WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard curve obtained

  1. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  2. Automatic processing of isotopic dilution curves obtained by precordial detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verite, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Dilution curves pose two distinct problems: that of their acquisition and that of their processing. A study devoted to the latter aspect only was presented. It was necessary to satisfy two important conditions: the treatment procedure, although applied to a single category of curves (isotopic dilution curves obtained by precordial detection), had to be as general as possible; to allow dissemination of the method the equipment used had to be relatively modest and inexpensive. A simple method, considering the curve processing as a process identification, was developed and should enable the mean heart cavity volume and certain pulmonary circulation parameters to be determined. Considerable difficulties were encountered, limiting the value of the results obtained though not condemning the method itself. The curve processing question raised the problem of their acquisition, i.e. the number of these curves and their meaning. A list of the difficulties encountered is followed by a set of possible solutions, a solution being understood to mean a curve processing combination where the overlapping between the two aspects of the problem is accounted for [fr

  3. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  4. Exponential models applied to automated processing of radioimmunoassay standard curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, J.F.; Savina, A.; Caroff, J.; Miossec, J.; Legendre, J.M.; Jacolot, G.; Morin, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved computer processing is described for fitting of radio-immunological standard curves by means of an exponential model on a desk-top calculator. This method has been applied to a variety of radioassays and the results are in accordance with those obtained by more sophisticated models [fr

  5. Scinfi, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-01-01

    A code, Scinfi, was developed, written in Basic, to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3 H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3 H and the problem (e.g. 14 C). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14 C. Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have been checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14 C standardized samples. (author)

  6. SCINFI, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-01-01

    A code, SCINFI, was developed, written in BASIC, to compute the efficiency- quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3H and the problem (e.g. 14 C ). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14 c . Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have bean checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14 c standardized samples. (Author)

  7. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  8. Application of Geodetic VLBI Data to Obtaining Long-Term Light Curves for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Masachika

    2010-01-01

    The long-term light curve is important to research on binary black holes and disk instability in AGNs. The light curves have been drawn mainly using single dish data provided by the University of Michigan Radio Observatory and the Metsahovi Radio Observatory. Hence, thus far, we have to research on limited sources. I attempt to draw light curves using VLBI data for those sources that have not been monitored by any observatories with single dish. I developed software, analyzed all geodetic VLBI data available at the IVS Data Centers, and drew the light curves at 8 GHz. In this report, I show the tentative results for two AGNs. I compared two light curves of 4C39.25, which were drawn based on single dish data and on VLBI data. I confirmed that the two light curves were consistent. Furthermore, I succeeded in drawing the light curve of 0454-234 with VLBI data, which has not been monitored by any observatory with single dish. In this report, I suggest that the geodetic VLBI archive data is useful to obtain the long-term light curves at radio bands for astrophysics.

  9. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  10. Methods for fitting of efficiency curves obtained by means of HPGe gamma rays spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanderlei

    2002-01-01

    The present work describes a few methodologies developed for fitting efficiency curves obtained by means of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The interpolated values were determined by simple polynomial fitting and polynomial fitting between the ratio of experimental peak efficiency and total efficiency, calculated by Monte Carlo technique, as a function of gamma-ray energy. Moreover, non-linear fitting has been performed using a segmented polynomial function and applying the Gauss-Marquardt method. For the peak area obtainment different methodologies were developed in order to estimate the background area under the peak. This information was obtained by numerical integration or by using analytical functions associated to the background. One non-calibrated radioactive source has been included in the curve efficiency in order to provide additional calibration points. As a by-product, it was possible to determine the activity of this non-calibrated source. For all fittings developed in the present work the covariance matrix methodology was used, which is an essential procedure in order to give a complete description of the partial uncertainties involved. (author)

  11. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard PEEM set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, O.; Zeppenfeld, P.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary electron images excited by 3 to 4.3 keV electrons are obtained with a standard photoelectron electron emission microscope (PEEM) set up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 o with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF-reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼ -(V 1 + 5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The lateral resolution is in the range of μm. The material contrast obtained in these difference images are discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer. (author)

  12. How to obtain J-R curve from one test on one sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Roland.

    1981-01-01

    Operational definition of J concept is first examined. Then it is shown that conventional methods of experimental determination of J values are based on the following assumption: if the load-deflexion curve is known for one value of the crack length it is possible to know the load-deflexion curve for any value of the crack length. This assumption is generalized with the help of scale functions and formula giving J are deduced. Attention is given to the effect of crack propagation on J values. The same assumption is used to extract the crack length from the load-deflexion curve. As the real crack lengths are known before propagation occurs and at the end of the test, it is possible to achieve a good calibration of the material characteristic [fr

  13. The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Uwe G; Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Jacobsen, Anna L; Sperry, John S; Pratt, R Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The standard centrifuge method has been frequently used to measure vulnerability to xylem cavitation. This method has recently been questioned. It was hypothesized that open vessels lead to exponential vulnerability curves, which were thought to be indicative of measurement artifact. We tested this hypothesis in stems of olive (Olea europea) because its long vessels were recently claimed to produce a centrifuge artifact. We evaluated three predictions that followed from the open vessel artifact hypothesis: shorter stems, with more open vessels, would be more vulnerable than longer stems; standard centrifuge-based curves would be more vulnerable than dehydration-based curves; and open vessels would cause an exponential shape of centrifuge-based curves. Experimental evidence did not support these predictions. Centrifuge curves did not vary when the proportion of open vessels was altered. Centrifuge and dehydration curves were similar. At highly negative xylem pressure, centrifuge-based curves slightly overestimated vulnerability compared to the dehydration curve. This divergence was eliminated by centrifuging each stem only once. The standard centrifuge method produced accurate curves of samples containing open vessels, supporting the validity of this technique and confirming its utility in understanding plant hydraulics. Seven recommendations for avoiding artefacts and standardizing vulnerability curve methodology are provided. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Obtaining DDF Curves of Extreme Rainfall Data Using Bivariate Copula and Frequency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadri, Sara; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2009-01-01

    , situated near Copenhagen in Denmark. For rainfall extracted using method 2, the marginal distribution of depth was found to fit the Generalized Pareto distribution while duration was found to fit the Gamma distribution, using the method of L-moments. The volume was fit with a generalized Pareto...... with duration for a given return period and name them DDF (depth-duration-frequency) curves. The copula approach does not assume the rainfall variables are independent or jointly normally distributed. Rainfall series are extracted in three ways: (1) by maximum mean intensity; (2) by depth and duration...... distribution and the duration was fit with a Pearson type III distribution for rainfall extracted using method 3. The Clayton copula was found to be appropriate for bivariate analysis of rainfall depth and duration for both methods 2 and 3. DDF curves derived using the Clayton copula for depth and duration...

  15. herd levels and standard lactation curves for south african jersey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein. 34.2. 370.7. 148.1. 37.6. 31.3. 482.8. 191.1. 53.8. According to the standard deviations in Table 1, much more variation exists for 305-day yields of. Holstein cows in comparison with Jersey cows, resulting in upper limits of herd levels ranging from 3487.7 kg to more than 11 219.2 kg for adjusted 305-day milk yield, ...

  16. Analysis of RIA standard curve by log-logistic and cubic log-logit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hideo; Kuroda, Akira; Yatabe, Tami; Inaba, Taeko; Chiba, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    In order to improve goodness-of-fit in RIA standard analysis, programs for computing log-logistic and cubic log-logit were written in BASIC using personal computer P-6060 (Olivetti). Iterative least square method of Taylor series was applied for non-linear estimation of logistic and log-logistic. Hear ''log-logistic'' represents Y = (a - d)/(1 + (log(X)/c)sup(b)) + d As weights either 1, 1/var(Y) or 1/σ 2 were used in logistic or log-logistic and either Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 , Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /var(Y), or Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /σ 2 were used in quadratic or cubic log-logit. The term var(Y) represents squares of pure error and σ 2 represents estimated variance calculated using a following equation log(σ 2 + 1) = log(A) + J log(y). As indicators for goodness-of-fit, MSL/S sub(e)sup(2), CMD% and WRV (see text) were used. Better regression was obtained in case of alpha-fetoprotein by log-logistic than by logistic. Cortisol standard curve was much better fitted with cubic log-logit than quadratic log-logit. Predicted precision of AFP standard curve was below 5% in log-logistic in stead of 8% in logistic analysis. Predicted precision obtained using cubic log-logit was about five times lower than that with quadratic log-logit. Importance of selecting good models in RIA data processing was stressed in conjunction with intrinsic precision of radioimmunoassay system indicated by predicted precision. (author)

  17. Mathematics of quantitative kinetic PCR and the application of standard curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, R G; Côté, C

    2003-08-15

    Fluorescent monitoring of DNA amplification is the basis of real-time PCR, from which target DNA concentration can be determined from the fractional cycle at which a threshold amount of amplicon DNA is produced. Absolute quantification can be achieved using a standard curve constructed by amplifying known amounts of target DNA. In this study, the mathematics of quantitative PCR are examined in detail, from which several fundamental aspects of the threshold method and the application of standard curves are illustrated. The construction of five replicate standard curves for two pairs of nested primers was used to examine the reproducibility and degree of quantitative variation using SYBER Green I fluorescence. Based upon this analysis the application of a single, well- constructed standard curve could provide an estimated precision of +/-6-21%, depending on the number of cycles required to reach threshold. A simplified method for absolute quantification is also proposed, in which quantitative scale is determined by DNA mass at threshold.

  18. Obtainment of cerium dioxide for use as spectrochemical standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Hespanhol, E.C.B.; Abrao, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method for cerium separation and purification. Cerium is previously precipitated with N H 3 /air/H 2 O 2 system in a mixed chlorides solution obtained from Brazilian monazite treatment. The cerium fraction as cerium chloride is run down throughout a strong cationic resin bed and then the rare earth impurities separation is done by elution of the resin with separation ammonium salt of EDTA. None retainer ion is used in the purification technique by ion exchange. (author)

  19. SCINFI, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting; SCINFI, un programa para calcular la curva de calibracion eficiencia-extincion en centelleo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-07-01

    A code, SCINFI, was developed, written in BASIC, to compute the efficiency- quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3H and the problem (e.g. 14{sup C}). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14{sup c}. Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have bean checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14{sup c} standardized samples. (Author)

  20. Historical Cost Curves for Hydrogen Masers and Cesium Beam Frequency and Timing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.; Moore, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Historical cost curves were developed for hydrogen masers and cesium beam standards used for frequency and timing calibration in the Deep Space Network. These curves may be used to calculate the cost of future hydrogen masers or cesium beam standards in either future or current dollars. The cesium beam standards are decreasing in cost by about 2.3% per year since 1966, and hydrogen masers are decreasing by about 0.8% per year since 1978 relative to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration inflation index.

  1. Research on Standard and Automatic Judgment of Press-fit Curve of Locomotive Wheel-set Based on AAR Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xiao, Jun; Gao, Dong Jun; Zong, Shu Yu; Li, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    In the production of the Association of American Railroads (AAR) locomotive wheel-set, the press-fit curve is the most important basis for the reliability of wheel-set assembly. In the past, Most of production enterprises mainly use artificial detection methods to determine the quality of assembly. There are cases of miscarriage of justice appear. For this reason, the research on the standard is carried out. And the automatic judgment of press-fit curve is analysed and designed, so as to provide guidance for the locomotive wheel-set production based on AAR standard.

  2. Characteristics of time-activity curves obtained from dynamic 11C-methionine PET in common primary brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yuichi; Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Yano, Hirohito; Ikegame, Yuka; Kawasaki, Tomohiro; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Takashi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iwama, Toru

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether dynamic PET with 11 C-methionine (MET) (MET-PET) is useful in the diagnosis of brain tumors. One hundred sixty patients with brain tumors (139 gliomas, 9 meningiomas, 4 hemangioblastomas and 8 primary central nervous system lymphomas [PCNSL]) underwent dynamic MET-PET with a 3-dimensional acquisition mode, and the maximum tumor MET-standardized uptake value (MET-SUV) was measured consecutively to construct a time-activity curve (TAC). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated from the time-to-peak (TTP) and the slope of the curve in the late phase (SLOPE). The TAC patterns of MET-SUVs (MET-TACs) could be divided into four characteristic types when MET dynamics were analyzed by dividing the MET-TAC into three phases. MET-SUVs were significantly higher in early and late phases in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma and the normal frontal cortex (P dynamic MET-PET study could be helpful in the non-invasive discrimination of brain tumor subtypes, in particular gliomas.

  3. SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1985-07-01

    A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3{sup H} and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3{sup H} and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14{sup C}. The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1985-01-01

    A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3 H and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3 H and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14 C . The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs

  5. Nonlinear method for including the mass uncertainty of standards and the system measurement errors in the fitting of calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; McClure, J.W.; Howell, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    A sophisticated nonlinear multiparameter fitting program was used to produce a best fit calibration curve for the response of an x-ray fluorescence analyzer to uranium nitrate, freeze dried, 0.2% accurate, gravimetric standards. The program is based on unconstrained minimization subroutine, VA02A. The program considers the mass values of the gravimetric standards as parameters to be fit along with the normal calibration curve parameters. The fitting procedure weights with the system errors and the mass errors in a consistent way. The resulting best fit calibration curve parameters reflect the fact that the masses of the standard samples are measured quantities with a known error. Error estimates for the calibration curve parameters can be obtained from the curvature of the ''Chi-Squared Matrix'' or from error relaxation techniques. It was shown that nondispersive XRFA of 0.1 to 1 mg freeze-dried UNO 3 can have an accuracy of 0.2% in 1000 s. 5 figures

  6. Relative level populations in S VI after beam-foil excitation, obtained from ANDC analyses of measured decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the relative population of the levels 3p, 3d, 4d, 5d, 4f, 5g, 6g, 6h, 7h, 7i, 8i and 8k in Na-like sulfur, S VI, after beam-foil excitation at an energy of 3 MeV. For the first time the ANDC technique has been used to obtain the relative efficiency calibration of the detection system at discrete points in the wavelength interval 400-5000 A, from the analyses of measured decay curves. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. The populations obtained with this new technique are compared to previous measurements in multiply ionized atoms. The preferential population of the 3p and 3d levels observed in other Na-like ions is now accurately established. For the higher lying levels an almost constant population is observed. (Auth.)

  7. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  8. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  9. Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.4901 - Obtaining standard and optional forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.49-Forms § 101-39.4901 Obtaining standard and optional... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining standard and optional forms. 101-39.4901 Section 101-39.4901 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  11. Use of a non-linear method for including the mass uncertainty of gravimetric standards and system measurement errors in the fitting of calibration curves for XRFA freeze-dried UNO3 standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; McClure, J.W.; Howell, R.H.

    1978-05-01

    A sophisticated nonlinear multiparameter fitting program was used to produce a best fit calibration curve for the response of an x-ray fluorescence analyzer to uranium nitrate, freeze dried, 0.2% accurate, gravimetric standards. The program is based on unconstrained minimization subroutine, VA02A. The program considers the mass values of the gravimetric standards as parameters to be fit along with the normal calibration curve parameters. The fitting procedure weights with the system errors and the mass errors in a consistent way. The resulting best fit calibration curve parameters reflect the fact that the masses of the standard samples are measured quantities with a known error. Error estimates for the calibration curve parameters can be obtained from the curvature of the ''Chi-Squared Matrix'' or from error relaxation techniques. It was shown that nondispersive XRFA of 0.1 to 1 mg freeze-dried UNO 3 can have an accuracy of 0.2% in 1000 s

  12. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  14. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  15. Neck Muscle Moment Arms Obtained In-Vivo from MRI: Effect of Curved and Straight Modeled Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, Bethany L; Vasavada, Anita N

    2017-08-01

    Musculoskeletal models of the cervical spine commonly represent neck muscles with straight paths. However, straight lines do not best represent the natural curvature of muscle paths in the neck, because the paths are constrained by bone and soft tissue. The purpose of this study was to estimate moment arms of curved and straight neck muscle paths using different moment arm calculation methods: tendon excursion, geometric, and effective torque. Curved and straight muscle paths were defined for two subject-specific cervical spine models derived from in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRI). Modeling neck muscle paths with curvature provides significantly different moment arm estimates than straight paths for 10 of 15 neck muscles (p straight lines to model muscle paths can lead to overestimating neck extension moment. However, moment arm methods for curved paths should be investigated further, as different methods of calculating moment arm can provide different estimates.

  16. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery in learning curve: Role of implementation of a standardized technique and recovery protocol. A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Luglio

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Proper laparoscopic colorectal surgery is safe and leads to excellent results in terms of recovery and short term outcomes, even in a learning curve setting. Key factors for better outcomes and shortening the learning curve seem to be the adoption of a standardized technique and training model along with the strict supervision of an expert colorectal surgeon.

  17. Standardized Percentile Curves of Body Mass Index of Northeast Iranian Children Aged 25 to 60 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdadi, Maryam; Safarian, Mohammad; Doosti, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Growth charts are widely used to assess children's growth status and can provide a trajectory of growth during early important months of life. Racial differences necessitate using local growth charts. This study aimed to provide standardized growth curves of body mass index (BMI) for children living in northeast Iran. Methods A total of 23730 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 25 to 60 months recruited for 20 days from those attending community clinics for routine health checks. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained health staff using WHO methodology. The LMSP method with maximum penalized likelihood, the Generalized Additive Models, the Box-Cox power exponential distribution distribution, Akaike Information Criteria and Generalized Akaike Criteria with penalty equal to 3 [GAIC(3)], and Worm plot and Q-tests as goodness of fit tests were used to construct the centile reference charts. Findings The BMI centile curves for boys and girls aged 25 to 60 months were drawn utilizing a population of children living in northeast Iran. Conclusion The results of the current study demonstrate the possibility of preparation of local growth charts and their importance in evaluating children's growth. Also their differences, relative to those prepared by global references, reflect the necessity of preparing local charts in future studies using longitudinal data. PMID:23056770

  18. Status on the selection and development of an embrittlement trend curve to use in ASTM standard guide E900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.; Brian Hall, J.; Server, W.; Lucon, E.; Erickson, M.; Stoller, R.

    2015-01-01

    ASTM E900-07, Standard Guide for Predicting Radiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shift in Reactor Vessel Materials, includes an embrittlement trend curve. The trend curve can be used to predict the effect of neutron irradiation on the embrittlement of ferritic pressure vessel steels, as quantified by the shift in the Charpy V-Notch transition curve at 41 Joules of absorbed energy (ΔT 41J ). The current E900 trend curve was first adopted in the 2002 revision. In 2011 ASTM Subcommittee E10.02 undertook an extensive effort to evaluate the adequacy of the E900 trend curve for continued use. This paper summarizes the current status of this effort, which has produced a trend curve calibrated using a database of over 1800 ΔT 41J values from the light water reactor surveillance programs in thirteen countries. (authors)

  19. The 1-loop effective potential for the Standard Model in curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Nurmi, Sami; Rajantie, Arttu; Stopyra, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    The renormalisation group improved Standard Model effective potential in an arbitrary curved spacetime is computed to one loop order in perturbation theory. The loop corrections are computed in the ultraviolet limit, which makes them independent of the choice of the vacuum state and allows the derivation of the complete set of β-functions. The potential depends on the spacetime curvature through the direct non-minimal Higgs-curvature coupling, curvature contributions to the loop diagrams, and through the curvature dependence of the renormalisation scale. Together, these lead to significant curvature dependence, which needs to be taken into account in cosmological applications, which is demonstrated with the example of vacuum stability in de Sitter space.

  20. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenberg, M.; Poquillon, D.; Pilvin, P.; Grosjean, C.; Cloué, J.M.; Feaugas, X.

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of β = σ zz /σ θθ , σ zz and σ θθ being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < β < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence

  1. Obtaining the conversion curve of CT numbers to electron density from the effective energy of the CT using the dummy SEFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Moreno Saiz, E. M.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Caudepon Moreno, F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain the conversion curve of Hounsfield units (A) versus electron densities using a mannequin with different tissue equivalent materials. This provides for the effective energy beam CT and is used to characterize the linear coefficients of absorption of different materials that comprise the dummy.

  2. Shock Hugoniot and temperature data for polystyrene obtained with quartz standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, N.; Kimura, T.; Miyanishi, K.; Endo, T.; Sano, T.; Shigemori, K.; Azechi, H.; Hironaka, Y.; Kadono, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Otani, K.; Shiroshita, A.; Sunahara, A.; Ikoma, M.; Hori, Y.; Vinci, T.; Ree, F. H.; Iwamoto, A.

    2009-01-01

    Equation-of-state data, not only pressure and density but also temperature, for polystyrene (CH) are obtained up to 510 GPa. The region investigated in this work corresponds to an intermediate region, bridging a large gap between available gas-gun data below 60 GPa and laser shock data above 500 GPa. The Hugoniot parameters and shock temperature were simultaneously determined by using optical velocimeters and pyrometers as the diagnostic tools and the α-quartz as a new standard material. The CH Hugoniot obtained tends to become stiffer than a semiempirical chemical theoretical model predictions at ultrahigh pressures but is consistent with other models and available experimental data.

  3. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard photoelectron emission microscope set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, Oswald; Zeppenfeld, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The first results of secondary electron images excited by 3-4.3 keV electrons are presented. The images are obtained with a standard FOCUS-PEEM set-up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 deg. with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼-(V 1 +5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The material contrast obtained in these difference images is discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer

  4. 7 CFR 42.141 - Obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... sampling plan for normal condition of container inspection from Table I or Table I-A of § 42.109. (b) For a... procedures. For example, let's assume the lot size is 6,001 to 12,000 containers, and we use the single...

  5. Evaluation of pyrolysis curves for volatile elements in aqueous standards and carbon-containing matrices in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, B. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.t.c.deloos-vollebregt@tudelft.nl

    2008-07-15

    Pyrolysis curves in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) have been compared for As, Se and Pb in lobster hepatopancreas certified reference material using Pd/Mg as the modifier. The ET AAS pyrolysis curves confirm that the analytes are not lost from the graphite furnace up to a pyrolysis temperature of 800 deg. C. Nevertheless, a downward slope of the pyrolysis curve was observed for these elements in the biological material using ETV-ICP-MS. This could be related to a gain of sensitivity at low pyrolysis temperatures due to the matrix, which can act as carrier and/or promote changes in the plasma ionization equilibrium. Experiments with the addition of ascorbic acid to the aqueous standards confirmed that the higher intensities obtained in ETV-ICP-MS are related to the presence of organic compounds in the slurry. Pyrolysis curves for As, Se and Pb in coal and coal fly ash were also investigated using the same Pd/Mg modifier. Carbon intensities were measured in all samples using different pyrolysis temperatures. It was observed that pyrolysis curves for the three analytes in all slurry samples were similar to the corresponding graphs that show the carbon intensity for the same slurries for pyrolysis temperatures from 200 deg. C up to 1000 deg. C.

  6. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  7. Methods for fitting of efficiency curves obtained by means of HPGe gamma rays spectrometers; Metodos de ajuste de curvas de eficiencia obtidas por meio de espectrometros de HPGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Vanderlei

    2002-07-01

    The present work describes a few methodologies developed for fitting efficiency curves obtained by means of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The interpolated values were determined by simple polynomial fitting and polynomial fitting between the ratio of experimental peak efficiency and total efficiency, calculated by Monte Carlo technique, as a function of gamma-ray energy. Moreover, non-linear fitting has been performed using a segmented polynomial function and applying the Gauss-Marquardt method. For the peak area obtainment different methodologies were developed in order to estimate the background area under the peak. This information was obtained by numerical integration or by using analytical functions associated to the background. One non-calibrated radioactive source has been included in the curve efficiency in order to provide additional calibration points. As a by-product, it was possible to determine the activity of this non-calibrated source. For all fittings developed in the present work the covariance matrix methodology was used, which is an essential procedure in order to give a complete description of the partial uncertainties involved. (author)

  8. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  9. Wright meets Markowitz: How standard portfolio theory changes when assets are technologies following experience curves

    OpenAIRE

    Way, Rupert; Lafond, François; Farmer, J. Doyne; Lillo, Fabrizio; Panchenko, Valentyn

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers how to optimally allocate investments in a portfolio of competing technologies. We introduce a simple model representing the underlying trade-off - between investing enough effort in any one project to spur rapid progress, and diversifying effort over many projects simultaneously to hedge against failure. We use stochastic experience curves to model the idea that investing more in a technology reduces its unit costs, and we use a mean-variance objective function to unders...

  10. Standardization of I-125 solution by extrapolation of an efficiency wave obtained by coincidence X-(X-γ) counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.

    1989-01-01

    The activity concentration of 125 I was determined by X-(X-α) coincidence counting method and efficiency extrapolation curve. The measurement system consists of 2 thin NaI(T1) scintillation detectors which are horizontally movable on a track. The efficiency curve is obtained by symmetricaly changing the distance between the source and the detectors and the activity is determined by applying a linear efficiency extrapolation curve. All sum-coincidence events are included between 10 and 100 KeV window counting and the main source of uncertainty is coming from poor counting statistic around zero efficiency. The consistence of results with other methods shows that this technique can be applied to photon cascade emitters and are not discriminating by the detectors. It has been also determined the 35,5 KeV gamma-ray emission probability of 125 I by using a Gamma-X type high purity germanium detector. (author) [pt

  11. A simple preparation of calibration curve standards of 134Cs and 137Cs by serial dilution of a standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two sets of calibration standards for 134 Cs and 137 Cs were prepared by small serial dilution of a natural matrix standard reference material, IAEA-154 whey powder. The first set was intended to screen imported milk powders which were suspected to be contaminated with 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Their concentration ranged from 40 to 400 Bq/kg. The other set of calibration standards was prepared to measure the environmental levels of 137 Cs in commercial Venezuelan milk powders. Their concentration ranged from 3 to 10 Bq/kg of 137 Cs. The accuracy of these calibration curves was checked by IAEA-152 and A-14 milk powders. Their measured values were in good agreement with their certified values. Finally, it is shown that these preparation techniques using serial dilution of a standard reference material were simple, rapid, precise, accurate and cost-effective. (author) 5 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Determination of the saturation curve of a primary standard for low energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Poledna, Roberto; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.

    2003-01-01

    Thr free air is the well recognized as the primary standard for the measurement of kerma in the air due to his characteristics to perform the absolute measurements of that entity according to definitions. Therefore, the Institute for Radioprotection and dosimetry - IRD, Brazil used for his implantation a free air cylindrical ionization chamber. Initially, a mechanical characterization was performed for verification as a primary standard. This paper will proceed a full detailed description the point operation of 2000 V found for that chamber and her saturation coefficient

  14. Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated.

  15. DAG expression: high-throughput gene expression analysis of real-time PCR data using standard curves for relative quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ballester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR is still the gold-standard technique for gene-expression quantification. Recent technological advances of this method allow for the high-throughput gene-expression analysis, without the limitations of sample space and reagent used. However, non-commercial and user-friendly software for the management and analysis of these data is not available. RESULTS: The recently developed commercial microarrays allow for the drawing of standard curves of multiple assays using the same n-fold diluted samples. Data Analysis Gene (DAG Expression software has been developed to perform high-throughput gene-expression data analysis using standard curves for relative quantification and one or multiple reference genes for sample normalization. We discuss the application of DAG Expression in the analysis of data from an experiment performed with Fluidigm technology, in which 48 genes and 115 samples were measured. Furthermore, the quality of our analysis was tested and compared with other available methods. CONCLUSIONS: DAG Expression is a freely available software that permits the automated analysis and visualization of high-throughput qPCR. A detailed manual and a demo-experiment are provided within the DAG Expression software at http://www.dagexpression.com/dage.zip.

  16. Construction of the World Health Organization child growth standards: Selection of methods for attained growth curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghi, E.; Onis, M. de; Garza, C.; Broeck, J. van den; Frongillo, E.A.; Grummer-Strawn, L.; Buuren, S. van; Pan, H.; Molinari, L.; Martorell, R.; Onyango, A.W.; Martines, J.C.; Pinol, A.; Siyam, A.; Victoria, C.G.; Bhan, M.K.; Araújo, C.L.; Lartey, A.; Owusu, W.B.; Bhandari, N.; Norum, K.R.; Bjoerneboe, G.-E.Aa.; Mohamed, A.J.; Dewey, K.G.; Belbase, K.; Chumlea, C.; Cole, T.; Shrimpton, R.; Albernaz, E.; Tomasi, E.; Cássia Fossati da Silveira, R. de; Nader, G.; Sagoe-Moses, I.; Gomez, V.; Sagoe-Moses, C.; Taneja, S.; Rongsen, T.; Chetia, J.; Sharma, P.; Bahl, R.; Baerug, A.; Tufte, E.; Alasfoor, D.; Prakash, N.S.; Mabry, R.M.; Al Rajab, H.J.; Helmi, S.A.; Nommsen-Rivers, L.A.; Cohen, R.J.; Heinig, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with a number of research institutions worldwide, is developing new child growth standards. As part of a broad consultative process for selecting the best statistical methods, WHO convened a group of statisticians and child growth experts to

  17. Using of residential load curves obtained for determination of the load diversity, and loading of distribution transformers; Utilizacao de curvas de carga de consumidores industriais medidas para determinacao de diversidade de carga, e carregamento de transformadores de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Eduardo Luiz; Jardini, Jose Antonio

    1996-07-01

    This work presents some applications of the residential loads, obtained from measurements conducted by the electric power utilities in the state of Sao Paulo , Brazil. During the first application, curve of coincidence of load peaks occurrence, as function of the number of consumers simultaneously connected to a specific residential distribution transformer. This curve provides a information on the number of consumers presenting coincident load peaks coincident relative to the total numbers of consumers connected to the distribution transformer. Those curves allow to obtain the diversity curves. The second application focused the calculation of the distribution transformer life reduction.

  18. Monitoring pulmonary function with superimposed pulmonary gas exchange curves from standard analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Harvey A; Noe, Frances E; Szalados, James E; Goodrich, Michael D; Busby, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    A repetitive graphic display of the single breath pulmonary function can indicate changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology brought on by clinical events. Parallel advances in computer technology and monitoring make real-time, single breath pulmonary function clinically practicable. We describe a system built from a commercially available airway gas monitor and off the shelf computer and data-acquisition hardware. Analog data for gas flow rate, O2, and CO2 concentrations are introduced into a computer through an analog-to-digital conversion board. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) are calculated for each breath. Inspired minus expired concentrations for O2 and CO2 are displayed simultaneously with the expired gas flow rate curve for each breath. Dead-space and alveolar ventilation are calculated for each breath and readily appreciated from the display. Graphs illustrating the function of the system are presented for the following clinical scenarios; upper airway obstruction, bronchospasm, bronchopleural fistula, pulmonary perfusion changes and inadequate oxygen delivery. This paper describes a real-time, single breath pulmonary monitoring system that displays three parameters graphed against time: expired flow rate, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production. This system allows for early and rapid recognition of treatable conditions that may lead to adverse events without any additional patient measurements or invasive procedures. Monitoring systems similar to the one described in this paper may lead to a higher level of patient safety without any additional patient risk.

  19. Novel isotopic N, N-Dimethyl Leucine (iDiLeu) Reagents Enable Absolute Quantification of Peptides and Proteins Using a Standard Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tyler; Lietz, Christopher B.; Xiang, Feng; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Absolute quantification of protein targets using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a key component of candidate biomarker validation. One popular method combines multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a triple quadrupole instrument with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) for absolute quantification (AQUA). LC-MRM AQUA assays are sensitive and specific, but they are also expensive because of the cost of synthesizing stable isotope peptide standards. While the chemical modification approach using mass differential tags for relative and absolute quantification (mTRAQ) represents a more economical approach when quantifying large numbers of peptides, these reagents are costly and still suffer from lower throughput because only two concentration values per peptide can be obtained in a single LC-MS run. Here, we have developed and applied a set of five novel mass difference reagents, isotopic N, N-dimethyl leucine (iDiLeu). These labels contain an amine reactive group, triazine ester, are cost effective because of their synthetic simplicity, and have increased throughput compared with previous LC-MS quantification methods by allowing construction of a four-point standard curve in one run. iDiLeu-labeled peptides show remarkably similar retention time shifts, slightly lower energy thresholds for higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation, and high quantification accuracy for trypsin-digested protein samples (median errors <15%). By spiking in an iDiLeu-labeled neuropeptide, allatostatin, into mouse urine matrix, two quantification methods are validated. The first uses one labeled peptide as an internal standard to normalize labeled peptide peak areas across runs (<19% error), whereas the second enables standard curve creation and analyte quantification in one run (<8% error).

