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Sample records for standard curve blood

  1. CRC standard curves and surfaces with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    von Seggern, David H

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition, Mathematica® has matured considerably and the computing power of desktop computers has increased greatly. This enables the presentation of more complex curves and surfaces as well as the efficient computation of formerly prohibitive graphical plots. Incorporating both of these aspects, CRC Standard Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica®, Second Edition is a virtual encyclopedia of curves and functions that depicts nearly all of the standard mathematical functions rendered using Mathematica. While the easy-to-use format remains unchanged from the previ

  2. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  3. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  4. Derivation of standard lactation curves for South African dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African cows displayed more variation in yields compared to those of Holstein cows in the Netherlands and Ireland. Season of calving had a pronounced effect on the shape of the Standard Lactation Curve, while the combination of calving age and lactation affected both the shape and level of the curves. Expected ...

  5. Validation of curve-fitting method for blood retention of 99mTc-GSA. Comparison with blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha-Kawa, Sang Kil; Suga, Yutaka; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Ikeda, Koshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1997-01-01

    We investigated a curve-fitting method for the rate of blood retention of 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin (GSA) as a substitute for the blood sampling method. Seven healthy volunteers and 27 patients with liver disease underwent 99m Tc-GSA scanning. After normalization of the y-intercept as 100 percent, a biexponential regression curve for the precordial time-activity curve provided the percent injected dose (%ID) of 99m Tc-GSA in the blood without blood sampling. The discrepancy between %ID obtained by the curve-fitting method and that by the multiple blood samples was minimal in normal volunteers 3.1±2.1% (mean±standard deviation, n=77 sampling). Slightly greater discrepancy was observed in patients with liver disease (7.5±6.1%, n=135 sampling). The %ID at 15 min after injection obtained from the fitted curve was significantly greater in patients with liver cirrhosis than in the controls (53.2±11.6%, n=13; vs. 31.9±2.8%, n=7, p 99m Tc-GSA and the plasma retention rate for indocyanine green (r=-0.869, p 99m Tc-GSA and could be a substitute for the blood sampling method. (author)

  6. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  7. Automatic measurement of the red cell oxygen dissociation curve identical with the whole blood curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawjood, A H; Imai, K

    1999-08-01

    Automatic measurement of the entire oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) of blood and hemoglobin provides a useful means for evaluating their gas-transport function. The automatic oxygenation apparatus previously developed by Imai et al. (1970, 1981), which uses a polarographic determination of partial pressure of oxygen and a spectrophotometric determination of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, has mostly been used for the measurement of accurate ODCs of hemoglobin solution. However, it was not suitable for red cell suspension because a significant noise was superimposed on the absorbance signal due to light-scattering by red cells. In the present study, we have overcome this problem by using an integrating sphere for the photometric system. Through extensive tests we found the optimal experimental conditions for obtaining the red cell oxygenation data that were identical with the whole blood data with respect to the position (oxygen affinity) and shape (sigmoid character) of the ODC and its pH-dependence (the Bohr effect). The accuracy was higher than that of commercially available automatic apparatuses such as the "Hemox-Analyzer" (Technical Consulting Service) and "Hem-O-Scan" (Aminco). Thus, our method provides an easy and convenient means for obtaining accurate ODCs mimicking the whole blood ODCs from one drop of whole blood. An application of our method to the effect of blood storage on ODC is presented, demonstrating the usefulness of our method.

  8. Standard test method for K-R curve determination

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance to fracture of metallic materials under Mode I loading at static rates using either of the following notched and precracked specimens: the middle-cracked tension M(T) specimen or the compact tension C(T) specimen. A K-R curve is a continuous record of toughness development (resistance to crack extension) in terms of KR plotted against crack extension in the specimen as a crack is driven under an increasing stress intensity factor, K. 1.2 Materials that can be tested for K-R curve development are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness, so long as specimens are of sufficient size to remain predominantly elastic to the effective crack extension value of interest. 1.3 Specimens of standard proportions are required, but size is variable, to be adjusted for yield strength and toughness of the materials. 1.4 Only two of the many possible specimen types that could be used to develop K-R curves are covered in this method. 1.5 The test is app...

  9. Validation of curve-fitting method for blood retention of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Comparison with blood sampling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha-Kawa, Sang Kil; Suga, Yutaka; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Ikeda, Koshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    We investigated a curve-fitting method for the rate of blood retention of {sup 99m}Tc-galactosyl serum albumin (GSA) as a substitute for the blood sampling method. Seven healthy volunteers and 27 patients with liver disease underwent {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scanning. After normalization of the y-intercept as 100 percent, a biexponential regression curve for the precordial time-activity curve provided the percent injected dose (%ID) of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA in the blood without blood sampling. The discrepancy between %ID obtained by the curve-fitting method and that by the multiple blood samples was minimal in normal volunteers 3.1{+-}2.1% (mean{+-}standard deviation, n=77 sampling). Slightly greater discrepancy was observed in patients with liver disease (7.5{+-}6.1%, n=135 sampling). The %ID at 15 min after injection obtained from the fitted curve was significantly greater in patients with liver cirrhosis than in the controls (53.2{+-}11.6%, n=13; vs. 31.9{+-}2.8%, n=7, p<0.0001). There was a highly linear correlation between the %IDs of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA and the plasma retention rate for indocyanine green (r=-0.869, p<0.0001, n=27). These results indicate that the curve-fitting method provides an accurate %ID of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA and could be a substitute for the blood sampling method. (author)

  10. Oxygen dissociation curves of whole blood from the Egyptian free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadarida aegyptiaca (mean body mass 13.5 g) is a fast flying insectivorous bat that hunts in open areas for extended periods, covering extensive distances during its foraging bouts. Whole blood samples taken from the wing arteries were analysed for 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, oxygen affinity and pH. The mean oxygen ...

  11. Determination of the PO2 temperature blood factor from oxygen dissociation curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérigault, R A; Soulard, C D; Teisseire, B P; Laurent, D N

    1983-01-01

    The variation with saturation of the temperature coefficient of PO2 in human blood (delta log PO2/delta T) was determined by continuous recording of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC), at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, on the same blood samples. PCO2 and pH were held constant through an ODC run, and PCO2 was reduced at 25 degrees C to the value measured by anaerobic cooling of the same sample. delta log PO2/delta T was calculated from isosaturation points on the 37 and 25 degrees C curves. The temperature coefficient was also computed as an independent check on this method by determination of the effects of temperature (25, 30, 37 and 40 degrees C) on hemoglobin ligand interaction: fixed acid Bohr effect (delta log PO2/delta pH), carbamino-formation (delta log PO2/delta log PCO2) and hemoglobin oxygen affinity. The values of delta log PO2/delta T ratio obtained from the two different approaches were found to be in good agreement. The coefficient decreased when [H+] concentration was increased. A linear relationship between the Bohr factor and the temperature was found: delta log PO2/delta pH = 0.00267 T-0.520 (r = 0.85; n = 40) At 25 degrees C, the carbamino-formation was one order of magnitude lower than at 37 degrees C. Acid-base state and saturation value appeared to be major determinant factors for the temperature correction coefficient to be applied to blood PO2 values measured at standard (37 degrees C) temperature.

  12. The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Uwe G; Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Jacobsen, Anna L; Sperry, John S; Pratt, R Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The standard centrifuge method has been frequently used to measure vulnerability to xylem cavitation. This method has recently been questioned. It was hypothesized that open vessels lead to exponential vulnerability curves, which were thought to be indicative of measurement artifact. We tested this hypothesis in stems of olive (Olea europea) because its long vessels were recently claimed to produce a centrifuge artifact. We evaluated three predictions that followed from the open vessel artifact hypothesis: shorter stems, with more open vessels, would be more vulnerable than longer stems; standard centrifuge-based curves would be more vulnerable than dehydration-based curves; and open vessels would cause an exponential shape of centrifuge-based curves. Experimental evidence did not support these predictions. Centrifuge curves did not vary when the proportion of open vessels was altered. Centrifuge and dehydration curves were similar. At highly negative xylem pressure, centrifuge-based curves slightly overestimated vulnerability compared to the dehydration curve. This divergence was eliminated by centrifuging each stem only once. The standard centrifuge method produced accurate curves of samples containing open vessels, supporting the validity of this technique and confirming its utility in understanding plant hydraulics. Seven recommendations for avoiding artefacts and standardizing vulnerability curve methodology are provided. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Scinfi, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-01-01

    A code, Scinfi, was developed, written in Basic, to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3 H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3 H and the problem (e.g. 14 C). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14 C. Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have been checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14 C standardized samples. (author)

  14. SCINFI, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-01-01

    A code, SCINFI, was developed, written in BASIC, to compute the efficiency- quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3H and the problem (e.g. 14 C ). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14 c . Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have bean checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14 c standardized samples. (Author)

  15. herd levels and standard lactation curves for south african jersey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein. 34.2. 370.7. 148.1. 37.6. 31.3. 482.8. 191.1. 53.8. According to the standard deviations in Table 1, much more variation exists for 305-day yields of. Holstein cows in comparison with Jersey cows, resulting in upper limits of herd levels ranging from 3487.7 kg to more than 11 219.2 kg for adjusted 305-day milk yield, ...

  16. Evaluation of day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves in diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Linda M; Rand, Jacquie S

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Prospective clinical study. 10 dogs with diabetes mellitus. Paired 12-hour serial blood glucose concentration curves performed during 2 consecutive days were obtained on 3 occasions from each dog. Dogs received the same dose of insulin and meal every 12 hours on both days. For each pair of curves, comparison was made between the results of days 1 and 2. Mean absolute difference (without regard to sign) between days 1 and 2 for each parameter was significantly > 0, disproving the hypothesis that there is minimal day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves when insulin dose and meals are kept constant. Coefficient of variation of the absolute difference between days 1 and 2 for each parameter ranged from 68 to 103%. Evaluation of the paired curves led to an opposite recommendation for adjustment of the insulin dose on day 2, compared with day 1, on 27% of occasions. Disparity between dosage recommendations was more pronounced when glucose concentration nadir was dogs. Day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves has important clinical implications, particularly in dogs with good glycemic control.

  17. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as “biological insurance” should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards. PMID:26779485

  18. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as "biological insurance" should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards.

  19. Biological radiation dose estimation by chromosomal aberrations analysis in human peripheral blood (dose- effect curve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Achkar, W.

    2002-01-01

    In order to draw a dose-effect curve, blood from eight healthy people were studied. Samples were irradiated in tubes with 0.15-2.5 gray of gamma ray.Irradiated and control samples were incubated for cell cultures. Chromosomal aberrations from 67888 metaphases were scored. Curves from the total number of dicentrics, dicentrics+ rings and total numbers of breaks were drawn. The yield of chromosome aberrations is related to the dose used. These curves give a quick useful estimation of the accidentally radiation exposure. (author)

  20. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  1. Historical Cost Curves for Hydrogen Masers and Cesium Beam Frequency and Timing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.; Moore, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Historical cost curves were developed for hydrogen masers and cesium beam standards used for frequency and timing calibration in the Deep Space Network. These curves may be used to calculate the cost of future hydrogen masers or cesium beam standards in either future or current dollars. The cesium beam standards are decreasing in cost by about 2.3% per year since 1966, and hydrogen masers are decreasing by about 0.8% per year since 1978 relative to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration inflation index.

  2. Using learning curves and confidence intervals in a time study for the calculation of standard times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzy Natalia Roncancio Avila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article explores the use of learning curves and confidence intervals in a time study carry out in a scale assembly line during a laboratory practice at the University of La Salle. Objective: The objective of this research is to show the use of confidence intervals and learning curves for the identification of stable processes and subsequent standardization of timing Methodology: The methodology used consists in two phases: Analysis for the study of times and establishment of standard times; the first consist in the calculation of the number of cycles, depuration of atypical data and the use of the curves to determine the processes suitable for the standardization, and the second phase is the calculation of the standard times. Results: The analysis allowed to determine that is only possible to standardize two of the five processes of the system under study because of the variability of them. Conclusions: Given the research, is possible to conclude that a process should be standardized only if it presents a stable behavior respect to the normal rhythm of work, which is showed in the learning curve; otherwise, the process will obtain partial standard times.

  3. SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1985-07-01

    A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3{sup H} and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3{sup H} and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14{sup C}. The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1985-01-01

    A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3 H and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3 H and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14 C . The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs

  5. Estimation of the Fracture Resistance Curve for the Nuclear Piping Using the Standard Compact Tension Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Yong; Park, Hong Sun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung; Park, Jae Sil

    2009-01-01

    The estimation method of the fracture resistance curve for the pipe specimen was proposed using the load ratio method for the standard specimen. For this, the calculation method of the load - CMOD curve for the pipe specimen with the common format equation(CFE) was proposed by using data of the CT specimen. The proposed method agreed well with experimental data. The J-integral value and the crack extension were calculated from the estimated load - CMOD data. The fracture resistance curve was estimated from the calculated J-integral and the crack extension. From these results, it have been seen that the proposed method is reliable to estimate the J-R curve of the pipe specimen

  6. Estimation of the Fracture Resistance Curve for the Nuclear Piping Using the Standard Compact Tension Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Yong; Park, Hong Sun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Sil [Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The estimation method of the fracture resistance curve for the pipe specimen was proposed using the load ratio method for the standard specimen. For this, the calculation method of the load - CMOD curve for the pipe specimen with the common format equation(CFE) was proposed by using data of the CT specimen. The proposed method agreed well with experimental data. The J-integral value and the crack extension were calculated from the estimated load - CMOD data. The fracture resistance curve was estimated from the calculated J-integral and the crack extension. From these results, it have been seen that the proposed method is reliable to estimate the J-R curve of the pipe specimen.

  7. Dynamics of the blood flow in the curved artery with the rolling massage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. H.; Wu, X. H.; Yao, Y. L.

    2011-10-01

    Arterial wall shear stress and flow velocity are important factors in the development of some arterial diseases. Here, we aim to investigate the dynamic effect of the rolling massage on the property of the blood flow in the curved artery. The distributions of flow velocity and shear stress for the blood flow are computed by the lattice Boltzmann method, and the dynamic factors under different rolling techniques are studied numerically. The study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the massage techniques.

  8. Evaluation of 133Xe clearance curves in the study of lingual blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, A.; Posch, E.; Harsing, L.

    1979-01-01

    Lingual blood flow was studied in dogs by the 133 Xe clearance technique under control conditions, during epinephrine infusion and in response to a combined treatment with regitin and epinephrine. The composite washout curves recorded during control conditions could be resolved into three monoexponential components. It is suggested that the steep initial slope (component I) is caused by the fraction of blood that perfuses the A-V anastomoses of the tongue. Components II and III appear to indicate the perfusion rate of lingual mucosa and musculature, respectively. The disappearance of component I due to the effect of epinephrine infusion might indicate the closure of arterio-venous anastomoses containing alpha receptors. Regitin pretreatment could prevent the closure of the arterio-venous anastomoses elicited by epinephrine infusion. The beta receptor stimulating activity of epinephrine might account for the augmentation of blood flow to lingual musculature. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  9. Standard-curve competitive RT-PCR quantification of myogenic regulatory factors in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Alvares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the most sensitive method used to evaluate gene expression. Although many advances have been made since quantitative RT-PCR was first described, few reports deal with the mathematical bases of this technique. The aim of the present study was to develop and standardize a competitive PCR method using standard-curves to quantify transcripts of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, Myf-5, Myogenin and MRF4 in chicken embryos. Competitor cDNA molecules were constructed for each gene under study using deletion primers, which were designed to maintain the anchorage sites for the primers used to amplify target cDNAs. Standard-curves were prepared by co-amplification of different amounts of target cDNA with a constant amount of competitor. The content of specific mRNAs in embryo cDNAs was determined after PCR with a known amount of competitor and comparison to standard-curves. Transcripts of the housekeeping ß-actin gene were measured to normalize the results. As predicted by the model, most of the standard-curves showed a slope close to 1, while intercepts varied depending on the relative efficiency of competitor amplification. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR method permitted the detection of as few as 60 MyoD/Myf-5 molecules per reaction but approximately 600 molecules of MRF4/Myogenin mRNAS were necessary to produce a measurable signal. A coefficient of variation of 6 to 19% was estimated for the different genes analyzed (6 to 9 repetitions. The competitive RT-PCR assay described here is sensitive, precise and allows quantification of up to 9 transcripts from a single cDNA sample.

  10. Day-to-day variability of blood glucose concentration curves generated at home in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Nina; Kley, Saskia; Haessig, Michael; Reusch, Claudia E

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate day-to-day variability in blood glucose curves (BGCs) generated at home and at the clinic for cats with diabetes mellitus. Prospective study. 7 cats with diabetes mellitus. Procedures-BGCs generated at home on 2 consecutive days and within 1 week at the clinic were obtained twice. On each occasion, insulin dose, amount of food, and type of food were consistent for all 3 BGCs. Results of curves generated at home were compared with each other and with the corresponding clinic curve. Differences between blood glucose concentration determined after food was withheld (fasting), nadir concentration, time to nadir concentration, maximum concentration, and mean concentration during 12 hours had high coefficients of variation, as did the difference between fasting blood glucose and nadir concentrations and area under the curve of home curves. Differences between home curve variables were not smaller than those between home and clinic curves, indicating large day-to-day variability in both home and clinic curves. Evaluation of the paired home curves led to the same theoretical recommendation for adjustment of insulin dose on 6 of 14 occasions, and evaluation of home and clinic curves resulted in the same recommendation on 14 of 28 occasions. Four of the 6 paired home curves in cats with good glycemic control and 2 of the 8 paired home curves in cats with poor glycemic control led to the same recommendation. Considerable day-to-day variability was detected in BGCs generated at home. Cats with good glycemic control may have more reproducible curves generated during blood collection at home than cats with poorer control.

  11. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34 Section 634.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.34 Blood...

  12. Spiral blood flows in an idealized 180-degree curved artery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Kulkarni, Varun; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding of cardiovascular flows has been greatly advanced by the Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) technique and its potential for three-dimensional velocity encoding in regions of anatomic interest. The MRV experiments were performed on a 180-degree curved artery model using a Newtonian blood analog fluid at the Richard M. Lucas Center at Stanford University employing a 3 Tesla General Electric (Discovery 750 MRI system) whole body scanner with an eight-channel cardiac coil. Analysis in two regions of the model-artery was performed for flow with Womersley number=4.2. In the entrance region (or straight-inlet pipe) the unsteady pressure drop per unit length, in-plane vorticity and wall shear stress for the pulsatile, carotid artery-based flow rate waveform were calculated. Along the 180-degree curved pipe (curvature ratio =1/7) the near-wall vorticity and the stretching of the particle paths in the vorticity field are visualized. The resultant flow behavior in the idealized curved artery model is associated with parameters such as Dean number and Womersley number. Additionally, using length scales corresponding to the axial and secondary flow we attempt to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of various structures observed during the pulsatile flow cycle. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE), MRV measurements in collaboration with Prof. John K. Eaton and, Dr. Chris Elkins at Stanford University.

  13. Analysis of RIA standard curve by log-logistic and cubic log-logit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hideo; Kuroda, Akira; Yatabe, Tami; Inaba, Taeko; Chiba, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    In order to improve goodness-of-fit in RIA standard analysis, programs for computing log-logistic and cubic log-logit were written in BASIC using personal computer P-6060 (Olivetti). Iterative least square method of Taylor series was applied for non-linear estimation of logistic and log-logistic. Hear ''log-logistic'' represents Y = (a - d)/(1 + (log(X)/c)sup(b)) + d As weights either 1, 1/var(Y) or 1/σ 2 were used in logistic or log-logistic and either Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 , Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /var(Y), or Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /σ 2 were used in quadratic or cubic log-logit. The term var(Y) represents squares of pure error and σ 2 represents estimated variance calculated using a following equation log(σ 2 + 1) = log(A) + J log(y). As indicators for goodness-of-fit, MSL/S sub(e)sup(2), CMD% and WRV (see text) were used. Better regression was obtained in case of alpha-fetoprotein by log-logistic than by logistic. Cortisol standard curve was much better fitted with cubic log-logit than quadratic log-logit. Predicted precision of AFP standard curve was below 5% in log-logistic in stead of 8% in logistic analysis. Predicted precision obtained using cubic log-logit was about five times lower than that with quadratic log-logit. Importance of selecting good models in RIA data processing was stressed in conjunction with intrinsic precision of radioimmunoassay system indicated by predicted precision. (author)

  14. Growth of Infants with Intestinal Failure or Feeding Intolerance Does Not Follow Standard Growth Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Morton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance are nutritionally compromised and are at risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The aim of the study was to evaluate growth velocities of infants with intestinal failure and feeding intolerance for the first three months of age and to determine growth percentiles at birth and at 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA. Methods. A chart review of infants followed by the Texas Children’s Hospital Intestinal Rehabilitation Team was conducted from April 2012 to October 2014. Weekly weight, length, and head circumference growth velocities were calculated. Growth data were compared to Olsen growth curves to determine exact percentiles. Results. Data from infants (n=164 revealed that average growth velocities of 3-month-old infants (weight gain, 19.97 g/d; length, 0.81 cm/week; head circumference, 0.52 cm/week fluctuated and all were below expected norms. At discharge or death, average growth velocities had further decreased (length, 0.69 cm/week; head circumference, 0.45 cm/week except for weight, which showed a slight increase (weight, 20.56 g/d. Weight, length, and head circumference percentiles significantly decreased from birth to 40-week PMA (P<0.001. Conclusions. Growth of infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance did not follow standard growth curves.

