WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard curves relating

  1. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  2. DAG expression: high-throughput gene expression analysis of real-time PCR data using standard curves for relative quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ballester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR is still the gold-standard technique for gene-expression quantification. Recent technological advances of this method allow for the high-throughput gene-expression analysis, without the limitations of sample space and reagent used. However, non-commercial and user-friendly software for the management and analysis of these data is not available. RESULTS: The recently developed commercial microarrays allow for the drawing of standard curves of multiple assays using the same n-fold diluted samples. Data Analysis Gene (DAG Expression software has been developed to perform high-throughput gene-expression data analysis using standard curves for relative quantification and one or multiple reference genes for sample normalization. We discuss the application of DAG Expression in the analysis of data from an experiment performed with Fluidigm technology, in which 48 genes and 115 samples were measured. Furthermore, the quality of our analysis was tested and compared with other available methods. CONCLUSIONS: DAG Expression is a freely available software that permits the automated analysis and visualization of high-throughput qPCR. A detailed manual and a demo-experiment are provided within the DAG Expression software at http://www.dagexpression.com/dage.zip.

  3. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  4. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  5. On ``minimally curved spacetimes'' in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh

    1997-01-01

    We consider a spacetime corresponding to uniform relativistic potential analogus to Newtonian potential as an example of ``minimally curved spacetime''. We also consider a radially symmetric analogue of the Rindler spacetime of uniform proper acceleration relative to infinity.

  6. Scinfi, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-01-01

    A code, Scinfi, was developed, written in Basic, to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3 H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3 H and the problem (e.g. 14 C). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14 C. Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have been checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14 C standardized samples. (author)

  7. SCINFI, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-01-01

    A code, SCINFI, was developed, written in BASIC, to compute the efficiency- quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3H and the problem (e.g. 14 C ). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14 c . Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have bean checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14 c standardized samples. (Author)

  8. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  9. Exponential models applied to automated processing of radioimmunoassay standard curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, J.F.; Savina, A.; Caroff, J.; Miossec, J.; Legendre, J.M.; Jacolot, G.; Morin, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved computer processing is described for fitting of radio-immunological standard curves by means of an exponential model on a desk-top calculator. This method has been applied to a variety of radioassays and the results are in accordance with those obtained by more sophisticated models [fr

  10. Historical Cost Curves for Hydrogen Masers and Cesium Beam Frequency and Timing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.; Moore, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Historical cost curves were developed for hydrogen masers and cesium beam standards used for frequency and timing calibration in the Deep Space Network. These curves may be used to calculate the cost of future hydrogen masers or cesium beam standards in either future or current dollars. The cesium beam standards are decreasing in cost by about 2.3% per year since 1966, and hydrogen masers are decreasing by about 0.8% per year since 1978 relative to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration inflation index.

  11. SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1985-07-01

    A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3{sup H} and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3{sup H} and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14{sup C}. The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1985-01-01

    A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3 H and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3 H and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14 C . The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs

  13. The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Uwe G; Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Jacobsen, Anna L; Sperry, John S; Pratt, R Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The standard centrifuge method has been frequently used to measure vulnerability to xylem cavitation. This method has recently been questioned. It was hypothesized that open vessels lead to exponential vulnerability curves, which were thought to be indicative of measurement artifact. We tested this hypothesis in stems of olive (Olea europea) because its long vessels were recently claimed to produce a centrifuge artifact. We evaluated three predictions that followed from the open vessel artifact hypothesis: shorter stems, with more open vessels, would be more vulnerable than longer stems; standard centrifuge-based curves would be more vulnerable than dehydration-based curves; and open vessels would cause an exponential shape of centrifuge-based curves. Experimental evidence did not support these predictions. Centrifuge curves did not vary when the proportion of open vessels was altered. Centrifuge and dehydration curves were similar. At highly negative xylem pressure, centrifuge-based curves slightly overestimated vulnerability compared to the dehydration curve. This divergence was eliminated by centrifuging each stem only once. The standard centrifuge method produced accurate curves of samples containing open vessels, supporting the validity of this technique and confirming its utility in understanding plant hydraulics. Seven recommendations for avoiding artefacts and standardizing vulnerability curve methodology are provided. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. herd levels and standard lactation curves for south african jersey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein. 34.2. 370.7. 148.1. 37.6. 31.3. 482.8. 191.1. 53.8. According to the standard deviations in Table 1, much more variation exists for 305-day yields of. Holstein cows in comparison with Jersey cows, resulting in upper limits of herd levels ranging from 3487.7 kg to more than 11 219.2 kg for adjusted 305-day milk yield, ...

  15. Mathematics of quantitative kinetic PCR and the application of standard curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, R G; Côté, C

    2003-08-15

    Fluorescent monitoring of DNA amplification is the basis of real-time PCR, from which target DNA concentration can be determined from the fractional cycle at which a threshold amount of amplicon DNA is produced. Absolute quantification can be achieved using a standard curve constructed by amplifying known amounts of target DNA. In this study, the mathematics of quantitative PCR are examined in detail, from which several fundamental aspects of the threshold method and the application of standard curves are illustrated. The construction of five replicate standard curves for two pairs of nested primers was used to examine the reproducibility and degree of quantitative variation using SYBER Green I fluorescence. Based upon this analysis the application of a single, well- constructed standard curve could provide an estimated precision of +/-6-21%, depending on the number of cycles required to reach threshold. A simplified method for absolute quantification is also proposed, in which quantitative scale is determined by DNA mass at threshold.

  16. Research on Standard and Automatic Judgment of Press-fit Curve of Locomotive Wheel-set Based on AAR Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xiao, Jun; Gao, Dong Jun; Zong, Shu Yu; Li, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    In the production of the Association of American Railroads (AAR) locomotive wheel-set, the press-fit curve is the most important basis for the reliability of wheel-set assembly. In the past, Most of production enterprises mainly use artificial detection methods to determine the quality of assembly. There are cases of miscarriage of justice appear. For this reason, the research on the standard is carried out. And the automatic judgment of press-fit curve is analysed and designed, so as to provide guidance for the locomotive wheel-set production based on AAR standard.

  17. SCINFI, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting; SCINFI, un programa para calcular la curva de calibracion eficiencia-extincion en centelleo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-07-01

    A code, SCINFI, was developed, written in BASIC, to compute the efficiency- quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3H and the problem (e.g. 14{sup C}). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14{sup c}. Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have bean checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14{sup c} standardized samples. (Author)

  18. Standardized Percentile Curves of Body Mass Index of Northeast Iranian Children Aged 25 to 60 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdadi, Maryam; Safarian, Mohammad; Doosti, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Growth charts are widely used to assess children's growth status and can provide a trajectory of growth during early important months of life. Racial differences necessitate using local growth charts. This study aimed to provide standardized growth curves of body mass index (BMI) for children living in northeast Iran. Methods A total of 23730 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 25 to 60 months recruited for 20 days from those attending community clinics for routine health checks. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained health staff using WHO methodology. The LMSP method with maximum penalized likelihood, the Generalized Additive Models, the Box-Cox power exponential distribution distribution, Akaike Information Criteria and Generalized Akaike Criteria with penalty equal to 3 [GAIC(3)], and Worm plot and Q-tests as goodness of fit tests were used to construct the centile reference charts. Findings The BMI centile curves for boys and girls aged 25 to 60 months were drawn utilizing a population of children living in northeast Iran. Conclusion The results of the current study demonstrate the possibility of preparation of local growth charts and their importance in evaluating children's growth. Also their differences, relative to those prepared by global references, reflect the necessity of preparing local charts in future studies using longitudinal data. PMID:23056770

  19. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  1. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  2. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery in learning curve: Role of implementation of a standardized technique and recovery protocol. A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Luglio

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Proper laparoscopic colorectal surgery is safe and leads to excellent results in terms of recovery and short term outcomes, even in a learning curve setting. Key factors for better outcomes and shortening the learning curve seem to be the adoption of a standardized technique and training model along with the strict supervision of an expert colorectal surgeon.

  3. Analysis of RIA standard curve by log-logistic and cubic log-logit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hideo; Kuroda, Akira; Yatabe, Tami; Inaba, Taeko; Chiba, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    In order to improve goodness-of-fit in RIA standard analysis, programs for computing log-logistic and cubic log-logit were written in BASIC using personal computer P-6060 (Olivetti). Iterative least square method of Taylor series was applied for non-linear estimation of logistic and log-logistic. Hear ''log-logistic'' represents Y = (a - d)/(1 + (log(X)/c)sup(b)) + d As weights either 1, 1/var(Y) or 1/σ 2 were used in logistic or log-logistic and either Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 , Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /var(Y), or Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /σ 2 were used in quadratic or cubic log-logit. The term var(Y) represents squares of pure error and σ 2 represents estimated variance calculated using a following equation log(σ 2 + 1) = log(A) + J log(y). As indicators for goodness-of-fit, MSL/S sub(e)sup(2), CMD% and WRV (see text) were used. Better regression was obtained in case of alpha-fetoprotein by log-logistic than by logistic. Cortisol standard curve was much better fitted with cubic log-logit than quadratic log-logit. Predicted precision of AFP standard curve was below 5% in log-logistic in stead of 8% in logistic analysis. Predicted precision obtained using cubic log-logit was about five times lower than that with quadratic log-logit. Importance of selecting good models in RIA data processing was stressed in conjunction with intrinsic precision of radioimmunoassay system indicated by predicted precision. (author)

  4. Status on the selection and development of an embrittlement trend curve to use in ASTM standard guide E900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.; Brian Hall, J.; Server, W.; Lucon, E.; Erickson, M.; Stoller, R.

    2015-01-01

    ASTM E900-07, Standard Guide for Predicting Radiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shift in Reactor Vessel Materials, includes an embrittlement trend curve. The trend curve can be used to predict the effect of neutron irradiation on the embrittlement of ferritic pressure vessel steels, as quantified by the shift in the Charpy V-Notch transition curve at 41 Joules of absorbed energy (ΔT 41J ). The current E900 trend curve was first adopted in the 2002 revision. In 2011 ASTM Subcommittee E10.02 undertook an extensive effort to evaluate the adequacy of the E900 trend curve for continued use. This paper summarizes the current status of this effort, which has produced a trend curve calibrated using a database of over 1800 ΔT 41J values from the light water reactor surveillance programs in thirteen countries. (authors)

  5. The 1-loop effective potential for the Standard Model in curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Nurmi, Sami; Rajantie, Arttu; Stopyra, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    The renormalisation group improved Standard Model effective potential in an arbitrary curved spacetime is computed to one loop order in perturbation theory. The loop corrections are computed in the ultraviolet limit, which makes them independent of the choice of the vacuum state and allows the derivation of the complete set of β-functions. The potential depends on the spacetime curvature through the direct non-minimal Higgs-curvature coupling, curvature contributions to the loop diagrams, and through the curvature dependence of the renormalisation scale. Together, these lead to significant curvature dependence, which needs to be taken into account in cosmological applications, which is demonstrated with the example of vacuum stability in de Sitter space.

  6. Sector models—A toolkit for teaching general relativity: I. Curved spaces and spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, C; Kraus, U

    2014-01-01

    Teaching the general theory of relativity to high school or undergraduate students must be based on an approach that is conceptual rather than mathematical. In this paper we present such an approach that requires no more than elementary mathematics. The central idea of this introduction to general relativity is the use of so-called sector models. Sector models describe curved spaces the Regge calculus way by subdivision into blocks with euclidean geometry. This procedure is similar to the approximation of a curved surface by flat triangles. We outline a workshop for high school and undergraduate students that introduces the notion of curved space by means of sector models of black holes. We further describe the extension to sector models of curved spacetimes. The spacetime models are suitable for learners with a basic knowledge of special relativity. The teaching materials presented in this paper are available online for teaching purposes at www.spacetimetravel.org. (paper)

  7. Evaluation of pyrolysis curves for volatile elements in aqueous standards and carbon-containing matrices in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, B. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.t.c.deloos-vollebregt@tudelft.nl

    2008-07-15

    Pyrolysis curves in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) have been compared for As, Se and Pb in lobster hepatopancreas certified reference material using Pd/Mg as the modifier. The ET AAS pyrolysis curves confirm that the analytes are not lost from the graphite furnace up to a pyrolysis temperature of 800 deg. C. Nevertheless, a downward slope of the pyrolysis curve was observed for these elements in the biological material using ETV-ICP-MS. This could be related to a gain of sensitivity at low pyrolysis temperatures due to the matrix, which can act as carrier and/or promote changes in the plasma ionization equilibrium. Experiments with the addition of ascorbic acid to the aqueous standards confirmed that the higher intensities obtained in ETV-ICP-MS are related to the presence of organic compounds in the slurry. Pyrolysis curves for As, Se and Pb in coal and coal fly ash were also investigated using the same Pd/Mg modifier. Carbon intensities were measured in all samples using different pyrolysis temperatures. It was observed that pyrolysis curves for the three analytes in all slurry samples were similar to the corresponding graphs that show the carbon intensity for the same slurries for pyrolysis temperatures from 200 deg. C up to 1000 deg. C.

  8. Nonlinear method for including the mass uncertainty of standards and the system measurement errors in the fitting of calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; McClure, J.W.; Howell, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    A sophisticated nonlinear multiparameter fitting program was used to produce a best fit calibration curve for the response of an x-ray fluorescence analyzer to uranium nitrate, freeze dried, 0.2% accurate, gravimetric standards. The program is based on unconstrained minimization subroutine, VA02A. The program considers the mass values of the gravimetric standards as parameters to be fit along with the normal calibration curve parameters. The fitting procedure weights with the system errors and the mass errors in a consistent way. The resulting best fit calibration curve parameters reflect the fact that the masses of the standard samples are measured quantities with a known error. Error estimates for the calibration curve parameters can be obtained from the curvature of the ''Chi-Squared Matrix'' or from error relaxation techniques. It was shown that nondispersive XRFA of 0.1 to 1 mg freeze-dried UNO 3 can have an accuracy of 0.2% in 1000 s. 5 figures

  9. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  10. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wright meets Markowitz: How standard portfolio theory changes when assets are technologies following experience curves

    OpenAIRE

    Way, Rupert; Lafond, François; Farmer, J. Doyne; Lillo, Fabrizio; Panchenko, Valentyn

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers how to optimally allocate investments in a portfolio of competing technologies. We introduce a simple model representing the underlying trade-off - between investing enough effort in any one project to spur rapid progress, and diversifying effort over many projects simultaneously to hedge against failure. We use stochastic experience curves to model the idea that investing more in a technology reduces its unit costs, and we use a mean-variance objective function to unders...

  12. Influence of the curve density relative electron in dosimetry clinic in treatments stereo tactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Parra Osorio, V.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Garcia Pareja, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the difference between clinical dosimetry in the treatments with radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy fractional obtained from the relative Electron density curve (Schneider 1996) tabulated and provided with the scanner's radiation therapy. (Author)

  13. Towards standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcubierre, Miguel; Allen, Gabrielle; Bona, Carles; Fiske, David; Goodale, Tom; Guzman, F Siddhartha; Hawke, Ian; Hawley, Scott H; Husa, Sascha; Koppitz, Michael; Lechner, Christiane; Pollney, Denis; Rideout, David; Salgado, Marcelo; Schnetter, Erik; Seidel, Edward; Shinkai, Hisa-aki; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Szilagyi, Bela; Takahashi, Ryoji; Winicour, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many different numerical evolution schemes for Einstein's equations have been proposed to address stability and accuracy problems that have plagued the numerical relativity community for decades. Some of these approaches have been tested on different spacetimes, and conclusions have been drawn based on these tests. However, differences in results originate from many sources, including not only formulations of the equations, but also gauges, boundary conditions, numerical methods and so on. We propose to build up a suite of standardized testbeds for comparing approaches to the numerical evolution of Einstein's equations that are designed to both probe their strengths and weaknesses and to separate out different effects, and their causes, seen in the results. We discuss general design principles of suitable testbeds, and we present an initial round of simple tests with periodic boundary conditions. This is a pivotal first step towards building a suite of testbeds to serve the numerical relativists and researchers from related fields who wish to assess the capabilities of numerical relativity codes. We present some examples of how these tests can be quite effective in revealing various limitations of different approaches, and illustrating their differences. The tests are presently limited to vacuum spacetimes, can be run on modest computational resources and can be used with many different approaches used in the relativity community

  14. Towards standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcubierre, Miguel [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico); Allen, Gabrielle; Goodale, Tom; Guzman, F Siddhartha; Hawke, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Koppitz, Michael; Lechner, Christiane; Pollney, Denis; Rideout, David [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Bona, Carles [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Ctra de Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Fiske, David [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Hawley, Scott H [Center for Relativity, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Salgado, Marcelo [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico); Schnetter, Erik [Inst. fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Seidel, Edward [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Inst., 14476 Golm (Germany); Shinkai, Hisa-aki [Computational Science Div., Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shoemaker, Deirdre [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Szilagyi, Bela [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Takahashi, Ryoji [Theoretical Astrophysics Center, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, (Denmark); Winicour, Jeff [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-01-21

    In recent years, many different numerical evolution schemes for Einstein's equations have been proposed to address stability and accuracy problems that have plagued the numerical relativity community for decades. Some of these approaches have been tested on different spacetimes, and conclusions have been drawn based on these tests. However, differences in results originate from many sources, including not only formulations of the equations, but also gauges, boundary conditions, numerical methods and so on. We propose to build up a suite of standardized testbeds for comparing approaches to the numerical evolution of Einstein's equations that are designed to both probe their strengths and weaknesses and to separate out different effects, and their causes, seen in the results. We discuss general design principles of suitable testbeds, and we present an initial round of simple tests with periodic boundary conditions. This is a pivotal first step towards building a suite of testbeds to serve the numerical relativists and researchers from related fields who wish to assess the capabilities of numerical relativity codes. We present some examples of how these tests can be quite effective in revealing various limitations of different approaches, and illustrating their differences. The tests are presently limited to vacuum spacetimes, can be run on modest computational resources and can be used with many different approaches used in the relativity community.

  15. A simple preparation of calibration curve standards of 134Cs and 137Cs by serial dilution of a standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two sets of calibration standards for 134 Cs and 137 Cs were prepared by small serial dilution of a natural matrix standard reference material, IAEA-154 whey powder. The first set was intended to screen imported milk powders which were suspected to be contaminated with 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Their concentration ranged from 40 to 400 Bq/kg. The other set of calibration standards was prepared to measure the environmental levels of 137 Cs in commercial Venezuelan milk powders. Their concentration ranged from 3 to 10 Bq/kg of 137 Cs. The accuracy of these calibration curves was checked by IAEA-152 and A-14 milk powders. Their measured values were in good agreement with their certified values. Finally, it is shown that these preparation techniques using serial dilution of a standard reference material were simple, rapid, precise, accurate and cost-effective. (author) 5 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Determination of the saturation curve of a primary standard for low energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Poledna, Roberto; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.

    2003-01-01

    Thr free air is the well recognized as the primary standard for the measurement of kerma in the air due to his characteristics to perform the absolute measurements of that entity according to definitions. Therefore, the Institute for Radioprotection and dosimetry - IRD, Brazil used for his implantation a free air cylindrical ionization chamber. Initially, a mechanical characterization was performed for verification as a primary standard. This paper will proceed a full detailed description the point operation of 2000 V found for that chamber and her saturation coefficient

  17. Construction of the World Health Organization child growth standards: Selection of methods for attained growth curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghi, E.; Onis, M. de; Garza, C.; Broeck, J. van den; Frongillo, E.A.; Grummer-Strawn, L.; Buuren, S. van; Pan, H.; Molinari, L.; Martorell, R.; Onyango, A.W.; Martines, J.C.; Pinol, A.; Siyam, A.; Victoria, C.G.; Bhan, M.K.; Araújo, C.L.; Lartey, A.; Owusu, W.B.; Bhandari, N.; Norum, K.R.; Bjoerneboe, G.-E.Aa.; Mohamed, A.J.; Dewey, K.G.; Belbase, K.; Chumlea, C.; Cole, T.; Shrimpton, R.; Albernaz, E.; Tomasi, E.; Cássia Fossati da Silveira, R. de; Nader, G.; Sagoe-Moses, I.; Gomez, V.; Sagoe-Moses, C.; Taneja, S.; Rongsen, T.; Chetia, J.; Sharma, P.; Bahl, R.; Baerug, A.; Tufte, E.; Alasfoor, D.; Prakash, N.S.; Mabry, R.M.; Al Rajab, H.J.; Helmi, S.A.; Nommsen-Rivers, L.A.; Cohen, R.J.; Heinig, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with a number of research institutions worldwide, is developing new child growth standards. As part of a broad consultative process for selecting the best statistical methods, WHO convened a group of statisticians and child growth experts to

  18. Exact Descriptions of General Relativity Derived from Newtonian Mechanics within Curved Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, David

    2015-04-01

    General relativity and Newtonian mechanics are shown to be exactly related when Newton's second law is written in a curved geometry by using the physical components of a vector as is defined in tensor calculus. By replacing length within the momentum's velocity by the vector metric in a curved geometry the second law can then be shown to be exactly identical to the geodesic equation of motion occurring in general relativity. When time's vector direction is constant, as similarly occurs in Newtonian mechanics, this equation can be reduced to a curved three-dimensional equation of motion that yields the the Schwarzschild equations of motion for an isolated particle. They can be used to describe gravitational behavior for any array of masses for which the Newtonian gravitational potential is known, and is shown to describe a mass particle's behavior in the gravitational field of a thin mass-rod. This use of Newton's laws allows relativistic behavior to be described in a physically comprehensible manner. D. Savickas, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 23 1430018, (2014).

  19. Monitoring pulmonary function with superimposed pulmonary gas exchange curves from standard analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Harvey A; Noe, Frances E; Szalados, James E; Goodrich, Michael D; Busby, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    A repetitive graphic display of the single breath pulmonary function can indicate changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology brought on by clinical events. Parallel advances in computer technology and monitoring make real-time, single breath pulmonary function clinically practicable. We describe a system built from a commercially available airway gas monitor and off the shelf computer and data-acquisition hardware. Analog data for gas flow rate, O2, and CO2 concentrations are introduced into a computer through an analog-to-digital conversion board. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) are calculated for each breath. Inspired minus expired concentrations for O2 and CO2 are displayed simultaneously with the expired gas flow rate curve for each breath. Dead-space and alveolar ventilation are calculated for each breath and readily appreciated from the display. Graphs illustrating the function of the system are presented for the following clinical scenarios; upper airway obstruction, bronchospasm, bronchopleural fistula, pulmonary perfusion changes and inadequate oxygen delivery. This paper describes a real-time, single breath pulmonary monitoring system that displays three parameters graphed against time: expired flow rate, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production. This system allows for early and rapid recognition of treatable conditions that may lead to adverse events without any additional patient measurements or invasive procedures. Monitoring systems similar to the one described in this paper may lead to a higher level of patient safety without any additional patient risk.

  20. Standard definitions of terms relating to dosimetry - approved standard 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions are presented for terms related to radiation dosimetry. These definitions are the same as, or similar to, those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) as presented in the National Bureau of Sandards Handbook 62, but attempt has been made to define some of the terms more exactly

  1. Standards for Educational Public Relations and Communications Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, Marsha A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)

  2. General Relativity Exactly Described by Use of Newton's Laws within a Curved Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, David

    2014-03-01

    The connection between general relativity and Newtonian mechanics is shown to be much closer than generally recognized. When Newton's second law is written in a curved geometry by using the physical components of a vector as defined in tensor calculus, and by replacing distance within the momentum's velocity by the vector metric ds in a curved geometry, the second law can then be easily shown to be exactly identical to the geodesic equation of motion occurring in general relativity. By using a time whose vector direction is constant, as similarly occurs in Newtonian mechanics, this equation can be separated into two equations one of which is a curved three-dimensional equation of motion and the other is an equation for energy. For the gravitational field of an isolated particle, they yield the Schwarzschild equations. They can be used to describe gravitation for any array of masses for which the Newtonian gravitational potential is known, and is applied here to describe motion in the gravitational field of a thin mass-rod.

  3. Galaxy luminosity function and Tully-Fisher relation: reconciled through rotation-curve studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, Andrea; Salucci, Paolo; Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    The relation between galaxy luminosity L and halo virial velocity v vir required to fit the galaxy luminosity function differs from the observed Tully-Fisher relation between L and disk speed v rot . Because of this, the problem of reproducing the galaxy luminosity function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously has plagued semianalytic models since their inception. Here we study the relation between v rot and v vir by fitting observational average rotation curves of disk galaxies binned in luminosity. We show that the v rot -v vir relation that we obtain in this way can fully account for this seeming inconsistency. Therefore, the reconciliation of the luminosity function with the Tully-Fisher relation rests on the complex dependence of v rot on v vir , which arises because the ratio of stellar mass to dark matter mass is a strong function of halo mass.

  4. Relative Deprivation and Relative Wealth Enhances Anti-Immigrant Sentiments: The V-Curve Re-Examined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Jetten

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that negative attitudes towards immigrants and support for anti-immigrant parties are observed both among those experiencing relative deprivation and those experiencing relative gratification (so called v-curve. Whereas the effect of relative deprivation is intuitive, the effect of relative gratification is more difficult to explain. Why would economic prosperity provoke negative attitudes towards immigrants? We first present correlational (Study 1 and experimental (Study 2 support for the v-curve. In Study 1, in a national Swiss referendum, a higher percentage anti-immigrant voting was found in cantons with relatively lower and relatively higher relative disposable income. In Study 2, in a hypothetical society, more opposition to 'newcomers' joining society was found among poor or above average wealth group members than among those in a moderate wealth group condition. In Study 3, we replicate this finding and also show that opposition to immigration is higher for all wealth groups when societal inequality is growing rather than declining. In a final study, we examine different forms of relative gratification and mediators of the relationship between relative gratification and opposition to immigration (i.e., identification, collective self-definition as competent and cold, and fear about future wealth. Only fear about future wealth mediates this relationship. We conclude that, paradoxically, relative gratification effects are partly due to the fear of future deprivation.

  5. Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated.

  6. A three-parameter langmuir-type model for fitting standard curves of sandwich enzyme immunoassays with special attention to the α-fetoprotein assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortlandt, W.; Endeman, H.J.; Hoeke, J.O.O.

    In a simplified approach to the reaction kinetics of enzyme-linked immunoassays, a Langmuir-type equation y = [ax/(b + x)] + c was derived. This model proved to be superior to logit-log and semilog models in the curve-fitting of standard curves. An assay for α-fetoprotein developed in our laboratory

  7. Hurwitz numbers, moduli of curves, topological recursion, Givental's theory and their relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitz, L.

    2014-01-01

    The study of curves is an important area of research in algebraic geometry and mathematical physics. In my thesis I study so-called moduli spaces of curves; these are spaces that parametrize all curves with some specified properties. In particular, I study maps from curves to other spaces, recursive

  8. Novel isotopic N, N-Dimethyl Leucine (iDiLeu) Reagents Enable Absolute Quantification of Peptides and Proteins Using a Standard Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tyler; Lietz, Christopher B.; Xiang, Feng; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Absolute quantification of protein targets using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a key component of candidate biomarker validation. One popular method combines multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a triple quadrupole instrument with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) for absolute quantification (AQUA). LC-MRM AQUA assays are sensitive and specific, but they are also expensive because of the cost of synthesizing stable isotope peptide standards. While the chemical modification approach using mass differential tags for relative and absolute quantification (mTRAQ) represents a more economical approach when quantifying large numbers of peptides, these reagents are costly and still suffer from lower throughput because only two concentration values per peptide can be obtained in a single LC-MS run. Here, we have developed and applied a set of five novel mass difference reagents, isotopic N, N-dimethyl leucine (iDiLeu). These labels contain an amine reactive group, triazine ester, are cost effective because of their synthetic simplicity, and have increased throughput compared with previous LC-MS quantification methods by allowing construction of a four-point standard curve in one run. iDiLeu-labeled peptides show remarkably similar retention time shifts, slightly lower energy thresholds for higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation, and high quantification accuracy for trypsin-digested protein samples (median errors <15%). By spiking in an iDiLeu-labeled neuropeptide, allatostatin, into mouse urine matrix, two quantification methods are validated. The first uses one labeled peptide as an internal standard to normalize labeled peptide peak areas across runs (<19% error), whereas the second enables standard curve creation and analyte quantification in one run (<8% error).

  9. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie-Ann; Rudenski, Aram; Gibson, John; Howard, Luke; O'Driscoll, Ronan

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content), saturation (S O2 ) and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur-ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the S O2 in blood from patients with normal pH and S O2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (S pO2 ) is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (S aO2 ) as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable S pO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  10. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Collins

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  11. Use of supernovae light curves for testing the expansion hypothesis and other cosmological relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, B.W.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis is primarily concerned with a test of the expansion hypothesis based on the relation Δt/sub obs/ = (1 + V/sub r//c)Δt/sub int/ where Δt/sub int/ is the time lapse characterizing some phenomenon in a distant galaxy, Δt/sub obs/ is the observed time lapse and V/sub r/ is the symbolic velocity of recession. If the red shift is a Doppler effect, the observed time lapse should be lengthened by the same factor as the wave length of the light. Many authors have suggested type I supernovae for such a test because of their great luminosity and the uniformity of their light curves, but apparently the test has heretofore never actually been performed. Thirty-six light curves were gathered from the literature and one (SN1971i) was measured. All of the light curves were reduced to a common (m/sub pg/) photometric system. The comparison time lapse, Δt/sub c/, was taken to be the time required for the brightness to fall from 0.5 m below peak to 2.5 m below peak. The straight line regression of Δt/sub c/ on V/sub r/ gives a correlation coefficient significant at the 93 percent level, and the simple static Euclidean hypothesis is rejected at that level. The regression line also deviates from the prediction of the classical expansion hypothesis. Better agreement was obtained using the chronogeometric theory of I. E. Segal ( []972 Astron. and Astrophys. 18, 143), but the scatter in the present data makes it impossible to distinguish between these alternate hypotheses at the 95 percent confidence level. The question of how many additional light curves would be needed to give definite tests is addressed. It is shown that at the present rate of supernova discoveries, only a few more years would be required to obtain the necessary data if light curves are systematically measured for the more distant supernovae. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  12. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  13. An Advanced Encryption Standard Powered Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography for RFID, Proven on WISP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaauldin Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information in patients’ medical histories is subject to various security and privacy concerns. Meanwhile, any modification or error in a patient’s medical data may cause serious or even fatal harm. To protect and transfer this valuable and sensitive information in a secure manner, radio-frequency identification (RFID technology has been widely adopted in healthcare systems and is being deployed in many hospitals. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication protocol for RFID tags based on elliptic curve cryptography and advanced encryption standard. Unlike existing authentication protocols, which only send the tag ID securely, the proposed protocol could also send the valuable data stored in the tag in an encrypted pattern. The proposed protocol is not simply a theoretical construct; it has been coded and tested on an experimental RFID tag. The proposed scheme achieves mutual authentication in just two steps and satisfies all the essential security requirements of RFID-based healthcare systems.

  14. Determination of endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhong, Qisheng; Mo, Canlong; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Ting; Tan, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of endogenous lipid mediators in complex biological samples is a daunting challenge. In this study, a robust and direct endogenous quantitative method using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was first developed for the determination of endogenous lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats. Absolute quantification without surrogate matrix could be achieved by using background subtracting calibration curves, which were corrected and verified from standard curves constructed on original matrix. The recoveries of this method were in the range of 50.3-98.3%, the precision with the relative standard deviation was less than 13.8%, and the accuracy with the relative error was within ± 15.0%. In addition, background subtracting calibration curves were further verified by validation factors ranging from 90.3 to 110.9%. This validated method has been successfully applied to the analysis of seven endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in the brain tissues of ischemic stroke rats. The results indicated that prostaglandins as inflammatory factors and some lipid mediators with neuroprotective effects increased apparently (p endogenous compounds in the complex biological samples. Graphical abstract The analysis procedure of determining endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators using BSCC by LC-MS/MS.