  20. A comparison of oxygen saturation measurements obtained from a 'blue sensor' with a standard sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Isabel E; Dawson, Jennifer A; Donath, Susan M; Davis, Peter G

    2011-10-01

    The study aims to investigate pulse oximetry measurements from a 'blue' pulse oximeter sensor against measurements from a 'standard' pulse oximeter sensor in newly born infants. Immediately after birth, both sensors were attached to the infant, one to each foot. SpO₂ measurements were recorded simultaneously from each sensor for 10 min. Agreement between pairs of SpO₂ measurements were calculated using Bland-Altman analysis. Thirty-one infants were studied. There was good correlation between simultaneous SpO₂ measurements from both sensors (r² = 0.75). However, the mean difference between 'blue' and 'standard' sensors was -1.6%, with wide 95% limits of agreement +18.4 to -21.6%. The range of mean difference between sensors from each infant ranged from -20 to +20. The mean difference between the blue and standard sensor SpO₂ measurements is not clinically important. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. A three-parameter langmuir-type model for fitting standard curves of sandwich enzyme immunoassays with special attention to the α-fetoprotein assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortlandt, W.; Endeman, H.J.; Hoeke, J.O.O.

    In a simplified approach to the reaction kinetics of enzyme-linked immunoassays, a Langmuir-type equation y = [ax/(b + x)] + c was derived. This model proved to be superior to logit-log and semilog models in the curve-fitting of standard curves. An assay for α-fetoprotein developed in our laboratory

  2. Obtaining variances from the treatment standards of the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) [40 CFR 268] impose specific requirements for treatment of RCRA hazardous wastes prior to disposal. Before the LDRs, many hazardous wastes could be land disposed at an appropriately designed and permitted facility without undergoing treatment. Thus, the LDRs constitute a major change in the regulations governing hazardous waste. EPA does not regulate the radioactive component of radioactive mixed waste (RMW). However, the hazardous waste component of an RMW is subject to RCRA LDR regulations. DOE facilities that manage hazardous wastes (including radioactive mixed wastes) may have to alter their waste-management practices to comply with the regulations. The purpose of this document is to aid DOE facilities and operations offices in determining (1) whether a variance from the treatment standard should be sought and (2) which type (treatability or equivalency) of petition is appropriate. The document also guides the user in preparing the petition. It shall be noted that the primary responsibility for the development of the treatability petition lies with the generator of the waste. 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  4. An Advanced Encryption Standard Powered Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography for RFID, Proven on WISP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaauldin Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information in patients’ medical histories is subject to various security and privacy concerns. Meanwhile, any modification or error in a patient’s medical data may cause serious or even fatal harm. To protect and transfer this valuable and sensitive information in a secure manner, radio-frequency identification (RFID technology has been widely adopted in healthcare systems and is being deployed in many hospitals. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication protocol for RFID tags based on elliptic curve cryptography and advanced encryption standard. Unlike existing authentication protocols, which only send the tag ID securely, the proposed protocol could also send the valuable data stored in the tag in an encrypted pattern. The proposed protocol is not simply a theoretical construct; it has been coded and tested on an experimental RFID tag. The proposed scheme achieves mutual authentication in just two steps and satisfies all the essential security requirements of RFID-based healthcare systems.

  5. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery in learning curve: Role of implementation of a standardized technique and recovery protocol. A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglio, Gaetano; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Tarquini, Rachele; Giglio, Mariano Cesare; Sollazzo, Viviana; Esposito, Emanuela; Spadarella, Emanuela; Peltrini, Roberto; Liccardo, Filomena; Bucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the proven benefits, laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still under utilized among surgeons. A steep learning is one of the causes of its limited adoption. Aim of the study is to determine the feasibility and morbidity rate after laparoscopic colorectal surgery in a single institution, “learning curve” experience, implementing a well standardized operative technique and recovery protocol. Methods The first 50 patients treated laparoscopically were included. All the procedures were performed by a trainee surgeon, supervised by a consultant surgeon, according to the principle of complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation or TME. Patients underwent a fast track recovery programme. Recovery parameters, short-term outcomes, morbidity and mortality have been assessed. Results Type of resections: 20 left side resections, 8 right side resections, 14 low anterior resection/TME, 5 total colectomy and IRA, 3 total panproctocolectomy and pouch. Mean operative time: 227 min; mean number of lymph-nodes: 18.7. Conversion rate: 8%. Mean time to flatus: 1.3 days; Mean time to solid stool: 2.3 days. Mean length of hospital stay: 7.2 days. Overall morbidity: 24%; major morbidity (Dindo–Clavien III): 4%. No anastomotic leak, no mortality, no 30-days readmission. Conclusion Proper laparoscopic colorectal surgery is safe and leads to excellent results in terms of recovery and short term outcomes, even in a learning curve setting. Key factors for better outcomes and shortening the learning curve seem to be the adoption of a standardized technique and training model along with the strict supervision of an expert colorectal surgeon. PMID:25859386

  6. Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the West - when can satisfactory results be obtained? A single-operator learning curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychalski, Michał; Skulimowski, Aleksander; Dziki, Adam; Saito, Yutaka

    2017-12-01

    Up to date we lack a detailed description of the colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) learning curve, that would represent the experience of the Western center. The aim of this study was to define the critical points of the learning curve and to draw up lesions qualification guidelines tailored to the endoscopists experience. We have carried out a single center prospective study. Between June 2013 and December 2016, 228 primary colorectal lesions were managed by ESD procedure. In order to create a learning curve model and to carry out the analysis the cases were divided into six periods, each consisting of 38 cases. The overall en bloc resection rate was 79.39%. The lowest en bloc resection rate (52.36%) was observed in the first period. After completing 76 procedures, the resection rate surged to 86% and it was accompanied by the significant increase in the mean procedure speed of ≥9 cm 2 /h. Lesions localization and diameter had a signification impact on the outcomes. After 76 procedures, en bloc resection rate of 90.9 and 90.67% were achieved for the left side of colon and rectum, respectively. In the right side of colon statistically significant lower resection rate of 67.57% was observed. We have proved that in the setting of the Western center, colorectal ESD can yield excellent results. It seems that the key to the success during the learning period is 'tailoring' lesions qualification guidelines to the experience of the endoscopist, as lesions diameter and localization highly influence the outcomes.

  7. Micro distillation of crude oil to obtain TBP (True Boiling Points) curve; Micro destilacao de petroleo para obtencao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Maria de Lourdes S.P.; Mendes, Luana de Jesus [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS and others petroleum companies adopt the ASTM norms as reference method for oil distillation, ASTM D2892 (2005) that uses columns with 14 to 18 theoretical plates and the ASTM D 5236 (2003) , that distills mixture of heavy hydrocarbons with boiling point over 150 deg C. The result of these two distillations is the TBP (True Boiling Point) curve that is the main tool to define the yield of oil derivatives, the 'royalties' payment, the oil price for commercialization and the logistic support of oil location or in new plants projects of distillation and optimization studies. This procedure has some limitations as the volume sample, at least 1L, and the time of distillation, 2 to 4 days. The objective of this work is to propose a new alternative to attain de PEV curve, developing a new methodology using micro scale distillation that uses a more efficient column than the conventional method. Graphics of both methods were created and the results between the conventional and the micro distillation received statistical treatment to prove the equivalence between them. (author)

  8. Stereotaxic core needle biopsy of breast microcalcifications obtained using a standard mammography table with an add-on unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, S.E.; Taves, D.H.; McCurdy, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    To demonstrate the reliability of stereotaxic biopsy of indeterminate microcalcifications using a standard mammography table with an add-on unit. In 121 cases of indeterminate microcalcifications, core biopsy was performed using a standard mammography table with an add-on stereotaxic unit. Microcalcifications were identified on radiography of core specimens. Microcalcifications and a definitive histologic diagnosis were obtained in 112 core biopsies (92.6%), with no significant complications. In 23 lesions frank malignancy was diagnosed, and all of these diagnoses were confirmed on surgery. Pathologic examination suggested carcinoma in 4 lesions, and open biopsy confirmed malignancy in 3 of these cases. Four lesions showed atypical ductal hyperplasia. Benign disease was diagnosed in 81 lesions, of which 78 remained stable on mammographic follow-up (mean 16 months later) and 3 were subjected to surgical biopsy (of which 1 was malignant and 2 were benign). Nine cases were technically unsatisfactory because microcalcifications were not sampled. Stereotaxic core biopsy performed with an add-on unit is a safe and reliable technique for biopsy of indeterminate microcalcifications. For successful biopsy, microcalcifications must be harvested. Pathologic results should be correlated with mammographic findings. The accuracy rate compares favourably with results reported using prone biopsy tables. In an era of cost containment, this alternative to prone biopsy tables could result m significant savings in terms of capital investment and use of hospital rooms. In this study, surgical biopsy could have been avoided in 64.5% of cases. (author)

  9. Are microbubbles free flowing tracers through the Myocardium? Comparison of indicator-dilution curves obtained from dye dilution and echo contrast using harmonic power Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, K; Schlosser, T; Pohl, C; Bimmel, D; Wietasch, G; Hoeft, A; Likungu, J; Vahlhaus, C; Kuntz, S; Nanda, N C; Becher, H; Lüderitz, B

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic power Doppler imaging (H-PDI) has been introduced into the field of contrast echocardiography as a contrast-specific imaging modality. However, there has been considerable skepticism as to whether H-PDI would be quantifiable, because it depends on the destruction of microbubbles and has more complex signal processing than gray scale imaging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the concentration of microbubbles and the resulting H-PDI signals even under conditions where bubble destruction is most likely. Furthermore, we evaluated whether microbubbles of Levovist freely pass the microcirculation, which is a prerequisite for the assessment of myocardial blood flow. A strong positive correlation was found between the H-PDI signals and the amount of microbubbles up to the onset of acoustic shadowing (r = 0. 968, Pgreen (ICG) in both a flow phantom and a working heart setup. The mean transit times (MTTs) through the myocardium of both agents were compared after a bolus injection into the left coronary artery. A close correlation was observed between 1/MTT and flow in both setups (r>0.98, Pgreen. We conclude that microbubbles fulfill the prerequisites of free flowing tracers through the myocardium. Furthermore, H-PDI technology allows a reliable assessment of time-concentration curves of air-filled microbubbles up to the onset of acoustic shadowing.

  10. Comparison of Keratometry Obtained by a Swept Source OCT-Based Biometer with a Standard Optical Biometer and Scheimpflug Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asena, Leyla; Akman, Ahmet; Güngör, Sirel Gür; Dursun Altınörs, Dilek

    2018-04-09

    To assess agreement of a swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) based Biometer with a standard IOLMaster device and Scheimpflug Imaging (SI) to acquire keratometric measurements in cataract patients. In this prospective comparative study, 101 eyes of 101 cataract surgery candidates, aged 24-81 years, were sequentially examined using three devices. Keratometry values at the flat (K1) and steep (K2) axis, mean corneal power (Km) and magnitude of corneal astigmatism as well as J0 and J45 vectoral components of astigmatism obtained with the SS-OCT based biometer (IOLMaster 700) were compared with those obtained with the IOLMaster 500 and SI. The agreement between measurements was evaluated by the Bland-Altman method, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Mean K1 values from the three devices were similar (p = 0.09). Mean K2 and Km values of IOLMaster 700 were higher than SI and lower than IOLMaster 500 (p = 0.04 for K2 and p = 0.02 for Km). There was a strong correlation between K1, K2, Km and magnitude of astigmatism obtained with all devices (r ≥ 0.80 and p devices was excellent for keratometric measurements. Mean K2, Km and astigmatism measurements from IOLMaster 700 were lower than IOLMaster 500 and higher than SI. However, the differences were quite small and are not expected to affect the final IOL power.

  11. Unconditional and Conditional Standards Using Cognitive Function Curves for the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in Older Chinese Adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Feng, Lei; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Philip; Yap, Keng Bee; Ng, Tze Pin

    2015-09-01

    The conventional practice of assessing cognitive status and monitoring change over time in older adults using normative values of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) based on age bands is imprecise. Moreover, population-based normative data on changes in MMSE score over time are scarce and crude because they do not include age- and education-specific norms. This study aims to develop unconditional standards for assessing current cognitive status and conditional standards that take prior MMSE score into account for assessing longitudinal change, with percentile curves as smooth functions of age. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of a modified version of the MMSE for 2,026 older Chinese adults from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study, aged 55-84, in Singapore were used to estimate quantile regression coefficients and create unconditional standards and conditional standards. We presented MMSE percentile curves as a smooth function of age in education strata, for unconditional and conditional standards, based on quantile regression coefficient estimates. We found the 5th and 10th percentiles were more strongly associated with age and education than were higher percentiles. Model diagnostics demonstrated the accuracy of the standards. The development and use of unconditional and conditional standards should facilitate cognitive assessment in clinical practice and deserve further studies. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Super-resolution for everybody: An image processing workflow to obtain high-resolution images with a standard confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, France; Cladière, Damien; Guillaume, Cyndélia; Wassmann, Katja; Bolte, Susanne

    2017-02-15

    In the presented work we aimed at improving confocal imaging to obtain highest possible resolution in thick biological samples, such as the mouse oocyte. We therefore developed an image processing workflow that allows improving the lateral and axial resolution of a standard confocal microscope. Our workflow comprises refractive index matching, the optimization of microscope hardware parameters and image restoration by deconvolution. We compare two different deconvolution algorithms, evaluate the necessity of denoising and establish the optimal image restoration procedure. We validate our workflow by imaging sub resolution fluorescent beads and measuring the maximum lateral and axial resolution of the confocal system. Subsequently, we apply the parameters to the imaging and data restoration of fluorescently labelled meiotic spindles of mouse oocytes. We measure a resolution increase of approximately 2-fold in the lateral and 3-fold in the axial direction throughout a depth of 60μm. This demonstrates that with our optimized workflow we reach a resolution that is comparable to 3D-SIM-imaging, but with better depth penetration for confocal images of beads and the biological sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydraulic conductivity obtained by instantaneous profile method using retention curve and neutron probes and Genuchten model; Condutividade hidraulica obtida pelo metodo do perfil instantaneo utilizando curva de retencao e sonda de neutrons e pelo modelo de Genuchten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berretta, Ana Lucia Olmedo

    1999-07-01

    The hydraulic conductivity is one of the most important parameters to understand the movement of water in the unsaturated zone. Reliable estimations are difficult to obtain, once the hydraulic conductivity is highly variable. This study was carried out at 'Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz', Universidade de Sao Paulo, in a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox soil. The hydraulic conductivity was determined by a direct and an indirect method. The instantaneous profile method was described and the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content was determined by solving the Richards equation. Tensiometers were used to estimate the total soil water potential, and the neutron probe and the soil retention curve were used to estimate soil water content in the direct method. The neutron probe showed to be not adequately sensible to the changes of soil water content in this soil. Despite of the soil retention curve provides best correlation values to soil water content as a function of water redistribution time, the soil water content in this soil did not vary too much till the depth of 50 cm, reflecting the influence of the presence of a Bt horizon. The soil retention curve was well fitted by the van Genuchten model used as an indirect method. The values of the van Genuchten and the experimental relative hydraulic conductivity obtained by the instantaneous profile method provided a good correlation. However, the values estimated by the model were always lower than that ones obtained experimentally. (author)

  14. Remote sensing used for power curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R; Joergensen, H E; Paulsen, U S; Larsen, T J; Antoniou, I; Thesbjerg, L

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles

  15. Isoline curves obtained from vertical aerophotos

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Zacarias Xavier de; Campos, Sérgio; Cardoso, Lincoln Gehring; Pollo, Ronaldo Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Objetiva-se, com este trabalho, obter curvas de nível a partir de fotografias aéreas verticais, utilizando-se de gráfico linear de correção, em áreas com diferentes classes de declividade. A análise estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de regressões múltiplas das variáveis, erro horizontal e erro vertical, em função das variáveis independentes: altitude; altitude e declividade. Os erros médios horizontais e verticais pouco dependem da altitude, bem como da altitude e declividade, induz...

  16. Just-in-time inventions and the development of standards : how firms use opportunistic strategies to obtain standard-essential patents (SEPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, B.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen large-­scale litigation of standard-­essential patents between companies like Apple, Samsung, Google, Motorola and Microsoft. Such patents are particular because they are, by definition, indispensable to any company wishing to implement a technical standard. Firms that do not

  17. Just-in-time inventions and the development of standards : how firms use opportunistic strategies to obtain standard-essential patents (SEPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, B.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen large-scale litigation of standard-essential patents between companies like Apple, Samsung, Google, Motorola and Microsoft. Such patents are particular because they are, by definition, indispensable to any company wishing to implement a technical standard. Firms that do not

  18. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Curved Biopsy Device for CT-Guided Biopsy of Lesions Unreachable Using Standard Straight Needle Trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Hagen, Maximilian Franz, E-mail: mschulze@ukaachen.de; Pfeffer, Jochen; Zimmermann, Markus; Liebl, Martin [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Stillfried, Saskia Freifrau von [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Pathology (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane; Bruners, Philipp; Isfort, Peter [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of a novel curved CT-guided biopsy needle prototype with shape memory to access otherwise not accessible biopsy targets.Methods and MaterialsA biopsy needle curved by 90° with specific radius was designed. It was manufactured using nitinol to acquire shape memory, encased in a straight guiding trocar to be driven out for access of otherwise inaccessible targets. Fifty CT-guided punctures were conducted in a biopsy phantom and 10 CT-guided punctures in a swine corpse. Biposies from porcine liver and muscle tissue were separately gained using the biopsy device, and histological examination was performed subsequently.ResultsMean time for placement of the trocar and deployment of the inner biopsy needle was ~205 ± 69 and ~93 ± 58 s, respectively, with a mean of ~4.5 ± 1.3 steps to reach adequate biopsy position. Mean distance from the tip of the needle to the target was ~0.7 ± 0.8 mm. CT-guided punctures in the swine corpse took relatively longer and required more biopsy steps (~574 ± 107 and ~380 ± 148 s, 8 ± 2.6 steps). Histology demonstrated appropriate tissue samples in nine out of ten cases (90%).ConclusionsTargets that were otherwise inaccessible via standard straight needle trajectories could be successfully reached with the curved biopsy needle prototype. Shape memory and preformed size with specific radius of the curved needle simplify the target accessibility with a low risk of injuring adjacent structures.

  20. Obtainment of cerium dioxide for use as spectrochemical standard. Obtencao de dioxido de cerio para uso como padrao espectroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Hespanhol, E C.B.; Abrao, A [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method for cerium separation and purification. Cerium is previously precipitated with N H{sub 3}/air/H{sub 2} O{sub 2} system in a mixed chlorides solution obtained from Brazilian monazite treatment. The cerium fraction as cerium chloride is run down throughout a strong cationic resin bed and then the rare earth impurities separation is done by elution of the resin with separation ammonium salt of EDTA. None retainer ion is used in the purification technique by ion exchange. (author).

  1. Standardization of a fluconazole bioassay and correlation of results with those obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, J H; Hanson, L H; Amantea, M A; Stevens, D A; Bennett, J E

    1991-01-01

    An improved bioassay for fluconazole was developed. This assay is sensitive in the clinically relevant range (2 to 40 micrograms/ml) and analyzes plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens; bioassay results correlate with results obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay and HPLC analyses of spiked plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid samples (run as unknowns) gave good agreement with expected values. Analysis of specimens from patients gave equivalent results by both HPLC and bioassay. HPLC had a lower within-run coefficient of variation (less than 2.5% for HPLC versus less than 11% for bioassay) and a lower between-run coefficient of variation (less than 5% versus less than 12% for bioassay) and was more sensitive (lower limit of detection, 0.1 micrograms/ml [versus 2 micrograms/ml for bioassay]). The bioassay is, however, sufficiently accurate and sensitive for clinical specimens, and its relative simplicity, low sample volume requirement, and low equipment cost should make it the technique of choice for analysis of routine clinical specimens. PMID:1854166

  2. Standardization of a Protocol for Obtaining Platelet Rich Plasma from blood Donors; a Tool for Tissue Regeneration Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Lina Andrea; Escobar, Magally; Peñuela, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    To develop a protocol for obtaining autologous platelet rich plasma in healthy individuals and to determine the concentration of five major growth factors before platelet activation. This protocol could be integrated into the guidelines of good clinical practice and research in regenerative medicine. Platelet rich plasma was isolated by centrifugation from 38 healthy men and 42 women ranging from 18 to 59 years old. The platelet count and quantification of growth factors were analyzed in eighty samples, stratified for age and gender of the donor. Analyses were performed using parametric the t-test or Pearson's analysis for non-parametric distribution. P platelet counts from 1.6 to 4.9 times (mean = 2.8). There was no correlation between platelet concentration and the level of the following growth factors: VEGF-D (r = 0.009, p = 0.4105), VEGF-A (r = 0.0068, p = 0.953), PDGF subunit AA (p = 0.3618; r = 0.1047), PDGF-BB (p = 0.5936; r = 0.6095). In the same way, there was no correlation between donor gender and growth factor concentrations. Only TGF-β concentration was correlated to platelet concentration (r = 0.3163, p = 0.0175). The procedure used allowed us to make preparations rich in platelets, low in leukocytes and red blood cells, and sterile. Our results showed biological variations in content of growth factors in PRP. The factors influencing these results should be further studied.

  3. Calculation of dose absorbed for the verification of the calibration curves UH-Density electronic relative obtained with various mannequins; Calculo de dosis absorbida para la verificacion de las curvas de calibracion UH-Densidad electronica relativa obtenidas con distintos maniquies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Alvarez, M. E.; Sena Espinel, E. de; Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Martin Rincon, C.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.; Saez Beltran, M.

    2013-07-01

    In order to discern with what calibration curve is obtained a more accurate dosimetry distribution, dose measurements are carried out on the treatment unit and the values found are evaluated. (Author)

  4. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabeyoglu, Sibel; Uzun, Salih; Mocan, Mehmet Cem; Bozkurt, Banu; Irkec, Murat; Orhan, Mehmet

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP) using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA)-Standard 24-2 test. This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD]) were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years) were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651). MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008) and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014) was observed. Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  5. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  6. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  7. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Rachel R; Williams, Jane E; Wells, Jonathan C K; Fewtrell, Mary S

    2013-01-01

    Clinical application of body composition (BC) measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. (1) To compare fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) standard deviation scores (SDS) generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C) model; (2) To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy), BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT); and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2)/Z)) in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients). DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement) FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62); FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72)), and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2). BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  8. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R Atherton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical application of body composition (BC measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. OBJECTIVES: (1 To compare fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM standard deviation scores (SDS generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C model; (2 To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. DESIGN: FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy, BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT; and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2/Z in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients. RESULTS: DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62; FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72, and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2. BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  9. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  10. Obtaining the conversion curve of CT numbers to electron density from the effective energy of the CT using the dummy SEFM; Obtencion de la curva de conversion de numeros TC a densidad electronica a partir de la energia efectiva del TC usando el maniqui de la SEFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Moreno Saiz, E. M.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Caudepon Moreno, F.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain the conversion curve of Hounsfield units (A) versus electron densities using a mannequin with different tissue equivalent materials. This provides for the effective energy beam CT and is used to characterize the linear coefficients of absorption of different materials that comprise the dummy.

  11. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  12. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Erdmann; Demetrio Humana; Samuel Franco Domínguez; Lorgio Mercado Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV) distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887) and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required...

  13. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Erdmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887 and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required for obtaining an EFV curve. Any commercial simulator able to model petroleum can be used for the simulation (HYSYS and CHEMCAD simulators were used here. Several types of petroleum and fractions were experimentally analysed for evaluating the proposed method; this data was then put into a process si-mulator (according to the proposed method to estimate the corresponding EFV curves. HYSYS- and CHEMCAD-estimated curves were compared to those produced by two traditional estimation methods (Edmister’s and Maswell’s methods. Simulation-estimated curves were close to average Edmister and Maxwell curves in all cases. The propo-sed method has several advantages; it avoids the need for experimentally obtaining an EFV curve, it does not de-pend on the type of experimental curve used to fit the model and it enables estimating several pressures by using just one experimental curve as data.

  14. A note on families of fragility curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve

  15. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  16. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  17. A Novel Reverse-Transcriptase Real-Time PCR Method for Quantification of Viable Vibrio Parahemolyticus in Raw Shrimp Based on a Rapid Construction of Standard Curve Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mengtong Jin; Haiquan Liu; Wenshuo Sun; Qin Li; Zhaohuan Zhang; Jibing Li; Yingjie Pan; Yong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is an important pathogen that leads to food illness associated seafood. Therefore, rapid and reliable methods to detect and quantify the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in seafood are needed. In this assay, a RNA-based real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) without an enrichment step has been developed for detection and quantification of the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp. RNA standards with the target segments were synthesized in vitro with T7 RNA p...

  18. Standardization of a protocol to obtain genomic DNA for the quantification of 5mC in epicormics buds of Tectona grandis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Quiala; Luis Valledor; Rodrigo Hazbun; Raúl Barbón; Manuel de Feria; Maité Chávez

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of defining an extraction and purification method that it provided deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) appropriate to determine the percentage of 5mC in the genomic DNA of epicormics buds of Tectona grandis L. During the standardization of the protocol four methods were compared: 1 -classic based on saline shock solution with CTAB (hexadecil trimetil ammonium bromide), 2 - Kit of extraction of DNA plants DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QIAGEN) accor...

  19. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  20. An approach to averaging digitized plantagram curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Heinemeyer, R; Sovak, D; Tory, B

    1994-07-01

    The averaging of outline shapes of the human foot for the purposes of determining information concerning foot shape and dimension within the context of comfort of fit of sport shoes is approached as a mathematical problem. An outline of the human footprint is obtained by standard procedures and the curvature is traced with a Hewlett Packard Digitizer. The paper describes the determination of an alignment axis, the identification of two ray centres and the division of the total curve into two overlapping arcs. Each arc is divided by equiangular rays which intersect chords between digitized points describing the arc. The radial distance of each ray is averaged within groups of foot lengths which vary by +/- 2.25 mm (approximately equal to 1/2 shoe size). The method has been used to determine average plantar curves in a study of 1197 North American males (Hawes and Sovak 1993).

  1. Comparison of two methods to determine fan performance curves using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onma, Patinya; Chantrasmi, Tonkid

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates a systematic numerical approach that employs Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to obtain performance curves of a backward-curved centrifugal fan. Generating the performance curves requires a number of three-dimensional simulations with varying system loads at a fixed rotational speed. Two methods were used and their results compared to experimental data. The first method incrementally changes the mass flow late through the inlet boundary condition while the second method utilizes a series of meshes representing the physical damper blade at various angles. The generated performance curves from both methods are compared with an experiment setup in accordance with the AMCA fan performance testing standard.

  2. Using Peano Curves to Construct Laplacians on Fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Denali; Ott, Nadia; Strichartz, Robert

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new method to construct Laplacians on fractals using a Peano curve from the circle onto the fractal, extending an idea that has been used in the case of certain Julia sets. The Peano curve allows us to visualize eigenfunctions of the Laplacian by graphing the pullback to the circle. We study in detail three fractals: the pentagasket, the octagasket and the magic carpet. We also use the method for two nonfractal self-similar sets, the torus and the equilateral triangle, obtaining appealing new visualizations of eigenfunctions on the triangle. In contrast to the many familiar pictures of approximations to standard Peano curves, that do no show self-intersections, our descriptions of approximations to the Peano curves have self-intersections that play a vital role in constructing graph approximations to the fractal with explicit graph Laplacians that give the fractal Laplacian in the limit.

  3. Photoelectic BV Light Curves of Algol and the Interpretations of the Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Il Kim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized B and V photoelectric light curves of Algol are made with the observations obtained during 1982-84 with the 40-cm and the 61-cm reflectors of Yonsei University Observatory. These light curves show asymmetry between ascending and descending shoulders. The ascending shoulder is 0.02 mag brighter than descending shoulder in V light curve and 0.03 mag in B light curve. These asymmetric light curves are interpreted as the result of inhomogeneous energy distribution on the surface of one star of the eclipsing pair rather than the result of gaseous stream flowing from KOIV to B8V star. The 180-year periodicity, so called great inequality, are most likely the result proposed by Kim et al. (1983 that the abrupt and discrete mass losses of cooler component may be the cause of this orbital change. The amount of mass loss deduced from these discrete period changes turned out to be of the order of 10^(-6 - 10^(-5 Msolar.

  4. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  5. Use of universal functional optimisation for TL glow curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Linh, H.Q.

    1996-01-01

    The effective use of any TL instrument requires an efficient software package to be able to fulfil different tasks required by research and practical applications. One of the standard features of the package used at the NPI Prague is the application of the interactive modular system Universal Functional Optimisation (UFO) for glow curve deconvolution. The whole system has been tested on standard glow curves using different models of the TL process (a single peak described by the Podgorsak approximation, first order kinetics and/or general order kinetics). Calculated values of basic TL parameters (E and s) show a good agreement with the results obtained by other authors. The main advantage of the system is in its modularity that enables flexible changes in the TL model and mathematical procedures of the glow curve analysis. (author)

  6. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  7. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  8. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  9. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of 99m Tc is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium ( 99m Tc) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of 99m Tc from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai (Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. (author)

  10. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of Tc-99m is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium (Tc-99m) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of Tc-99m from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users.

  11. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  12. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  13. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  14. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  15. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  16. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  17. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  18. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  19. Apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained from high b value diffusion-weighted imaging in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas at 3T: comparison with standard b value diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Zhang, Jianmin [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Shi, Feina [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-12-15

    To assess whether ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI were more valuable in preoperatively evaluating the grade, Ki-67 index and outcome of gliomas. Sixty-three patients with gliomas, who underwent preoperative multi b value DWI at 3 T, were enrolled. The ADC{sub 1000}, ADC{sub 2000} and ADC{sub 3000} maps were generated. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to determine the area under the curve (AUC) in differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGG) from low-grade gliomas (LGG). Pearson correlation coefficients (R value) were calculated to investigate the correlation between parameters with the Ki-67 proliferation index. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. The AUC of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (0.820) was lower than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (0.847) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (0.875) in differentiating HGG from LGG. The R value of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (-0.499) was less negative than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (-0.530) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (-0.567). The mean ADC{sub 3000} value was an independent prognosis factor for gliomas (p = 0.008), while the mean ADC{sub 1000} and ADC{sub 2000} values were not. ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI might be a better imaging biomarker in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas. (orig.)

  20. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...

  1. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    in Rd, and methods to solve the initial and boundary value problem for geodesics allowing us to compute the Karcher mean and principal components analysis of data of curves. We apply the methods to study shape variation in synthetic data in the Kimia shape database, in HeLa cell nuclei and cycles...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...