  15. A numerical analysis on the curved bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve (MHV) : leaflet motion and blood flow in an elastic blood vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Jin Seok; Kim, Chang Nyung; Choi, Choeng Ryul

    2005-01-01

    In blood flow passing through the Mechanical Heart Valve (MHV) and elastic blood vessel, hemolysis and platelet activation causing thrombus formation can be seen owing to the shear stress in the blood. Also, fracture and deformation of leaflets can be observed depending on the shape and material properties of the leaflets which is opened and closed in a cycle. Hence, comprehensive study is needed on the hemodynamics which is associated with the motion of leaflet and elastic blood vessel in terms of fluid-structure interaction. In this paper, a numerical analysis has been performed for a three-dimensional pulsatile blood flow associated with the elastic blood vessel and curved bileaflet for multiple cycles in light of fluid-structure interaction. From this analysis fluttering phenomenon and rebound of the leaflet have been observed and recirculation and regurgitation have been found in the flow fields of the blood. Also, the pressure distribution and the radial displacement of the elastic blood vessel have been obtained. The motion of the leaflet and flow fields of the blood have shown similar tendency compared with the previous experiments carried out in other studies. The present study can contribute to the design methodology for the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve. Furthermore, the proposed fluid-structure interaction method will be effectively used in various fields where the interaction between fluid flow and structure are involved

  16. Vitreous fluid quantification of opiates, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine: comparison of calibration curves in both blood and vitreous matrices with corresponding concentrations in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Heather M; Kiely, Elizabeth R; Marinetti, Laureen J

    2007-10-01

    Vitreous fluid specimens are often used in the Montgomery County Coroner's Office as a second matrix confirmation for both cocaine and opiate analyses. In this manuscript, calibration curves constructed for both vitreous and blood were used to quantify vitreous specimens to evaluate if any matrix effects occur when measuring vitreous specimens using a calibration curve in blood. Cases that screened positive by ELISA for cocaine metabolite and opiates were confirmed by solid-phase extraction. Gas chromatography with mass spectral detection in the positive electron impact mode was used for the detection and quantification of oxycodone, free morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, hydrocodone, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine. For interpretive purposes, no significant matrix effects were found in concentrations of vitreous specimens quantified with a calibration curve constructed in a blood matrix. After determining that vitreous fluid can be accurately measured with blood calibrators, a comparison was made between blood and vitreous concentrations for the above analytes. Concentration differences between blood and vitreous specimens for each drug are evaluated with selected case histories included.

  17. The glycemic load estimated from the glycemic index does not differ greatly from that measured using a standard curve in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Bernard J; Wallace, Alison J; Monro, John A; Perry, Tracy; Brown, Rachel; Frampton, Chris; Green, Tim J

    2006-05-01

    Glycemic load (GL) is calculated indirectly as glycemic index (GI) times the weight of available carbohydrate. Alternatively, GL may be measured directly using a standard glucose curve. The purpose of this study was to test the agreement between GL values obtained using direct and indirect methods of measurement in 20 healthy volunteers. A standard curve in which glucose dose was plotted against blood glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was generated using beverages containing 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 75 g glucose. The GI and available carbohydrate content of 5 foods were measured. The foods (white bread, fruit bread, granola bar, instant potato, and chickpeas) were consumed in 3 portion sizes, yielding 15 food/portion size combinations. GL was determined directly by relating the iAUC of a test food to the glucose standard curve. For 12 of 15 food/portion size combinations, GL determined using GI x available carbohydrate did not differ from GL measured from the standard curve (P > 0.05). For 3 of the test products (100 g white bread, and 100- and 150-g granola bars), GI x available carbohydrate was higher than the direct measure. Benefits of the direct measure are that the method does not require testing for available carbohydrate and it allows portion sizes to be tested. For practical purposes, GI x available carbohydrate provided a good estimate of GL, at least under circumstances in which available carbohydrate was measured, and GI and GL were tested in the same group of people.

  18. The J-shaped Curve for Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Historical Context and Recent Updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Faisal; McEvoy, John W

    2017-08-01

    The definition and treatment of hypertension have both changed dramatically over the last century, with recent trials suggesting benefit for lower blood pressure (BP) targets than ever before considered. However, tempering the enthusiasm for more intensive BP targets are long-held concerns that BP reduction below a certain threshold may pose dangers, the so-called "J-curve." In this review, we summarize the evidence for a J-curve in the treatment of hypertension. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) reported that achieving a systolic BP target of 120 mmHg reduces cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals, supporting more intensive BP reduction. However, contemporary observational studies consistently demonstrate a BP J-curve, the threshold of which is often close to the SPRINT target. Studies also suggest that the BP level of this J-curve may vary based on patient characteristics, including age and comorbidities. There is also more compelling evidence for the specific presence of a J-curve between diastolic BP and coronary events, in contrast to conflicting evidence of a J-curve with systolic BP and cardiovascular disease more generally. There is increased risk of coronary events below a diastolic BP of 60-70 mmHg. In comparison, the presence of a systolic J-curve is less clear and some persons at high risk may actually benefit from systolic levels down to 120 mmHg. Therefore, we suggest a personalized approach to BP management considering individual risks, benefits, and preferences when choosing therapeutic targets. Further, well-designed studies are required to support our suggestions and to define J-curve thresholds more clearly.

  19. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSalloum, Abdullah A.; El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; AlHerbish, Abdullah S.; AlOmar, Ahmad A.; Qurashi, Mansour M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  20. Standardization of NAT for Blood-Borne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Sally A; Chudy, Michael; Nübling, C Micha

    2015-07-01

    Assays based on nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) are increasingly used for screening of blood and for diagnosis or monitoring of patients. Both regulatory requirements for blood screening and international recommendations for the treatment of patients are based on common reference materials available globally for the standardization of NAT assays. World Health Organization International Standards (WHO ISs) and International Reference Panels (WHO IRPs) are primary reference materials. The characterization and manufacture of WHO reference materials as well as their evaluation is performed on behalf of the WHO by collaborating centers; their establishment is decided upon by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS). The potency of the first WHO IS is defined by the 'international unit' (IU) which should be maintained upon replacement of the IS. The IU, unlike copy number or genome equivalent, is defined by the IS with a physical existence, is available worldwide, and allows traceability and comparability of results. The anticipated use of WHO ISs is the calibration of secondary standards or the validation of essential assay features, e.g. limit of detection.

  1. Miltenberger blood group typing by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis in Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsakulyanon, A; Kitpoka, P; Kunakorn, M; Srikhirin, T

    2015-12-01

    To develop reliable and convenient methods for Miltenberger (Mi(a) ) blood group typing. To apply real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis to Mi(a) blood group typing. The Mi(a) blood group is the collective set of glycophorin hybrids in the MNS blood group system. Mi(a+) blood is common among East Asians and is also found in the Thai population. Incompatible Mi(a) blood transfusions pose the risk of life-threatening haemolysis; therefore, Mi(a) blood group typing is necessary in ethnicities where the Mi(a) blood group is prevalent. One hundred and forty-three blood samples from Thai blood donors were used in the study. The samples included 50 Mi(a+) samples and 93 Mi(a-) samples, which were defined by serology. The samples were typed by Mi(a) typing qPCR, and 50 Mi(a+) samples were sequenced to identify the Mi(a) subtypes. Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was performed to define GP.Mur. Both Mi(a) typing and Mi(a) subtyping were tested on a conventional PCR platform. The results of Mi(a) typing qPCR were all concordant with serology. Sequencing of the 50 Mi(a+) samples revealed 47 GP.Mur samples and 3 GP.Hop or Bun samples. Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was the supplementary test used to further define GP.Mur from other Mi(a) subtypes. Both Mi(a) typing and Mi(a) subtyping performed well using a conventional PCR platform. Mi(a) typing qPCR correctly identified Mi(a) blood groups in a Thai population with the feasibility of Mi(a) subtype discrimination, and Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was able to further define GP.Mur from other Mi(a) subtypes. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological radiation dose estimation by chromosomal aberrations analysis in human peripheral blood (dose-effect curve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Achkar, W.

    2001-09-01

    In order to draw a dose-effect curve, experimentally gamma ray induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes from eight healthy people were studied. Samples from 4 males and 4 females were irradiated in tubes with 0.15, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 gray of gamma ray (Co 60 at dose rate 0.3 Gy/min). Irradiated and control samples were incubated in 37 centigrade for 48 hours cell cultures. Cell cultures then were stopped and metaphases spread, Giemsa stained to score the induced chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomal aberrations from 67888 metaphases were scored. Curves from the total number of dicentrics, dicentrics + rings and total numbers of breaks in cell for each individual or for all people were drawn. An increase of all chromosomal aberrations types with the elevation of the doses was observed. The yield of chromosome aberrations is related to the dose used. These curves give a quick useful estimation of the accidentally radiation exposure. (author)

  4. Dose-response curve for blood exposed to gamma-neutron mixed field by conventional cytogenetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Jose Odinilson de C.; Souza, Priscilla L.G.; Santos, Joelan A.L.; Vilela, Eudice C.; Lima, Fabiana F.; Calixto, Merilane S.; Santos, Neide

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing concern about airline crew members (about one million worldwide) are exposed to measurable neutrons doses. Historically, cytogenetic biodosimetry assays have been based on quantifying asymmetrical chromosome alterations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentric fragments) in mytogen-stimulated T-lymphocytes in their first mitosis after radiation exposure. Increased levels of chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes are a sensitive indicator of radiation exposure and they are routinely exploited for assessing radiation absorbed dose after accidental or occupational exposure. Since radiological accidents are not common, not all nations feel that it is economically justified to maintain biodosimetry competence. However, dependable access to biological dosimetry capabilities is completely critical in event of an accident. In this paper the dose-response curve was measured for the induction of chromosomal alterations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after chronic exposure in vitro to neutron-gamma mixes field. Blood was obtained from one healthy donor and exposed to two neutron-gamma mixed field from sources 241 AmBe (20 Ci) at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory (NCL-CRCN/NE-PE-Brazil). The evaluated absorbed doses were 0.2 Gy; 1.0 Gy and 2.5 Gy. The dicentric chromosomes were observed at metaphase, following colcemid accumulation and 1000 well-spread metaphase figures were analyzed for the presence of dicentrics by two experienced scorers after painted by giemsa 5%. Our preliminary results showed a linear dependence between radiations absorbed dose and dicentric chromosomes frequencies. Dose-response curve described in this paper will contribute to the construction of calibration curve that will be used in our laboratory for biological dosimetry. (author)

  5. Wright meets Markowitz: How standard portfolio theory changes when assets are technologies following experience curves

    OpenAIRE

    Way, Rupert; Lafond, François; Farmer, J. Doyne; Lillo, Fabrizio; Panchenko, Valentyn

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers how to optimally allocate investments in a portfolio of competing technologies. We introduce a simple model representing the underlying trade-off - between investing enough effort in any one project to spur rapid progress, and diversifying effort over many projects simultaneously to hedge against failure. We use stochastic experience curves to model the idea that investing more in a technology reduces its unit costs, and we use a mean-variance objective function to unders...

  6. Finger prick blood plasma separation using a standard lab equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Pfreundt, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    and white blood cells for further analysis. The procedure requires 2 min spinning and can efficiently separate the plasma and white blood cells from red blood cells. The device allows for handling blood with varying hematocrit levels readout of which is included in the device design. After separation...

  7. Construction of dose-effect curves by irradiating peripheral blood mononuclear cells analyzed with the alkaline comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, Lenin; Rosales Jaime; Leon, Kety; Espinoza, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of the alkaline comet assay to detect levels of DNA damage in human monocytes and lymphocytes under radiation was tested. For this purpose, four dose-effect curves by irradiation of cells isolated from blood samples of 4 young, health and non-smoker donors. A gamma ray source of 60 Co was used and doses of 0, 2.5, 5 and 7 Gy were delivered to blood cells. The results show good correlation (R2 = 0.973, SD = 0.009) between the radiation dose and DNA damage as measured by the parameter Tail Intensity (percentage of DNA in the tail of the 'comet'). Furthermore, we observe the variability in predicting DNA damage by Gy (7.59, SD = 1.5). Potential use of this technique in the biological dosimetry of ionizing radiations is being evaluated. (author)

  8. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  9. Blood flow in the limbs of hemiplegic patients by 99mTc-HSA accumulation curve and digital plethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Setsuro

    1985-01-01

    Using 99m Tc-Human-Serum-Albumin (HSA) accumulation curve we have studied the blood flow in the lower extremities of the hemiplegic patients. After injection of 5 - 10 mCi of 99m Tc-HSA into v. mediana cubiti by the Oldendolf method, we recorded the RI count from both knees. We have examined 68 hemiplegic patients (male: 26, female: 42, right: 31, left: 37, average age: 61.7 years, average Brunnstrom stage of the lower extremity: 3.73, average duration post-stroke: 20.2 months). We counted the accumulation of the isotope in both knees 1 and 30 minutes after injection, and calculated the percentage (partic side/right and left sides), and named them as ''1-minute value'' and ''30-minute value''. During the 15 months period after an attack, the paretic leg had more blood flow than the non-paretic leg. After 15 months after attack, on the contrary, the paretic leg had less blood flow than the non-paretic leg. This tendency is clear in the left-sided hemiplegic patients. There is no relation between the blood flow and age, and the Brunnstrom stage, and the ability to walk. Using digital plethysmography, we have studied the blood flow in the finger and toe, too. We have examined 57 hemiplegic patients. We have averaged the five hights of the wave (mV/V), and calculated the percentage involved (paretic side/right and left) and labled it ''the paretic blood flow value (of the finger and of the toe)''. During the 12 month period after an attack, the paretic side had more blood flow than the non-paratic side. After 15 month after an attack, on the contrary, the paretic side had less blood flow than the non-paretic side. This tendency is clear in the finger than the toe. There is no correlation between the blood flow and the age, and the Brunnstrom stage, and the ability to walk. (author)

  10. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Comparative Study of Blood Glucose Measurements Using Glucometer Readings and the Standard Method in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torkaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders, associated with severe complications. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and screening of hypoglycemia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine a cut-off value for blood glucose level in glucometer readings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 newborns at risk of hypoglycemia, admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran, Iran in 2012; the subjects were selected via simple sampling. After obtaining informed consents from the newborns’ parents, 1 cc blood samples were sent to the laboratory for measuring the blood glucose level. Moreover, venous blood samples, as well as heel-stick blood samples, were obtained for glucometer measurements. Blood glucose measurements were used to determine the cut-off value by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and make comparisons with the diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia in the literature. Results: A total of 238 infants with the mean weight of 2869±821.9 g were enrolled in this study. The mean (±SD blood glucose levels were 65.1±22.9, 82.9±24.7, and 84.4±24.8 mg/dl, based on the standard laboratory method, glucometer reading of venous blood samples, and glucometer reading of heel-stick capillary blood samples, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for hypoglycemia was determined as 65 mg/dl, using glucometer-based assessment of heel-stick blood samples. Conclusion: The significant difference in blood glucose levels measured by the laboratory method and outpatient glucometer readings highlights the importance of a cut-off value for rapid assessment and control of blood glucose and timely detection of hypoglycemia. In fact, the cut-off value introduced in the present study could facilitate such measurements.

  12. SCINFI, a program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting; SCINFI, un programa para calcular la curva de calibracion eficiencia-extincion en centelleo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1984-07-01

    A code, SCINFI, was developed, written in BASIC, to compute the efficiency- quench standardization curve for any radionuclide. The program requires the standardization curve for 3H and the polynomial relations between counting efficiency and figure of merit for both 3H and the problem (e.g. 14{sup C}). The program is applied to the computation of the efficiency-quench standardization curve for 14{sup c}. Five different liquid scintillation spectrometers and two scintillator solutions have bean checked. The computation results are compared with the experimental values obtained with a set of 14{sup c} standardized samples. (Author)

  13. A standardized multidisciplinary approach reduces the use of allogeneic blood products in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, P.; de Hert, S.; Daper, A.; Trenchant, A.; Jacobs, D.; de Boelpaepe, C.; Kimbimbi, P.; Defrance, P.; Simoens, G.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Individual and institutional practices remain an independent predictor factor for allogeneic blood transfusion. Application of a standardized multidisciplinary transfusion strategy should reduce the use of allogeneic blood transfusion in major surgical patients. METHODS: This prospective

  14. Determination of the saturation curve of a primary standard for low energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Poledna, Roberto; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.

    2003-01-01

    Thr free air is the well recognized as the primary standard for the measurement of kerma in the air due to his characteristics to perform the absolute measurements of that entity according to definitions. Therefore, the Institute for Radioprotection and dosimetry - IRD, Brazil used for his implantation a free air cylindrical ionization chamber. Initially, a mechanical characterization was performed for verification as a primary standard. This paper will proceed a full detailed description the point operation of 2000 V found for that chamber and her saturation coefficient

  15. DAG expression: high-throughput gene expression analysis of real-time PCR data using standard curves for relative quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ballester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR is still the gold-standard technique for gene-expression quantification. Recent technological advances of this method allow for the high-throughput gene-expression analysis, without the limitations of sample space and reagent used. However, non-commercial and user-friendly software for the management and analysis of these data is not available. RESULTS: The recently developed commercial microarrays allow for the drawing of standard curves of multiple assays using the same n-fold diluted samples. Data Analysis Gene (DAG Expression software has been developed to perform high-throughput gene-expression data analysis using standard curves for relative quantification and one or multiple reference genes for sample normalization. We discuss the application of DAG Expression in the analysis of data from an experiment performed with Fluidigm technology, in which 48 genes and 115 samples were measured. Furthermore, the quality of our analysis was tested and compared with other available methods. CONCLUSIONS: DAG Expression is a freely available software that permits the automated analysis and visualization of high-throughput qPCR. A detailed manual and a demo-experiment are provided within the DAG Expression software at http://www.dagexpression.com/dage.zip.

  16. Diagnosis of human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2): use of a synthetic standard curve for absolute quantification by real time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Silva, Amanda Perse da; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2017-03-01

    The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for herpesvirus detection has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, as it is able to detect shedding episodes in the absence of clinical lesions and diagnose clinical specimens that have low viral loads. With an aim to improve the detection and quantification of herpesvirus by qPCR, synthetic standard curves for human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2) targeting regions gD and gG, respectively, were designed and evaluated. The results show that synthetic curves can replace DNA standard curves in diagnostic herpes qPCR.

  17. Diagnosis of human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2: use of a synthetic standard curve for absolute quantification by real time polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyana Rodrigues Pinto Lima

    Full Text Available The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR for herpesvirus detection has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, as it is able to detect shedding episodes in the absence of clinical lesions and diagnose clinical specimens that have low viral loads. With an aim to improve the detection and quantification of herpesvirus by qPCR, synthetic standard curves for human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2 targeting regions gD and gG, respectively, were designed and evaluated. The results show that synthetic curves can replace DNA standard curves in diagnostic herpes qPCR.

  18. An Advanced Encryption Standard Powered Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography for RFID, Proven on WISP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaauldin Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information in patients’ medical histories is subject to various security and privacy concerns. Meanwhile, any modification or error in a patient’s medical data may cause serious or even fatal harm. To protect and transfer this valuable and sensitive information in a secure manner, radio-frequency identification (RFID technology has been widely adopted in healthcare systems and is being deployed in many hospitals. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication protocol for RFID tags based on elliptic curve cryptography and advanced encryption standard. Unlike existing authentication protocols, which only send the tag ID securely, the proposed protocol could also send the valuable data stored in the tag in an encrypted pattern. The proposed protocol is not simply a theoretical construct; it has been coded and tested on an experimental RFID tag. The proposed scheme achieves mutual authentication in just two steps and satisfies all the essential security requirements of RFID-based healthcare systems.

  19. Using standard serology blood tests to diagnose latent syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Katunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To conduct a comparative assessment of the results of regulated serological tests obtained as a result of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis. Materials and methods. The authors examined 187 patient medical records with newly diagnosed latent syphilis in FGBU GNTsDK (State Research Center for Dermatology, Venereology and Cosmetology, Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, in 2006-2015. The results of patient blood tests were analyzed with the use of non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR and treponemal (passive hemagglutination test, immune-enzyme assay (IgA, IgM, IgG, IFabs, immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test serology tests. Results. According to the results of blood tests of latent syphilis patients, the largest number of positive results was obtained as a result of treponemal serology tests such as immune-enzyme assay (100%, passive hemagglutination test (100% and IFabs (100%. The greatest number of negative results was observed in non-treponemal (microprecipitation test/RPR serology tests: in 136 (72.7% patients; evidently positive results (4+ test results were obtained in 8 (4.3% patients only. According to the results of a comparative analysis of blood tests in patients suffering from latent syphilis obtained with the use of treponemal serology tests, the greatest number of evidently positive results (4+ was noted for the passive hemagglutination test (67.9%. Negative treponemal test results were obtained with the use of the immunofluorescence test and Treponema pallidum immobilization test (21.9% and 11.8% of cases, respectively. Moreover, weakly positive results prevailed for the immunofluorescence test: in 65 (34.7% patients. Conclusion. These data confirm that the following treponemal tests belong to the most reliable ones for revealing patients suffering from latent syphilis: immune-enzyme assay, passive hemagglutination test and IFabs.

  20. Multicenter Evaluation of Whole-Blood Epstein-Barr Viral Load Standardization Using the WHO International Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Touyana; Lupo, Julien; Alain, Sophie; Perrin-Confort, Gwladys; Grossi, Laurence; Dimier, Julie; Epaulard, Olivier; Morand, Patrice; Germi, Raphaële

    2016-07-01

    The first WHO international standard for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (WHO EBV standard) for nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays was commercialized in January 2012 by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. In the study reported here, we compared whole-blood EBV DNA load (EDL) results from 12 French laboratories for seven samples (Quality Controls for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 proficiency panel) in order to determine whether expression in international units reduces interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDLs. Each testing laboratory used a conversion factor to convert EDL results from copies per milliliter to international units per milliliter. This conversion factor was calculated from the WHO EBV standard according to the protocol described in this study (nine laboratories) or the recommendations of the PCR kit suppliers (three laboratories). The interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDL results was reduced after standardization of the results using the WHO EBV standard. For the seven samples tested, standard deviations (SD) ranged from 0.41 to 0.55 when the results were expressed in log copies per milliliter, whereas the SD ranged from 0.17 to 0.32 when results were given in log international units per milliliter. Comparing the variance data (F test), we showed that the dispersion of whole-blood EDL results was significantly lower when they were expressed in log international units per milliliter (P blood EDL results between laboratories as well as the monitoring of patients at high risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other EBV-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Use of a non-linear method for including the mass uncertainty of gravimetric standards and system measurement errors in the fitting of calibration curves for XRFA freeze-dried UNO3 standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; McClure, J.W.; Howell, R.H.