  15. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery in learning curve: Role of implementation of a standardized technique and recovery protocol. A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglio, Gaetano; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Tarquini, Rachele; Giglio, Mariano Cesare; Sollazzo, Viviana; Esposito, Emanuela; Spadarella, Emanuela; Peltrini, Roberto; Liccardo, Filomena; Bucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the proven benefits, laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still under utilized among surgeons. A steep learning is one of the causes of its limited adoption. Aim of the study is to determine the feasibility and morbidity rate after laparoscopic colorectal surgery in a single institution, “learning curve” experience, implementing a well standardized operative technique and recovery protocol. Methods The first 50 patients treated laparoscopically were included. All the procedures were performed by a trainee surgeon, supervised by a consultant surgeon, according to the principle of complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation or TME. Patients underwent a fast track recovery programme. Recovery parameters, short-term outcomes, morbidity and mortality have been assessed. Results Type of resections: 20 left side resections, 8 right side resections, 14 low anterior resection/TME, 5 total colectomy and IRA, 3 total panproctocolectomy and pouch. Mean operative time: 227 min; mean number of lymph-nodes: 18.7. Conversion rate: 8%. Mean time to flatus: 1.3 days; Mean time to solid stool: 2.3 days. Mean length of hospital stay: 7.2 days. Overall morbidity: 24%; major morbidity (Dindo–Clavien III): 4%. No anastomotic leak, no mortality, no 30-days readmission. Conclusion Proper laparoscopic colorectal surgery is safe and leads to excellent results in terms of recovery and short term outcomes, even in a learning curve setting. Key factors for better outcomes and shortening the learning curve seem to be the adoption of a standardized technique and training model along with the strict supervision of an expert colorectal surgeon. PMID:25859386

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Curved Biopsy Device for CT-Guided Biopsy of Lesions Unreachable Using Standard Straight Needle Trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Hagen, Maximilian Franz, E-mail: mschulze@ukaachen.de; Pfeffer, Jochen; Zimmermann, Markus; Liebl, Martin [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Stillfried, Saskia Freifrau von [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Pathology (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane; Bruners, Philipp; Isfort, Peter [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of a novel curved CT-guided biopsy needle prototype with shape memory to access otherwise not accessible biopsy targets.Methods and MaterialsA biopsy needle curved by 90° with specific radius was designed. It was manufactured using nitinol to acquire shape memory, encased in a straight guiding trocar to be driven out for access of otherwise inaccessible targets. Fifty CT-guided punctures were conducted in a biopsy phantom and 10 CT-guided punctures in a swine corpse. Biposies from porcine liver and muscle tissue were separately gained using the biopsy device, and histological examination was performed subsequently.ResultsMean time for placement of the trocar and deployment of the inner biopsy needle was ~205 ± 69 and ~93 ± 58 s, respectively, with a mean of ~4.5 ± 1.3 steps to reach adequate biopsy position. Mean distance from the tip of the needle to the target was ~0.7 ± 0.8 mm. CT-guided punctures in the swine corpse took relatively longer and required more biopsy steps (~574 ± 107 and ~380 ± 148 s, 8 ± 2.6 steps). Histology demonstrated appropriate tissue samples in nine out of ten cases (90%).ConclusionsTargets that were otherwise inaccessible via standard straight needle trajectories could be successfully reached with the curved biopsy needle prototype. Shape memory and preformed size with specific radius of the curved needle simplify the target accessibility with a low risk of injuring adjacent structures.

  17. Relation of intracellular cyclic AMP to the shape of mammalian cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results of experiments with V79 cells growing in tissue culture indicate that the reproductive survival of cells following irradiation is influenced by the level of intracellular 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) at the time of irradiation. Cells containing high levels of cyclic AMP induced by treatments with drugs show a characteristic survival curve in which the extent of the shoulder is increased so that the survival after low doses is enhanced. The exponential slope or D 0 , however, is decreased so that at high doses the survival of cells containing high levels of cyclic AMP may be less than that of controls. Naturally occurring changes in radiosensitivity such as those observed as cells pass through the division cycle, may also be related to parallel changes in cyclic AMP concentration occurring during the cycle. Injection of mice with compounds producing elevated cyclic AMP prior to whole-body irradiation increases survival at seven days post-irradiation. The shape of the survival curve for intestinal stem cells in these mice differs from that of the control in having an increased extrapolation number; no change in D 0 is observed in this in vivo situation. (author)

  18. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  19. Morphonological Description of Relative Morphemes in Standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theoretical framework that has been used in this analysis is Generative Phonology as stipulated by Chomsky and Halle in their book called Sound Pattern of English (SPE) of 1968. I have considered that relative morpheme forms are the result of two different formatives, which are O- of reference (O-ref.) and the Subject ...

  20. Implementation of standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuc, M C [Department of Physics and Physical Science, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Husa, S [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Alic, D [Department of Physics, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hinder, I [Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lechner, C [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schnetter, E [Center for Computation and Technology, 216 Johnston Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Szilagyi, B; Dorband, N; Pollney, D; Winicour, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, 14076 Golm (Germany); Zlochower, Y [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2008-06-21

    We discuss results that have been obtained from the implementation of the initial round of testbeds for numerical relativity which was proposed in the first paper of the Apples with Apples Alliance. We present benchmark results for various codes which provide templates for analyzing the testbeds and to draw conclusions about various features of the codes. This allows us to sharpen the initial test specifications, design a new test and add theoretical insight.

  1. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential ( 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  2. Investigating Theoretical PV Energy Generation Patterns with Their Relation to the Power Load Curve in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Jurasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish energy sector is (almost from its origin dominated by fossil fuel feed power. This situation results from an abundance of relatively cheap coal (hard and lignite. Brown coal due to its nature is the cheapest energy source in Poland. However, hard coal which fuels 60% of polish power plants is picking up on prices and is susceptible to the coal imported from neighboring countries. Forced by the European Union (EU regulations, Poland is struggling at achieving its goal of reaching 15% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources (RES by 2020. Over the year 2015, RES covered 11.3% of gross energy consumption but this generation was dominated by solid biomass (over 80%. The aim of this paper was to answer the following research questions: What is the relation of irradiation values to the power load on a yearly and daily basis? and how should photovoltaics (PV be integrated in the polish power system? Conducted analysis allowed us to state that there exists a negative correlation between power demand and irradiation values on a yearly basis, but this is likely to change in the future. Secondly, on average, daily values of irradiation tend to follow power load curve over the first hours of the day.

  3. Tully-Fisher relation, galactic rotation curves and dissipative mirror dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foot, R., E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    If dark matter is dissipative then the distribution of dark matter within galactic halos can be governed by dissipation, heating and hydrostatic equilibrium. Previous work has shown that a specific model, in the framework of mirror dark matter, can explain several empirical galactic scaling relations. It is shown here that this dynamical halo model implies a quasi-isothermal dark matter density, ρ(r) ≅ ρ{sub 0}r{sub 0}{sup 2}/(r{sup 2}+r{sub 0}{sup 2}), where the core radius, r{sub 0}, scales with disk scale length, r{sub D}, via r{sub 0}/kpc ≈ 1.4(r{sub D}/kpc). Additionally, the product ρ{sub 0}r{sub 0} is roughly constant, i.e. independent of galaxy size (the constant is set by the parameters of the model). The derived dark matter density profile implies that the galactic rotation velocity satisfies the Tully-Fisher relation, L{sub B}∝v{sup 3}{sub max}, where v{sub max} is the maximal rotational velocity. Examples of rotation curves resulting from this dynamics are given.

  4. Use of a non-linear method for including the mass uncertainty of gravimetric standards and system measurement errors in the fitting of calibration curves for XRFA freeze-dried UNO3 standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; McClure, J.W.; Howell, R.H.

    1978-05-01

    A sophisticated nonlinear multiparameter fitting program was used to produce a best fit calibration curve for the response of an x-ray fluorescence analyzer to uranium nitrate, freeze dried, 0.2% accurate, gravimetric standards. The program is based on unconstrained minimization subroutine, VA02A. The program considers the mass values of the gravimetric standards as parameters to be fit along with the normal calibration curve parameters. The fitting procedure weights with the system errors and the mass errors in a consistent way. The resulting best fit calibration curve parameters reflect the fact that the masses of the standard samples are measured quantities with a known error. Error estimates for the calibration curve parameters can be obtained from the curvature of the ''Chi-Squared Matrix'' or from error relaxation techniques. It was shown that nondispersive XRFA of 0.1 to 1 mg freeze-dried UNO 3 can have an accuracy of 0.2% in 1000 s

  5. Comparisons of ANSI standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANSI standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  6. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  7. Sprinting performance on the Woodway Curve 3.0 is related to muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Fukuda, David H; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Bohner, Jonathan D; LaMonica, Michael; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To determine if unilateral measures of muscle architecture in the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) were related to (and predictive of) sprinting speed and unilateral (and bilateral) force (FRC) and power (POW) during a 30 s maximal sprint on the Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorized treadmill. Twenty-eight healthy, physically active men (n = 14) and women (n = 14) (age = 22.9 ± 2.4 years; body mass = 77.1 ± 16.2 kg; height = 171.6 ± 11.2 cm; body-fa t = 19.4 ± 8.1%) completed one familiarization and one 30-s maximal sprint on the TM to obtain maximal sprinting speed, POW and FRC. Muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (ECHO) of the RF and VL in the dominant (DOM; determined by unilateral sprinting power) and non-dominant (ND) legs were measured via ultrasound. Pearson correlations indicated several significant (p architecture. Stepwise regression indicated that POW(DOM) was predictive of ipsilateral RF (MT and CSA) and VL (CSA and ECHO), while POW(ND) was predictive of ipsilateral RF (MT and CSA) and VL (CSA); sprinting power/force asymmetry was not predictive of architecture asymmetry. Sprinting time was best predicted by peak power and peak force, though muscle quality (ECHO) and the bilateral percent difference in VL (CSA) were strong architectural predictors. Muscle architecture is related to (and predictive of) TM sprinting performance, while unilateral POW is predictive of ipsilateral architecture. However, the extent to which architecture and other factors (i.e. neuromuscular control and sprinting technique) affect TM performance remains unknown.

  8. Assessing neural activity related to decision-making through flexible odds ratio curves and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L; Leboran, Victor; Molenberghs, Geert; Faes, Christel; Acuña, Carlos

    2011-06-30

    It is well established that neural activity is stochastically modulated over time. Therefore, direct comparisons across experimental conditions and determination of change points or maximum firing rates are not straightforward. This study sought to compare temporal firing probability curves that may vary across groups defined by different experimental conditions. Odds-ratio (OR) curves were used as a measure of comparison, and the main goal was to provide a global test to detect significant differences of such curves through the study of their derivatives. An algorithm is proposed that enables ORs based on generalized additive models, including factor-by-curve-type interactions to be flexibly estimated. Bootstrap methods were used to draw inferences from the derivatives curves, and binning techniques were applied to speed up computation in the estimation and testing processes. A simulation study was conducted to assess the validity of these bootstrap-based tests. This methodology was applied to study premotor ventral cortex neural activity associated with decision-making. The proposed statistical procedures proved very useful in revealing the neural activity correlates of decision-making in a visual discrimination task. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 Standard Extract Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Standard Extract Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains population and housing data derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's...

  10. Integrable motion of curves in self-consistent potentials: Relation to spin systems and soliton equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrzakulov, R.; Mamyrbekova, G.K.; Nugmanova, G.N.; Yesmakhanova, K.R. [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Lakshmanan, M., E-mail: lakshman@cnld.bdu.ac.in [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India)

    2014-06-13

    Motion of curves and surfaces in R{sup 3} lead to nonlinear evolution equations which are often integrable. They are also intimately connected to the dynamics of spin chains in the continuum limit and integrable soliton systems through geometric and gauge symmetric connections/equivalence. Here we point out the fact that a more general situation in which the curves evolve in the presence of additional self-consistent vector potentials can lead to interesting generalized spin systems with self-consistent potentials or soliton equations with self-consistent potentials. We obtain the general form of the evolution equations of underlying curves and report specific examples of generalized spin chains and soliton equations. These include principal chiral model and various Myrzakulov spin equations in (1+1) dimensions and their geometrically equivalent generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations, including Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch equations, all in the presence of self-consistent potential fields. The associated gauge equivalent Lax pairs are also presented to confirm their integrability. - Highlights: • Geometry of continuum spin chain with self-consistent potentials explored. • Mapping on moving space curves in R{sup 3} in the presence of potential fields carried out. • Equivalent generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations identified. • Integrability of identified nonlinear systems proved by deducing appropriate Lax pairs.

  11. Unconditional and Conditional Standards Using Cognitive Function Curves for the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in Older Chinese Adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Feng, Lei; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Philip; Yap, Keng Bee; Ng, Tze Pin

    2015-09-01

    The conventional practice of assessing cognitive status and monitoring change over time in older adults using normative values of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) based on age bands is imprecise. Moreover, population-based normative data on changes in MMSE score over time are scarce and crude because they do not include age- and education-specific norms. This study aims to develop unconditional standards for assessing current cognitive status and conditional standards that take prior MMSE score into account for assessing longitudinal change, with percentile curves as smooth functions of age. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of a modified version of the MMSE for 2,026 older Chinese adults from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study, aged 55-84, in Singapore were used to estimate quantile regression coefficients and create unconditional standards and conditional standards. We presented MMSE percentile curves as a smooth function of age in education strata, for unconditional and conditional standards, based on quantile regression coefficient estimates. We found the 5th and 10th percentiles were more strongly associated with age and education than were higher percentiles. Model diagnostics demonstrated the accuracy of the standards. The development and use of unconditional and conditional standards should facilitate cognitive assessment in clinical practice and deserve further studies. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The density-salinity relation of standard seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seitz, Steffen; Hassel, Egon; Wolf, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The determination of salinity by means of electrical conductivity relies on stable salt proportions in the North Atlantic Ocean, because standard seawater, which is required for salinometer calibration, is produced from water of the North Atlantic. To verify the long-term stability of the standard seawater composition, it was proposed to perform measurements of the standard seawater density. Since the density is sensitive to all salt components, a density measurement can detect any change in the composition. A conversion of the density values to salinity can be performed by means of a density-salinity relation. To use such a relation with a target uncertainty in salinity comparable to that in salinity obtained from conductivity measurements, a density measurement with an uncertainty of 2 g m-3 is mandatory. We present a new density-salinity relation based on such accurate density measurements. The substitution measurement method used is described and density corrections for uniform isotopic and chemical compositions are reported. The comparison of densities calculated using the new relation with those calculated using the present reference equations of state TEOS-10 suggests that the density accuracy of TEOS-10 (as well as that of EOS-80) has been overestimated, as the accuracy of some of its underlying density measurements had been overestimated. The new density-salinity relation may be used to verify the stable composition of standard seawater by means of routine density measurements.

  13. Present status of standards relating to radiation control and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kentaro

    1996-01-01

    Japanese and international standards related to radiation control and radiation protective management are presented focusing on the forming condition, significance, current situation, and their relationship. Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) is quite useful in the field of atomic energy as well as other fields in terms of optimization and rationalization of the management. JIS includes JIS Z 4001 Atomic Energy Terminology which corresponds to internationl standards ISO 921 Nuclear Glossary, and JIS Z 4005 Medical Radiation Terminology, covering about 500 articles, which corresponds to IEC 788 Medical Radiology-Terminology. The first standards regarding radiation protection was established in X-ray Film Badge, which is included in the field of personal dosimeter, in 1956. Currently, 36 JIS has been established in the field of radiation management dosimeter and 3 are under arrangement. As for radiation protective supplies, 9 JIS has been established so far. Before proposal of JIS, investigation had been conducted to improve, simplify, and standardize the standards of radiation dosimetric technique, dosimeters, dosimetric procedures, and improvement. In this article, the results of material surface contamination monitoring and body surface monitoring conducted in Atomic Energy Safety Association and Radiation Dosimetry Associationare reported, and ISO and IEC are also treated. (S.Y.)

  14. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  16. Straight and Curved Path Walking Among Older Adults in Primary Care: Associations With Fall-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Sarah A; Ward, Rachel E; Kurlinski, Laura A; Kiely, Dan K; Goldstein, Richard; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Brach, Jennifer S; Bean, Jonathan F

    2016-08-01

    Most falls among community-dwelling older adults occur while walking. Simple walking tests that require little resources and can be interpreted quickly are advocated as useful screening tools for fall prone patients. To investigate 2 clinically feasible walking tests consisting of straight- and curved-path walking and examine their associations with history of previous falls and fall-related outcomes among community-living older adults. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study. Participants were recruited through primary care practices. Participants included 428 primary care patients ≥65 years of age at risk for mobility decline. Participants had a median age of 76.5 years, 67.8% were women, and 82.5% were white. Straight-path walking performance was measured as the time needed to walk a 4-meter straight path at usual pace from standstill using a stopwatch (timed to 0.1 second). Curved-path walking performance was timed while participants walked from standstill in a figure-of-8 pattern around two cones placed 5 feet apart. Multivariable negative binomial regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between straight-path walking or curved-path walking and self-reported history of number of falls. For fall-related injuries, and fall-related hospitalizations, logistic regression models were used. In the fully adjusted model, an increase of 1 second in straight path walking time was associated with 26% greater rate of falls (rate ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.45). An increase in curved-path walking time was associated with 8% greater rate of falls (rate ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.14). Neither walk test was associated with history of fall-related injuries or hospitalizations. Poor performance on straight- and curved-path walking performance was associated with a history of greater fall rates in the previous year but not with a history of fall-related injuries or

  17. Computer-related standards for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winczewski, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid application of the computer to all areas of the petroleum industry is straining the capabilities of corporations and vendors to efficiently integrate computer tools into the work environment. Barriers to this integration arose form decades of competitive development of proprietary applications formats, along with compilation of data bases in isolation. Rapidly emerging industry-wide standards relating to computer applications and data management are poised to topple these barriers. This paper identifies the most active players within a rapidly evolving group of cooperative standardization activities sponsored by the petroleum industry. Summarized are their objectives, achievements, current activities and relationships to each other. The trends of these activities are assessed and projected

  18. Relations between the technological standards and technological appropriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto PRADO GUERRERO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the educational practices of using Blackboard in blended learning environments with students of higher education to understand the relationship between technological appropriation and standards of educational technology. To achieve that goal, the following research question was raised: ¿To what extent are the standards of education technology with the appropriation of technology in blended learning environments in higher educa­tion related? The contextual framework of this work includes the following topics: the institution, teaching, teachers and students. The design methodology that was used is of a correlation type. Correlations were carried out to determine the frequency and level in the technological standards as well as the appropriation of technology. In the comparison of the results obtained by the students, the teachers and the platform; we found that students in the school study showed a high degree of technology ownership and this was the same for the performance shown on the technological standards. It was established that teachers play a key role in developing the techno­logical appropriation of students and performance in technology standards.

  19. Analysing public relations education through international standards: The Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma

    2013-01-01

    By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...

  20. Breast meat quality of chickens with divergent growth rates and its relation to growth curve parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Muth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the increase of body weight of contemporary broilers during growth on functional meat quality and color characteristics of the chicken breast muscle are controversially debated. Therefore, male chickens (n = 264 of a fast-growing commercial broiler (Ross 308 and two slow-growing experimental meat-type chicken lines were compared at equal age and at similar body weight in order to investigate the effect of growth rate on selected functional breast meat traits and meat color. Additionally, the breast meat characteristics of birds with different growth profiles were compared within lines. When the body weight of commercial broilers reached about 40 to 60 % of their growth potential, they exhibited particularly high ultimate pH values compared with slow-growing lines. The ability of the meat of fast-growing broilers to retain water during cooking was impaired (5 to 16 percentage points increased cooking loss compared to slow-growing lines, which, in contrast to pH, was only marginally affected by body weight and/or age at slaughter. No unfavorable correlations of breast meat quality traits with the growth profile, represented by growth curve parameters derived from the Gompertz–Laird equation, were detected within any of the investigated chicken lines. It is noteworthy that the associations of ultimate pH and cooking loss with maximum growth speed indicate a non-linear relationship. Thus, some of the functional characteristics of breast meat of the fast-growing broiler resembled the white-striping defect described for poultry meat, but the hypothesis that selection on increased growth rates is detrimental for meat quality per se could not be confirmed. In fact, an elevated growth potential in particular, i.e., body weight at maturity, could have some beneficial effects for the water-holding capacity of breast meat, regardless of the genotypic growth rate.

  1. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  2. Determination of the relations governing the evolution of the standard deviations of the distribution of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1985-04-01

    An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere

  3. Relative level populations in S VI after beam-foil excitation, obtained from ANDC analyses of measured decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the relative population of the levels 3p, 3d, 4d, 5d, 4f, 5g, 6g, 6h, 7h, 7i, 8i and 8k in Na-like sulfur, S VI, after beam-foil excitation at an energy of 3 MeV. For the first time the ANDC technique has been used to obtain the relative efficiency calibration of the detection system at discrete points in the wavelength interval 400-5000 A, from the analyses of measured decay curves. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. The populations obtained with this new technique are compared to previous measurements in multiply ionized atoms. The preferential population of the 3p and 3d levels observed in other Na-like ions is now accurately established. For the higher lying levels an almost constant population is observed. (Auth.)

  4. The relation between anxiety and BMI - is it all in our curves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-30

    The relation between anxiety and excessive weight is unclear. The aims of the present study were three-fold: First, we examined the association between anxiety and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, we examined this association separately for female and male participants. Next, we examined both linear and non-linear associations between anxiety and BMI. The BMI was assessed of 92 patients (mean age: M=27.52; 57% females) suffering from anxiety disorders. Patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Both linear and non-linear correlations were computed for the sample as a whole and separately by gender. No gender differences were observed in anxiety scores or BMI. No linear correlation between anxiety scores and BMI was observed. In contrast, a non-linear correlation showed an inverted U-shaped association, with lower anxiety scores both for lower and very high BMI indices, and higher anxiety scores for medium to high BMI indices. Separate computations revealed no differences between males and females. The pattern of results suggests that the association between BMI and anxiety is complex and more accurately captured with non-linear correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Standard guide for corrosion-related failure analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers key issues to be considered when examining metallic failures when corrosion is suspected as either a major or minor causative factor. 1.2 Corrosion-related failures could include one or more of the following: change in surface appearance (for example, tarnish, rust, color change), pin hole leak, catastrophic structural failure (for example, collapse, explosive rupture, implosive rupture, cracking), weld failure, loss of electrical continuity, and loss of functionality (for example, seizure, galling, spalling, swelling). 1.3 Issues covered include overall failure site conditions, operating conditions at the time of failure, history of equipment and its operation, corrosion product sampling, environmental sampling, metallurgical and electrochemical factors, morphology (mode) or failure, and by considering the preceding, deducing the cause(s) of corrosion failure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibili...

  6. The Scalable Coherent Interface and related standards projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) project (IEEE P1596) found a way to avoid the limits that are inherent in bus technology. SCI provides bus-like services by transmitting packets on a collection of point-to-point unidirectional links. The SCI protocols support cache coherence in a distributed-shared-memory multiprocessor model, message passing, I/O, and local-area-network-like communication over fiber optic or wire links. VLSI circuits that operate parallel links at 1000 MByte/s and serial links at 1000 Mbit/s will be available early in 1992. Several ongoing SCI-related projects are applying the SCI technology to new areas or extending it to more difficult problems. P1596.1 defines the architecture of a bridge between SCI and VME; P1596.2 compatibly extends the cache coherence mechanism for efficient operation with kiloprocessor systems; P1596.3 defines new low-voltage (about 0.25 V) differential signals suitable for low power interfaces for CMOS or GaAs VLSI implementations of SCI; P1596.4 defines a high performance memory chip interface using these signals; P1596.5 defines data transfer formats for efficient interprocessor communication in heterogeneous multiprocessor systems. This paper reports the current status of SCI, related standards, and new projects. 16 refs

  7. Binary trading relations and the limits of EDI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Jan; Truex, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of electronic data interchange (EDI) standards and their application in different types of trading relationships. It argues that EDI standards are not directly comparable to more stable sets of technical standards in that they are dynamically tested...... and negotiated in use with each trading exchange. It takes the position that EDI standards are an emergent language form and must mean different things at the institutional and local levels. Using the lens of emergent linguistic analysis it shows how the institutional and local levels must always be distinct...... and yet can coexist. EDI standards can never represent the creation of an 'Esperanto of institutional communication'. Instead we believe that standards must be developed such that they support and accommodate general basic grammatical forms that can be customised to individual needs. The analysis...

  8. Changes in IEC standards related to diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubszky, T.; Barsai, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Purposes. Technical Committee TC62 of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) deals with medical electrical equipment (i.e. medical devices using electricity). Standardization concerning diagnostic radiology equipment is task of its Sub-Committee SC62B. An outlook of its activities and present situation, and especially of radiation protection aspects, is given. Materials and methods. Third edition of basic safety standard for medical electrical equipment IEC 60601-1 was issued in 2005. Elaboration of new collateral and particular standards - applicable together with it - is in progress. These standards are generally at the same time also European - EN - and national standards. There is a great importance of radiation protection in diagnostic X-ray equipment. Collateral standard IEC 6060-1-3 about it was at first issued in 1994. Rapid development of imaging technology demands updating of requirements. SC62B in 2003 founded a maintenance team MT37 for preparation of the second edition of this standard. According to new safety philosophy of IEC all modality specific requirements are to be collected in 'safety and essential performance' particular standards. A new working group WG42 - founded in 2006 - elaborates a new particular standard IEC 60601-2-54 for radiographic and radioscopic equipment. Maintenance team MT32 deals with safety and performance standards for X-ray tube assemblies. The authors actively participate in these activities. Results and discussion. Present and future system of diagnostic radiology IEC standards and some interesting details are presented. Conclusions. International standards - although they are not 'obligatory' - are generally the basis of safety and performance certification of diagnostic radiology equipment and often also of their quality assurance.

  9. Standardization in smart grids. Introduction to IT-related methodologies, architectures and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslar, Mathias; Specht, Michael; Daenekas, Christian; Trefke, Joern; Rohjans, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Rosinger, Christine; Bleiker, Robert [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Introduction to Standardization for Smart Grids. Presents a tutorial and best practice of Smart Grid Prototype Projects. Written by leading experts in the field. Besides the regulatory and market aspects, the technical level dealing with the knowledge from multiple disciplines and the aspects of technical system integration to achieve interoperability and integration has been a strong focus in the Smart Grid. This topic is typically covered by the means of using (technical) standards for processes, data models, functions and communication links. Standardization is a key issue for Smart Grids due to the involvement of many different sectors along the value chain from the generation to the appliances. The scope of Smart Grid is broad, therefore, the standards landscape is unfortunately very large and complex. This is why the three European Standards Organizations ETSI, CEN and CENELEC created a so called Joint Working Group (JWG). This was the first harmonized effort in Europe to bring together the needed disciplines and experts delivering the final report in May 2011. After this approach proved useful, the Commission used the Mandate M/490: Standardization Mandate to European Standardization Organizations (ESOs) to support European Smart Grid deployment. The focal point addressing the ESO's response to M/490 will be the CEN, CENELEC and ETSI Smart Grids Coordination Group (SG-CG). Based on this mandate, meaningful standardization of architectures, use cases, communication technologies, data models and security standards takes place in the four existing working groups. This book provides an overview on the various building blocks and standards identified as the most prominent ones by the JWG report as well as by the first set of standards group - IEC 61850 and CIM, IEC PAS 62559 for documenting Smart Grid use cases, security requirements from the SGIS groups and an introduction on how to apply the Smart Grid Architecture Model SGAM for utilities. In addition

  10. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  11. [Possible relation between clinical guidelines and legal standard of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toshiharu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2010-10-01

    Legal standard of medicine is not equal across the all kinds of medical institutions. Each medical institution is required its respective standard of medicine in which its doctors are expected to have studied medical informations, which have been spread among medical institutions with similar characteristics. Therefore, in principle, clinical guidelines for the treatment of a disease formed by public committees do not directly become the medical standards of respective disease treatment. However, doctors would be legally required to practice medicine with reference to the clinical guidelines because medical informations, mediated by internet or many kinds of media, have been spread very fast to all medical institutions these days. Moreover, doctors would be required to inform their patients of non-standardized new treatments, even if such treatments are not listed in clinical guidelines in case patients have special concern about new treat-

  12. Characterization of a multilayer ionization chamber prototype for fast verification of relative depth ionization curves and spread-out-Bragg-peaks in light ion beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Alfredo; Magro, Giuseppe; Lavagno, Marco; Mairani, Andrea; Molinelli, Silvia; Russo, Stefania; Mastella, Edoardo; Vai, Alessandro; Maestri, Davide; La Rosa, Vanessa; Ciocca, Mario

    2018-05-01

    To dosimetrically characterize a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) prototype for quality assurance (QA) of pristine integral ionization curves (ICs) and spread-out-Bragg-peaks (SOBPs) for scanning light ion beams. QUBE (De.Tec.Tor., Torino, Italy) is a modular detector designed for QA in particle therapy (PT). Its main module is a MLIC detector, able to evaluate particle beam relative depth ionization distributions at different beam energies and modulations. The charge collecting electrodes are made of aluminum, for a nominal water equivalent thickness (WET) of ~75 mm. The detector prototype was calibrated by acquiring the signals in the initial plateau region of a pristine BP and in terms of WET. Successively, it was characterized in terms of repeatability response, linearity, short-term stability and dose rate dependence. Beam-induced measurements of activation in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate were also performed. To increase the detector coarse native spatial resolution (~2.3 mm), several consecutive acquisitions with a set of certified 0.175-mm-thick PMMA sheets (Goodfellow, Cambridge Limited, UK), placed in front of the QUBE mylar entrance window, were performed. The ICs/SOBPs were achieved as the result of the sum of the set of measurements, made up of a one-by-one PMMA layer acquisition. The newly obtained detector spatial resolution allowed the experimental measurements to be properly comparable against the reference curves acquired in water with the PTW Peakfinder. Furthermore, QUBE detector was modeled in the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code following the technical design details and ICs/SOBPs were calculated. Measurements showed a high repeatability: mean relative standard deviation within ±0.5% for all channels and both particle types. Moreover, the detector response was linear with dose (R 2  > 0.998) and independent on the dose rate. The mean deviation over the channel-by-channel readout respect to the reference beam flux (100%) was equal

  13. Remote sensing used for power curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R; Joergensen, H E; Paulsen, U S; Larsen, T J; Antoniou, I; Thesbjerg, L

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles

  14. Effect of Flow Direction on Relative Permeability Curves in Water/Gas Reservoir System: Implications in Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Rasheed Adebayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gravity on vertical flow and fluids saturation, especially when flow is against gravity, is not often a subject of interest to researchers. This is because of the notion that flow in subsurface formations is usually in horizontal direction and that vertical flow is impossible or marginal because of the impermeable shales or silts overlying them. The density difference between two fluids (usually oil and water flowing in the porous media is also normally negligible; hence gravity influence is neglected. Capillarity is also often avoided in relative permeability measurements in order to satisfy some flow equations. These notions have guided most laboratory core flooding experiments to be conducted in horizontal flow orientation, and the data obtained are as good as what the experiments tend to mimic. However, gravity effect plays a major role in gas liquid systems such as CO2 sequestration and some types of enhanced oil recovery techniques, particularly those involving gases, where large density difference exists between the fluid pair. In such cases, laboratory experiments conducted to derive relative permeability curves should take into consideration gravity effects and capillarity. Previous studies attribute directional dependence of relative permeability and residual saturations to rock anisotropy. It is shown in this study that rock permeability, residual saturation, and relative permeability depend on the interplay between gravity, capillarity, and viscous forces and also the direction of fluid flow even when the rock is isotropic. Rock samples representing different lithology and wide range of permeabilities were investigated through unsteady-state experiments covering drainage and imbibition in both vertical and horizontal flow directions. The experiments were performed at very low flow rates to capture capillarity. The results obtained showed that, for each homogeneous rock and for the same flow path along the core length

  15. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and

  16. New conducted electrical weapons: Electrical safety relative to relevant standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin; Nerheim, Max; Kroll, Mark W; Brave, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    We have previously published about TASER ® conducted electrical weapons (CEW) compliance with international standards. CEWs deliver electrical pulses that can inhibit a person's neuromuscular control or temporarily incapacitate. An eXperimental Rotating-Field (XRF) waveform CEW and the X2 CEW are new 2-shot electrical weapon models designed to target a precise amount of delivered charge per pulse. They both can deploy 1 or 2 dart pairs, delivered by 2 separate cartridges. Additionally, the XRF controls delivery of incapacitating pulses over 4 field vectors, in a rotating sequence. As in our previous study, we were motivated by the need to understand the cardiac safety profile of these new CEWs. The goal of this paper is to analyze the nominal electrical outputs of TASER XRF and X2 CEWs in reference to provisions of all relevant international standards that specify safety requirements for electrical medical devices and electrical fences. Although these standards do not specifically mention CEWs, they are the closest electrical safety standards and hence give very relevant guidance. The outputs of several TASER XRF and X2 CEWs were measured under normal operating conditions. The measurements were compared against manufacturer specifications. CEWs electrical output parameters were reviewed against relevant safety requirements of UL 69, IEC 60335-2-76 Ed 2.1, IEC 60479-1, IEC 60479-2, AS/NZS 60479.1, AS/NZS 60479.2, IEC 60601-1 and BS EN 60601-1. Our study confirmed that the nominal electrical outputs of TASER XRF and X2 CEWs lie within safety bounds specified by relevant standards.