  2. Study and program implementation of transient curves' piecewise linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yang; Zu Hongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transient curves are essential for the stress analysis of related equipment in nuclear power plant (NPP). The actually operating data or the design transient data of a NPP usually consist of a large number of data points with very short time intervals. To simplify the analysis, transient curves are generally piecewise linearized in advance. Up to now, the piecewise linearization of transient curves is accomplished manually, Purpose: The aim is to develop a method for the piecewise linearization of transient curves, and to implement it by programming. Methods: First of all, the fitting line of a number of data points was obtained by the least square method. The segment of the fitting line is set while the accumulation error of linearization exceeds the preset limit with the increasing number of points. Then the linearization of subsequent data points was begun from the last point of the preceding curve segment to get the next segment in the same way, and continue until the final data point involved. Finally, averaging of junction points is taken for the segment connection. Results: A computer program named PLTC (Piecewise Linearization for Transient Curves) was implemented and verified by the linearization of the standard sine curve and typical transient curves of a NPP. Conclusion: The method and the PLTC program can be well used to the piecewise linearization of transient curves, with improving efficiency and precision. (authors)

  3. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  4. Seismic Fragility Curves of Industrial Buildings by Using Nonlinear Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nazri Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the steel fragility curves and performance curves of industrial buildings of different geometries. The fragility curves were obtained for different building geometries, and the performance curves were developed based on lateral load, which is affected by the geometry of the building. Three records of far-field ground motion were used for incremental dynamic analysis (IDA, and the design lateral loads for pushover analysis (POA. All designs were based on British Standard (BS 5950; however, Eurocode 8 was preferred for seismic consideration in the analysis because BS 5950 does not specify any seismic provision. The five levels of performance stated by FEMA-273, namely, operational phase, immediate occupancy, damage control, life safety, and collapse prevention (CP were used as main guidelines for evaluating structural performance. For POA, Model 2 had highest base shear, followed by Model 1 and Model 3, even though Model 2 has a smaller structure compared with Model 3. Meanwhile, the fragility curves showed that the probability of reaching or exceeding the CP level of Model 2 is the highest, followed by that of Models 1 and 3.

  5. Evaluation of spectrographic standards for the carrier-distillation analysis of PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, C.J.; Myers, W.M.

    1976-05-01

    Three plutonium metals whose impurity contents have been accurately determined are used to evaluate spectrographic standards. Best results are obtained when (1) highly impure samples are diluted, (2) the internal standard, cobalt, is used, (3) a linear curve is fitted to the standard data that bracket the impurity concentration, and (4) plutonium standards containing 22 impurities are used

  6. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  7. Analysis of linear measurements on 3D surface models using CBCT data segmentation obtained by automatic standard pre-set thresholds in two segmentation software programs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleti, Marcelo Lupion; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Pagin, Otávio; Moretti, Marcela Rodrigues; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of linear measurements on three-dimensional (3D) surface models obtained by standard pre-set thresholds in two segmentation software programs. Ten mandibles with 17 silica markers were scanned for 0.3-mm voxels in the i-CAT Classic (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA). Twenty linear measurements were carried out by two observers two times on the 3D surface models: the Dolphin Imaging 11.5 (Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA), using two filters(Translucent and Solid-1), and in the InVesalius 3.0.0 (Centre for Information Technology Renato Archer, Campinas, SP, Brazil). The physical measurements were made by another observer two times using a digital caliper on the dry mandibles. Excellent intra- and inter-observer reliability for the markers, physical measurements, and 3D surface models were found (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's r ≥ 0.91). The linear measurements on 3D surface models by Dolphin and InVesalius software programs were accurate (Dolphin Solid-1 > InVesalius > Dolphin Translucent). The highest absolute and percentage errors were obtained for the variable R1-R1 (1.37 mm) and MF-AC (2.53 %) in the Dolphin Translucent and InVesalius software, respectively. Linear measurements on 3D surface models obtained by standard pre-set thresholds in the Dolphin and InVesalius software programs are reliable and accurate compared with physical measurements. Studies that evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the 3D models are necessary to ensure error predictability and to establish diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis in a more realistic way.

  8. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  9. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  10. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  11. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  12. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  13. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  14. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  15. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  16. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  17. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  18. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  19. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  20. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  1. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  2. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  3. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  4. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    chapter of this thesis is devoted to fermions in curved background spacetimes and, in particular, catalyzed symmetry breaking. This phenomenon arises from a parametric enhancement of critical fluctuations independently of the coupling strength. Symmetry-breaking fermionic long-range fluctuations exhibit such an enhancement on negatively curved spaces, as is known from mean-field studies. We study gravitational catalysis from the viewpoint of the functional renormalization group using the 3d Gross-Neveu model as a specific example. We observe gravitational catalysis towards a phase of broken discrete chiral symmetry both on a maximally symmetric spacetime (AdS) and on a purely spatially curved manifold (Lobachevsky plane) with constant negative curvature. The resulting picture for gravitational catalysis obtained from the renormalization group flow is closely related to that of magnetic catalysis. As an application, we estimate the curvature required for subcritical systems of finite length to acquire a gravitionally catalyzed mass gap.

  5. Multivariate analysis of diagnostic parameters derived from whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Mostbeck, A.; Samal, M.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In a previous work, we have confirmed earlier reports that time-activity curves of renal cortex provide additional useful diagnostic information. The aim of this experiment was to support the finding quantitatively using multiple regression. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we have analyzed MAG3 renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children). Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) time-activity curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard WK and parenchymal fuzzy ROIs. Using multiple regression analysis, peak time, mean transit time, output efficiency, and four additional indices of residual activity in WK and PA ROIs were related to the maximum elimination rate (EM) of urine after the diuretic. The kidneys were divided into four groups according to the WK peak time (WKPT): WKPT longer than 0 (all kidneys), 5, 10, and 15 min. Results: Multiple correlation coefficients between the set of WK, PA, and WK+PA curve parameters (independent variables) and the log EM (dependent variable) for each group are summarized. Conclusions: Using pre-diuretic time-activity curves, it is possible to predict diuretic response. This can be useful when interpreting dubious results. Parenchymal curves predict diuretic response better than the whole-kidney curves. With increasing WKPT the whole-kidney curves become useless, while the parenchymal curves are still useful. Using both WK and PA curves produces the best results. This demonstrates that both WK and PA curves carry independent diagnostic information. The contribution obtained from the parenchymal curves certainly worth the difficulties and time required to draw additional ROIs. However, substantial efforts have to be given to the accurate and reproducible definition of parenchymal ROIs

  6. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  7. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  8. Estimating reaction rate constants: comparison between traditional curve fitting and curve resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, S.; Boelens, H. F. M.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    A traditional curve fitting (TCF) algorithm is compared with a classical curve resolution (CCR) approach for estimating reaction rate constants from spectral data obtained in time of a chemical reaction. In the TCF algorithm, reaction rate constants an estimated from the absorbance versus time data

  9. Interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of retention curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. H.; Houvenaghel, G.; Janz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curves are presented. Baumberger sandstone and Sander sandstone were used as test materials.Repeatability standard deviation and reproducibility standard deviation...

  10. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  11. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  12. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  13. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian; Tureanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  14. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobakhidze, Archil, E-mail: archilk@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Manning, Adrian, E-mail: a.manning@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Tureanu, Anca, E-mail: anca.tureanu@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-10

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  15. Comparison of different standards used in radioimmunoassay for atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Nielsen, M. Damkjær; Giese, J.

    1991-01-01

    , estimates of the ANF content in human plasma samples with different standard preparations as the reference showed a considerable variability. With the international standard as the gold reference (plasma ANF concentration 100%) the apparent plasma ANF concentrations measured with the other reference......Six different standards for determination of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in human plasma samples have been compared using our radio-immunoassay for ANF: International standard 85/669, National Biological Standard Boards, UK; Bachem standard, Torrance, USA; Bachem standard, Bubendorf......, Switzerland; Bissendorf standard, Wedemark, Germany; Peninsula standard, Belmont, USA; UCB-Bioproducts standard, Brussels, Belgium, Standard curves obtained with different preparations were in parallel but showed considerable quantitative differences. Standard curves referring to the Bissendorf standard...

  16. Morse theory on timelike and causal curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)

  17. Constructing elliptic curves from Galois representations

    OpenAIRE

    Snowden, Andrew; Tsimerman, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Given a non-isotrivial elliptic curve over an arithmetic surface, one obtains a lisse $\\ell$-adic sheaf of rank two over the surface. This lisse sheaf has a number of straightforward properties: cyclotomic determinant, finite ramification, rational traces of Frobenius, and somewhere not potentially good reduction. We prove that any lisse sheaf of rank two possessing these properties comes from an elliptic curve.

  18. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  19. Anomalies in curved spacetime at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi-Filho, H.; Natividade, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the problem of the breakdown of conformal and gauge symmetries at finite temperature in curved spacetime background, when the changes in the background are gradual. We obtain the expressions for the Seeley's coefficients and the heat kernel expansion in this regime. As applications, we consider the self-interacting lambda phi''4 and chiral Schwinger models in curved backgrounds at finite temperature. (Author) 9 refs

  20. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks

  1. Accuracy of total oxidant measurement as obtained by the phenolphthalin method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louw, C W; Halliday, E C

    1963-01-01

    The phenolphthalin method of Haagen-Smit and Brunelle (1958) was chosen for a preliminary survey of total oxidant level in Pretoria air, because of its sensitivity. Difficulty, however, was encountered in obtaining reliable standard curves. Some improvement was obtained when conducting all operations except photometer measurements at the temperature of melting ice. It was also found that when the sequence of adding the reagents was changed, so as to simulate conditions during actual sampling, a standard curve approximating a straight line and differing considerably from that of McCabe (1953) was obtained. It follows that values of total oxidant obtained by any experimentor will depend to a certain extent upon the method of standard curve preparation he uses, and when comparisons are made between measurements by experimentors in different towns or countries this factor should be taken into consideration. The accuracy (95% confidence) obtained by the phenolphthalin method, using the mean of three successive samples, was shown to be in the region of 30% for very low amounts of oxidant.

  2. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  4. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  5. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  6. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  7. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  8. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  9. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  10. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  11. ECM using Edwards curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the

  12. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  13. On a framework for generating PoD curves assisted by numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subair, S. Mohamed, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Agrawal, Shweta, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Rajagopal, Prabhu, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai, T.N. (India); Kumar, Anish; Rao, Purnachandra B.; Tamanna, Jayakumar [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Kalpakkam, T.N. (India)

    2015-03-31

    The Probability of Detection (PoD) curve method has emerged as an important tool for the assessment of the performance of NDE techniques, a topic of particular interest to the nuclear industry where inspection qualification is very important. The conventional experimental means of generating PoD curves though, can be expensive, requiring large data sets (covering defects and test conditions), and equipment and operator time. Several methods of achieving faster estimates for PoD curves using physics-based modelling have been developed to address this problem. Numerical modelling techniques are also attractive, especially given the ever-increasing computational power available to scientists today. Here we develop procedures for obtaining PoD curves, assisted by numerical simulation and based on Bayesian statistics. Numerical simulations are performed using Finite Element analysis for factors that are assumed to be independent, random and normally distributed. PoD curves so generated are compared with experiments on austenitic stainless steel (SS) plates with artificially created notches. We examine issues affecting the PoD curve generation process including codes, standards, distribution of defect parameters and the choice of the noise threshold. We also study the assumption of normal distribution for signal response parameters and consider strategies for dealing with data that may be more complex or sparse to justify this. These topics are addressed and illustrated through the example case of generation of PoD curves for pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection of vertical surface-breaking cracks in SS plates.

  14. Illusory Paschen curves associated with strongly electronegative gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Using analytical linear regression analysis, it is shown that, for a strongly electronegative gas, the (direct) breakdown voltage curve obtained with a moderately nonuniform field is effectively linear. For a strongly electronegative gas, breakdown voltage measurements made on a moderately...... nonuniform field test gap give rise to an apparently liner curve. The curve can be designated a Paschen curve, but the erroneous nature of this designation becomes apparent from a linear regression analysis of the experimental breakdown data...

  15. Compact Hilbert Curve Index Algorithm Based on Gray Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert curve has best clustering in various kinds of space filling curves, and has been used as an important tools in discrete global grid spatial index design field. But there are lots of redundancies in the standard Hilbert curve index when the data set has large differences between dimensions. In this paper, the construction features of Hilbert curve is analyzed based on Gray code, and then the compact Hilbert curve index algorithm is put forward, in which the redundancy problem has been avoided while Hilbert curve clustering preserved. Finally, experiment results shows that the compact Hilbert curve index outperforms the standard Hilbert index, their 1 computational complexity is nearly equivalent, but the real data set test shows the coding time and storage space decrease 40%, the speedup ratio of sorting speed is nearly 4.3.

  16. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Sakane, Yusuke; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  17. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  18. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    is to derive statistical features from the time series and to use machine learning methods, generally supervised, to separate objects into a few of the standard classes. In this work, we transform the time series to two-dimensional light curve representations in order to classify them using modern deep......Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach...... learning techniques. In particular, we show that convolutional neural networks based classifiers work well for broad characterization and classification. We use labeled datasets of periodic variables from CRTS survey and show how this opens doors for a quick classification of diverse classes with several...

  19. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  20. Utility of the whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves for a prediction of diuretic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M.; Mostbeck, A.; Bergmann, H.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a retrospective study, MAG3 dynamic renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children) have been analyzed with the aim to test a prediction of diuretic response. Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard and fuzzy ROIs. Peak time (PT), half time (HT), ratio of the curve value in 20th min to the curve maximum (RM), mean transit time (TT), and output efficiency (OE) were calculated for each curve. With PA curves, also the transit time index (PI) was calculated. The curve parameters were compared with the maximum elimination rate of urine after diuretic (EM) using paired correlation and Fisher's linear discriminate function. The highest correlation was found between ln EM and OE-PA (0.61), RM-PA (-0.58), TT-PA (-0.57), and PI (-0.57). Best diagnostic accuracy in prediction of EM ≤ 7 % (a sign of obstruction) was obtained with OE-PA (87 %), PI (87 %), and both PT-PA and RM-PA (83 %). Parameters of WK curves had higher sensitivity, those of PA curves higher specificity. Most parameters had a high predictive value of negative result (NPV > 90 %) but low predictive value of positive result (PPV < 50 %). Best discrimination of low EM was obtained with a combination of both WK and PA parameters (diagnostic accuracy of 90 %). Using PA curves in kidneys with late PT-WK made possible to increase the diagnostic accuracy from 70 - 80 % (with WK parameters only) to 95 %. Our results demonstrate that PA curves carry additional clinical information and may help to predict and Interpret a diuretic response especially in kidneys with late peak of the WK curves. (author)

  1. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  2. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  3. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  4. Matter fields in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet, Nguyen Ai; Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the geometry of a two-sheeted space-time within the framework of non-commutative geometry. As a prelude to the Standard Model in curved space-time, we present a model of a left- and a right- chiral field living on the two sheeted-space time and construct the action functionals that describe their interactions

  5. Remote sensing used for power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviat...

  6. A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponi, Matteo, E-mail: mtamponi@aslsassari.it; Bona, Rossana; Poggiu, Angela; Marini, Piergiorgio [Medical Physics Unit, ASL Sassari, Via Enrico de Nicola, Sassari 07100 (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: This work describes a new form of the calibration curve for radiochromic dosimetry that depends on one fit parameter. Some results are reported to show that the new curve performs as well as those previously used and, more importantly, significantly reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the film orientation on the scanner, and the time after exposure. Methods: The form of the response curve makes use of the net optical densities ratio against the dose and has been studied by means of the Beer–Lambert law and a simple modeling of the film. The new calibration curve has been applied to EBT3 films exposed at 6 and 15 MV energy beams of linear accelerators and read-out in transmission mode by means of a flatbed color scanner. Its performance has been compared to that of two established forms of the calibration curve, which use the optical density and the net optical density against the dose. Four series of measurements with four lots of EBT3 films were used to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and dependence on the time after exposure, orientation on the scanner and lot of films. Results: The new calibration curve is roughly subject to the same dose uncertainty, about 2% (1 standard deviation), and has the same accuracy, about 1.5% (dose values between 50 and 450 cGy), as the other calibration curves when films of the same lot are used. Moreover, the new calibration curve, albeit obtained from only one lot of film, shows a good agreement with experimental data from all other lots of EBT3 films used, with an accuracy of about 2% and a relative dose precision of 2.4% (1 standard deviation). The agreement also holds for changes of the film orientation and of the time after exposure. Conclusions: The dose accuracy of this new form of the calibration curve is always equal to or better than those obtained from the two types of curves previously used. The use of the net optical densities ratio considerably reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the

  7. A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponi, Matteo; Bona, Rossana; Poggiu, Angela; Marini, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work describes a new form of the calibration curve for radiochromic dosimetry that depends on one fit parameter. Some results are reported to show that the new curve performs as well as those previously used and, more importantly, significantly reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the film orientation on the scanner, and the time after exposure. Methods: The form of the response curve makes use of the net optical densities ratio against the dose and has been studied by means of the Beer–Lambert law and a simple modeling of the film. The new calibration curve has been applied to EBT3 films exposed at 6 and 15 MV energy beams of linear accelerators and read-out in transmission mode by means of a flatbed color scanner. Its performance has been compared to that of two established forms of the calibration curve, which use the optical density and the net optical density against the dose. Four series of measurements with four lots of EBT3 films were used to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and dependence on the time after exposure, orientation on the scanner and lot of films. Results: The new calibration curve is roughly subject to the same dose uncertainty, about 2% (1 standard deviation), and has the same accuracy, about 1.5% (dose values between 50 and 450 cGy), as the other calibration curves when films of the same lot are used. Moreover, the new calibration curve, albeit obtained from only one lot of film, shows a good agreement with experimental data from all other lots of EBT3 films used, with an accuracy of about 2% and a relative dose precision of 2.4% (1 standard deviation). The agreement also holds for changes of the film orientation and of the time after exposure. Conclusions: The dose accuracy of this new form of the calibration curve is always equal to or better than those obtained from the two types of curves previously used. The use of the net optical densities ratio considerably reduces the dependence on the lot of films, the

  8. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1994-11-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs

  9. MATHEMATICAL METHODS TO DETERMINE THE INTERSECTION CURVES OF THE CYLINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish the intersection curves between cylinders, by using the Mathematica program. This thing can be obtained by introducing the curves equations, which are inferred, in Mathematica program. This paper take into discussion three right cylinders and another inclined to 45 degrees. The intersection curves can also be obtained by using the classical methods of the descriptive geometry.

  10. Modelling curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloninko K.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the issue of functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. Settlement of the problem, and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks. According to its nature, the market economy is unstable and is in constant movement. Economy has an effective instrument for explanation of changes in economic environment; this tool is called the modelling of economic processes. The modelling of economic processes depends first and foremost on the building of economic model which is the base for the formalization of economic process, that is, the building of mathematical model. The effective means for formalization of economic process is the creation of the model of hypothetic or imaginary economy. The building of demand model is significant for the market of goods and services. The problem includes the receiving (as the result of modelling definite functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand according to which one can determine their mathematical model. Another problem lies in obtaining majorant properties of curves of joint demand on the market of goods and services. Analysis of the latest researches and publications. Many domestic and foreign scientists dedicated their studies to the researches and building of the models of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. In spite of considerable work of the scientists, such problems as functional properties of the curves and their practical use in modelling. The purpose of the article is to describe functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand on the market of goods and services on the base of modelling of their building. Scientific novelty and practical value. The theoretical regulations (for functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand received as a result of the present research, that is convexity, give extra practical possibilities in a microeconomic

  11. Microcanonical Monte Carlo approach for computing melting curves by atomistic simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    We report microcanonical Monte Carlo simulations of melting and superheating of a generic, Lennard-Jones system starting from the crystalline phase. The isochoric curve, the melting temperature $T_m$ and the critical superheating temperature $T_{LS}$ obtained are in close agreement (well within the microcanonical temperature fluctuations) with standard molecular dynamics one-phase and two-phase methods. These results validate the use of microcanonical Monte Carlo to compute melting points, a ...

  12. Calibration curve for germanium spectrometers from solutions calibrated by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Navarro, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Alvarez, A.; Salvador, S.; Diaz, C.

    1996-01-01

    The beta-gamma emitters ''60Co, ''137 Cs, ''131 I, ''210 Pb y ''129 Iare radionuclides for which the calibration by the CIEMAT/NIST method ispossible with uncertainties less than 1%. We prepared, from standardized solutions of these radionuclides, samples in vials of 20 ml. We obtained the calibration curves, efficiency as a function of energy, for two germanium detectors. (Author) 5 refs

  13. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  14. Comparison of wind turbines based on power curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    In the study measured power curves for 46 wind turbines were analyzed with the purpose to establish the basis for a consistent comparison of the efficiency of the wind turbines. Emphasis is on wind turbines above 500 kW rated power, with power curves measured after 1994 according to international recommendations. The available power curves fulfilling these requirements were smoothened according to a procedure developed for the purpose in such a way that the smoothened power curves are equally representative as the measured curves. The resulting smoothened power curves are presented in a standardized format for the subsequent processing. Using wind turbine data from the power curve documentation the analysis results in curves for specific energy production (kWh/M{sup 2}/yr) versus specific rotor load (kW/M{sup 2}) for a range of mean wind speeds. On this basis generalized curves for specific annual energy production versus specific rotor load are established for a number of generalized wind turbine concepts. The 46 smoothened standardized power curves presented in the report, the procedure developed to establish them, and the results of the analysis based on them aim at providers of measured power curves as well as users of them including manufacturers, advisors and decision makers. (au)

  15. Determination of Ductile Tearing Resistance Curve in Weld Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Gilles, P.; Ould, P.

    2010-01-01

    Steels present in the ductile domain a tearing resistance which increase with the crack propagation up to the failure. This ductile tearing resistance is in general characterised with curves giving the variation of a global parameter (opening displacement at the crack tip delta, integral J) versus the crack extension Delta a. These global approaches depend more or less on the specimen geometry and on the type of the imposed loading. Local approaches based on the description of the ductile tearing mechanisms provide reliable solution to the transferability problem (from the lab specimen to the component) but are complex and costly to use and are not codified. These problems get worse in the case of a weld joint where no standard is available for the measurement of their ductile tearing resistance. But the welded joints are often the weak point of the structure because of greater risk of defects, the heterogeneity of the microstructure of the weld, deformation along the interface between two materials with different yield stress (mismatch).... After briefly recalling the problems of transferability of the ductile tearing resistance curves obtained on lab specimen to the case of components, this article identifies the factors complicating the determination of the toughness in the welded joints and gives recommendations for the experimental determination of ductile tearing resistance curves of welded joints

  16. Saturation curves of Tandem ionization chambers for Hp(10) measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2005-01-01

    It is very important that the radiation detectors measure doses with high precision and accuracy. The verification of the standard dosemeters such as ionization chambers is a very important step in quality control programs of calibration laboratories and in radioprotection procedures. In this work the polarity effect and ionic recombination of two ionization chambers were studied. Saturation curves were obtained using two identical in shape, parallel-plate ionization chambers developed at IPEN (radioprotection level), with collecting electrodes made of different materials (to obtain different energy dependences of their responses) in standard X radiation beams of low and medium energies. The tests were performed following international standard recommendations (IEC 60731). The results show that both ionization chambers were approved in the tests; the variation on the readings were lower than 1%, for bias voltage between - 400V and + 400V. The results of the polarity tests of the ionization chambers show that the response variation is within the standard IEC 60731 limits. The determined ionic recombination agrees with the recommendation of IAEA (TRS 398). Therefore, the ionization chambers tested in this work were approved. (author)

  17. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  18. Fractal properties of critical invariant curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.R.; Yorke, J.A.; Khanin, K.M.; Sinai, Y.G.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the dimension of the invariant measure for some singular circle homeomorphisms for a variety of rotation numbers, through both the thermodynamic formalism and numerical computation. The maps we consider include those induced by the action of the standard map on an invariant curve at the critical parameter value beyond which the curve is destroyed. Our results indicate that the dimension is universal for a given type of singularity and rotation number, and that among all rotation numbers, the golden mean produces the largest dimension

  19. Experimental Method for Plotting S-N Curve with a Small Number of Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecki Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents two approaches to plotting an S-N curve based on the experimental results. The first approach is commonly used by researchers and presented in detail in many studies and standard documents. The model uses a linear regression whose parameters are estimated by using the least squares method. A staircase method is used for an unlimited fatigue life criterion. The second model combines the S-N curve defined as a straight line and the record of random occurrence of the fatigue limit. A maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the S-N curve parameters. Fatigue data for C45+C steel obtained in the torsional bending test were used to compare the estimated S-N curves. For pseudo-random numbers generated by using the Mersenne Twister algorithm, the estimated S-N curve for 10 experimental results plotted by using the second model, estimates the fatigue life in the scatter band of the factor 3. The result gives good approximation, especially regarding the time required to plot the S-N curve.

  20. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  1. Saturation curve of SiO2 component in rutile-type GeO2: A recoverable high-temperature pressure standard from 3 GPa to 10 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinenweber, Kurt; Gullikson, Amber L.; Stoyanov, Emil; Malik, Abds-Sami

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of pressure measurements and the pursuit of reliable and readily available pressure scales at simultaneous high temperatures and pressures are still topics in development in high pressure research despite many years of work. In situ pressure scales based on x-ray diffraction are widely used but require x-ray access, which is lacking outside of x-ray beam lines. Other methods such as fixed points require several experiments to bracket a pressure calibration point. In this study, a recoverable high-temperature pressure gauge for pressures ranging from 3 GPa to 10 GPa is presented. The gauge is based on the pressure-dependent solubility of an SiO 2 component in the rutile-structured phase of GeO 2 (argutite), and is valid when the argutite solid solution coexists with coesite. The solid solution varies strongly in composition, mainly in pressure but also somewhat in temperature, and the compositional variations are easily detected by x-ray diffraction of the recovered products because of significant changes in the lattice parameters. The solid solution is measured here on two isotherms, one at 1200 °C and the other at 1500 °C, and is developed as a pressure gauge by calibrating it against three fixed points for each temperature and against the lattice parameter of MgO measured in situ at a total of three additional points. A somewhat detailed thermodynamic analysis is then presented that allows the pressure gauge to be used at other temperatures. This provides a way to accurately and reproducibly evaluate the pressure in high pressure experiments and applications in this pressure-temperature range, and could potentially be used as a benchmark to compare various other pressure scales under high temperature conditions. - Graphical abstract: The saturation curve of SiO 2 in TiO 2 shows a strong pressure dependence and a strong dependence of unit cell volume on composition. This provides an opportunity to use this saturation curve as a

  2. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5curves. If 2curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  3. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  4. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  5. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  6. NOISY DISPERSION CURVE PICKING (NDCP): a Matlab friendly suite package for fully control dispersion curve picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, I.; Calo, M.; Ramos, V.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a Matlab suite package (NDCP, Noisy Dispersion Curve Picking) that allows a full control over parameters to identify correctly group velocity dispersion curves in two types of datasets: correlograms between two stations or surface wave records from earthquakes. Using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN), the procedure to obtain the dispersion curves from records with a high noise level becomes difficult, and sometimes, the picked curve result in a misinterpreted character. For correlogram functions, obtained with cross-correlation of noise records or earthquake's coda, a non-homogeneous noise sources distribution yield to a non-symmetric Green's function (GF); to retrieve the complete information contained in there, NDCP allows to pick the dispersion curve in the time domain both in the causal and non-causal part of the GF. Then the picked dispersion curve is displayed on the FTAN diagram to in order to check if it matches with the maximum of the signal energy avoiding confusion with overtones or spike of noise. To illustrate how NDCP performs, we show exemple using: i) local correlograms functions obtained from sensors deployed into a volcanic caldera (Los Humeros, in Puebla, Mexico), ii) regional correlograms functions between two stations of the National Seismological Service (SSN, Servicio Sismológico Nacional in Spanish), and iii) surface wave seismic record for an earthquake located in the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico and recorded by the SSN. This work is supported by the GEMEX project (Geothermal Europe-Mexico consortium).

  7. Evaluation of the quality of results obtained in institutions participating in interlaboratory experiments and of the reliability characteristics of the analytical methods used on the basis of certification of standard soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshin, A.K.; Obol' yaninova, V.G.; Sul' dina, N.P.

    1986-08-20

    Rapid monitoring of the level of pollution of the environment and, especially, of soils necessitates preparation of standard samples (SS) close in properties and material composition to the objects to be analyzed. During 1978-1982 four sets (three types of samples in each) of State Standard Samples of different soils were developed: soddy-podzolic sandy-loamy, typical chernozem, krasnozem, and calcareous sierozem. The certification studies of the SS of the soils were carried out in accordance with the classical scheme of interlab experiment (ILE). More than 100 institutions were involved in the ILE and the total number of independent analytical results was of the order of 10/sup 4/. With such a volume of analytical information at their disposal they were able to find some general characteristics intrinsic to certification studies, to assess the quality of work of the ILE participants with due regard for their specialization, and the reliability characteristics of the analytical methods used.

  8. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  9. Bound states in curved quantum waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.; Seba, P.

    1987-01-01

    We study free quantum particle living on a curved planar strip Ω of a fixed width d with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It can serve as a model for electrons in thin films on a cylindrical-type substrate, or in a curved quantum wire. Assuming that the boundary of Ω is infinitely smooth and its curvature decays fast enough at infinity, we prove that a bound state with energy below the first transversal mode exists for all sufficiently small d. A lower bound on the critical width is obtained using the Birman-Schwinger technique. (orig.)

  10. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.

  11. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, W. B.; Almeida, N. G. de

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST

  12. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  13. Similarity criterion analysis of dose-response curves in biological assay and radioimmunoassay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristakou, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    The difficulties involved in the control of biological and radioimmunological assay systems, and in the maintenance of standard, as well as, the usual heterogeneity of assayed samples require some evidence of similarity between the dose-response curves obtained with the standard and the sample. Nowadays the parallelism test is used to provide such evidence. However, some indications of non-normal errors distribution, such as the presence of out layers, render the parallelism test both conceptually implausible and statistically inefficient. In such a manner we suggest the non-parametric 'frequencial' test as a more sounding option. (author)

  14. Laws governing the energy conversion of ionization curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgoskii, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The author attempts to determine if ionization curves are structured or smooth, the cause of the smoothing of the curves, the possibility of the curves having maxima and why, how many maxima are on the ionization curve, and which of these maxima is the fundamental maxima. The study shows that ionization curves without and additional maximum, i.e., with one fundamental maximum, can be obtained for potassium, rubidium, and cesium. This requires reduction of the density of the electrons in the stream and the density of the atoms of the target gas. It is also shown that in order to obtain ionization curves with additional maxima in the cases of neon, argon, and krypton, the measurements must be carried out at high densities of the electrons in the stream and of the atoms of the target gas

  15. Algorithm for Automatic Generation of Curved and Compound Twills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mei-zhen; WANG Fu-mei; WANG Shan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new arithmetic using matrix left-shift functions for the quicker generation of curved and compound twills is introduced in this paper. A matrix model for the generation of regular, curved and compound twill structures is established and its computing simulation realization are elaborated. Examples of the algorithm applying in the simulation and the automatic generation of curved and compound twills in fabric CAD are obtained.

  16. A simple transformation for converting CW-OSL curves to LM-OSL curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.

    2000-01-01

    A simple mathematical transformation is introduced to convert from OSL decay curves obtained in the conventional way to those obtained using a linear modulation technique based on a linear increase of the stimulation light intensity during OSL measurement. The validity of the transformation...... was tested by the IR-stimulated luminescence curves from feldspars, recorded using both the conventional and the linear modulation techniques. The transformation was further applied to green-light-stimulated OSL from K and Na feldspars. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. F(α) curves: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazier, J.A.; Gunaratne, G.; Libchaber, A.

    1988-01-01

    We study the transition to chaos at the golden and silver means for forced Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection in mercury. We present f(α) curves below, at, and above the transition, and provide comparisons to the curves calculated for the one-dimensional circle map. We find good agreement at both the golden and silver means. This confirms our earlier observation that for low amplitude forcing, forced RB convection is well described by the one-dimensional circle map and indicates that the f(α) curve is a good measure of the approach to criticality. For selected subcritical experimental data sets we calculate the degree of subcriticality. We also present both experimental and calculated results for f(α) in the presence of a third frequency. Again we obtain agreement: The presence of random noise or a third frequency narrows the right-hand (negative q) side of the f(α) curve. Subcriticality results in symmetrically narrowed curves. We can also distinguish these cases by examining the power spectra and Poincare sections of the time series

  18. Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.