    1978-05-01

    A sophisticated nonlinear multiparameter fitting program was used to produce a best fit calibration curve for the response of an x-ray fluorescence analyzer to uranium nitrate, freeze dried, 0.2% accurate, gravimetric standards. The program is based on unconstrained minimization subroutine, VA02A. The program considers the mass values of the gravimetric standards as parameters to be fit along with the normal calibration curve parameters. The fitting procedure weights with the system errors and the mass errors in a consistent way. The resulting best fit calibration curve parameters reflect the fact that the masses of the standard samples are measured quantities with a known error. Error estimates for the calibration curve parameters can be obtained from the curvature of the ''Chi-Squared Matrix'' or from error relaxation techniques. It was shown that nondispersive XRFA of 0.1 to 1 mg freeze-dried UNO 3 can have an accuracy of 0.2% in 1000 s

  2. Use of time attenuation curves to determine steady-state characteristics before C-arm CT measurement of cerebral blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Jildaz; Jittapiromsak, Pakrit; Ruijters, Daniel; Benachour, Nidhal; Mihalea, Cristian; Rouchaud, Aymeric; Neki, Hiroaki; Ikka, Léon; Moret, Jacques; Spelle, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurement by flat panel detector CT (FPCT) in the angiography suite seems to be a promising tool for patient management during endovascular therapies. A steady state of contrast agent distribution is mandatory during acquisition for accurate FPCT CBV assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that steady-state parameters were studied in clinical practice. Before the CBV study, test injections were performed and analyzed to determine a customized acquisition delay from injection for each patient. Injection protocol consisted in the administration of 72 mL of contrast agent material at the injection rate of 4.0 mL/s followed by a saline flush bolus at the same injection rate. Peripheral or central venous accesses were used depending on their availability. Twenty-four patients were treated for different types of neurovascular diseases. Maximal attenuation, steady-state length, and steady-state delay from injection were derived from the test injections' time attenuation curves. With a 15 % threshold from maximum attenuation values, average steady-state duration was less than 10 s. Maximum average steady-state duration with minimal delay variation was obtained with central injection protocols. With clinically acceptable contrast agent volumes, steady state is a brief condition; thus, fast rotation speed acquisitions are needed. The use of central injections decreases the variability of steady-state's delay from injection. Further studies are needed to optimize and standardize injection protocols to allow a larger diffusion of the FPCT CBV measurement during endovascular treatments.

  3. Influence of curve magnitude and other variables on operative time, blood loss and transfusion requirements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2015-05-03

    Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) typically requires lengthy operating time and may be associated with significant blood loss and subsequent transfusion. This study aimed to identify factors predictive of duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in an Irish AIS cohort.

  4. Evaluation of pyrolysis curves for volatile elements in aqueous standards and carbon-containing matrices in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.F.; Welz, B.; Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de

    2008-01-01

    Pyrolysis curves in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) have been compared for As, Se and Pb in lobster hepatopancreas certified reference material using Pd/Mg as the modifier. The ET AAS pyrolysis curves confirm that the analytes are not lost from the graphite furnace up to a pyrolysis temperature of 800 deg. C. Nevertheless, a downward slope of the pyrolysis curve was observed for these elements in the biological material using ETV-ICP-MS. This could be related to a gain of sensitivity at low pyrolysis temperatures due to the matrix, which can act as carrier and/or promote changes in the plasma ionization equilibrium. Experiments with the addition of ascorbic acid to the aqueous standards confirmed that the higher intensities obtained in ETV-ICP-MS are related to the presence of organic compounds in the slurry. Pyrolysis curves for As, Se and Pb in coal and coal fly ash were also investigated using the same Pd/Mg modifier. Carbon intensities were measured in all samples using different pyrolysis temperatures. It was observed that pyrolysis curves for the three analytes in all slurry samples were similar to the corresponding graphs that show the carbon intensity for the same slurries for pyrolysis temperatures from 200 deg. C up to 1000 deg. C

  5. Blood pressure measurement in children: which method? which is the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enrico; Murer, Luisa; Matteucci, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hypertension has become increasingly prevalent in children. Hypertension that begins in childhood can carry on into adulthood, therefore early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of high blood pressure may improve long-term outcomes of children and adolescents. As far as pediatric hypertension is concerned, doubts still persist about the right instruments, modalities and standards of reference that should be used in routine practice. Due to the dynamic process of growth and development, many physiological parameters undergo intensive change with age. Therefore, in children, the definition of hypertension can not rely on a single blood pressure level but should be based on age- and height-specific percentiles. In this review, we introduce the nephrologist to the correct definition of high blood pressure in children. Moreover, we specifically address the main characteristics of different modalities for blood pressure measurement in children, focusing on practical aspects. The latest international guidelines and appropriate standards of reference for office, ambulatory and home blood pressure data collection are presented. As clinicians are being faced with a greater number of children with hypertension, they should be aware of these peculiarities.

  6. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1999-01-01

    . The radioactive isotope xenon-133 was injected just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 5 cm proximal to the tendon's insertion on the calcaneous. The disappearance of 133Xe was used to determine blood flow during intermittent static exercise of the calf muscle (1.5 s exercise/1.5 s rest) for 30 min at a workload.......05). The exercise induced an average increase in blood flow (3.4-fold) equivalent to results previously obtained during regular dynamic heel raises (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the method is well suited to study the influence of standardized workload on the physiology and pathophysiology of the tissue around...

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bress, Adam P; Bellows, Brandon K; King, Jordan B; Hess, Rachel; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Zhang, Zugui; Berlowitz, Dan R; Conroy, Molly B; Fine, Larry; Oparil, Suzanne; Morisky, Donald E; Kazis, Lewis E; Ruiz-Negrón, Natalia; Powell, Jamie; Tamariz, Leonardo; Whittle, Jeff; Wright, Jackson T; Supiano, Mark A; Cheung, Alfred K; Weintraub, William S; Moran, Andrew E

    2017-08-24

    In the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease who received intensive systolic blood-pressure control (target, target, costs associated with intensive control versus standard control. We used a microsimulation model to apply SPRINT treatment effects and health care costs from national sources to a hypothetical cohort of SPRINT-eligible adults. The model projected lifetime costs of treatment and monitoring in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular disease events and subsequent treatment costs, treatment-related risks of serious adverse events and subsequent costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for intensive control versus standard control of systolic blood pressure. We determined that the mean number of QALYs would be 0.27 higher among patients who received intensive control than among those who received standard control and would cost approximately $47,000 more per QALY gained if there were a reduction in adherence and treatment effects after 5 years; the cost would be approximately $28,000 more per QALY gained if the treatment effects persisted for the remaining lifetime of the patient. Most simulation results indicated that intensive treatment would be cost-effective (51 to 79% below the willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per QALY and 76 to 93% below the threshold of $100,000 per QALY), regardless of whether treatment effects were reduced after 5 years or persisted for the remaining lifetime. In this simulation study, intensive systolic blood-pressure control prevented cardiovascular disease events and prolonged life and did so at levels below common willingness-to-pay thresholds per QALY, regardless of whether benefits were reduced after 5 years or persisted for the patient's remaining lifetime. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; SPRINT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01206062 .).

  8. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery.

  9. Intensive Versus Standard Blood Pressure Control in SPRINT-Eligible Participants of ACCORD-BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Leo F; Dixon, Dave L; Wohlford, George F; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S; Baker, William L; Van Tassell, Benjamin W

    2017-12-01

    We sought to determine the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) control on cardiovascular outcomes in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was a post hoc, multivariate, subgroup analysis of ACCORD-BP (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure) participants. Participants were eligible for the analysis if they were in the standard glucose control arm of ACCORD-BP and also had the additional CVD risk factors required for SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) eligibility. We used a Cox proportional hazards regression model to compare the effect of intensive versus standard BP control on CVD outcomes. The "SPRINT-eligible" ACCORD-BP participants were pooled with SPRINT participants to determine whether the effects of intensive BP control interacted with T2DM. The mean baseline Framingham 10-year CVD risk scores were 14.5% and 14.8%, respectively, in the intensive and standard BP control groups. The mean achieved systolic BP values were 120 and 134 mmHg in the intensive and standard BP control groups ( P control reduced the composite of CVD death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, any revascularization, and heart failure (hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96; P = 0.02). Intensive BP control also reduced CVD death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% CI 0.51-0.93; P = 0.01). Treatment-related adverse events occurred more frequently in participants receiving intensive BP control (4.1% vs. 2.1%; P = 0.003). The effect of intensive BP control on CVD outcomes did not differ between patients with and without T2DM ( P > 0.62). Intensive BP control reduced CVD outcomes in a cohort of participants with T2DM and additional CVD risk factors. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Oscillometric casual blood pressure normative standards for Swedish children using ABPM to exclude casual hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmar, Rafael T; Holtbäck, Ulla; Bergh, Anita; Svensson, Eva; Wühl, Elke

    2015-04-01

    Casual blood pressure (CBP) is considered a reliable proxy for cardiovascular health. Although the auscultatory technique is the reference standard method for measuring CBP, oscillometric devices are increasingly being used in children. We sought to establish oscillometric CBP normative standards for Swedish children. Cross-sectional oscillometric CBP readings were obtained by the Welch Allyn Spot Vital Signs 420 monitor and measured according to the International Guidelines' recommendations. Participants with elevated oscillometric CBP levels underwent verification by the auscultatory method. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was used to exclude casual hypertension. Data on 1,470 (772 males) apparently healthy Swedish schoolchildren aged 6-16 years were analyzed and sex-specific reference charts normalized to age or height were constructed. Systolic and diastolic CBP values were significantly higher with age, height, height standard deviation score (SDS), body mass index (BMI), and BMI SDS. Gender differences for systolic CBP were present starting from age of 15 years and revealed significantly higher values in boys than in girls, whereas for diastolic CBP, the differences were apparent at the age of 12 years, with higher values in girls. Increased BMI and BMI SDS were positively associated with CBP levels. Positive parental history of hypertension turned out to be a risk factor for higher systolic and diastolic CBP across all ages. Our normative standard for CBP can be used for blood pressure screening and control programs in Swedish children. The use of ABPM should be considered to confirm the diagnosis of casual hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Novel isotopic N, N-Dimethyl Leucine (iDiLeu) Reagents Enable Absolute Quantification of Peptides and Proteins Using a Standard Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tyler; Lietz, Christopher B.; Xiang, Feng; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Absolute quantification of protein targets using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a key component of candidate biomarker validation. One popular method combines multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a triple quadrupole instrument with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) for absolute quantification (AQUA). LC-MRM AQUA assays are sensitive and specific, but they are also expensive because of the cost of synthesizing stable isotope peptide standards. While the chemical modification approach using mass differential tags for relative and absolute quantification (mTRAQ) represents a more economical approach when quantifying large numbers of peptides, these reagents are costly and still suffer from lower throughput because only two concentration values per peptide can be obtained in a single LC-MS run. Here, we have developed and applied a set of five novel mass difference reagents, isotopic N, N-dimethyl leucine (iDiLeu). These labels contain an amine reactive group, triazine ester, are cost effective because of their synthetic simplicity, and have increased throughput compared with previous LC-MS quantification methods by allowing construction of a four-point standard curve in one run. iDiLeu-labeled peptides show remarkably similar retention time shifts, slightly lower energy thresholds for higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation, and high quantification accuracy for trypsin-digested protein samples (median errors <15%). By spiking in an iDiLeu-labeled neuropeptide, allatostatin, into mouse urine matrix, two quantification methods are validated. The first uses one labeled peptide as an internal standard to normalize labeled peptide peak areas across runs (<19% error), whereas the second enables standard curve creation and analyte quantification in one run (<8% error).

  12. Evaluation of Kinetic Entropy of Breast Masses Initially Found on MRI using Whole-lesion Curve Distribution Data: Comparison with the Standard Kinetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimauchi, Akiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Schacht, David V; Yulei, Jian; Pineda, Federico D; Jansen, Sanaz A; Ganesh, Rajiv; Newstead, Gillian M

    2015-08-01

    To quantify kinetic heterogeneity of breast masses that were initially detected with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, using whole-lesion kinetic distribution data obtained from computer-aided evaluation (CAE), and to compare that with standard kinetic curve analysis. Clinical MR images from 2006 to 2011 with breast masses initially detected with MRI were evaluated with CAE. The relative frequencies of six kinetic patterns (medium-persistent, medium-plateau, medium-washout, rapid-persistent, rapid-plateau, rapid-washout) within the entire lesion were used to calculate kinetic entropy (KE), a quantitative measure of enhancement pattern heterogeneity. Initial uptake (IU) and signal enhancement ratio (SER) were obtained from the most-suspicious kinetic curve. Mann-Whitney U test and ROC analysis were conducted for differentiation of malignant and benign masses. Forty benign and 37 malignant masses comprised the case set. IU and SER were not significantly different between malignant and benign masses, whereas KE was significantly greater for malignant than benign masses (p = 0.748, p = 0.083, and p kinetic heterogeneity of whole-lesion time-curve data with KE has the potential to improve differentiation of malignant from benign breast masses on breast MRI. • Kinetic heterogeneity can be quantified by computer-aided evaluation of breast MRI • Kinetic entropy was greater in malignant masses than benign masses • Kinetic entropy has the potential to improve differentiation of breast masses.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Curved Biopsy Device for CT-Guided Biopsy of Lesions Unreachable Using Standard Straight Needle Trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Hagen, Maximilian Franz, E-mail: mschulze@ukaachen.de; Pfeffer, Jochen; Zimmermann, Markus; Liebl, Martin [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Stillfried, Saskia Freifrau von [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Pathology (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane; Bruners, Philipp; Isfort, Peter [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of a novel curved CT-guided biopsy needle prototype with shape memory to access otherwise not accessible biopsy targets.Methods and MaterialsA biopsy needle curved by 90° with specific radius was designed. It was manufactured using nitinol to acquire shape memory, encased in a straight guiding trocar to be driven out for access of otherwise inaccessible targets. Fifty CT-guided punctures were conducted in a biopsy phantom and 10 CT-guided punctures in a swine corpse. Biposies from porcine liver and muscle tissue were separately gained using the biopsy device, and histological examination was performed subsequently.ResultsMean time for placement of the trocar and deployment of the inner biopsy needle was ~205 ± 69 and ~93 ± 58 s, respectively, with a mean of ~4.5 ± 1.3 steps to reach adequate biopsy position. Mean distance from the tip of the needle to the target was ~0.7 ± 0.8 mm. CT-guided punctures in the swine corpse took relatively longer and required more biopsy steps (~574 ± 107 and ~380 ± 148 s, 8 ± 2.6 steps). Histology demonstrated appropriate tissue samples in nine out of ten cases (90%).ConclusionsTargets that were otherwise inaccessible via standard straight needle trajectories could be successfully reached with the curved biopsy needle prototype. Shape memory and preformed size with specific radius of the curved needle simplify the target accessibility with a low risk of injuring adjacent structures.

  14. High-resolution melting curve analysis of the ADSL and LPL genes and their correlation with meat quality and blood parameters in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X D; Li, Q H; Lou, L F; Liu, J; Chen, X H; Zhang, C X; Wang, H H

    2015-03-20

    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are key enzymes in the metabolism of inosine monophosphate (IMP) and fat mass, which are important factors in meat quality evaluation. In this study, we selected 50 hens from the ISA B-line layers and Guangxi Yellow chickens, slaughtered the chickens at 120 days old, and analyzed polymorphisms in the ADSL and LPL genes using the high-resolution melting curve method. Blood lipid parameters, intramuscular fat (IMF), and IMP content were higher (P ADSL gene, a C3484T mutation was identified. In both breeds, the CC genotype showed the highest IMP, and IMP was the lowest in the TT genotype. In the 5ꞌ regulatory region of the LPL gene, a C293T mutation was identified. In both breeds, the CC genotype showed the lowest LPL and IMF, while IMF was the highest in the TT genotype. The percentages of individuals with the TT type in the ADSL gene, which was associated with the lowest IMP, were 16.0 and 52.0% in Guangxi chickens and ISA layers, respectively. The percentages of individuals with the CC type of the LPL gene, which was associated with the lowest LPL and IMF, were 28.0 and 44.0%, respectively. The ADSL and LPL gene mutations are correlated with differences in meat quality in different chicken breeds, and high-resolution melting curve is an effective prediction technology for these mutations.

  15. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  16. Effect of Intensive Versus Standard Clinic-Based Hypertension Management on Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Results From the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawz, Paul E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Bates, Jeffrey T; Bello, Natalie A; Cushman, William C; Dwyer, Jamie P; Fine, Lawrence J; Goff, David C; Haley, William E; Krousel-Wood, Marie; McWilliams, Andrew; Rifkin, Dena E; Slinin, Yelena; Taylor, Addison; Townsend, Raymond; Wall, Barry; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    The effect of clinic-based intensive hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is unknown. The goal of the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) ambulatory BP ancillary study was to evaluate the effect of intensive versus standard clinic-based BP targets on ambulatory BP. Ambulatory BP was obtained within 3 weeks of the 27-month study visit in 897 SPRINT participants. Intensive treatment resulted in lower clinic systolic BP (mean difference between groups=16.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 14.1-17.8 mm Hg), nighttime systolic BP (mean difference=9.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 7.7-11.5 mm Hg), daytime systolic BP (mean difference=12.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 10.6-13.9 mm Hg), and 24-hour systolic BP (mean difference=11.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 9.7-12.8 mm Hg). The night/day systolic BP ratio was similar between the intensive (0.92±0.09) and standard-treatment groups (0.91±0.09). There was considerable lack of agreement within participants between clinic systolic BP and daytime ambulatory systolic BP with wide limits of agreement on Bland-Altman plots. In conclusion, targeting a systolic BP of hypertension therapy on out of office BP. Further studies are needed to assess whether targeting hypertension therapy based on ambulatory BP improves clinical outcomes. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01835249. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Comparison of the Omron HEM-713C automated blood pressure monitor with a standard ausculatory method using a mercury manometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufunda, J; Sparks, B; Chifamba, J; Dakwa, C; Matenga, J A; Adams, J M; Sparks, H V

    1996-08-01

    To compare the Omron HEM-713C automated blood pressure machine with the standard ausculatory method using a mercury manometer. Blood pressures of randomly selected subjects were measured using both the Omron HEM-713C and the mercury manometer. Dombotombo surburb in Marondera, Zimbabwe. One hundred and sixteen subjects 25 years and above (47 males and 69 females) randomly selected in Marondera. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. The Omron HEM-713C passed with a grade B for both systolic and diastolic blood pressures when using the British Hypertension Society protocol. It also passed both systolic and diastolic criteria for Association of the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. The Omron HEM-713C compares well with the standard mercury manometer, we therefore recommend its use in both research and clinical applications which require blood pressure measurements.

  18. Comparison of a commercial blood cross-matching kit to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Leo Roa; Streeter, Elizabeth; Malandra, Allison

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blood transfusion cross-match kit when compared to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility. A prospective observational in intro study performed from July 2009 to July 2013. Private referral veterinary center. Ten healthy dogs, 11 anemic dogs, and 24 previously transfused dogs. None. Forty-five dogs were enrolled in a prospective study in order to compare the standard blood transfusion cross-match technique to a commercial blood transfusion cross-matching kit. These dogs were divided into 3 different groups that included 10 healthy dogs (control group), 11 anemic dogs in need of a blood transfusion, and 24 sick dogs that were previously transfused. Thirty-five dogs diagnosed with anemia secondary to multiple disease processes were cross-matched using both techniques. All dogs cross-matched via the kit had a compatible major and minor result, whereas 16 dogs out of 45 (35%) had an incompatible cross-match result when the standard laboratory technique was performed. The average time to perform the commercial kit was 15 minutes and this was 3 times shorter than the manual cross-match laboratory technique that averaged 45-50 minutes to complete. While the gel-based cross-match kit is quicker and less technically demanding than standard laboratory cross-match procedures, microagglutination and low-grade hemolysis are difficult to identify by using the gel-based kits. This could result in transfusion reactions if the gel-based kits are used as the sole determinant of blood compatibility prior to transfusion. Based on our results, the standard manual cross-match technique remains the gold standard test to determine blood transfusion compatibility. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  19. The effect of a standardized protocol for iron supplementation to blood donors low in hemoglobin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Karin; Bork, Nanna; Asmussen, Lisa

    2008-04-01

    Iron deficiency leading to low hemoglobin concentration (cHb) is a common problem for blood donors as well as for blood banks. A standardized protocol offering iron supplementation based on P-ferritin determination may help to reduce the problem and retain donors. This was a prospective study where 879 blood donors, presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation, were included. The predonation cHb result was read after donation. The donors received 50 iron tablets (JernC or Ferrochel, 100 or 25 mg elemental iron, respectively), and samples for P-ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and control of cHb were secured. Based on a P-ferritin level of less than 60 microg per L, 20 iron tablets were offered after all following donations. Mean cHb was 7.6 mmol per L (122 g/L) and 8.2 mmol per L (132 g/L) in women and men, respectively. In 80 percent of the women and 48 percent of the men, iron stores were low (P-ferritin protocol offering iron supplementation and simple oral and written advice based on P-ferritin measurements is effective in normalizing cHb and retaining donors presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation.

  20. Neonatal respiratory and intensive care in emerging regions of China: learning curve, cost-effectiveness, quality and standard of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents informations on birth population and policy change in China, along with data on neonatal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, covering four decades. Care standard and cost-effectiveness are also analyzed, highlighting the measures that significantly improved general and specified maternal and infant care, and established modern perinatal care system. Moreover, results from multicenter studies – through nation-wide or province-wide collaborative NICU network for respiratory diseases – are reported. Development of neonatal-perinatal care in China is representative in its transition over more than 3 decades from a poor condition into a modernized one. Public health care policy and professionally integrated service mode played pivotal roles, whereas social economic and cultural factors play either synergistic or detrimental roles for such a transition. The progress in Chinese neonatal-perinatal care is also influenced by international collaboration and exchange, and in a sense followed right the foot-print of international pioneers and their colleagues. In foreseeable future, many Chinese perinatal and neonatal centers would actively participate in international collaborations aiming at improving not only domestic but developing country neonatal-perinatal care as a whole. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  1. [Blood pressure measurement by primary care physicians: comparison with the standard method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Y; Kawamoto, R; Nago, N; Kajii, E

    2000-04-01

    To examine the usual methods of blood pressure (BP) measurement by primary care physicians and to compare them with the standard methods. Cross-sectional survey by self-administered questionnaire. Primary care physicians who graduated from Jichi Medical School and were working at clinics. Each standard method for 20 items was defined as the one that was most frequently recommended by 6 guidelines (USA 3, UK 1, Canada 1, Japan 1) and a recent comprehensive review about BP measurement. Of 333 physicians, 190 (58%) responded (median age 33, range 26 to 45 years). Standard methods and percentages of physicians who follow them are: [BP measurement, 17 items] supported arm 96%; measurement to 2 mmHg 91%; sitting position 86%; mercury sphygmomanometer 83%; waiting > or = 1 minute between readings 58%; palpation to assess systolic BP before auscultation 57%; check accuracy of home BP monitor 56%; Korotkoff Phase V for diastolic BP 51%; bilateral measurements on initial visit 44%; small cuff available 41%; > or = 2 readings in patients with atrial fibrillation 38%; > or = 2 readings on one visit 20%; cuff deflation rate of 2 mmHg/pulse 14%; large cuff available 13%; check accuracy of monitor used for home visit 8%; waiting time > or = 5 minute 3%; readings from the arm with the higher BP 1%. [Knowledge about BP monitor, 2 items] appropriate size bladder: length 11%; width 11%. [Check of sphygmomanometer for leakage, inflate to 200 mmHg then close valve for 1 minute] leakage < 2 mmHg 6%; median 10 (range 0-200) mmHg. Average percentage of all 20 items was 39%. Number of methods physicians follow as standard: median 8 (range 4 to 15) and this number did not correlate with any background characteristics of the physicians. Furthermore, we also obtained information on methods not compared with the standard. Fifty-four percentage of physicians used more standard methods in deciding the start or change of treatment than in measuring BP of patients with good control. About 80% of

  2. Microspectrophotometric studies of Romanowsky stained blood cells. I. Subtraction analysis of a standardized procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, W; Marshall, P N; Bacus, J W

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes a microspectrophotometric study of blood smears stained by a simple, standardized Romanowsky technique, using only the dyes azure B and cosin. Absorbance spectra are presented for twenty-two classes of cellular object, and for the two dyes in solution, together with tabulations of spectral maxima, and suitable wavelengths for use in automated image processing. The colours of objects stained with azure B/eosin are discussed in terms of absorbance spectra. By a spectral subtraction technique, it is shown that the differential colouration of various cell structures may be explained satisfactorily in terms of the varying proportions of only four dye components. These are the monomers and dimers of azure B and eosin. Polymerization was found to occur both in solution and on binding to biopolymers. A similar analysis of a conventional Romanowsky stain would present much greater difficulties, due to the greater number of dye components, which, however, contribute little to the colours observed.