  17. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  18. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  19. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and somatostatin releases correlated with the area under the lafutidine concentration-time curve in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, K; Shimatani, T; Azuma, Y; Inoue, M; Morikawa, N

    2006-08-01

    To examine the effects of the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist, lafutidine, at clinical dosage (10 mg tablet after a standardized meal) on plasma levels of the gastrointestinal peptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin and gastrin. Six healthy male volunteers ate a standardized meal, and received either lafutidine orally at a dose of 10 mg or water only (control). Blood samples were taken before and up to 4 h after the drug administration. Plasma lafutidine concentrations were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic analysis of lafutidine was performed using one-compartmental model. The levels of immunoreactive substances of plasma CGRP, somatostatin and gastrin were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and the amount of peptide release was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Lafutidine significantly increased plasma CGRP levels at 1, 1.5, 2.5 and 4 h and the total amount of CGRP release (192 +/- 14.0 pg.h/mL) compared with the control group (128 +/- 21.5 pg.h/mL). Lafutidine significantly increased the plasma somatostatin levels at 1 and 1.5 h, and the total amount of somatostatin released (107 +/- 18.2 pg.h/mL) compared with the control (78.4 +/- 7.70 pg.h/mL). The area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 4 h after administration correlated well with the Delta-CGRP and Delta-somatostatin release but not with total amount of gastrin released. However, plasma gastrin levels were significantly elevated at 1.5 h after drug administration. Lafutidine at clinical dosage increases plasma CGRP and the somatostatin. The amounts released correlated with the AUC of lafutidine in humans. These results suggest that the increased release of CGRP and somatostatin may contribute to its gastroprotective and anti-acid secretory effect.

  20. The spectrum of a vertex model and related spin one chain sitting in a genus five curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    We derive the transfer matrix eigenvalues of a three-state vertex model whose weights are based on a R-matrix not of difference form with spectral parameters lying on a genus five curve. We have shown that the basic building blocks for both the transfer matrix eigenvalues and Bethe equations can be expressed in terms of meromorphic functions on an elliptic curve. We discuss the properties of an underlying spin one chain originated from a particular choice of the R-matrix second spectral parameter. We present numerical and analytical evidences that the respective low-energy excitations can be gapped or massless depending on the strength of the interaction coupling. In the massive phase we provide analytical and numerical evidences in favor of an exact expression for the lowest energy gap. We point out that the critical point separating these two distinct physical regimes coincides with the one in which the weights geometry degenerate into union of genus one curves.

  1. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  2. The Rhetoric of Arrogance: The Public Relations Response of the Standard Oil Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Josh

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates one of the earliest American public relations debacles (ending in the dissolution of the Standard Oil Trust in 1911). Presents background on Standard Oil and offers an overview Ida Tarbell's influential "History of the Standard Oil company." Argues that Standard failed to respond to these accounts adequately, reinforcing…

  3. A review of standards related to biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, J.; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Air quality is evaluated by the concentration of particulate matter (PM) per unit of air volume. PM10 refers to all particles smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter. The European Commission has established acceptable levels of PM10, but the rules are less precise for evaluating the amount of PM that can be emitted from a furnace's chimney. The province of Quebec allows up to 340 mg/m{sup 3} of PM for large furnaces and 600 mg/m{sup 3} for smaller furnaces. Although wood products can be burned in the province, the burning of all other biomass such as straw, stover and grass is forbidden. The City of Vancouver has stricter emissions standards for PM, notably 50 mg/m{sup 3} for large furnaces and 35 mg/m{sup 3} for smaller furnaces. The reason for this difference is that most furnaces in Quebec are used in rural areas whereas the densely populated City of Vancouver must control emissions at the source. It was concluded that although a universal standard on combustion emissions is not feasible because of different socio-economic conditions and population density, furnaces should emit levels of PM which decrease as the surrounding area population concentration increases. Stringent regulations may be met through advances in technology such as chimney height, bag filters, multicyclones, and precipitators.

  4. A consolidated and standardized relational database for ER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmunt, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The three US Department of Energy (DOE) installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Y-12, and K-25) were established during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project that ''built the bomb.'' That research, and work in more recent years, has resulted in the generation of radioactive materials and other toxic wastes. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems manages the three Oak Ridge installations (as well as the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at the DOE plants in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky). DOE Oak Ridge Operations has been mandated by federal and state agreements to provide a consolidated repository of environmental data and is tasked to support environmental data management activities at all five installations. The Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) was initiated to fulfill these requirements. The primary use of OREIS data is to provide access to project results by regulators. A secondary use is to serve as background data for other projects. This paper discusses the benefits of a consolidated and standardized database; reasons for resistance to the consolidation of data; implementing a consolidated database, including attempts at standardization, deciding what to include in the consolidated database, establishing lists of valid values, and addressing quality control (QC) issues; and the evolution of a consolidated database, which includes developing and training a user community, dealing with configuration control issues, and incorporating historical data. OREIS is used to illustrate these topics

  5. Relations between the development of school investment, self-confidence, and language achievement in elementary education: A multivariate latent growth curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, R.D.; Peetsma, T.T.D.; Roeleveld, J.

    2001-01-01

    Latent growth curve (LGC) analysis of longitudinal data for pupils' school investment, self confidence and language ability is presented. A multivariate model is tested that relates the three developmental processes to each other and to intelligence. All processes show significant differences

  6. Longitudinal Examination of Procrastination and Anxiety, and Their Relation to Self-Efficacy for Self- Regulated Learning: Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen, Sündüs; McCaffrey, Adam; Klassen, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal association between students' anxiety and procrastination and the relation of self-efficacy for self-regulation to these constructs. Latent Growth Curve Modeling was used to analyze data gathered from 182 undergraduate students (134 female, 48 male) at 4 times during a semester. Our results showed that…

  7. Regulations and standardization relative to the biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, E.

    2009-01-01

    It does not exist regulations on pollutants emissions on domestic wood burning furnaces, however, these appliances are submitted to the European and french standardization concerning the safety rules, the use rules and the tests methods. Since 2007, these wood burning appliances on the market must have the European Community label. The green flame label was elaborated by the environment and energy control Agency (A.D.E.M.E.), and manufacturers of domestic appliances to promote the use of competitive wood burning appliances. concerning the collective and industrial heating, the installations of more 2 MW are framed by different categories of the installations classified for environment protection (I.C.P.E.) regulation according their fuel and power. The combustion installations of less than 2 MW are a particular case, they are framed by a sanitary department regulation and are controlled by the department directions of sanitary and social affairs. the limit values of emissions are summarized in tables. (N.C.)

  8. The relation between bone demineralization, physical activity and anthropometric standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to verify the correlation between bone mineral density and the level of physical activity, as well as the food intake and the anthropometric parameters. It intended to analyse the bone mineral density (BMD of menopausal women through the bone densitometry test (DO in the lumbar region (L1 to L4, femoral neck and total femur, and also use Bouchard’s self-recall of daily activities; employing the food record from Buker and Stuart to dose and quantify the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. The data were analysed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, and default value of α = 0.05 was set to compare the BMD averages. It was observed that one hundred percent of the assessed individuals had a BMD level below the average fixed by WHO: 14.4% with osteopenia and 85.6% with osteoporosis; a lower BMD in the femoral area (0.721g and the biggest loss among the sedentary ones (0.698g. It was noticed that there was a correlation between the physical activities and the BMD only when associated with anthropometric standards and the daily ingestion of vitamin D.

  9. The spectrum of a vertex model and related spin one chain sitting in a genus five curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Martins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We derive the transfer matrix eigenvalues of a three-state vertex model whose weights are based on a R-matrix not of difference form with spectral parameters lying on a genus five curve. We have shown that the basic building blocks for both the transfer matrix eigenvalues and Bethe equations can be expressed in terms of meromorphic functions on an elliptic curve. We discuss the properties of an underlying spin one chain originated from a particular choice of the R-matrix second spectral parameter. We present numerical and analytical evidences that the respective low-energy excitations can be gapped or massless depending on the strength of the interaction coupling. In the massive phase we provide analytical and numerical evidences in favor of an exact expression for the lowest energy gap. We point out that the critical point separating these two distinct physical regimes coincides with the one in which the weights geometry degenerate into union of genus one curves.

  10. The standardization of data relational mode in the materials database for nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinxuan

    1996-01-01

    A relational database needs standard data relation ships. The data relation ships include hierarchical structures and repeat set records. Code database is created and the relational database is created between spare parts and materials and properties of the materials. The data relation ships which are not standard are eliminated and all the relation modes are made to meet the demands of the 3NF (Third Norm Form)

  11. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  12. Standardized reporting for rapid relative effectiveness assessments of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijnen, Sarah; Pasternack, Iris; Van de Casteele, Marc; Rossi, Bernardette; Cangini, Agnese; Di Bidino, Rossella; Jelenc, Marjetka; Abrishami, Payam; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Seyfried, Hans; Wildbacher, Ingrid; Goettsch, Wim G

    2014-11-01

    Many European countries perform rapid assessments of the relative effectiveness (RE) of pharmaceuticals as part of the reimbursement decision making process. Increased sharing of information on RE across countries may save costs and reduce duplication of work. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a tool for rapid assessment of RE of new pharmaceuticals that enter the market, the HTA Core Model® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment (REA) of Pharmaceuticals. Eighteen member organisations of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) participated in the development of the model. Different versions of the model were developed and piloted in this collaboration and adjusted accordingly based on feedback on the content and feasibility of the model. The final model deviates from the traditional HTA Core Model® used for assessing other types of technologies. This is due to the limited scope (strong focus on RE), the timing of the assessment (just after market authorisation), and strict timelines (e.g. 90 days) required for performing the assessment. The number of domains and assessment elements was limited and it was decided that the primary information sources should preferably be a submission file provided by the marketing authorisation holder and the European Public Assessment Report. The HTA Core Model® for Rapid REA (version 3.0) was developed to produce standardised transparent RE information of pharmaceuticals. Further piloting can provide input for possible improvements, such as further refining the assessment elements and new methodological guidance on relevant areas.

  13. [Development of a software standardizing optical density with operation settings related to several limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Zuo-Heng; Wan, Cheng; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Jian-Ping; Wu, Hai-Wei

    2012-12-01

    To develop a software that can be used to standardize optical density to normalize the procedures and results of standardization in order to effectively solve several problems generated during standardization of in-direct ELISA results. The software was designed based on the I-STOD method with operation settings to solve the problems that one might encounter during the standardization. Matlab GUI was used as a tool for the development. The software was tested with the results of the detection of sera of persons from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas. I-STOD V1.0 (WINDOWS XP/WIN 7, 0.5 GB) was successfully developed to standardize optical density. A serial of serum samples from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas were used to examine the operational effects of I-STOD V1.0 software. The results indicated that the software successfully overcame several problems including reliability of standard curve, applicable scope of samples and determination of dilution for samples outside the scope, so that I-STOD was performed more conveniently and the results of standardization were more consistent. I-STOD V1.0 is a professional software based on I-STOD. It can be easily operated and can effectively standardize the testing results of in-direct ELISA.

  14. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Stawski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the “aerobic capacity model,” endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ and increasing at ambient temperatures (Ta below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles (Myodes glareolus have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (Tb during exposure to high Ta. To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and Tb of selected and control voles at Ta from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the Tb of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the Tb of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured Ta of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (−28.6°C than in control lines (−20.2°C. Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under

  15. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Koteja, Paweł; Sadowska, Edyta T

    2017-01-01

    According to the "aerobic capacity model," endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and increasing at ambient temperatures (T a ) below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (T b ) during exposure to high T a . To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and T b of selected and control voles at T a from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the T b of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the T b of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured T a of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT) is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C) does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (-28.6°C) than in control lines (-20.2°C). Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under thermally

  16. Determination of efficiency curves for HPGE detector in different counting geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Josianne L.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first experimental results related to determination of efficiency curves for HPGe detector in different counting geometries. The detector is a GX2520 Canberra belonging to CDTN/CNEN. Efficiency curves for punctual were determined by using a certified set of gamma sources. These curves were determined for three counting geometries. Following that, efficiency curves for non punctual samples were determined by using standard solutions of radionuclides in 500 ml and 1000 ml wash bottle Marinelli

  17. 75 FR 60616 - Commission Guidance Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards Related To Brokers and Dealers... Oversight Board in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act to establish auditing... 60617

  18. IEEE Std 382-1980: IEEE standard for qualification of safety-related valve actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the qualification of all types of power-driven valve actuators, including damper actuators, for safety-related functions in nuclear power generating stations. This standard may also be used to separately qualify actuator components. This standard establishes the minimum requirements for, and guidance regarding, the methods and procedures for qualification of all safety-related functions of power-driven valve actuators

  19. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  20. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  1. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when usi...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...

  2. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials by the k sub 0 standardization and relative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M C; Martinho, E [LNETI/ICEN, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1989-04-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub o}-standardization method was applied to eight geological, environmental and biological reference materials, including leaves, blood, fish, sediments, soils and limestone. To a first approximation, the results were normally distributed around the certified values with a standard deviation of 10%. Results obtained by using the relative method based on well characterized multi-element standards for IAEA CRM Soil-7 are reported.

  3. The Reinvention of General Relativity: A Historiographical Framework for Assessing One Hundred Years of Curved Space-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander; Lalli, Roberto; Renn, M Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    The history of the theory of general relativity presents unique features. After its discovery, the theory was immediately confirmed and rapidly changed established notions of space and time. The further implications of general relativity, however, remained largely unexplored until the mid 1950s, when it came into focus as a physical theory and gradually returned to the mainstream of physics. This essay presents a historiographical framework for assessing the history of general relativity by taking into account in an integrated narrative intellectual developments, epistemological problems, and technological advances; the characteristics of post-World War II and Cold War science; and newly emerging institutional settings. It argues that such a framework can help us understand this renaissance of general relativity as a result of two main factors: the recognition of the untapped potential of general relativity and an explicit effort at community building, which allowed this formerly disparate and dispersed field to benefit from the postwar changes in the scientific landscape.

  4. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  5. 77 FR 50757 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... are announcing the standardized administrative fees we will charge to recover our full cost of... will ensure fees are consistent and that we collect the full cost of supplying our information when a... standard fees that are calculated to reflect the full cost of providing information for nonprogram-related...

  6. Do U Txt? Event-Related Potentials to Semantic Anomalies in Standard and Texted English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I.; Coch, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Texted English is a hybrid, technology-based language derived from standard English modified to facilitate ease of communication via instant and text messaging. We compared semantic processing of texted and standard English sentences by recording event-related potentials in a classic semantic incongruity paradigm designed to elicit an N400 effect.…

  7. Vaginismus and dyspareunia : Relationship with general and sex-related moral standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    Introduction. Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance

  8. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  9. Signature Curves Statistics of DNA Supercoils

    OpenAIRE

    Shakiban, Cheri; Lloyd, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Euclidean signature curves for two dimensional closed curves in the plane and their generalization to closed space curves. The focus will be on discrete numerical methods for approximating such curves. Further we will apply these numerical methods to plot the signature curves related to three-dimensional simulated DNA supercoils. Our primary focus will be on statistical analysis of the data generated for the signature curves of the supercoils. We will try to esta...

  10. How carryover has an effect on recovery measures related to the area under the curve: theoretical and experimental investigations using cardiovascular parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Yukihiro; Kato, Yuichi

    2011-03-01

    This study examines cardiovascular recovery from mental stress. Investigating the absence or presence of carryover effect, the effect of the final reactivity observed at the end of stressful task on the successive recovery, was the major objective. A recently advocated recovery measure related to the area under the curve, mean recovery rate (MRR), was investigated, comparing with the two relatives of this type, total carryover (TCO) and literally area under the curve (AUC). At the onset, a detailed theoretical formulation of each measure was carried out, starting from its original definition. It was predicted that MRR, but not TCO or AUC, could be free from the carryover effect. Next, 88 male students underwent a 5-min mental arithmetic during which blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Nearly all the theoretical predictions (i.e., 5/6 for the three recovery measures by two cardiovascular parameters) were supported by experimental data. There was only one exception: for heart rate, there was a proportional relationship even for MRR versus the final reactivity. Vagal rebound in the recovery period was conceived as the main contributor of this contradiction. The implications of these results for the understanding of future directions in recovery studies are discussed.

  11. A note on families of fragility curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve

  12. Quantifying relative importance: Computing standardized effects in models with binary outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Johnson, Darren; Lefcheck, Jonathan S.; Byrnes, Jarrett E.K.

    2018-01-01

    Scientists commonly ask questions about the relative importances of processes, and then turn to statistical models for answers. Standardized coefficients are typically used in such situations, with the goal being to compare effects on a common scale. Traditional approaches to obtaining standardized coefficients were developed with idealized Gaussian variables in mind. When responses are binary, complications arise that impact standardization methods. In this paper, we review, evaluate, and propose new methods for standardizing coefficients from models that contain binary outcomes. We first consider the interpretability of unstandardized coefficients and then examine two main approaches to standardization. One approach, which we refer to as the Latent-Theoretical or LT method, assumes that underlying binary observations there exists a latent, continuous propensity linearly related to the coefficients. A second approach, which we refer to as the Observed-Empirical or OE method, assumes responses are purely discrete and estimates error variance empirically via reference to a classical R2 estimator. We also evaluate the standard formula for calculating standardized coefficients based on standard deviations. Criticisms of this practice have been persistent, leading us to propose an alternative formula that is based on user-defined “relevant ranges”. Finally, we implement all of the above in an open-source package for the statistical software R.

  13. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  14. C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio is a predictor of hepatitis B virus related decompensated cirrhosis: time-dependent receiver operating characteristics and decision curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Si; Xie, Dong-Mei; Cai, Yi-Jing; Wu, Jian-Min; Chen, Rui-Chong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Song, Mei; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Wang, Yu-Qun; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Ke-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem and HBV-related-decompensated cirrhosis (HBV-DC) usually leads to a poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine the utility of inflammatory biomarkers in predicting mortality of HBV-DC. A total of 329 HBV-DC patients were enrolled. Survival estimates for the entire study population were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic values for model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, Child-Pugh score, and inflammatory biomarkers neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) for HBV-DC were compared using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves and time-dependent decision curves. The survival time was 23.1±15.8 months. Multivariate analysis identified age, CAR, LMR, and platelet count as prognostic independent risk factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that CAR of at least 1.0 (hazard ratio, 7.19; 95% confidence interval, 4.69-11.03), and LMR less than 1.9 (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.41) were independently associated with mortality of HBV-DC. The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic indicated that CAR showed the best performance in predicting mortality of HBV-DC compared with LMR, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score. The results were also confirmed by time-dependent decision curves. CAR and LMR were associated with the prognosis of HBV-DC. CAR was superior to LMR, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score in HBV-DC mortality prediction.

  15. A Novel Reverse-Transcriptase Real-Time PCR Method for Quantification of Viable Vibrio Parahemolyticus in Raw Shrimp Based on a Rapid Construction of Standard Curve Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mengtong Jin; Haiquan Liu; Wenshuo Sun; Qin Li; Zhaohuan Zhang; Jibing Li; Yingjie Pan; Yong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is an important pathogen that leads to food illness associated seafood. Therefore, rapid and reliable methods to detect and quantify the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in seafood are needed. In this assay, a RNA-based real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) without an enrichment step has been developed for detection and quantification of the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp. RNA standards with the target segments were synthesized in vitro with T7 RNA p...

  16. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  17. Cosmological applications of algebraic quantum field theory in curved spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a largely self-contained and broadly accessible exposition on two cosmological applications of algebraic quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime: a fundamental analysis of the cosmological evolution according to the Standard Model of Cosmology; and a fundamental study of the perturbations in inflation. The two central sections of the book dealing with these applications are preceded by sections providing a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Introductory material on the construction of linear QFTs on general curved spacetimes with and without gauge symmetry in the algebraic approach, physically meaningful quantum states on general curved spacetimes, and the backreaction of quantum fields in curved spacetimes via the semiclassical Einstein equation is also given. The reader should have a basic understanding of General Relativity and QFT on Minkowski spacetime, but no background in QFT on curved spacetimes or the algebraic approach to QFT is required.

  18. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  19. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  20. American National Standard: guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters at nuclear power sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This standard presents guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters for nuclear power sites. Aspects considered include geology, ground water, foundation engineering, and earthwork engineering. These guidelines identify the basic geotechnical parameters to be considered in site evaluation, and in the design, construction, and performance of foundations and earthwork aspects for nuclear power plants. Also included are tabulations of typical field and laboratory investigative methods useful in identifying geotechnical parameters. Those areas where interrelationships with other standards may exist are indicated

  1. Norms and international standards related to reduce risk management: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fuentes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current work aims to develop a revision of the literature within the main concepts in the international rules and standards related to risk management in companies. By this way, there will be an analysis of issues such as the COSO - ERM model, an introduction to the ISO 27000 and 31000 standards; and the Project Management according to PMI targeted at risk management

  2. Vaginismus and dyspareunia: relationship with general and sex-related moral standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord

    2011-01-01

    Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance behavior, which is at the nucleus of vaginismus. To examine whether indeed strong adherence to conservative morals and/or strict sexual standards may be involved in vaginismus. The Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) to investigate the individual's value pattern and the Sexual Disgust Questionnaire (SDQ) to index the willingness to perform certain sexual activities as an indirect measure of sex-related moral standards. The SVS and SDQ were completed by three groups: women diagnosed with vaginismus (N=24), a group of women diagnosed with dyspareunia (N=24), and a healthy control group of women without sexual complaints (N=32). Specifically, the vaginismus group showed relatively low scores on liberal values together with comparatively high scores on conservative values. Additionally, the vaginismus group was more restricted in their readiness to perform particular sex-related behaviors than the control group. The dyspareunia group, on both the SVS and the SDQ, placed between the vaginismus and the control group, but not significantly different than either of the groups. The findings are consistent with the view that low liberal and high conservative values, along with restricted sexual standards, are involved in the development/maintenance of vaginismus. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  4. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  5. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  6. Adolescents' Motivation for Reading: Group Differences and Relation to Standardized Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Denton, Carolyn A.; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on adolescents' motivation for reading by examining important group differences and the relation of motivation to standardized achievement. Adolescents (N = 406) ranging from grade 7 to grade 12 completed a self-report survey that assessed 13 different aspects of their reading motivation…

  7. Limitations of the relative standard deviation of win percentages for measuring competitive balance in sports leagues

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dorian Owen

    2009-01-01

    The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.

  8. Challenging the 3.0 GPA Eligibility Standard for Public Relations Internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the appropriateness of a 3.0 GPA standard for public relations internship eligibility at one university. Seeks to determine at what GPA cutoff faculty can feel confident that the student will gain from the internship without damaging the program's reputation. Finds students with a 2.7 GPA did as well as students with GPAs ranging from 3.0…

  9. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including oral \\8\\ and vision... Act uses the terms ``dental'' and ``oral'' interchangeably when referring to the pediatric dental care... Parts 147, 155, and 156 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential...

  10. Growth curves and age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum parameters, and intestinal transporter gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73

  11. Mannheim Partner D-Curves in the Euclidean 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kazaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the idea of Mannheim partner curves for curves lying on surfaces. By considering the Darboux frames of surface curves, we define Mannheim partner D-curves and give the characterizations for these curves. We also find the relations between geodesic curvatures, normal curvatures and geodesic torsions of these associated curves. Furthermore, we show that definition and characterizations of Mannheim partner D-curves include those of Mannheim partner curves in some special cases.

  12. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF

  13. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF.

  14. Theoretical Understanding the Relations of Melting-point Determination Methods from Gibbs Thermodynamic Surface and Applications on Melting Curves of Lower Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, K.; Belonoshko, A. B.; Zhou, H.; Lu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The melting temperatures of materials in the interior of the Earth has significant implications in many areas of geophysics. The direct calculations of the melting point by atomic simulations would face substantial hysteresis problem. To overcome the hysteresis encountered in the atomic simulations there are a few different melting-point determination methods available nowadays, which are founded independently, such as the free energy method, the two-phase or coexistence method, and the Z method, etc. In this study, we provide a theoretical understanding the relations of these methods from a geometrical perspective based on a quantitative construction of the volume-entropy-energy thermodynamic surface, a model first proposed by J. Willard Gibbs in 1873. Then combining with an experimental data and/or a previous melting-point determination method, we apply this model to derive the high-pressure melting curves for several lower mantle minerals with less computational efforts relative to using previous methods only. Through this way, some polyatomic minerals at extreme pressures which are almost unsolvable before are calculated fully from first principles now.

  15. General circular velocity relation of a test particle in a 3D gravitational potential: application to the rotation curves analysis and total mass determination of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, P.; Martínez-García, E. E.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we derive a novel circular velocity relation for a test particle in a 3D gravitational potential applicable to every system of curvilinear coordinates, suitable to be reduced to orthogonal form. As an illustration of the potentiality of the determined circular velocity expression, we perform the rotation curves analysis of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 and we estimate the total and dark matter mass of these two galaxies under the assumption that their respective dark matter haloes have spherical, prolate, and oblate spheroidal mass distributions. We employ stellar population synthesis models and the total H I density map to obtain the stellar and H I+He+metals rotation curves of both galaxies. The subtraction of the stellar plus gas rotation curves from the observed rotation curves of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 generates the dark matter circular velocity curves of both galaxies. We fit the dark matter rotation curves of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 through the newly established circular velocity formula specialized to the spherical, prolate, and oblate spheroidal mass distributions, considering the Navarro, Frenk, and White, Burkert, Di Cintio, Einasto, and Stadel dark matter haloes. Our principal findings are the following: globally, cored dark matter profiles Burkert and Einasto prevail over cuspy Navarro, Frenk, and White, and Di Cintio. Also, spherical/oblate dark matter models fit better the dark matter rotation curves of both galaxies than prolate dark matter haloes.

  16. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  17. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  18. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  19. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  20. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  1. From Classical to Discrete Gravity through Exponential Non-Standard Lagrangians in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ahmad El-Nabulsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, non-standard Lagrangians have gained a growing importance in theoretical physics and in the theory of non-linear differential equations. However, their formulations and implications in general relativity are still in their infancies despite some advances in contemporary cosmology. The main aim of this paper is to fill the gap. Though non-standard Lagrangians may be defined by a multitude form, in this paper, we considered the exponential type. One basic feature of exponential non-standard Lagrangians concerns the modified Euler-Lagrange equation obtained from the standard variational analysis. Accordingly, when applied to spacetime geometries, one unsurprisingly expects modified geodesic equations. However, when taking into account the time-like paths parameterization constraint, remarkably, it was observed that mutually discrete gravity and discrete spacetime emerge in the theory. Two different independent cases were obtained: A geometrical manifold with new spacetime coordinates augmented by a metric signature change and a geometrical manifold characterized by a discretized spacetime metric. Both cases give raise to Einstein’s field equations yet the gravity is discretized and originated from “spacetime discreteness”. A number of mathematical and physical implications of these results were discussed though this paper and perspectives are given accordingly.

  2. Relating road salt to exceedances of the water quality standard for chloride in New Hampshire streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Philip R; Kahl, J Steve; Sassan, Dari A; Heath, Douglas L; Walsh, Edward M

    2010-07-01

    Six watersheds in New Hampshire were studied to determine the effects of road salt on stream water quality. Specific conductance in streams was monitored every 15 min for one year using dataloggers. Chloride concentrations were calculated from specific conductance using empirical relationships. Stream chloride concentrations were directly correlated with development in the watersheds and were inversely related to streamflow. Exceedances of the EPA water quality standard for chloride were detected in the four watersheds with the most development. The number of exceedances during a year was linearly related to the annual average concentration of chloride. Exceedances of the water quality standard were not predicted for streams with annual average concentrations less than 102 mg L(-1). Chloride was imported into three of the watersheds at rates ranging from 45 to 98 Mg Cl km(-2) yr(-1). Ninety-one percent of the chloride imported was road salt for deicing roadways and parking lots. A simple, mass balance equation was shown to predict annual average chloride concentrations from streamflow and chloride import rates to the watershed. This equation, combined with the apparent threshold for exceedances of the water quality standard, can be used for screening-level TMDLs for road salt in impaired watersheds.

  3. Relative resilience to noise of standard and sequential approaches to measurement-based quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C. B.; Ferraro, A.

    2018-05-01

    A possible alternative to the standard model of measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is offered by the sequential model of MBQC—a particular class of quantum computation via ancillae. Although these two models are equivalent under ideal conditions, their relative resilience to noise in practical conditions is not yet known. We analyze this relationship for various noise models in the ancilla preparation and in the entangling-gate implementation. The comparison of the two models is performed utilizing both the gate infidelity and the diamond distance as figures of merit. Our results show that in the majority of instances the sequential model outperforms the standard one in regard to a universal set of operations for quantum computation. Further investigation is made into the performance of sequential MBQC in experimental scenarios, thus setting benchmarks for possible cavity-QED implementations.

  4. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  5. Relationship between non-standard work arrangements and work-related accident absence in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Hanan; Braeckman, Lutgart; Van Hecke, Tanja; De Clercq, Bart; Janssens, Heidi; Wahab, Magd Abdel

    2017-03-28

    The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between indicators of non-standard work arrangements, including precarious contract, long working hours, multiple jobs, shift work, and work-related accident absence, using a representative Belgian sample and considering several socio-demographic and work characteristics. This study was based on the data of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). For the analysis, the sample was restricted to 3343 respondents from Belgium who were all employed workers. The associations between non-standard work arrangements and work-related accident absence were studied with multivariate logistic regression modeling techniques while adjusting for several confounders. During the last 12 months, about 11.7% of workers were absent from work because of work-related accident. A multivariate regression model showed an increased injury risk for those performing shift work (OR 1.546, 95% CI 1.074-2.224). The relationship between contract type and occupational injuries was not significant (OR 1.163, 95% CI 0.739-1.831). Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were observed for those performing long working hours (OR 1.217, 95% CI 0.638-2.321) and those performing multiple jobs (OR 1.361, 95% CI 0.827-2.240) in relation to work-related accident absence. Those who rated their health as bad, low educated workers, workers from the construction sector, and those exposed to biomechanical exposure (BM) were more frequent victims of work-related accident absence. No significant gender difference was observed. Indicators of non-standard work arrangements under this study, except shift work, were not significantly associated with work-related accident absence. To reduce the burden of occupational injuries, not only risk reduction strategies and interventions are needed but also policy efforts are to be undertaken to limit shift work. In general, preventive measures and more training on the job are needed to

  6. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  7. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  8. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  9. Systematic review: work-related stress and the HSE management standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, K; Limbert, C; Deacy, C; O'Reilly, A; Scott, S; Thirlaway, K

    2013-10-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has defined six management standards representing aspects of work that, if poorly managed, are associated with lower levels of employee health and productivity, and increased sickness absence. The HSE indicator tool aims to measure organizations' performance in managing the primary stressors identified by the HSE management standards. The aims of the study are to explore how the HSE indicator tool has been implemented within organizations and to identify contexts in which the tool has been used, its psychometric properties and relationships with alternative measures of well-being and stress. Studies that matched specific criteria were included in the review. Abstracts were considered by two researchers to ensure a reliable process. Full texts were obtained when abstracts met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen papers were included in the review. Using factor analysis and measures of reliability, the studies suggest that the HSE indicator tool is a psychometrically sound measure. The tool has been used to measure work-related stress across different occupational groups, with a clear relationship between the HSE tool and alternative measures of well-being. Limitations of the tool and recommendations for future research are discussed. The HSE indicator tool is a psychometrically sound measure of organizational performance against the HSE management standards. As such it can provide a broad overview of sources of work-related stress within organizations. More research is required to explore the use of the tool in the design of interventions to reduce stress, and its use in different contexts and with different cultural and gender groups.