  19. Depth dose curves from 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators using the thermoluminescent technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2009-01-01

    The 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta-ray sources widely used in brachytherapy applications were developed in the 1950's. Many of these sources, called clinical applicators, are still routinely used in several Brazilian radiotherapy clinics for the treatment of superficial lesions in the skin and eyes, although they are not commercialized anymore. These applicators have to be periodically calibrated, according to international recommendations, because these sources have to be very well specified in order to reach the traceability of calibration standards. In the case of beta-ray sources, the recommended quantity is the absorbed dose rate in water at a reference distance from the source. Moreover, there are other important quantities, as the depth dose curves and the source uniformity for beta-ray plaque sources. In this work, depth dose curves were obtained and studied of five dermatological applicators, using thin thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO 4 :Dy and phantoms of PMMA with different thicknesses (between 1.0 mm and 5.0 mm) positioned between each applicator and the TL pellets. The depth dose curves obtained presented the expected attenuation response in PMMA, and the results were compared with data obtained for a 90 Sr+ 90 Y standard source reported by the IAEA, and they were considered satisfactory. (author)

  20. Quantitative Detection of the Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O 146S Antigen for Vaccine Production Using a Double-Antibody Sandwich ELISA and Nonlinear Standard Curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Feng

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01. In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings.

  1. Quantitative Detection of the Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O 146S Antigen for Vaccine Production Using a Double-Antibody Sandwich ELISA and Nonlinear Standard Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Ma, Jun-Wu; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Ya-Min; Jin, Ye; Zhou, Guang-Qing; He, Ji-Jun; Guo, Jian-Hong; Qi, Shu-yun; Lin, Mi; Cai, Hu; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG) analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01). In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings. PMID:26930597

  2. Fundamental principles for obtaining agricultural produce of standard purity in those parts of the Russian Federation which were radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and the effectiveness of the measures being taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnikov, A.N.; Aleksakhin, R.M.; Popova, G.I.; Zhigareva, T.L.; Vasil'ev, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    For the decrease in radionuclide content in agricultural products a complex of countermeasures in plant and animal production should be carried out. The results from the investigations performed indicate that quarantined obtaining of high quality plant products may be achieved by optimization of crop cultivation technology when qualitatively implementing all the agrotechnical operations and introducing the techniques facilitating the decrease of radionuclide transfer to plants. The use of agricultural ameliorants (vermiculite, bentonite), capable of non-exchanging radionuclide absorption in soils, reduces the 137 Cs accumulation in yield from 1,5 to 3 times. One of the most reevaluates economically inexpensive techniques on arable and forage lands under conditions of radioactive contamination is a selection of the most productive crop species and varieties showing the minimum radionuclide accumulation. Specific distinction in 137 Cs accumulation may reach from 2 to 45 times. Variety distinction are less and account for 2 to 5 times. The basis for obtaining plant products fully satisfactory for human consumption is a rational organization of feed stuffs, production, provision for animals of complete balanced diet with minimum radionuclide content, availability of high-productive animals

  3. Resonance of curved nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabri, L [CNR-INFM-National Research Center on nanoStructures and bioSystems at Surfaces (S3), Via Campi 213/a, 41100 Modena (Italy); Pugno, N [Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Ding, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States); Ruoff, R S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States)

    2006-08-23

    The effects of non-ideal experimental configuration on the mechanical resonance of boron (B) nanowires (NWs) were studied to obtain the corrected value for the Young's modulus. The following effects have been theoretically considered: (i) the presence of intrinsic curvature (ii) non-ideal clamps (iii) spurious masses (iv) coating layer, and (v) large displacements. An energy-based analytical analysis was developed to treat such effects and their interactions. Here, we focus on treating the effect of the intrinsic curvature on the mechanical resonance. The analytical approach has been confirmed by numerical FEM analysis. A parallax method was used to obtain the three-dimensional geometry of the NW.

  4. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  5. Experimental verification of different parameters influencing the fatigue S/N-curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Herter, K.-H.; Schuler, X.

    2005-01-01

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components the appropriate technical codes and standards provide detailed stress analysis procedures, material data and a design philosophy which guarantees a reliable behavior throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various (specified or measured) loading histories which are of mechanical and/or thermal origin and the geometric complexities of the components. In order to fully understand the background of the fatigue analysis included in the codes and standards as well as of the fatigue design curves used as a limiting criteria (to determine the fatigue life usage factor), it is important to understand the history, background as well as the methodologies which are important for the design engineers to get reliable results. The design rules according to the technical codes and standards provide for explicit consideration of cyclic operation, using design fatigue curves of allowable alternating loads (allowable stress or strain amplitudes) vs. number of loading cycles (S/N-curves), specific rules for assessing the cumulative fatigue damage (cumulative fatigue life usage factor) caused by different specified or monitored load cycles. The influence of different factors like welds, environment, surface finish, temperature, mean stress and size must be taken into consideration. In the paper parameters influencing the S/N-curves used within a fatigue analysis, like different type of material, the surface finish, the temperature, the difference between unwelded and welded areas, the strain rate as well as the influences of notches are verified on the basis of experimental results obtained by specimens testing in the LCF regime for high strain amplitudes. Thus safety margins relevant for the assessment of fatigue life depending on the different influencing parameters are

  6. Determination of the fine structure in the ionization plots obtained from a mass spectrometer with a large energy dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruaz, Daniel.

    1974-01-01

    The precise determination of ionization potentials, fragment ion appearance potentials and different excited state levels of the positive ions formed, together with phenomena due to an electron impact, were studied from ionization efficiency curves obtained by mass spectrometry. A standard ion source and an analytical method of electron energy dispersion reduction were used to study fine structures of ionization efficiency curves. Since the mass spectrometer was not adapted for the acquisition of ionization efficiency curve data an electronic system was designed to record these curves automatically. A precise stepwise potential variation of 45+-0.04mV was obtained, and for each step an intensity proportional to the number of ions created by the fragment considered, the additional gain being 4.4 and the linearity greater than 1% over a 13-volt region. Before each set of measurements the scattering was determined by calculation of the second derivative of a logistic function deduced from the cubic regression of the experimental helium function ionization efficiency curve values. The precision, given by the variance analysis SNEDECOR F test, is higher than 1/1000. For each series of recordings the numerical values were processed by a computer to raise by twenty the signal to noise ratio and calculate the ionization efficiency curve values by the energy difference method and the iterative unfolding method. In this way a high sensitivity was obtained for the determination of the curves near the ionization threshold, and a precision below 50MeV (at least equivalent to that given by ionization cells with quasi-monoenergetic electron beams) for the values of the ionization potentials, the appearance potentials and the excited state energy levels. In order to judge the reliability of the technique the ionization potentials of a set of eleven complex molecules were determined and compared with the results obtained by photoionization and photoelectron spectrometry [fr

  7. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  8. The Green functions in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, I.L.; Kirillova, E.N.; Odinstov, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of a free scalar field with conformal coupling in curved spacetime with some special metrics is considered. The integral representations for the green function G-tilde in the form of integrals with Schwinger-De Witt kernel over contours in the complex plane of proper time are obtained. It is shown how the transitions from a unique Green function in Euclidean space to different Green functions in Minkowski space and vice versa can be carried out. (author)

  9. Advection endash diffusion around a curved obstacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, D.S.; Keller, J.B.; Knessl, C.

    1998-01-01

    Advection and diffusion of a substance around a curved obstacle is analyzed when the advection velocity is large compared to the diffusion velocity, i.e., when the Peclet number is large. Asymptotic expressions for the concentration are obtained by the use of boundary layer theory, matched asymptotic expansions, etc. The results supplement and extend previous ones for straight obstacles. They apply to electrophoresis, the flow of ground water, chromatography, sedimentation, etc. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  10. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  11. Reduction of Elliptic Curves in Equal Characteristic 3 (and 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyamoto, Roland; Top, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    We determine conductor exponent, minimal discriminant and fibre type for elliptic curves over discrete valued fields of equal characteristic 3. Along the same lines, partial results are obtained in equal characteristic 2.

  12. CURVE LSFIT, Gamma Spectrometer Calibration by Interactive Fitting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CURVE and LSFIT are interactive programs designed to obtain the best data fit to an arbitrary curve. CURVE finds the type of fitting routine which produces the best curve. The types of fitting routines available are linear regression, exponential, logarithmic, power, least squares polynomial, and spline. LSFIT produces a reliable calibration curve for gamma ray spectrometry by using the uncertainty value associated with each data point. LSFIT is intended for use where an entire efficiency curve is to be made starting at 30 KeV and continuing to 1836 KeV. It creates calibration curves using up to three least squares polynomial fits to produce the best curve for photon energies above 120 KeV and a spline function to combine these fitted points with a best fit for points below 120 KeV. 2 - Method of solution: The quality of fit is tested by comparing the measured y-value to the y-value calculated from the fitted curve. The fractional difference between these two values is printed for the evaluation of the quality of the fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2000 data points calibration curve output (LSFIT) 30 input data points 3 least squares polynomial fits (LSFIT) The least squares polynomial fit requires that the number of data points used exceed the degree of fit by at least two

  13. INVESTIGATION OF CURVES SET BY CUBIC DISTRIBUTION OF CURVATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ustenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Further development of the geometric modeling of curvelinear contours of different objects based on the specified cubic curvature distribution and setpoints of curvature in the boundary points. Methodology. We investigate the flat section of the curvilinear contour generating under condition that cubic curvature distribution is set. Curve begins and ends at the given points, where angles of tangent slope and curvature are also determined. It was obtained the curvature equation of this curve, depending on the section length and coefficient c of cubic curvature distribution. The analysis of obtained equation was carried out. As well as, it was investigated the conditions, in which the inflection points of the curve are appearing. One should find such an interval of parameter change (depending on the input data and the section length, in order to place the inflection point of the curvature graph outside the curve section borders. It was determined the dependence of tangent slope of angle to the curve at its arbitrary point, as well as it was given the recommendations to solve a system of integral equations that allow finding the length of the curve section and the coefficient c of curvature cubic distribution. Findings. As the result of curves research, it is found that the criterion for their selection one can consider the absence of inflection points of the curvature on the observed section. Influence analysis of the parameter c on the graph of tangent slope angle to the curve showed that regardless of its value, it is provided the same rate of angle increase of tangent slope to the curve. Originality. It is improved the approach to geometric modeling of curves based on cubic curvature distribution with its given values at the boundary points by eliminating the inflection points from the observed section of curvilinear contours. Practical value. Curves obtained using the proposed method can be used for geometric modeling of curvilinear

  14. Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hankins

    Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.

  15. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assirati, J.L.M.; Gitman, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  16. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assirati, J.L.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  17. Contribution to the boiling curve of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Sodium in a pool was preheated to saturation temperatures at system pressures of 200, 350 and 500 torr. A test section of normal stainless steel was then extra heated by means of the conical fitting condenser zone of a heat pipe. Measurements were made of heat transfer fluxes, q in W/cm 2 , as a function of wall excess temperature above saturation, THETA = Tsub(w) - Tsub(s) in 0 C, both, in natural convection and in boiling regimes. These measurements make it possible to select the Subbotin natural convection and nucleate boiling curves among other variants proposed in literature. Further it is empirically demonstrated on water that the minimum film boiling point corresponds to the homogeneous nucleation temperature calculated by the Doering formula. Assuming that the minimum film boiling point of sodium can be obtained in the same manner, it is then possible to give an appoximate boiling curve of sodium for the use in thermal interaction studies. At 1 atm the heat transfer fluxes q versus wall temperatures THETA are for a point on the natural convection curve 0.3 W/cm 2 and 2 0 C; for start of boiling 1.6 W/cm 2 and 6 0 C; for peak heat flux 360 W/cm 2 and 37 0 C; for minimum film boiling 30 W/cm 2 and 905 0 C and for a point on the film boiling curve 160 W/cm 2 and 2,000 0 C. (orig.) [de

  18. The Melting Curve and Premelting of MgO

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, R. E.; Weitz, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The melting curve for MgO was obtained using molecular dynamics and a non-empirical, many-body potential. We also studied premelting effects by computing the dynamical structure factor in the crystal on approach to melting. The melting curve simulations were performed with periodic boundary conditions with cells up to 512 atoms using the ab-initio Variational Induced Breathing (VIB) model. The melting curve was obtained by computing $% \\Delta H_m$ and $\\Delta V_m$ and integrating the Clapeyro...

  19. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiro Gotanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were −32.336 and −33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range.

  20. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  1. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  2. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  3. Cosmological applications of algebraic quantum field theory in curved spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a largely self-contained and broadly accessible exposition on two cosmological applications of algebraic quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime: a fundamental analysis of the cosmological evolution according to the Standard Model of Cosmology; and a fundamental study of the perturbations in inflation. The two central sections of the book dealing with these applications are preceded by sections providing a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Introductory material on the construction of linear QFTs on general curved spacetimes with and without gauge symmetry in the algebraic approach, physically meaningful quantum states on general curved spacetimes, and the backreaction of quantum fields in curved spacetimes via the semiclassical Einstein equation is also given. The reader should have a basic understanding of General Relativity and QFT on Minkowski spacetime, but no background in QFT on curved spacetimes or the algebraic approach to QFT is required.

  4. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  5. New configuration factors for curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabeza-Lainez, Jose M.; Pulido-Arcas, Jesus A.

    2013-01-01

    Curved surfaces have not been thoroughly considered in radiative transfer analysis mainly due to the difficulties arisen in the integration process and perhaps because of the lack of spatial vision of the researchers. It is a fact, especially for architectural lighting, that when concave geometries appear inside a curved space, they are mostly avoided. In this way, a vast repertoire of significant forms is neglected and energy waste is evident. Starting from the properties of volumes enclosed by the minimum number of surfaces, the authors formulate, with little calculus, new simple laws, which enable them to discover a set of configuration factors for caps and various segments of the sphere. The procedure is subsequently extended to previously unimagined surfaces as the paraboloid, the ellipsoid or the cone. Appropriate combination of the said forms with right truncated cones produces several complex volumes, often used in architectural and engineering creations and whose radiative performance could not be accurately predicted for decades. To complete the research, a new method for determining interreflections in curved volumes is also presented. Radiative transfer simulation benefits from these findings, as the simplicity of the results has led the authors to create innovative software more efficient for design and evaluation and applicable to emerging fields like LED lighting. -- Highlights: ► Friendly revision of fundamentals of radiative transfer. ► New configuration factors for curved surfaces obtained without calculus. ► New method for interreflections in curved geometries. ► Enhanced simulation algorithms. ► Fast comparison of radiative performances of surfaces

  6. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  7. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  8. Validation of curve-fitting method for blood retention of 99mTc-GSA. Comparison with blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha-Kawa, Sang Kil; Suga, Yutaka; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Ikeda, Koshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1997-01-01

    We investigated a curve-fitting method for the rate of blood retention of 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin (GSA) as a substitute for the blood sampling method. Seven healthy volunteers and 27 patients with liver disease underwent 99m Tc-GSA scanning. After normalization of the y-intercept as 100 percent, a biexponential regression curve for the precordial time-activity curve provided the percent injected dose (%ID) of 99m Tc-GSA in the blood without blood sampling. The discrepancy between %ID obtained by the curve-fitting method and that by the multiple blood samples was minimal in normal volunteers 3.1±2.1% (mean±standard deviation, n=77 sampling). Slightly greater discrepancy was observed in patients with liver disease (7.5±6.1%, n=135 sampling). The %ID at 15 min after injection obtained from the fitted curve was significantly greater in patients with liver cirrhosis than in the controls (53.2±11.6%, n=13; vs. 31.9±2.8%, n=7, p 99m Tc-GSA and the plasma retention rate for indocyanine green (r=-0.869, p 99m Tc-GSA and could be a substitute for the blood sampling method. (author)

  9. R-curve behaviour of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.Ya.; Kramarov, S.O.

    2004-01-01

    The attempt's made to identify and evaluate the regularities of developing the fractures in the ferroelectric ceramics and also-study the effect of the polishing operation on the strength characteristics of the piezoceramics. The R-curve behaviour in the ferroelectric ceramics is studied on the samples of the barium titanate and lead zirconate-titanate by the four-point bending with controlled surface fractures. It is established that increasing curve of resistance to the fracture growth is observed in the piezoceramics under the conditions of the fracture stable growth. The results obtained on the polished samples prove that the mechanical processing introduces the compression surface stresses into the piezoceramic materials [ru

  10. Graphical evaluation of complexometric titration curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinon, J L

    1985-04-01

    A graphical method, based on logarithmic concentration diagrams, for construction, without any calculations, of complexometric titration curves is examined. The titration curves obtained for different kinds of unidentate, bidentate and quadridentate ligands clearly show why only chelating ligands are usually used in titrimetric analysis. The method has also been applied to two practical cases where unidentate ligands are used: (a) the complexometric determination of mercury(II) with halides and (b) the determination of cyanide with silver, which involves both a complexation and a precipitation system; for this purpose construction of the diagrams for the HgCl(2)/HgCl(+)/Hg(2+) and Ag(CN)(2)(-)/AgCN/CN(-) systems is considered in detail.

  11. Analysis of threshold curves for superconducting interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.L.; Hamilton, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold curves for multijunction superconducting interferometers have been calculated previously, showing general agreement with observed features, especially in symmetric cases. We here add some more details to the analysis, paying particular attention to the effects of asymmetries in coupling, inductance, or critical currents. Feed-loop inductance and flux quantization in the feed loop can be important. A changing lobe pattern over many periods, asymmetries within a period, shifting patterns between runs spanning a warm-up, and sudden changes in pattern because of noise in the environment are all quantitatively explainable on the basis of this model. By use of a single ''calibration curve'', the inductance for symmetric two- or three-junction interferometers can be obtained immediately

  12. Gauge field configurations in curved spacetimes (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaleb-Joutei, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Comtet, A.

    1979-05-01

    One continues the study of gauge field configurations in curved spaces, using the formalism and results of a previous paper. A class of static, finite action, selfdual solutions of SU(2) gauge fields on a Euclidean section of de Sitter space is presented. The action depends on a continuous parameter. The spin connection solution is obtained as a particular case and a certain passage to the limiting case of a flat space is shown to reproduce the Euclidean Prasad-Sommerfield solution. The significance and possible interest of such solutions are discussed. The results are then generalized to a non-Einstein but conformally flat space, including de Sitter space as an Einstein limit. Next Baecklund type transformations are constructed starting from selfduality constraints for such curved spaces. These transformations are applied to the above mentioned solutions. The last two sections contain remarks on solutions with a background Robinson-Bertotti metric and on static, axially symmetric solutions respectively

  13. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  14. Uncertainty of pesticide residue concentration determined from ordinary and weighted linear regression curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolci Omeroglu, Perihan; Ambrus, Árpad; Boyacioglu, Dilek

    2018-03-28

    Determination of pesticide residues is based on calibration curves constructed for each batch of analysis. Calibration standard solutions are prepared from a known amount of reference material at different concentration levels covering the concentration range of the analyte in the analysed samples. In the scope of this study, the applicability of both ordinary linear and weighted linear regression (OLR and WLR) for pesticide residue analysis was investigated. We used 782 multipoint calibration curves obtained for 72 different analytical batches with high-pressure liquid chromatography equipped with an ultraviolet detector, and gas chromatography with electron capture, nitrogen phosphorus or mass spectrophotometer detectors. Quality criteria of the linear curves including regression coefficient, standard deviation of relative residuals and deviation of back calculated concentrations were calculated both for WLR and OLR methods. Moreover, the relative uncertainty of the predicted analyte concentration was estimated for both methods. It was concluded that calibration curve based on WLR complies with all the quality criteria set by international guidelines compared to those calculated with OLR. It means that all the data fit well with WLR for pesticide residue analysis. It was estimated that, regardless of the actual concentration range of the calibration, relative uncertainty at the lowest calibrated level ranged between 0.3% and 113.7% for OLR and between 0.2% and 22.1% for WLR. At or above 1/3 of the calibrated range, uncertainty of calibration curve ranged between 0.1% and 16.3% for OLR and 0% and 12.2% for WLR, and therefore, the two methods gave comparable results.

  15. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  16. Selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays and impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huidong; Liu, Guowen; Wang, Jian; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2014-09-16

    A simple procedure for selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays is reported. The correct weighting factor is determined by the relationship between the standard deviation of instrument responses (σ) and the concentrations (x). The weighting factor of 1, 1/x, or 1/x(2) should be selected if, over the entire concentration range, σ is a constant, σ(2) is proportional to x, or σ is proportional to x, respectively. For the first time, we demonstrated with detailed scientific reasoning, solid historical data, and convincing justification that 1/x(2) should always be used as the weighting factor for all bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays. The impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance were thoroughly investigated. It was found that the most stable curve could be obtained when the correct weighting factor was used, whereas other curves using incorrect weighting factors were unstable. It was also found that there was a very insignificant impact on the concentrations reported with calibration curves using incorrect weighting factors as the concentrations were always reported with the passing curves which actually overlapped with or were very close to the curves using the correct weighting factor. However, the use of incorrect weighting factors did impact the assay performance significantly. Finally, the difference between the weighting factors of 1/x(2) and 1/y(2) was discussed. All of the findings can be generalized and applied into other quantitative analysis techniques using calibration curves with weighted least-squares regression algorithm.

  17. Variation of curve number with storm depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2012-04-01

    The NRCS Curve Number (known also as SCS-CN) method is well known as a tool in predicting flood runoff depth from small ungauged catchment. The traditional way of determination the CNs, based on soil characteristics, land use and hydrological conditions, seemed to have tendency to overpredict the floods in some cases. Over 30 year rainfall-runoff data, collected in two small (A=23.4 & 82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchments in Center of Poland (Banasik & Woodward 2010), were used to determine runoff Curve Number and to check a tendency of changing. The observed CN declines with increasing storm size, which according recent views of Hawkins (1993) could be classified as a standard response of watershed. The analysis concluded, that using CN value according to the procedure described in USDA-SCS Handbook one receives representative value for estimating storm runoff from high rainfall depths in the analyzes catchments. This has been confirmed by applying "asymptotic approach" for estimating the watershed curve number from the rainfall-runoff data. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that CN, estimated from mean retention parameter S of recorded events with rainfall depth higher than initial abstraction, is also approaching the theoretical CN. The observed CN, ranging from 59.8 to 97.1 and from 52.3 to 95.5, in the smaller and the larger catchment respectively, declines with increasing storm size, which has been classified as a standard response of watershed. The investigation demonstrated also changeability of the CN during a year, with much lower values during the vegetation season. Banasik K. & D.E. Woodward (2010). "Empirical determination of curve number for a small agricultural watrshed in Poland". 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 - July 1, 2010 (http://acwi.gov/sos/pubs/2ndJFIC/Contents/10E_Banasik_ 28_02_10. pdf). Hawkins R. H. (1993). "Asymptotic determination of curve numbers from data". Journal of Irrigation and Drainage

  18. Unified approach for estimating the probabilistic design S-N curves of three commonly used fatigue stress-life models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Wang Jinnuo; Gao Qing

    2001-01-01

    A unified approach, referred to as general maximum likelihood method, is presented for estimating probabilistic design S-N curves and their confidence bounds of the three commonly used fatigue stress-life models, namely three parameter, Langer and Basquin. The curves are described by a general form of mean and standard deviation S-N curves of the logarithm of fatigue life. Different from existent methods, i.e., the conventional method and the classical maximum likelihood method,present approach considers the statistical characteristics of whole test data. The parameters of the mean curve is firstly estimated by least square method and then, the parameters of the standard deviation curve is evaluated by mathematical programming method to be agreement with the maximum likelihood principle. Fit effects of the curves are assessed by fitted relation coefficient, total fitted standard error and the confidence bounds. Application to the virtual stress amplitude-crack initiation life data of a nuclear engineering material, Chinese 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-weld metal, has indicated the validity of the approach to the S-N data where both S and N show the character of random variable. Practices to the two states of S-N data of Chinese 45 carbon steel notched specimens (k t = 2.0) have indicated the validity of present approach to the test results obtained respectively from group fatigue test and from maximum likelihood fatigue test. At the practices, it was revealed that in general the fit is best for the three-parameter model,slightly inferior for the Langer relation and poor for the Basquin equation. Relative to the existent methods, present approach has better fit. In addition, the possible non-conservative predictions of the existent methods, which are resulted from the influence of local statistical characteristics of the data, are also overcome by present approach

  19. Preliminary tests to determine the fatigue curve of the Ibis ACSR (Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced) conductor; Ensaios preliminares para determinacao da curva de fadiga do cabo condutor ACSR Ibis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Daniel M. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Gama), DF (Brazil)], E-mail: danielrosa@unb.br; Fadel, Aida A.; Araujo, Jose Alexander; Ferreira, Jorge Luiz A.; Henriques, Antonio Manoel D. [Universidade de Brasilia (EnM/UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: aida@unb.br, alex07@unb.br, jorge@unb.br, Henriques@unb.br; Hortencio, Tania M.O.S. [Companhia Energetica de Goias Distribuicao S.A. (CELG D), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: tania.hortencio@celg.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to present a fretting fatigue experimental rig for overhead conductors and to carry out a set of experiments to obtain life estimative for a standard Ibis ACSR, Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced. A preliminary S-N (Wohler) Curve was obtained in the medium high cycle fatigue regime. Experiments considered the occurrence of at least two wire breaks to obtain each point of the S-N curve, which was compared to CIGRE's Safe Border Line (CSBL). The experimental results showed five to ten times large lives than the ones provided by CSBL adoption. (author)

  20. Determination of efficiency curves for HPGE detector in different counting geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Josianne L.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first experimental results related to determination of efficiency curves for HPGe detector in different counting geometries. The detector is a GX2520 Canberra belonging to CDTN/CNEN. Efficiency curves for punctual were determined by using a certified set of gamma sources. These curves were determined for three counting geometries. Following that, efficiency curves for non punctual samples were determined by using standard solutions of radionuclides in 500 ml and 1000 ml wash bottle Marinelli

  1. Vertex algebras and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...

  2. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  3. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  4. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  5. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

    in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers......  Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  6. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  7. Curves over finite fields with many rational points obtained by ray class field extensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Bosma, W

    2000-01-01

    A general type of ray class fields of global function fields is investigated. The computation of their genera is reduced to the determination of the degrees of these extensions, which turns out to be the main difficulty. While in two special situations explicit formulas for the degrees are known,

  8. Modelling of hardness distribution curves obtained on two-phase materials by grid indentation technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, - (2011), s. 660-663 ISSN 0009-2770. [Lokálne mechanické vlastnosti 2010. Smolenice, 10.11.2010-12.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/09/0700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : grid indentation * hardness * modelling Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2011

  9. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nicolás; Buiochi, Flávio; Brizzotti Andrade, Marco Aurélio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM), to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods. PMID:28787875

  10. Detection of flaws below curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsley, R.K.; Addison, R.C.; Graham, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    A measurement model has been developed to describe ultrasonic measurements made with circular piston transducers in parts with flat or cylindrically curved surfaces. The model includes noise terms to describe electrical noise, scatterer noise and echo noise as well as effects of attenuation, diffraction and Fresnel loss. An experimental procedure for calibrating the noise terms of the model was developed. Experimental measurements were made on a set of known flaws located beneath a cylindrically curved surface. The model was verified by using it to correct the experimental measurements to obtain the absolute scattering amplitude of the flaws. For longitudinal wave propagation within the part, the derived scattering amplitudes were consistent with predictions at internal angles of less than 30 0 . At larger angles, focusing and aberrations caused a lack of agreement; the model needs further refinement in this case. For shear waves, it was found that the frequency for optimum flaw detection in the presence of material noise is lower than that for longitudinal waves; lower frequency measurements are currently in progress. The measurement model was then used to make preliminary predictions of the best experimental measurement technique for the detection of cracks located under cylindrically curved surfaces

  11. Statistical and biophysical aspects of survival curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Statistic fluctuation in a series of consequently taken survival curves of asynchronous cells of a hamster of the V79 line during X-ray irradiation, are considered. In each of the experiments fluctuations are close to those expected on the basis of the Poisson distribution. The fluctuation of cell sensitivity in different experiments of one series can reach 10%. The normalization of each experiment in mean values permits to obtain the ''idealized'' survival curve. The survival logarithm in this curve is proportional to the absorbed dose and its square only at low radiation doses. Such proportionality in V lab 79 cells in the late S-phase is observed at all doses. Using the microdosimetric approach, the distance where the interaction of radiolysis products or subinjury takes place to make the dependence of injury on the dose non-linear, is determined. In the case of interaction distances of 10-100 nm, the linear component is shown to become comparable in value with the linear injury component at doses of the order of several hundred rad only in the case, when the interaction distance is close to micrometre [ru

  12. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM, to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods.

  13. Tracing a planar algebraic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Falai; Kozak, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  14. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  15. Implementation Learning and Forgetting Curve to Scheduling in Garment Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Badri, Huda; Deros, Baba Md; Syahri, M.; Saleh, Chairul; Fitria, Aninda

    2016-02-01

    The learning curve shows the relationship between time and the cumulative number of units produced which using the mathematical description on the performance of workers in performing repetitive works. The problems of this study is level differences in the labors performance before and after the break which affects the company's production scheduling. The study was conducted in the garment industry, which the aims is to predict the company production scheduling using the learning curve and forgetting curve. By implementing the learning curve and forgetting curve, this paper contributes in improving the labors performance that is in line with the increase in maximum output 3 hours productive before the break are 15 unit product with learning curve percentage in the company is 93.24%. Meanwhile, the forgetting curve improving maximum output 3 hours productive after the break are 11 unit product with the percentage of forgetting curve in the company is 92.96%. Then, the obtained 26 units product on the productive hours one working day is used as the basic for production scheduling.

  16. Curve fitting for RHB Islamic Bank annual net profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajan, Dineswary; Noor, Noor Fadiya Mohd

    2015-05-01

    The RHB Islamic Bank net profit data are obtained from 2004 to 2012. Curve fitting is done by assuming the data are exact or experimental due to smoothing process. Higher order Lagrange polynomial and cubic spline with curve fitting procedure are constructed using Maple software. Normality test is performed to check the data adequacy. Regression analysis with curve estimation is conducted in SPSS environment. All the eleven models are found to be acceptable at 10% significant level of ANOVA. Residual error and absolute relative true error are calculated and compared. The optimal model based on the minimum average error is proposed.

  17. Vacancies und melting curves of metals at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, T.

    1977-01-01

    The vacancy mechanism of the melting process is utilized as a starting point in derivation of the pressure dependence of melting temperature for metals. The results obtained for the initial slope of the melting curve are compared with experimental data for 45 metals (including U, Np, Pu, rare earths) and in most cases the agreement is very good. An on-linearity of the fusion curve and appearence of the maximum on the melting curve at a pressure approximately equal to the bulk modulus is also predicted with qualitative agreement with existing experimental data. (orig./GSC) [de

  18. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotationon the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail, The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without ro-tation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis foree to centrifugal foree and the axial pressure gradient.

  19. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotation on the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail. The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without rotation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis force to centrifugal force and the axial pressure gradient.

  20. The algebraic curve of 1-loop planar N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Nameki, S.

    2004-12-01

    The algebraic curve for the psu(2,2 vertical stroke 4) quantum spin chain is determined from the thermodynamic limit of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. The Hamiltonian of this spin chain has been identified with the planar 1-loop dilatation operator of N=4 SYM. In the dual AdS 5 x S 5 string theory, various properties of the data defining the curve for the gauge theory are compared to the ones obtained from semiclassical spinning-string configurations, in particular for the case of strings on AdS 5 x S 1 and the su(2,2) spin chain agreement of the curves is shown. (orig.)

  1. Quaternion wave equations in curved space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The quaternion formulation of relativistic quantum theory is extended to include curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time in order to provide a framework for a unified quantum/gravity theory. Six basic quaternion fields are identified in curved space-time, the four-vector basis quaternions are identified, and the necessary covariant derivatives are obtained. Invariant field equations are derived, and a general invertable coordinate transformation is developed. The results yield a way of writing quaternion wave equations in curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time as well as a natural framework for solving the problem of second quantization for gravity.