  3. The Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring As Standard of Care in Pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Caitlin G.; Miyashita, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a significant global health problem, responsible for 7.5 million deaths each year worldwide. The prevalence of HTN is increasing in the pediatric population likely attributed to the increase in childhood obesity. Recent work has also shown that blood pressure (BP) tends to track from childhood to adulthood including BP-related target organ damage. In the last 25–30 years, pediatric use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has been expanding mainly in the setting of initial elevated BP measurement evaluation, HTN therapy efficacy follow-up, and renal disease. However, there are many clinical areas where ABPM could potentially be used but is currently underutilized. This review summarizes the current knowledge and the uses of pediatric ABPM and explores clinical areas where it can be very useful both to detect HTN and its longitudinal follow-up. And thus, ABPM could serve as a critical tool to potentially prevent early cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in wide variety of populations. With solid data to support ABPM’s superiority over clinic BP measurements and these clinical areas for its expansion, ABPM should now be part of standard of care in BP evaluation and management in pediatrics. PMID:28713799

  4. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  5. Measurement of cerebral blood flow by intravenous xenon-133 technique and a mobile system. Reproducibility using the Obrist model compared to total curve analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    was considerably more reproducible than CBF level. Using a single detector instead of five regional values averaged as the hemispheric flow increased standard deviation of CBF level by 10-20%, while the variation in asymmetry was doubled. In optimal measuring conditions the two models revealed no significant...... differences, but in low flow situations the artifact model yielded significantly more stable results. The present apparatus, equipped with 3-5 detectors covering each hemisphere, offers the opportunity of performing serial CBF measurements in situations not otherwise feasible.......The recent development of a mobile 10 detector unit, using i.v. Xenon-133 technique, has made it possible to perform repeated bedside measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Test-retest studies were carried out in 38 atherosclerotic subjects, in order to evaluate the reproducibility of CBF level...

  6. Determination of reference intervals and comparison of venous blood gas parameters using standard and non-standard collection methods in 24 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Karin; Kutter, Annette Pn; Schefer, Rahel Jud; Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Sigrist, Nadja

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine in-house reference intervals (RIs) for venous blood analysis with the RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas analyser using blood gas syringes (BGSs) and to determine whether immediate analysis of venous blood collected into lithium heparin (LH) tubes can replace anaerobic blood sampling into BGSs. Methods Venous blood was collected from 24 healthy cats and directly transferred into a BGS and an LH tube. The BGS was immediately analysed on the RAPIDPoint 500 followed by the LH tube. The BGSs and LH tubes were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, Bland-Altman and Passing-Bablok analysis. To assess clinical relevance, bias or percentage bias between BGSs and LH tubes was compared with the allowable total error (TEa) recommended for the respective parameter. Results Based on the values obtained from the BGSs, RIs were calculated for the evaluated parameters, including blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and lactate. Values derived from LH tubes showed no significant difference for standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate, while pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, actual bicarbonate, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap were significantly different to the samples collected in BGSs ( P glucose and lactate can be made based on blood collected in LH tubes and analysed within 5 mins. For pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, anion gap and ionised calcium the clinically relevant alterations have to be considered if analysed in LH tubes.

  7. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sarikhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6–151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3–105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P<0.05. Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  8. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... premenopausal female donors, can develop iron deficiency, with or without anemia, from blood donation. Improved... levels and reduce iron deficiency that can result from blood donation. Different strategies to minimize iron deficiency in blood donors (e.g., testing for iron stores, adjusting the donation interval, or...

  9. Microspectrophotometric studies of Romanowsky stained blood cells. II. Comparison of the performance of two standardized stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Galbraith, W; Navarro, E F; Bacus, J W

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance of two standardized Romanowsky blood stains, namely those of Marshall et al. and Wittekind et al., both containing azure B and eosin alone. Stain performance is assessed objectively by the use of three complementary techniques, all based on the visible absorbance spectra of stained cellular substrates. The first of these techniques is a simple comparison of the shapes and heights of the absorbance spectra. The second technique uses the CIE Colorimetric System, and thus permits the quantitation of colour in a manner that agrees with human observation. CIE co-ordinates (chromaticity points, luminance) are calculated directly from absorbance spectra. The third technique is that of spectral subtraction, which yields a set of factors which describe the quantities of component dyes which are bound by the object. This technique, unlike the other two, requires a priori knowledge of the dyes used in the stains, and their spectra when bound to cellular substrates. Although the differences between the two methods are subtle, and hard for the subjective observer to define, the objective methods described here do show statistically significant differences. Wittekind's stain produces less intense staining, except for lymphocyte and monocyte cytoplasms. To the human eye, the differential coloration of these two substrates is more pronounced, but the difference between all nuclei and cytoplasm is less marked. The major difference in the uptake of dye components is in the small quantities of eosin dimer that are bound in this technique.

  10. Second-meal effects of pulses on blood glucose and subjective appetite following a standardized meal 2 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p < 0.05). Following the meal, BG was lower after lentils and chickpeas at 150 and 165 min, and AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05).

  11. Kinetic analysis of the blood clearance and organ uptake curves of IgG-coated red cells in HLA-typed controls and patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woude, F.J. van der; Hauw The, T.; Beekhuis, H.; Beelen, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    Reticuloendothelial function and HLA type were studied in 22 controls and 15 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). IgG-coated red cells were injected intravenously and half-life of blood disappearance and liver spleen uptake curves were related to the degree of antibody coating. Erythrocytes with 13,990 molecules of IgG per cell gave biexponential blood disappearance curves and were suitable for measuring splenic reticuloendothelial function. Half-life times thus obtained were not significantly different for individuals with the HLA-DR2 or DR3 phenotype. In WG patients with major disease activity, blood clearance of the injected cells was considerably decreased. Kinetic analysis of blood disappearance and spleen uptake curves revealed that this was partly due to a decrease in reversible trapping of the cells in the spleen. This suggests that a blocking effect of circulating immune complexes on splenic Fc receptors is not likely to be the sole cause of the observed hyposplenism.

  12. Establishment of the 2nd Korean national biological reference standard for blood coagulation factor VIII:C concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Naery; Seo, Ji Suk; Kim, Jae Ok; Ban, Sang Ja

    2017-05-01

    Since the 1st Korean national biological reference standard for factor (F)VIII concentrate, established in 2001, has shown declining potency, we conducted this study to replace this standard with a 2nd Korean national biological reference standard for blood coagulation FVIII concentrate. The candidate materials for the 2nd standard were prepared in 8000 vials with 10 IU/ml of target potency, according to the approved manufacturing process of blood coagulation Factor VIII:C Monoclonal Antibody-purified, Freeze-dried Human Blood Coagulation Factor VIII:C. Potency was evaluated by one-stage clotting and chromogenic methods and the stability was confirmed to meet the specifications during a period of 73 months. Since the potencies obtained by the two methods differed significantly (P < 0.015), the values were determined separately according to the geometric means (8.9 and 7.4 IU/vial, respectively). The geometric coefficients of interlaboratory variability were 3.4% and 7.6% by the one-stage clotting and chromogenic assays, respectively. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of complete blood counts in samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Flatland, Bente

    2010-08-01

    To compare results of a CBC performed on blood samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample collection tubes. Evaluation study. 29 healthy client-owned animals (14 dogs and 15 cats). A blood sample (3 mL) was collected from each animal; 2.5 mL was transferred into a vacuum tube that contained sodium EDTA, and 0.5 mL was transferred into a microsample tube that contained sodium EDTA. Variables evaluated were total numbers of RBCs and WBCs, hemoglobin concentration, Hct, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean platelet volume, and plasma total protein concentration as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and platelet counts. Results for the 2 types of tube in each species were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficient was low for basophil count in cats and moderate, high, or very high for all other variables. Constant and proportional biases were identified for MCHC in dogs by use of Passing-Bablok regression analysis, although the mean difference between types of blood collection tubes was small. No evidence of constant or proportional bias for any other variable was revealed by regression analysis or Bland-Altman analysis. Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes provided clinically equivalent CBC results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.

  14. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of cyclosporin A in rat blood and liver using a commercially available internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalakonda, Anjaneya P; Shah, Rakhi B; Mehvar, Reza

    2002-05-25

    All the available HPLC assays of cyclosporin A (CyA) use internal standards that are not commercially available. Our purpose was to develop an HPLC assay for measurements of CyA in rat blood and liver using a commercially available internal standard (I.S.). After the addition of tamoxifen (I.S.), blood (0.25 ml) or the liver homogenate (1 ml) samples were extracted into a mixture of ether:methanol (95:5). The residue after evaporation of the organic layer was dissolved in 200 microl of an injection solution and washed with 1 ml of hexane before analysis. The separation was achieved using an LC-1 column (70 degrees C) with a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-0.01 M KH(2)PO(4) (50:25:25, v/v) and a flow-rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was at 205 nm. Cyclosporin A and I.S. eluted at 5 and 7 min, respectively, free from endogenous peaks. Linear relationships (r>0.98) were observed between the CyA:I.S. peak area ratios and the CyA concentrations within the range of 0.2-10 microg/ml for blood and 0.1-4 microg/ml for the liver homogenates. The intra- and inter-run C.V.s and errors for both the blood and liver samples were <15%. The extraction efficiency (n=5) was close to 100% for both CyA and I.S. in both blood and liver homogenates. The lower limit of quantitation of the assay was 0.2 or 0.1 microg/ml based on 250 microl of blood or 1 ml of liver homogenate, respectively. The assay was capable of measuring blood and liver concentrations of CyA in a rat injected intravenously with a single 5-mg/kg dose of the drug.

  16. Wrist blood pressure-measuring devices: a comparative study of accuracy with a standard auscultatory method using a mercury manometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkan, Sekip; Yildiz, Sevil; Azer, Sabir

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we compared two wrist blood pressure-measuring devices, the Omron RX and the Nissei WS-310, against a mercury manometer. A total of 152 subjects attending an out-patient hypertensive clinic were recruited from a randomized blood pressure survey, 87 patients (mean 44.4 +/- 14.5 years of age) being selected according to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/British Hypertension Society standards. Device validation was assessed through the use of sequential same-arm readings compared with readings taken using a mercury sphygmomanometer by the two trained observers. There were no differences between the observers and the monitors for diastolic readings (2.8 +/- 4.8 mmHg for the Omron and 4.2 +/- 6.4 mmHg for the Nissei) according to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standards. The largest standard deviations -- 8.3 mmHg for the Omron and 8.8 mmHg for the Nissei, respectively -- were seen for systolic readings recorded by the observers and the monitors. According to the British Hypertension Society standards, the Omron achieved an A grade for diastolic readings and a B grade for systolic readings within 5 and 10 mmHg. The Nissei monitor achieved an A grade for diastolic readings and a B grade for systolic readings within 5 and 10 mmHg. Patients found the wrist oscillometric devices that we tested to be comfortable and easy to use. These devices are appropriate for measuring diastolic blood pressure according to the standards, but the reliability of both devices decreased when measuring systolic blood pressure.

  17. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  18. Evaluation of real-time PCR assays and standard curve optimisation for enhanced accuracy in quantification of Campylobacter environmental water isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin-Théberge, Maxime; Taboada, Eduardo; Guy, Rebecca A

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter is a major public health and economic burden in developed and developing countries. This study evaluated published real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for detection of Campylobacter to enable selection of the best assays for quantification of C. spp. and C. jejuni in environmental water samples. A total of 9 assays were compared: three for thermotolerant C. spp. targeting the 16S rRNA and six for C. jejuni targeting different genes. These assays were tested in the wet-lab for specificity and sensitivity against a collection of 60, genetically diverse, Campylobacter isolates from environmental water. All three qPCR assays targeting C. spp. were positive when tested against the 60 isolates, whereas, assays targeting C. jejuni differed among each other in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Three C. jejuni-specific assays that demonstrated good specificity and sensitivity when tested in the wet-lab showed concordant results with in silico-predicted results obtained against a set of 211 C. jejuni and C. coli genome sequences. Two of the assays targeting C. spp. and C. jejuni were selected to compare DNA concentration estimation, using spectrophotometry and digital PCR (dPCR), in order to calibrate standard curves (SC) for greater accuracy of qPCR-based quantification. Average differences of 0.56±0.12 and 0.51±0.11 log fold copies were observed between the spectrophotometry-based SC preparation and the dPCR preparation for C. spp. and C. jejuni, respectively, demonstrating an over-estimation of Campylobacter concentration when spectrophotometry was used to calibrate the DNA SCs. Our work showed differences in quantification of aquatic environmental isolates of Campylobacter between qPCR assays and method-specific bias in SC preparation. This study provided an objective analysis of qPCR assays targeting Campylobacter in the literature and provides a framework for evaluating novel assays. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality standards in Biobanking: authentication by genetic profiling of blood spots from donor's original sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sergio; Valverde, Laura; Odriozola, Adrian; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2010-07-01

    The field of Biobanking requires extensive work to maintain traceability of samples. However, sometimes the necessity to authenticate a sample may arise. To address these circumstances, we herein present a method for authenticating derivatives by using a blood spot from each donor, attached to a sample authentication form, by means of genetic profiling. Blood spots are collected at the time a blood sample is donated at a health centre and before processing the blood sample at the biobank. To test the validity of our approach over time, we analyzed 26 blood spots stored at room temperature in our facilities for more than 15 years. DNA was successfully extracted from the three storage materials tested in this study and 15 STR markers plus amelogenin were subsequently analyzed. The storage of a small blood spot attached to a sample authentication form proved to be efficient for genetic profiling and, therefore, may constitute a long-lasting (at least 15 years), cost-effective and effortless approach for genetic authentication of samples in biobanks.

  20. Raising the standard: changes to the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig; Velickovic, Zlatibor; Brown, Ross; Larsen, Stephen; Macpherson, Janet L; Gibson, John; Rasko, John E J

    2014-04-01

    In Australia, manufacture of blood, tissues and biologicals must comply with the federal laws and meet the requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Manufacturing Principles as outlined in the current Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). The Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO) No. 88 was announced concurrently with the new cGMP, as a new standard for therapeutic goods. This order constitutes a minimum standard for human blood, tissues and cellular therapeutic goods aimed at minimising the risk of infectious disease transmission. The order sets out specific requirements relating to donor selection, donor testing and minimisation of infectious disease transmission from collection and manufacture of these products. The Therapeutic Goods Manufacturing Principles Determination No. 1 of 2013 references the human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products 2013 (2013 cGMP). The name change for the 2013 cGMP has allowed a broadening of the scope of products to include human cellular therapy products. It is difficult to directly compare versions of the code as deletion of some clauses has not changed the requirements to be met, as they are found elsewhere amongst the various guidelines provided. Many sections that were specific for blood and blood components are now less prescriptive and apply to a wider range of cellular therapies, but the general overall intent remains the same. Use of 'should' throughout the document instead of 'must' allows flexibility for alternative processes, but these systems will still require justification by relevant logical argument and validation data to be acceptable to TGA. The cGMP has seemingly evolved so that specific issues identified at audit over the last decade have now been formalised in the new version. There is a notable risk management approach applied to most areas that refer to process justification and decision making. These requirements commenced on 31 May 2013 and a 12 month

  1. ANALYSIS OF IFN- CONCENTRATION IN WISTAR RAT BLOOD AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF STANDARDIZED GREEN TEA WATER EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Agus Purwanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and its polyphenols have been studied extensively as cancer chemopreventive agents in recent years. However, the mechanisms of action are still not clearly understood. Some researchers suggest that immune system plays important role to destroy cancer cells. Because of that reason, the present study was designed to analyse the effects of oral administration standardized green tea water extract on increasing of IFN-g blood concentration and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in the inhibitory action of the cancer development. Two groups (male and female of 5 rats have given p.o. administration 1.25% of standardized green tea water extract and got 300 mg of (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG/kg body weight, while two groups others (male and female were used as control. We found that IFN-g blood concentration on male and female Wistar rat are significantly increase with 13.11% and 17.59%, respectively (p

  2. Knowledge of blood sugar control standard brings the higher attainment rate of HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Ying; Ning, Xiaoqun; Lei, Minxiang

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the important controllable factors which affect the glycemic control of diabetes. A cross-sectional study was carried out to examine the role of relevant characteristics in glycemic control by a sampling investigation of 430 diabetic patients in Hunan, China. A questionnaire was designed for personal interviews to collect data. Univariate regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the effects of various factors on glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) control. The level of HbA1c in 430 patients was (8.7±2.6)%, and the value in 34% patients among them was ≤ 7.0%. Base on univariate regression analysis some factors were associated with good HbA1c control, including age, diabetic education, self monitoring of blood glucose, knowledge of blood sugar control standard, living environment, and self-owned glucometer. However, the upgraded treatment was associated with poor control. Based on multiple linear regression analysis, the first four factors mentioned above were protective factors for HbA1c while upgraded treatment was risk factor for HbA1c. Knowledge of blood sugar control standard, diabetic education and self monitoring of blood glucose are important controllable factors for better glycemic control of diabetes.

  3. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  4. Does the practice of blood film microscopy for detection and quantification of malaria parasites in northwest Ethiopia fit the standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Ali, Jemal; Walle, Fisha; Gudeta, Nigussu; Kassu, Afework; Mulu, Andargachew

    2014-11-01

    The diagnosis of malaria in clinical laboratories mainly depends on blood smear microscopy and this technique remains the most widely used in Ethiopia. Despite the importance of blood smear microscopy for patient's diagnosis and treatment, little effort has been made to precisely determine and identify sources of error in malaria smear microscopic diagnosis and quantification of parasitaemia. The main objective of the present study was to assess the laboratory practices of health care laboratories carrying out blood films microscopy. A cross sectional study was conducted in northwestern Ethiopia involving 29 health care institutes. A structured and pretested questionnaire were used to collect relevant information on the physical conditions, laboratory logistics and laboratory practices carrying out blood smear microscopy. There was inadequacy of laboratory reagents, guidelines and materials. Most of the health institutes have been practicing re-utilization of microscope slides for malaria microscopy. The technical procedure (preparing of reagents, making of blood films and staining of the slides) were found to be below the standard in 50% of the health institutes. Refresher training and quality assessment has been done only in two and six of the health institutes in the past five years, respectively. In most of the health care laboratories studied, availability of laboratory logistics and technical practices for malaria microscopy were found to be below the standard set by World Health Organization. Improving logistics access for malaria microscopy at all level of health care is important to increase accuracy of diagnosis and quantification of malaria parasites. Moreover, continued training and regular supervision of the staff and implementation of quality control program in the area is also crucial.

  5. Inverted U-shaped curve relationship between red blood cell distribution width and hypertension in a large health checkup population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingfei; Zha, Xiaojuan; Wu, Zewei; Zhu, Xinying; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Huan; Ma, Jun; Wang, Shuyi; Wen, Yufeng

    2018-03-10

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and hypertension in a large health check up population in China. A population of 302,527 subjects from Wuhu was enrolled in this cross-sectional health check up study between 2011 and 2016. They consisted of 126,369 women (41.78%) and 176,158 men (58.23%) with mean age of 46.9 ± 13.4 and 48.1 ± 13.7 years, respectively. The investigations included information on demographic characteristics, physical examination, and laboratory testing. Inverted U-shape relationships were observed between RDW and hypertension with peak RDW values of 14.2 (women) and 15.2 (men). After stratification by sex and adjusted with body mass index, age, white blood cells, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, inverted U-shape relationships were also established between RDW and hypertension, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, with peak RDW of 14.2, 14.5, 14.5 in women and 14.2, 16.0, 14.5 in men. Inverted U-shape relationship exists between RDW and hypertension, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure among the Chinese health check up population studied. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Standardization for cortisol determination in human blood by competitive protein-binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, H.