  10. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...

  11. Abnormal brain activation and connectivity to standardized disorder-related visual scenes in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Feldker, Katharina; Neumeister, Paula; Zepp, Britta Maria; Peterburs, Jutta; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of altered emotional processing in social anxiety disorder (SAD) is hampered by a heterogeneity of findings, which is probably due to the vastly different methods and materials used so far. This is why the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated immediate disorder-related threat processing in 30 SAD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) with a novel, standardized set of highly ecologically valid, disorder-related complex visual scenes. SAD patients rated disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes as more unpleasant, arousing and anxiety-inducing than HC. On the neural level, disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes evoked differential responses in SAD patients in a widespread emotion processing network including (para-)limbic structures (e.g. amygdala, insula, thalamus, globus pallidus) and cortical regions (e.g. dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and precuneus). Functional connectivity analysis yielded an altered interplay between PCC/precuneus and paralimbic (insula) as well as cortical regions (dmPFC, precuneus) in SAD patients, which emphasizes a central role for PCC/precuneus in disorder-related scene processing. Hyperconnectivity of globus pallidus with amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) additionally underlines the relevance of this region in socially anxious threat processing. Our findings stress the importance of specific disorder-related stimuli for the investigation of altered emotion processing in SAD. Disorder-related threat processing in SAD reveals anomalies at multiple stages of emotion processing which may be linked to increased anxiety and to dysfunctionally elevated levels of self-referential processing reported in previous studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Influence of the curve density relative electron in dosimetry clinic in treatments stereo tactics; Influencia de la curva de densidad electronica relativa en la dosimetria clinica en tratamientos estereotaxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Parra Osorio, V.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Garcia Pareja, S.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the difference between clinical dosimetry in the treatments with radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy fractional obtained from the relative Electron density curve (Schneider 1996) tabulated and provided with the scanner's radiation therapy. (Author)

  13. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  14. Standard practice for determining relative image quality response of industrial radiographic imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This standard provides a practice whereby industrial radiographic imaging systems may be comparatively assessed using the concept of relative image quality response (RIQR). The RIQR method presented within this practice is based upon the use of equivalent penetrameter sensitivity (EPS) described within Practice E 1025 and subsection 5.2 of this practice. Figure 1 illustrates a relative image quality indicator (RIQI) that has four different steel plaque thicknesses (.015, .010, .008, and .005 in.) sequentially positioned (from top to bottom) on a ¾-in. thick steel plate. The four plaques contain a total of 14 different arrays of penetrameter-type hole sizes designed to render varied conditions of threshold visibility ranging from 1.92 % EPS (at the top) to .94 % EPS (at the bottom) when exposed to nominal 200 keV X-ray radiation. Each “EPS” array consists of 30 identical holes; thus, providing the user with a quantity of threshold sensitivity levels suitable for relative image qualitative response com...

  15. Quantitative angle-insensitive flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Buyun; Qi, Li; Wang, Ling; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-10-30

    Incorporating different data processing methods, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurements. However, OCT angiography cannot provide quantitative information of flow velocities, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which is a challenge in a complex vascular network. In this study, we report on a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) method which provides both vascular network mapping and quantitative information for flow velocities within a wide range of Doppler angles. The RSD values are angle-insensitive within a wide range of angles, and a nearly linear relationship was found between the RSD values and the flow velocities. The RSD-OCT measurement in a rat cortex shows that it can quantify the blood flow velocities as well as map the vascular network in vivo .

  16. Gauge-independent scales related to the Standard Model vacuum instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.R.; Garny, M.; Konstandin, T.; Riotto, A.

    2016-08-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about 10"1"1 GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  17. Gauge-Independent Scales Related to the Standard Model Vacuum Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Jose R.; Konstandin, Thomas; Riotto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about $10^{11}$ GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge-invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  18. Effects of Pathologic Stage on the Learning Curve for Radical Prostatectomy: Evidence That Recurrence in Organ-Confined Cancer Is Largely Related to Inadequate Surgical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Gonen, Mithat; Cronin, Angel M.; Eastham, James A.; Schrag, Deborah; Klein, Eric A.; Reuther, Alwyn M.; Kattan, Michael W.; Pontes, J. Edson; Scardino, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. We sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by pathologic stage. Methods The study included 7765 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable regression models of survival time were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, with adjustment for PSA, stage, and grade. Analyses were conducted separately for patients with organ-confined and locally advanced disease. Results Five-year recurrence-free probability for patients with organ-confined disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons. Conversely, the learning curve for patients with locally advanced disease reached a plateau at approximately 70%, suggesting that about a third of these patients cannot be cured by surgery alone. Conclusions Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with organ-confined disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggest that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. PMID:18207316

  19. Relative equilibrium plot improves graphical analysis and allows bias correction of standardized uptake value ratio in quantitative 11C-PiB PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Sojkova, Jitka; Resnick, Susan M; Wong, Dean F

    2012-04-01

    Both the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and the Logan plot result in biased distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in ligand-receptor dynamic PET studies. The objective of this study was to use a recently developed relative equilibrium-based graphical (RE) plot method to improve and simplify the 2 commonly used methods for quantification of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET. The overestimation of DVR in SUVR was analyzed theoretically using the Logan and the RE plots. A bias-corrected SUVR (bcSUVR) was derived from the RE plot. Seventy-eight (11)C-PiB dynamic PET scans (66 from controls and 12 from participants with mild cognitive impaired [MCI] from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging) were acquired over 90 min. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on coregistered MR images. Both the ROI and the pixelwise time-activity curves were used to evaluate the estimates of DVR. DVRs obtained using the Logan plot applied to ROI time-activity curves were used as a reference for comparison of DVR estimates. Results from the theoretic analysis were confirmed by human studies. ROI estimates from the RE plot and the bcSUVR were nearly identical to those from the Logan plot with ROI time-activity curves. In contrast, ROI estimates from DVR images in frontal, temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions and the striatum were underestimated by the Logan plot (controls, 4%-12%; MCI, 9%-16%) and overestimated by the SUVR (controls, 8%-16%; MCI, 16%-24%). This bias was higher in the MCI group than in controls (P bias and higher consistency of DVR estimates than of SUVR. The RE plot and the bcSUVR are practical quantitative approaches that improve the analysis of (11)C-PiB studies.

  20. PLOTTAB, Curve and Point Plotting with Error Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTTAB is designed to plot any combination of continuous curves and/or discrete points (with associated error bars) using user supplied titles and X and Y axis labels and units. If curves are plotted, the first curve may be used as a standard; the data and the ratio of the data to the standard will be plotted. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTTAB: The program has no idea of what data is being plotted and yet by supplying titles, X and Y axis labels and units the user can produce any number of plots with each plot containing almost any combination of curves and points with each plot properly identified. In order to define a continuous curve between tabulated points, this program must know how to interpolate between points. By input the user may specify either the default option of linear x versus linear y interpolation or alternatively log x and/or log Y interpolation. In all cases, regardless of the interpolation specified, the program will always interpolate the data to the plane of the plot (linear or log x and y plane) in order to present the true variation of the data between tabulated points, based on the user specified interpolation law. Tabulated points should be tabulated at a sufficient number of x values to insure that the difference between the specified interpolation and the 'true' variation of a curve between tabulated values is relatively small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A combination of up to 30 curves and sets of discrete points may appear on each plot. If the user wishes to use this program to compare different sets of data, all of the data must be in the same units

  1. Determine equilibrium dissociation constant of drug-membrane receptor affinity using the cell membrane chromatography relative standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina; Yang, Liu; Lv, Yanni; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Langchong

    2017-06-23

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K D ) of drug-membrane receptor affinity is the basic parameter that reflects the strength of interaction. The cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method is an effective technique to study the characteristics of drug-membrane receptor affinity. In this study, the K D value of CMC relative standard method for the determination of drug-membrane receptor affinity was established to analyze the relative K D values of drugs binding to the membrane receptors (Epidermal growth factor receptor and angiotensin II receptor). The K D values obtained by the CMC relative standard method had a strong correlation with those obtained by the frontal analysis method. Additionally, the K D values obtained by CMC relative standard method correlated with pharmacological activity of the drug being evaluated. The CMC relative standard method is a convenient and effective method to evaluate drug-membrane receptor affinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Standard on microbiological management of fluids for hemodialysis and related therapies by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Hideki; Akiba, Takashi; Masakane, Ikuto; Tomo, Tadashi; Mineshima, Michio; Kawasaki, Tadayuki; Hirakata, Hideki; Akizawa, Tadao

    2009-04-01

    The Committee of Scientific Academy of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) proposes a new standard on microbiological management of fluids for hemodialysis and related therapies. This standard is within the scope of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is currently under revision. This standard is to be applied to the central dialysis fluid delivery systems (CDDS), which are widely used in Japan. In this standard, microbiological qualities for dialysis water and dialysis fluids are clearly defined by endotoxin level and bacterial count. The qualities of dialysis fluids were classified into three levels: standard, ultrapure, and online prepared substitution fluid. In addition, the therapeutic application of each dialysis fluid is clarified. Since high-performance dialyzers are frequently used in Japan, the standard recommends that ultrapure dialysis fluid be used for all dialysis modalities at all dialysis facilities. It also recommends that the dialysis equipment safety management committee at each facility should validate the microbiological qualities of online prepared substitution fluid.

  3. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  4. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among motorcycle mechanics, Lahore (Pakistan: an application of standardized Nordic questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Baqar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a follow up to our previously published “letter to the editor”, whose purpose was to report the relationship of pain prevalence (work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and trouble prohibiting to normal work (work-related musculoskeletal disorders with descriptive variables among motorcycle mechanics using standardized Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ as a tool. Results demonstrates that the pain prevalence was significantly high in shoulders, neck, low-back, wrists, ankles and elbows compared to other body parts. Among variables “age of participants and working hours” were found to be directly associated whereby shoulder and neck pain had significant correlation with lower age groups and more working hours. Regarding trouble prohibited to normal work, a total of 121 (46% participants reported hindrance in normal work with serious complaints about shoulders for younger age group; wrists and hips for middle age group; and neck, lower back, knees, ankles for old age group. Finally, results of a frequencies and cross-tabulations indicated that prolong work hours were significantly associated with emergence of musculoskeletal symptoms. This high prevalence of WMSS leading to WMSD among the motorcycles mechanics reflects the ignorance of occupational duties. A possible recommendation of this research includes the development and implementation of health and safety guidelines for the mentioned industry.

  5. Non-standard employment relations and wages among school-leavers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.R.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-standard (alternatively, flexible) employment has become common in the Netherlands, and viewed as an important weapon for combating youth unemployment. However, if such jobs are 'bad', non-standard employment becomes a matter of concern. In addition, non-standard employment may hit the least

  6. 78 FR 57445 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... the Federal Register a schedule of standardized administrative fees we charge to recover the full cost... fee schedule is outdated and incongruent with the agency's current costs for this service. New... new standard fee on our most recent cost calculations for supplying this information and the standard...

  7. 76 FR 22665 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... criteria. The revised air quality criteria reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the... National Ambient Air Quality Standards, contains staff analyses of the scientific bases for alternative... Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY...

  8. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  9. Effects of standard humic materials on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in juvenile swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Delannoy

    Full Text Available Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5 (SPAC were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n = 5 for each group. During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19,200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6,000 ng.g⁻¹ of NDL-PCBs to achieve an exposure dose of 1,200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg⁻¹ of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds.

  10. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  11. Standards related to harmonic disturbances and its evolution; La normalisation relative aux perturbations harmoniques et son evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deflandre, T. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this document is to provide an overview of the various normative documents and regulations that may be useful in the field of harmonics as references to a network user, fitter, manufacturer or operator. Several documents that are presently developed at Electricite de France are also presented, together with the connecting regulation that is included in the Emeraude contract. The following points are discussed: hierarchy of normative documents, harmonic emission standards and more especially the NF EN 610003-2 standards ``Limits for the emission of harmonic currents for equipment having an inrush current inferior or equal to 16 A per phase``; document status, immunity standards, compatibility and environment standards, documents under study and the Emeraude contract

  12. The legitimacy of transnational private governance arrangements related to nanotechnologies: the case of international organization for standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis consists of developing a comprehensive empirical assessment on the legitimacy of nanotechnology related transnational private governance arrangements (TPGAs), explored through the case study of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on

  13. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  14. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  15. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  16. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  17. Collectivism versus individualism: performance-related pay and union coverage for non-standard workers in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L.; Francesconi, Marco

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the extent of union coverage and performance-related pay (PRP) - the latter representing one aspect of pay flexibility - across standard and non-standard workers in Britain, using the first seven waves of the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-1997. We find there is no evidence of expansion of either union coverage or PRP towards any type of non-standard employment in the 1990s. Thus union rhetoric about a 'strategy of enlargement' towards non-standard workers remains j...

  18. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  19. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  20. Double standards: the multinational asbestos industry and asbestos-related disease in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Jock; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    This study documents and contrasts the development of knowledge about asbestos-related disease (ARD) in South Africa and the United Kingdom. It also contributes to the globalization debate by exploring corporate decision-making in a multinational industry. Between the 1930s and 1960s, the leading U.K. asbestos companies developed a sophisticated knowledge of ARD, though in South Africa, where the leading companies such as Turner & Newall and Cape Asbestos owned mines, there was little attempt to apply this knowledge. Asbestos mines (and their environments) in South Africa were uniquely dusty and ARD was rife. Social and political factors in South Africa, especially apartheid, allowed these companies to apply double standards, even after 1960 when the much more serious hazard of mesothelioma was identified. This shows the need for greater regulation of multinationals. Because of the lack of such regulation in the early 1960s, an opportunity was lost to prevent the current high morbidity and mortality of ARD both in South Africa and worldwide.

  1. Length standards and the Twin Paradox in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, James Gasper

    In this Thesis I work towards a discussion of several resolutions of the Twin Paradox by exploring the Lorentz transformations. I begin by asking what it means for a moving length to contract, a question which obviously cannot be divorced from the propagation of length standards from one reference frame to another. I emphasize the conventionality of definitions of length. I go on to argue that it is the imposition of clock synchronization-the conventionality of one-way speeds- and not the effects of acceleration which leads to the asymmetry of light speed observed in Sagnac effect; and further, that this asymmetry leads to apparent paradoxes which are easily resolved when we take into account general covariance. In subsequent discussion of light-speed conventionality, I prove that any transform which preserves synchronization consistent with Michelson-Morley must be a similarity transform; and use this to demonstrate that not all results which appear to depend on Special Relativity actually do. I conclude this Thesis with an argument that the Twin Paradox cannot be resolved consistently if we impose simultaneously all 'physical' conditions which various resolutions impose in part.

  2. Failure trend analysis for safety related components of Korean standard NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Han, Sang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    The component reliability data of Korean NPP that reflects the plant specific characteristics is required necessarily for PSA of Korean nuclear power plants. We have performed a project to develop the component reliability database (KIND, Korea Integrated Nuclear Reliability Database) and S/W for database management and component reliability analysis. Based on the system, we have collected the component operation data and failure/repair data during from plant operation date to 2002 for YGN 3, 4 and UCN 3, 4 plants. Recently, we provided the component failure rate data for UCN 3, 4 standard PSA model from the KIND. We evaluated the components that have high-ranking failure rates with the component reliability data from plant operation date to 1998 and 2000 for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3, 4 respectively. We also identified their failure mode that occurred frequently. In this study, we analyze the component failure trend and perform site comparison based on the generic data by using the component reliability data which is extended to 2002 for UCN 3, 4 and YGN 3, 4 respectively. We focus on the major safety related rotating components such as pump, EDG etc

  3. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, Elena; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  4. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  5. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  6. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  7. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  8. An Analysis of Geography Content in Relation to Geography for Life Standards in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" in the United States (Geography Education Standards Project, 1994), it has been widely used to develop quality curriculum materials for what students should know and able to do in geography. This study compared geography content taught in Omani public schools…

  9. State-of-the-art ab initio potential energy curve for the xenon atom pair and related spectroscopic and thermophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert; Jäger, Benjamin; Bich, Eckard

    2017-07-01

    A new ab initio interatomic potential energy curve for two ground-state xenon atoms is presented. It is based on supermolecular calculations at the coupled-cluster level with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] employing basis sets up to sextuple-zeta quality, which were developed as part of this work. In addition, corrections were determined for higher coupled-cluster levels up to CCSDTQ as well as for scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects at the CCSD(T) level. A physically motivated analytical function was fitted to the calculated interaction energies and used to compute the vibrational spectrum of the dimer, the second virial coefficient, and the dilute gas transport properties. The agreement with the best available experimental data for the investigated properties is excellent; the new potential function is superior not only to previous ab initio potentials but also to the most popular empirical ones.

  10. State-of-the-art ab initio potential energy curve for the xenon atom pair and related spectroscopic and thermophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert; Jäger, Benjamin; Bich, Eckard

    2017-07-21

    A new ab initio interatomic potential energy curve for two ground-state xenon atoms is presented. It is based on supermolecular calculations at the coupled-cluster level with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] employing basis sets up to sextuple-zeta quality, which were developed as part of this work. In addition, corrections were determined for higher coupled-cluster levels up to CCSDTQ as well as for scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects at the CCSD(T) level. A physically motivated analytical function was fitted to the calculated interaction energies and used to compute the vibrational spectrum of the dimer, the second virial coefficient, and the dilute gas transport properties. The agreement with the best available experimental data for the investigated properties is excellent; the new potential function is superior not only to previous ab initio potentials but also to the most popular empirical ones.

  11. Study and program implementation of transient curves' piecewise linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yang; Zu Hongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transient curves are essential for the stress analysis of related equipment in nuclear power plant (NPP). The actually operating data or the design transient data of a NPP usually consist of a large number of data points with very short time intervals. To simplify the analysis, transient curves are generally piecewise linearized in advance. Up to now, the piecewise linearization of transient curves is accomplished manually, Purpose: The aim is to develop a method for the piecewise linearization of transient curves, and to implement it by programming. Methods: First of all, the fitting line of a number of data points was obtained by the least square method. The segment of the fitting line is set while the accumulation error of linearization exceeds the preset limit with the increasing number of points. Then the linearization of subsequent data points was begun from the last point of the preceding curve segment to get the next segment in the same way, and continue until the final data point involved. Finally, averaging of junction points is taken for the segment connection. Results: A computer program named PLTC (Piecewise Linearization for Transient Curves) was implemented and verified by the linearization of the standard sine curve and typical transient curves of a NPP. Conclusion: The method and the PLTC program can be well used to the piecewise linearization of transient curves, with improving efficiency and precision. (authors)

  12. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  13. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis

  14. The role of experience curves for setting MEPS for appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. - Highlights: • We integrate experience curves into life cycle cost calculations for MEPS. • For driers and refrigerators this results in at least twice the energy savings. • For flat panel televisions an experience curve is provided

  15. Influence of midsole hardness of standard cushioned shoes on running-related injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Daniel; Malisoux, Laurent; Genin, Joakim; Delattre, Nicolas; Seil, Romain; Urhausen, Axel

    2014-03-01

    In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, we tested if leisure-time runners using shoes with less compliant midsoles have a higher running-related injury (RRI) risk. We provided 247 runners with standard running shoes having either a soft study shoes (soft-SS) or a hard study shoes (hard-SS) midsole and followed them prospectively for 5 months regarding RRI. All information about sports practice and injuries was uploaded on a dedicated internet platform and checked for consistency and completeness. RRI was defined as any first-time pain sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding normal running activity for at least 1 day. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to identify RRI risk factors. The type of study shoes used for running was not associated with RRIs (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.48). The hard-SS had a 15% greater overall stiffness in the heel region. The two study groups were similar regarding personal and sports participation characteristics, except for years of running experience, which was higher (prunning. No between-group differences were found regarding injury location, type, severity or category. Nevertheless, the adjusted regression model revealed positive associations with RRI risk for body mass index (HR=1.126; 95% CI 1.033 to 1.227), previous injury (HR=1.735; 95% CI 1.037 to 2.902) and mean session intensity (HR=1.396; 95% CI 1.040 to 1.874). Protective factors were previous regular running activity (HR=0.422; 95% CI 0.228 to 0.779) and weekly volume of other sports activities (HR=0.702; 95% CI 0.561 to 0.879). Midsole hardness of modern cushioned running shoes does not seem to influence RRI risk.

  16. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  17. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  18. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  19. Students as Non-Standard Employees. Exploring Work Related Issues in Students’ Perceptions on their Term-time Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    and training opportunities, students’ relations to other employees, and social integration. By adopting a qualitative design, I was able to emphasize the subjective perspective of students describing their very own experiences as flexible workers. The study revealed various perceptions of students working...... as flexible employees and related this picture to current empirical and theoretical research in the field of non-standard employment....

  20. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  1. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  2. Household energy consumption versus income and relative standard of living: A panel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyeux, Roselyne; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    Our fundamental premise is that energy consumption at the household level is a key indicator of standard of living. We employ state-of-the-art panel cointegration techniques to evaluate the nature of the relationship between income measures and energy consumption measures for seven East Indian Ocean countries. The general finding is that income and household electricity consumption are not cointegrated. Given this finding, we conclude that standard of living measures that rely on income measures and do not include household-level energy consumption information will necessarily miss important indications of both levels and changes of standard of living

  3. On harmonic curvatures of a Frenet curve in Lorentzian space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelahci, Mihriban; Bektas, Mehmet; Erguet, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider curves of AW(k)-type, 1 ≤ k ≤ 3, in Lorentzian space. We give curvature conditions of these kind of curves. Furthermore, we study harmonic curvatures of curves of AW(k)-type. We investigate that under what conditions AW(k)-type curves are helix. Some related theorems and corollaries are also proved.

  4. The spatial profile of visual attention in mental curve tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, H. S.; Spekreijse, H.; Roelfsema, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    In a curve-tracing task, subjects have to judge whether items are located on a single, continuous curve. Spatially separate segments of such a curve are related to each other through grouping criteria, like collinearity and connectedness. These grouping cues need to be exploited during curve

  5. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  6. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  7. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    chapter of this thesis is devoted to fermions in curved background spacetimes and, in particular, catalyzed symmetry breaking. This phenomenon arises from a parametric enhancement of critical fluctuations independently of the coupling strength. Symmetry-breaking fermionic long-range fluctuations exhibit such an enhancement on negatively curved spaces, as is known from mean-field studies. We study gravitational catalysis from the viewpoint of the functional renormalization group using the 3d Gross-Neveu model as a specific example. We observe gravitational catalysis towards a phase of broken discrete chiral symmetry both on a maximally symmetric spacetime (AdS) and on a purely spatially curved manifold (Lobachevsky plane) with constant negative curvature. The resulting picture for gravitational catalysis obtained from the renormalization group flow is closely related to that of magnetic catalysis. As an application, we estimate the curvature required for subcritical systems of finite length to acquire a gravitionally catalyzed mass gap.

  8. New method of safety assessment for pressure vessel of nuclear power plant--brief introduction of master curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wendou

    2011-01-01

    The new Master Curve Method is called as a revolutionary advance to the assessment of- reactor pressure vessel integrity in USA. This paper explains the origin, basis and standard of the Master Curve from the reactor pressure-temperature limit curve which assures the safety of nuclear power plant. According to the characteristics of brittle fracture which is greatly susceptible to the microstructure, the theory and the test method of the Master Curve as well as its statistical law which can be modeled using Weibull distribution are described in this paper. The meaning, advantage, application and importance of the Master Curve as well as the relation between the Master Curve and nuclear power safety are understood from the fitting formula for the fracture toughness database by Weibull distribution model. (author)

  9. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  10. Standard practice for calculation of corrosion rates and related information from electrochemical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the providing of guidance in converting the results of electrochemical measurements to rates of uniform corrosion. Calculation methods for converting corrosion current density values to either mass loss rates or average penetration rates are given for most engineering alloys. In addition, some guidelines for converting polarization resistance values to corrosion rates are provided. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  11. Differences in Ethical Standards: Factoring in the Cultural Expectation in Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Focusing on ethics in public relations from a multicultural point of view brings together elements which are critical to international public relations. The Public Relations-Ethics-Multicultural (PREM) model illustrates that articles can be found in the literature on ethics, public relations, and multicultural as individual concepts. The…

  12. Interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of retention curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. H.; Houvenaghel, G.; Janz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curves are presented. Baumberger sandstone and Sander sandstone were used as test materials.Repeatability standard deviation and reproducibility standard deviation...

  13. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  14. Standardized Patients' Perspectives on Workplace Satisfaction and Work-Related Relationships: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Claudia; Bonvin, Raphael; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2016-08-01

    The use of standardized patients (SPs) in health care education has grown in the last 50 years. In addition, the requirements for SPs have increased steadily, and thus, the work of SPs has become more difficult and demanding. It has been claimed that SP programs are highly contextualized, having emerged from local, institutional, professional, and national conditions, but their effects on SPs have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of this job development on SPs and their programs. The study was conducted using a qualitative research design, with semistructured individual in-depth interviews to understand the reactions, values, and perceptions that underlie and influence SP behavior. To cover SP perspectives from more than 1 SP program, a total of 15 SPs from 8 different nursing schools and medical schools in Switzerland were asked to participate. Standardized patients feel motivated, engaged, and willing to invest effort in their task and do not mind demands increasing as long as the social environment in SP programs is supportive. The role of the SP trainer and the use of feedback are considered very important. Standardized patient programs require concepts in which the SP perspective has been integrated to better serve SPs' well-being. Standardized patients are valuable partners in the training of health professionals-we need to take care of them.

  15. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  16. 76 FR 50117 - Commission Rules and Forms Related to the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    .... generally accepted accounting principles (``U.S. GAAP''). Statement No. 168 became effective for financial... Codification'' is a registered trademark of the Financial Accounting Foundation. DATES: Effective Date: August... accounting principles established by a standard-setting body that meets specified criteria. On April 25, 2003...

  17. A Relational Data Dictionary Compatible with the National Bureau of Standards Information Resource Dictionary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    IRDS DATA ARCHITECTURE This section presents an overview of the framwork in which IRDS data is organized and presented to the user. 33 4 -T i .V 1...system-standard schema contains twelve entity-types that conceptually can be grouped into three categories, Data, Process, and External. [Ref. 32] 36

  18. [Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to standard hospital precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandana Bambenongama, Norbert; Losimba Likwela, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The infectious risk in the healthcare setting is potentially ubiquitous. Several infectious agents may be transmitted to healthcare professionals, most of which are carried by blood and body fluids. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers in delivery rooms and operating theatres about standard precautions in healthcare settings in order to deduce the actions to be implemented to improve their security. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2011. A questionnaire was sent to 96 people using the direct interview technique. Only 20% of study subjects were familiar with the main bloodborne viruses (HBV, HCV and HIV). 67.8% of them considered that standard precautions must be applied only to women in labour and suspected HIV-positive patients. Almost all respondents (91.1%) had already been subject to at least one AES during the last 12 months. Respondents appeared to have a poor knowledge of the recommended actions following an AES. Recapping of needles after care is a practice reported by 55.6% of respondents. Routine use of protective barriers is unsatisfactory. The frequent failure of systematic application of standard precautions in healthcare settings by healthcare workers in the city of Isiro should lead the Ministry of Health to implement a process designed to increase awareness about standard precautions and improve the equipment necessary for strict compliance with these precautions.

  19. The Standard-Relational Theory of 'Ought' and the Oughtistic Theory of Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The idea that normative statements implicitly refer to standards has been around for quite some time. It is usually defended by normative antirealists, who tend to be attracted to Humean theories of reasons. But this is an awkward combination: 'A ought to X' entails that there are reasons for A to

  20. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting syst......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods......According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...

  1. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  2. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  3. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  4. Work-related falls among union carpenters in Washington State before and after the Vertical Fall Arrest Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John

    2003-08-01

    Washington State enacted a change in their fall standard for the construction industry in 1991, preceding the Safety Standard for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry promulgated by Federal OSHA in 1994. We evaluated changes in the rate of falls from elevations and measures of severity among a large cohort of union carpenters after the fall standard change in Washington State, taking into account the temporal trends in their overall injury rates. There was a significant decrease in the rate of falls from height after the standard went into effect, even after adjusting for the overall decrease in work-related injuries among this cohort. Much of the decrease was immediate, likely representing the publicity surrounding fatal falls and subsequent promulgation of the standard. The greatest decrease was seen between 3 and 3(1/2) years after the standard went into effect. There was a significant reduction in mean paid lost days per event after the standard change and there was a significant reduction in mean cost per fall when adjusting for age and the temporal trend for costs among non-fall injuries. Through the use of observational methods we have demonstrated significant effects of the Washington State Vertical Fall Arrest Standard among carpenters in the absence of a control or comparison group. Without controlling for the temporal trend in overall injury rates, the rate of decline in falls appeared significantly greater, but the more pronounced, but delayed, decline was not seen. The analyses demonstrate potential error in failing to account for temporal patterns or assuming that a decline after an intervention is related to the intervention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  6. Conservatism of ASME KIR-reference curve with respect to crack arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, K.; Rintamaa, R.; Nagel, G.

    1999-01-01

    The conservatism of the RT NDT temperature indexing parameter and the ASME K IR -reference curve with respect to crack arrest toughness, has been evaluated. Based on an analysis of the original ASME K Ia data, it was established that inherently, the ASME K IR -reference curve corresponds to an overall 5% lower bound curve with respect to crack arrest. It was shown that the scatter of crack arrest toughness is essentially material independent and has a standard deviation of 18% and the temperature dependence of K Ia has the same form as predicted by the master curve for crack initiation toughness. The 'built in' offset between the mean 100 MPa√(m) crack arrest temperature, TK Ia , and RT NDT is 38 C (TK Ia =RT NDT +38 C) and the experimental relation between TK Ia and NDT is, TK Ia =NDT+28 C. The K IR -reference curve using NDT as reference temperature will be conservative with respect to the general 5% lower bound K Ia(5%) -curve, with a 75% confidence. The use of RT NDT , instead of NDT, will generally increase the degree of conservatism, both for non-irradiated as well as irradiated materials, close to a 95% confidence level. This trend is pronounced for materials with Charpy-V upper shelf energies below 100 J. It is shown that the K IR -curve effectively constitutes a deterministic lower bound curve for crack arrest. The findings are valid both for nuclear pressure vessel plates, forgings and welds. (orig.)

  7. Employees Training Evaluation related to the Competency Standards in the Steel and Metalworking Industry in Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guillermo Carreno-Bodensiek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a research process applied to a sample of companies in the steel and metalworking sector in Boyacá, Colombia. The active workers are evaluated over the Occupational Competency Standards related to their daily activities. It also aims to highlight the formation priority of human talent for business, according to build up a level of competitiveness. Also, seeks to meet the need to train and develop skills and competencies in the workforce, taking into account the concepts of experts about training and developing proposals for management. This research is consistent with global trends in education and the requirements of standardization of training, why diagnoses and designs are focused on the functions of the companies related to the Standards of Competency.