  2. Some empirical rules concerning the vapor pressure curve revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, S.; White, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Claussius–Claperyron equation is obtained in the Pitzer corresponding states scheme. • Some well-known empirical rules for the vapor pressure are rewritten in terms of the Pitzer acentric factor. • The Guggenheim point follows the corresponding state scheme better than the normal boiling point. • The Ambrose–Walton vapor pressure equation yields excellent agreement with NIST data in all considered cases. -- Abstract: A form for the Clausius–Clapeyron vapor-pressure equation is obtained in the Pitzer corresponding states scheme. This equation allows one to rewrite the well-known Trouton, Guldberg, van Laar and Guggenheim rules in terms of the acentric factor ω. The original forms of these empirical rules are recovered for some particular values of ω. The proposed rules are checked by analyzing National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) data on the liquid-vapor coexistence curve for 105 fluids. These rules have been also analyzed by using the well-known Ambrose–Walton (AW) vapor pressure equation

  3. Signature Curves Statistics of DNA Supercoils

    OpenAIRE

    Shakiban, Cheri; Lloyd, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Euclidean signature curves for two dimensional closed curves in the plane and their generalization to closed space curves. The focus will be on discrete numerical methods for approximating such curves. Further we will apply these numerical methods to plot the signature curves related to three-dimensional simulated DNA supercoils. Our primary focus will be on statistical analysis of the data generated for the signature curves of the supercoils. We will try to esta...

  4. On some Closed Magnetic Curves on a 3-torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, Marian Ioan, E-mail: marian.ioan.munteanu@gmail.com [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Faculty of Mathematics (Romania); Nistor, Ana Irina, E-mail: ana.irina.nistor@gmail.com [Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iaşi, Department of Mathematics and Informatics (Romania)

    2017-06-15

    We consider two magnetic fields on the 3-torus obtained from two different contact forms on the Euclidean 3-space and we study when their corresponding normal magnetic curves are closed. We obtain periodicity conditions analogues to those for the closed geodesics on the torus.

  5. Deconvolution of the thermoluminescent emission curve. Second order kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y M, A.; Moreno B, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work it is described the Randall and Wilkins second order kinetics in Microsoft Excel language, which allows its expression as the sum of Gaussian and the correction factors corresponding. These factors are obtained of the differences between the real thermoluminescent curve and the Gaussian proposed. The results obtained justify the Gaussian expression added to the correction factor. (Author)

  6. Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: an universal curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Araujo, C.B. de

    1983-04-01

    An universal curve for the frequency dependence of the multiphoton absorption coefficient is proposed based on a 'non-perturbative' approach. Specific applications have been made to obtain two, three, four and five photons absorption coefficient in different materials. Properly scaling of the two photon absorption coefficient and the use of the universal curve yields results for the higher order absorption coefficients in good agreement with the experimental data. (Author) [pt

  7. Light Curve Solution of the Contact Binary AW UMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Jeong

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1088 observations (272 in B,272 in V, 272 in R, and 272 in I were made from January to February in 1995 at Chungbuk National University observatory(CbNUO. We constructed BVRI light curves with our data. The photometric solution of these light curves was obtained by means of the Wilson-Devinney method. Our result was compared with those by previous investigators.

  8. Description of hardening curves of fcc single- and polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, H.

    1975-01-01

    Stress-strain curves are analyzed over their entire strain region and over a wide range of temperatures to arrive at a general analytic description of work-hardening curves. The data were obtained with fcc single and polycrystals, but there is experimental and theoretical evidence that the principles of the analysis are also applicable for other crystal structures and even for more complex technical materials. 9 figs, 1 table, 46 refs

  9. Elastic-plastic fracture assessment using a J-R curve by direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asta, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    In the elastic-plastic evaluation methods, based on J integral and tearing modulus procedures, an essential input is the material fracture resistance (J-R) curve. In order to simplify J-R determination direct, a method from load-load point displacement records of the single specimen tests may be employed. This procedure has advantages such as avoiding accuracy problems of the crack growth measuring devices and reducing testing time. This paper presents a structural integrity assessment approach, for ductile fracture, using the J-R obtained by a direct method from small single specimen fracture tests. The J-R direct method was carried out by means of a developed computational program based on theoretical elastic-plastic expressions. A comparative evaluation between the direct method J resistance curves and those obtained by the standard testing methodology on typical pressure vessel steels has been made. The J-R curves estimated from the direct method give an acceptable agreement with the approach proposed in this study which is reliable to use for engineering determinations. (orig.)

  10. Vibrational Analysis of Curved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube on a Pasternak Elastic Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, I.; Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, Amin

    2012-01-01

    . By utilizing He’s Energy Balance Method (HEBM), the relationships of the nonlinear amplitude and frequency were expressed for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube. The amplitude frequency response curves of the nonlinear free vibration were obtained for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube embedded...

  11. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  12. Reference Curve for the Mean Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index in Singleton Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Alexander; Hagen, Andreas; Tchirikov, Michael; Fuchs, Ilka B; Henrich, Wolfgang; Entezami, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Doppler sonography of the uterine artery (UA) is done to monitor pregnancies, because the detected flow patterns are useful to draw inferences about possible disorders of trophoblast invasion. Increased resistance in the UA is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and perinatal mortality. In the absence of standardized figures, the normal ranges of the various available reference curves sometimes differ quite substantially from one another. The causes for this are differences in the flow patterns of the UA depending on the position of the pulsed Doppler gates as well as branching of the UA. Because of the discrepancies between the different reference curves and the practical problems this poses for guideline recommendations, we thought it would be useful to create our own reference curves for Doppler measurements of the UA obtained from a singleton cohort under standardized conditions. This retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics of the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, the Department for Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine of the University Hospital Halle (Saale) and the Center for Prenatal Diagnostics and Human Genetics Kurfürstendamm 199. Available datasets from the three study locations were identified and reference curves were generated using the LMS method. Measured values were correlated with age of gestation, and a cubic model and Box-Cox power transformation (L), the median (M) and the coefficient of variation (S) were used to smooth the curves. 103 720 Doppler examinations of the UA carried out in singleton pregnancies from the 11th week of gestation (10 + 1 GW) were analyzed. The mean pulsatility index (Mean PI) showed a continuous decline over the course of pregnancy, dropping to a plateau of around 0.84 between the 23rd and 27th GW, after which it decreased again. Age of gestation, placental position, position of pulsed Doppler gates and branching of

  13. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  14. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  15. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  16. A Curve for all Reasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from biology, feel that every pattern in the living world, ranging from the folding of ... curves band c have the same rate of increase but reach different asymptotes. If these .... not at x = 0, but at xo' which is the minimum size at birth that will permit ...

  17. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  18. Simulation of density curve for slim borehole using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inaya C.B.; Rocha, Paula L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Borehole logging for formation density has been an important geophysical measurement in oil industry. For calibration of the Gamma Ray nuclear logging tool, numerous rock models of different lithology and densities are necessary. However, the full success of this calibration process is determined by a reliable benchmark, where the complete and precise chemical composition of the standards is necessary. Simulations using the Monte Carlo MCNP have been widely employed in well logging application once it serves as a low-cost substitute for experimental test pits, as well as a means for obtaining data that are difficult to obtain experimentally. Considering this, the purpose of this work is to use the code MCNP to obtain density curves for slim boreholes using Gamma Ray logging tools. For this, a Slim Density Gamma Probe, named TRISOND R , and a 100 mCi Cs-137 gamma source has been modeled with the new version of MCNP code MCNPX. (author)

  19. Simulation of density curve for slim borehole using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda, E-mail: scorrea@nuclear.ufrj.b [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste (CCMAT/UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Inaya C.B., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ) Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro; Rocha, Paula L.F., E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2010-07-01

    Borehole logging for formation density has been an important geophysical measurement in oil industry. For calibration of the Gamma Ray nuclear logging tool, numerous rock models of different lithology and densities are necessary. However, the full success of this calibration process is determined by a reliable benchmark, where the complete and precise chemical composition of the standards is necessary. Simulations using the Monte Carlo MCNP have been widely employed in well logging application once it serves as a low-cost substitute for experimental test pits, as well as a means for obtaining data that are difficult to obtain experimentally. Considering this, the purpose of this work is to use the code MCNP to obtain density curves for slim boreholes using Gamma Ray logging tools. For this, a Slim Density Gamma Probe, named TRISOND{sup R}, and a 100 mCi Cs-137 gamma source has been modeled with the new version of MCNP code MCNPX. (author)

  20. Suitability of the double Langevin function for description of anhysteretic magnetization curves in NO and GO electrical steel grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Steentjes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the match obtained using the classical Langevin function, the tanh function as well as a recently by the authors proposed double Langevin function with the measured anhysteretic magnetization curve of three different non-oriented electrical steel grades and one grain-oriented grade. Two standard non-oriented grades and a high-silicon grade (Si content of 6.5% made by CVD are analyzed. An excellent match is obtained using the double Langevin function, whereas the classical solutions are less appropriate. Thereby, problems such as those due to propagation of approximation errors observed in hysteresis modeling can be bypassed.

  1. Buckling Capacity Curves for Steel Spherical Shells Loaded by the External Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażejewski, Paweł; Marcinowski, Jakub

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of buckling resistance of pressurised spherical cap is not an easy task. There exist two different approaches which allow to achieve this goal. The first approach involves performing advanced numerical analyses in which material and geometrical nonlinearities would be taken into account as well as considering the worst imperfections of the defined amplitude. This kind of analysis is customarily called GMNIA and is carried out by means of the computer software based on FEM. The other, comparatively easier approach, relies on the utilisation of earlier prepared procedures which enable determination of the critical resistance pRcr, the plastic resistance pRpl and buckling parameters a, b, h, l 0 needed to the definition of the standard buckling resistance curve. The determination of the buckling capacity curve for the particular class of spherical caps is the principal goal of this work. The method of determination of the critical pressure and the plastic resistance were described by the authors in [1] whereas the worst imperfection mode for the considered class of spherical shells was found in [2]. The determination of buckling parameters defining the buckling capacity curve for the whole class of shells is more complicated task. For this reason the authors focused their attention on spherical steel caps with the radius to thickness ratio of R/t = 500, the semi angle j = 30o and the boundary condition BC2 (the clamped supporting edge). Taking into account all imperfection forms considered in [2] and different amplitudes expressed by the multiple of the shell thickness, sets of buckling parameters defining the capacity curve were determined. These parameters were determined by the methods proposed by Rotter in [3] and [4] where the method of determination of the exponent h by means of additional parameter k was presented. As a result of the performed analyses the standard capacity curves for all considered imperfection modes and amplitudes 0.5t, 1.0t, 1.5t

  2. MODELING THE TRANSITION CURVE ON A LIMITED TERAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Borisenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Further development of the method of geometric modelling of transition curves, which are placed between rectilinear and circular sections of railway tracks and are created in localities, the relief of which causes certain restrictions on the size of the transition curves of the railway track. Methodology. The equation of the transition curve is taken in parametric form, in which the length of the arc of the modelled curve is used as a parameter. As initial data in the modelling of the transition curve, the coordinates of its initial point and the angle of inclination in it are tangent, the radius of the circumference of the circular section and the parameter that is used as a constraint when placing a section of the railway track. The transition curve is modelled under the condition that the distribution of its curvature from the length of the arc - the natural parameter - is described by a cubic dependence. This dependence contains four unknown coefficients; the unknown is also the length of the arc. The coefficients of the cubic dependence and the length of the arc of the transition curve, the coordinates of its end point, the angle of inclination in it of the tangent are determined during the simulation of the transition curve. The application of boundary conditions and methods of differential geometry with respect to the distribution of the slope angle of the tangent to the simulated curve from the initial to the end points of the transition curve and the calculation of the coordinates of the end point of the curve allows us to reduce the problem of modelling the transition curve to determine the arc length of this curve. Directly the length of the transition curve is in the process of minimizing the deviation of the circumference of the circular path from its current value obtained when searching for the arc length. Findings. As a result of the computational experiment, the possibility of modelling a transition curve between a

  3. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  4. Determination of water retention curves of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M.V.; Romero, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The water retention curves of concrete and mortar obtained with two different techniques and following wetting and drying paths were determined. The material was the same used to manufacture the disposal cells of the Spanish surface facility of El Cabril. The water retention capacity of mortar is clearly higher than that of concrete when expressed as gravimetric water content, but the difference reduces when it is expressed as degree of saturation. Hysteresis between wetting and drying was observed for both materials, particularly for mortar. The tests went on for very long periods of time, and concerns about the geochemical, mineralogical and porosity changes occurred in the materials during the determinations (changes in dry mass, grain density, samples volume) and their repercussion on the results obtained (water content and degree of saturation computation) were raised. Also, the fact of having used techniques applying total and matrix suction could have affected the results. (authors)

  5. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  6. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  7. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  8. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  9. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. CfA3: 185 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FROM THE CfA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Bakos, Gaspar; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Calkins, Mike; Cho, Richard; Contreras, Maria; Jha, Saurabh; Matheson, Tom; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Michael Wood-Vasey, W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Bragg, Ann; Briceno, Cesar; Ciupik, Larry; Dendy, Kristi-Concannon

    2009-01-01

    We present multiband photometry of 185 type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), with over 11,500 observations. These were acquired between 2001 and 2008 at the F. L. Whipple Observatory of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). This sample contains the largest number of homogeneously observed and reduced nearby SNe Ia (z ∼< 0.08) published to date. It more than doubles the nearby sample, bringing SN Ia cosmology to the point where systematic uncertainties dominate. Our natural system photometry has a precision of ∼<0.02 mag in BVRIr'i' and ∼<0.04 mag in U for points brighter than 17.5 mag. We also estimate a systematic uncertainty of 0.03 mag in our SN Ia standard system BVRIr'i' photometry and 0.07 mag for U. Comparisons of our standard system photometry with published SN Ia light curves and comparison stars, where available for the same SN, reveal agreement at the level of a few hundredths mag in most cases. We find that 1991bg-like SNe Ia are sufficiently distinct from other SNe Ia in their color and light-curve-shape/luminosity relation that they should be treated separately in light-curve/distance fitter training samples. The CfA3 sample will contribute to the development of better light-curve/distance fitters, particularly in the few dozen cases where near-infrared photometry has been obtained and, together, can help disentangle host-galaxy reddening from intrinsic supernova color, reducing the systematic uncertainty in SN Ia distances due to dust.

  12. Corrections for hysteresis curves for rare earth magnet materials measured by open magnetic circuit methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yasuaki

    1996-01-01

    The methods for testing permanent magnets stipulated in the usual industrial standards are so-called closed magnetic circuit methods which employ a loop tracer using an iron-core electromagnet. If the coercivity exceeds the highest magnetic field generated by the electromagnet, full hysteresis curves cannot be obtained. In the present work, magnetic fields up to 15 T were generated by a high-power water-cooled magnet, and the magnetization was measured by an induction method with an open magnetic circuit, in which the effect of a demagnetizing field should be taken into account. Various rare earth magnets materials such as sintered or bonded Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B were provided by a number of manufacturers. Hysteresis curves for cylindrical samples with 10 nm in diameter and 2 mm, 3.5 mm, 5 mm, 14 mm or 28 mm in length were measured. Correction for the demagnetizing field is rather difficult because of its non-uniformity. Roughly speaking, a mean demagnetizing factor for soft magnetic materials can be used for the correction, although the application of this factor to hard magnetic material is hardly justified. Thus the dimensions of the sample should be specified when the data obtained by the open magnetic circuit method are used as industrial standards. (author)

  13. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  14. Theory of titration curves-VII The properties of derivative titration curves for strong acid-strong base and other isovalent ion-combination titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, T; Meites, L

    1970-06-01

    This paper deals with isovalent ion-combination titrations based on reactions that can be represented by the equation M(n+) + X(n-) --> MX, where the activity of the product MX is invariant throughout a titration, and with the derivative titration curves obtained by plotting d[M(+)]/dfversus f for such titrations. It describes some of the ways in which such curves can be obtained; it compares and contrasts them both with potentiometric titration curves, which resemble them in shape, and with segmented titration curves, from which they are derived; and it discusses their properties in detail.

  15. Projection-based curve clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)

  16. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  17. Elementary particles in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

  18. Sketching Curves for Normal Distributions--Geometric Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Within statistics instruction, students are often requested to sketch the curve representing a normal distribution with a given mean and standard deviation. Unfortunately, these sketches are often notoriously imprecise. Poor sketches are usually the result of missing mathematical knowledge. This paper considers relationships which exist among…

  19. 7 CFR 43.105 - Operating characteristics (OC) curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating characteristics (OC) curves. 43.105 Section 43.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR SAMPLING PLANS Sampling Plans § 43.105 Operating characteristics (OC...

  20. Blood flow in curved pipe with radiative heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogulu, A.; Bestman, A.R.

    1992-03-01

    Blood flow in a curved pipe such as the aorta is modelled in this study. The aorta is modelled as a curved pipe of slowly varying cross-section. Asymptotic series expansions about a small parameter δ, which is a measure of the curvature ratio is employed to obtain the velocity and temperature distributions. The study simulates the effect of radio-frequency heating, for instance during physiotherapy, on the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system assuming an external constant pressure gradient; and our results agree very well with results obtained by Pedley. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  1. Trends in scale and shape of survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2012-01-01

    The ageing of the population is an issue in wealthy countries worldwide because of increasing costs for health care and welfare. Survival curves taken from demographic life tables may help shed light on the hypotheses that humans are living longer and that human populations are growing older. We describe a methodology that enables us to obtain separate measurements of scale and shape variances in survival curves. Specifically, 'living longer' is associated with the scale variance of survival curves, whereas 'growing older' is associated with the shape variance. We show how the scale and shape of survival curves have changed over time during recent decades, based on period and cohort female life tables for selected wealthy countries. Our methodology will be useful for performing better tracking of ageing statistics and it is possible that this methodology can help identify the causes of current trends in human ageing.

  2. Evaluation of the learning curve for external cephalic version using cumulative sum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yun; Han, Jung Yeol; Chang, Eun Hye; Kwak, Dong Wook; Ahn, Hyun Kyung; Ryu, Hyun Mi; Kim, Moon Young

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the learning curve for external cephalic version (ECV) using learning curve-cumulative sum (LC-CUSUM) analysis. This was a retrospective study involving 290 consecutive cases between October 2013 and March 2017. We evaluated the learning curve for ECV on nulli and over para 1 group using LC-CUSUM analysis on the assumption that 50% and 70% of ECV procedures succeeded by description a trend-line of quadratic function with reliable R 2 values. The overall success rate for ECV was 64.8% (188/290), while the success rate for nullipara and over para 1 groups was 56.2% (100/178) and 78.6% (88/112), respectively. 'H' value, that the actual failure rate does not differ from the acceptable failure rate, was -3.27 and -1.635 when considering ECV success rates of 50% and 70%, respectively. Consequently, in order to obtain a consistent 50% success rate, we would require 57 nullipara cases, and in order to obtain a consistent 70% success rate, we would require 130 nullipara cases. In contrast, 8 to 10 over para 1 cases would be required for an expected success rate of 50% and 70% on over para 1 group. Even a relatively inexperienced physician can experience success with multipara and after accumulating experience, they will manage nullipara cases. Further research is required for LC-CUSUM involving several practitioners instead of a single practitioner. This will lead to the gradual implementation of standard learning curve guidelines for ECV.

  3. Stress-strain curve of concretes with recycled concrete aggregates: analysis of the NBR 8522 methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. GUJEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work analyses the methodology "A" (item A.4 employed by the Brazilian Standard ABNT 8522 (ABNT, 2008 for determining the stress-strain behavior of cylindrical specimens of concrete, presenting considerations about possible enhancements aiming it use for concretes with recycled aggregates with automatic test equipment. The methodology specified by the Brazilian Standard presents methodological issues that brings distortions in obtaining the stress-strain curve, as the use of a very limited number of sampling points and by inducing micro cracks and fluency in the elastic behavior of the material due to the use of steady stress levels in the test. The use of a base stress of 0.5 MPa is too low for modern high load test machines designed do high strength concrete test. The work presents a discussion over these subjects, and a proposal of a modified test procedure to avoid such situations.

  4. Fitting methods for constructing energy-dependent efficiency curves and their application to ionization chamber measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, A.; Schrader, H.

    2002-01-01

    An ionization chamber without and with an iron liner (absorber) was calibrated by a set of radionuclide activity standards of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The ionization chamber is used as a secondary standard measuring system for activity at the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU). Energy-dependent photon-efficiency curves were established for the ionization chamber in defined measurement geometry without and with the liner, and radionuclide efficiencies were calculated. Programmed calculation with an analytical efficiency function and a nonlinear regression algorithm of Microsoft (MS) Excel for fitting was used. Efficiencies from bremsstrahlung of pure beta-particle emitters were calibrated achieving a 10% accuracy level. Such efficiency components are added to obtain the total radionuclide efficiency of photon emitters after beta decay. The method yields differences of experimental and calculated radionuclide efficiencies for most of the photon-emitting radionuclides in the order of a few percent

  5. The estimation of I–V curves of PV panel using manufacturers’ I–V curves and evolutionary strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barukčić, M.; Hederić, Ž.; Špoljarić, Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The approximation of a I–V curve by two linear and a sigmoid functions is proposed. • The sigmoid function is used to estimate the knee of the I–V curve. • Dependence on irradiance and temperature of sigmoid function parameters is proposed. • The sigmoid function is used to estimate maximum power point (MPP). - Abstract: The method for estimation of I–V curves of photovoltaic (PV) panel by analytic expression is presented in the paper. The problem is defined in the form of an optimization problem. The optimization problem objective is based on data from I–V curves obtained by manufacturers’ or measured I–V curves. In order to estimate PV panel parameters, the optimization problem is solved by using an evolutionary strategy. The proposed method is tested for different PV panel technologies using data sheets. In this method the I–V curve approximation with two linear and a sigmoid function is proposed. The method for estimating the knee of the I–V curve and maximum power point at any irradiance and temperature is proposed

  6. Dose-response curves from incomplete data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    Frequently many different responses occur in populations (animal or human) exposed to ionizing radiation. To obtain a dose-response curve, the exposed population is first divided into sub-groups whose members received the same radiation dose. To estimate the response, the fraction of subjects in each sub-group that showed the particular response of interest is determined. These fractions are plotted against dose to give the dose-response curve. This procedure of plotting the fractions versus the radiation dose is not the correct way to estimate the time distribution for a particular response at the different dose levels. Other observed responses competed for the individuals in the exposed population and therefore prevented manifestation of the complete information on the response-time distribution for one specific response. Such data are called incomplete in the statistical literature. A procedure is described which uses the by now classical Kaplan-Meier estimator, to establish dose-response curves from incomplete data under the assumption that the different observed responses are statistically independent. It is demonstrated that there is insufficient information in the observed survival functions to estimate the time distribution for one particular response if the assumption of independence is dropped. In addition, it is not possible to determine from the data (i.e. type of response and when it occurred) whether or not the different response-time distributions are independent. However, it is possible to give sharp bounds between which the response has to lie. This implies that for incomplete data, only a 'dose-response band' can be established if independence of the competing responses cannot be assumed. Examples are given using actual data to illustrate the estimation procedures

  7. PLOTTAB, Curve and Point Plotting with Error Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTTAB is designed to plot any combination of continuous curves and/or discrete points (with associated error bars) using user supplied titles and X and Y axis labels and units. If curves are plotted, the first curve may be used as a standard; the data and the ratio of the data to the standard will be plotted. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTTAB: The program has no idea of what data is being plotted and yet by supplying titles, X and Y axis labels and units the user can produce any number of plots with each plot containing almost any combination of curves and points with each plot properly identified. In order to define a continuous curve between tabulated points, this program must know how to interpolate between points. By input the user may specify either the default option of linear x versus linear y interpolation or alternatively log x and/or log Y interpolation. In all cases, regardless of the interpolation specified, the program will always interpolate the data to the plane of the plot (linear or log x and y plane) in order to present the true variation of the data between tabulated points, based on the user specified interpolation law. Tabulated points should be tabulated at a sufficient number of x values to insure that the difference between the specified interpolation and the 'true' variation of a curve between tabulated values is relatively small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A combination of up to 30 curves and sets of discrete points may appear on each plot. If the user wishes to use this program to compare different sets of data, all of the data must be in the same units

  8. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  9. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y. [Hijjawi Faculty of Engineering; Yarmouk University; Irbid 21163 (Jordan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  10. The rotation curve of a point particle in stringy gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sung Moon; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Suh, Minwoo, E-mail: sinsmk2003@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: park@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: minsuh@usc.edu [Department of Physics, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 04107 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    Double Field Theory suggests to view the whole massless sector of closed strings as the gravitational unity. The fundamental symmetries therein, including the O( D , D ) covariance, can determine unambiguously how the Standard Model as well as a relativistic point particle should couple to the closed string massless sector. The theory also refines the notion of singularity. We consider the most general, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat, static vacuum solution to D =4 Double Field Theory, which contains three free parameters and consequently generalizes the Schwarzschild geometry. Analyzing the circular geodesic of a point particle in string frame, we obtain the orbital velocity as a function of R /( M {sub ∞} G ) which is the dimensionless radial variable normalized by mass. The rotation curve generically features a maximum and thus non-Keplerian over a finite range, while becoming asymptotically Keplerian at infinity, R /( M {sub ∞} G )→ ∞. The adoption of the string frame rather than Einstein frame is the consequence of the fundamental symmetry principle. Our result opens up a new scheme to solve the dark matter/energy problems by modifying General Relativity at 'short' range of R /( M {sub ∞} G ).

  11. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.

  12. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  13. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Composite beam analysis linear analysis of naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Marco; Ghiringhelli, Gian L.; Merlini, Teodoro

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present a consistent theory for the deformation of a naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beam. The proposed formulation naturally extends the classical Saint-Venant approach to the case of curved and twisted anisotropic beams. The mathematical model developed under the assumption of span-wise uniform cross-section, curvature and twist, can take into account any kind of elastic coupling due to the material properties and the curved geometry. The consistency of the presented math-model and its generality about the cross-sectional shape, make it a useful tool even in a preliminary design optimization context such as the aeroelastic tailoring of helicopter rotor blades. The advantage of the present procedure is that it only requires a two-dimensional discretization; thus, very detailed analyses can be performed and interlaminar stresses between laminae can be evaluated. Such analyses would be extremely time consuming if performed with standard finite element codes: that prevents their recursive use as for example when optimizing a beam design. Moreover, as a byproduct of the proposed formulation, one obtains the constitutive law of the cross-section in terms of stress resultant and moment and their conjugate strain measures. This constitutive law takes into account any kind of elastic couplings, e.g., torsion-tension, tension-shear, bending-shear, and constitutes a fundamental input in aeroelastic analyses of helicopter blades. Four simple examples are given in order to show the principal features of the method.

  15. Spectroscopic Measurements of the Far-Ultraviolet Dust Attenuation Curve at z ˜ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Bogosavljević, Milan

    2016-09-01

    We present the first spectroscopic measurements of the shape of the far-ultraviolet (far-UV; λ =950{--}1500 Å) dust attenuation curve at high redshift (z˜ 3). Our analysis employs rest-frame UV spectra of 933 galaxies at z˜ 3, 121 of which have very deep spectroscopic observations (≳ 7 hr) at λ =850{--}1300 \\mathring{{A}} , with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on the Keck Telescope. By using an iterative approach in which we calculate the ratios of composite spectra in different bins of continuum color excess, E(B-V), we derive a dust curve that implies a lower attenuation in the far-UV for a given E(B-V) than those obtained with standard attenuation curves. We demonstrate that the UV composite spectra of z˜ 3 galaxies can be modeled well by assuming our new attenuation curve, a high covering fraction of H I, and absorption from the Lyman-Werner bands of {{{H}}}2 with a small (≲ 20 % ) covering fraction. The low covering fraction of {{{H}}}2 relative to that of the {{H}} {{I}} and dust suggests that most of the dust in the ISM of typical galaxies at z˜ 3 is unrelated to the catalysis of {{{H}}}2, and is associated with other phases of the ISM (I.e., the ionized and neutral gas). The far-UV dust curve implies a factor of ≈ 2 lower dust attenuation of Lyman continuum (ionizing) photons relative to those inferred from the most commonly assumed attenuation curves for L* galaxies at z˜ 3. Our results may be utilized to assess the degree to which ionizing photons are attenuated in H II regions or, more generally, in the ionized or low column density (N({{H}} {{I}})≲ {10}17.2 cm-2) neutral ISM of high-redshift galaxies. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  16. Power curve of the AWEC-60 wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia, F.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental wind turbine AWEC-60 was developed to evaluate the possibilities of the Large Wind turbines, from the technical and economical point of view. The project was developed by a spanish-german group, integrated by Union Fenosa, Asinel, M.A.N. Neue Technologie and the Instituto de Energias Renovables from CIEMAT, starting the operation during the year 1990. In this paper, the obtention of the wind turbine's power curve is presented, which has been obtained in agreement with the 'Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation' from the Executive Committee for the Research and Development on Wind Energy, of the International Energy Agency (AIE). Using the functioning data of the wind turbine corresponding to the first quarter of the year 1991, the power curves have been obtained, and the results have been compared with the curves measured in other similar large windturbines. (author)

  17. Power Curve of the AWEC-60 wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia, F.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental wind turbine AWEC-60 was developed to evaluate the possibilities of the Large Wind turbines, from the technical and economical point of view. The project was developed by a spanish-german group, integrated by Union Fenosa, Asinel, M.A.N. Neue Technologie and the Instituto de Energias Renovables from CIEMAT, starting the operation during the year 1990. In this paper, the obtention of the wind turbine power curve is presented, which has been obtained in agreement with the Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation from the Executive Committee for the Research and Development on Wind Energy, of the International Energy Agency (AIE). Using the functioning data of the wind turbine correspondig to the first quarter of the year 1991, the power curves have been obtained, and the results have been compared with the curves measured in other similar Large wind turbines. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Definition and measurement of statistical gloss parameters from curved objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, Kalle; Oksman, Antti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2010-09-20

    Gloss standards are commonly defined for gloss measurement from flat surfaces, and, accordingly, glossmeters are typically developed for flat objects. However, gloss inspection of convex, concave, and small products is also important. In this paper, we define statistical gloss parameters for curved objects and measure gloss data on convex and concave surfaces using two different diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters. Examples of measurements with the two diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters are given for convex and concave aluminum pipe samples with and without paint. The defined gloss parameters for curved objects are useful in the characterization of the surface quality of metal pipes and other objects.

  19. Definition and measurement of statistical gloss parameters from curved objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuivalainen, Kalle; Oksman, Antti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Gloss standards are commonly defined for gloss measurement from flat surfaces, and, accordingly, glossmeters are typically developed for flat objects. However, gloss inspection of convex, concave, and small products is also important. In this paper, we define statistical gloss parameters for curved objects and measure gloss data on convex and concave surfaces using two different diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters. Examples of measurements with the two diffractive-optical-element-based glossmeters are given for convex and concave aluminum pipe samples with and without paint. The defined gloss parameters for curved objects are useful in the characterization of the surface quality of metal pipes and other objects.

  20. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  1. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  2. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  3. STIS E140M Sensitivity Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.

    2017-08-01

    The spectrophotometric white dwarf G191-B2B will be observed with the E140M grating to obtain an updated set of sensitivity curves for this highly used mode. Spectroscopic sensitivity monitoring observations of BD+284211 have shown that the blaze function shapes have changed since SM4 and now limit the relative photometric flux accuracy of 14 of 43 E140M spectral orders to 5-10% at the edges. The blaze function shape changes have hindered attempts to determine the post-SM4 temporal blaze function shifts for this grating. Given the popularity of this unique FUV mode, with almost full simultaneous coverage of 1144 to 1710 A in a single observation, and consideration of the STIS archival legacy, we request 1 orbit to re-observe G191-B2B with the E140/1425 setting.