    1978-01-01

    Standardization for determination of cortisol from human plasma (17-hydroxycorticosteroids) using competitive protein-binding method is presented. Activated carbon coated with dextrans is used for separation of the hormone-protein complexe and hormone labelled free [pt

  7. Biobanking human endometrial tissue and blood specimens: standard operating procedure and importance to reproductive biology research and diagnostic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Elizabeth; Vo, Kim Chi; McIntire, Ramsey A; Aghajanova, Lusine; Zelenko, Zara; Irwin, Juan C; Giudice, Linda C

    2011-05-01

    To develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) for collection, transport, storage of human endometrial tissue and blood samples, subject and specimen annotation, and establishing sample priorities. The SOP synthesizes sound scientific procedures, the literature on ischemia research, sample collection and gene expression profiling, good laboratory practices, and the authors' experience of workflow and sample quality. The National Institutes of Health, University of California, San Francisco, Human Endometrial Tissue and DNA Bank. Women undergoing endometrial biopsy or hysterectomy for nonmalignant indications. Collecting, processing, storing, distributing endometrial tissue and blood samples under approved institutional review board protocols and written informed consent from participating subjects. Standard operating procedure. The SOP addresses rigorous and consistent subject annotation, specimen processing and characterization, strict regulatory compliance, and a reference for researchers to track collection and storage times that may influence their research. The comprehensive and systematic approach to the procurement of human blood and endometrial tissue in this SOP ensures the high quality, reliability, and scientific usefulness of biospecimens made available to investigators by the National Institutes of Health, University of California, San Francisco, Human Endometrial Tissue and DNA Bank. The detail and perspective in this SOP also provides a blueprint for implementation of similar collection programs at other institutions. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of standard laboratory methods to obviate routine dithiothreitol treatment of blood samples with daratumumab interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintel, Nicholas J; Brown, Debra K; Schafer, Diane T; Tsimba-Chitsva, Farai M; Koepsell, Scott A; Shunkwiler, Sara M

    2017-01-01

    Daratumumab is an antibody currently used in the treatment of patients with refractory multiple myeloma. Blood samples from patients being treated with daratumumab may show panreactivity during pre-transfusion testing. To facilitate the provision of blood components for such patients, it is recommended that a baseline phenotype or genotype be established prior to starting treatment with daratumumab. If patient red blood cells (RBCs) require phenotyping after the start of daratumumab treatment, dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of the patient's RBCs should be performed. The medical charts of four patients treated with daratumumab were reviewed. The individual number of doses ranged from 1 to 14; patient age ranged from 55 to 78 years; two men and two women were included in the review. Type and screen data were obtained from samples collected over 33 encounters with a range of 1 to 13 encounters per patient. All samples were tested initially by automated solid-phase testing. Any reactivity with solid phase led to tube testing with either low-ionic-strength saline, polyethylene glycol, or both. If incubation failed to eliminate the reactivity, the sample was sent to a reference laboratory for DTT treatment and phenotyping. Of the 33 samples tested, 23 (69.7%) samples had reactivity in solid-phase testing. In 8 of the 10 samples that did not react in solid-phase, testing was conducted more than four half-lives after the last dose of daratumumab. Of the 23 that had reactivity in solid-phase, 16 (69.6%) samples demonstrated loss of reactivity using common laboratory methods. For the seven patients whose sample reactivity was not initially eliminated, six were provided with phenotypically matched blood based on prior molecular testing. Only one sample was sent out for DTT treatment. These results suggest that daratumumab interference with pre-transfusion testing can be addressed using common laboratory methods. This finding could save time and money for laboratories that do

  9. [Satisfaction survey in general hospital personnel involved in blood transfusion: implementation of the ISO 9001: 2000 standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chord-Auger, S; de Bouchony, E Tron; Moll, M-C; Boudart, D; Folléa, G

    2004-07-01

    As part of its policy of constant quality improvement, Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS) des Pays de la Loire (Pays de la Loire Regional blood transfusion institution) carried out a satisfaction survey among the hospital personnel involved in prescribing and using immuno-hematological tests and labile blood products. The polling tool selected by agreement between the hospital management and quality assurance department was a questionnaire that permitted item rating and free commentary. It addressed the personnel's perception of the quality of erythrocyte immuno-hematological (EIH) testing and of the products administered, as well as their perception of the quality of communications with the local EFS. The questionnaire was sent to 26 physicians and 32 senior nurses in 15 hospital departments. The reply rate was 60% and expressed a 85% overall satisfaction level. Dissatisfaction causes were more specifically analysed, the main one involving labile blood product distribution in emergency situations. A joint undertaking by the EFS and the hospital led to the implementation of corrective measures, including the writing and implementation of a common standard operating procedure for emergency transfusion management. The results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of this type of survey and the interest, to a blood transfusion centre and the hospital personnel involved in transfusion, of assessing their very own perception of service quality.

  10. [Improved Blood Pressure Control to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality: The Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, María Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia

    2017-06-08

    Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality.

  11. Improved Blood Pressure Control to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality: The Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, Maria Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Twists of Elliptic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, Max; Soomro, Muhammad Afzal; Top, Jaap

    2017-10-01

    In this note we extend the theory of twists of elliptic curves as presented in various standard texts for characteristic not equal to two or three to the remaining characteristics. For this, we make explicit use of the correspondence between the twists and the Galois cohomology set H^1\\big({G}_{\\overline{K}/K}, \\operatorname{Aut}_{\\overline{K}}(E)\\big). The results are illustrated by examples.

  13. Effect of intensive versus standard clinic-based hypertension management on ambulatory blood pressure – results from the SPRINT ambulatory blood pressure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawz, Paul; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Bates, Jeffrey T.; Bello, Natalie A.; Cushman, William C.; Dwyer, Jamie P.; Fine, Lawrence J.; Goff, David C.; Haley, William E.; Krousel-Wood, Marie; McWilliams, Andrew; Rifkin, Dena E.; Slinin, Yelena; Taylor, Addison; Townsend, Raymond; Wall, Barry; Wright, Jackson T.; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-01-01

    The effect of clinic-based intensive hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is unknown. The goal of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) Ambulatory BP Ancillary Study was to evaluate the effect of intensive versus standard clinic-based BP targets on ambulatory BP. Ambulatory BP was obtained within 3 weeks of the 27 month study visit in 897 SPRINT participants. Intensive treatment resulted in lower clinic systolic BP (mean difference between groups = 16.0 mmHg (95% CI: 14.1 to 17.8 mmHg)), nighttime systolic BP (mean difference = 9.6 mmHg (95% CI: 7.7 to 11.5 mmHg)), daytime systolic BP (mean difference = 12.3 mmHg (95% CI: 10.6 to 13.9 mmHg)), and 24 hour systolic BP (mean difference = 11.2 mmHg (95% CI: 9.7 to 12.8 mmHg)). The night/day systolic BP ratio was similar between the intensive (0.92 ± 0.09) and standard treatment groups (0.91 ± 0.09). There was considerable lack of agreement within participants between clinic systolic BP and daytime ambulatory systolic BP with wide limits of agreement on Bland-Altman plots. In conclusion, targeting a systolic BP of less than 120 mmHg, as compared with less than 140 mmHg, resulted in lower nighttime, daytime, and 24 hour systolic BP, but did not change the night/day systolic BP ratio. Ambulatory BP monitoring may be required to assess the effect of targeted hypertension therapy on out of office BP. Further studies are needed to assess whether targeting hypertension therapy based on ambulatory BP improves clinical outcomes. PMID:27849563

  14. Effects of continuous phonation on /sup 133/xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Brown, W.S. Jr.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (/sup 133/Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation.

  15. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele; Turano, Paola

    2011-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0−4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  16. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: bertini@cerm.unifi.it; Luchinat, Claudio [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy); Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele [FiorGen Foundation (Italy); Turano, Paola [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0-4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  17. Satisfaction survey in general hospital personnel involved in blood transfusion: implementation of the ISO 9001: 2000 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chord-Auger, S; Tron de Bouchony, E; Moll, M C; Boudart, D; Folléa, G

    2004-10-01

    As part of its policy of constant quality improvement, Etablissement francais du sang (EFS) des pays de la Loire (Pays de la Loire Regional Blood Transfusion Centre) carried out a satisfaction survey among the hospital personnel involved in prescribing and using immunohaematological tests and labile blood products (LBP). The polling tool selected by agreement between the Saint Nazaire's hospital management and Quality Assurance (QA) Department was a questionnaire that permitted item rating and free commentary. It addressed the personnel's perception of the quality of erythrocyte immunohaematological (EIH) testing and of the products administered, as well as their perception of the quality of communications with the local EFS. The questionnaire was sent to 26 physicians and 32 senior nurses in 15 hospital departments. The reply rate was 60% and expressed an 85% overall satisfaction level. Dissatisfaction causes were more specifically analysed, the main one involving LBP distribution in emergency situations. A joint undertaking by the EFS and the hospital led to the implementation of corrective measures, including the writing and implementation of a common standard operating procedure for emergency transfusion management. The results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of this type of survey and the interest, to a blood transfusion centre and the hospital personnel involved in transfusion, of assessing their very own perception of service quality.

  18. Evaluation of standard and advanced preprocessing methods for the univariate analysis of blood serum 1H-NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Tim; Sinnaeve, Davy; Van Gasse, Bjorn; Rietzschel, Ernst-R; De Buyzere, Marc L; Langlois, Michel R; Bekaert, Sofie; Martins, José C; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2010-10-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR)-based metabolomics enables the high-resolution and high-throughput assessment of a broad spectrum of metabolites in biofluids. Despite the straightforward character of the experimental methodology, the analysis of spectral profiles is rather complex, particularly due to the requirement of numerous data preprocessing steps. Here, we evaluate how several of the most common preprocessing procedures affect the subsequent univariate analyses of blood serum spectra, with a particular focus on how the standard methods perform compared to more advanced examples. Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill 1D (1)H spectra were obtained for 240 serum samples from healthy subjects of the Asklepios study. We studied the impact of different preprocessing steps--integral (standard method) and probabilistic quotient normalization; no, equidistant (standard), and adaptive-intelligent binning; mean (standard) and maximum bin intensity data summation--on the resonance intensities of three different types of metabolites: triglycerides, glucose, and creatinine. The effects were evaluated by correlating the differently preprocessed NMR data with the independently measured metabolite concentrations. The analyses revealed that the standard methods performed inferiorly and that a combination of probabilistic quotient normalization after adaptive-intelligent binning and maximum intensity variable definition yielded the best overall results (triglycerides, R = 0.98; glucose, R = 0.76; creatinine, R = 0.70). Therefore, at least in the case of serum metabolomics, these or equivalent methods should be preferred above the standard preprocessing methods, particularly for univariate analyses. Additional optimization of the normalization procedure might further improve the analyses.

  19. A note on families of fragility curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve

  20. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  1. Power curve investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the analysis carried out with data from a given turbine in a wind farm and a chosen period. The purpose of the analysis is to correlate the power output of the wind turbine to the wind speed measured by a nacelle-mounted anemometer. The measurements and analysis are not perf......This report describes the analysis carried out with data from a given turbine in a wind farm and a chosen period. The purpose of the analysis is to correlate the power output of the wind turbine to the wind speed measured by a nacelle-mounted anemometer. The measurements and analysis...... are not performed according to IEC 61400-12-1 [1]. Therefore, the results presented in this report cannot be considered a power curve according to the reference standard, and are referred to as “power curve investigation” instead. The measurements have been performed by a customer and the data analysis has been...

  2. Laparoendoscopic single-site gastric bands versus standard multiport gastric bands: a comparison of technical learning curve measured by surgical time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawart, Matthew; Dupitron, Sabine; Lutfi, Rami

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate our learning curve comparing surgical time of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) banding with multiport laparoscopy. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data comparing our first 48 LESS bands with our first 50 multiport laparoscopic bands at our institution. We then compared the first 24 LESS bands with the last 24 bands. The average body mass index for the LESS group was significantly lower than for the laparoscopic group (43.19 vs 48.3; P < .0001). The surgical time was much faster toward the second half of our experience performing the LESS procedure (85.34 vs 68.8; P = .0055). LESS banding took significantly longer than our early traditional laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (76.85 vs 64.4; P = .0015). We conclude that in experienced hands, single-incision banding is feasible and safe to perform. Long-term data are needed to prove that LESS banding is as good a surgery as traditional laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytogenetics dosimetry: dose-response curve for low doses of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Virginia E. Noval; Pineda Bolivar, William R.; Riano, Victor M. Pabon; Ureana, Cecilia Crane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary study for the standardization in the future, the dose-response curve for low doses of X-rays, through the analysis of in vitro cultures of peripheral blood samples of 3 men and 3 women occupationally not exposed to artificial sources of ionizing radiation, age 18-40 years, where possible nonsmokers

  4. An International Standard for specifying the minimum potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents: evaluation of a candidate preparation in an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, S. J.; Fox, B.; Heath, A. B.; Scott, M.; de Haas, M.; Kochman, S.; Padilla, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a lyophilized monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-D preparation for use as an International Standard to specify a recommended minimum acceptable potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents. The candidate International Standard (99/836) for specifying the

  5. Learning curve for a modified Watson-Jones minimally invasive approach in primary total hip replacement: analysis of complications and early results versus the standard-incision posterior approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Chiron, Philippe; Accadbled, Franck; Molinier, François; Tricoire, Jean-Louis; Puget, Jean

    2006-12-01

    We analysed the learning curve of an anterolateral minimally invasive (ALMI) approach for primary total hip replacement (THR). The first 42 THR's with large-diameter heads implanted through this approach (group 1) were compared to a cohort of 58 THR's with a 28-mm head performed through a standard-incision posterior approach (group 2). No selection was made and the groups were comparable. Implant positioning as well as early clinical results were satisfactory and were comparable in the two groups. In group 1, the rate of intraoperative complications was significantly higher (greater trochanter fracture in 4 cases, cortical perforation in 3 cases, calcar fracture in one case, nerve palsy in one case, secondary tilting of the metal back in 2 cases) than in group 2 (one nerve palsy and one calcar crack). At 6 months, one revision of the acetabular cup was performed in group 1 for persistent pain, whereas in group 2, we noted 3 dislocations (2 were revised) and 2 periprosthetic femoral fractures. Our study showed a high rate of intra- and perioperative complications during the learning curve for an ALMI approach. These are more likely to occur in obese or osteoporotic patients, and in those with bulky muscles or very stiff hips. Postoperative complications were rare. The early clinical results are excellent and we may expect to achieve better results with a more standardised procedure. During the initial period of the learning curve, it would be preferable to select patients with an appropriate morphology.

  6. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  7. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    tautochrone and brachistochrone properties. To Descartes, however, the rectification of curves such as the spiral (3) and the cycloid (4) was suspect - they...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012017 TITLE: Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves DISTRIBUTION...Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: International Conference on Curves and Surfaces [4th

  8. A simple method for measurement of cerebral blood flow using 123I-IMP SPECT with calibrated standard input function by one point blood sampling. Validation of calibration by one point venous blood sampling as a substitute for arterial blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Akaizawa, Takashi; Goto, Ryoui

    1994-01-01

    In a simplified method for measurement of cerebral blood flow using one 123 I-IMP SPECT scan and one point arterial blood sampling (Autoradiography method), input function is obtained by calibrating a standard input function by one point arterial blood sampling. A purpose of this study is validation of calibration by one point venous blood sampling as a substitute for one point arterial blood sampling. After intravenous infusion of 123 I-IMP, frequent arterial and venous blood sampling were simultaneously performed on 12 patients of CNS disease without any heart and lung disease and 5 normal volunteers. The radioactivity ratio of venous whole blood which obtained from cutaneous cubital vein to arterial whole blood were 0.76±0.08, 0.80±0.05, 0.81±0.06, 0.83±0.11 at 10, 20, 30, 50 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, respectively. The venous blood radioactivities were always 20% lower than those of arterial blood radioactivity during 50 min. However, the ratio which obtained from cutaneous dorsal hand vein to artery were 0.93±0.02, 0.94±0.05, 0.98±0.04, 0.98±0.03, at 10, 20, 30, 50 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, respectively. The venous blood radioactivity was consistent with artery. These indicate that arterio-venous difference of radioactivity in a peripheral cutaneous vein like a dorsal hand vein is minimal due to arteriovenous shunt in palm. Therefore, a substitution by blood sampling from cutaneous dorsal hand vein for artery will be possible. Optimized time for venous blood sampling evaluated by error analysis was 20 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, which is 10 min later than that of arterial blood sampling. (author)

  9. Estimation method of the fracture resistance curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Keun; Lee, Kwang Hyeon; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Sil [Samsung Electric Company, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Fracture resistance curves for concerned materials are required in order to perform elastic-plastic fracture mechanical analysis. Fracture resistance curve is built with J-integral values and crack extension values. The objective of this paper is to propose the estimation method of the fracture resistance curve. The estimation method of the fracture resistance curve for the pipe specimen was proposed by the load ratio method from load - displacement data for the standard specimen.

  10. Targeted metabolomics in colorectal cancer: a strategic approach using standardized laboratory tests of the blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzak, Katarzyna J; Laureano, Marissa; Elsharawi, Radwa; Kavsak, Peter; Chan, Kelvin Kw; Dhesy-Thind, Sukhbinder K; Zbuk, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Glycolytic markers have been detected in colorectal cancer (CRC) using advanced analytical methods. Using commercially available assays, by-products of anaerobic metabolism were prospectively measured in the blood and urine of 20 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and 20 patients with local disease. Twenty-four-hour urine citrate, plasma lactate, ketones, venous blood gas, anion gap, and osmolar gap were investigated. Results of patients with metastatic and local CRC were compared using two-sample t -tests or equivalent nonparametric tests. In addition, plasma total CO 2 concentrations in our local hospital (5,931 inpatients and 1,783 outpatients) were compared retrospectively with those in our dedicated cancer center (1,825 outpatients) over 1 year. The average venous pCO 2 was higher in patients with mCRC (50.2 mmHg; standard deviation [SD]=9.36) compared with those with local disease (42.8 mmHg; SD=8.98), p =0.045. Calculated serum osmolarity was higher in mCRC and attributed to concomitant sodium and urea elevations. In our retrospective analysis, plasma total CO 2 concentrations (median=27 mmol/L) were higher in cancer patients compared to both hospital inpatients (median=23 mmol/L) and outpatients (median=24 mmol/L), p <0.0001. Patients with mCRC had higher venous pCO 2 levels than those with local disease. Although causation cannot be established, we hypothesize that pCO 2 elevation may stem from a perturbed metabolism in mCRC.

  11. Special aspects of hemo-dynamic and reaction of erythrocytes in blood to standard physical load of different qualification female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Popel’

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the aspects of organism’s cardio-hemo-dynamic and blood erythrocytes reaction of female volleyball players to standard physical load. Material: with functional methods we studied cardio-hemo-dynamic and with the help of scanning electronic microscopy - erythrocytes’ structure in 18 female volleyball players of different qualification (age - 22.0±0.60 years. Results: it was found that maximal physical load causes substantial changes in cardio-hemo-dynamic, which depend on female volleyball players’ qualification. These changes have intrinsic to them type of blood circulation system reacting, which is manifested in the following: appropriate changes of some indicators; natural changes of periphery blood erythrocytes. In the article possible mechanisms of realization of female volleyball players’ organism’s typological features, depending on blood circulation type and erythrocytes’ conformation, are discussed. Conclusions: In relaxed state all female volleyball players have non-uniform cardio-hemo-dynamic of blood circulation. With hyper-dynamic blood circulation type, higher indicators of strike and minute blood volume were observed. With hypo-kinetic blood circulation type the opposite picture was observed: indicators of strike and minute blood volume, heart index, load on cardio-vascular system in different periods of day were low.

  12. Importance of methodological standardization for the ektacytometric measures of red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Parrow, Nermi; Faes, Camille; Joly, Philippe; Hardeman, Max; Tisdale, John; Levine, Mark; Garnier, Nathalie; Bertrand, Yves; Kebaili, Kamila; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Cannas, Giovanna; Martin, Cyril; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability is severely decreased in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), which plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, investigation of RBC deformability from SCA patients demands careful methodological considerations. We assessed RBC deformability by ektacytometry (LORRCA MaxSis, Mechatronics, The Netherlands) in 6 healthy individuals and 49 SCA patients and tested the effects of different heights of the RBC diffraction patterns, obtained by altering the camera gain of the LORRCA, on the result of RBC deformability measurements, expressed as Elongation Index (EI). Results indicate that the pattern of RBCs from control subjects adopts an elliptical shape under shear stress, whereas the pattern of RBCs from individuals with SCA adopts a diamond shape arising from the superposition of elliptical and circular patterns. The latter represent rigid RBCs. While the EI measures did not change with the variations of the RBC diffraction pattern heights in the control subjects, we observed a decrease of EI when the RBC diffraction pattern height is increased in the SCA group. The differences in SCA EI values measured at 5 Pa between the different diffraction pattern heights correlated with the percent of hemoglobin S and the percent of sickled RBC observed by microscopy. Our study confirms that the camera gain or aperture of the ektacytometer should be used to standardize the size of the RBC diffraction pattern height when measuring RBC deformability in sickle cell patients and underscores the potential clinical utility of this technique.

  13. Predicting iron and folate deficiency anaemias from standard blood testing: the mechanism and implications for clinical medicine and public health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugdale Alan E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing countries have high prevalence of diseases, but facilities to diagnose and treat them are limited. We must use available resources in ways not needed where there are sophisticated equipment and trained staff. Anaemia is common; iron deficiency affects health and productivity; folate deficiency in pregnant women causes foetal abnormalities. Few developing countries can measure serum folate or ferritin, but standard automated blood analyses are widely available and can help predict folate and iron deficiency. The RDW-CV% (coefficient of variation of the red cell width measures the variability in the size of red blood cells (RBC in routine automated analysis of blood cells, but is seldom reported. Levels of RDW-CV% and haemoglobin (Hb can predict iron deficiency anaemia. Method and results I have written a computer model based on the standard mechanism for blood formation and destruction. This shows that before anaemia develops and during recovery, there are both normal and abnormal RBC (small in iron deficiency and large in folate deficiency in the circulation. The model calculates the abnormality in the RDW-CV% in standard automated blood analyses. In early iron deficiency and during recovery the full blood count shows the Hb near the lower limit of normal, a low MCV and a high RDW-CV%. A similar pattern, but with a higher MCV, develops in folate deficiency. Folate deficiency is often brief and may not cause anaemia. The high RDW-CV% may persist for three months. Conclusion This long footprint could be medically useful for detecting folate deficiency and so limiting foetal damage in individuals and communities. Few clinicians or public health workers know about RDW-CV%. Standard blood reports for clinical use should include the RDW-CV% and note the possible significance of abnormal values.

  14. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  15. Determination of reference intervals and comparison of venous blood gas parameters using a standard and nonstandard collection method in 51 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K; Kutter, A; Jud Schefer, R S; Sigrist, N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals (RI) for venous blood parameters determined with the RAPIDPoint 500 (RP500) blood gas analyzer using blood gas syringes (BGS) and to determine whether immediate analysis of venous blood collected into lithium heparin (LH) tubes can replace anaerobic blood sampling into BGS. The null hypothesis was that canine venous blood samples collected in BGS and in LH tubes are comparable. Jugular blood was collected from 51 healthy dogs into a BGS and a LH tube. The BGS was immediately analyzed followed by the LH tube. The RI were calculated from BGS results. The BGS and LH tubes results were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test and Bland-Altman analysis. To assess clinical relevance, the bias between BGS and LH tubes was compared with the allowable total error (TEa). Values derived from LH tubes showed no significant difference for standard bicarbonate (HCO3std), whole blood base excess (BE B), Na, K, Cl, glucose and hemoglobin (tHb). The pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, actual bicarbonate, extracellular base excess, ionized Ca, anion gap and lactate were significantly (p.