  8. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Relations between finite zero structure of the plant and the standard $H_\\infty$ controller order reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, Takao; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2001-01-01

    A relation between the finite zero structure of the plant and the standard $H_\\infty$ controller was studied. The mechanism was also investigated using the ARE-based $H_\\infty$ controller that is represented by a free parameter. It was observed that the mechanism of the controller reduction is

  11. The necessity for revision of radiation protection standard in China and the discussion of relative issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1996-01-01

    The author describes the necessity of revising the existing radiation protection standard, and discusses the problems that need to be studied for the revision, which are mainly as follows: (1) Which exposure from natural radiation sources should be as part of occupational exposure; (2) Control of the occupational exposure of the pregnant woman; (3) Chronic exposure and action level; (4) Control of potential exposure; (5) Health surveillance

  12. A relation between the Barbero-Immirzi parameter and the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, Boguslaw, E-mail: bobroda@uni.lodz.p [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, PL-90-236 Lodz (Poland); Szanecki, Michal, E-mail: michalszanecki@wp.p [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, PL-90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-06-07

    It has been shown that Sakharov's induced, from the fields entering the standard model, Barbero-Immirzi parameter {gamma} assumes, in the framework of Euclidean formalism, the UV cutoff-independent value, 1/9. The calculus uses the Schwinger's proper-time formalism, the Seeley-DeWitt heat-kernel expansion, and it is akin to the derivation of the ABJ chiral anomaly in space-time with torsion.

  13. The relation between respiratory motion artifact correction and lung standardized uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lijie; Liu Xiaojian; Liu Jie; Xu Rui; Yan Jue

    2014-01-01

    PET/CT is playing an important role in disease diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. But the respiratory motion artifact may bring trouble in diagnosis and therapy. There are many methods to correct the respiratory motion artifact. Respiratory gated PET/CT is applied most extensively of them. Using respiratory gated PET/CT to correct respiratory motion artifact can increase the maximum standardized uptake value of lung lesion obviously, thereby improving the quality of image and accuracy of diagnosis. (authors)

  14. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  15. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  16. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  17. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  18. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  19. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  20. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  1. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  2. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  3. ECM using Edwards curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the

  4. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  5. Multivariate analysis of diagnostic parameters derived from whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Mostbeck, A.; Samal, M.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In a previous work, we have confirmed earlier reports that time-activity curves of renal cortex provide additional useful diagnostic information. The aim of this experiment was to support the finding quantitatively using multiple regression. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we have analyzed MAG3 renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children). Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) time-activity curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard WK and parenchymal fuzzy ROIs. Using multiple regression analysis, peak time, mean transit time, output efficiency, and four additional indices of residual activity in WK and PA ROIs were related to the maximum elimination rate (EM) of urine after the diuretic. The kidneys were divided into four groups according to the WK peak time (WKPT): WKPT longer than 0 (all kidneys), 5, 10, and 15 min. Results: Multiple correlation coefficients between the set of WK, PA, and WK+PA curve parameters (independent variables) and the log EM (dependent variable) for each group are summarized. Conclusions: Using pre-diuretic time-activity curves, it is possible to predict diuretic response. This can be useful when interpreting dubious results. Parenchymal curves predict diuretic response better than the whole-kidney curves. With increasing WKPT the whole-kidney curves become useless, while the parenchymal curves are still useful. Using both WK and PA curves produces the best results. This demonstrates that both WK and PA curves carry independent diagnostic information. The contribution obtained from the parenchymal curves certainly worth the difficulties and time required to draw additional ROIs. However, substantial efforts have to be given to the accurate and reproducible definition of parenchymal ROIs

  6. Economic competitiveness gap related to the application of the GAEC standards of cross-compliance on farms: evaluation methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fedrizzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methods used in the monitoring carried out in the farms of the MO.NA.CO. project, to calculate the economic competitiveness gap faced by agricultural holdings that accede to the commitments imposed by the standards included in the project. The monitoring works were performed in agricultural holdings in relation to the particular reference condition of each standard. The processing of the information acquired allowed us to define the working times of each cultivation operation by means of the indications in the recommendations of the Associazione Italiana di Genio Rurale - Italian Rural Engineering Association, that considers the official methodology of the International Commission of the Organisation Scientifique du Travail en Agriculture (C.I.O.S.T.A.. The overall costs and revenues in case of compliance or non-compliance with the commitments of the standard were calculated by using Biondi’s methodology and other norms that indicate the technical and economic coefficients to be used in the calculations (EP 496.2 and D 497.4 ASAE standards. With the data related to the unit cost of ploughing a model Partial Least Squares (PLS has been achieved and validated, and it makes possible to predict the unit cost of this agricultural operation. Finally, the values of the variation of the economic competitiveness gap are reported for each standard.

  7. Issues related to the USEPA probabilistic standard for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper asks whether some of the fundamental bases for the 1985 USEPA standard on disposal of high level radioactive wastes (40 CFR Part 191) warrant re-examination. Similar questions also apply to the bases for the radioactive waste disposal requirements proposed by most other countries. It is suggested that the issue of intergenerational equity has been dealt with from too narrow a perspective. Not only should radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous waste disposal be regulated from a consistent philosophic basis, but the regulation of waste disposal itself should be embedded in the broader issues of intergenerational conservation of options, conservation of quality, and conservation of access. (author). 25 refs

  8. Academic Public Relations Curricula: How They Compare with the Bateman-Cutlip Commission Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Hunter P.

    To see what effect the 1975 Bateman-Cutlip Commission's recommendations have had on improving public relations education in the United States, 173 questionnaires were sent to colleges or universities with accredited or comprehensive programs in public relations. Responding to five basic assumptions underlying the commission's recommendations,…

  9. Compact Hilbert Curve Index Algorithm Based on Gray Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert curve has best clustering in various kinds of space filling curves, and has been used as an important tools in discrete global grid spatial index design field. But there are lots of redundancies in the standard Hilbert curve index when the data set has large differences between dimensions. In this paper, the construction features of Hilbert curve is analyzed based on Gray code, and then the compact Hilbert curve index algorithm is put forward, in which the redundancy problem has been avoided while Hilbert curve clustering preserved. Finally, experiment results shows that the compact Hilbert curve index outperforms the standard Hilbert index, their 1 computational complexity is nearly equivalent, but the real data set test shows the coding time and storage space decrease 40%, the speedup ratio of sorting speed is nearly 4.3.

  10. Examining database persistence of ISO/EN 13606 standardized electronic health record extracts: relational vs. NoSQL approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Lozano-Rubí, Raimundo; Serrano-Balazote, Pablo; Castro, Antonio L; Moreno, Oscar; Pascual, Mario

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this research is to compare the relational and non-relational (NoSQL) database systems approaches in order to store, recover, query and persist standardized medical information in the form of ISO/EN 13606 normalized Electronic Health Record XML extracts, both in isolation and concurrently. NoSQL database systems have recently attracted much attention, but few studies in the literature address their direct comparison with relational databases when applied to build the persistence layer of a standardized medical information system. One relational and two NoSQL databases (one document-based and one native XML database) of three different sizes have been created in order to evaluate and compare the response times (algorithmic complexity) of six different complexity growing queries, which have been performed on them. Similar appropriate results available in the literature have also been considered. Relational and non-relational NoSQL database systems show almost linear algorithmic complexity query execution. However, they show very different linear slopes, the former being much steeper than the two latter. Document-based NoSQL databases perform better in concurrency than in isolation, and also better than relational databases in concurrency. Non-relational NoSQL databases seem to be more appropriate than standard relational SQL databases when database size is extremely high (secondary use, research applications). Document-based NoSQL databases perform in general better than native XML NoSQL databases. EHR extracts visualization and edition are also document-based tasks more appropriate to NoSQL database systems. However, the appropriate database solution much depends on each particular situation and specific problem.

  11. Curve of Spee and Its Relationship with Dentoskeletal Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Raje Batham

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The curve of Spee is related to various dentoskeletal variables. Thus, the determination of this relationship is useful to assess the feasibility of leveling the curve of Spee by orthodontic treatment.

  12. Integrity, standards, and QC-related issues with big data in pre-clinical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, John F; Ung, Matthew; Escalante-Chong, Renan; Ross, Jermaine; Zhang, Jenny; Cha, Yoonjeong; Lysaght, Andrew; Funt, Jason; Kusko, Rebecca

    2018-06-01

    The tremendous expansion of data analytics and public and private big datasets presents an important opportunity for pre-clinical drug discovery and development. In the field of life sciences, the growth of genetic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data is partly driven by a rapid decline in experimental costs as biotechnology improves throughput, scalability, and speed. Yet far too many researchers tend to underestimate the challenges and consequences involving data integrity and quality standards. Given the effect of data integrity on scientific interpretation, these issues have significant implications during preclinical drug development. We describe standardized approaches for maximizing the utility of publicly available or privately generated biological data and address some of the common pitfalls. We also discuss the increasing interest to integrate and interpret cross-platform data. Principles outlined here should serve as a useful broad guide for existing analytical practices and pipelines and as a tool for developing additional insights into therapeutics using big data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The standard genetic code and its relation to mutational pressure: robustness and equilibrium criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Caceres, Jose Luis; Hong, Rolando; Martinez Ortiz, Carlos; Sautie Castellanos, Miguel; Valdes, Kiria; Guevara Erra, Ramon

    2004-10-01

    Under the assumption of even point mutation pressure on the DNA strand, rates for transitions from one amino acid into another were assessed. Nearly 25% of all mutations were silent. About 48% of the mutations from a given amino acid stream either into the same amino acid or into an amino acid of the same class. These results suggest a great stability of the Standard Genetic Code respect to mutation load. Concepts from chemical equilibrium theory are applicable into this case provided that mutation rate constants are given. It was obtained that unequal synonymic codon usage may lead to changes in the equilibrium concentrations. Data from real biological species showed that several amino acids are close to the respective equilibrium concentration. However in all the cases the concentration of leucine nearly doubled its equilibrium concentration, whereas for the stop command (Term) it was about 10 times lower. The overall distance from equilibrium for a set of species suggests that eukaryotes are closer to equilibrium than prokaryotes, and the HIV virus was closest to equilibrium among 15 species. We obtained that contemporary species are closer to the equilibrium than the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) was. Similarly, nonpreserved regions in proteins are closer to equilibrium than the preserved ones. We suggest that this approach can be useful for exploring some aspects of biological evolution in the framework of Standard Genetic Code properties. (author)

  14. Students as Non-Standard Employees. Exploring Work Related Issues in Students’ Perceptions on their Term-time Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of an explorative study that aimed at exploring work related issues in students’ perceptions of their job as atypical employees. An individual picture of the experienced work reality of students is drawn according to work task, flexible working hours, instructions...... and training opportunities, students’ relations to other employees, and social integration. By adopting a qualitative design, I was able to emphasize the subjective perspective of students describing their very own experiences as flexible workers. The study revealed various perceptions of students working...... as flexible employees and related this picture to current empirical and theoretical research in the field of non-standard employment....

  15. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    is to derive statistical features from the time series and to use machine learning methods, generally supervised, to separate objects into a few of the standard classes. In this work, we transform the time series to two-dimensional light curve representations in order to classify them using modern deep......Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach...... learning techniques. In particular, we show that convolutional neural networks based classifiers work well for broad characterization and classification. We use labeled datasets of periodic variables from CRTS survey and show how this opens doors for a quick classification of diverse classes with several...

  16. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  17. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  18. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  19. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  20. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  1. Technical issues related to NUREG 0800, Chapter 18: Human Factors Engineering/Standard Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The revision of Chapter 18 of NUREG 0800, Human Factors Engineering Standard Review Plan (SRP) will be based on SECY 82-111 and guidance contained in NUREG 0700, NUREG 0801 and NUREG 0835, plus other references. In conducting field reviews of control rooms, the NRC has identified technical issues which can be used to enhance the development of the revised version of NUREG 0800, and to establish priorities among the list of possible Branch Technical Positions (BTP) in NUREG 0800, Rev. 0, Table 18.0-2. This report is a compilation of comments and suggestions from the people who used NUREG 0700 in the Control Room field reviews. This information was used to establish possible BTP topic priorities so that the most important BTPs could be issued first. The comments and suggestions are included for HFEB review in conjunction with the table of priorities

  2. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  3. Laboratory and field temperature preference and avoidance data of fish related to the establishment of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Dickson, K.L.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature preferences for important fish species in the New River in the vicinity of Appalachian Power Company's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant were determined independently by both field and laboratory studies. A relationship was demonstrated between the temperature preference data generated by the two approaches. Based on the temperature preference data the responses of fish to the thermal discharges can be predicted. From these data and from other data on the fish community structure, it was possible to determine that the thermal discharge was causing no appreciable harm to the fish community. Based on these studies it was concluded that the most reasonable approach to establishing thermal standards is to couple temperature preference studies with site specific studies. (U.S.)

  4. Matter fields in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet, Nguyen Ai; Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the geometry of a two-sheeted space-time within the framework of non-commutative geometry. As a prelude to the Standard Model in curved space-time, we present a model of a left- and a right- chiral field living on the two sheeted-space time and construct the action functionals that describe their interactions

  5. Remote sensing used for power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviat...

  6. Time Alignment as a Necessary Step in the Analysis of Sleep Probabilistic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rošt'áková, Zuzana; Rosipal, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Sleep can be characterised as a dynamic process that has a finite set of sleep stages during the night. The standard Rechtschaffen and Kales sleep model produces discrete representation of sleep and does not take into account its dynamic structure. In contrast, the continuous sleep representation provided by the probabilistic sleep model accounts for the dynamics of the sleep process. However, analysis of the sleep probabilistic curves is problematic when time misalignment is present. In this study, we highlight the necessity of curve synchronisation before further analysis. Original and in time aligned sleep probabilistic curves were transformed into a finite dimensional vector space, and their ability to predict subjects' age or daily measures is evaluated. We conclude that curve alignment significantly improves the prediction of the daily measures, especially in the case of the S2-related sleep states or slow wave sleep.

  7. Spin structures on algebraic curves and their applications in string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, F.

    1990-01-01

    The free fields on a Riemann surface carrying spin structures live on an unramified r-covering of the surface itself. When the surface is represented as an algebraic curve related to the vanishing of the Weierstrass polynomial, its r-coverings are algebraic curves as well. We construct explicitly the Weierstrass polynomial associated to the r-coverings of an algebraic curve. Using standard techniques of algebraic geometry it is then possible to solve the inverse Jacobi problem for the odd spin structures. As an application we derive the partition functions of bosonic string theories in many examples, including two general curves of genus three and four. The partition functions are explicitly expressed in terms of branch points apart from a factor which is essentially a theta constant. 53 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  8. Equivalence factors for standardizing catch data across multiple beach seine nets to account for differences in relative bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Chris S.; Hall, Norm G.

    2012-06-01

    We describe a method for modelling the relative effects of seine net biases and for deriving equivalence factors to standardize fish abundance data sets collected using multiple sampling gears. Nearshore fish communities were sampled from 10 sites in each of the basin and riverine portions of the Swan-Canning Estuary, Western Australia, using beach seine nets of three different lengths (21.5, 41.5 and 133 m). The resulting data were subjected to generalized linear modelling to derive equivalence factors relating catches from the two larger net types to those from the 21.5 m net. Equivalence factors were derived on the basis of functional habitat guilds of fish (small benthic, small pelagic, demersal, pelagic). Prior to standardization, catches from the 41.5 and 133 m nets consistently underestimated fish densities relative to those from the 21.5 m net. Following standardization, the degree to which fish densities were underestimated by the two larger nets was reduced and/or eliminated for most guilds, and particularly in the case of the 133 m net. For both of the larger nets, standardized estimates of total fish density across all species were far closer to those recorded using the 21.5 m seine, thus indicating that standardization of the fish abundance data had greatly reduced the overall effects of the biases introduced by the different net types. This approach could be applied to other systems and sampling methods, to facilitate more robust comparisons of fish abundances between studies with divergent sampling methodologies.

  9. J-curve relation between daytime nap duration and type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: A dose-response meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomohide; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Adequate sleep is important for good health, but it is not always easy to achieve because of social factors. Daytime napping is widely prevalent around the world. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between napping (or excessive daytime sleepiness: EDS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome, and to quantify the potential dose-response relation using cubic spline models. Electronic databases were searched for articles published up to 2016, with 288,883 Asian and Western subjects. Pooled analysis revealed that a long nap (≥60 min/day) and EDS were each significantly associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes versus no nap or no EDS (odds ratio 1.46 (95% CI 1.23–1.74, p nap and 2.00 (1.58–2.53) for EDS). In contrast, a short nap (nap time and the risk of diabetes or metabolic syndrome, with no effect of napping up to about 40 minutes/day, followed by a sharp increase in risk at longer nap times. In summary, longer napping is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of a short nap. PMID:27909305

  10. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  11. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  12. The Relations between Teasing and Bullying and Middle School Standardized Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relations between the schoolwide prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and schoolwide academic performance in a sample of 271 Virginia middle schools. In addition, the study examined the mediating effects of student engagement. A three-step sequence of path models investigated associations between schoolwide PTB and…

  13. Multilevel Models for the Analysis of Angle-Specific Torque Curves with Application to Master Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Humberto M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to outline a multilevel modeling approach to fit individual angle-specific torque curves describing concentric knee extension and flexion isokinetic muscular actions in Master athletes. The potential of the analytical approach to examine between individual differences across the angle-specific torque curves was illustrated including between-individuals variation due to gender differences at a higher level. Torques in concentric muscular actions of knee extension and knee extension at 60°·s-1 were considered within a range of motion between 5°and 85° (only torques “truly” isokinetic. Multilevel time series models with autoregressive covariance structures with standard multilevel models were superior fits compared with standard multilevel models for repeated measures to fit anglespecific torque curves. Third and fourth order polynomial models were the best fits to describe angle-specific torque curves of isokinetic knee flexion and extension concentric actions, respectively. The fixed exponents allow interpretations for initial acceleration, the angle at peak torque and the decrement of torque after peak torque. Also, the multilevel models were flexible to illustrate the influence of gender differences on the shape of torque throughout the range of motion and in the shape of the curves. The presented multilevel regression models may afford a general framework to examine angle-specific moment curves by isokinetic dynamometry, and add to the understanding mechanisms of strength development, particularly the force-length relationship, both related to performance and injury prevention.

  14. Introducing Distance and Measurement in General Relativity: Changes for the Standard Tests and the Cosmological Large-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic motion in the gravitational field of a massive body is governed by the external metric of a spherically symmetric extended object. Consequently, any solution for the point-mass is inadequate for the treatment of such motions since it pertains to a fictitious object. I therefore develop herein the physics of the standard tests of General Relativity by means of the generalised solution for the field external to a sphere of incompressible homogeneous fluid.

  15. Induction of Highly Curved Structures in Relation to Membrane Permeabilization and Budding by the Triterpenoid Saponins, α- and δ-Hederin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Joseph; Le Duff, Cécile S.; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of triterpenoid monodesmosidic saponins, α-hederin and δ-hederin, with lipid membranes are involved in their permeabilizing effect. Unfortunately, the interactions of these saponins with lipid membranes are largely unknown, as are the roles of cholesterol or the branched sugar moieties (two for α-hederin and one for δ-hederin) on the aglycone backbone, hederagenin. The differences in sugar moieties are responsible for differences in the molecular shape of the saponins and the effects on membrane curvature that should be the most positive for α-hederin in a transbilayer direction. In large unilamellar vesicles and monocyte cells, we showed that membrane permeabilization was dependent on the presence of membrane cholesterol and saponin sugar chains, being largest for α-hederin and smallest for hederagenin. In the presence of cholesterol, α-hederin induced the formation of nonbilayer phases with a higher rate of Brownian tumbling or lateral diffusion. A reduction of Laurdan's generalized polarization in relation to change in order of the polar heads of phospholipids was observed. Using giant unilamellar vesicles, we visualized the formation of wrinkled borders, the decrease in liposome size, budding, and the formation of macroscopic pores. All these processes are highly dependent on the sugars linked to the aglycone, with α-hederin showing a greater ability to induce pore formation and δ-hederin being more efficient in inducing budding. Hederagenin induced intravesicular budding but no pore formation. Based on these results, a curvature-driven permeabilization mechanism dependent on the interaction between saponin and sterols and on the molecular shape of the saponin and its ability to induce local spontaneous curvature is proposed. PMID:23530040

  16. Translation of questionnaires measuring health related quality of life is not standardized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects. MAIN OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting...... reporting the methodological process when translating questionnaires on health related quality of life for different diseases. RESULTS: We retrieved 187 studies and out of theses we included 52 studies. The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus...... was on internal validity (96%), reliability (67%) criterion validity (81%), and construct validity (62%). For internal validity Cronbach's alpha was used in 94% of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that there seems to be a consensus regarding the translation process (especially for internal validity...

  17. Heuristic Evaluation of Ehealth Interventions: Establishing Standards That Relate to the Therapeutic Process Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Muench, Fred

    2016-01-13

    In recent years, the number of available eHealth interventions aimed at treating behavioral and mental health challenges has been growing. From the perspective of health care providers, there is a need for eHealth interventions to be evaluated prior to clinical trials and for the limited resources allocated to empirical research to be invested in the most promising products. Following a literature review, a gap was found in the availability of eHealth interventions evaluation principles related to the patient experience of the therapeutic process. This paper introduces principles and concepts for the evaluation of eHealth interventions developed as a first step in a process to outline general evaluation guidelines that relate to the clinical context from health care providers' perspective. Our approach was to conduct a review of literature that relates to the examination of eHealth interventions. We identified the literature that was most relevant to our study and used it to define guidelines that relate to the clinical context. We then compiled a list of heuristics we found to be useful for the evaluation of eHealth intervention products' suitability for empirical examination. Four heuristics were identified with respect to the therapeutic process: (1) the product's ease of use (ie, usability), (2) the eHealth intervention's compatibility with the clinical setting, (3) the presence of tools that make it easier for the user to engage in therapeutic activities, and (4) the provision of a feasible therapeutic pathway to growth. We then used this set of heuristics to conduct a detailed examination of MyFitnessPal. This line of work could help to set the bar higher for product developers and to inform health care providers about preferred eHealth intervention designs.

  18. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  19. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  20. Comparison of wind turbines based on power curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    In the study measured power curves for 46 wind turbines were analyzed with the purpose to establish the basis for a consistent comparison of the efficiency of the wind turbines. Emphasis is on wind turbines above 500 kW rated power, with power curves measured after 1994 according to international recommendations. The available power curves fulfilling these requirements were smoothened according to a procedure developed for the purpose in such a way that the smoothened power curves are equally representative as the measured curves. The resulting smoothened power curves are presented in a standardized format for the subsequent processing. Using wind turbine data from the power curve documentation the analysis results in curves for specific energy production (kWh/M{sup 2}/yr) versus specific rotor load (kW/M{sup 2}) for a range of mean wind speeds. On this basis generalized curves for specific annual energy production versus specific rotor load are established for a number of generalized wind turbine concepts. The 46 smoothened standardized power curves presented in the report, the procedure developed to establish them, and the results of the analysis based on them aim at providers of measured power curves as well as users of them including manufacturers, advisors and decision makers. (au)

  1. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  2. Fractal properties of critical invariant curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.R.; Yorke, J.A.; Khanin, K.M.; Sinai, Y.G.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the dimension of the invariant measure for some singular circle homeomorphisms for a variety of rotation numbers, through both the thermodynamic formalism and numerical computation. The maps we consider include those induced by the action of the standard map on an invariant curve at the critical parameter value beyond which the curve is destroyed. Our results indicate that the dimension is universal for a given type of singularity and rotation number, and that among all rotation numbers, the golden mean produces the largest dimension

  3. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  4. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van; Godthelp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  5. Percentile Curves for Anthropometric Measures for Canadian Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Stefan; Maguire, Bryan; Ata, Nicole; Hamilton, David

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to assess a child's weight status but it does not provide information about the distribution of body fat. Since the disease risks associated with obesity are related to the amount and distribution of body fat, measures that assess visceral or subcutaneous fat, such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), or skinfolds thickness may be more suitable. The objective of this study was to develop percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and sum of 5 skinfolds (SF5) in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The analysis used data from 4115 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age that participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 were measured using standardized procedures. Age- and sex-specific centiles were calculated using the LMS method and the percentiles that intersect the adult cutpoints for BMI, WC, and WHtR at age 18 years were determined. Percentile curves for all measures showed an upward shift compared to curves from the pre-obesity epidemic era. The adult cutoffs for overweight and obesity corresponded to the 72nd and 91st percentile, respectively, for both sexes. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The percentile curves presented are meant to be descriptive rather than prescriptive as associations with cardiovascular disease markers or outcomes were not assessed. PMID:26176769

  6. Saturation curve of SiO2 component in rutile-type GeO2: A recoverable high-temperature pressure standard from 3 GPa to 10 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinenweber, Kurt; Gullikson, Amber L.; Stoyanov, Emil; Malik, Abds-Sami

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of pressure measurements and the pursuit of reliable and readily available pressure scales at simultaneous high temperatures and pressures are still topics in development in high pressure research despite many years of work. In situ pressure scales based on x-ray diffraction are widely used but require x-ray access, which is lacking outside of x-ray beam lines. Other methods such as fixed points require several experiments to bracket a pressure calibration point. In this study, a recoverable high-temperature pressure gauge for pressures ranging from 3 GPa to 10 GPa is presented. The gauge is based on the pressure-dependent solubility of an SiO 2 component in the rutile-structured phase of GeO 2 (argutite), and is valid when the argutite solid solution coexists with coesite. The solid solution varies strongly in composition, mainly in pressure but also somewhat in temperature, and the compositional variations are easily detected by x-ray diffraction of the recovered products because of significant changes in the lattice parameters. The solid solution is measured here on two isotherms, one at 1200 °C and the other at 1500 °C, and is developed as a pressure gauge by calibrating it against three fixed points for each temperature and against the lattice parameter of MgO measured in situ at a total of three additional points. A somewhat detailed thermodynamic analysis is then presented that allows the pressure gauge to be used at other temperatures. This provides a way to accurately and reproducibly evaluate the pressure in high pressure experiments and applications in this pressure-temperature range, and could potentially be used as a benchmark to compare various other pressure scales under high temperature conditions. - Graphical abstract: The saturation curve of SiO 2 in TiO 2 shows a strong pressure dependence and a strong dependence of unit cell volume on composition. This provides an opportunity to use this saturation curve as a

  7. FM Quieting Curves and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Electronics Engineering Group (EEO) is organized as an independent group reorting, directly to -the Comwiander, Air ’Force Conmmunica-r tions Service (WOC...NUMBER N/A 7. AklTHO -() 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) /, .C...or.e M./ Kizer/ , ,/A 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT...in vestigial sideband modulation) and are separated from the carrier frequency by a frequency difference equal to the frequency of the baseband

  8. Effects of ethanol on CYP2E1 levels and related oxidative stress using a standard balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, Ligia A; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Simon, Karin A; Schindler, Fernanda; Giavarotti, Leandro; Monteiro, Hugo P; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virgínia B C

    2012-07-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is very much influenced by nutritional factors, especially carbohydrate consumption, and various results concerning the expression of CYP2E1 were obtained with a low-carbohydrate diet. This study describes the effects of ethanol treatment on CYP2E1 levels and its relationship with oxidative stress using a balanced standard diet to avoid low or high carbohydrate consumption. Rats were fed for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks a commercial diet plus an ethanol-sucrose solution. The results have shown that ethanol administration was associated with CYP2E1 induction and stabilization without related oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that experimental models with a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet produce some undesirable CYP2E1 changes that are not present when a balanced standard diet is given.

  9. A proposal of the diagnosis-dynamic characteristic (DDC) model describing the relation between search time and confidence levels for a dichotomous judgment, and its application to ROC curve generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toru; Fukuda, Nobuo; Furukawa, Akira; Suwa, Koji; Wada, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi; Sone, Shusuke

    2006-03-01

    When physicians inspect an image, they make up a certain degree of confidence that the image are abnormal; p(t), or normal; n(t)[n(t)=1-p(t)]. After infinite time of the inspection, they reach the equilibrium levels of the confidence of p*=p(∞) and n*=n(∞). There are psychological conflicts between the decisions of normal and abnormal. We assume that the decision of "normal" is distracted by the decision of "abnormal" by a factor of k(1 + ap), and in an inverse direction by a factor of k(1 + bn), where k ( > 0) is a parameter that relates with image quality and skill of the physicians, and a and b are unknown constants. After the infinite time of inspection, the conflict reaches the equilibrium, which satisfies the equation, k(1 + ap*)n* = k(1 + bn*)p*. Here we define a parameter C, which is 2p*/[p*(1 - p*)]. After the infinite time of inspection, the conflict reaches the equilibrium, which satisfies t that changes in the confidence level with the time (dp/dt) is proportional to [k(1+ap)n - k(1+bn)p], i.e. k[-cp2 + (c - 2)p + 1]. Solving the differential equation, we derived the equation; t(p) and p(t) depending with the parameters; k, c, S. S (0-1) is the value arbitrary selected and related with probability of "abnormal" before the image inspection (S = p(0)). Image reading studies were executed for CT images. ROC curves were generated both by the traditional 4-step score-based method and by the confidence level; p estimated from the equation t(p) of the DDC model using observed judgment time. It was concluded that ROC curves could be generated by measuring time for dichotomous judgment without the subjective scores of diagnostic confidence and applying the DDC model.

  10. The Bland-Altman analysis: Does it have a role in assessing radiation dosimeter performance relative to an established standard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.F.; Tofts, P.S.; Baldock, C.

    2010-01-01

    Bland-Altman analysis is used to compare two different methods of measurement and to determine whether a new method of measurement may replace an existing accepted 'gold standard' method. In this work, Bland-Altman analysis has been applied to radiation dosimetry to compare the PTW Markus and Roos parallel plate ionisation chambers and a PTW PinPoint chamber against a Farmer type ionisation chamber which is accepted as the gold standard for radiation dosimetry in the clinic. Depth doses for low energy x-rays beams with energies of 50, 75 and 100 kVp were measured using each of the ionisation chambers. Depth doses were also calculated by interpolation of the data in the British Journal of Radiology (BJR) Report 25. From the Bland-Altman analysis, the mean dose difference between the two parallel plate chambers and the Farmer chambers was 1% over the range of depths measured. The PinPoint chamber gave significant dose differences compared to the Farmer chamber. There were also differences of up to 12% between the BJR Report 25 depth doses and the measured data. For the Bland-Altman plots, the lines representing the limits of agreement were selected to be a particular percentage agreement e.g. 1 or 2%, instead of being based on the standard deviation (σ) of the differences. The Bland-Altman statistical analysis is a powerful tool for making comparisons of ionisation chambers with an ionisation chamber that has been accepted as a 'gold standard'. Therefore we conclude that Bland-Altman analysis does have a role in assessing radiation dosimeter performance relative to an established standard.

  11. Comparison and Analysis of IEEE 344 and IEC 60980 standards for harmonization of seismic qualification of safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ok; Kim, Jong Seog; Seo, Jeong Ho; Kim, Myung Jun

    2011-01-01

    The seismic qualification of safety related equipment in nuclear power plants should demonstrate an equipment's ability to perform its safety function during/or after the time it is subjected to the forces resulting from one SSE. In addition, the equipment must withstand the effects of a number of OBEs, preceding the SSE. IEEE 344 and IEC 60980 present the criteria for establishing procedures demonstrating that the Class 1E equipment can meet its performance requirement during seismic events. Currently, IEEE 344 is used for regulation of nuclear power plant in the United State whereas IEC 60980 is mainly used in Europe. In particular, NPPs of France and China apply with RCC-E and GB that are domestic standards, respectively. Equipment supplier and Utility have difficulties because of different applicable standards. Equipment supplier to export S/R components/equipment to other standard area performs additional seismic qualification. For example, equipment are qualifies according to IEC 60980, RCC-E, GB although they have been qualified in accordance with IEEE 344. Also, utility to attempt power up-rate, life extension of NPP constructed under rules of RCC-E such as Ulchin NPP 1 and 2 has similar difficulties. RCC-E endorses IEC 60980 and GB is almost same as IEC 60980 except minor difference of earthquake environment definition. Therefore this paper surveys the similarities and differences between IEEE 344 and IEC 60980. In addition, this paper considers how the two sets of standards may be used in a complementary fashion to be possible using one or the other standard area

  12. Golden Standard" in International Relations Training and The Effectiveness of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Baykov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main aspects of the IR experts' professional education and training, aimed at improving the efficiency of the foreign office staff. A new approach has been taken to the problem of updating and rationalization of the current academic programs (especially, MA training programs in order to boost the competitiveness of national educational system at the global education market. The main focus is shifted from marketing to quality and "content" characteristics of the professional training in IR studies' area within the organization of higher education. The author draws on the empirical data, collected by means of analysis, processing and generalization of expert assessments and evaluations of Russian and foreign participants of international faculty and university forums in International Studies in 2015. As a result, the article proposes an ideal model of the master's program, developed by the author, based on "benchmark"International Relations/World Politics programs, which are highly valuated by the respondents. Moreover, it examines the most relevant issues, concerning the framework of students' teaching process (including preparation of master's theses, further employment of graduates and, finally, the development/modernisation of teaching staff. In conclusion, the article highlights recommendations on probable reforms of higher education in IR studies' area. The author does not criticize the national education system destructively. On the contrary, the inevitable question is how to converge the best qualities of domestic and foreign institutions of higher education system in a harmonious way. The article is designed and might be of interest for higher education and training experts, as well as for a wide range of readers interested in the education and training of the foreign office staff.

