful probe of the structure of deeper layers that are not directly accessible to observation. Very strong magnetic fields detected in a small fraction of white dwarfs offer a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of atoms under conditions that cannot be simulated in terrestrial laboratories. (author).

  12. Standards and Guidelines for HIV Prevention Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    While international standards are important for conducting clinical research, they may require interpretation in particular contexts. ... également la justice et la bonne sélection des participants à l'étude, sans compromettre la qualité des données, et de s'assurer que .... definition of adulthood using the Nigeria Labour. Law Act ...

  13. A Case for Standards of Counseling Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    A mature counseling profession has entered the decade of the 1990s. Several factors including professionalism, accountability, health care consumerism, credentialism, and public demands for quality mental health care indicate a need for more definitive statements on standards of practice in counseling. In response to this need, an eight-point…

  14. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  15. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  16. Center of buoyancy definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, V.

    1988-12-01

    The center of buoyancy of an arbitrary shaped body is defined in analogy to the center of gravity. The definitions of the buoyant force and center of buoyancy in terms of integrals over the area of the body are converted to volume integrals and shown to have simple intuitive interpretations

  17. VSCE technology definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.; Hunt, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Refined design definition of the variable stream control engine (VSCE) concept for advanced supersonic transports is presented. Operating and performance features of the VSCE are discussed, including the engine components, thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, noise, and emission system. A preliminary engine design is presented.

  18. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  19. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  20. Definition of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Forward, 2015

    2015-01-01

    President Obama signed into law the Every Student Succeeds Act, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, on December 10, 2015. "Learning Forward's focus in this new law is its improved definition of professional learning," said Stephanie Hirsh, executive director of Learning Forward. "We've long advocated…