  16. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  17. [THE STANDARD VALUES OF SUB-POPULATIONS OF T-HELPERS OF DIFFERENT LEVEL OF DIFFERENTIATION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, I V; Serebryakova, M K; Totolyan, A A

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to develop standard indicators of relative and absolute content of main populations of T-helpers in peripheral blood of conditionally healthy donors. The examination was implemented to sampling of 52 healthy individuals (29 males and 23 females) aged 18-65 years (median is 30 years). The multicolor cytofluorimetric analysis was applied using panel of following antibodies: CD45RA-FITC, CD62L-PE, CCR4-PerCP/Cy5.5; CCR6-PE/Cy7, CXCR3-APC, CD3-APC-AF750, CD4-Pacific Blue and CXCR5-Brilliant Violet 510TM. The T-helpers 1 were distributed in populations of cells with phenotypes CXCR5-CXCR3+CCR6-CCR4-, also containing Th9, and CXCR5-CXCR3+CCR6+CCR4- referred as Thl/Thl7. The Th2 were detected an the basis of availability of CCR4 at the absence of all other chemokin receptors. The Thi7, besides Thl/Thi7 mentioned above, were detected in composition of CXCR5-CXCR3-CCR6+CCR4- and CXCR5-CXCR3-CCR6+CCR4+. The last population also contained Th22. The follicular Th which expressed at their surface CXCR5, formed six cellular populations with following phenotypes: CXCR5+CXCR3-CCR6-CCR4- (Tfh/Tfh2), CXCR5+CXCR3-CCR6-CCR4+ (Tfh2), CXCR5+CXCR3-CCR6+CCR4- (Tfh17), CXCR5+CXCR3-CCR6+CCR4+ (Tfh17), CXCR5+CXCR3+CCR6-CCR4- (Tfh1) and CXCR5+CXCR3+CCR6+CCR4- (Tfh1/Tfh17). The relative and absolute content of T-helpers of mentioned phenotypes was established both within the framework of total population CD3+CD4+ of lymphocytes and among "naive" T-helpers (CD45RA-CD62L+), T-helpers of central (CD45RA-CD62L+) and effector (CD45RA- CD62L-) memory and also "terminal-differentiated" CD45RA-positive cells of effector memory with phenotype CD45RA+CD62L-. The study results can be applied as standard indicators under diagnostic of pathologic conditions of immune system.

  18. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) as the reference standard for diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of vascular risk in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Smolensky, Michael H; Ayala, Diana E; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    New information has become available since the ISC, AAMCC, and SECAC released their first extensive guidedelines to improve the diagnosis and treatment of adult arterial hypertension. A critical assessment of evidence and a comparison of what international guidelines now propose are the basis for the following statements, which update the recommendations first issued in 2013. Office blood pressure (BP) measurements should no longer be considered to be the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of cardiovascular risk. Relying on office BP, even when supplemented with at-home wake-time self-measurements, to identify high-risk individuals, disregarding circadian BP patterning and asleep BP level, leads to potential misclassification of 50% of all evaluated persons. Accordingly, ambulatory BP monitoring is the recommended reference standard for the diagnosis of true hypertension and accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk in all adults ≥18 yrs of age, regardless of whether office BP is normal or elevated. Asleep systolic BP mean is the most significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events. The sleep-time relative SBP decline adds prognostic value to the statistical model that already includes the asleep systolic BP mean and corrected for relevant confounding variables. Accordingly, the asleep systolic BP mean is the recommended protocol to diagnose hypertension, assess cardiovascular risk, and predict cardiovascular event-free interval. In men, and in the absence of compelling clinical conditions, reference thresholds for diagnosing hypertension are 120/70 mmHg for the asleep systolic/diastolic BP means derived from ambulatory BP monitoring. However, in women, in the absence of complicating co-morbidities, the same thresholds are lower by 10/5 mmHg, i.e., 110/65 mmHg for the asleep means. In high-risk patients, including those diagnosed with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and/or those having experienced past

  19. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  20. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the Hilbert curve approximately is given. 1. Introduction. A 'continuous curve' in the plane is usually defined as the path traced by a moving point (x (t), Y (t)) as t runs over an interval of the real line, ...

  1. The Jordan Curve Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute, Calcutta. Apart from mathematics, he likes painting and reading. Unlike most others he dislikes computers. Ritabrata Munshi. Introduction. In this two-part article we will consider one of the classi- cal theorems of mathematics, the Jordan curve theorem. It states that a simple closed curve (i.e., a closed curve which.

  2. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new...... Keynesian Phillips curve has been severely criticized for poor empirical dynamics. Suggested improvements involve making some adjustments to the standard sticky price framework, e.g. introducing backwardness and real rigidities, or abandoning the sticky price model and relying on models of inattentiveness......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...

  3. Infrared microscopy imaging applied to obtain the index finger pad's thermoregulation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viafora, Laura A.; Torres, Sergio N.; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Machuca, Guillermo; Jara, Anselmo

    2017-03-01

    In this work, mid wavelength infrared microscopy imaging videos of several index finger pads, from voluntary people, are recorded to obtain their thermoregulation curves. The proposed non-invasive technique is able to capture spatial and temporal thermal information emitted from blood vessels under-skin, and the irrigation finger pad system, making possible to capture features that a visual-spectrum microscopy cannot detect. Using an infrared laboratory prepared method several voluntary patients exposed theirs fingers to thermal stress while the infrared data is recorded. Using standard infrared imaging and signal processing techniques the thermoregulation curves are estimated. The Cold/Hot Stress experiments have shown infrared data with exponential trend curves, with different recovering slopes for each voluntary person, and sometimes with two steps increasing slope in one person thermoregulation curve response.

  4. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the modular......-arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  5. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...

  6. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  7. The mystery of the occluded port that allowed blood withdrawal: is it safe to use standard needles to access ports? A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Rita; Costa, Fabio; Vitiello, Michelangelo; Brescia, Fabrizio; Proscia, Paola; Falco, Clementina; Carassiti, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    A frequent complication of totally implantable central venous access devices (TIVADs) is withdrawal occlusion. We describe a case of rare dysfunction of TIVADs: blood withdrawal was possible, whereas infusion was not. A further investigation demonstrated that during infusion, a silicone core, probably produced by hypodermic needle puncture, occluded the reservoir outlet hole. The silicone septum puncture by standard needles instead of non-coring ones may reduce the device effectiveness and expose patients to serious complications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Importance of methodological standardization for the ektacytometric measures of red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renoux, Céline; Parrow, Nermi; Faes, Camille; Joly, Philippe; Hardeman, Max; Tisdale, John; Levine, Mark; Garnier, Nathalie; Bertrand, Yves; Kebaili, Kamila; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Cannas, Giovanna; Martin, Cyril; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability is severely decreased in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), which plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, investigation of RBC deformability from SCA patients demands careful methodological considerations. We assessed RBC deformability by

  9. Comparison of biochemical variables in plasma samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Flatland, Bente

    2010-08-01

    To compare results of biochemical analyses performed on plasma samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes. Evaluation study. 29 healthy client-owned animals (14 dogs and 15 cats). A blood sample (3 mL) was collected from each animal; 2.5 mL was transferred into a vacuum tube that contained lithium heparin, and 0.5 mL was transferred into a microsample tube that contained lithium heparin. Variables evaluated were albumin, bicarbonate, BUN, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total bilirubin, and total protein concentrations and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities. Results for the 2 types of tubes in each species were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. Data were normally distributed, except for creatine kinase activity of cats. The Pearson correlation coefficient was minimal for total bilirubin concentration in cats and moderate, high, or very high for all other variables. Constant bias for cholesterol and glucose concentration in dogs was identified during Bland-Altman analysis, although the mean difference between types of blood collection tubes was small. No constant or proportional bias for any other variable was revealed by regression analysis or Bland-Altman analysis. Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes that contained lithium heparin provided clinically equivalent biochemical results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.

  10. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  11. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  12. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  13. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to a draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2.......The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to a draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2....

  14. GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS ON ELLIPTIC CURVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciss, Abdoul Aziz; Moody, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we look at long geometric progressions on different model of elliptic curves, namely Weierstrass curves, Edwards and twisted Edwards curves, Huff curves and general quartics curves. By a geometric progression on an elliptic curve, we mean the existence of rational points on the curve whose x -coordinate (or y -coordinate) are in geometric progression. We find infinite families of twisted Edwards curves and Huff curves with geometric progressions of length 5, an infinite family of Weierstrass curves with 8 term progressions, as well as infinite families of quartic curves containing 10-term geometric progressions.

  15. Laboratory testing of hemolytic properties of materials that come in contact with blood: Comparative application testing method’s two variants according to the standard ASTM F756 in accordance with ISO 10993-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Katarina B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hemolytic material in contact with blood may produce increased levels of blood cell lysis and increased levels of plasma hemoglobin. This may induce toxic effects or other effects which may stress the kidneys or other organs. In this paper two variants of in vitro method and obtained results’ comparison were presented for testing of hemolytic properties of six raw materials (Polipropylene Moplen EP 540 P, Policarbonate colorless 164 R-112, Policarbonate brown 164 R-51918, Polietylene NG 3026 K, Polietylene NG - Purell GB 7250, Polietylene VG - Hiplex 5502 for medical device manufacturing and one raw material (Polietylen NG granulate used for infusion solutions’s plastic bottles manufacturing. One of method’s variants relies on raw material direct contact with swine blood and the other on extract of the material contact with swine blood. Both method’s variants imply reading of the absorbance of the supernatant after tubes were incubated and centrifuged. According to values obtained and using the standard curve free hemoglobin concentration is determined and based on this percentage hemolysis of raw material. Positive and negative controls were used in both variants where water for injection (WFI was used as positive control in which partial or complete hemolysis of erythrocytes occurs due to osmotic shock and phosphate buffer saline was used as negative control with no hemolytic property. In this paper comparison of results obtained by both method’s variants for testing of seven raw materials was presented, while these conclusions can not be used neither for all materials, nor for all applications without preliminary testing using both variants and then choosing more sensitive and more reliable one. It was shown and stated in the paper as well that incubation time being 3, 15 or 24 h, had no impact on the variant’s with direct contact sensitivity. This comparative approach was used for drawing conclusions in terms of

  16. On the Quaternionic Focal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurten (BAYRAK GÜRSES

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a brief summary about quaternions and quaternionic curves are firstly presented. Also, the definition of focal curve is given. The focal curve of a smooth curve consists of the centers of its osculating hypersphere.  By using this definition and the quaternionic osculating hyperspheres of these curves, the quaternionic focal curves in the spaces $\\Q$ and $\\Q_\

  17. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  18. Cytogenetics dosimetry: dose-response curve for low doses of X-ray; Dosimetria citogenetica: curva dosis-respuesta para bajas dosis de rayos-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Virginia E. Noval; Pineda Bolivar, William R.; Riano, Victor M. Pabon, E-mail: venovall.15@hotmail.com, E-mail: wrpineda@misena.edu.co, E-mail: vmpabonr@udistrital.edu.co [Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas (UD), Bogota (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear; Ureana, Cecilia Crane, E-mail: cecicrane@yahoo.com [Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), Bogota (Colombia). Laboratorio de Genetica

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary study for the standardization in the future, the dose-response curve for low doses of X-rays, through the analysis of in vitro cultures of peripheral blood samples of 3 men and 3 women occupationally not exposed to artificial sources of ionizing radiation, age 18-40 years, where possible nonsmokers.

  19. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  20. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  1. The Jordan Curve Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We had defined when an arc is said to cross a circle. We broaden the definition of crossing as follows: Definition: Suppose f is a piece-wise circular simple closed curve and, is a piece-wise circular arc. Suppose ..... curve formed by p' pp", q' qq", part of r between p' and q' and part of r between pI! and q", as shown (Figures 6 ...

  2. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  3. Thromboelastometry versus standard coagulation tests versus restrictive protocol to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous catheterization in cirrhosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Neto, Ary Serpa; do Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto; Silva, Eliezer; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Correa, Thiago Domingos

    2017-02-27

    Liver failure patients have traditionally been empirically transfused prior to invasive procedures. Blood transfusion is associated with immunologic and nonimmunologic reactions, increased risk of adverse outcomes and high costs. Scientific evidence supporting empirical transfusion is lacking, and the best approach for blood transfusion prior to invasive procedures in cirrhotic patients has not been established so far. The aim of this study is to compare three transfusion strategies (routine coagulation test-guided - ordinary or restrictive, or thromboelastometry-guided) prior to central venous catheterization in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. Design and setting: a double-blinded, parallel-group, single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial in a tertiary private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. adults (aged 18 years or older) admitted to the intensive care unit with cirrhosis and an indication for central venous line insertion. Patients will be randomly assigned to three groups for blood transfusion strategy prior to central venous catheterization: standard coagulation tests-based, thromboelastometry-based, or restrictive. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients transfused with any blood product prior to central venous catheterization. The primary safety endpoint will be the incidence of major bleeding. Secondary endpoints will be the proportion of transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate; infused volume of blood products; hemoglobin and hematocrit before and after the procedure; intensive care unit and hospital length of stay; 28-day and hospital mortality; incidence of minor bleeding; transfusion-related adverse reactions; and cost analysis. This study will evaluate three strategies to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous line placement in severely ill patients with cirrhosis. We hypothesized that thromboelastometry-based and/or restrictive protocols are safe and would significantly

  4. Evaluation of Shape Parameter Effect on the J-R Curve of Curved CT Specimen Using Limit Load Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, In Hwan; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean [SungKyunKwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In this study, the effect of shape parameters on the J-R curves of curved CT specimens was evaluated using the limit load method. Fracture toughness tests considering the shape factors L/W and Rm/t of the specimens were also performed. Thereafter, the J-R curves of the curved CT specimens were compared using the J-integral equation proposed in the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) and limit load solution. The J-R curves of the curved CT specimens were also compared with those of the CWP (curved wide plate), which is regarded to be similar to real pipe and standard specimens.. Finally, the effectiveness of the J-R curve of each curved CT specimen was evaluated. The results of this study can be used for assessing the applicability of curved CT specimens in the accurate evaluation of the fracture toughness of real pipes.

  5. Working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization 15189 Standard: how to validate an in-house developed method an example of lead determination in whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Hejl, Carine; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Vest, Philippe; Chianea, Denis; Renard, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    Laboratories working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15189 standard are required to demonstrate the validity of their analytical methods. The different guidelines set by various accreditation organizations make it difficult to provide objective evidence that an in-house method is fit for the intended purpose. Besides, the required performance characteristics tests and acceptance criteria are not always detailed. The laboratory must choose the most suitable validation protocol and set the acceptance criteria. Therefore, we propose a validation protocol to evaluate the performance of an in-house method. As an example, we validated the process for the detection and quantification of lead in whole blood by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. The fundamental parameters tested were, selectivity, calibration model, precision, accuracy (and uncertainty of measurement), contamination, stability of the sample, reference interval, and analytical interference. We have developed a protocol that has been applied successfully to quantify lead in whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In particular, our method is selective, linear, accurate, and precise, making it suitable for use in routine diagnostics.

  6. Sensitivity curve measurement and application of radioactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Shunhe; Wang Jianqing; Guo Xiaoqing; Yao Yanling; Li Jingxiu

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the sensitivity curve measurements and applications for radioactivity meter. The energy-dependent sensitivity curve is established with the activity of standard sources and their corresponding current by constructing functions sub-section. Thus the current-activity ratio is acquired from the sensitivity curve and the calibration of radioactivity meter is solved satisfactorily. (authors)

  7. Determination of trace elements in human blood serum and in the standard reference material ''Bovine Liver'' by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behne, D.; Juergensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    Ag, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn were determined in biological materials by gamma-spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides after long-time irradiation with thermal neutrons. Blood was taken from a vein in the arm of the test person via an indwelling plastic cannula. The serum was separated from other blood components by centrifugation and stored at a temperature of -20 deg C. Ampoules of high purity silica quartz were chosen as irradiation containers. The vials were cleaned by etching with 40% hydrofluoric acid. For the analysis 300 μl of serum were taken. The ampoules were irradiated for 10 days at a thermal neutron flux density of 5.10 13 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . They were then cleaned by etching for 5 min with hydrofluoric acid. The gamma-ray spectra of the irradiated samples were measured twice. From the first spectra, which were obtained 10 days after irradiation, the concentrations of Br and Na were calculated. From the gamma-peaks after a decay time of 3 months Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were tested, using the standard reference material ''Bovine Liver'' and identical serum samples. In the case of blood serum the method proved to be suitable for the determination of Br, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn. By analysing samples from several subjects information about element levels in human serum was obtained. (T.G.)

  8. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  9. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Collins

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  10. Effect of Individualized vs Standard Blood Pressure Management Strategies on Postoperative Organ Dysfunction Among High-Risk Patients Undergoing Major Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Guinot, Pierre-Gregoire; Godet, Thomas; Lorne, Emmanuel; Cuvillon, Philippe; Bertran, Sebastien; Leone, Marc; Pastene, Bruno; Piriou, Vincent; Molliex, Serge; Albanese, Jacques; Julia, Jean-Michel; Tavernier, Benoit; Imhoff, Etienne; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Pereira, Bruno; Jaber, Samir

    2017-10-10

    Perioperative hypotension is associated with an increase in postoperative morbidity and mortality, but the appropriate management strategy remains uncertain. To evaluate whether an individualized blood pressure management strategy tailored to individual patient physiology could reduce postoperative organ dysfunction. The Intraoperative Norepinephrine to Control Arterial Pressure (INPRESS) study was a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial conducted in 9 French university and nonuniversity hospitals. Adult patients (n = 298) at increased risk of postoperative complications with a preoperative acute kidney injury risk index of class III or higher (indicating moderate to high risk of postoperative kidney injury) undergoing major surgery lasting 2 hours or longer under general anesthesia were enrolled from December 4, 2012, through August 28, 2016 (last follow-up, September 28, 2016). Individualized management strategy aimed at achieving a systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 10% of the reference value (ie, patient's resting SBP) or standard management strategy of treating SBP less than 80 mm Hg or lower than 40% from the reference value during and for 4 hours following surgery. The primary outcome was a composite of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and dysfunction of at least 1 organ system of the renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, coagulation, and neurologic systems by day 7 after surgery. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome, durations of ICU and hospital stay, adverse events, and all-cause mortality at 30 days after surgery. Among 298 patients who were randomized, 292 patients completed the trial (mean [SD] age, 70 [7] years; 44 [15.1%] women) and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome event occurred in 56 of 147 patients (38.1%) assigned to the individualized treatment strategy vs 75 of 145 patients (51.7%) assigned to the standard treatment strategy

  11. Standardization of a Protocol for Obtaining Platelet Rich Plasma from blood Donors; a Tool for Tissue Regeneration Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Lina Andrea; Escobar, Magally; Peñuela, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    To develop a protocol for obtaining autologous platelet rich plasma in healthy individuals and to determine the concentration of five major growth factors before platelet activation. This protocol could be integrated into the guidelines of good clinical practice and research in regenerative medicine. Platelet rich plasma was isolated by centrifugation from 38 healthy men and 42 women ranging from 18 to 59 years old. The platelet count and quantification of growth factors were analyzed in eighty samples, stratified for age and gender of the donor. Analyses were performed using parametric the t-test or Pearson's analysis for non-parametric distribution. P platelet counts from 1.6 to 4.9 times (mean = 2.8). There was no correlation between platelet concentration and the level of the following growth factors: VEGF-D (r = 0.009, p = 0.4105), VEGF-A (r = 0.0068, p = 0.953), PDGF subunit AA (p = 0.3618; r = 0.1047), PDGF-BB (p = 0.5936; r = 0.6095). In the same way, there was no correlation between donor gender and growth factor concentrations. Only TGF-β concentration was correlated to platelet concentration (r = 0.3163, p = 0.0175). The procedure used allowed us to make preparations rich in platelets, low in leukocytes and red blood cells, and sterile. Our results showed biological variations in content of growth factors in PRP. The factors influencing these results should be further studied.

  12. Children's blood lead and standardized test performance response as indicators of neurotoxicity in metropolitan New Orleans elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, S; Mielke, H W; Weiler, S; Berry, K J; Gonzales, C

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzes pre-Katrina variation in aggregate student performance and children's blood lead (BPb) in 117 elementary school districts in metropolitan New Orleans. Fourth grade student achievement on Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) tests were analyzed as a function of BPb for children 1-6 years old within school districts, controlling for student-teacher ratios, percent of students eligible for a free or discounted lunch, and school racial demography. Measures of performance across subject areas (English Language Arts, Science, Mathematics, and Social Studies) include school Achievement Test Scores (ATS) and indices of agreement and variation in student achievement. ATS are measured on a 5-point scale, corresponding to achievement categories of advanced=5 to unsatisfactory=1. Regression results show that median BPb (microg/dL) and percent of children with BPb > or =10 microg/dL are significantly associated with reductions in test scores across all subjects and depress variation in student performance across achievement categories. These data suggest that assisting children with improved school performance requires alleviation of pre-school Pb exposure and its associated neurotoxic damage. Cost-benefit calculations suggest that it is more cost effective to pay for onetime primary prevention instead of paying continuous expenses focused on reversing neurotoxic damage.

  13. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  14. Pig brain stereotaxic standard space: Mapping of cerebral blood flow normative values and effect of MPTP-lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F.; Watanabe, H.; Bjarkam, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of physiological processes in brain by position emission tomography (PET) is facilitated when images are spatially normalized to a standard coordinate system. Thus, PET activation studies of human brain frequently employ the common stereotaxic coordinates of Talairach. We have...... developed an analogous stereotaxic coordinate system for the brain of the Gottingen miniature pig, based on automatic co-registration of magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 22 male pigs. The origin of the pig brain stereotaxic space (0, 0, 0) was arbitrarily placed in the centroid of the pineal gland...... as identified on the average MRI template. The orthogonal planes were imposed using the line between stereotaxic zero and the optic chiasm. A series of mean MR images in the coronal, sagittal and horizontal planes were generated. To test the utility of the common coordinate system for functional imaging studies...

  15. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  16. Complementary curves of descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.; Lipscombe, Trevor C.

    2013-01-01

    The shapes of two wires in a vertical plane with the same starting and ending points are described as complementary curves of descent if beads frictionlessly slide down both of them in the same time, starting from rest. Every analytic curve has a unique complement, except for a cycloid (solution of the brachistochrone problem), which is self complementary. A striking example is a straight wire whose complement is a lemniscate of Bernoulli. Alternatively, the wires can be tracks down which round objects undergo a rolling race. The level of presentation is appropriate for an intermediate undergraduate course in classical mechanics.