  13. Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.

  14. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1994-11-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs

  15. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  16. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  17. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  18. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  19. Public relations: a re-examination of definition, role, and function based on community relations of the Standard Oil (Indiana) refinery at Sugar Creek, MO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruckeberg, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study describes public relations as it is commonly practiced today as: a vocation utilizing persuasive communication to obtain a vested nonmarketing goal on behalf of a represented client. It argues that public relation is better defined and practiced as: the active attempt to restore/maintain a sense of community. To illustrate what this dissertation advocates, a case study is used. Probably no organization had designed a community relations program with the specific and express purpose of fostering a sense of community, at least to the extent this dissertation calls for. However, the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) refinery at Sugar Creek, MO, has done this sufficiently to merit study. Based on the findings of the case study, which covers a 75-year period of time, specific recommendations are made in practicing public relations as advocated in this dissertation: the active attempt to restore/maintain a sense of community. The theoretical basis comes from the writings of the Chicago School of Social Thought. It is demonstrated that the Chicago School can provide an excellent theoretical basis to provide insight into public relations practice from a perspective that eliminates the problems that now exist in the role and function of public relations.

  20. Mothers’ non-standard working and childcare-related challenges : A comparison between lone and coupled mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Moilanen, Sanna; May, Vanessa; Räikkönen, Eija; Sevón, Eija; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to particularly focus on lone-mother families, comparing the childcare-related challenges experienced by working lone mothers and coupled mothers in three European countries in the context of a 24/7 economy and non-standard working hours (e.g. evening, night and weekend work). Design/methodology/approach – This study utilises survey data from Finnish, Dutch and British working mothers (n=1,106) collected as part of the “Families 24/7” research ...

  1. Variation of iron redox kinetics and its relation with molecular composition of standard humic substances at circumneutral pH

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ying Ping; Fujii, Manabu; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Terao, Koumei; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction kinetics of iron (Fe) and proportion of steady-state Fe(II) concentration relative to total dissolved Fe (steady-state Fe(II) fraction) were investigated in the presence of various types of standard humic substances (HS) with particular emphasis on the photochemical and thermal reduction of Fe(III) and oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at circumneutral pH (pH 7-8). Rates of Fe(III) reduction were spectrophotometrically determined...

  2. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  3. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.

  4. IEEE Std 382-1985: IEEE standard for qualification of actuators for power operated valve assemblies with safety-related functions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the qualification of all types of power-driven valve actuators, including damper actuators, for safety-related functions in nuclear power generating stations. This standard may also be used to separately qualify actuator components. This standard establishes the minimum requirements for, and guidance regarding, the methods and procedures for qualification of power-driven valve actuators with safety-related functions Part I describes the qualification process. Part II describes the standard qualification cases and their environmental parameters for the usual locations of safety-related equipment in a nuclear generating station. Part III describes the qualification tests outlined in 6.3.3

  5. A method to implement fine-grained access control for personal health records through standard relational database queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujansky, Walter V; Faus, Sam A; Stone, Ethan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-10-01

    Online personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to access, manage, and share certain of their own health information electronically. This capability creates the need for precise access-controls mechanisms that restrict the sharing of data to that intended by the patient. The authors describe the design and implementation of an access-control mechanism for PHR repositories that is modeled on the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) standard, but intended to reduce the cognitive and computational complexity of XACML. The authors implemented the mechanism entirely in a relational database system using ANSI-standard SQL statements. Based on a set of access-control rules encoded as relational table rows, the mechanism determines via a single SQL query whether a user who accesses patient data from a specific application is authorized to perform a requested operation on a specified data object. Testing of this query on a moderately large database has demonstrated execution times consistently below 100ms. The authors include the details of the implementation, including algorithms, examples, and a test database as Supplementary materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon Intensities of Economies from the Perspective of Learning Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While some countries have achieved considerable development, many others still lack accessto the goods and services considered standard in the modern society. As CO2 emissions and development are often correlated, this paper employs the theoretical background of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC and the learning curves toolkit to analyze how carbon intensities have changed as countries move towards higher development (and cumulative wealth levels. The EKC concept is then tested with the methodology of learning curves for the period between 1971 and 2010, so as to capture a dynamic picture of emissions trends and development. Results of both analyses reveal that empirical data fails to provide direct evidence of an EKC for emissions and development. The data does show, however, an interesting pattern in the dispersion of emissions levels for countries within the same HDI categories. While data does not show that countries grow more polluting during intermediary development stages, it does provide evidence that countries become more heterogeneous in their emission intensities as they develop, later re-converging to lower emission intensities at higher HDI levels. Learning rates also indicate heterogeneity among developing countries and relative convergence among developed countries. Given the heterogeneity of development paths among countries, the experiences of those which are managing to develop at low carbon intensities can prove valuable examples for ongoing efforts in climate change mitigation, especially in the developing world.

  7. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  8. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  9. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  10. A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponi, Matteo, E-mail: mtamponi@aslsassari.it; Bona, Rossana; Poggiu, Angela; Marini, Piergiorgio [Medical Physics Unit, ASL Sassari, Via Enrico de Nicola, Sassari 07100 (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: This work describes a new form of the calibration curve for radiochromic dosimetry that depends on one fit parameter. Some results are reported to show that the new curve performs as well as those previously used and, more importantly, significantly reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the film orientation on the scanner, and the time after exposure. Methods: The form of the response curve makes use of the net optical densities ratio against the dose and has been studied by means of the Beer–Lambert law and a simple modeling of the film. The new calibration curve has been applied to EBT3 films exposed at 6 and 15 MV energy beams of linear accelerators and read-out in transmission mode by means of a flatbed color scanner. Its performance has been compared to that of two established forms of the calibration curve, which use the optical density and the net optical density against the dose. Four series of measurements with four lots of EBT3 films were used to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and dependence on the time after exposure, orientation on the scanner and lot of films. Results: The new calibration curve is roughly subject to the same dose uncertainty, about 2% (1 standard deviation), and has the same accuracy, about 1.5% (dose values between 50 and 450 cGy), as the other calibration curves when films of the same lot are used. Moreover, the new calibration curve, albeit obtained from only one lot of film, shows a good agreement with experimental data from all other lots of EBT3 films used, with an accuracy of about 2% and a relative dose precision of 2.4% (1 standard deviation). The agreement also holds for changes of the film orientation and of the time after exposure. Conclusions: The dose accuracy of this new form of the calibration curve is always equal to or better than those obtained from the two types of curves previously used. The use of the net optical densities ratio considerably reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the

  11. A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponi, Matteo; Bona, Rossana; Poggiu, Angela; Marini, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work describes a new form of the calibration curve for radiochromic dosimetry that depends on one fit parameter. Some results are reported to show that the new curve performs as well as those previously used and, more importantly, significantly reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the film orientation on the scanner, and the time after exposure. Methods: The form of the response curve makes use of the net optical densities ratio against the dose and has been studied by means of the Beer–Lambert law and a simple modeling of the film. The new calibration curve has been applied to EBT3 films exposed at 6 and 15 MV energy beams of linear accelerators and read-out in transmission mode by means of a flatbed color scanner. Its performance has been compared to that of two established forms of the calibration curve, which use the optical density and the net optical density against the dose. Four series of measurements with four lots of EBT3 films were used to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and dependence on the time after exposure, orientation on the scanner and lot of films. Results: The new calibration curve is roughly subject to the same dose uncertainty, about 2% (1 standard deviation), and has the same accuracy, about 1.5% (dose values between 50 and 450 cGy), as the other calibration curves when films of the same lot are used. Moreover, the new calibration curve, albeit obtained from only one lot of film, shows a good agreement with experimental data from all other lots of EBT3 films used, with an accuracy of about 2% and a relative dose precision of 2.4% (1 standard deviation). The agreement also holds for changes of the film orientation and of the time after exposure. Conclusions: The dose accuracy of this new form of the calibration curve is always equal to or better than those obtained from the two types of curves previously used. The use of the net optical densities ratio considerably reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the

  12. Standardized comparison of the relative impacts of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikian, George L; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Taylor, Jonathan; Fessel, W Jeffrey; Kaufman, David; Towner, William; Troia-Cancio, Paolo V; Zolopa, Andrew; Robbins, Gregory K; Kagan, Ron; Israelski, Dennis; Shafer, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Determining the phenotypic impacts of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on individual nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) has remained a statistical challenge because clinical NRTI-resistant HIV-1 isolates usually contain multiple mutations, often in complex patterns, complicating the task of determining the relative contribution of each mutation to HIV drug resistance. Furthermore, the NRTIs have highly variable dynamic susceptibility ranges, making it difficult to determine the relative effect of an RT mutation on susceptibility to different NRTIs. In this study, we analyzed 1,273 genotyped HIV-1 isolates for which phenotypic results were obtained using the PhenoSense assay (Monogram, South San Francisco, CA). We used a parsimonious feature selection algorithm, LASSO, to assess the possible contributions of 177 mutations that occurred in 10 or more isolates in our data set. We then used least-squares regression to quantify the impact of each LASSO-selected mutation on each NRTI. Our study provides a comprehensive view of the most common NRTI resistance mutations. Because our results were standardized, the study provides the first analysis that quantifies the relative phenotypic effects of NRTI resistance mutations on each of the NRTIs. In addition, the study contains new findings on the relative impacts of thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) on susceptibility to abacavir and tenofovir; the impacts of several known but incompletely characterized mutations, including E40F, V75T, Y115F, and K219R; and a tentative role in reduced NRTI susceptibility for K64H, a novel NRTI resistance mutation.

  13. Quantitative Detection of the Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O 146S Antigen for Vaccine Production Using a Double-Antibody Sandwich ELISA and Nonlinear Standard Curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Feng

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01. In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings.

  14. Quantitative Detection of the Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O 146S Antigen for Vaccine Production Using a Double-Antibody Sandwich ELISA and Nonlinear Standard Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Ma, Jun-Wu; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Ya-Min; Jin, Ye; Zhou, Guang-Qing; He, Ji-Jun; Guo, Jian-Hong; Qi, Shu-yun; Lin, Mi; Cai, Hu; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG) analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01). In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings. PMID:26930597

  15. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  16. Development of the curve of Spee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Steven D; Caspersen, Matthew; Hardinger, Rachel R; Franciscus, Robert G; Aquilino, Steven A; Southard, Thomas E

    2008-09-01

    Ferdinand Graf von Spee is credited with characterizing human occlusal curvature viewed in the sagittal plane. This naturally occurring phenomenon has clinical importance in orthodontics and restorative dentistry, yet we have little understanding of when, how, or why it develops. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding by examining the development of the curve of Spee longitudinally in a sample of untreated subjects with normal occlusion from the deciduous dentition to adulthood. Records of 16 male and 17 female subjects from the Iowa Facial Growth Study were selected and examined. The depth of the curve of Spee was measured on their study models at 7 time points from ages 4 (deciduous dentition) to 26 (adult dentition) years. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare changes in the curve of Spee depth between time points. For each subject, the relative eruption of the mandibular teeth was measured from corresponding cephalometric radiographs, and its contribution to the developing curve of Spee was ascertained. In the deciduous dentition, the curve of Spee is minimal. At mean ages of 4.05 and 5.27 years, the average curve of Spee depths are 0.24 and 0.25 mm, respectively. With change to the transitional dentition, corresponding to the eruption of the mandibular permanent first molars and central incisors (mean age, 6.91 years), the curve of Spee depth increases significantly (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 1.32 mm. The curve of Spee then remains essentially unchanged until eruption of the second molars (mean age, 12.38 years), when the depth increases (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 2.17 mm. In the adolescent dentition (mean age, 16.21 years), the depth decreases slightly (P = 0.0009) to a mean maximum depth of 1.98 mm, and, in the adult dentition (mean age 26.98 years), the curve remains unchanged (P = 0.66), with a mean maximum depth of 2.02 mm. No significant differences in curve of Spee development were found between

  17. Conservatism of ASME KIR-reference curve with respect to crack arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, K.; Rintamaa, R.; Nagel, G.

    2001-01-01

    The conservatism of the RT NDT temperature indexing parameter and the ASME K IR -reference curve with respect to crack arrest toughness, has been evaluated. Based on an analysis of the original ASME K Ia data, it was established that inherently, the ASME K IR -reference curve corresponds to an overall 5% lower bound curve with respect to crack arrest. It was shown that the scatter of crack arrest toughness is essentially material independent and has a standard deviation (S.D.) of 18% and the temperature dependence of K Ia has the same form as predicted by the master curve for crack initiation toughness. The 'built in' offset between the mean 100 MPa√m crack arrest temperature, TK Ia , and RT NDT is 38 deg. C (TK Ia =RT NDT +38 deg. C) and the experimental relation between TK Ia and NDT is, TK Ia =NDT+28 deg. C. The K IR -reference curve using NDT as reference temperature will be conservative with respect to the general 5% lower bound K Ia(5%) -curve, with a 75% confidence. The use of RT NDT , instead of NDT, will generally increase the degree of conservatism, both for non-irradiated as well as irradiated materials, close to a 95% confidence level. This trend is pronounced for materials with Charpy-V upper shelf energies below 100 J. It is shown that the K IR -curve effectively constitutes a deterministic lower bound curve for crack arrest The findings are valid both for nuclear pressure vessel plates, forgings and welds

  18. Focus on Physics: The Delightful Catenary Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2017-01-01

    When teaching how "tension" and "compression" relate to geometrical structures such as bridges, arches, and domes, The author shows a picture of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, completed in the 14th century, and presents a lesson on using the curve called a catenary to explain how he teaches about tension and compression…

  19. Irregularities in the dendrochronological calibration curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaway, J.H.; Ottaway, B.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the reality or otherwise of short-term deviations from a linear or smooth curve relating conventional C-14 dates to dendrochronological measurements. The possibility of the effect of short-term changes in the earth's atmosphere and in the oceans, and particularly in their temperature, is considered. (U.K.)

  20. Final test report for traffic management data dictionary (TMDD) and related standards as deployed by the Utah department of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-23

    This report presents the results of the ITS Standards Testing Program for the field testing, assessment, and evaluation of the three volumes comprising the Standards for Traffic Management Center to Center Communications (TMDD) version 2.1 and the NT...

  1. Overview of an address and purpose of the workshop [ISO Workshop on address standards: Considering the issues related to an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available ) (ISO 19112) Precision Redirectable Standards Postal address Street delivery address Y N N Y N Y Fine Y UPU S42 PO Box or Private Bag Y N N Y Fine to Coarse Y UPU S42 Post Restante Y N N Y N Y Coarse Y UPU S42 Delivery address... (for goods, etc) Street address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Intersection address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Landmark address Y N N Y N Y Fine to Moderate N Building address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Site address Y N N Y N Y Fine to Coarse N Farm...

  2. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  3. Differential geometry of curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Students and professors of an undergraduate course in differential geometry will appreciate the clear exposition and comprehensive exercises in this book that focuses on the geometric properties of curves and surfaces, one- and two-dimensional objects in Euclidean space. The problems generally relate to questions of local properties (the properties observed at a point on the curve or surface) or global properties (the properties of the object as a whole). Some of the more interesting theorems explore relationships between local and global properties. A special feature is the availability of accompanying online interactive java applets coordinated with each section. The applets allow students to investigate and manipulate curves and surfaces to develop intuition and to help analyze geometric phenomena.

  4. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-06-19

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence.

  5. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  6. Use of standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index to investigate drought relative to maize, in the Luvuvhu River catchment area, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masupha, Teboho Elisa; Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond

    2017-12-01

    Drought frequency and severity analysis during the growing period of maize was carried out by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) based on climatic data from seven weather stations (1975-2014). The index was aggregated at different time scales following three consecutive planting dates (October, November and December), relative to the average start of the rainy season in the area. Temporal analysis of droughts was conducted and trends were evaluated using the non-parametric Spearman's Rank Correlation test. The relative frequency distributions of the different drought categories were plotted for each growth stage of maize, with respect to the three planting dates. Results revealed an average drought occurrence of once every two seasons. The 1991/92 drought was identified as the most extreme drought during the analysis period; and generally there were no significant trends across the catchment, except for weak increasing SPEI at Levubu, Lwamondo and Thohoyandou with Spearman's ρ values of 0.4. This implies that the severity of drought decreased over time in these regions following the respective planting dates. The study further revealed that planting a 120-day maturing maize crop in December would pose a high risk of frequent severe-extreme droughts (SPEI -1.5 to ≤ -2) during the flowering to grain-filling stage at the high and moderate rainfall regions, while results at the low rainfall region indicated this risk following planting in October.

  7. Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: the effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Jong; Moon, Hyun Jey; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed fatigue and its association with emotional labor and non-standard working hours among hotel workers. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,320 employees of five hotels located in Seoul. The questionnaire survey included questions concerning the participants' sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, emotional labor, and fatigue. Fatigue was assessed using the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (MFS). Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between fatigue and emotional labor. Among male workers, there was a significant association between fatigue and both emotional disharmony (OR=5.52, 95% CI=2.35-12.97) and emotional effort (OR=3.48, 95% CI=1.54-7.86). These same associations were seen among the female workers (emotional disharmony: OR=6.91, 95% CI=2.93-16.33; emotional effort: OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.00-5.16). These results indicate that fatigue is associated with emotional labor and, especially, emotional disharmony among hotel workers. Therefore, emotional disharmony management would prove helpful for the prevention of fatigue.

  8. Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.

  9. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  10. The Role of Standardized Tests as a Means of Assessment of Young Children: A Review of Related Literature and Recommendations of Alternative Assessments for Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Stacie; Karr-Kidwell, P. J.

    An extensive review of literature related to the role of standardized tests in the assessment of young children was conducted, and recommendations were made for alternative approaches more appropriate to the assessment of young children. The first section of the paper contains a literature review that provides a brief history of standardized tests…

  11. The Council on Accreditation of Park, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions: 2013 Standards-- The Importance of Outcome-Based Assessment and the Connection to Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazey, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) adopted recognition standards in 2006 requiring regional and professional accreditors such as the Council on Accreditation of Park, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions (COAPRT) to adopt standards and practices advancing academic quality, demonstrating accountability, and encouraging…

  12. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  13. Variation of iron redox kinetics and its relation with molecular composition of standard humic substances at circumneutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying Ping; Fujii, Manabu; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Terao, Koumei; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction kinetics of iron (Fe) and proportion of steady-state Fe(II) concentration relative to total dissolved Fe (steady-state Fe(II) fraction) were investigated in the presence of various types of standard humic substances (HS) with particular emphasis on the photochemical and thermal reduction of Fe(III) and oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at circumneutral pH (pH 7-8). Rates of Fe(III) reduction were spectrophotometrically determined by a ferrozine method under the simulated sunlight and dark conditions, whereas rates of Fe(II) oxidation were examined in air-saturated solution using luminol chemiluminescence technique. The reduction and oxidation rate constants were determined to substantially vary depending on the type of HS. For example, the first-order rate constants varied by up to 10-fold for photochemical reduction and 7-fold for thermal reduction. The degree of variation in Fe(II) oxidation was larger for the H2O2-mediated reaction compared to the O2-mediated reaction (e.g., 15- and 3-fold changes for the former and latter reactions, respectively, at pH 8). The steady-state Fe(II) fraction under the simulated sunlight indicated that the Fe(II) fraction varies by up to 12-fold. The correlation analysis indicated that variation of Fe(II) oxidation is significantly associated with aliphatic content of HS, suggesting that Fe(II) complexation by aliphatic components accelerates Fe(II) oxidation. The reduction rate constant and steady-state Fe(II) fractions in the presence of sunlight had relatively strong positive relations with free radical content of HS, possibly due to the reductive property of radical semiquinone in HS. Overall, the findings in this study indicated that the Fe reduction and oxidation kinetics and resultant Fe(II) formation are substantially influenced by chemical properties of HS.

  14. An approach to averaging digitized plantagram curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Heinemeyer, R; Sovak, D; Tory, B

    1994-07-01

    The averaging of outline shapes of the human foot for the purposes of determining information concerning foot shape and dimension within the context of comfort of fit of sport shoes is approached as a mathematical problem. An outline of the human footprint is obtained by standard procedures and the curvature is traced with a Hewlett Packard Digitizer. The paper describes the determination of an alignment axis, the identification of two ray centres and the division of the total curve into two overlapping arcs. Each arc is divided by equiangular rays which intersect chords between digitized points describing the arc. The radial distance of each ray is averaged within groups of foot lengths which vary by +/- 2.25 mm (approximately equal to 1/2 shoe size). The method has been used to determine average plantar curves in a study of 1197 North American males (Hawes and Sovak 1993).

  15. Dietary standards for school catering in France: serving moderate quantities to improve dietary quality without increasing the food-related cost of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Allegre, Laëtitia; Mandon, Lionel; Ciantar, Laurent; Darmon, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    To assess the impact on food-related cost of meals to fulfill the new compulsory dietary standards for primary schools in France. A descriptive study assessed the relationship between the level of compliance with the standards of observed school meals and their food-related cost. An analytical study assessed the cost of series of meals published in professional journals, and complying or not with new dietary standards. The costs were based on prices actually paid for food used to prepare school meals. Food-related cost of meals. Parametric and nonparametric tests from a total of 42 and 120 series of 20 meals in the analytical and descriptive studies, respectively. The descriptive study indicated that meeting the standards was not related to cost. The analytical study showed that fulfilling the frequency guidelines increased the cost, whereas fulfilling the portion sizes criteria decreased it. Series of meals fully respecting the standards (ie, frequency and portion sizes) cost significantly less (-0.10 €/meal) than series not fulfilling them, because the standards recommend smaller portion sizes. Introducing portion sizes rules in dietary standards for school catering may help increase dietary quality without increasing the food cost of meals. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hankins

    Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.

  17. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  18. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band (<5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is -110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty ≤0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by ≤0.2 dB. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  19. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band ({lt}5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is {minus}110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty {le}0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by {le}0.2 dB. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  20. Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to 60Co radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csako, G.; Suba, E.A.; Ahlgren, A.; Tsai, C.M.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and function of the highly purified US reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a 60 Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins

  1. Photoelectic BV Light Curves of Algol and the Interpretations of the Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Il Kim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized B and V photoelectric light curves of Algol are made with the observations obtained during 1982-84 with the 40-cm and the 61-cm reflectors of Yonsei University Observatory. These light curves show asymmetry between ascending and descending shoulders. The ascending shoulder is 0.02 mag brighter than descending shoulder in V light curve and 0.03 mag in B light curve. These asymmetric light curves are interpreted as the result of inhomogeneous energy distribution on the surface of one star of the eclipsing pair rather than the result of gaseous stream flowing from KOIV to B8V star. The 180-year periodicity, so called great inequality, are most likely the result proposed by Kim et al. (1983 that the abrupt and discrete mass losses of cooler component may be the cause of this orbital change. The amount of mass loss deduced from these discrete period changes turned out to be of the order of 10^(-6 - 10^(-5 Msolar.

  2. Proportions of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Relative to Each Other and to Golden Standard in Tabriz Dental Faculty Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fereydoun Parnia; Ali Hafezeqoran; Farhang Mahboub; Elnaz Moslehifard; Rodabeh Koodaryan; Rosa Moteyagheni; Fariba Saleh Saber

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden proportion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of golden standard values and golden proportion in the anterior teeth. Materials and methods. Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. The visible widths and lengths...

  3. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  4. Uncertainty of pesticide residue concentration determined from ordinary and weighted linear regression curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolci Omeroglu, Perihan; Ambrus, Árpad; Boyacioglu, Dilek

    2018-03-28

    Determination of pesticide residues is based on calibration curves constructed for each batch of analysis. Calibration standard solutions are prepared from a known amount of reference material at different concentration levels covering the concentration range of the analyte in the analysed samples. In the scope of this study, the applicability of both ordinary linear and weighted linear regression (OLR and WLR) for pesticide residue analysis was investigated. We used 782 multipoint calibration curves obtained for 72 different analytical batches with high-pressure liquid chromatography equipped with an ultraviolet detector, and gas chromatography with electron capture, nitrogen phosphorus or mass spectrophotometer detectors. Quality criteria of the linear curves including regression coefficient, standard deviation of relative residuals and deviation of back calculated concentrations were calculated both for WLR and OLR methods. Moreover, the relative uncertainty of the predicted analyte concentration was estimated for both methods. It was concluded that calibration curve based on WLR complies with all the quality criteria set by international guidelines compared to those calculated with OLR. It means that all the data fit well with WLR for pesticide residue analysis. It was estimated that, regardless of the actual concentration range of the calibration, relative uncertainty at the lowest calibrated level ranged between 0.3% and 113.7% for OLR and between 0.2% and 22.1% for WLR. At or above 1/3 of the calibrated range, uncertainty of calibration curve ranged between 0.1% and 16.3% for OLR and 0% and 12.2% for WLR, and therefore, the two methods gave comparable results.

  5. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  6. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  7. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  8. Variation of iron redox kinetics and its relation with molecular composition of standard humic substances at circumneutral pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ping Lee

    Full Text Available Oxidation and reduction kinetics of iron (Fe and proportion of steady-state Fe(II concentration relative to total dissolved Fe (steady-state Fe(II fraction were investigated in the presence of various types of standard humic substances (HS with particular emphasis on the photochemical and thermal reduction of Fe(III and oxidation of Fe(II by dissolved oxygen (O2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at circumneutral pH (pH 7-8. Rates of Fe(III reduction were spectrophotometrically determined by a ferrozine method under the simulated sunlight and dark conditions, whereas rates of Fe(II oxidation were examined in air-saturated solution using luminol chemiluminescence technique. The reduction and oxidation rate constants were determined to substantially vary depending on the type of HS. For example, the first-order rate constants varied by up to 10-fold for photochemical reduction and 7-fold for thermal reduction. The degree of variation in Fe(II oxidation was larger for the H2O2-mediated reaction compared to the O2-mediated reaction (e.g., 15- and 3-fold changes for the former and latter reactions, respectively, at pH 8. The steady-state Fe(II fraction under the simulated sunlight indicated that the Fe(II fraction varies by up to 12-fold. The correlation analysis indicated that variation of Fe(II oxidation is significantly associated with aliphatic content of HS, suggesting that Fe(II complexation by aliphatic components accelerates Fe(II oxidation. The reduction rate constant and steady-state Fe(II fractions in the presence of sunlight had relatively strong positive relations with free radical content of HS, possibly due to the reductive property of radical semiquinone in HS. Overall, the findings in this study indicated that the Fe reduction and oxidation kinetics and resultant Fe(II formation are substantially influenced by chemical properties of HS.

  9. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  10. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  11. Comparative Analysis of Norwegian Passive House Criteria and of Criteria related to the Concept of International Passive House Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard.......The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard....

  12. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  13. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  14. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  15. Unified approach for estimating the probabilistic design S-N curves of three commonly used fatigue stress-life models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Wang Jinnuo; Gao Qing

    2001-01-01

    A unified approach, referred to as general maximum likelihood method, is presented for estimating probabilistic design S-N curves and their confidence bounds of the three commonly used fatigue stress-life models, namely three parameter, Langer and Basquin. The curves are described by a general form of mean and standard deviation S-N curves of the logarithm of fatigue life. Different from existent methods, i.e., the conventional method and the classical maximum likelihood method,present approach considers the statistical characteristics of whole test data. The parameters of the mean curve is firstly estimated by least square method and then, the parameters of the standard deviation curve is evaluated by mathematical programming method to be agreement with the maximum likelihood principle. Fit effects of the curves are assessed by fitted relation coefficient, total fitted standard error and the confidence bounds. Application to the virtual stress amplitude-crack initiation life data of a nuclear engineering material, Chinese 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-weld metal, has indicated the validity of the approach to the S-N data where both S and N show the character of random variable. Practices to the two states of S-N data of Chinese 45 carbon steel notched specimens (k t = 2.0) have indicated the validity of present approach to the test results obtained respectively from group fatigue test and from maximum likelihood fatigue test. At the practices, it was revealed that in general the fit is best for the three-parameter model,slightly inferior for the Langer relation and poor for the Basquin equation. Relative to the existent methods, present approach has better fit. In addition, the possible non-conservative predictions of the existent methods, which are resulted from the influence of local statistical characteristics of the data, are also overcome by present approach

  16. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  17. The reliability and validity of the standardized Mensendieck test in relation to disability in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keessen, Paul; Maaskant, Jolanda; Visser, Bart

    2018-08-01

    The standardized Mensendieck test (SMT) was developed to quantify posture, movement, gait, and respiration. In the hands of an experienced therapist, the SMT is proven to be a reliable tool. It is unclear whether posture, movement, gait, and respiration are related to the degree of functional disability in patients with chronic pain. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability and convergent validity of the SMT in a heterogeneous sample of 50 patients with chronic pain. Internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's α and interrater reliability by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Convergent validity was assessed by determining the Spearman rank correlation coefficient between the movement quality measured in the SMT and functional limitation measured on the disability rating index (DRI). The internal consistency was Cronbach's α 0.91. Substantial reliability was found for the items: movement (ICC = 0.68), gait (ICC = 0.69), sitting posture (ICC = 0.63), and respiration (ICC = 0.64). Insufficient reliability was found for standing posture (ICC = 0.23). A moderate correlation was found between average test score SMT and the DRI (r = -0.37) and respiration and DRI (r = -0.45). The SMT is a reasonably reliable tool to assess movement, gait, sitting posture, and respiration. None of the items in the domain standing posture has sufficient reliability. A thorough study of this domain should be considered. The results show little evidence for convergent validity. Several items of the SMT correlated moderately with functional limitation with the DRI. These items were global movement, hip flexion, pelvis rotation, and all respiration items.

  18. Living standard is related to microregional differences in stroke characteristics in Central Europe: the Budapest Districts 8-12 Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folyovich, András; Vastagh, Ildikó; Kéri, Anna; Majoros, Angéla; Kovács, Koppány Levente; Ajtay, András; Laki, Zsuzsanna; Gunda, Bence; Erdei, Katalin; Lenti, Laura; Dános, Zsófia; Bereczki, Dániel

    2015-05-01

    To test whether str oke features relate to living standard within one city by comparing 2 districts. District-8 (D-8) ranks the last, whereas District-12 (D-12) is the second regarding personal monthly income of the 23 districts of Budapest, Hungary. Stroke cases hospitalized in 2007 were identified by the database of the National Health Insurance Fund and postal codes for living address. Case certification was performed by personal visits to the general practitioners. Demographic data, risk factors and survival status in 2010 were analyzed using the anonymized database. Three-year case fatality was 36.6 % in D-8 and 31.5 % in D-12 (p = 0.24). Of the fatal cases, men were more than 12 years younger in D-8 than in D-12 (69.2 ± 13.3 vs. 82.4 ± 9.2 years, p < 0.001). Men died younger than women in D-8 (69.2 ± 13.3 vs. 75.2 ± 12.4; p = 0.036), but not in D-12 (82.4 ± 9.2 vs. 81.9 ± 7.3, p = 0.8). Non-treated hypertension, alcohol dependence, and smoking were significantly more prevalent in the poor district (p < 0.01 for all). In national stroke programs of former Eastern Block countries, primary prevention should focus especially on male populations of less wealthy regions.