  4. Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 42006

  5. Magnetic response of certain curved graphitic geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Davids, P.S.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-particle energy spectra associated with some members of buckyfamily (curved graphitic geometries), in particular C 50 , C 60 , C 70 and related fullerenes as well as coaxial helical microtubules of graphite, are obtained analytically within the mean-field approximation. These energy spectra are then used to calculate various response functions. Specifically, we calculate the specific heat, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility in the presence of an external magnetic field at low temperatures. For a single microtubule an extra peak superimposed on the first de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) oscillation in magnetic susceptibility is found in the 50--170 Tesla range depending on the radius which is possibly accessible in special (explosive flux compression) experiments. Finally, we point to important potential applications of these novel mesoscopic structures in nanotechnology

  6. Modelling critical NDVI curves in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

      The use of optical sensors to measure canopy reflectance and calculate crop index as e.g. normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is widely used in agricultural crops, but has so far not been implemented in herbage seed production. The present study has the purpose to develop a critical...... NDVI curve where the critical NDVI, defined as the minimum NDVI obtained to achieve a high seed yield, will be modelled during the growing season. NDVI measurements were made at different growing degree days (GDD) in a three year field experiment where different N application rates were applied....... There was a clear maximum in the correlation coefficient between seed yield and NDVI in the period from approximately 700 to 900 GDD. At this time there was an exponential relationship between NDVI and seed yield where highest seed yield were at NDVI ~0.9. Theoretically the farmers should aim for an NDVI of 0...

  7. Prediction of long-term creep curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Kouichi

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing how to predict long-term irradiation enhanced creep properties from short-term tests. The predictive method based on the θ concept was examined by using creep data of ferritic steels. The method was successful in predicting creep curves including the tertiary creep stage as well as rupture lifetimes. Some material constants involved in the method are insensitive to the irradiation environment, and their values obtained in thermal creep are applicable to irradiation enhanced creep. The creep mechanisms of most engineering materials definitely change at the athermal yield stress in the non-creep regime. One should be aware that short-term tests must be carried out at stresses lower than the athermal yield stress in order to predict the creep behavior of structural components correctly. (orig.)

  8. Comparing kinetic curves in liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganov, A. A.; Kanat'eva, A. Yu.; Yakubenko, E. E.; Popova, T. P.; Shiryaeva, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    Five equations for kinetic curves which connect the number of theoretical plates N and time of analysis t 0 for five different versions of optimization, depending on the parameters being varied (e.g., mobile phase flow rate, pressure drop, sorbent grain size), are obtained by means of mathematical modeling. It is found that a method based on the optimization of a sorbent grain size at fixed pressure is most suitable for the optimization of rapid separations. It is noted that the advantages of the method are limited by an area of relatively low efficiency, and the advantage of optimization is transferred to a method based on the optimization of both the sorbent grain size and the drop in pressure across a column in the area of high efficiency.

  9. Quantum electrodynamics in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, I.L.; Gitman, D.M.; Fradkin, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The lagrangian of quantum electrodynamics in curved space-time is constructed and the interaction picture taking into account the external gravitational field exactly is introduced. The transform from the Heisenberg picture to the interaction picture is carried out in a manifestly covariant way. The properties of free spinor and electromagnetic quantum fields are discussed and conditions under which initial and final creation and annihilation operators are connected by unitarity transformation are indicated. The derivation of Feynman's rules for quantum processes are calculated on the base of generalized normal product of operators. The way of reduction formula derivations is indicated and the suitable Green's functions are introduced. A generating functional for this Green's function is defined and the system of functional equations for them is obtained. The representation of different generating funcationals by means of functional integrals is introduced. Some consequences of S-matrix unitary condition are considered which leads to the generalization of the optic theorem

  10. The history of the Universe is an elliptic curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Friedmann-Lemaître equations with contributions coming from matter, curvature, cosmological constant, and radiation, when written in terms of conformal time u rather than in terms of cosmic time t, can be solved explicitly in terms of standard Weierstrass elliptic functions. The spatial scale factor, the temperature, the densities, the Hubble function, and almost all quantities of cosmological interest (with the exception of t itself) are elliptic functions of u, in particular they are bi-periodic with respect to a lattice of the complex plane, when one takes u complex. After recalling the basics of the theory, we use these explicit expressions, as well as the experimental constraints on the present values of density parameters (we choose for the curvature density a small value in agreement with experimental bounds) to display the evolution of the main cosmological quantities for one real period 2{{ω }r} of conformal time (the cosmic time t ‘never ends’ but it goes to infinity for a finite value {{u}f}\\lt 2{{ω }r} of u). A given history of the Universe, specified by the measured values of present-day densities, is associated with a lattice in the complex plane, or with an elliptic curve, and therefore with two Weierstrass invariants {{g}2},{{g}3}. Using the same experimental data we calculate the values of these invariants, as well as the associated modular parameter and the corresponding Klein j-invariant. If one takes the flat case k = 0, the lattice is only defined up to homotheties, and if one, moreover, neglects the radiation contribution, the j-invariant vanishes and the corresponding modular parameter τ can be chosen in one corner of the standard fundamental domain of the modular group (equihanharmonic case: τ =exp (2iπ /3)). Several exact—i.e., non-numerical—results of independent interest are obtained in that case.

  11. Learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Tinoco, Rodrigo; Schoots, Koen; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present learning curves for fuel cells based on empirical data. ► We disentangle different cost reduction mechanisms for SOFCs. ► We distinguish between learning-by-doing, R and D, economies-of-scale and automation. - Abstract: In this article we present learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). With data from fuel cell manufacturers we derive a detailed breakdown of their production costs. We develop a bottom-up model that allows for determining overall SOFC manufacturing costs with their respective cost components, among which material, energy, labor and capital charges. The results obtained from our model prove to deviate by at most 13% from total cost figures quoted in the literature. For the R and D stage of development and diffusion, we find local learning rates between 13% and 17% and we demonstrate that the corresponding cost reductions result essentially from learning-by-searching effects. When considering periods in time that focus on the pilot and early commercial production stages, we find regional learning rates of 27% and 1%, respectively, which we assume derive mainly from genuine learning phenomena. These figures turnout significantly higher, approximately 44% and 12% respectively, if also effects of economies-of-scale and automation are included. When combining all production stages we obtain lr = 35%, which represents a mix of cost reduction phenomena. This high learning rate value and the potential to scale up production suggest that continued efforts in the development of SOFC manufacturing processes, as well as deployment and use of SOFCs, may lead to substantial further cost reductions.

  12. Clinical utility of apparent diffusion coefficient values obtained using high b-value when diagnosing prostate cancer using 3 tesla MRI: comparison between ultra-high b-value (2000 s/mm²) and standard high b-value (1000 s/mm²).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Obara, Makoto; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained using b = 2000 s/mm(2) upon 3 Tesla (T) diffusion-weighted MRI is superior to b = 1000 s/mm(2) for discriminating malignant from normal prostate tissue and predicting the aggressiveness of prostate cancer, using histopathological findings of radical prostatectomy as a reference. Eighty prostate cancer patients underwent preoperative 3T MRI including diffusion weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm(2) . ADCs were measured for malignant lesions and normal sites on three sets of ADC maps calculated with monoexponential fitting between b = 0 and 1000, 0 and 2000, and 1000 and 2000, respectively. The relationship between the ADC and Gleason score was evaluated. The areas under the ROC curves for b = 0,1000, b = 0,2000, and b = 1000,2000 were 0.896, 0.937, and 0.857, respectively, in the peripheral zone (PZ) and 0.877, 0.889, and 0.731, respectively, in the transition zone (TZ). The difference between b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 was significant in PZ (P = 0.033), but not in TZ (P = 0.84). Weak but significant negative correlations were identified between ADCs and Gleason score in both PZ and TZ cancer at b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 (r = -0.323 to -0.341). For 3T MRI, ADCs using b = 0,2000 are more accurate than b = 0,1000 for diagnosing PZ cancer, and as accurate for TZ cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Object-Image Correspondence for Algebraic Curves under Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Burdis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel algorithm for deciding whether a given planar curve is an image of a given spatial curve, obtained by a central or a parallel projection with unknown parameters. The motivation comes from the problem of establishing a correspondence between an object and an image, taken by a camera with unknown position and parameters. A straightforward approach to this problem consists of setting up a system of conditions on the projection parameters and then checking whether or not this system has a solution. The computational advantage of the algorithm presented here, in comparison to algorithms based on the straightforward approach, lies in a significant reduction of a number of real parameters that need to be eliminated in order to establish existence or non-existence of a projection that maps a given spatial curve to a given planar curve. Our algorithm is based on projection criteria that reduce the projection problem to a certain modification of the equivalence problem of planar curves under affine and projective transformations. To solve the latter problem we make an algebraic adaptation of signature construction that has been used to solve the equivalence problems for smooth curves. We introduce a notion of a classifying set of rational differential invariants and produce explicit formulas for such invariants for the actions of the projective and the affine groups on the plane.

  14. Multi-q pattern classification of polarization curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Ricardo; Bastos, Ivan N.; Neto, Francisco D. Moura; Lopes, Francisco J. P.; Gonçalves, Wesley N.; Bruno, Odemir M.

    2014-02-01

    Several experimental measurements are expressed in the form of one-dimensional profiles, for which there is a scarcity of methodologies able to classify the pertinence of a given result to a specific group. The polarization curves that evaluate the corrosion kinetics of electrodes in corrosive media are applications where the behavior is chiefly analyzed from profiles. Polarization curves are indeed a classic method to determine the global kinetics of metallic electrodes, but the strong nonlinearity from different metals and alloys can overlap and the discrimination becomes a challenging problem. Moreover, even finding a typical curve from replicated tests requires subjective judgment. In this paper, we used the so-called multi-q approach based on the Tsallis statistics in a classification engine to separate the multiple polarization curve profiles of two stainless steels. We collected 48 experimental polarization curves in an aqueous chloride medium of two stainless steel types, with different resistance against localized corrosion. Multi-q pattern analysis was then carried out on a wide potential range, from cathodic up to anodic regions. An excellent classification rate was obtained, at a success rate of 90%, 80%, and 83% for low (cathodic), high (anodic), and both potential ranges, respectively, using only 2% of the original profile data. These results show the potential of the proposed approach towards efficient, robust, systematic and automatic classification of highly nonlinear profile curves.

  15. An analysis on the environmental Kuznets curve of Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zijian; Peng, Yue; Zhao, Yue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper based on the environmental and economic data of Chengdu from 2005 to 2014, the measurement models were established to analyze 3 kinds of environmental flow indicators and 4 kinds of environmental stock indicators to obtain their EKC evolution trajectories and characters. The results show that the relationship curve between the discharge of SO2 from industry and the GDP per capita is a positive U shape, just as the curve between discharge of COD from industry and the GDP per person. The relationship curve between the dust discharge from industry and the GDP per capita is an inverted N shape. In the central of the urban the relationship curve between the concentration of SO2 in the air and the GDP per person is a positive U shape. The relationship curves between the concentration of NO2 in the air and the GDP per person, between the concentration of the particulate matters and the GDP per person, and between the concentration of the fallen dusts and the GDP per person are fluctuating. So the EKC curves of the 7 kinds of environmental indicators are not accord with inverted U shape feature. In the development of this urban the environmental problems can’t be resolved only by economic growth. The discharge of industrial pollutants should be controlled to improve the atmospheric environmental quality and reduce the environmental risks.

  16. Estimation of growth curve parameters in Konya Merino sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of Quadratic, Cubic, Gompertz and Logistic functions to the growth curves of Konya Merino lambs obtained by using monthly records of live weight from birth to 480 days of age. The models were evaluated according to determination coefficient (R2), mean square ...

  17. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  18. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves ...

  19. ON THE VOLUME FROM PLANAR SECTIONS THROUGH A CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximo Gual-Arnau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We derive a formula to obtain the volume of a compact domain from planar sections through a curve. From this formula we propose a stereological estimator for the volume which generalizes some known unbiased estimators which use a systematic sampling scheme. Moreover we formulate a Cavalieri's principle for compact domains is spaces of constant curvature λ.

  20. Calculated trapping curves of D in C and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, W.

    1980-10-01

    The trapping of deuterium in solids is investigated with the Monte Carlo program TRIM. The amount of deuterium trapped in amorphous carbon and silicon exposed to a plasma is calculated as a function of incident fluence and plasma temperature. These data can be used to obtain plasma parameters from measured trapping curves on probes exposed to a plasma. (orig.)

  1. Classical model of the Dirac electron in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Pavsic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The action for the classical model of the electron exhibiting Zitterbewegung is generalized to curved space by introducing a spin connection. The dynamical equations and the symplectic structure are given for several different choices of the variables. In particular, we obtain the equation of motion for spin and compare it with the Papapetrou equation. (author)

  2. The thermal curve of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Peter, J.; Siwek, A.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier measurements of nuclear matter thermal curve of liquid to gas phase transition presented two limitation: only one temperature measuring method was available and the mass number of the formed nuclei decreased from 190 to 50 when the excitation energy increased. To avoid these limitations experiments with the multidetector INDRA at GANIL were carried-out. Among the quasi-projectiles issued from the 36 Ar collisions at 52, 74, 95 A.MeV on the 58 Ni, nuclei of close masses were selected. The excitation energy was determined by the calorimetry of the charged products emitted by quasi-projectiles while the temperature was measured by three different methods. Very different apparent temperatures were obtained for the same excitation energy/nucleon. Only one curve displays a slope variation but no indication of plateau. With the quasi-projectiles obtained from the collisions of 129 Xe at 50 MeV/u on a 119 Sn target behaviors similar to those of 36 Ar were observed in the covered domain of excitation energy. To solve this puzzle and recover the initial temperatures of interest the only mean was to do a theoretical simulation in which one follows the de-excitation of the nuclei formed at different excitation energies and look for the thermal curve able to reproduce the observed temperatures. Two extreme possibilities were taken into account concerning the de-excitation process: either a sequential process established at E * /A≤ 3 MeV/u or a sudden multifragmentation in several hot fragments, most probably at E * /A≥ 10 MeV/u. In both cases it was possible to reproduce the whole set of experimental results concerning the 36 Ar projectile. The initial temperature increases steadily as a function of excitation energy showing no plateau or singular points. The results indicate that, being a system without external pressure, in its passage from the liquid phase to the gas phase the nucleus does not display necessarily a temperature plateau. Discussions on

  3. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  4. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.

  5. Archeointensities in Greece during the Neolithic period: New insights into material selection and secular variation curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjat, G.; Aidona, E.; Kondopoulou, D.; Camps, P.; Rathossi, C.; Poidras, T.

    2013-02-01

    Numerous archeomagnetic studies have provided high quality data for both the direction and the intensity of the geomagnetic field, essentially in Europe for the last 10 millennia. In particular, Greece supplies a lot of archeological materials due to its impressive cultural heritage and volcanic activity, so that numerous data have been obtained from burnt clays or historical lava flows. The most recent Greek secular variation curves are available for the last 8 millennia for the intensity and the last 6 millennia for the direction. Nevertheless, the coverage still presents several gaps for periods older than 2500 BC. In an effort to complete the Greek curve and extend it to older times, we present the archeointensity results from three Neolithic settlements in Northern Greece. The samples are of two different natures: burnt structures from Avgi (5250 ± 150 BC) and Vasili (4800 ± 200 BC), as well as ceramics from Dikili Tash (4830 ± 80 BC) and Vasili (4750 ± 250 BC). The samples have been subjected to standard rock magnetic analyses in order to estimate the thermal stability and the domain state of the magnetic carriers before archeointensity measurements. Surprisingly, very few ceramic samples provided reliable archeointensities whereas samples from burnt structures presented a very good success rate. Complementary studies showed that a detailed examination of the matrix color, following archeological information and classification standards can be a decisive test for pre-selection of sherds. In spite of these unsuccessful measurements from ceramics, we obtained an intensity value of 73.5 ± 1.1 μT for Dikili Tash, a higher value than the other data obtained in the same area, during the same period. However we do not have evidences for a technical artefact during the experiment. The burnt structures yielded two reliable archeointensities of 36.1 ± 1.8 μT and 46.6 ± 3.4 μT for Avgi and Vasili, respectively. Finally, we achieved a new archeomagnetic dating

  6. Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles

  7. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  8. Estimating regional centile curves from mixed data sources and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef; Hayes, Daniel J; Stasinopoulos, D Mikis; Rigby, Robert A; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Terlouw, Dianne J

    2009-10-15

    Regional or national growth distributions can provide vital information on the health status of populations. In most resource poor countries, however, the required anthropometric data from purpose-designed growth surveys are not readily available. We propose a practical method for estimating regional (multi-country) age-conditional weight distributions based on existing survey data from different countries. We developed a two-step method by which one is able to model data with widely different age ranges and sample sizes. The method produces references both at the country level and at the regional (multi-country) level. The first step models country-specific centile curves by Box-Cox t and Box-Cox power exponential distributions implemented in generalized additive model for location, scale and shape through a common model. Individual countries may vary in location and spread. The second step defines the regional reference from a finite mixture of the country distributions, weighted by population size. To demonstrate the method we fitted the weight-for-age distribution of 12 countries in South East Asia and the Western Pacific, based on 273 270 observations. We modeled both the raw body weight and the corresponding Z score, and obtained a good fit between the final models and the original data for both solutions. We briefly discuss an application of the generated regional references to obtain appropriate, region specific, age-based dosing regimens of drugs used in the tropics. The method is an affordable and efficient strategy to estimate regional growth distributions where the standard costly alternatives are not an option. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Modeling error distributions of growth curve models through Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    Growth curve models are widely used in social and behavioral sciences. However, typical growth curve models often assume that the errors are normally distributed although non-normal data may be even more common than normal data. In order to avoid possible statistical inference problems in blindly assuming normality, a general Bayesian framework is proposed to flexibly model normal and non-normal data through the explicit specification of the error distributions. A simulation study shows when the distribution of the error is correctly specified, one can avoid the loss in the efficiency of standard error estimates. A real example on the analysis of mathematical ability growth data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 is used to show the application of the proposed methods. Instructions and code on how to conduct growth curve analysis with both normal and non-normal error distributions using the the MCMC procedure of SAS are provided.

  10. Observational evidence of dust evolution in galactic extinction curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.zza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Casu, Silvia; Mulas, Giacomo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Zonca, Alberto, E-mail: cecchi-pestellini@astropa.unipa.it, E-mail: silvia@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: gmulas@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: azonca@oa-cagliari.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Strada Prov.le Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-04-10

    Although structural and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbons are known to respond to varying physical conditions, most conventional extinction models are basically curve fits with modest predictive power. We compare an evolutionary model of the physical properties of carbonaceous grain mantles with their determination by homogeneously fitting observationally derived Galactic extinction curves with the same physically well-defined dust model. We find that a large sample of observed Galactic extinction curves are compatible with the evolutionary scenario underlying such a model, requiring physical conditions fully consistent with standard density, temperature, radiation field intensity, and average age of diffuse interstellar clouds. Hence, through the study of interstellar extinction we may, in principle, understand the evolutionary history of the diffuse interstellar clouds.

  11. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  12. GLOBAL AND STRICT CURVE FITTING METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Y.; Mori, S.

    2004-01-01

    To find a global and smooth curve fitting, cubic B­Spline method and gathering­ line methods are investigated. When segmenting and recognizing a contour curve of character shape, some global method is required. If we want to connect contour curves around a singular point like crossing points,

  13. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  14. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  15. Holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds: Kuranishi structure

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This paper constructs a Kuranishi structure for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds. To avoid some technicalities of abstract Kuranishi structures, we embed our Kuranishi structure inside a moduli stack of curves. The construction also works for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in any compact symplectic manifold.

  16. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  17. Water Retention Curves of Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Romero, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    The water retention curve of Opalinus clay samples was determined under different conditions: total and matric suction, stress or no-stress conditions, wetting and drying paths. Through the fitting of these results to the van Genuchten expression the P parameter, related to the air entry value (AEV), was obtained. The AEV is the suction value above which air is able to enter the pores of the sample, and consequently, above which 2-phase flow can take place in the soil pore structure. The samples used in this research came from two different boreholes, BHT-1 and BHG-D1, but the behaviour of them did not depend on their location, what was probably due to the fact that both were drilled in the shay facies of the Opalinus clay. There was not a distinct difference between the results obtained under total or matric suctions. In the drying paths, both the water contents and the degrees of saturation tended to be higher when total suction was applied, however the reverse trend was observed for the water contents reached in wetting paths. As well, no clear difference was observed in the water retention curves obtained in odometers under matric and total suctions, what points to the osmotic component of suction in Opalinus clay not being significant. Overall, the water contents were lower and the degrees of saturation higher when suction was applied under vertical stress, what would indicate that the water retention capacity was lower under 8 MPa vertical stress than under free volume conditions. This vertical stress value is slightly higher than the maximum in situ stress. Also, the samples showed hysteresis according to the expected behaviour, i.e. the water contents for a given suction were higher during a drying path than during a wetting path. The P values obtained were between 6 and 34 MPa, and tended to be higher for the samples tested under stress, in drying paths and when total suction was used. The air entry value calculated from the mercury intrusion porosimetry

  18. Water Retention Curves of Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.; Romero, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The water retention curve of Opalinus clay samples was determined under different conditions: total and matric suction, stress or no-stress conditions, wetting and drying paths. Through the fitting of these results to the van Genuchten expression the P parameter, related to the air entry value (AEV), was obtained. The AEV is the suction value above which air is able to enter the pores of the sample, and consequently, above which 2-phase flow can take place in the soil pore structure. The samples used in this research came from two different boreholes, BHT-1 and BHG-D1, but the behaviour of them did not depend on their location, what was probably due to the fact that both were drilled in the shay facies of the Opalinus clay. There was not a distinct difference between the results obtained under total or matric suctions. In the drying paths, both the water contents and the degrees of saturation tended to be higher when total suction was applied, however the reverse trend was observed for the water contents reached in wetting paths. As well, no clear difference was observed in the water retention curves obtained in odometers under matric and total suctions, what points to the osmotic component of suction in Opalinus clay not being significant. Overall, the water contents were lower and the degrees of saturation higher when suction was applied under vertical stress, what would indicate that the water retention capacity was lower under 8 MPa vertical stress than under free volume conditions. This vertical stress value is slightly higher than the maximum in situ stress. Also, the samples showed hysteresis according to the expected behaviour, i.e. the water contents for a given suction were higher during a drying path than during a wetting path. The P values obtained were between 6 and 34 MPa, and tended to be higher for the samples tested under stress, in drying paths and when total suction was used. The air entry value calculated from the mercury intrusion porosimetry

  19. A Practical Anodic and Cathodic Curve Intersection Model to Understand Multiple Corrosion Potentials of Fe-Based Glassy Alloys in OH- Contained Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Wang, Y G; An, B; Xu, H; Liu, Y; Zhang, L C; Ma, H Y; Wang, W M

    2016-01-01

    A practical anodic and cathodic curve intersection model, which consisted of an apparent anodic curve and an imaginary cathodic line, was proposed to explain multiple corrosion potentials occurred in potentiodynamic polarization curves of Fe-based glassy alloys in alkaline solution. The apparent anodic curve was selected from the measured anodic curves. The imaginary cathodic line was obtained by linearly fitting the differences of anodic curves and can be moved evenly or rotated to predict the number and value of corrosion potentials.

  20. Design And Implementation of Low Area/Power Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Hardware Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Sghaier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm(ECDSA is the analog to the Digital Signature Algorithm(DSA. Based on the elliptic curve, which uses a small key compared to the others public-key algorithms, ECDSA is the most suitable scheme for environments where processor power and storage are limited. This paper focuses on the hardware implementation of the ECDSA over elliptic curveswith the 163-bit key length recommended by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology. It offers two services: signature generation and signature verification. The proposed processor integrates an ECC IP, a Secure Hash Standard 2 IP (SHA-2 Ip and Random Number Generator IP (RNG IP. Thus, all IPs will be optimized, and different types of RNG will be implemented in order to choose the most appropriate one. A co-simulation was done to verify the ECDSA processor using MATLAB Software. All modules were implemented on a Xilinx Virtex 5 ML 50 FPGA platform; they require respectively 9670 slices, 2530 slices and 18,504 slices. FPGA implementations represent generally the first step for obtaining faster ASIC implementations. Further, the proposed design was also implemented on an ASIC CMOS 45-nm technology; it requires a 0.257 mm2 area cell achieving a maximum frequency of 532 MHz and consumes 63.444 (mW. Furthermore, in this paper, we analyze the security of our proposed ECDSA processor against the no correctness check for input points and restart attacks.

  1. Establishment and validation of a dose-effect curve for γ-rays by cytogenetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquinero, Joan F.; Caballin, Maria Rosa; Barrios, Leonardo; Ribas, Montserrat; Miro, Rosa; Egozcue, Josep

    1995-01-01

    A dose-effect curve obtained by analysis of dicentric chromosomes after irradiation of peripheral blood samples, from one donor, at 11 different doses of γ-rays is presented. For the elaboration of this curve, more than 18,000 first division metaphases have been analyzed. The results fit very well to the linear-quadratic model. To validate the curve, samples from six individuals (three controls and three occupationally exposed persons) were irradiated at 2 Gy. The results obtained, when compared with the curve, showed that in all cases the 95% confidence interval included the 2 Gy dose, with estimated dose ranges from 1.82 to 2.19 Gy

  2. Seminar on standards, standardization, quality control and interlaboratory test programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bievre, P. [Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1978-12-15

    The author gives a resume on the proper use of standards and standardization of measurement procedures. Results of measurements obtained on the same instrument and on the same series of standards of different isotopic compositions are displayed.

  3. Computational tools for the construction of calibration curves for use in dose calculations in radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Alex C.H.; Vieira, Jose W.; Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco , Recife, PE

    2011-01-01

    The realization of tissue inhomogeneity corrections in image-based treatment planning improves the accuracy of radiation dose calculations for patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy. Before the tissue inhomogeneity correction can be applied, the relationship between the computed tomography (CT) numbers and density must be established. This relationship is typically established by a calibration curve empirically obtained from CT images of a phantom that has several inserts of tissue-equivalent materials, covering a wide range of densities. This calibration curve is scanner-dependent and allows the conversion of CT numbers in densities for use in dose calculations. This paper describes the implementation of computational tools necessary to construct calibration curves. These tools are used for reading and displaying of CT images in DICOM format, determination of the mean CT numbers (and their standard deviations) of each tissue-equivalent material and construction of calibration curves by fits with bilinear equations. All these tools have been implemented in the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 in C≠ programming language. (author)

  4. Neutron Gauge Calibration Curve as Affected by Chloride Concentration and Bulk Density of Loam Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Hasani, A.A.; Fahad, A.A.; Shihab, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    chloride concentration and bulk density are considered among important factors affecting calibration curve of neutron gauge in the soil.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chloride concentration and bulk density of a loam soil on neutron gauge calibration curve.Sufficient amount of loam soil was air dried screened through a 2 mm sieve,and divided into three equal portions.Sodium chloride of 2.5 and 6.6g kg'-1 soil was added to the first and second portions,respectively.The third portion was left as a control.The soil then moistened and mixed well to make volumetric water content within the range of 0.01 to 0.24 cm 3 cm - 3. The moist soil was packed into an iron drum 0.80 m diameter and 1.00 m height to obtain bulk densities of 1.10 and 1.30 to 1.60 Mg m - 3 for uncompacted soil,respectively.Access tube 0.05 m inner diameter was installed in the center of the drum.Three readings from CPN 503 neutron gauge were taken at each 0.15,0.30, 0.45,and 0.75 m depth.Results indicated that the count (counts/standard count) for an aqueous solution decreased with the increase in chloride concentration.Similarly, the slope of the linear calibration curves of the investigated soil decreased with the increase in chloride concentration.Shifting of the curves was 9 to 10%for the uncompacted soil, whereas it was 12 to 14 % for the compacted of low and high concentration of chloride, respectively . Results of changing bulk density always reduced the slope value as compared with the uncorrected count ratio.

  5. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  6. The Short- and Long-Run Marginal Cost Curve: A Pedagogical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Robert L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the standard description of the relationship between the long-run marginal cost curve and the short-run marginal cost curve is often misleading and imprecise. Asserts that a sampling of college-level textbooks confirms this confusion. Provides a definition and instructional strategy that can be used to promote student understanding…

  7. Crack-tip constraint analyses and constraint-dependent LBB curves for circumferential through-wall cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.L.; Wang, G.Z., E-mail: gzwang@ecust.edu.cn; Xuan, F.Z.; Tu, S.T.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Solution of constraint parameter τ* for through-wall cracked pipes has been obtained. • Constraint increases with increasing crack length and radius–thickness ratio of pipes. • Constraint-dependent LBB curve for through-wall cracked pipes has been constructed. • For increasing accuracy of LBB assessments, constraint effect should be considered. - Abstract: The leak-before-break (LBB) concept has been widely applied in the structural integrity assessments of pressured pipes in nuclear power plants. However, the crack-tip constraint effects in LBB analyses and designs cannot be incorporated. In this paper, by using three-dimensional finite element calculations, the modified load-independent T-stress constraint parameter τ* for circumferential through-wall cracked pipes with different geometries and crack sizes has been analyzed under different loading conditions, and the solutions of the crack-tip constraint parameter τ* have been obtained. Based on the τ* solutions and constraint-dependent J–R curves of a steel, the constraint-dependent LBB (leak-before-break) curves have been constructed. The results show that the constraint τ* increases with increasing crack length θ, mean radius R{sub m} and radius–thickness ratio R{sub m}/t of the pipes. In LBB analyses, the critical crack length calculated by the J–R curve of the standard high constraint specimen for pipes with shorter cracks is over-conservative, and the degree of conservatism increases with decreasing crack length θ, R{sub m} and R{sub m}/t. Therefore, the constraint-dependent LBB curves should be constructed to modify the over-conservatism and increase accuracy of LBB assessments.

  8. Power forward curves: a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, Shankar

    1999-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on managerial application of power forward curves, and examines the determinants of electricity prices such as transmission constraints, its inability to be stored in a conventional way, its seasonality and weather dependence, the generation stack, and the swing risk. The electricity forward curve, classical arbitrage, constructing a forward curve, volatilities, and electricity forward curve models such as the jump-diffusion model, the mean-reverting heteroscedastic volatility model, and an econometric model of forward prices are examined. A managerial perspective of the applications of the forward curve is presented covering plant valuation, capital budgeting, performance measurement, product pricing and structuring, asset optimisation, valuation of transmission options, and risk management

  9. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  10. Construction of molecular potential energy curves by an optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Blake, A. J.; McCoy, D. G.; Torop, L.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for determining the potential energy curves for diatomic molecules from measurements of diffused or continuum spectra is presented. It is based on a numerical procedure which minimizes the difference between the calculated spectra and the experimental measurements and can be used in cases where other techniques, such as the conventional RKR method, are not applicable. With the aid of suitable spectral data, the associated dipole electronic transition moments can be simultaneously obtained. The method is illustrated by modeling the "longest band" of molecular oxygen to extract the E 3Σ u- and B 3Σ u- potential curves in analytical form.