  17. Brucella detection in blood: comparison of the BacT/Alert standard aerobic bottle, BacT/Alert FAN aerobic bottle and BacT/Alert enhanced FAN aerobic bottle in simulated blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümerkan, B; Gökahmetoglu, S; Esel, D

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of the standard aerobic bottle (StAe), FAN aerobic (FANAe) and enhanced FAN aerobic (E-FANAe) (the charcoal component of the FANAe was revised recently to improve the feasibility of Gram smear interpretation) blood culture bottles for BacT/Alert system for the detection of Brucella melitensis in simulated blood culture. Triplicate strains of eight clinical isolates of B. melitensis were studied. Each bottle was inoculated with 5 mL of freshly collected human blood at three different targeted bacterial inocula (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) CFU/bottle). All bottles were monitored for up to 21 days or until they became positive. The results of time to detection (TTD) on the eight B. melitensis samples were as follows: at 10(1) CFU/bottle, the E-FANAe had a mean TTD significantly shorter than the StAe (48 h vs. 56.2 h, P StAe (41.2 h and 40 h vs. 45.6 h, P StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 96, 83 and 58%, respectively. At 10(3) CFU/bottle, the reproducibilities of StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 95, 95 and 91%, respectively. Positive results for the presence of bacteria in Gram smears were confirmed in 68% of StAe, 54% of FANAe and 90% of E-FANAe. In case of suspected brucellosis, the combination of one StAe bottle and one E-FANAe bottle seems to provide the highest and fastest recovery of the organism.

  18. Umbilical cord arterial blood base excess as gold standard for foetal well being screening test validity at term delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shakira

    2010-05-01

    To assess the validity of cardiotocography and meconium staining of amniotic fluid, as a predictor of neonatal acidaemia. It was a cross sectional analytical study, carried out at a tertiary care private hospital from 1st Jan 2006-31st Dec 2006. After due exclusion 122 cords samples were selected for study. Classification of foetal heart patterns were from FIGO-Guidelines (1987) and grading of meconium staining of amniotic fluid as thin, moderate and thick on subjective assessment. Cord samples collected at birth and subsequent analysis was usually achieved within 30 minutes of delivery. Total deliveries during the study period were 960. One hundred and twenty two (12.7%) cord results were studied. Umbilical cord arterial base excess (> or = 12 mmol/L) at birth was used as gold standard to determine the validity of cardiotocography and meconium staining of amniotic fluid. Validity tests of cardiotocography: Sensitivity 15.38%, Specificity 86%, Positive predictive value 11.76%. Negative predictive value 89%. Validity tests of meconium staining of amniotic fluid: Sensitivity 18.75%, Specificity 79.2%, Positive predictive value 12%, Negative predictive value 86%. Electronic foetal monitoring (cardiotocography) is an objective assessment of foetal well being. Normal reactive trace correlates highly with absence of acidaemia at birth. However cardiotocography alone is not a diagnostic test for detecting foetal distress. Similarly clear liquor is an indication of foetal well being and meconium staining of amniotic fluid is not always associated with an ill infant.

  19. The Bacterial Growth Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulton, Richard J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

  20. Learning curves for insertion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Introduction. Both the Unique™ LMA, and lately the Cobra™ PLA, is available in most of the larger state hospitals in South Africa. This study's objective is to evaluate and compare the learning curves for insertion of these two single-use airway devices. This is to ascertain which of these two devices is easier and safer to ...

  1. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  2. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  4. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  5. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  6. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  7. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  8. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  9. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  10. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    , the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  11. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    , the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  12. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  13. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  14. Monitoring the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium in working and living environment through standard biochemical blood parameters and liver endonucleases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ružica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals as pollutants in the working and living environment are a serious health and environmental problem because they are toxic, non-biodegradable, accumulate in living systems and have a long half-life in soil. Sources of lead contamination are combustion products in the chemical industry and metallurgy, industrial waste water, landfills, traffic etc. Lead enters into the body via the food chain and drinking water. In the body lead is deposited in the liver, kidneys, brain and mineral tissues. Excretion of lead causes damage to the epithelial cells of certain organs. High level exposure to cadmium is usually the result of environmental pollution by human activities. Exposure to cadmium can lead to acute and chronic tissue damage of various organs, including liver and kidneys in humans and in animals. In this paper we analyzed the effects of lead and cadmium exposure, in working and living environment, on the model system of experimental animals, particularly the activity of certain liver enzymes, acid and alkaline DNase, and standard biochemical blood parameters. The study showed that lead and cadmium significantly affect the protein content, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the activity of liver enzymes. This harmful effect of this toxic metal can be reduced by the supplements.

  15. Influence of oxygen on asexual blood cycle and susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine: requirement of a standardized in vitro assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodier Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of gas mixtures on in vitro Plasmodium falciparum growth and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 for chloroquine. Methods The study was performed between February 2004 and December 2005. 136 Plasmodium falciparum isolates were used to evaluate gas mixtures effect on IC50 for chloroquine by isotopic microtest. The oxygen effect on asexual blood cycle of 3D7 and W2 clones was determined by thin blood smears examination and tritiated hypoxanthine uptake. Results From 5% O2 to 21% O2 conditions, no parasiticide effect of O2 concentration was observed in vitro on the clones 3D7 and W2. A parasitostatic effect was observed during the exposure of mature trophozoïtes and schizonts at 21% O2 with an increase in the length of schizogony. The chloroquine IC50 at 10% O2 were significantly higher than those at 21% O2, means of 173.5 nM and 121.5 nM respectively (p in vitro resistant to chloroquine (IC50 > 100 nM at 10% O2, 17 were sensitive to chloroquine (IC50 2. Conclusion Based on these results, laboratories should use the same gas mixture to realize isotopic microtest. Further studies on comparison of isotopic and non-isotopic assays are needed to establish a standardized in vitro assay protocol to survey malaria drug resistance.

  16. Dose - Response Curves for Dicentrics and PCC Rings: Preparedness for Radiological Emergency in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rungsimaphorn, B.; Rerkamnuaychoke, B.; Sudprasert, W.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing in-vitro dose calibration curves is important for reconstruction of radiation dose in the exposed individuals. The aim of this pioneering work in Thailand was to generate dose-response curves using conventional biological dosimetry: dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay. The peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated with 137 Cs at a dose rate of 0.652 Gy/min to doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Gy for DCA technique, and 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy for PCC technique. The blood samples were cultured and processed following the standard procedure given by the IAEA with slight modifications. At least 500-1,000 metaphases or 100 dicentrics/ PCC rings were analyzed using an automated metaphase finder system. The yield of dicentrics with dose was fitted to a linear quadratic model using Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software (CABAS, version 2.0), whereas the dose-response curve of PCC rings was fitted to a linear relationship. These curves will be useful for in-vitro dose reconstruction and can support the preparedness for radiological emergency in the country.

  17. Compact Hilbert Curve Index Algorithm Based on Gray Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert curve has best clustering in various kinds of space filling curves, and has been used as an important tools in discrete global grid spatial index design field. But there are lots of redundancies in the standard Hilbert curve index when the data set has large differences between dimensions. In this paper, the construction features of Hilbert curve is analyzed based on Gray code, and then the compact Hilbert curve index algorithm is put forward, in which the redundancy problem has been avoided while Hilbert curve clustering preserved. Finally, experiment results shows that the compact Hilbert curve index outperforms the standard Hilbert index, their 1 computational complexity is nearly equivalent, but the real data set test shows the coding time and storage space decrease 40%, the speedup ratio of sorting speed is nearly 4.3.

  18. Carbon dioxide dissociation and buffering in chicken blood during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, H; Piiper, J

    1984-07-01

    Carbon dioxide dissociation curves of oxygenated and deoxygenated bloods, the Haldane effect, the buffer value and other blood and true plasma buffering indices, O2 capacity and hematocrit were determined in bloods withdrawn from chicks before, during and after hatching and 8-month-old hens. Blood CO2 dissociation curves shifted upwards in the developing embryo till pipping, and moved downwards after pipping and hatching. In accordance with the position of the CO2 dissociation curves, the true plasma bicarbonate and red cell CO2 standardized to PCO2 = 40 torr changed. The Haldane factor at standard PCO2 increased from 0.12-0.13 on days 10-14 of incubation to 0.34 in young hens. The buffering power changed in parallel with O2 capacity and hematocrit, increasing steadily during incubation, dropping at hatching and then increasing again to the adult value. The observed changes in the CO2 dissociation curves and buffering variables during the development enable the chick to minimize the changes in the acid-base status and are favorable for coping with the increasing demand for CO2 transport and buffering of the developing bird.

  19. Representative oxygen dissociation curve and equation for the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R L; McDaniel, G R; Clark, C H

    1981-01-01

    Because of the considerable variability in the oxygen dissociation curves for chickens reported in the literature, the respiratory physiologist studying avian gas exchange is faced with the dilemma of which curve is representative for the chicken. In order to arrive at a representative curve, data from eight reported curves were compiled and adjusted to the same set of standard conditions of temperature (T), pH, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2): T = 42 C, pH = 7.5 PCO2 = 40 torr. The mean PO2 STD (mean +/- SD) versus percent saturation of hemoglobin curve was then determined. The mean data were fitted to an equation representing the oxygen dissociation curve so that for any selected partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) the percent saturation (%SAT) of oxyhemoglobin may be computed. The P50 values for the mean literature and equation curves, respectively, were 47.4 +/- 9.8 and 45.3 Torr. The mean curve with its standard deviations provides a chicken oxygen dissociation curve representative of the literature data to which experimental data may be compared. The equation for the curve enables rapid referral to the representative curve to compute the %SAT, given the PO2 adjusted to the standard conditions.

  20. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient-driven...

  1. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  2. Transvaginal cholecystectomy learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephanie G; Dai, Feng; Dabu-Bondoc, Susan; Mikhael, Hosni; Vadivelu, Nalini; Duffy, Andrew; Roberts, Kurt E

    2015-07-01

    There are few surgeons in the United States, within private practice and academic centers, currently performing transvaginal cholecystectomies (TVC). The lack of exposure to TVC during residency or fellowship training, coupled with a poorly defined learning curve, further limits interested surgeons who want to apply this technique to their practice. This study describes the learning curve encountered during the introduction of TVC to our academic facility. This study is an analysis of consecutive TVCs performed between August 14, 2009 and August 3, 2012 at an academic center. The TVC patients were divided into sequential quartiles (n = 15/16). The learning curve outcome was measured as the operative time of TVC patients and compared to the operative time of female laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) patients performed during the same time period. Sixty-one patients underwent a TVC with a mean age of 38 ± 12 years and mean BMI was 29 ± 6 kg/m(2). Sixty-seven female patients who underwent a LC with average age 41 ± 15 years and average BMI 33 ± 12 kg/m(2). The average operative time of LC patients and TVC patients was 48 ± 20 and 60 ± 17 min, respectively. Significant improvement in TVC operative times was seen between the first (n = 15 TVCs) and second quartiles (p = 0.04) and stayed relatively constant for third quartile, during which there was no statistically significant difference between the mean LC operative time for the second and third TVC quartiles The learning curve of a fellowship-trained surgeon introducing TVC to their surgical repertoire, as measured by improved operative times, can be achieved with approximately 15 cases.

  3. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  4. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  5. Wolff: straight not curved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, A

    2017-11-01

    It was 140 years ago that George von Meyer presented his anatomical diagrams of human bones to a meeting in Zurich. There he was told by Prof. Karl Culmann that the trabecular lines shown within the diagram of the upper femur closely resembled those lines of force which Culmann had determined with Graphic Statics to be passing through a curved, loaded Fairbairn crane. This drew the attention of Julius Wolff, who used this as the basis for his 'Trajectorial theory' which was widely accepted and, to date, has been the underlying basis for all biomechanical investigations of this region. Following Wolff and Culmann, the upper femur is considered to be a curved structure and is investigated as such. Unfortunately, this concept is wrong. The upper femur is not curved but is angular. It is formed by the junction of two straight bones, the femoral neck and the femoral shaft, as may be simply seen as the neck/shaft angle constructed on the antero-posterior radiograph of any normal femur. The internal trabecular bone forms only part of the load bearing structure of the femoral neck. The configuration of this trabecular substance in this region suggests that it is related specifically to the force present during flexion and extension movements of the hip joint. This being so, combined with the delayed timing of the appearance of the trabecular columns, it must be questioned as to whether the remodelling of the upper femur is in response to one or to two distinct forces.

  6. Remote sensing used for power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviat...

  7. Euler characteristics and elliptic curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, J; Howson, S

    1997-10-14

    Let E be a modular elliptic curve over [symbol, see text], without complex multiplication; let p be a prime number where E has good ordinary reduction; and let Finfinity be the field obtained by adjoining [symbol, see text] to all p-power division points on E. Write Ginfinity for the Galois group of Finfinity over [symbol, see text]. Assume that the complex L-series of E over [symbol, see text] does not vanish at s = 1. If p >/= 5, we make a precise conjecture about the value of the Ginfinity-Euler characteristic of the Selmer group of E over Finfinity. If one makes a standard conjecture about the behavior of this Selmer group as a module over the Iwasawa algebra, we are able to prove our conjecture. The crucial local calculations in the proof depend on recent joint work of the first author with R. Greenberg.

  8. Learning curve for radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. A. Saito

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The learning curve is a period in which the surgical procedure is performed with difficulty and slowness, leading to a higher risk of complications and reduced effectiveness due the surgeon's inexperience. We sought to analyze the residents' learning curve for open radical prostatectomy (RP in a training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study from June 2006 to January 2008 in the academic environment of the University of São Paulo. Five residents operated on 184 patients during a four-month rotation in the urologic oncology division, mentored by the same physician assistants. We performed sequential analyses according to the number of surgeries, as follows: = 10, 11 to 19, 20 to 28, and = 29. RESULTS: The residents performed an average of 37 RP each. The average psa was 9.3 ng/mL and clinical stage T1c in 71% of the patients. The pathological stage was pT2 (73%, pT3 (23%, pT4 (4%, and 46% of the patients had a Gleason score 7 or higher. In all surgeries, the average operative time and estimated blood loss was 140 minutes and 488 mL. Overall, 7.2% of patients required blood transfusion, and 23% had positive surgical margins. CONCLUSION: During the initial RP learning curve, we found a significant reduction in the operative time; blood transfusion during the procedures and positive surgical margin rate were stable in our series.

  9. Distribution curve of waist-to-height ratio and its association with blood pressure among children and adolescents: study in a large population in an eastern coastal province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-xiu; Zhang, Zhi-chuan; Xie, Li

    2014-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an accurate and easier index for evaluating abdominal obesity in both children and adults. The present study examined the distribution of WHtR and its association with blood pressure (BP) levels among children and adolescents in a large population in Shandong, China. A total of 38,810 students (19,453 boys and 19,357 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, waist circumference (WC), and BP of all subjects were measured, and WHtR was calculated. Abdominal obesity was defined as WHtR ≥0.5; high BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥95th percentile for age and gender. Overall, 16.45% (95%CI: 15.93-16.97) and 7.80% (95%CI: 7.42-8.17) of boys and girls had a WHtR ≥0.5. WHtR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP in both boys and girls. The mean values of SBP and DBP for both boys and girls were all significantly higher in the WHtR ≥0.5 group than in the WHtRproblems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  10. Minimal genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider genus one equations of degree $n$, namely a (generalised) binary quartic when $n=2$, a ternary cubic when $n=3$, and a pair of quaternary quadrics when $n=4$. A new definition for the minimality of genus one equations of degree $n$ over local fields is introduced. The advantage of this definition is that it does not depend on invariant theory of genus one curves. We prove that this definition coincides with the classical definition of minimality for all $n\\le4$. As a...

  11. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis....... Using the 2-Wasserstein metric we geometrize the space of GPs with L2 mean and covariance functions over compact index spaces. We prove uniqueness of the barycenter of a population of GPs, as well as convergence of the metric and the barycenter of their finite-dimensional counterparts. This justifies...

  12. Postprandial blood glucose response to a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated with insulin lispro mix 50 or human insulin mix 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Li, G; Li, Y; Guo, X; Yuan, G; Gong, Q; Yan, L; Zheng, Y; Zhang, J

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) excursion following a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated twice daily with human insulin mix 50 vs. insulin lispro mix 50 (LM50). Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, open-label, crossover comparison of two insulin treatments for two 12-week treatment periods in 120 Chinese patients. One- and 2-h PPBG and excursion values were obtained following a standardised test meal. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin dose, rate of hypoglycaemia and safety data were obtained. A crossover analysis using SAS Proc MIXED was employed. Results Mean 2-h PPBG excursion decreased from 6.32 ± 3.07 mmol/l at baseline to 3.47 ± 2.97 mmol/l at end-point in the LM50 group, and from 6.31 ± 2.88 at baseline to 5.02 ± 3.32 mmol/l at end-point in the human insulin mix 50 group (p < 0.001). Two-hour PPBG (p = 0.004) and 1-h PPBG excursion (p < 0.001) were significantly lower with LM50 as compared with human insulin mix 50. Both treatment groups were equivalent for HbA1c control, 1-h PPBG and insulin dose requirements. Mean FBG was higher with LM50 than with human insulin mix 50 (p = 0.023). The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and hypoglycaemia rate per 30 days were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions Insulin lispro mix 50 provided better postprandial glycaemic control compared with human insulin mix 50 while providing the convenience of injecting immediately before meals. Both treatments were generally well tolerated by all randomly assigned patients. PMID:18657196

  13. Application of master curve method to Japanese reactor pressure vessel steels. Effect of specimen size on master curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, N.; Soneda, N. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Hiranuma, N. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Master Curve method to determine fracture toughness in the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature range is provided in the ASTM standard E 1921. In this study, the method was applied to two types of typical Japanese reactor pressure vessel steels. As a result, it was confirmed that valid reference temperatures as well as master curves could be determined based on the ASTM standard. The ability of the statistical size scaling as well as the propriety of the assumption on the statistical distribution of fracture toughness was exerpiementally validated. The relative position between the master curve and the current K{sub IC} curves was then compared and discussed. (orig.)

  14. Application of master curve method to Japanese reactor pressure vessel steels. Effect of specimen size on master curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, N.; Soneda, N.; Hiranuma, N.

    2004-01-01

    The Master Curve method to determine fracture toughness in the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature range is provided in the ASTM standard E 1921. In this study, the method was applied to two types of typical Japanese reactor pressure vessel steels. As a result, it was confirmed that valid reference temperatures as well as master curves could be determined based on the ASTM standard. The ability of the statistical size scaling as well as the propriety of the assumption on the statistical distribution of fracture toughness was exerpiementally validated. The relative position between the master curve and the current K IC curves was then compared and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  16. The Characteristic Curves of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumaier, Arnold; Deiters, Ulrich K.

    2016-09-01

    In 1960, E. H. Brown defined a set of characteristic curves (also known as ideal curves) of pure fluids, along which some thermodynamic properties match those of an ideal gas. These curves are used for testing the extrapolation behaviour of equations of state. This work is revisited, and an elegant representation of the first-order characteristic curves as level curves of a master function is proposed. It is shown that Brown's postulate—that these curves are unique and dome-shaped in a double-logarithmic p, T representation—may fail for fluids exhibiting a density anomaly. A careful study of the Amagat curve (Joule inversion curve) generated from the IAPWS-95 reference equation of state for water reveals the existence of an additional branch.

  17. Determination of the saturation curve of a primary standard for low energy X-ray beams; Determinacao da curva de saturacao de um padrao primario para feixes de raios-X de baixa energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Poledna, Roberto; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ricardo@ird.gov.br

    2003-07-01

    Thr free air is the well recognized as the primary standard for the measurement of kerma in the air due to his characteristics to perform the absolute measurements of that entity according to definitions. Therefore, the Institute for Radioprotection and dosimetry - IRD, Brazil used for his implantation a free air cylindrical ionization chamber. Initially, a mechanical characterization was performed for verification as a primary standard. This paper will proceed a full detailed description the point operation of 2000 V found for that chamber and her saturation coefficient.

  18. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in naturally infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: comparison of a standard co-culture technique with a newly developed microculture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, B; Baur, A; Neundorfer, M; Jahn, G

    1991-05-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 29 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were cultured by two different methods. One was the standard co-culture technique, the other a newly developed microculture method. In this assay 10(6) PBMCs were cultivated in 250 microliters medium, no activating agents or allogeneic cells were present. P24 antigen production measured by this method was found in 7 out of 11 PBMC cultures of patients in the Walter Reed (WR) stage 1 or 2, whereas only 4 samples were positive by the co-culture procedure. Cultures from patients in the later stages of the disease (WR 5/6) showed a higher p24 production by the co-culture method than by the microculture assay. It is assumed that rapidly growing HIV strains can be better assessed by the co-culture method which may select for these strains. P24 expression can be more easily obtained by the microculture technique even in cases where slowly replicating strains may be present. In conclusion, results from the microculture procedure described may be a useful supplementation to findings observed by the co-culture method.

  19. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  20. Magnetism in curved geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Robert

    Deterministically bending and twisting two-dimensional structures in the three-dimensional (3D) space provide means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring curvature and 3D shape. The recent developments of 3D curved magnetic geometries, ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication to characterization using integral means as well as advanced magnetic tomography, will be reviewed. Theoretical works predict a curvature-induced effective anisotropy and effective Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction resulting in a vast of novel effects including magnetochiral effects (chirality symmetry breaking) and topologically induced magnetization patterning. The remarkable development of nanotechnology, e.g. preparation of high-quality extended thin films, nanowires and frameworks via chemical and physical deposition as well as 3D nano printing, has granted first insights into the fundamental properties of 3D shaped magnetic objects. Optimizing magnetic and structural properties of these novel 3D architectures demands new investigation methods, particularly those based on vector tomographic imaging. Magnetic neutron tomography and electron-based 3D imaging, such as electron holography and vector field electron tomography, are well-established techniques to investigate macroscopic and nanoscopic samples, respectively. At the mesoscale, the curved objects can be investigated using the novel method of magnetic X-ray tomography. In spite of experimental challenges to address the appealing theoretical predictions of curvature-induced effects, those 3D magnetic architectures have already proven their application potential for life sciences, targeted delivery, realization of 3D spin-wave filters, and magneto-encephalography devices, to name just a few. DOE BES MSED (DE-AC02-05-CH11231).