  19. The iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire: A Standardized Instrument for Measuring and Valuing Health-Related Productivity Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmans, Clazien; Krol, Marieke; Severens, Hans; Koopmanschap, Marc; Brouwer, Werner; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2015-09-01

    Productivity losses often contribute significantly to the total costs in economic evaluations adopting a societal perspective. Currently, no consensus exists on the measurement and valuation of productivity losses. We aimed to develop a standardized instrument for measuring and valuing productivity losses. A group of researchers with extensive experience in measuring and valuing productivity losses designed an instrument suitable for self-completion, building on preknowledge and evidence on validity. The instrument was designed to cover all domains of productivity losses, thus allowing quantification and valuation of all productivity losses. A feasibility study was performed to check the questionnaire's consistency and intelligibility. The iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire (iPCQ) includes three modules measuring productivity losses of paid work due to 1) absenteeism and 2) presenteeism and productivity losses related to 3) unpaid work. Questions for measuring absenteeism and presenteeism were derived from existing validated questionnaires. Because validated measures of losses of unpaid work are scarce, the questions of this module were newly developed. To enhance the instrument's feasibility, simple language was used. The feasibility study included 195 respondents (response rate 80%) older than 18 years. Seven percent (n = 13) identified problems while filling in the iPCQ, including problems with the questionnaire's instructions and routing (n = 6) and wording (n = 2). Five respondents experienced difficulties in estimating the time that would be needed for other people to make up for lost unpaid work. Most modules of the iPCQ are based on validated questions derived from previously available instruments. The instrument is understandable for most of the general public. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proportions of maxillary anterior teeth relative to each other and to golden standard in tabriz dental faculty students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, Fereydoun; Hafezeqoran, Ali; Mahboub, Farhang; Moslehifard, Elnaz; Koodaryan, Rodabeh; Moteyagheni, Rosa; Saleh Saber, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden pro-portion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. The aim of this study was to eval-uate the occurrence of golden standard values and golden proportion in the anterior teeth. Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. The visible widths and lengths of maxillary right and left incisors were calculated and the ratios were compared with golden standard. Data was analyzed using SPSS 14 software. Review of the results of the means showed statistically significant differences between the width ratio of right lateral teeth to the central teeth width with golden proportion (Pmean differences showed that the mean difference between proportion of right laterals to centrals with golden proportion was significant (Pgolden proportion among maxillary incisors. The review of results of mean differences for single samples showed that the mean differences between the proportion of width-to-length of left and right central teeth was statistically significant by golden standard (Pgolden standard exists. In the evaluation of the width-to-width and width-to-length proportions of maxillary incisors no golden proportions and standards were detected, respectively.

  1. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  2. Effects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. An interrupted time-series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery-related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout-related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. The average annual crude rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non-significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full-time equivalents (95% CI -0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing. There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after.

  3. Effects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. Design An interrupted time‐series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery‐related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout‐related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. Results The average annual crude rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non‐significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full‐time equivalents (95% CI −0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing. Conclusions There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after. PMID:17916891

  4. Variation of curve number with storm depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2012-04-01

    The NRCS Curve Number (known also as SCS-CN) method is well known as a tool in predicting flood runoff depth from small ungauged catchment. The traditional way of determination the CNs, based on soil characteristics, land use and hydrological conditions, seemed to have tendency to overpredict the floods in some cases. Over 30 year rainfall-runoff data, collected in two small (A=23.4 & 82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchments in Center of Poland (Banasik & Woodward 2010), were used to determine runoff Curve Number and to check a tendency of changing. The observed CN declines with increasing storm size, which according recent views of Hawkins (1993) could be classified as a standard response of watershed. The analysis concluded, that using CN value according to the procedure described in USDA-SCS Handbook one receives representative value for estimating storm runoff from high rainfall depths in the analyzes catchments. This has been confirmed by applying "asymptotic approach" for estimating the watershed curve number from the rainfall-runoff data. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that CN, estimated from mean retention parameter S of recorded events with rainfall depth higher than initial abstraction, is also approaching the theoretical CN. The observed CN, ranging from 59.8 to 97.1 and from 52.3 to 95.5, in the smaller and the larger catchment respectively, declines with increasing storm size, which has been classified as a standard response of watershed. The investigation demonstrated also changeability of the CN during a year, with much lower values during the vegetation season. Banasik K. & D.E. Woodward (2010). "Empirical determination of curve number for a small agricultural watrshed in Poland". 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 - July 1, 2010 (http://acwi.gov/sos/pubs/2ndJFIC/Contents/10E_Banasik_ 28_02_10. pdf). Hawkins R. H. (1993). "Asymptotic determination of curve numbers from data". Journal of Irrigation and Drainage

  5. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  6. Bezier Curve Modeling for Neutrosophic Data Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Tas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophic set concept is defined with membership, non-membership and indeterminacy degrees. This concept is the solution and representation of the problems with various fields. In this paper, a geometric model is introduced for Neutrosophic data problem for the first time. This model is based on neutrosophic sets and neutrosophic relations. Neutrosophic control points are defined according to these points, resulting in neutrosophic Bezier curves.

  7. Feynman propagator in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Raine, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Wick rotation is generalized in a covariant manner so as to apply to curved manifolds in a way that is independent of the analytic properties of the manifold. This enables us to show that various methods for defining a Feynman propagator to be found in the literature are equivalent where they are applicable. We are also able to discuss the relation between certain regularization methods that have been employed

  8. IDF-curves for precipitation In Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohymont, Bernard; Demarde, Gaston R.

    2004-01-01

    The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation constitute a relationship between the intensity, the duration and the frequency of rainfall amounts. The intensity of precipitation is expressed in mm/h, the duration or aggregation time is the length of the interval considered while the frequency stands for the probability of occurrence of the event. IDF-curves constitute a classical and useful tool that is primarily used to dimension hydraulic structures in general, as e.g., sewer systems and which are consequently used to assess the risk of inundation. In this presentation, the IDF relation for precipitation is studied for different locations in Belgium. These locations correspond to two long-term, high-quality precipitation networks of the RMIB: (a) the daily precipitation depths of the climatological network (more than 200 stations, 1951-2001 baseline period); (b) the high-frequency 10-minutes precipitation depths of the hydro meteorological network (more than 30 stations, 15 to 33 years baseline period). For the station of Uccle, an uninterrupted time-series of more than one hundred years of 10-minutes rainfall data is available. The proposed technique for assessing the curves is based on maximum annual values of precipitation. A new analytical formula for the IDF-curves was developed such that these curves stay valid for aggregation times ranging from 10 minutes to 30 days (when fitted with appropriate data). Moreover, all parameters of this formula have physical dimensions. Finally, adequate spatial interpolation techniques are used to provide nationwide extreme values precipitation depths for short- to long-term durations With a given return period. These values are estimated on the grid points of the Belgian ALADIN-domain used in the operational weather forecasts at the RMIB.(Author)

  9. PROPERTIES OF DUST GRAINS PROBED WITH EXTINCTION CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Fukugita, Masataka [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-06-10

    Modern data of the extinction curve from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared are revisited to study properties of dust grains in the Milky Way (MW) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We confirm that the graphite-silicate mixture of grains yields the observed extinction curve with the simple power-law distribution of the grain size but with a cutoff at some maximal size: the parameters are tightly constrained to be q = 3.5 {+-} 0.2 for the size distribution a {sup -q} and the maximum radius a{sub max} = 0.24 {+-} 0.05 {mu}m, for both MW and SMC. The abundance of grains, and hence the elemental abundance, is constrained from the reddening versus hydrogen column density, E(B - V)/N{sub H}. If we take the solar elemental abundance as the standard for the MW, >56% of carbon should be in graphite dust, while it is <40% in the SMC using its available abundance estimate. This disparity and the relative abundance of C to Si explain the difference of the two curves. We find that 50%-60% of carbon may not necessarily be in graphite but in the amorphous or glassy phase. Iron may also be in the metallic phase or up to {approx}80% in magnetite rather than in silicates, so that the Mg/Fe ratio in astronomical olivine is arbitrary. With these substitutions, the parameters of the grain size remain unchanged. The mass density of dust grains relative to hydrogen is {rho}{sub dust}/{rho}{sub H}= 1 / (120{sup +10}{sub -16}) for the MW and 1 / (760{sup +70}{sub -90}) for the SMC under the elemental abundance constraints. We underline the importance of the wavelength dependence of the extinction curve in the near-infrared in constructing the dust model: if A{sub {lambda}}{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup -{gamma}} with {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.6, the power-law grain-size model fails, whereas it works if {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.8-2.0.

  10. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  11. Vertex algebras and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...

  12. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  13. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  14. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  15. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

    in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers......  Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  16. Use of new World Health Organization child growth standards to assess how infant malnutrition relates to breastfeeding and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Penny, Mary; Bhandari, Nita; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2010-01-01

    To compare the estimated prevalence of malnutrition using the World Health Organization's (WHO) child growth standards versus the National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS) growth reference, to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and malnutrition, and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of nutritional status indicators for predicting death during infancy. A secondary analysis of data on 9424 mother-infant pairs in Ghana, India and Peru was conducted. Mothers and infants were enrolled in a trial of vitamin A supplementation during which the infants' weight, length and feeding practices were assessed regularly. Malnutrition indicators were determined using WHO and NCHS growth standards. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in infants aged mortality in India. No indicator was a good predictor in Ghana or Peru. In infants aged 6-12 months, underweight at 6 months had the highest sensitivity and specificity for predicting mortality in Ghana (37.0% and 82.2%, respectively) and Peru (33.3% and 97.9% respectively), while wasting was the best predictor in India (sensitivity: 54.6%; specificity: 85.5%). Malnutrition indicators determined using WHO standards were better predictors of mortality than those determined using NCHS standards. No association was found between breastfeeding duration and malnutrition at 6 months. Use of WHO child growth standards highlighted the importance of malnutrition in the first 6 months of life.

  17. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    in Rd, and methods to solve the initial and boundary value problem for geodesics allowing us to compute the Karcher mean and principal components analysis of data of curves. We apply the methods to study shape variation in synthetic data in the Kimia shape database, in HeLa cell nuclei and cycles...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...

  18. Tracing a planar algebraic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Falai; Kozak, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  19. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  20. Daylight calculations using constant luminance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betman, E. [CRICYT, Mendoza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a simple method to manually estimate daylight availability and to make daylight calculations using constant luminance curves calculated with local illuminance and irradiance data and the all-weather model for sky luminance distribution developed in the Atmospheric Science Research Center of the University of New York (ARSC) by Richard Perez et al. Work with constant luminance curves has the advantage that daylight calculations include the problem's directionality and preserve the information of the luminous climate of the place. This permits accurate knowledge of the resource and a strong basis to establish conclusions concerning topics related to the energy efficiency and comfort in buildings. The characteristics of the proposed method are compared with the method that uses the daylight factor. (author)

  1. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    of the yield stress is to some inadequate degree taken into account in the Eurocode by specifying that steel grades of S460 and higher all belong to a common set of “raised” buckling curves. This is not satisfying as it can be shown theoretically that the current Eurocode formulation misses an epsilon factor......Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...... in the definition of the normalised imperfection magnitudes. By introducing this factor it seems that the GMNIA analysis and knowledge of the independency of residual stress levels on the yield stress can be brought together and give results showing consistency between numerical modelling and a simple modified...

  2. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  3. Issues relating to safety standards on the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Proceedings of a specialists meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency focus is currently being placed on establishing safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This is a challenging task and a Specialists Meeting was held from 18 to 22 June 2001 with the intention of providing a mechanism for promoting discussion on some of the associated scientific and technical issues and as a means of developing the consensus needed for establishing the standards. The meeting used, as its basis, a number of position papers developed in recent years with the help of a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, together with selected relevant regional and national papers. The report contains the summaries of the sessions of the Specialists Meeting together with the conclusions drawn relevant to the establishment of standards. The sessions of the Meeting addressed the following topics: Common framework for radioactive waste disposal; Making the safety case - demonstrating compliance; Safety indicators; Reference critical groups and biospheres; Human intrusion; Reversibility and retrievability; Monitoring and institutional control. The publication contains 26 individual presentations delivered by participants. Each of these presentations was indexed separately

  4. 75 FR 39252 - Release of Final Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment and Particulate Matter... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2007-0492; FRL-9171-8] Release of Final Documents...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The Office of Air Quality...

  5. 78 FR 2394 - Release of Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Quality Standards, External Review Draft (PA). This document was prepared as part of the current review of... ``anonymous access'' system, which means the EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you... extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of...

  6. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  7. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  8. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  9. A Curve for all Reasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from biology, feel that every pattern in the living world, ranging from the folding of ... curves band c have the same rate of increase but reach different asymptotes. If these .... not at x = 0, but at xo' which is the minimum size at birth that will permit ...

  10. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  11. Using quasars as standard clocks for measuring cosmological redshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn D; Stojkovic, Branislav; Stojkovic, Dejan; Weltman, Amanda

    2012-06-08

    We report hitherto unnoticed patterns in quasar light curves. We characterize segments of the quasar's light curves with the slopes of the straight lines fit through them. These slopes appear to be directly related to the quasars' redshifts. Alternatively, using only global shifts in time and flux, we are able to find significant overlaps between the light curves of different pairs of quasars by fitting the ratio of their redshifts. We are then able to reliably determine the redshift of one quasar from another. This implies that one can use quasars as standard clocks, as we explicitly demonstrate by constructing two independent methods of finding the redshift of a quasar from its light curve.

  12. Using Peano Curves to Construct Laplacians on Fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Denali; Ott, Nadia; Strichartz, Robert

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new method to construct Laplacians on fractals using a Peano curve from the circle onto the fractal, extending an idea that has been used in the case of certain Julia sets. The Peano curve allows us to visualize eigenfunctions of the Laplacian by graphing the pullback to the circle. We study in detail three fractals: the pentagasket, the octagasket and the magic carpet. We also use the method for two nonfractal self-similar sets, the torus and the equilateral triangle, obtaining appealing new visualizations of eigenfunctions on the triangle. In contrast to the many familiar pictures of approximations to standard Peano curves, that do no show self-intersections, our descriptions of approximations to the Peano curves have self-intersections that play a vital role in constructing graph approximations to the fractal with explicit graph Laplacians that give the fractal Laplacian in the limit.

  13. Parameter Deduction and Accuracy Analysis of Track Beam Curves in Straddle-type Monorail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is strongly related to the production quality of the entire beam. Many factors may affect the parameters of the bottom curve, such as the superelevation of the curve and the deformation of a PC track beam. At present, no effective method has been developed to determine the bottom curve of a PC track beam; therefore, a new technique is presented in this paper to deduce the parameters of such a curve and to control the accuracy of the computation results. First, the domain of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is assumed to be a spindle plane. Then, the corresponding supposed top curve domain is determined based on a geometrical relationship that is the opposite of that identified by the conventional method. Second, several optimal points are selected from the supposed top curve domain according to the dichotomy algorithm; the supposed top curve is thus generated by connecting these points. Finally, one rigorous criterion is established in the fractal dimension to assess the accuracy of the assumed top curve deduced in the previous step. If this supposed curve coincides completely with the known top curve, then the assumed bottom curve corresponding to the assumed top curve is considered to be the real bottom curve. This technique of determining the bottom curve of a PC track beam is thus proven to be efficient and accurate.

  14. Biological durability of wood in relation to end-use - Part 1. Towards a European standard for laboratory testing of the biological durability of wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acker, Van J.; Stevens, M.; Carey, J.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.; Bayon, Le I.; Kleist, G.; Peek, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of biological durability of wood is an issue requiring sufficient reliability regarding end-use related prediction of performance. Five test institutes joined efforts to check standard test methods and to improve methodology and data interpretation for assessment of natural

  15. Assessment of the Adequacy of Instructional Resources in Business Education Programmes Relative to NCCE Standards for Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyesom, Moses; Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the adequacy of instructional resources available for business education programmes at the colleges of education in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria in relation to the standards stipulated by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). The study adopted the ex-post facto research design and was guided by five…

  16. A "Common" Vision of Instruction? An Analysis of English/Language Arts Professional Development Materials Related to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Emily; Benko, Susanna L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the stances put forward by a selection of professional development resources interpreting the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (ELA) teachers, and to analyse where these resources stand in relation to research in ELA. Specifically, we analyse resources written by English educators…

  17. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.

    2010-01-01

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  18. Neutrophil and lymphocyte dose curves in whole-body relatively homogeneous human γ-irradiation (on the basis of the materials of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konchalovskij, M.V.; Baranov, A.E.; Solov'ev, V.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    The experience in a study of regularties of the bone marrow syndrome in persons exposed to rather homogeneous γ-beam irradiation during the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (127 cases) were summed up. Hematological data were processed by computer, and emperic dose curves of neutrophils and lymphocytes were obtained within the range of 0.5-12 Gy by regressive analysis. New data were obtained on the nature of a course of a granulocyte recovery phase at a dose level over 5 Gy. Some features of the time course of lymphocytes in persons exposed to radiation during the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, were considered

  19. Le Higgs et le quark top dans le formalisme des relations de dispersion et le modèle standard

    CERN Document Server

    Bouayed, Noureddine

    The mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking responsible for the generation of masses for both the bosons and the fermions of the Standard Model remains a mystery, especially that the Higgs has still not been discovered. In this thesis I concentrate on the study of the scalar sector of the Standard Model where the Higgs with the other Goldstone Boson reside. This sector can best be probed through the massive vector bosons and the top quark. The former, for their privileged coupling to the Higgs and because their longitudinal mode represents the Goldstone Bosons, and the top, because of its very strong Yukawa coupling, are very sensitive to the mechanism of symmetry breaking. I first focus on a situation where the Higgs is light and study the processes ${W^-W^+ \\to t\\bar{t}}$ and ${ZZ \\to t\\bar{t}}$. In order to unambiguously reveal a sign of New Physics, the Standard Model needs to be predicted precisely. In a first step I therefore study the electroweak and QCD one-loop corrections for these processes. Thi...

  20. Isobaric yield curves at A=72 from the spallation of medium mass isotopes by intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.J.; Karol, P.J.; Department of Chemistry, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213)

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections of radionuclides in the A∼72 mass region produced by the interaction 800 MeV protons with 89 Y, /sup 92,96,100/Mo, and 130 Te were measured. Particular emphasis was paid to the measurement of short-lived products far from β stability. The cross sections were used to generate isobaric yield curves at A=72. Precise characterization of these curves showed that the distribution parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness) vary in a regular fashion with target N/Z. For 89 Y, relative isobaric curves produced by 500 and 800 MeV protons were found to be identical within experimental error. The yield distributions for the /sup 92,96,100/Mo targets also scaled with those from an earlier alpha-induced spallation study. These findings lend strong support to the argument that the spallation mechanism is independent of projectile energy and target composition

  1. Wheelset curving guidance using H∞ control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazizadeh, Alireza; Stichel, Sebastian; Feyzmahdavian, Hamid Reza

    2018-03-01

    This study shows how to design an active suspension system for guidance of a rail vehicle wheelset in curve. The main focus of the study is on designing the controller and afterwards studying its effect on the wheel wear behaviour. The controller is designed based on the closed-loop transfer function shaping method and ? control strategy. The study discusses designing of the controller for both nominal and uncertain plants and considers both stability and performance. The designed controllers in Simulink are then applied to the vehicle model in Simpack to study the wheel wear behaviour in curve. The vehicle type selected for this study is a two-axle rail vehicle. This is because this type of vehicle is known to have very poor curving performance and high wheel wear. On the other hand, the relative simpler structure of this type of vehicle compared to bogie vehicles make it a more economic choice. Hence, equipping this type of vehicle with the active wheelset steering is believed to show high enough benefit to cost ratio to remain attractive to rail vehicle manufacturers and operators.

  2. Use of universal functional optimisation for TL glow curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Linh, H.Q.

    1996-01-01

    The effective use of any TL instrument requires an efficient software package to be able to fulfil different tasks required by research and practical applications. One of the standard features of the package used at the NPI Prague is the application of the interactive modular system Universal Functional Optimisation (UFO) for glow curve deconvolution. The whole system has been tested on standard glow curves using different models of the TL process (a single peak described by the Podgorsak approximation, first order kinetics and/or general order kinetics). Calculated values of basic TL parameters (E and s) show a good agreement with the results obtained by other authors. The main advantage of the system is in its modularity that enables flexible changes in the TL model and mathematical procedures of the glow curve analysis. (author)

  3. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  4. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  5. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  6. Correlation between 2D and 3D flow curve modelling of DP steels using a microstructure-based RVE approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramazani, A.; Mukherjee, K.; Quade, H.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W.

    2013-01-01

    A microstructure-based approach by means of representative volume elements (RVEs) is employed to evaluate the flow curve of DP steels using virtual tensile tests. Microstructures with different martensite fractions and morphologies are studied in two- and three-dimensional approaches. Micro sections of DP microstructures with various amounts of martensite have been converted to 2D RVEs, while 3D RVEs were constructed statistically with randomly distributed phases. A dislocation-based model is used to describe the flow curve of each ferrite and martensite phase separately as a function of carbon partitioning and microstructural features. Numerical tensile tests of RVE were carried out using the ABAQUS/Standard code to predict the flow behaviour of DP steels. It is observed that 2D plane strain modelling gives an underpredicted flow curve for DP steels, while the 3D modelling gives a quantitatively reasonable description of flow curve in comparison to the experimental data. In this work, a von Mises stress correlation factor σ 3D /σ 2D has been identified to compare the predicted flow curves of these two dimensionalities showing a third order polynomial relation with respect to martensite fraction and a second order polynomial relation with respect to equivalent plastic strain, respectively. The quantification of this polynomial correlation factor is performed based on laboratory-annealed DP600 chemistry with varying martensite content and it is validated for industrially produced DP qualities with various chemistry, strength level and martensite fraction.

  7. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  8. The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance as used in the interagency basic safety standards and related IAEA documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbl, G.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanisms are needed to remove from regulatory control those exposures or radiation sources that do not warrant concern. In this paper three such conceptual mechanisms are examined from their historical development to their current usage in the Interagency Basic Safety Standards. These concepts are exclusion, applied to exposures that are not amenable to control, exemption applied in advance on the basis of low risks to prevent practices or sources from entering the regulatory control system, and clearance, a similar concept but used to remove sources from the regulatory control system. The application of and interrelationships between these concepts, is described. (author)

  9. Projection-based curve clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)

  10. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  11. Elementary particles in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

  12. Sketching Curves for Normal Distributions--Geometric Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Within statistics instruction, students are often requested to sketch the curve representing a normal distribution with a given mean and standard deviation. Unfortunately, these sketches are often notoriously imprecise. Poor sketches are usually the result of missing mathematical knowledge. This paper considers relationships which exist among…

  13. 7 CFR 43.105 - Operating characteristics (OC) curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating characteristics (OC) curves. 43.105 Section 43.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR SAMPLING PLANS Sampling Plans § 43.105 Operating characteristics (OC...

  14. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  15. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; van Stralen, Marijn; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K W; Vincken, Koen L; Cheng, Jack C Y; Castelein, René M

    2016-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been described before. A unique series of 77 AIS patients with high-resolution CT scans of the spine, acquired for surgical planning purposes, were included and compared to 22 healthy controls. Non-idiopathic curves were excluded. Endplate segmentation and local longitudinal axis in endplate plane enabled semi-automatic geometric analysis of the complete three-dimensional morphology of the spine, taking inter-vertebral rotation, intra-vertebral torsion and coronal and sagittal tilt into account. Intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver reliability were 0.98-1.00. Coronal deviation, axial rotation and the exact length discrepancies in the reconstructed sagittal plane, as defined per vertebra and disc, were analyzed for each primary and compensatory curve as well as for the junctional segments in-between. The anterior-posterior difference of spinal length, based on "true" anterior and posterior points on endplates, was +3.8% for thoracic and +9.4% for (thoraco)lumbar curves, while the junctional segments were almost straight. This differed significantly from control group thoracic kyphosis (-4.1%; P<0.001) and lumbar lordosis (+7.8%; P<0.001). For all primary as well as compensatory curves, we observed linear correlations between the coronal Cobb angle, axial rotation and the anterior-posterior length difference (r≥0.729 for thoracic curves; r≥0.485 for (thoraco)lumbar curves). Excess anterior length of the spine in AIS has been described as a generalized growth disturbance, causing relative anterior spinal overgrowth. This study is the first to demonstrate that this anterior overgrowth is not a generalized phenomenon. It is confined to the primary as well as the

  16. One single standard substance for the simultaneous determination of 17 triterpenes in Ganoderma lingzhi and its related species using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jingsong; Han, Wei; Liu, Yanfang; Feng, Jie; Tang, Chuanhong; Feng, Na; Tang, Qingjiu

    2017-11-15

    Due to the difficulty and high cost for the preparation of triterpenes, one single standard for the simultaneous determination of multi-components (SSDMC) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an advanced solution for multi-component analysis. Experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of SSDMC for the analysis of Ganoderma triterpenes, with external standard method (ESM) compared, and the samples of Ganoderma were classified by the content of Ganoderma triterpenes. The analysis was performed by using a Fortis Speed Core-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm I.D., 2.6μm) at gradient elution of 0.01% glacial acetic acid-water (V/V) and acetonitrile with diode array detection (252nm), at a flow rate of 1mL/min. The results showed that all calibration curves had good linearity (r 2 >0.9999) within test ranges. The LOD and LOQ were lower than 2.52ng and 6.43ng, respectively. The RSD for intra-day and inter-day of the seventeen analytes were less than 3.12% at three levels, and the recoveries were 91.4-103.0%. The contents of other 16 triterpenes were determined with ganoderic acid A by SSDMC, which showed that there were few differences compared with the results obtained by ESM. Moreover, the classification of 25 different species and strains of Ganoderma by using the content of triterpenes intuitively reflected the distinction among Ganoderma. In summary, the developed method could be readily utilized as a method of quality evaluation for Ganoderma triterpenes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codesido, Santiago [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gu, Jie [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University,Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 75005 Paris (France); Mariño, Marcos [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-17

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub 6} orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  18. Localization of nonlinear excitations in curved waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    numerical simulations of the nonlinear problem and in this case localized excitations are found to persist. We found also interesting relaxational dynamics. Analogies of the present problem in context related to atomic physics and particularly to Bose–Einstein condensation are discussed.......Motivated by the examples of a curved waveguide embedded in a photonic crystal and cold atoms moving in a waveguide created by a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field, we examine the effects of geometry in a 'quantum channel' of parabolic form. Starting with the linear case we derive exact...

  19. The Higgs boson and the quark top in the formalism of dispersion relations and the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouayed, N.

    2008-11-01

    The mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking responsible for the generation of masses for both the bosons and the fermions of the Standard Model remains a mystery, especially that the Higgs has still not been discovered. In this thesis I concentrate on the study of the scalar sector of the Standard Model where the Higgs with the other Goldstone Bosons reside. This sector can best be probed through the massive vector bosons and the top quark. The former, for their privileged coupling to the Higgs and because their longitudinal mode represents the Goldstone Bosons, and the top, because of its very strong Yukawa coupling, are very sensitive to the mechanism of symmetry breaking. I first focus on a situation where the Higgs is light and study the processes W - W + → tt-bar and ZZ → tt-bar. In order to unambiguously reveal a sign of New Physics, the Standard Model needs to be predicted precisely. In a first step I therefore study the electroweak and QCD one loop corrections for these processes. This requires a renormalisation of the electroweak gauge and top sectors and mastering some one-loop techniques. I then concentrate on extracting the purely electroweak contributions to the above processes after setting up an analytical formula for the universal photonic contribution. The New Physics affecting the top and W system is parameterized with the help of effective operators describing symmetry breaking. The effect of these operators is carefully compared to the effect of the one-loop radiative corrections before setting a limit on the parameters of these New Physics operators. To give more realistic results the WW and ZZ cross sections are turned into e + e - and pp cross sections by using a structure function approach. This allows an application to the phenomenology at future colliders (LHC:Large Hadron Collider and ILC: International Linear Collider). A second aspect of the work presented here concerns the situation where the Higgs is heavy. For a heavy Higgs

  20. Curve fitting for RHB Islamic Bank annual net profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajan, Dineswary; Noor, Noor Fadiya Mohd

    2015-05-01

    The RHB Islamic Bank net profit data are obtained from 2004 to 2012. Curve fitting is done by assuming the data are exact or experimental due to smoothing process. Higher order Lagrange polynomial and cubic spline with curve fitting procedure are constructed using Maple software. Normality test is performed to check the data adequacy. Regression analysis with curve estimation is conducted in SPSS environment. All the eleven models are found to be acceptable at 10% significant level of ANOVA. Residual error and absolute relative true error are calculated and compared. The optimal model based on the minimum average error is proposed.

  1. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotationon the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail, The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without ro-tation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis foree to centrifugal foree and the axial pressure gradient.

  2. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotation on the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail. The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without rotation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis force to centrifugal force and the axial pressure gradient.

  3. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  4. Modelling stochastic chances in curve shape, with an application to cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, A; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    2000-01-01

    Often, the statistical analysis of the shape of a random planar curve is based on a model for a polygonal approximation to the curve. In the present paper, we instead describe the curve as a continuous stochastic deformation of a template curve. The advantage of this continuous approach is that t......Often, the statistical analysis of the shape of a random planar curve is based on a model for a polygonal approximation to the curve. In the present paper, we instead describe the curve as a continuous stochastic deformation of a template curve. The advantage of this continuous approach...... is that the parameters in the model do not relate to a particular polygonal approximation. A somewhat similar approach has been used by Kent et al. (1996), who describe the limiting behaviour of a model with a first-order Markov property as the landmarks on the curve become closely spaced; see also Grenander(1993...

  5. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  6. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian; Tureanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  7. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobakhidze, Archil, E-mail: archilk@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Manning, Adrian, E-mail: a.manning@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Tureanu, Anca, E-mail: anca.tureanu@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-10

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  8. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.

  9. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  10. Consistency of neutron and proton capture intensity standards new relative intensities for 56Co, 66Ga decay and 35Cl(n,γ) reaction gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Z.; Belgya, T.

    2000-01-01

    The equivalence of efficiency determination procedures based on neutron and proton capture lines has been verified and the deviation of high-energy efficiency from linearity confirmed. The new, accurate relative intensities for 56 Co and 66 Ga extend the range of secondary radioactive standards up to 4.8 MeV. Extreme care has to be taken with any high-energy intensity value obtained in the past with the help of 56 Co and 66 Ga calibration sources, and corrections have to be made using the present data of high accuracy. Relative intensities have also been improved for the 35 Cl(n,γ) reaction, a useful secondary standard in a wide energy range, between 0.3-8.5 MeV. The new data are supported by other most recent measurements of a slightly lower precision

  11. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  12. Central $L$-values of elliptic curves and local polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlen, Stephan; Guerzhoy, Pavel; Kane, Ben; Rolen, Larry

    2018-01-01

    Here we study the recently introduced notion of a locally harmonic Maass form and its applications to the theory of $L$-functions. In particular, we find finite formulas for certain twisted central $L$-values of a family of elliptic curves in terms of finite sums over canonical binary quadratic forms. This yields vastly simpler formulas related to work of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer for such $L$-values, and extends beyond their framework to special non-CM elliptic curves.

  13. 29 CFR 2509.95-1 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting an annuity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchase annuities. In conducting such a search, a fiduciary must evaluate a number of factors relating to... purchasing an unsafe annuity. In contrast to the above, a fiduciary's decision to purchase more risky, lower... account plan see 29 CFR 2550.404a-4. (b) In General. Generally, when a pension plan purchases an annuity...

  14. Crack resistance curve determination of zircaloy-4 cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, J.; Alam, A.; Zubler, R.