  11. On the second kinetic order thermoluminescent glow curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Thanh Luong; Nguyen Hao Quang; Hoang Minh Giang

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of thermoluminescent material such as CaF 2 -N and CaSO 4 -Dy with the different grain sizes are investigated in detail using the least square method of fitting. It was found that the activation energy E (or trap depth) and peak temperature T m ax are changed with the elapsed time between the irradiation and read-out for the low temperature glow curve peaks. The similar TL glow curve shapes are obtained for the different CaSO 4 -Dy grain size. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Theoretical study of a melting curve for tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xi; Ling-Cang, Cai

    2009-01-01

    The melting curve of Sn has been calculated using the dislocation-mediated melting model with the 'zone-linking method'. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. According to our calculation, the melting temperature of γ-Sn at zero pressure is about 436 K obtained by the extrapolation of the method from the triple point of Sn. The results show that this calculation method is better than other theoretical methods for predicting the melting curve of polymorphic material Sn. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  13. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  14. Impaired Curve Negotiation in Drivers with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergun Y Uç

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability to negotiate curves in drivers with Parkinson’s disease (PD. METHODS: Licensed active drivers with mild-moderate PD (n= 76; 65 male, 11 female and elderly controls (n= 51; 26 male, 25 female drove on a simulated 2-lane rural highway in a high-fidelity simulator scenario in which the drivers had to negotiate 6 curves during a 37-mile drive. The participants underwent motor, cognitive, and visual testing before the simulator drive. RESULTS: Compared to controls, the drivers with PD had less vehicle control and driving safety, both on curves and straight baseline segments, as measured by significantly higher standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP and lane violation counts. The PD group also scored lower on tests of motor, cognitive, and visual abilities. In the PD group, lower scores on tests of motion perception, visuospatial ability, executive function, postural instability, and general cognition, as well as a lower level of independence in daily activities predicted low vehicle control on curves. CONCLUSION: Drivers with PD had less vehicle control and driving safety on curves compared to controls, which was associated primarily with impairments in visual perception and cognition, rather than motor function

  15. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis

  16. The role of experience curves for setting MEPS for appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. - Highlights: • We integrate experience curves into life cycle cost calculations for MEPS. • For driers and refrigerators this results in at least twice the energy savings. • For flat panel televisions an experience curve is provided

  17. The writhe of open and closed curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Mitchell A; Prior, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Twist and writhe measure basic geometric properties of a ribbon or tube. While these measures have applications in molecular biology, materials science, fluid mechanics and astrophysics, they are under-utilized because they are often considered difficult to compute. In addition, many applications involve curves with endpoints (open curves); but for these curves the definition of writhe can be ambiguous. This paper provides simple expressions for the writhe of closed curves, and provides a new definition of writhe for open curves. The open curve definition is especially appropriate when the curve is anchored at endpoints on a plane or stretches between two parallel planes. This definition can be especially useful for magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, and for isotropic rods with ends fixed to a plane

  18. Quantum fields in curved space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, A.; Magnon, A.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of obtaining a quantum description of the (real) Klein-Gordon system in a given curved space-time is discussed. An algebraic approach is used. The *-algebra of quantum operators is constructed explicitly and the problem of finding its *-representation is reduced to that of selecting a suitable complex structure on the real vector space of the solutions of the (classical) Klein-Gordon equation. Since, in a static space-time, there already exists, a satisfactory quantum field theory, in this case one already knows what the 'correct' complex structure is. A physical characterization of this 'correct' complex structure is obtained. This characterization is used to extend quantum field theory to non-static space-times. Stationary space-times are considered first. In this case, the issue of extension is completely straightforward and the resulting theory is the natural generalization of the one in static space-times. General, non-stationary space-times are then considered. In this case the issue of extension is quite complicated and only a plausible extension is presented. Although the resulting framework is well-defined mathematically, the physical interpretation associated with it is rather unconventional. Merits and weaknesses of this framework are discussed. (author)

  19. Learning curve estimation techniques for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, Jussi K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on actuarial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year

  20. Equation for the melting curve of solids under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslavskii, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Simon's equation of the melting curve is obtained using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in the linear approximation of the pressure dependence of the melting entropy and the volume change at the melting point. The constants in Simon's equation are calculated in this approximation for the alkali metals Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and also for hydrogen, H 2 , and argon. It is shown that one can obtain the constants of Simon's equation in a pressure range which is wider than the region of the thermodynamical validity of Simon's equation by averaging the values of the constants determined in different points of the melting curves. The constants obtained by this manner agree well with the experimental data. (author)

  1. Path integrals on curved manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.; Steiner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A general framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. We also show how to perform general coordinate and space-time transformations in path integrals. The main result is that one has to subtract a quantum correction ΔV ∝ ℎ 2 from the classical Lagrangian L, i.e. the correct effective Lagrangian to be used in the path integral is L eff = L-ΔV. A general prescription for calculating the quantum correction ΔV is given. It is based on a canonical approach using Weyl-ordering and the Hamiltonian path integral defined by the midpoint prescription. The general framework is illustrated by several examples: The d-dimensional rotator, i.e. the motion on the sphere S d-1 , the path integral in d-dimensional polar coordinates, the exact treatment of the hydrogen atom in R 2 and R 3 by performing a Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation, the Langer transformation and the path integral for the Morse potential. (orig.)

  2. Page curves for tripartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Zoe, Heeseung; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-01-01

    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A , B , and C ) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem. (paper)

  3. Vacuum polarization in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A necessary step in the process of understanding the quantum theory of gravity is the calculation of the stress-energy tensor of quantized fields in curved space-times. The determination of the stress tensor, a formally divergent object, is made possible in this dissertation by utilizing the zeta-function method of regularization and renormalization. By employing this scheme's representation of the renormalized effective action functional, an expression of the stress tensor for a massless, conformally invariant scalar field, first given by DeWitt, is derived. The form of the renormalized stress tensor is first tested in various examples of flat space-times. It is shown to vanish in Minkowski space and to yield the accepted value of the energy density in the Casimir effect. Next, the stress tensor is calculated in two space-times of constant curvature, the Einstein universe and the deSitter universe, and the results are shown to agree with those given by an expression of the stress tensor that is valid in conformally flat space-times. This work culminates in the determination of the stress tensor on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole. This is accomplished by approximating the radial part of the eigen-functions and the metric in the vicinity of the horizon. The stress tensor at this level approximation is found to be pure trace. The approximated forms of the Schwarzschild metric describes a conformally flat space-time that possesses horizons

  4. QUEST1 Variability Survey. III. Light Curve Catalog Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstorf, A. W.; Thompson, D. L.; Mufson, S. L.; Andrews, P.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C.; Adams, B.; Bailyn, C.; Baltay, C.; Bongiovanni, A.; Briceño, C.; Bruzual, G.; Coppi, P.; Della Prugna, F.; Emmet, W.; Ferrín, I.; Fuenmayor, F.; Gebhard, M.; Hernández, J.; Magris, G.; Musser, J.; Naranjo, O.; Oemler, A.; Rosenzweig, P.; Sabbey, C. N.; Sánchez, Ge.; Sánchez, Gu.; Schaefer, B.; Schenner, H.; Sinnott, J.; Snyder, J. A.; Sofia, S.; Stock, J.; van Altena, W.

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports an update to the QUEST1 (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team, Phase 1) Variability Survey (QVS) light curve catalog, which links QVS instrumental magnitude light curves to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) objects and photometry. In the time since the original QVS catalog release, the overlap between publicly available SDSS data and QVS data has increased by 8% in sky coverage and 16,728 in number of matched objects. The astrometric matching and the treatment of SDSS masks have been refined for the updated catalog. We report on these improvements and present multiple bandpass light curves, global variability information, and matched SDSS photometry for 214,941 QUEST1 objects. Based on observations obtained at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory, operated by the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía for the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Venezuela.

  5. Simple calculation of ab initio melting curves: Application to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple, fast, and promising method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of Lin et al [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003)] and its improved version given by Desjarlais [Phys. Rev. E 88, 062145 (2013)]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find the thermodynamic conditions of equal Gibbs free energy between these phases, defining the melting curve. The first benchmark on the face-centered cubic melting curve of aluminum from 0 to 300 GPa demonstrates how to obtain an accuracy of 5%-10%, comparable to the most sophisticated methods, for a much lower computational cost.

  6. Vacancies and a generalised melting curve of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, T.

    1979-01-01

    The vacancy mechanism of the melting process is used as a starting point for deriving an expression for the pressure dependence of the melting temperature of metals. The results obtained for the initial slope of the melting curve are compared with experimental data for 45 metals and in most cases the agreement is very good. The nonlinearity of the melting curve and the appearance of a maximum on the melting curve at a pressure approximately equal to the bulk modules is also predicted, with qualitative agreement with experimental data. A relation between bonding energy, atomic volume, and bulk modulus of metals is established. On the basis of this relation and the proposed vacancy mechanism, a generalised equation for the pressure dependence of the melting temperature of metals is derived. (author)

  7. Prediction of flow boiling curves based on artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Junmei; Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Xi'an; Su Guanghui

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the main system parameters on flow boiling curves were analyzed by using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the database selected from the 1960s. The input parameters of the ANN are system pressure, mass flow rate, inlet subcooling, wall superheat and steady/transition boiling, and the output parameter is heat flux. The results obtained by the ANN show that the heat flux increases with increasing inlet sub cooling for all heat transfer modes. Mass flow rate has no significant effects on nucleate boiling curves. The transition boiling and film boiling heat fluxes will increase with an increase of mass flow rate. The pressure plays a predominant role and improves heat transfer in whole boiling regions except film boiling. There are slight differences between the steady and the transient boiling curves in all boiling regions except the nucleate one. (authors)

  8. Calibration Curves for Biological Dosimetry by Fluorescence In situ Hybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonati, L.; Durante, M.; Gensabella, G.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.F.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Sgura, A.; Testa, A.; Tanzarella, C.

    2001-01-01

    Dose-response curves were measured for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after acute exposure in vitro to 60 Co γ rays. Blood was obtained from four different healthy donors, and chromosomes were either observed at metaphase, following colcemid accumulation, or prematurely condensed by calyculin A. Cells were analysed in three different Italian laboratories. Chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were painted, and simple-type interchanges between painted and non-painted chromosomes were scored in cells exposed in the dose range 0.1-3.0 Gy. The chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation method was also used combined with chromosome painting (chromosome 4 only) to determine calibration curves for high dose exposures (up to 20 Gy X rays). Calibration curves described in this paper will be used in our laboratories for biological dosimetry by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. (author)

  9. Fixing the Phillips curve: The case of downward nominal wage rigidity in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Reitz, Stefan; Slopek, Ulf D.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas microeconomic studies point to pronounced downward rigidity of nominal wages in the US economy, the standard Phillips curve neglects such a feature. Using a stochastic frontier model we find macroeconomic evidence of a strictly nonnegative error in an otherwise standard Phillips curve in post-war data on the US nonfinancial corporate sector. This error depends on growth in the profit ratio, output, and trend productivity, which should all determine the flexibility of wage adjustments....

  10. Deriving Area-storage Curves of Global Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Tang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Basic information including capacity, dam height, and largest water area on global reservoirs and dams is well documented in databases such as GRanD (Global Reservoirs and Dams), ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams). However, though playing a critical role in estimating reservoir storage variations from remote sensing or hydrological models, area-storage (or elevation-storage) curves of reservoirs are not publicly shared. In this paper, we combine Landsat surface water extent, 1 arc-minute global relief model (ETOPO1) and GRanD database to derive area-storage curves of global reservoirs whose area is larger than 1 km2 (6,000 more reservoirs are included). First, the coverage polygon of each reservoir in GRanD is extended to where water was detected by Landsat during 1985-2015. Second, elevation of each pixel in the reservoir is extracted from resampled 30-meter ETOPO1, and then relative depth and frequency of each depth value is calculated. Third, cumulative storage is calculated with increasing water area by every one percent of reservoir coverage area and then the uncalibrated area-storage curve is obtained. Finally, the area-storage curve is linearly calibrated by the ratio of calculated capacity over reported capacity in GRanD. The derived curves are compared with in-situ reservoir data collected in Great Plains Region in US, and the results show that in-situ records are well captured by the derived curves even in relative small reservoirs (several square kilometers). The new derived area-storage curves have the potential to be employed in global monitoring or modelling of reservoirs storage and area variations.

  11. SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE MID-IR LIGHT CURVES OF NEPTUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Sciences and Astrobiology Division, MS245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simon, Amy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division (690.0), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wong, Michael H. [University of California, Department of Astronomy, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 μ m and 0.6 mag at 4.5 μ m. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 μ m) and W2 (4.6 μ m) from the Wide-feld Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )/ NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010–2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler / K 2 in the visible (amplitude ∼0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude ∼0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune’s atmosphere than for K 2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune’s atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 μ m filters.

  12. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  13. Generalized Fermat's principle and action for light rays in a curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2013-09-01

    We start with formulation of the generalized Fermat’s principle for light propagation in a curved spacetime. We apply Pontryagin’s minimum principle of the optimal control theory and obtain an effective Hamiltonian for null geodesics in a curved spacetime. We explicitly demonstrate that dynamical equations for this Hamiltonian correctly reproduce null geodesic equations. Other forms of the action for light rays in a curved spacetime are also discussed.

  14. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  15. Utility of Interobserver Agreement Statistics in Establishing Radiology Resident Learning Curves During Self-directed Radiologic Anatomy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tureli, Derya; Altas, Hilal; Cengic, Ismet; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Baltacioglu, Feyyaz

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the learning curves for the radiology residents when first introduced to an anatomic structure in magnetic resonance images (MRI) to which they have not been previously exposed to. The iliolumbar ligament is a good marker for testing learning curves of radiology residents because the ligament is not part of a routine lumbar MRI reporting and has high variability in detection. Four radiologists, three residents without previous training and one mentor, studied standard axial T1- and T2-weighted images of routine lumbar MRI examinations. Radiologists had to define iliolumbar ligament while blinded to each other's findings. Interobserver agreement analyses, namely Cohen and Fleiss κ statistics, were performed for groups of 20 cases to evaluate the self-learning curve of radiology residents. Mean κ values of resident-mentor pairs were 0.431, 0.608, 0.604, 0.826, and 0.963 in the analysis of successive groups (P 0.8). Therefore, a junior radiology resident can obtain enough experience in identifying a rather ambiguous anatomic structure in routine MRI after a brief instruction of a few minutes by a mentor and studying approximately 80 cases by oneself. Implementing this methodology will help radiology educators obtain more concrete ideas on the optimal time and effort required for supported self-directed visual learning processes in resident education. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE LIGHT CURVE OF THE ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE BY ITS ROTATION PATH AS PREPARATION TO THE INVERSE PROBLEM SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlenko, Daniil

    2012-01-01

    Developing the algorithm of estimation of the rotational parameters of the artificial satellite by its light curve, we face the necessity to compute test light curves for various initially given types of rotation and specific features of lighting of the satellite. In the present study the algorithm of creation of such light curves with the simulation method and the obtained result are described.

  17. Is It Time to Change Our Reference Curve for Femur Length? Using the Z-Score to Select the Best Chart in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huixia; Wei, Yumei; Su, Rina; Wang, Chen; Meng, Wenying; Wang, Yongqing; Shang, Lixin; Cai, Zhenyu; Ji, Liping; Wang, Yunfeng; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jiaxiu; Wei, Li; Sun, Yufeng; Zhang, Xueying; Luo, Tianxia; Chen, Haixia; Yu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use Z-scores to compare different charts of femur length (FL) applied to our population with the aim of identifying the most appropriate chart. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in Beijing. Fifteen hospitals in Beijing were chosen as clusters using a systemic cluster sampling method, in which 15,194 pregnant women delivered from June 20th to November 30th, 2013. The measurements of FL in the second and third trimester were recorded, as well as the last measurement obtained before delivery. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified FL measurements from 19996 ultrasounds from 7194 patients between 11 and 42 weeks gestation. The FL data were then transformed into Z-scores that were calculated using three series of reference equations obtained from three reports: Leung TN, Pang MW et al (2008); Chitty LS, Altman DG et al (1994); and Papageorghiou AT et al (2014). Each Z-score distribution was presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD). Skewness and kurtosis and were compared with the standard normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The histogram of their distributions was superimposed on the non-skewed standard normal curve (mean = 0, SD = 1) to provide a direct visual impression. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of each reference chart for identifying fetuses 95th percentile (based on the observed distribution of Z-scores) were calculated. The Youden index was also listed. A scatter diagram with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile curves calculated from and superimposed on each reference chart was presented to provide a visual impression. Results The three Z-score distribution curves appeared to be normal, but none of them matched the expected standard normal distribution. In our study, the Papageorghiou reference curve provided the best results, with a sensitivity of 100% for identifying fetuses with measurements 95th percentile, and specificities of 99.9% and 81.5%, respectively. Conclusions It

  18. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated “trial-and-error” protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  19. Description of saturation curves and boiling process of dry air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestfálová Magda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air is a mixture of gases forming the gas wrap of Earth. It is formed by dry air, moisture and other pollutants. Dry air is a substance whose thermodynamic properties in gaseous state, as well as the thermodynamic properties of its main constituents in gaseous state, are generally known and described in detail in the literature. The liquid air is a bluish liquid and is industrially used to produce oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium by distillation. The transition between the gaseous and liquid state (the condensation process, resp. boiling process, is usually displayed in the basic thermodynamic diagrams using the saturation curves. The saturation curves of all pure substances are of a similar shape. However, since the dry air is a mixture, the shapes of its saturation curves are modified relative to the shapes corresponding to the pure substances. This paper deals with the description of the dry air saturation curves as a mixture, i.e. with a description of the process of phase change of dry air (boiling process. The dry air saturation curves are constructed in the basic thermodynamic charts based on the values obtained from the literature. On the basis of diagrams, data appearing in various publications are interpreted and put into context with boiling process of dry air.

  20. Optical and IR light curves of VV Puppis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkody, P.; Bailey, J.A.; Hough, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We present optical (0.36 to 0.6 μm) light curves with time resolutions of seconds and infrared (IR) (1.25 to 2.2 μm) light curves with time resolutions of minutes for VV Puppis during a high state. The optical light curves show a single hump with largest amplitude in the V filter, while the IR light curves show a double hump sinusoidal variation. Flickering is evident in both the optical and IR light curves, with the largest amplitude in optical B light. Through subtraction of the low state fluxes from our high state values, we obtain a flux distribution of the accretion column which peaks at 0.55 μm and becomes #betta# 2 in the IR, consistent with current cyclotron models. Comparison of the observed IR variations throughout the orbit with the expected variations due to an M4 star heated by an accretion column at an inclination of 66 0 suggests that the IR light is a combination of the secondary star plus contributions from two emitting poles. (author)

  1. Particles and Dirac-type operators on curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visinescu, Mihai

    2003-01-01

    We review the geodesic motion of pseudo-classical particles in curved spaces. Investigating the generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces, we express the constants of motion in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. Passing from the spinning spaces to the Dirac equation in curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space. From the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors of this space we construct three new Dirac-type operators which are equivalent with the standard Dirac operator. Finally the Runge-Lenz operator for the Dirac equation in this background is expressed in terms of the fourth Killing-Yano tensor which is not covariantly constant. As a rule the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors realize certain square roots of the metric tensor. Such a Killing-Yano tensor produces simultaneously a Dirac-type operator and the generator of a one-parameter Lie group connecting this operator with the standard Dirac one. On the other hand, the not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors are important in generating hidden symmetries. The presence of not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors implies the existence of non-standard supersymmetries in point particle theories on curved background. (author)

  2. Performance of an extrapolation chamber in computed tomography standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maysa C.; Silva, Natália F.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2017-01-01

    Among the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the computed tomography (CT) diagnostic exams are responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. The dosimetry procedure in CT scanner beams makes use of pencil ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 10 cm. The aim of its calibration is to compare the values that are obtained with the instrument to be calibrated and a standard reference system. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam. Therefore, an extrapolation ionization chamber built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI), was used to establish a CT primary standard. The objective of this work was to perform some characterization tests (short- and medium-term stabilities, saturation curve, polarity effect and ion collection efficiency) in the standard X-rays beams established for computed tomography at the LCI. (author)

  3. Performance of an extrapolation chamber in computed tomography standard beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Maysa C.; Silva, Natália F.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: mcastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Among the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the computed tomography (CT) diagnostic exams are responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. The dosimetry procedure in CT scanner beams makes use of pencil ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 10 cm. The aim of its calibration is to compare the values that are obtained with the instrument to be calibrated and a standard reference system. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam. Therefore, an extrapolation ionization chamber built at the Calibration Laboratory (LCI), was used to establish a CT primary standard. The objective of this work was to perform some characterization tests (short- and medium-term stabilities, saturation curve, polarity effect and ion collection efficiency) in the standard X-rays beams established for computed tomography at the LCI. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Effects of Warning Sign Position on Driving Behavior in Horizontal Sharp Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In present time, the guidelines on warning sign position in the China National Standard lack detailed and standard regulations of placing warning signs on sharp curves, which may cause road safety problems. Therefore, this paper briefly discussed how to optimize the position of a warning sign on a sharp curve through a driving simulator experiment. This study concluded that a warning sign placed at different positions prior to a sharp curve will have different influence ranges for drivers approaching and negotiating the curve. Meanwhile, different positions of a warning sign imposed different effect obviously on the adjustment of vehicle's lane position on sharp curves with the same radius, especially at the midpoint of a sharp curve. The evaluation results of five positions (0 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m in advance showed that only when the warning signs were placed 100 m or 200 m prior to sharp curves, can they achieve positive influence on driving behavior. On this basis, the authors look forward to providing rationalization proposals in selecting the best position of a warning sign on a sharp curve for the engineering implementation and national standard.

  5. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  6. MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA

  7. Inverse Diffusion Curves Using Shape Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Durand, Fredo; Zheng, Changxi

    2018-07-01

    The inverse diffusion curve problem focuses on automatic creation of diffusion curve images that resemble user provided color fields. This problem is challenging since the 1D curves have a nonlinear and global impact on resulting color fields via a partial differential equation (PDE). We introduce a new approach complementary to previous methods by optimizing curve geometry. In particular, we propose a novel iterative algorithm based on the theory of shape derivatives. The resulting diffusion curves are clean and well-shaped, and the final image closely approximates the input. Our method provides a user-controlled parameter to regularize curve complexity, and generalizes to handle input color fields represented in a variety of formats.

  8. Lagrangian cobordism and tropical curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Nick; Smith, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    We study a cylindrical Lagrangian cobordism group for Lagrangian torus fibres in symplectic manifolds which are the total spaces of smooth Lagrangian torus fibrations. We use ideas from family Floer theory and tropical geometry to obtain both obstructions to and constructions of cobordisms; in particular, we give examples of symplectic tori in which the cobordism group has no non-trivial cobordism relations between pairwise distinct fibres, and ones in which the degree zero fibre cobordism gr...

  9. A simple method for one-loop renormalization in curved space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, Tommi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Tranberg, Anders, E-mail: tommi.markkanen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: anders.tranberg@uis.no [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple method for deriving the renormalization counterterms from the components of the energy-momentum tensor in curved space-time. This method allows control over the finite parts of the counterterms and provides explicit expressions for each term separately. As an example, the method is used for the self-interacting scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric in the adiabatic approximation, where we calculate the renormalized equation of motion for the field and the renormalized components of the energy-momentum tensor to fourth adiabatic order while including interactions to one-loop order. Within this formalism the trace anomaly, including contributions from interactions, is shown to have a simple derivation. We compare our results to those obtained by two standard methods, finding agreement with the Schwinger-DeWitt expansion but disagreement with adiabatic subtractions for interacting theories.

  10. String Sigma Models on Curved Supermanifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Catenacci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the techniques of integral forms to analyze the easiest example of two-dimensional sigma models on a supermanifold. We write the action as an integral of a top integral form over a D = 2 supermanifold, and we show how to interpolate between different superspace actions. Then, we consider curved supermanifolds, and we show that the definitions used for flat supermanifolds can also be used for curved supermanifolds. We prove it by first considering the case of a curved rigid supermanifold and then the case of a generic curved supermanifold described by a single superfield E.

  11. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  12. Four-colour photometry of eclipsing binaries. XXXII. Light curves of V1031 Orionis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J V; Nordstroem, B; Andersen, J [Copenhagen Univ. Observatory, (DK); Nordstroem, B; Andersen, J [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (US)

    1989-12-01

    Complete uvby light curves are presented for the bright, southern, A-type triple system V1031 Orionis which consists of two well-separated eclipsing components in a circular orbit and a third component at an angular distance of about 0.16 sec. The light curves contain 1280 points in each colour, obtained from 1980 to 1983.

  13. Four-colour photometry of eclipsing binaries. XXXII. Light curves of V1031 Orionis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, J.V.; Nordstroem, B.; Andersen, J.; Nordstroem, B.; Andersen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Complete uvby light curves are presented for the bright, southern, A-type triple system V1031 Orionis which consists of two well-separated eclipsing components in a circular orbit and a third component at an angular distance of about 0.16 sec. The light curves contain 1280 points in each colour, obtained from 1980 to 1983

  14. Characterizations of Space Curves According to Bishop Darboux Vector in Euclidean 3-Space E3

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin KOCAYIGIT; Ali OZDEMIR

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we obtained some characterizations of space curves according to Bihop frame in Euclidean 3-space E3 by using Laplacian operator and Levi-Civita connection. Furthermore, we gave the general differential equations which characterize the space curves according to the Bishop Darboux vector and the normal Bishop Darboux vector.

  15. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  16. Development of radioactive standards in epoxy matrix for the control of quality of activimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Monteiro, Luciane Carollyne de Oliveira Reis; Oliveira, Marcia Liane de

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a new approach for development of the standards for positron emitting radionuclides in epoxy matrix is presented. Different formulations were prepared using epoxy resin (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether - DGEBA) and curing agents, to immobilize the radioactive material. The efficiency curve and standard sample methods were applied for activity determination of a long-lived positron emitter ("2"2Na). Satisfactory results were obtained in the 3"r"d combination. Thus, these radioactive standards can be used to evaluate the metrological behavior of the systems used for the measurement of the radiopharmaceuticals (activimeters) in the production centers and in nuclear medicine services. (author)

  17. W-curve alignments for HIV-1 genomic comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Cork

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The W-curve was originally developed as a graphical visualization technique for viewing DNA and RNA sequences. Its ability to render features of DNA also makes it suitable for computational studies. Its main advantage in this area is utilizing a single-pass algorithm for comparing the sequences. Avoiding recursion during sequence alignments offers advantages for speed and in-process resources. The graphical technique also allows for multiple models of comparison to be used depending on the nucleotide patterns embedded in similar whole genomic sequences. The W-curve approach allows us to compare large numbers of samples quickly.We are currently tuning the algorithm to accommodate quirks specific to HIV-1 genomic sequences so that it can be used to aid in diagnostic and vaccine efforts. Tracking the molecular evolution of the virus has been greatly hampered by gap associated problems predominantly embedded within the envelope gene of the virus. Gaps and hypermutation of the virus slow conventional string based alignments of the whole genome. This paper describes the W-curve algorithm itself, and how we have adapted it for comparison of similar HIV-1 genomes. A treebuilding method is developed with the W-curve that utilizes a novel Cylindrical Coordinate distance method and gap analysis method. HIV-1 C2-V5 env sequence regions from a Mother/Infant cohort study are used in the comparison.The output distance matrix and neighbor results produced by the W-curve are functionally equivalent to those from Clustal for C2-V5 sequences in the mother/infant pairs infected with CRF01_AE.Significant potential exists for utilizing this method in place of conventional string based alignment of HIV-1 genomes, such as Clustal X. With W-curve heuristic alignment, it may be possible to obtain clinically useful results in a short time-short enough to affect clinical choices for acute treatment. A description of the W-curve generation process, including a comparison

  18. W-curve alignments for HIV-1 genomic comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Douglas J; Lembark, Steven; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2010-06-01

    The W-curve was originally developed as a graphical visualization technique for viewing DNA and RNA sequences. Its ability to render features of DNA also makes it suitable for computational studies. Its main advantage in this area is utilizing a single-pass algorithm for comparing the sequences. Avoiding recursion during sequence alignments offers advantages for speed and in-process resources. The graphical technique also allows for multiple models of comparison to be used depending on the nucleotide patterns embedded in similar whole genomic sequences. The W-curve approach allows us to compare large numbers of samples quickly. We are currently tuning the algorithm to accommodate quirks specific to HIV-1 genomic sequences so that it can be used to aid in diagnostic and vaccine efforts. Tracking the molecular evolution of the virus has been greatly hampered by gap associated problems predominantly embedded within the envelope gene of the virus. Gaps and hypermutation of the virus slow conventional string based alignments of the whole genome. This paper describes the W-curve algorithm itself, and how we have adapted it for comparison of similar HIV-1 genomes. A treebuilding method is developed with the W-curve that utilizes a novel Cylindrical Coordinate distance method and gap analysis method. HIV-1 C2-V5 env sequence regions from a Mother/Infant cohort study are used in the comparison. The output distance matrix and neighbor results produced by the W-curve are functionally equivalent to those from Clustal for C2-V5 sequences in the mother/infant pairs infected with CRF01_AE. Significant potential exists for utilizing this method in place of conventional string based alignment of HIV-1 genomes, such as Clustal X. With W-curve heuristic alignment, it may be possible to obtain clinically useful results in a short time-short enough to affect clinical choices for acute treatment. A description of the W-curve generation process, including a comparison technique of

  19. Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.

  20. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  1. Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de

    2008-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a

  2. Learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Schoots, K. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Columbia Univ., New York City, NY (United States). Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy

    2010-07-01

    We present learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combined heat and power (CHP) SOFC systems with an electric capacity between 1 and 250 kW. On the basis of the cost breakdown of production cost data from fuel cell manufacturers, we developed a bottom-up model that allows for determining overall manufacturing costs from their respective cost components, among which material, energy, labor, and capital charges. The results obtained from our model prove to deviate by at most 13% from total cost figures quoted in the literature. For the early pilot stage of development, we find for SOFC manufacturing a learning rate between 14% and 17%, and for total SOFC system fabrication between 16% and 19%. We argue that the corresponding cost reductions result largely from learning-by-searching effects (R and D) rather than learning-by-doing. When considering a longer time frame that includes the early commercial production stage, we find learning rates between 14% and 39%, which represent a mix of phenomena such as learning-by-doing, learning-by-searching, economies-of-scale and automation. (orig.)

  3. Tachyon condensation on the elliptic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindarajan, Suresh; Jockers, Hans; Lerche, Wolfgang; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2007-01-01

    We use the framework of matrix factorizations to study topological B-type D-branes on the cubic curve. Specifically, we elucidate how the brane RR charges are encoded in the matrix factors, by analyzing their structure in terms of sections of vector bundles in conjunction with equivariant R-symmetry. One particular advantage of matrix factorizations is that explicit moduli dependence is built in, thus giving us full control over the open-string moduli space. It allows one to study phenomena like discontinuous jumps of the cohomology over the moduli space, as well as formation of bound states at threshold. One interesting aspect is that certain gauge symmetries inherent to the matrix formulation lead to a non-trivial global structure of the moduli space. We also investigate topological tachyon condensation, which enables us to construct, in a systematic fashion, higher-dimensional matrix factorizations out of smaller ones; this amounts to obtaining branes with higher RR charges as composites of ones with minimal charges. As an application, we explicitly construct all rank two matrix factorizations

  4. Tachyon Condensation on the Elliptic Curve

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, S; Lerche, Wolfgang; Warner, Nicholas P

    2007-01-01

    We use the framework of matrix factorizations to study topological B-type D-branes on the cubic curve. Specifically, we elucidate how the brane RR charges are encoded in the matrix factors, by analyzing their structure in terms of sections of vector bundles in conjunction with equivariant R-symmetry. One particular advantage of matrix factorizations is that explicit moduli dependence is built in, thus giving us full control over the open-string moduli space. It allows one to study phenomena like discontinuous jumps of the cohomology over the moduli space, as well as formation of bound states at threshold. One interesting aspect is that certain gauge symmetries inherent to the matrix formulation lead to a non-trivial global structure of the moduli space. We also investigate topological tachyon condensation, which enables us to construct, in a systematic fashion, higher-dimensional matrix factorizations out of smaller ones; this amounts to obtaining branes with higher RR charges as composites of ones with minim...

  5. Deriving Langevin equations in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Rudnei O.; Tavares, Romulo F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Warm inflation is an inflationary scenario where the interactions between the inflaton and other degrees of freedom are considered. The effective equation of motion for the inflaton is in general of the form of a Langevin equation, that includes both quantum and thermal effects and where these effects manifest in the form of dissipation and stochastic noise terms, which are related by a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation. The dissipation term is related to the interactions of the inflaton with other degrees of freedom of the thermal bath that can be obtained from the appropriate Feynman propagators. As the inflaton evolves into an expanding metric, these effects have to be taken into account when calculating the Green functions and consequently the Feynman propagators. In this work we present the considerations that must be made to calculate the Green functions in curved space (expanding metric) and in the presence of radiation in order to proper derive the effective evolution of the inflaton in the warm-inflation scenario. (author)

  6. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2013-11-01

    In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).

  7. Open string T-duality in a weakly curved background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovic, Ljubica

    2016-01-01

    We consider a theory of an open string moving in a weakly curved background, composed of a constant metric and a linearly coordinate dependent Kalb-Ramond field with an infinitesimal field strength. We find its T-dual using the generalized Buscher procedure developed for the closed string moving in a weakly curved background, and the fact that solving the boundary conditions, the open string theory transforms to the effective closed string theory. So, T-dualizing the effective theory along all effective directions we obtain its T-dual theory and resume the open string theory which has such an effective theory. In this way we obtain the open string theory T-dual. (orig.)

  8. Gain curves and hydrodynamic modeling for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ignition of a precompressed thermonuclear fuel by means of a converging shock is now considered as a credible scheme to obtain high gains for inertial fusion energy. This work aims at modeling the successive stages of the fuel time history, from compression to final thermonuclear combustion, in order to provide the gain curves of shock ignition (SI). The leading physical mechanism at work in SI is pressure amplification, at first by spherical convergence, and by collision with the shock reflected at center during the stagnation process. These two effects are analyzed, and ignition conditions are provided as functions of the shock pressure and implosion velocity. Ignition conditions are obtained from a non-isobaric fuel assembly, for which we present a gain model. The corresponding gain curves exhibit a significantly lower ignition threshold and higher target gains than conventional central ignition.

  9. A dose-surviving fraction curve for mouse colonic mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A dose-surviving fraction curve representing the response of the mouse colonic mucosa to single doses of 137 Cs gamma radiation was obtained from the results of a multifraction in vivo colony assay. Construction of the curve required an estimated of the average number of clonogens initially present per colonic crypt. The estimated clonogen count (88) was determined by a statistical method based on the use of doses per fraction common to different fractionation protocols. Parameters for the LQ and TC models of cell survival were obtained by weighted least-squares fits to the data. A comparison of the survival characteristics of cells from the mouse colonic and jejunal crypts suggested that the epithelium of the colon is less radiosensitive than that of the jejunum. (author)

  10. Simultaneous realization of slow and fast acoustic waves using a fractal structure of Koch curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Wei-Wei

    2018-01-24

    An acoustic metamaterial based on a fractal structure, the Koch curve, is designed to simultaneously realize slow and fast acoustic waves. Owing to the multiple transmitting paths in the structure resembling the Koch curve, the acoustic waves travelling along different paths interfere with each other. Therefore, slow waves are created on the basis of the resonance of a Koch-curve-shaped loop, and meanwhile, fast waves even with negative group velocities are obtained due to the destructive interference of two acoustic waves with opposite phases. Thus, the transmission of acoustic wave can be freely manipulated with the Koch-curve shaped structure.

  11. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  12. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-06-14

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  13. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-09-28

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  14. Crack resistance curves determination of tube cladding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: johannes.bertsch@psi.ch; Hoffelner, W. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2006-06-30

    Zirconium based alloys have been in use as fuel cladding material in light water reactors since many years. As claddings change their mechanical properties during service, it is essential for the assessment of mechanical integrity to provide parameters for potential rupture behaviour. Usually, fracture mechanics parameters like the fracture toughness K {sub IC} or, for high plastic strains, the J-integral based elastic-plastic fracture toughness J {sub IC} are employed. In claddings with a very small wall thickness the determination of toughness needs the extension of the J-concept beyond limits of standards. In the paper a new method based on the traditional J approach is presented. Crack resistance curves (J-R curves) were created for unirradiated thin walled Zircaloy-4 and aluminium cladding tube pieces at room temperature using the single sample method. The procedure of creating sharp fatigue starter cracks with respect to optical recording was optimized. It is shown that the chosen test method is appropriate for the determination of complete J-R curves including the values J {sub 0.2} (J at 0.2 mm crack length), J {sub m} (J corresponding to the maximum load) and the slope of the curve.

  15. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth.

  16. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuhle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009 and 2 (2009/2011. Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth.

  17. Implementation of the Master Curve method in ProSACC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilitzen, Carl von; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2012-03-01

    Cleavage fracture toughness data display normally large amount of statistical scatter in the transition region. The cleavage toughness data in this region is specimen size-dependent, and should be treated statistically rather than deterministically. Master Curve methodology is a procedure for mechanical testing and statistical analysis of fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition region. The methodology accounts for temperature and size dependence of fracture toughness. Using the Master Curve methodology for evaluation of the fracture toughness in the transition region releases the overconservatism that has been observed in using the ASME-KIC curve. One main advantage of using the Master Curve methodology is possibility to use small Charpy-size specimens to determine fracture toughness. Detailed description of the Master Curve methodology is given by Sattari-Far and Wallin [2005). ProSACC is a suitable program in using for structural integrity assessments of components containing crack like defects and for defect tolerance analysis. The program gives possibilities to conduct assessments based on deterministic or probabilistic grounds. The method utilized in ProSACC is based on the R6-method developed at Nuclear Electric plc, Milne et al [1988]. The basic assumption in this method is that fracture in a cracked body can be described by two parameters Kr and Lr. The parameter Kr is the ratio between the stress intensity factor and the fracture toughness of the material. The parameter Lr is the ratio between applied load and the plastic limit load of the structure. The ProSACC assessment results are therefore highly dependent on the applied fracture toughness value in the assessment. In this work, the main options of the Master Curve methodology are implemented in the ProSACC program. Different options in evaluating Master Curve fracture toughness from standard fracture toughness testing data or impact testing data are considered. In addition, the

  18. Implementation of the Master Curve method in ProSACC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feilitzen, Carl von; Sattari-Far, Iradj [Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-15

    Cleavage fracture toughness data display normally large amount of statistical scatter in the transition region. The cleavage toughness data in this region is specimen size-dependent, and should be treated statistically rather than deterministically. Master Curve methodology is a procedure for mechanical testing and statistical analysis of fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition region. The methodology accounts for temperature and size dependence of fracture toughness. Using the Master Curve methodology for evaluation of the fracture toughness in the transition region releases the overconservatism that has been observed in using the ASME-KIC curve. One main advantage of using the Master Curve methodology is possibility to use small Charpy-size specimens to determine fracture toughness. Detailed description of the Master Curve methodology is given by Sattari-Far and Wallin [2005). ProSACC is a suitable program in using for structural integrity assessments of components containing crack like defects and for defect tolerance analysis. The program gives possibilities to conduct assessments based on deterministic or probabilistic grounds. The method utilized in ProSACC is based on the R6-method developed at Nuclear Electric plc, Milne et al [1988]. The basic assumption in this method is that fracture in a cracked body can be described by two parameters Kr and Lr. The parameter Kr is the ratio between the stress intensity factor and the fracture toughness of the material. The parameter Lr is the ratio between applied load and the plastic limit load of the structure. The ProSACC assessment results are therefore highly dependent on the applied fracture toughness value in the assessment. In this work, the main options of the Master Curve methodology are implemented in the ProSACC program. Different options in evaluating Master Curve fracture toughness from standard fracture toughness testing data or impact testing data are considered. In addition, the

  19. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...

  20. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L; Kypreos, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  1. The Koch curve as a smooth manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Sniatycki, Jedrzej

    2008-01-01

    We show that there exists a homeomorphism between the closed interval [0,1] is contained in R and the Koch curve endowed with the subset topology of R 2 . We use this homeomorphism to endow the Koch curve with the structure of a smooth manifold with boundary

  2. Fermionic fields on ZN-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadsky, M.; Radul, A.

    1988-01-01

    The line bundles of degree g-1 on Z N -curves corresponding to 1/N nonsingular characteristics are considered. The determinants of Dirac operators defined on these line bundles are evaluated in terms of branch points. The generalization of Thomae's formula for Z N -curves is derived. (orig.)

  3. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  4. A minicourse on moduli of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looijenga, E.

    2000-01-01

    These are notes that accompany a short course given at the School on Algebraic Geometry 1999 at the ICTP, Trieste. A major goal is to outline various approaches to moduli spaces of curves. In the last part I discuss the algebraic classes that naturally live on these spaces; these can be thought of as the characteristic classes for bundles of curves. (author)

  5. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal

  6. Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)

  7. Hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces ‘hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography’, in which a single high-security group supports fast genus-2-hyperelliptic-curve formulas for variable-base-point single-scalar multiplication (for example, Diffie–Hellman shared-secret computation) and at the same time supports fast

  8. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  9. Peak oil analyzed with a logistic function and idealized Hubbert curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A logistic function is used to characterize peak and ultimate production of global crude oil and petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Annual oil production data were incrementally summed to construct a logistic curve in its initial phase. Using a curve-fitting approach, a population-growth logistic function was applied to complete the cumulative production curve. The simulated curve was then deconstructed into a set of annual oil production data producing an 'idealized' Hubbert curve. An idealized Hubbert curve (IHC) is defined as having properties of production data resulting from a constant growth-rate under fixed resource limits. An IHC represents a potential production curve constructed from cumulative production data and provides a new perspective for estimating peak production periods and remaining resources. The IHC model data show that idealized peak oil production occurred in 2009 at 83.2 Mb/d (30.4 Gb/y). IHC simulations of truncated historical oil production data produced similar results and indicate that this methodology can be useful as a prediction tool. - Research Highlights: →Global oil production data were analyzed by a simple curve fitting method. →Best fit-curve results were obtained using two logistic functions on select data. →A broad potential oil production peak is forecast for the years from 2004 to 2014. →Similar results were obtained using historical data from about 10 to 30 years ago. →Two potential oil production decline scenarios were presented and compared.

  10. Surveying the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Siwed, A.; Peter, J.; Gulminelli, F.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Laforest, R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Rosato, E.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Bacri, O.; Borderie, B.; Dore, D.; Lukasik, J.; Ouatizerga, A.; Parlog, M.; Plagnol, E.; Rivet, M.F.; Squalli, M.; Tassan-Got, L.; Eudes, P.; Gourio, D.; Laville, J.L.; Metivier, V.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.

    1996-01-01

    The 4π array INDRA was used to detect nearly all charged products emitted in Ar + Ni collisions between 52 and 95 MeV/u. The charge, mass and excitation energy E * of the quasi-projectiles have been reconstructed event by event. Excitation energies up to 25 MeV per nucleon are reached. Apparent temperatures obtained from several double isotopic yield ratios Tr 0 show different dependences upon E * . T 0 6 Li 7 Li- 3 Heα yields the highest values, as well as the high energy slopes Ts of the kinetic spectra. Two statistical models, sequential evaporation and gas in complete equilibrium, taking into account side feeding and discrete excited states population, show that the data can be explained by a steady increase of the initial temperature with excitation energy without evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of errors in determination of DNA melting curve registered with differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, D.Y.; Fridman, A.S.; Galyuk, E.N.; Dalyan, Y.B.; Grigoryan, I.E.; Haroutiunian, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is more sensitive than UV absorption spectrophotometry as a tool for the measurement of DNA melting curves. The advantage of DSC is a direct determination of differential melting curves (DMC) obtained without numerical differentiation. However, the difference between the helix-coil transition enthalpies of AT and GC base pairs can cause distortions in the shape of melting curve. Up to date, the errors caused by those distortions were not evaluated. In this study, a simple procedure of recalculation of a calorimetric DMC into a real DMC is developed. It demonstrates that the 'real' melting curve and differential melting curve deviate very slightly from the same two curves calculated from DSC data. The melting temperature and the temperature melting range are usually the same even if the difference in the enthalpies is several times higher than a real one

  12. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de

    2015-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  13. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'man, Yu.V.; Chugunova, S.I.; Goncharova, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for determination plasticity characteristic δH in the measurement of hardness and nanohardness are considered. Parameter δH characterizes the plasticity of a material by the part of plastic deformation in the total elastic-plastic deformation. The value of δH is defined for metals with different types of crystal lattice, covalent and partially covalent crystals, intermetallics, metallic glasses and quasicrystals. It is discussed the dependence of the plasticity characteristic δH on structural factors and temperature. Parameter δH allows to analyze and compare the plasticity of materials which are brittle at standard mechanical tests. The combination of hardness H, as the strength characteristic, and the plasticity characteristic δH makes possible the better characterization of mechanical behavior of materials than only the hardness H. The examples of plasticity characteristic δH application are represented.

  14. Application value of curved planar reconstruction in sacroiliac joint of ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tuxing; Huan Xiao; Zhu Xiang; Fang Chun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the application value of curved planar reconstruction (CPR) of multislice spiral computed tomography(MSCT) in changes of sacroiliac joint of ankylosing spondylitis(AS). Methods: 33 patients with AS diagnosed clinically were chosen to take MSCT scanning of bilateral sacroiliac joints with the slice thick of 5mm and the slice interval of 5 mm. The primary images were transported to General Electric AW4.0 workstation, and the multiplanar reformatted sagittal images of sacrum were obtained by the reformat software, and further the coronary images of bilateral sacroiliac joints by CPR with the construction curves coincident with sacrums. Results: All coronary images of bilateral sacroiliac joints by CPR were excellent in density and space resolution, and showed complete sacroiliac joints and their changes clearly and directly. Of all 33 cases, 2 were graded as grade 0, 5 grade I, 11 grade II, 10 grade III, 5 glade IV, according to grading standard. Conclusion: The coronary images of sacroiliac joint by CPR are enough clear and eligible for clinical diagnosis, and, in combination with transversal images, are helpful to complete assessment about the grade and scope of changes of sacroiliac joint in AS patients. (authors)

  15. The cumulative ash curve: a best tool to evaluate complete mill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2014-04-01

    Slick test is carried out by a flour miller to qualitatively segregate the flour from different streams in a roller flour mill. This test is done manually by pressing flour samples on tray using thin bladed paddle (the slick) and inspecting color or dress of the sample. However, the test is subjective and totally depends on human judgment. Cumulative ash curve relates to cumulative flour ash content and cumulative flour yield, which could help a flour miller to be more precise while selecting flour streams for different needs. In this study, cleaning and conditioning of wheat was carried out in the pilot plant of International School of Milling Technology (ISMT). Further, roller flour milling of wheat was done. Flour from different streams (four breaks, five reductions) was collected. Each flour stream was analyzed for ash content using standard AACC methods. The analytical values of ash content were used to plot the cumulative ash curve. It was found that ash content increased in the break passages from first to last break, with exception of first break (ash content 0.71%). An increase in percentage of ash was observed in the reduction passages (C1 to C5), however, C3 ash (0.76%) was slightly higher than that of C4 (0.65%). Higher yield of flour with minimum ash content was obtained from the front reduction passages C1 and C2; whereas, the break passages and the tail end reduction passages produce less flour with higher ash content.

  16. Theory of near-critical-angle scattering from a curved interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Wiscombe, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    A new type of diffraction effect, different from the standard semiclassical ones (rainbow, glory, forward peak, orbiting), takes place near the critical angle for total reflection at a curved interface between two homogeneous media. A theoretical treatment of this new effects is given for Mie scattering, e.g., light scattering by an air bubble in water; it can readily be extended to more general curved interface problems in a variety of different fields (quantum mechanics, acoustics, seismic waves). The relatively slowly-varying Mie diffraction pattern associated with near-critical scattering is obscured by rapid fine-structure oscillations due to interference with unrelated farside contributions. These contributions are evaluated and subtracted from the Mie amplitudes to yield the relevant nearside effects. A zero-order transitional CAM (complex angular momentum) approximation to the nearside amplitude is developed. The most important contributions arise from partial and total reflection, represented by two new diffraction integrals, designated Fresnel-Fock and Pearcey-Fock respectively. Also discussed are the WKB approximation, a known physical optics approximation and a new modified version of this approximation: they are compared with the exact nearside Mie amplitude obtained by numerical partial-wave summation, at scatterer size parameters (circumference/wavelength) ranging from 1,000 to 10,000. (author)

  17. Improved effective potential in curved spacetime and quantum matter--higher derivative gravity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S.D.; Romeo, A.

    1995-01-01

    We develop a general formalism to study the renormalization-group- (RG-)improved effective potential for renormalizable gauge theories, including matter-R 2 -gravity, in curved spacetime. The result is given up to quadratic terms in curvature, and one-loop effective potentials may be easily obtained from it. As an example, we consider scalar QED, where dimensional transmutation in curved space and the phase structure of the potential (in particular, curvature-induced phase transitions) are discussed. For scalar QED with higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG), we examine the influence of QG on dimensional transmutation and calculate QG corrections to the scalar-to-vector mass ratio. The phase structure of the RG-improved effective potential is also studied in this case, and the values of the induced Newton and cosmological coupling constants at the critical point are estimated. The stability of the running scalar coupling in the Yukawa theory with conformally invariant higher-derivative QG, and in the standard model with the same addition, is numerically analyzed. We show that, in these models, QG tends to make the scalar sector less unstable

  18. Performance curves of room air conditioners for building energy simulation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, José W.; Abadie, Marc O.; Moura, Luís M.; Mendonça, Kátia C.; Mendes, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental characteristic curves for two room air conditioners are presented. • These results can be implemented in building simulation codes. • The energy consumption under different conditions can numerically determine. • The labeled higher energy efficiency product not always provides the best result. - Abstract: In order to improve the modeling of air conditioners in building simulation tools, the characteristic curves for total cooling capacity, sensible cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio of two room units were determined. They were obtained by means of standard capacity tests on climatic chambers in a set of environmental conditions described by external dry- and internal wet bulb temperatures. Afterward, the performance of these two units and that of four other units, with and without taking into to account the thermodynamic variations of the surrounding environments on it, were compared using a whole building simulation program for simulating a conditioned space. The comparative analysis showed that the air conditioner with the higher energy efficiency rating not always provides the lowest power consumption in real conditions of use

  19. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H 2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH 2 and some ZrO 2 . Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  20. Stage discharge curve for Guillemard Bridge streamflow sation based on rating curve method using historical flood event data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, F C; Sidek, L M; Desa, M N; Arifin, K; Tosaka, H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the stage-discharge curves varies from water quality study, flood modelling study, can be used to project climate change scenarios and so on. As the bed of the river often changes due to the annual monsoon seasons that sometimes cause by massive floods, the capacity of the river will changed causing shifting controlled to happen. This study proposes to use the historical flood event data from 1960 to 2009 in calculating the stage-discharge curve of Guillemard Bridge located in Sg. Kelantan. Regression analysis was done to check the quality of the data and examine the correlation between the two variables, Q and H. The mean values of the two variables then were adopted to find the value of difference between zero gauge height and the level of zero flow, 'a', K and 'n' to fit into rating curve equation and finally plotting the stage-discharge rating curve. Regression analysis of the historical flood data indicate that 91 percent of the original uncertainty has been explained by the analysis with the standard error of 0.085.

  1. Evaluation of thermoluminescent BeO samples in standard radiotherapy beams; Avaliacao de amostras termoluminescentes de BeO em feixes padroes de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, Daniela P.; Silva, Jonas O.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: daniela.piai.groppo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Beryllium oxide thermoluminescent samples were evaluated in standard radiotherapy beams of low energy. Results for response reproducibility, dose-response curve and energy dependence were obtained. The lower detection limit was determined. The pellets of BeO showed their usefulness for beam dosimetry. (author)

  2. Purification of alcohol obtained from molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visnevskaya, G L; Egorov, A S; Sokol' skaya, E V

    1960-01-01

    A study of the composition of alcohol liquids on different plates of a fractionation column of indirect action during purification of alcohol obtained from normal and defective molasses, and from starch raw material, showed that there were two local strength minima in the lower part of the column and on the plates (adjacent and feed). Aldehydes behaved as a typical head impurity; a noticeable increase in their concentration occurred only on the highest plates in the fractionation column. In the zone of the column containing liquids of a strength of 86 to 94% alcohol by weight a sharply pronounced local maximum of ester accumulation were observed, provisionally designated as intermediate, whose presence is apparently one of the causes of the specific sharp taste of alcohol obtained from molasses. These esters hinder the obtaining of high-grade alcohols which are standard in respect to ester content and oxidizability test. Reduction with 0.05N KMnO/sub 4/ occurs most rapidly with alcohol liquids in the zone of ester accumulation; purification of alcohols obtained from grain and potato raw material resulted in no zones of ester accumulation in the column.

  3. Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouxenidis, D; Polymeris, G S; Tsirliganis, N C; Kitis, G

    2012-05-01

    This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the GLOw Curve ANalysis INtercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters.

  4. Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afouxenidis, D.; Polymeris, G. S.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Kitis, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the Glow Curve Analysis Intercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters. (authors)

  5. Mannheim Partner D-Curves in the Euclidean 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kazaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the idea of Mannheim partner curves for curves lying on surfaces. By considering the Darboux frames of surface curves, we define Mannheim partner D-curves and give the characterizations for these curves. We also find the relations between geodesic curvatures, normal curvatures and geodesic torsions of these associated curves. Furthermore, we show that definition and characterizations of Mannheim partner D-curves include those of Mannheim partner curves in some special cases.

  6. A versatile curve-fit model for linear to deeply concave rank abundance curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    A new, flexible curve-fit model for linear to concave rank abundance curves was conceptualized and validated using observational data. The model links the geometric-series model and log-series model and can also fit deeply concave rank abundance curves. The model is based ¿ in an unconventional way

  7. Methodology of demand forecast by market analysis of electric power and load curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, C.J.; Atmann, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for demand forecast of consumer classes and their aggregation is presented. An analysis of the actual attended market can be done by appropriate measures and load curves studies. The suppositions for the future market behaviour by consumer classes (industrial, residential, commercial, others) are shown, and the actions for optimise this market are foreseen, obtained by load curves modulations. The process of future demand determination is obtained by the appropriate aggregation of this segmented demands. (C.G.C.)

  8. Prediction of tensile curves, at 673 K, of cold-worked and stress-relieved zircaloy-4 from creep data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.; Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional; Marzocca, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A constitutive creep equation, based on jog-drag cell-formation, is used to predict tensile curves from creep data obtained in the same material. The predicted tensile curve are compared with actual stress versus plastic strain data, obtained both in cold-work and stress-relieved specimens. Finally, it is shown that the general features of the tensile curves, at low strain rates, are described by the creep model. (orig.)

  9. A GLOBAL MODEL OF THE LIGHT CURVES AND EXPANSION VELOCITIES OF TYPE II-PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcha, Ondřej [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Prieto, Jose L., E-mail: pejcha@astro.princeton.edu [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We present a new self-consistent and versatile method that derives photospheric radius and temperature variations of Type II-Plateau supernovae based on their expansion velocities and photometric measurements. We apply the method to a sample of 26 well-observed, nearby supernovae with published light curves and velocities. We simultaneously fit ∼230 velocity and ∼6800 mag measurements distributed over 21 photometric passbands spanning wavelengths from 0.19 to 2.2 μm. The light-curve differences among the Type II-Plateau supernovae are well modeled by assuming different rates of photospheric radius expansion, which we explain as different density profiles of the ejecta, and we argue that steeper density profiles result in flatter plateaus, if everything else remains unchanged. The steep luminosity decline of Type II-Linear supernovae is due to fast evolution of the photospheric temperature, which we verify with a successful fit of SN 1980K. Eliminating the need for theoretical supernova atmosphere models, we obtain self-consistent relative distances, reddenings, and nickel masses fully accounting for all internal model uncertainties and covariances. We use our global fit to estimate the time evolution of any missing band tailored specifically for each supernova, and we construct spectral energy distributions and bolometric light curves. We produce bolometric corrections for all filter combinations in our sample. We compare our model to the theoretical dilution factors and find good agreement for the B and V filters. Our results differ from the theory when the I, J, H, or K bands are included. We investigate the reddening law toward our supernovae and find reasonable agreement with standard R{sub V}∼3.1 reddening law in UBVRI bands. Results for other bands are inconclusive. We make our fitting code publicly available.

  10. Characterizing the Magnetic Properties of Natural Samples Using First-Order Reversal Curve Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, C. R.; Roberts, A. P.; Verosub, K. L.

    2001-12-01

    A FORC diagram is calculated from a class of partial hysteresis curves known as first-order reversal curves or FORCs. The measurement of a FORC begins by saturating a sample in a large positive applied field. The field is then decreased to a specified field and reversed; the FORC consists of the magnetization curve that results when the applied field is increased from this reversal field back to saturation. By repeating this measurement for different reversal fields, one obtains a suite of curves that provide detailed information on the distribution of particle switching fields (coercivities) and interaction fields in the sample. These magnetization data are transformed into a FORC distribution by calculating a second derivative of the magnetization data, and by applying a change in co-ordinates. The FORC distribution is, therefore, an empirically well-defined quantity that can be used to probe subtle variations in hysteresis behavior. We have used FORC diagrams to characterize the main types of hysteresis behavior observed in rock magnetism and environmental magnetism. FORC diagrams can be calculated using room-temperature or low-temperature data and enable identification of superparamagnetic, single domain and multi-domain grains, as well as magnetostatic interactions, even in mixed magnetic mineral assemblages. Routine use of FORC diagrams to examine representative bulk samples from large sample collections can provide important information concerning the magnetic particles that cannot be obtained using standard hysteresis measurements. In addition to using FORC diagrams to identify specific magnetic components in a sample, they can also be used to understand fundamental problems in rock magnetism. Our results suggest that pseudo-single domain grains contain contributions from single domain and multi-domain moments and that the hysteresis behavior observed in the multi-domain grains typically encountered in rock magnetism cannot be solely explained through

  11. Featureless classification of light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, S. D.; Gianniotis, N.; Polsterer, K. L.

    2015-08-01

    In the era of rapidly increasing amounts of time series data, classification of variable objects has become the main objective of time-domain astronomy. Classification of irregularly sampled time series is particularly difficult because the data cannot be represented naturally as a vector which can be directly fed into a classifier. In the literature, various statistical features serve as vector representations. In this work, we represent time series by a density model. The density model captures all the information available, including measurement errors. Hence, we view this model as a generalization to the static features which directly can be derived, e.g. as moments from the density. Similarity between each pair of time series is quantified by the distance between their respective models. Classification is performed on the obtained distance matrix. In the numerical experiments, we use data from the OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) and ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) surveys and demonstrate that the proposed representation performs up to par with the best currently used feature-based approaches. The density representation preserves all static information present in the observational data, in contrast to a less-complete description by features. The density representation is an upper boundary in terms of information made available to the classifier. Consequently, the predictive power of the proposed classification depends on the choice of similarity measure and classifier, only. Due to its principled nature, we advocate that this new approach of representing time series has potential in tasks beyond classification, e.g. unsupervised learning.

  12. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ{sub c}) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  13. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal, R.

    2014-08-01

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ c ) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  14. Compact TXRF system using doubly curved crystal optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.W.

    2000-01-01

    Doubly curved crystal optics can provide large collection solid angle from a small x-ray source but were difficult to be fabricated in the past. The recent innovative doubly curved crystal optic technology provides accurate bending figure of thin crystal and produces high performance doubly curved crystal optics. The high quality doubly curved crystal can increase the intensity of the primary beam significantly for total reflection x-ray fluorescence application based on a low power x-ray source. In this report, toroidal Si(220) crystals are used to focused Cu Kα and Mo Kα x-rays from low power compact x-ray tubes that have maximum power setting at 50 kV and 1 mA. With a slit aperture to control the convergent angle, a fan Cu Kα1 beam with 15 degree x 0.2 degree convergent angles is obtained for TXRF excitation. Similarly, a fan Mo Kα1 beam with 6 degree x 0.1 degree convergent angles is used for high energy excitation. Si wafer based TXRF samples will be prepared and measured using this technique and the experimental data. (author)

  15. NEW ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION CURVES FOR INTERSTELLAR DUST IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Gordon, Karl D.; Bohlin, R. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Massa, Derck L.; Wolff, Michael J. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Fitzpatrick, Edward L., E-mail: gclayton@fenway.phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: bohlin@stsci.edu, E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu, E-mail: bianchi@jhu.edu, E-mail: mjwolff@spacescience.org, E-mail: edward.fitzpatrick@villanova.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    New low-resolution UV spectra of a sample of reddened OB stars in M31 were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/STIS to study the wavelength dependence of interstellar extinction and the nature of the underlying dust grain populations. Extinction curves were constructed for four reddened sightlines in M31 paired with closely matching stellar atmosphere models. The new curves have a much higher signal-to-noise ratio than previous studies. Direct measurements of N(H i) were made using the Lyα absorption lines enabling gas-to-dust ratios to be calculated. The sightlines have a range in galactocentric distance of 5–14 kpc and represent dust from regions of different metallicities and gas-to-dust ratios. The metallicities sampled range from solar to 1.5 solar. The measured curves show similarity to those seen in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Maximum Entropy Method was used to investigate the dust composition and size distribution for the sightlines observed in this program, finding that the extinction curves can be produced with the available carbon and silicon abundances if the metallicity is super-solar.

  16. Comparison of embrittlement trend curves to high fluence surveillance results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaert, A.S.; Gerard, R.; Chaouadi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the regulatory justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) for long term operation, use is made of predictive formulas (also called trend curves) to evaluate the RPV embrittlement (expressed in terms of RTNDT shifts) in function of fluence, chemical composition and in some cases temperature, neutron flux or product form. It has been shown recently that some of the existing or proposed trend curves tend to underpredict high dose embrittlement. Due to the scarcity of representative surveillance data at high dose, some test reactor results were used in these evaluations and raise the issue of representativeness of the accelerated test reactor irradiations (dose rate effects). In Belgium the surveillance capsules withdrawal schedule was modified in the nineties in order to obtain results corresponding to 60 years of operation or more with the initial surveillance program. Some of these results are already available and offer a good opportunity to test the validity of the predictive formulas at high dose. In addition, advanced surveillance methods are used in Belgium like the Master Curve, increased tensile tests, and microstructural investigations. These techniques made it possible to show the conservatism of the regulatory approach and to demonstrate increased margins, especially for the first generation units. In this paper the surveillance results are compared to different predictive formulas, as well as to an engineering hardening model developed at SCK.CEN. Generally accepted property-to-property correlations are critically revisited. Conclusions are made on the reliability and applicability of the embrittlement trend curves. (authors)

  17. Estimation of Typhoon Wind Hazard Curves for Nuclear Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The intensity of such typhoons, which can influence the Korean Peninsula, is on an increasing trend owing to a rapid change of climate of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Therefore, nuclear facilities should be prepared against future super-typhoons. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that a new NPP should be designed to endure the design-basis hurricane wind speeds corresponding to an annual exceedance frequency of 10{sup -7} (return period of 10 million years). A typical technique used to estimate typhoon wind speeds is based on a sampling of the key parameters of typhoon wind models from the distribution functions fitting statistical distributions to the observation data. Thus, the estimated wind speeds for long return periods include an unavoidable uncertainty owing to a limited observation. This study estimates the typhoon wind speeds for nuclear sites using a Monte Carlo simulation, and derives wind hazard curves using a logic-tree framework to reduce the epistemic uncertainty. Typhoon wind speeds were estimated for different return periods through a Monte-Carlo simulation using the typhoon observation data, and the wind hazard curves were derived using a logic-tree framework for three nuclear sites. The hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds were obtained. The mean hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds can be used for the design and risk assessment of an NPP.

  18. Establishment of a tandem ionization chamber system in standard mammography beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jonas O. da; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2011-01-01

    A double-faced tandem ionization chamber system was developed at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. It has different collecting electrode materials: aluminium and graphite. The response repeatability and reproducibility and the energy dependence test of this tandem ionization chamber were evaluated. The chamber response stability is within the ±3% limit recommended in international standards. The energy dependence test of the ionization chamber system using the tandem curve obtained, presented agreement with literature results. (author)

  19. Analysis of ductile-brittle transition shifts for standard and miniature bending specimens of irradiated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, M.E.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Krasikov, E.A.; Gabuev, N.N.; Tykhmeev, D.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    A study is made to reveal if there is a correlation between shifts in temperature curves obtained when testing thin plates and standard specimens on impact bending and fracture toughness. The tests were carried out using steel 25Kh3NM specimens irradiated by 6 x 10 19 cm -2 neutron fluence. A conclusion is made about the possibility to evaluate the degree of radiation-induced embrittlement of reactor steels on the basis of thin plate testing under quasistatic loads [ru

  20. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.