    2009-03-01

    Fracture mechanics properties of fuel claddings are of relevance with respect to fuel rod integrity. The integrity of a fuel rod, in turn, is important for the fuel performance, for the safe handling of fuel rods, for the prevention of leakages and subsequent dissemination of fuel, for the avoidance of unnecessary dose rates, and for safe operation. Different factors can strongly deteriorate the mechanical fuel rod properties: irradiation damage, thermo-mechanical impact, corrosion or hydrogen uptake. To investigate the mechanical properties of fuel rod claddings which are used in Swiss nuclear power plants, PSI has initiated a program for mechanical testing. A major issue was the interaction between specific loading devices and the tested cladding tube, e.g. in the form of bending or friction. Particular for Zircaloy is the hexagonal closed packed structure of the zirconium crystallographic lattice. This structure implies plastic deformation mechanisms with specific, preferred orientations. Further, the manufacturing procedure of Zircaloy claddings induces a specific texture which plays a salient role with respect to the embrittlement by irradiation or integration of hydrogen in the form of hydrides. Both, the induced microstructure as well as the plastic deformation behaviour play a role for the mechanical properties. At PSI, in a first step inactive thin walled Zircaloy tubes and, for comparison reasons, plates were tested. The validity of the mechanical testing of the non standard tube and plate geometries had to be verified. The used Zircaloy-4 cladding tube sections and small plates of the same wall thickness have been notched, fatigue pre-cracked and tensile tested to evaluate the fracture toughness properties at room temperature, 300 o C and 350 o C. The crack propagation has been determined optically. The test results of the plates have been further used to validate FEM calculations. For each sample a complete crack resistance (J-R) curve could be

  15. Crack resistance curve determination of zircaloy-4 cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, J.; Alam, A.; Zubler, R

    2009-03-15

    Fracture mechanics properties of fuel claddings are of relevance with respect to fuel rod integrity. The integrity of a fuel rod, in turn, is important for the fuel performance, for the safe handling of fuel rods, for the prevention of leakages and subsequent dissemination of fuel, for the avoidance of unnecessary dose rates, and for safe operation. Different factors can strongly deteriorate the mechanical fuel rod properties: irradiation damage, thermo-mechanical impact, corrosion or hydrogen uptake. To investigate the mechanical properties of fuel rod claddings which are used in Swiss nuclear power plants, PSI has initiated a program for mechanical testing. A major issue was the interaction between specific loading devices and the tested cladding tube, e.g. in the form of bending or friction. Particular for Zircaloy is the hexagonal closed packed structure of the zirconium crystallographic lattice. This structure implies plastic deformation mechanisms with specific, preferred orientations. Further, the manufacturing procedure of Zircaloy claddings induces a specific texture which plays a salient role with respect to the embrittlement by irradiation or integration of hydrogen in the form of hydrides. Both, the induced microstructure as well as the plastic deformation behaviour play a role for the mechanical properties. At PSI, in a first step inactive thin walled Zircaloy tubes and, for comparison reasons, plates were tested. The validity of the mechanical testing of the non standard tube and plate geometries had to be verified. The used Zircaloy-4 cladding tube sections and small plates of the same wall thickness have been notched, fatigue pre-cracked and tensile tested to evaluate the fracture toughness properties at room temperature, 300 {sup o}C and 350 {sup o}C. The crack propagation has been determined optically. The test results of the plates have been further used to validate FEM calculations. For each sample a complete crack resistance (J-R) curve could

  16. [Poverty and Health: The Living Standard Approach as a Supplementary Concept to Measure Relative Poverty. Results from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP 2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, T-K

    2016-06-01

    A common indicator of the measurement of relative poverty is the disposable income of a household. Current research introduces the living standard approach as an alternative concept for describing and measuring relative poverty. This study compares both approaches with regard to subjective health status of the German population, and provides theoretical implications for the utilisation of the income and living standard approach in health research. Analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) from the year 2011 that includes 12 290 private households and 21106 survey members. Self-rated health was based on a subjective assessment of general health status. Income poverty is based on the equalised disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. A person will be denoted as deprived (inadequate living standard) if 3 or more out of 11 living standard items are lacking due to financial reasons. To calculate the discriminate power of both poverty indicators, descriptive analyses and stepwise logistic regression models were applied separately for men and women adjusted for age, residence, nationality, educational level, occupational status and marital status. The results of the stepwise regression revealed a stronger poverty-health relationship for the living standard indicator. After adjusting for all control variables and the respective poverty indicator, income poverty was statistically not significantly associated with a poor subjective health status among men (OR Men: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.77) and women (OR Women: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.78-1.22). In contrast, the association between deprivation and subjective health status was statistically significant for men (OR Men: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57-2.52) and women (OR Women: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.76-2.64). The results of the present study indicate that the income and standard of living approach measure different dimensions of poverty. In comparison to the income approach, the living

  17. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  18. Definition and measurement of statistical gloss parameters from curved objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, Kalle; Oksman, Antti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2010-09-20

    Gloss standards are commonly defined for gloss measurement from flat surfaces, and, accordingly, glossmeters are typically developed for flat objects. However, gloss inspection of convex, concave, and small products is also important. In this paper, we define statistical gloss parameters for curved objects and measure gloss data on convex and concave surfaces using two different diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters. Examples of measurements with the two diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters are given for convex and concave aluminum pipe samples with and without paint. The defined gloss parameters for curved objects are useful in the characterization of the surface quality of metal pipes and other objects.

  19. Definition and measurement of statistical gloss parameters from curved objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuivalainen, Kalle; Oksman, Antti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Gloss standards are commonly defined for gloss measurement from flat surfaces, and, accordingly, glossmeters are typically developed for flat objects. However, gloss inspection of convex, concave, and small products is also important. In this paper, we define statistical gloss parameters for curved objects and measure gloss data on convex and concave surfaces using two different diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters. Examples of measurements with the two diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters are given for convex and concave aluminum pipe samples with and without paint. The defined gloss parameters for curved objects are useful in the characterization of the surface quality of metal pipes and other objects.

  20. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  1. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  2. Some fundamental questions about R-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolednik, O.

    1992-01-01

    With the help of two simple thought experiments it is demonstrated that there exist two physically different types of fracture toughness. The crack-growth toughness, which is identical to the Griffith crack growth resistance, R, is a measure of the non-reversible energy which is needed to produce an increment of new crack area. The size of R is reflected by the slopes of the R-curves commonly used. So an increasing J-Δa-curve does not mean that the crack-growth resistance increases. The fracture initiation toughness, J i , is a normalized total energy (related to the ligament area) which must be put into the specimen up to fracture initiation. Only for ideally brittle materials R and J i have equal sizes. For small-scale yielding a relationship exists between R and J i , ao a one-parameter description of fracture processes is applicable. For large-scale yielding R and J i are not strictly related and both parameters are necessary to describe the fracture process. (orig.) [de

  3. A Standardized Algorithm for Determining the Underlying Cause of Death in HIV Infection as AIDS or non-AIDS Related: Results from the EuroSIDA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS or non......-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the CoDe procedures), local...

  4. The use of INAA for the determination of trace elements, in particular cadmium, in plastics in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1993-01-01

    Many plastic products have relatively short life cycles. Upon final destruction, inorganic additives used for pigmentation, as polymer stabilizer or as flame retarding agent are being released to the environment. In a rapidly increasing way governmental authorities are setting limits to the use of inorganic additives, in particular cadmium, in plastics. INAA has attractive characteristics which may make authorities decide to select it for the control programs in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards. An evaluation is made of the use of INAA for such analysis; analysis protocols, sensitivities, and observed levels of other trace elements are being discussed. (author) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  5. Methods for predicting isochronous stress-strain curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshige, Masanori; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke.

    1976-01-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves show the relation between stress and total strain at a certain temperature with time as a parameter, and they are drawn up from the creep test results at various stress levels at a definite temperature. The concept regarding the isochronous stress-strain curves was proposed by McVetty in 1930s, and has been used for the design of aero-engines. Recently the high temperature characteristics of materials are shown as the isochronous stress-strain curves in the design guide for the nuclear energy equipments and structures used in high temperature creep region. It is prescribed that these curves are used as the criteria for determining design stress intensity or the data for analyzing the superposed effects of creep and fatigue. In case of the isochronous stress-strain curves used for the design of nuclear energy equipments with very long service life, it is impractical to determine the curves directly from the results of long time creep test, accordingly the method of predicting long time stress-strain curves from short time creep test results must be established. The method proposed by the authors, for which the creep constitution equations taking the first and second creep stages into account are used, and the method using Larson-Miller parameter were studied, and it was found that both methods were reliable for the prediction. (Kako, I.)

  6. Automatic processing of isotopic dilution curves obtained by precordial detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verite, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Dilution curves pose two distinct problems: that of their acquisition and that of their processing. A study devoted to the latter aspect only was presented. It was necessary to satisfy two important conditions: the treatment procedure, although applied to a single category of curves (isotopic dilution curves obtained by precordial detection), had to be as general as possible; to allow dissemination of the method the equipment used had to be relatively modest and inexpensive. A simple method, considering the curve processing as a process identification, was developed and should enable the mean heart cavity volume and certain pulmonary circulation parameters to be determined. Considerable difficulties were encountered, limiting the value of the results obtained though not condemning the method itself. The curve processing question raised the problem of their acquisition, i.e. the number of these curves and their meaning. A list of the difficulties encountered is followed by a set of possible solutions, a solution being understood to mean a curve processing combination where the overlapping between the two aspects of the problem is accounted for [fr

  7. Principles governing heart failure therapy re-examined relative to standard evidence-based medicine-driven guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lip-Bun; Chinnappa, Shanmugakumar; Tan, David K H; Hall, Alistair S

    2011-09-01

    Although all aspects of clinical work nowadays are modified by the pervading influence of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and multiplicative guidelines, not many clinicians realize that the underlying premise of EBM-driven guidelines is a particular strain of consequentialist ideology. Subservience to this ideology has transformed modern medical practice, but there is a real risk of distorting good medical practice, of belittling clinical judgement, of disempowering clinicians, and subjecting patients to skewed medical reality and treatment options. With so many heart failure (HF) guidelines issued by various august bodies, it is therefore timely to reappraise principles governing modern HF therapy with a fresh examination of the hierarchy of medical imperatives, the role of alternatives to consequentialism including deontological principles in HF therapy. In addition, other ideology worth re-examining, aside from EBM, are the principle of appropriate definition of HF underlying therapeutic goals and the principle of prioritizing objectives of HF therapy. Even within standard EBM, there are many questions to reconsider: about what types of evidence are admissible, different interpretations of available evidence, emphasizing patient-centered outcome measures instead of randomized controlled trials quantifiable therapeutic outcomes, how to prescribe drugs for prognostic versus symptomatic benefits, and how to deliver HF therapy based on pathophysiological features through mechanistic considerations and not just confined to randomized controlled trials or meta-analytical statistical imperatives. Through re-examination of these fundamental principles of HF therapy, it is hoped that clinicians will be empowered to manage HF patients more holistically and better deliver HF therapies in the best interest of each individual patient.

  8. Fitting fatigue test data with a novel S-N curve using frequentist and Bayesian inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonetti, D.; Maljaars, J.; Snijder, H.H.B.

    2017-01-01

    In design against fatigue, a lower bound stress range vs. endurance curve (S-N curve) is employed to characterize fatigue resistance of plain material and structural details. With respect to the inherent variability of the fatigue life, the S-N curve is related to a certain probability of

  9. Discrimination measures for survival outcomes: connection between the AUC and the predictiveness curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Vivian; Latouche, Aurélien

    2011-03-01

    Finding out biomarkers and building risk scores to predict the occurrence of survival outcomes is a major concern of clinical epidemiology, and so is the evaluation of prognostic models. In this paper, we are concerned with the estimation of the time-dependent AUC--area under the receiver-operating curve--which naturally extends standard AUC to the setting of survival outcomes and enables to evaluate the discriminative power of prognostic models. We establish a simple and useful relation between the predictiveness curve and the time-dependent AUC--AUC(t). This relation confirms that the predictiveness curve is the key concept for evaluating calibration and discrimination of prognostic models. It also highlights that accurate estimates of the conditional absolute risk function should yield accurate estimates for AUC(t). From this observation, we derive several estimators for AUC(t) relying on distinct estimators of the conditional absolute risk function. An empirical study was conducted to compare our estimators with the existing ones and assess the effect of model misspecification--when estimating the conditional absolute risk function--on the AUC(t) estimation. We further illustrate the methodology on the Mayo PBC and the VA lung cancer data sets. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Using Floquet periodicity to easily calculate dispersion curves and wave structures of homogeneous waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Christopher; Rose, Joseph; Shokouhi, Parisa; Lissenden, Clifford

    2018-04-01

    Dispersion curves are essential to any guided-wave-related project. The Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method has become the conventional way to compute dispersion curves for homogeneous waveguides. However, only recently has a general SAFE formulation for commercial and open-source software become available, meaning that until now SAFE analyses have been variable and more time consuming than desirable. Likewise, the Floquet boundary conditions enable analysis of waveguides with periodicity and have been an integral part of the development of metamaterials. In fact, we have found the use of Floquet boundary conditions to be an extremely powerful tool for homogeneous waveguides, too. The nuances of using periodic boundary conditions for homogeneous waveguides that do not exhibit periodicity are discussed. Comparisons between this method and SAFE are made for selected homogeneous waveguide applications. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is used for the results shown, but any standard finite element software that can implement Floquet periodicity (user-defined or built-in) should suffice. Finally, we identify a number of complex waveguides for which dispersion curves can be found with relative ease by using the periodicity inherent to the Floquet boundary conditions.

  11. CfA3: 185 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FROM THE CfA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Bakos, Gaspar; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Calkins, Mike; Cho, Richard; Contreras, Maria; Jha, Saurabh; Matheson, Tom; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Michael Wood-Vasey, W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Bragg, Ann; Briceno, Cesar; Ciupik, Larry; Dendy, Kristi-Concannon

    2009-01-01

    We present multiband photometry of 185 type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), with over 11,500 observations. These were acquired between 2001 and 2008 at the F. L. Whipple Observatory of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). This sample contains the largest number of homogeneously observed and reduced nearby SNe Ia (z ∼< 0.08) published to date. It more than doubles the nearby sample, bringing SN Ia cosmology to the point where systematic uncertainties dominate. Our natural system photometry has a precision of ∼<0.02 mag in BVRIr'i' and ∼<0.04 mag in U for points brighter than 17.5 mag. We also estimate a systematic uncertainty of 0.03 mag in our SN Ia standard system BVRIr'i' photometry and 0.07 mag for U. Comparisons of our standard system photometry with published SN Ia light curves and comparison stars, where available for the same SN, reveal agreement at the level of a few hundredths mag in most cases. We find that 1991bg-like SNe Ia are sufficiently distinct from other SNe Ia in their color and light-curve-shape/luminosity relation that they should be treated separately in light-curve/distance fitter training samples. The CfA3 sample will contribute to the development of better light-curve/distance fitters, particularly in the few dozen cases where near-infrared photometry has been obtained and, together, can help disentangle host-galaxy reddening from intrinsic supernova color, reducing the systematic uncertainty in SN Ia distances due to dust.

  12. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  13. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.

  14. Non-Constant Learning Rates in Retrospective Experience Curve Analyses and their Correlation to Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-16

    A key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters is to estimate future technology costs and in particular the rate of cost reduction versus production volume. A related, critical question is what role should state and federal governments have in advancing energy efficient and renewable energy technologies? This work provides retrospective experience curves and learning rates for several energy-related technologies, each of which have a known history of federal and state deployment programs. We derive learning rates for eight technologies including energy efficient lighting technologies, stationary fuel cell systems, and residential solar photovoltaics, and provide an overview and timeline of historical deployment programs such as state and federal standards and state and national incentive programs for each technology. Piecewise linear regimes are observed in a range of technology experience curves, and public investments or deployment programs are found to be strongly correlated to an increase in learning rate across multiple technologies. A downward bend in the experience curve is found in 5 out of the 8 energy-related technologies presented here (electronic ballasts, magnetic ballasts, compact fluorescent lighting, general service fluorescent lighting, and the installed cost of solar PV). In each of the five downward-bending experience curves, we believe that an increase in the learning rate can be linked to deployment programs to some degree. This work sheds light on the endogenous versus exogenous contributions to technological innovation and highlights the impact of exogenous government sponsored deployment programs. This work can inform future policy investment direction and can shed light on market transformation and technology learning behavior.

  15. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Erdmann; Demetrio Humana; Samuel Franco Domínguez; Lorgio Mercado Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV) distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887) and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required...

  16. Regional flow duration curves for ungauged sites in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Viola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow duration curves are simple and powerful tools to deal with many hydrological and environmental problems related to water quality assessment, water-use assessment and water allocation. Unfortunately the scarcity of streamflow data enables the use of these instruments only for gauged basins. A regional model is developed here for estimating flow duration curves at ungauged basins in Sicily, Italy. Due to the complex ephemeral behavior of the examined region, this study distinguishes dry periods, when flows are zero, from wet periods using a three parameters power law to describe the frequency distribution of flows. A large dataset of streamflows has been analyzed and the parameters of flow duration curves have been derived for about fifty basins. Regional regression equations have been developed to derive flow duration curves starting from morphological basin characteristics.

  17. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  18. Uncertainty and minimum detectable concentrations using relative, absolute and K*0-IAEA standardization for the INAA laboratory of the ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) Laboratory of Egypt Second Training and Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is increasingly requested to perform multi-element analysis to large number of samples from different origins. The INAA laboratory has to demonstrate competence by conforming to appropriate internationally and nationally accepted standards. The objective of this work is to determine the uncertainty budget and sensitivity of the INAA laboratory measurements. Concentrations of 9 elements; Mn, Na, K, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, and Cs, were measured against a certified test sample. Relative, absolute, and Ko-IAEA standardization methods were employed and results compared. The flux was monitored using cadmium covered gold method, and multifoil (gold, nickel and zirconium) method. The combined and expanded uncertainties were estimated. Uncertainty of concentrations ranged between 2-21% depending on the standardization method used. The relative method, giving the lowest uncertainty, produced uncertainty budget between 2 and 11%. The minimum detectable concentration was the lowest for Cs ranging between 0.36 and 0.59 ppb and the highest being for K in the range of 0.32 to 8.64 ppm

  19. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Sakane, Yusuke; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  20. Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles

  1. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  2. Modeling error distributions of growth curve models through Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    Growth curve models are widely used in social and behavioral sciences. However, typical growth curve models often assume that the errors are normally distributed although non-normal data may be even more common than normal data. In order to avoid possible statistical inference problems in blindly assuming normality, a general Bayesian framework is proposed to flexibly model normal and non-normal data through the explicit specification of the error distributions. A simulation study shows when the distribution of the error is correctly specified, one can avoid the loss in the efficiency of standard error estimates. A real example on the analysis of mathematical ability growth data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 is used to show the application of the proposed methods. Instructions and code on how to conduct growth curve analysis with both normal and non-normal error distributions using the the MCMC procedure of SAS are provided.

  3. Observational evidence of dust evolution in galactic extinction curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.zza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Casu, Silvia; Mulas, Giacomo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Zonca, Alberto, E-mail: cecchi-pestellini@astropa.unipa.it, E-mail: silvia@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: gmulas@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: azonca@oa-cagliari.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Strada Prov.le Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-04-10

    Although structural and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbons are known to respond to varying physical conditions, most conventional extinction models are basically curve fits with modest predictive power. We compare an evolutionary model of the physical properties of carbonaceous grain mantles with their determination by homogeneously fitting observationally derived Galactic extinction curves with the same physically well-defined dust model. We find that a large sample of observed Galactic extinction curves are compatible with the evolutionary scenario underlying such a model, requiring physical conditions fully consistent with standard density, temperature, radiation field intensity, and average age of diffuse interstellar clouds. Hence, through the study of interstellar extinction we may, in principle, understand the evolutionary history of the diffuse interstellar clouds.

  4. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  5. GLOBAL AND STRICT CURVE FITTING METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Y.; Mori, S.

    2004-01-01

    To find a global and smooth curve fitting, cubic B­Spline method and gathering­ line methods are investigated. When segmenting and recognizing a contour curve of character shape, some global method is required. If we want to connect contour curves around a singular point like crossing points,

  6. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  7. Holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds: Kuranishi structure

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This paper constructs a Kuranishi structure for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds. To avoid some technicalities of abstract Kuranishi structures, we embed our Kuranishi structure inside a moduli stack of curves. The construction also works for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in any compact symplectic manifold.

  8. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  9. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  10. Comparison of antioxidant potential of volatile oils of syzygium aromaticum and Illicium verum relative to conventionally used standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.; Abbasi, M.A.; Umar, M.I.; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Shahzadi, T.; Khan, K.M.; Ahmad, V.U.

    2011-01-01

    The volatile oils of Syzygium aromaticum Linn. (cloves) and Illicium verum Hook. (star anise) were extracted by steam distillation. The antioxidant potential of these oils was evaluated by four methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay and ferric thiocyanate assay and total phenolics were also determined. The results revealed that scavenging potential of clove volatile oil was more than star anise volatile oil. The IC/sub 50/ of the clove volatile oil was 4.56 +- 1.07 mu g/mL while that of star anise was found to be 120 +- 1.80 mu mL relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), having IC/sub 50/ of 12.1 +- 0.92 mu g/mL. Total antioxidant activity of clove volatile oil was also higher than star anise volatile oil. The FRAP values of clove and star anise volatile oils were 2830 +- 2.14 and 388 +- 1.32 mu g of trolox equivalents (TE) respectively. The total phenolic contents of clove and star anise volatile oils were 934.34 +- 1.6 and 85.36 +- 0.28 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of volatile oil respectively. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by clove volatile oil was found to be 66.63% +- 0.41 while that of star anise was 43.24% +- 0.48. (author)

  11. Inter-examiner reliability of a standardized Ultra-sonographic method for classification of changes related to supraspinatus tendinopathy – a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Hjarnbæk, John

    2015-01-01

    Inter-examiner reliability of a standardized Ultra-sonographic method for classification of changes related to supraspinatus tendinopathy – a pilot study Ingwersen KG1, 2, Hjarbaek J3, Eshøj H1, Larsen CM1, 4, Vobbe J5, Juul-Kristensen B1, 6 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics......, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. 2Physiotherapy Department, Hospital Lillebaelt, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark 3Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal section, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark 4Health Sciences Research Centre, University College Lillebaelt, Odense Denmark 5...... athletes. For optimizing rehabilitation to the different stages of tendinopathy (1) ultra-sonography (US) may be used. Reliability of such method for RT is lacking. Aims. To develop and test inter-examiner reliability of US for classifying RT. Materials and Methods. A three-phased standardized protocol...

  12. Standard practice for qualification of journeyman painters for application of coatings to steel surfaces of safety-related areas in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice provides a standard qualifying method for journeyman painters to verify their proficiency and ability to attain the required quality for application of specified coatings to steel surfaces in safety-related areas in a nuclear facility. Variations or simplifications of the practice set forth herein may be appropriate for special coating work such as maintenance or qualifications of equipment suppliers shop personnel. It is not the intent of this practice to mandate a singular basis for all qualifications. Evaluation of the journeyman painter being qualified in accordance with this practice, shall be by qualified agents as specified in 4.1. Reports shall be prepared as specified in Section 5, and certification as specified in Section 6. It is the intent of this practice to judge only the ability of the journeyman painter to apply specified coatings with the proper tools and equipment. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  13. Understanding Standards and Assessment Policy in Science Education: Relating and Exploring Variations in Policy Implementation by Districts and Teachers in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin John Boyett

    Current literature shows that many science teachers view policies of standards-based and test-based accountability as conflicting with research-based instruction in science education. With societal goals of improving scientific literacy and using science to spur economic growth, improving science education policy becomes especially important. To understand perceived influences of science education policy, this study looked at three questions: 1) How do teachers perceive state science standards and assessment and their influence on curriculum and instruction? 2) How do these policy perspectives vary by district and teacher level demographic and contextual differences? 3) How do district leaders' interpretations of and efforts within these policy realms relate to teachers' perceptions of the policies? To answer these questions, this study used a stratified sample of 53 districts across Wisconsin, with 343 middle school science teachers responding to an online survey; science instructional leaders from each district were also interviewed. Survey results were analyzed using multiple regression modeling, with models generally predicting 8-14% of variance in teacher perceptions. Open-ended survey and interview responses were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results suggested that many teachers saw state testing as limiting use of hands-on pedagogy, while standards were seen more positively. Teachers generally held similar views of the degree of influence of standards and testing regardless of their experience, background in science, credentials, or grade level taught. District SES, size and past WKCE scores had some limited correlations to teachers' views of policy, but teachers' perceptions of district policies and leadership consistently had the largest correlation to their views. District leadership views of these state policies correlated with teachers' views. Implications and future research directions are provided. Keywords: science education, policy

  14. Derivation and Validation of a Risk Standardization Model for Benchmarking Hospital Performance for Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Rumsfeld, John S.; Li, Yan; Jones, Philip G.; Spertus, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Before outcomes-based measures of quality can be used to compare and improve care, they must be risk-standardized to account for variations in patient characteristics. Despite the importance of health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), no risk-standardized models have been developed. Methods and Results We assessed disease-specific HRQL using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire at baseline and 1 year later in 2693 unselected AMI patients from 24 hospitals enrolled in the TRIUMPH registry. Using 57 candidate sociodemographic, economic, and clinical variables present on admission, we developed a parsimonious, hierarchical linear regression model to predict HRQL. Eleven variables were independently associated with poor HRQL after AMI, including younger age, prior CABG, depressive symptoms, and financial difficulties (R2=20%). The model demonstrated excellent internal calibration and reasonable calibration in an independent sample of 1890 AMI patients in a separate registry, although the model slightly over-predicted HRQL scores in the higher deciles. Among the 24 TRIUMPH hospitals, 1-year unadjusted HRQL scores ranged from 67–89. After risk-standardization, HRQL scores variability narrowed substantially (range=79–83), and the group of hospital performance (bottom 20%/middle 60%/top 20%) changed in 14 of the 24 hospitals (58% reclassification with risk-standardization). Conclusions In this predictive model for HRQL after AMI, we identified risk factors, including economic and psychological characteristics, associated with HRQL outcomes. Adjusting for these factors substantially altered the rankings of hospitals as compared with unadjusted comparisons. Using this model to compare risk-standardized HRQL outcomes across hospitals may identify processes of care that maximize this important patient-centered outcome. PMID:24163068

  15. Derivation and validation of a risk standardization model for benchmarking hospital performance for health-related quality of life outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Masoudi, Frederick A; Rumsfeld, John S; Li, Yan; Jones, Philip G; Spertus, John A

    2014-01-21

    Before outcomes-based measures of quality can be used to compare and improve care, they must be risk-standardized to account for variations in patient characteristics. Despite the importance of health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), no risk-standardized models have been developed. We assessed disease-specific HRQL using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire at baseline and 1 year later in 2693 unselected AMI patients from 24 hospitals enrolled in the Translational Research Investigating Underlying disparities in acute Myocardial infarction Patients' Health status (TRIUMPH) registry. Using 57 candidate sociodemographic, economic, and clinical variables present on admission, we developed a parsimonious, hierarchical linear regression model to predict HRQL. Eleven variables were independently associated with poor HRQL after AMI, including younger age, previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, depressive symptoms, and financial difficulties (R(2)=20%). The model demonstrated excellent internal calibration and reasonable calibration in an independent sample of 1890 AMI patients in a separate registry, although the model slightly overpredicted HRQL scores in the higher deciles. Among the 24 TRIUMPH hospitals, 1-year unadjusted HRQL scores ranged from 67-89. After risk-standardization, HRQL score variability narrowed substantially (range=79-83), and the group of hospital performance (bottom 20%/middle 60%/top 20%) changed in 14 of the 24 hospitals (58% reclassification with risk-standardization). In this predictive model for HRQL after AMI, we identified risk factors, including economic and psychological characteristics, associated with HRQL outcomes. Adjusting for these factors substantially altered the rankings of hospitals as compared with unadjusted comparisons. Using this model to compare risk-standardized HRQL outcomes across hospitals may identify processes of care that maximize this important patient

  16. Handbook of elliptic and hyperelliptic curve cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri; Avanzi, Roberto; Doche, Christophe; Lange, Tanja; Nguyen, Kim; Vercauteren, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    … very comprehensive coverage of this vast subject area … a useful and essential treatise for anyone involved in elliptic curve algorithms … this book offers the opportunity to grasp the ECC technology with a diversified and comprehensive perspective. … This book will remain on my shelf for a long time and will land on my desk on many occasions, if only because the coverage of the issues common to factoring and discrete log cryptosystems is excellent.-IACR Book Reviews, June 2011… the book is designed for people who are working in the area and want to learn more about a specific issue. The chapters are written to be relatively independent so that readers can focus on the part of interest for them. Such readers will be grateful for the excellent index and extensive bibliography. … the handbook covers a wide range of topics and will be a valuable reference for researchers in curve-based cryptography. -Steven D. Galbraith, Mathematical Reviews, Issue 2007f.

  17. A systematic review of the management and outcome of ERCP related duodenal perforations using a standardized classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Kelly, Michael Denis; Griffiths, Ewen A; Tabola, Renata; Sartelli, Massimo; Carlini, Luigi; Ghersi, Stefania; Di Saverio, Salomone

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of duodenal perforation after ERCP ranges from 0.09% to 1.67% and mortality up to 8%. This systematic review was registered in Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO. Stapfer classification of ERCP-related duodenal perforations was used. The systematic search yielded 259 articles. Most frequent post-ERCP perforation was Stapfer type II (58.4%), type I second most frequent perforation (17.8%) followed by Stapfer type III in 13.2% and type IV in 10.6%. Rate of NOM was lowest in Stapfer type I perforations (13%), moderate in type III lesions (58.1%) and high in other types of perforations (84.2% in type II and 84.6% in IV). In patients underwent early surgical treatment (24 h from ERCP) interventions performed were more complex. In type I lesions post-operative mortality rate was higher in patients underwent late operation (>24 h). In type I lesions, failure of NOM occurred in 42.8% of patients. In type II failure of NOM occurred in 28.9% of patients and in type III there was failure of NOM in only 11.1%, none in type IV. Postoperative mortality after NOM failure was 75% in type I, 22.5% in type II and none died after surgical treatment for failure of NOM in type III perforations. This systematic review showed that in patients with Stapfer type I lesions, early surgical treatment gives better results, however the opposite seems true in Stapfer III and IV lesions. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  19. The Short- and Long-Run Marginal Cost Curve: A Pedagogical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Robert L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the standard description of the relationship between the long-run marginal cost curve and the short-run marginal cost curve is often misleading and imprecise. Asserts that a sampling of college-level textbooks confirms this confusion. Provides a definition and instructional strategy that can be used to promote student understanding…

  20. Relationship between the curve of Spee and craniofacial variables: A regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Abdelali; Benyahia, Hicham; Azeroual, Mohamed-Faouzi; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this regression analysis was to identify the determining factors, which impact the curve of Spee during its genesis, its therapeutic reconstruction, and its stability, within a continuously evolving craniofacial morphology throughout life. We selected a total of 107 patients, according to the inclusion criteria. A morphological and functional clinical examination was performed for each patient: plaster models, tracing of the curve of Spee, crowding, Angle's classification, overjet and overbite were thus recorded. Then, we made a cephalometric analysis based on the standardized lateral cephalograms. In the sagittal dimension, we measured the values of angles ANB, SNA, SNB, SND, I/i; and the following distances: AoBo, I/NA, i/NB, SE and SL. In the vertical dimension, we measured the values of angles FMA, GoGn/SN, the occlusal plane, and the following distances: SAr, ArD, Ar/Con, Con/Gn, GoPo, HFP, HFA and IF. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software with a significance level of 0.05. Our sample including 107 subjects was composed of 77 female patients (71.3%) and 30 male patients (27.8%) 7 hypodivergent patients (6.5%), 56 hyperdivergent patients (52.3%) and 44 normodivergent patients (41.1%). Patients' mean age was 19.35±5.95 years. The hypodivergent patients presented more pronounced curves of Spee compared to the normodivergent and the hyperdivergent populations; patients in skeletal Class I presented less pronounced curves of Spee compared to patients in skeletal Class II and Class III. These differences were non significant (P>0.05). The curve of Spee was positively and moderately correlated with Angle's classification, overjet, overbite, sellion-articulare distance, and breathing type (P0.05). Seventy five percent (75%) of the hyperdivergent patients with an oral breathing presented an overbite of 3mm, which is quite excessive given the characteristics often admitted for this typology; this parameter could explain the overbite