  1. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  2. Dose-response calibration curves of {sup 137}Cs gamma rays for dicentric chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wol Soon; Oh, Su Jung; Jeong, Soo Kyun; Yang, Kwang Mo [Dept. of Research center, Dong Nam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Min Ho [Dept. of Microbiology, Dong A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Recently, the increased threat of radiologically industrial accident such as radiation nondestructive inspection or destruction of nuclear accident by natural disaster such as Fukushima accident requires a greater capacity for cytogenetic biodosimetry, which is critical for clinical triage of potentially thousands of radiation-exposed individuals. Dicentric chromosome aberration analysis is the conventional means of assessing radiation exposure. Dose–response calibration curves for {sup 13}'7Cs gamma rays have been established for unstable chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in many laboratories of international biodosimetry network. In this study, therefore, we established dose– response calibration curves of our laboratory for {sup 137}Cs gamma raysaccording to the IAEA protocols for conducting the dicentric chromosome assay We established in vitro dose–response calibration curves for dicentric chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes for{sup 13}'7Cs gamma rays in the 0 to 5 Gy range, using the maximum likelihood linear-quadratic model, Y = c+αD+βD2. The estimated coefficients of the fitted curves were within the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the curve fitting of dose–effect relationship data indicated a good fit to the linear-quadratic model. Hence, meaningful dose estimation from unknown sample can be determined accurately by using our laboratory’s calibration curve according to standard protocol.

  3. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  4. An efficient modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm | Kiros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many digital signatures which are based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography (ECC) have been proposed. Among these digital signatures, the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is the widely standardized one. However, the verification process of ECDSA is slower than the signature generation process. Hence ...

  5. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  6. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for transfusion...

  7. The PET-derived tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor SUV as a surrogate parameter of the metabolic rate of FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoff, Jörg; Oehme, Liane; Schramm, Georg; Maus, Jens; Lougovski, Alexandr; Petr, Jan; Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Hofheinz, Frank

    2013-11-23

    The standard uptake value (SUV) approach in oncological positron emission tomography has known shortcomings, all of which affect the reliability of the SUV as a surrogate of the targeted quantity, the metabolic rate of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), Km. Among the shortcomings are time dependence, susceptibility to errors in scanner and dose calibration, insufficient correlation between systemic distribution volume and body weight, and, consequentially, residual inter-study variability of the arterial input function (AIF) despite SUV normalization. Especially the latter turns out to be a crucial factor adversely affecting the correlation between SUV and Km and causing inter-study variations of tumor SUVs that do not reflect actual changes of the metabolic uptake rate. In this work, we propose to replace tumor SUV by the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) in order to distinctly improve the linear correlation with Km. Assuming irreversible FDG kinetics, SUR can be expected to exhibit a much better linear correlation to Km than SUV. The theoretical derivation for this prediction is given and evaluated in a group of nine patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer for which 15 fully dynamic investigations were available and Km could thus be derived from conventional Patlak analysis. For any fixed time point T at sufficiently late times post injection, the Patlak equation predicts a linear correlation between SUR and Km under the following assumptions: (1) approximate shape invariance (but arbitrary scale) of the AIF across scans/patients and (2) low variability of the apparent distribution volume Vr (the intercept of the Patlak Plot). This prediction - and validity of the underlying assumptions - has been verified in the investigated patient group. Replacing tumor SUVs by SURs does improve the linear correlation of the respective parameter with Km from r = 0.61 to r = 0.98. SUR is an easily measurable parameter that is highly correlated to Km. In this

  8. Performance of a Blood Pressure Smartphone App in Pregnant Women: The iPARR Trial (iPhone App Compared With Standard RR Measurement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichle, Christina J; Eckstein, Jens; Lapaire, Olav; Leonardi, Licia; Brasier, Noé; Vischer, Annina S; Burkard, Thilo

    2018-04-09

    Hypertensive disorders are one of the leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Several smartphone apps claim to measure blood pressure (BP) using photoplethysmographic signals recorded by smartphone cameras. However, no single app has been validated for this use to date. We aimed to validate a new, promising smartphone algorithm. In this subgroup analysis of the iPARR trial (iPhone App Compared With Standard RR Measurement), we tested the Preventicus BP smartphone algorithm on 32 pregnant women. The trial was conducted based on the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 for validation of BP measuring devices in adults. Each individual received 7 sequential BP measurements starting with the reference device (Omron-HBP-1300) and followed by the smartphone measurement, resulting in 96 BP comparisons. Validation requirements of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 were not fulfilled. Mean (±SD) systolic BP disagreement between the test and reference devices was 5.0 (±14.5) mm Hg. The number of absolute differences between test and reference device within 5, 10, and 15 mm Hg was 31, 53, and 64 of 96, respectively. A Bland-Altman plot showed an overestimation of smartphone-determined systolic BP in comparison with reference systolic BP in low range but an underestimation in medium-range BP. The Preventicus BP smartphone algorithm failed the accuracy criteria for estimating BP in pregnant women and was thus not commercialized. Pregnant women should be discouraged from using BP smartphone apps, unless there are algorithms specifically validated according to common protocols. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02552030. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Impact of blood glucose, diabetes, insulin, and obesity on standardized uptake values in tumors and healthy organs on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büsing, Karen A.; Schönberg, Stefan O.; Brade, Joachim; Wasser, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronically altered glucose metabolism interferes with 18 F-FDG uptake in malignant tissue and healthy organs and may therefore lower tumor detection in 18 F-FDG PET/CT. The present study assesses the impact of elevated blood glucose levels (BGL), diabetes, insulin treatment, and obesity on 18 F-FDG uptake in tumors and biodistribution in normal organ tissues. Methods: 18 F-FDG PET/CT was analyzed in 90 patients with BGL ranging from 50 to 372 mg/dl. Of those, 29 patients were diabetic and 21 patients had received insulin prior to PET/CT; 28 patients were obese with a body mass index > 25. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of normal organs and the main tumor site was measured. Differences in SUV max in patients with and without elevated BGLs, diabetes, insulin treatment, and obesity were compared and analyzed for statistical significance. Results: Increased BGLs were associated with decreased cerebral FDG uptake and increased uptake in skeletal muscle. Diabetes and insulin diminished this effect, whereas obesity slightly enhanced the outcome. Diabetes and insulin also increased the average SUV max in muscle cells and fat, whereas the mean cerebral SUV max was reduced. Obesity decreased tracer uptake in several healthy organs by up to 30%. Tumoral uptake was not significantly influenced by BGL, diabetes, insulin, or obesity. Conclusions: Changes in BGLs, diabetes, insulin, and obesity affect the FDG biodistribution in muscular tissue and the brain. Although tumoral uptake is not significantly impaired, these findings may influence the tumor detection rate and are therefore essential for diagnosis and follow-up of malignant diseases

  10. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the topological vertex formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV formula, and Mumford formula.

  11. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    This thesis is concerned with computational and theoretical aspects of Riemannian metrics on spaces of regular curves, and their applications. It was recently proved that second order constant coefficient Sobolev metrics on curves are geodesically complete. We extend this result to the case...... of Sobolev metrics with coefficient functions depending on the length of the curve. We show how to apply this result to analyse a wide range of metrics on the submanifold of unit and constant speed curves. We present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...

  12. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  13. Quantitative Detection of the Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O 146S Antigen for Vaccine Production Using a Double-Antibody Sandwich ELISA and Nonlinear Standard Curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Feng

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. In contrast, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is a time-saving technique that provides greater simplicity and sensitivity. To establish a valid method to detect and quantify the 146S antigen of a serotype O FMD vaccine, a double-antibody sandwich (DAS ELISA was compared with an SDG analysis. The DAS ELISA was highly correlated with the SDG method (R2 = 0.9215, P<0.01. In contrast to the SDG method, the DAS ELISA was rapid, robust, repeatable and highly sensitive, with a minimum quantification limit of 0.06 μg/mL. This method can be used to determine the effective antigen yields in inactivated vaccines and thus represents an alternative for assessing the potency of FMD vaccines in vitro. But it still needs to be prospectively validated by analyzing a new vaccine preparation and determining the proper protective dose followed by an in vivo vaccination-challenge study to confirm the ELISA findings.

  14. Light on curved backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batic, D.; Nelson, S.; Nowakowski, M.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the motion of light on different spacetime manifolds by calculating the deflection angle, lensing properties and by probing into the possibility of bound states. The metrics in which we examine the light motion include, among other items, a general relativistic dark matter metric, a dirty black hole, and a worm hole metric, the last two inspired by noncommutative geometry. The lensing in a holographic screen metric is discussed in detail. We study also the bending of light around naked singularities like, e.g., the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric and include other cases. A generic property of light behavior in these exotic metrics is pointed out. For the standard metric like the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter cases, we improve the accuracy of the lensing results for the weak and strong regimes.

  15. Blood transfusion in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis-a single-center experience of patient blood management in 210 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Bukhari, Naeem; Dragsted, Casper

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be associated with substantial blood loss, requiring allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. This study describes the use of RBC and the effect of a standardized perioperative patient blood management program. STUDY...... in the intraoperative rate of RBC transfusion was observed, from 77% in 2011 to 13% in 2016 (p transfusion group had a significantly larger major curve, lower preoperative hemoglobin, higher estimated blood loss, and an increased use of crystalloid volume resuscitation. Multiple logistic...... regression showed that significant predictors for RBC transfusion were preoperative hemoglobin level (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.57), estimated blood loss (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42), and year of surgery (indicating the effect of patient blood management) (OR per year, 0...

  16. Regular homotopy of Hurwitz curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auroux, D; Kulikov, Vik S; Shevchishin, V V

    2004-01-01

    We prove that any two irreducible cuspidal Hurwitz curves C 0 adn C 1 (or, more generally, two curves with A-type singularities) in the Hirzebruch surface F N with the same homology classes and sets of singularities are regular homotopic. Moreover, they are symplectically regular homotopic if C 0 and C 1 are symplectic with respect to a compatible symplectic form

  17. Space curves, anholonomy and nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Walker parallel transport [14] of any vector P moved ... of Fermi–Walker parallel transport to the case of a moving space curve. 4. General curve evolution equations .... ear term of the Lamb equation (eq. (34)) is just the time derivative of the total.

  18. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Home Types of Blood Donations Blood Types Blood Types Not all blood is alike. There are eight ... African descent. Learn More About Blood and Diversity Blood Types and Transfusion There are very specific ways in ...

  19. Umbilical cord blood lactate: a valuable tool in the assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev; Staer-Jensen, Jette; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal asphyxia usi...... ROC-curves, where an ABE value less than -12 was used as "gold standard" for significant intrapartum asphyxia.......The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal asphyxia using...

  20. Localized qubits in curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Takahashi, Maki; Westman, Hans F.

    2012-04-01

    We provide a systematic and self-contained exposition of the subject of localized qubits in curved spacetimes. This research was motivated by a simple experimental question: if we move a spatially localized qubit, initially in a state |ψ1>, along some spacetime path Γ from a spacetime point x1 to another point x2, what will the final quantum state |ψ2> be at point x2? This paper addresses this question for two physical realizations of the qubit: spin of a massive fermion and polarization of a photon. Our starting point is the Dirac and Maxwell equations that describe respectively the one-particle states of localized massive fermions and photons. In the WKB limit we show how one can isolate a two-dimensional quantum state which evolves unitarily along Γ. The quantum states for these two realizations are represented by a left-handed 2-spinor in the case of massive fermions and a four-component complex polarization vector in the case of photons. In addition we show how to obtain from this WKB approach a fully general relativistic description of gravitationally induced phases. We use this formalism to describe the gravitational shift in the Colella-Overhauser-Werner 1975 experiment. In the non-relativistic weak field limit our result reduces to the standard formula in the original paper. We provide a concrete physical model for a Stern-Gerlach measurement of spin and obtain a unique spin operator which can be determined given the orientation and velocity of the Stern-Gerlach device and velocity of the massive fermion. Finally, we consider multipartite states and generalize the formalism to incorporate basic elements from quantum information theory such as quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and identical particles. The resulting formalism provides a basis for exploring precision quantum measurements of the gravitational field using techniques from quantum information theory.

  1. Effects of depletion sampling by standard three-pass pulsed DC electrofishing on blood chemistry parameters of fishes from Appalachian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Panek, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects on fishes captured by electrofishing techniques have long been recognized, although the extent of associated physical injury and behavioral alterations are highly variable and dependent on a number of factors. We examined the effects of three-pass pulsed DC (PDC) electrofishing on two salmonid species (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and five other genera (Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus) common to Appalachian streams. We examined the corresponding effects of PDC electroshock on the following physiological indicators of stress and trauma: blood glucose and serum lactate, as well as on other blood chemistry, namely, enzymes, electrolytes, minerals, and proteins. All species demonstrated physiological responses to PDC electroshock, indicated by the biochemical differences in blood parameters in unshocked and shocked groups of fish with or without gross evidence of hemorrhagic trauma. Serum lactate was the most consistent indicator of these effects. Significant differences in whole blood glucose levels were also noted in treatment groups in all species except Green Sunfish, although the patterns observed were not as consistent as for serum lactate. Elevations in the serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, in the electroshocked fish occurred only in the two salmonid species. In many instances, although blood parameters were elevated in electroshocked fish compared with the unshocked controls for a given species, there were no differences in those levels in electroshocked fish based on the presence of gross hemorrhagic trauma to axial musculature. While some of the blood parameters examined correlated with both the occurrence of electroshock and the resultant tissue injury, there was no apparent link between the altered blood chemistry and

  2. Analysis of the Magnetic Field Influence on the Rheological Properties of Healthy Persons Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marcinkowska-Gapinska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of magnetic field on whole blood rheological properties remains a weakly known phenomenon. An in vitro analysis of the magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of healthy persons blood is presented in this work. The study was performed on blood samples taken from 25 healthy nonsmoking persons and included comparative analysis of the results of both the standard rotary method (flow curve measurement and the oscillatory method known also as the mechanical dynamic analysis, performed before and after exposition of blood samples to magnetic field. The principle of the oscillatory technique lies in determining the amplitude and phase of the oscillations of the studied sample subjected to action of a harmonic force of controlled amplitude and frequency. The flow curve measurement involved determining the shear rate dependence of blood viscosity. The viscoelastic properties of the blood samples were analyzed in terms of complex blood viscosity. All the measurements have been performed by means of the Contraves LS40 rheometer. The data obtained from the flow curve measurements complemented by hematocrit and plasma viscosity measurements have been analyzed using the rheological model of Quemada. No significant changes of the studied rheological parameters have been found.

  3. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  4. CYCLING CURVES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAICU Lucian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the cyclic curves that can be considered as some of the most important regarding their applications in science, technique, design, architecture and art. These curves include the following: cycloid, epicycloid, hypocycloid, spherical cycloid and special cases thereof. In the first part of the paper the main curves of cycloids family are presented with their methods of generating and setting parametric equations. In the last part some of cycloid applications are highlighted in different areas of science, technology and art.

  5. Interpreting the ROC curve from the radiologist's point of view: the diagnostician operating choice (DOC) curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Craig A.; Conant, Emily F.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Kundel, Harold L.; Sickles, Edward A.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce an interesting interpretation of the ROC Curve that, subsequently, opens a new research paradigm. We define the "Diagnostician Operating Choice" (DOC) Curve to be the set of all (True Positive Probability/True Negative Probability) or ("skill in diseased population"/"skill in non-diseased population" when considered from the diagnostician's perspective) options made available to a particular radiologist when interpreting a particular diagnostic technology. The DOC Curve is, thus, the choice set presented to the diagnostician by their interaction with the technology. This new paradigm calls for tools that can measure the particular choice set of any particular individual radiologist interpreting a particular technology when applied in a particular clinical setting. Fundamental requirements for this paradigm are for the DOC Curve to be unique to individuals and constant across similar experimental conditions. To investigate constancy, we analyzed data from a reading study of 10 radiologists. Each radiologist interpreted the same set of 148 screening mammograms twice using a modified version of BI-RADS. ROC Curves for each radiologist were computed and compared between the two reading occasions with the CORROC2 program. None of the areas were statistically significantly different (p<0.05), providing confirmation (but not proof) of constancy across the two reading conditions. The DOC Curve paradigm suggests new areas of research focusing on the behavior in individuals interacting with technology. A clear need is for more efficient estimation of individual DOC Curves based on limited case sets. Paradoxically, the answer to this last problem might lie in using large population-based ("MRMC") studies to develop highly efficient and externally validated standardized testing tools for assessment of the individual.

  6. Elliptic Curves and Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Sujatha, School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, INDIA

    1. Aim: To explain the connection between a simple ancient problem in number theory and a deep sophisticated conjecture about Elliptic Curves. ('arithmetic Geometry'). Notation: N : set of natural numbers (1,2,3,...) ...

  7. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  8. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design/methodology...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... employs qualitative methodology and draws on a longitudinal, factory-level analysis of an in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer. Findings – This study goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning required to establish a new capacity. The authors examined...

  9. Nonlinear mechanics of rigidifying curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mosleh, Salem; Santangelo, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Thin shells are characterized by a high cost of stretching compared to bending. As a result isometries of the midsurface of a shell play a crucial role in their mechanics. In turn, curves on the midsurface with zero normal curvature play a critical role in determining the number and behavior of isometries. In this paper, we show how the presence of these curves results in a decrease in the number of linear isometries. Paradoxically, shells are also known to continuously fold more easily across these rigidifying curves than other curves on the surface. We show how including nonlinearities in the strain can explain these phenomena and demonstrate folding isometries with explicit solutions to the nonlinear isometry equations. In addition to explicit solutions, exact geometric arguments are given to validate and guide our analysis in a coordinate-free way.

  10. Cosmological applications of algebraic quantum field theory in curved spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a largely self-contained and broadly accessible exposition on two cosmological applications of algebraic quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime: a fundamental analysis of the cosmological evolution according to the Standard Model of Cosmology; and a fundamental study of the perturbations in inflation. The two central sections of the book dealing with these applications are preceded by sections providing a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Introductory material on the construction of linear QFTs on general curved spacetimes with and without gauge symmetry in the algebraic approach, physically meaningful quantum states on general curved spacetimes, and the backreaction of quantum fields in curved spacetimes via the semiclassical Einstein equation is also given. The reader should have a basic understanding of General Relativity and QFT on Minkowski spacetime, but no background in QFT on curved spacetimes or the algebraic approach to QFT is required.

  11. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  12. Randomised feasibility study of a more liberal haemoglobin trigger for red blood cell transfusion compared to standard practice in anaemic cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakymenko, D.; Frandsen, K. B.; Christensen, I. J.

    2017-01-01

    L and symptoms between randomisation arms. Background: Anaemia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is associated with decreased QoL. One treatment option is red blood cell transfusion (RBCT). However, the optimal haemoglobin trigger for transfusion is unknown. Methods: Patients were randomised...

  13. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  14. LWIR Stellar Calibration: Infrared Spectral Curves for 30 Standard Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-10

    Alpha Orionis ( Betelgeuse ), M2-l supergiant wkith circumstellar dust. 106 B-8 Beta Pegasi CO bands. 109 B-9 Spectrum of Alpha Scorpii (Antares). M2-1...random error = 2.2% No CO bands 104 Alpha Orionis ( Betelgeuse ) Spectral Type: M2 I Variable with Circumstellar Dust Below 8 p o. 0 ( ) - 5.207 x 10-10...r" .-jnitudes obtained in the IRAS survey Fgwcit B-7. Spei truil of Alp/ia0 Oionoi ( Betelgeuse ). M2-1 supergiant with c-rcuntstellar dutst. 106 Beta

  15. INFLUENCE OF MOVING LOADS ON CURVED BRIDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Thamer A. Z*, Jabbbar S. A

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a curved slab bridge decks with uniform thickness under moving load is investigated in this study. Three radii of curvature "R" are used (25, 50 and 75m) along with the straight bridge, R = ∞. The decks are simply supported or clamped along the radial edges and free at the circular edges. The AASHTO[1] standard axle load of the truck H20-44 is used and assumed to move in three track positions on the bridge. The finite element method is employed for the analysis and the ANSYS 5...

  16. Assessment of the calibration curve for transmittance pulse-oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, A.; Fine, I.; Meglinski, I.

    2011-11-01

    Optical/laser modalities provide a broad variety of practical solutions for clinical diagnostics and therapy in a range from imaging of single cells and molecules to non-invasive biopsy of specific biological tissues and organs tomography. Near-infrared transmittance pulse oximetry with laser diodes is the accepted standard in current clinical practice and widely used for noninvasive monitoring of oxygen saturation in arterial blood hemoglobin. Conceptual design of practical pulse oximetry systems requires careful selection of various technical parameters, including intensity, wavelength, beam size and profile of incident laser radiation, size, numerical aperture of the detector, as well as a clear understanding of how the spatial and temporal structural alterations in biological tissues can be linked with and can be distinguished by variations of these parameters. In current letter utilizing state-of-the-art NVIDEA CUDA technology, a new object oriented programming paradigm and on-line solutions we introduce a computational tool applied for human finger transmittance spectra simulation and assessment of calibration curve for near-infrared transmitted pulseoximetry.

  17. Evaluation of biological effect of {sup 90}Sr beta radiation in human blood cells and dose-response curve elaboration; Avaliacao do efeito biologico da radiacao beta do {sup 90}Sr em celulas sanguineas humanas e elaboracao de curva dose-resposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elaine Mendes de

    2000-07-01

    Among several environmental genotoxins, ionizing radiation has been received special attention because of its mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic potential. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the effects of {sup 90}Sr beta radiation in human cells, in view of the scarcity of literature data. For that, blood cells of five healthy donors were irradiated in vitro with doses between 0.2 and 5.0 Gy in a {sup 90}Sr source (0.2 Gy/min) and were processed for chromosome aberration analysis and for comet assay. Cytogenetic results showed that the type of structural chromosome aberrations found more frequently were acentric fragments, double minutes and dicentrics. The values of {alpha} and {beta} coefficient of linear-quadratic model used to fit dose response curves showed that {sup 90}Sr beta radiation was more efficient in induction of lesions from only one ionizing track than two independent tracks in chromosome aberration formation. Apparently, {sup 90}Sr beta radiation neither influenced the modal number of chromosome in irradiated cells nor in cell cycle kinetic of analyzed dose interval. Concerning the comet assay, there was an increase in DNA migration in a dose dependent manner, evaluated by either image analysis system (tail moment) or visual classification (DNA damage), which dose-response relation was adequately fitted to non-linear regression model. Both adopted techniques were complement in evaluating the biological effect of {sup 90}Sr beta radiation in human cells. (author)

  18. Computational fluid dynamics study of commercially available stents inside an idealised curved coronary artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Winson Xiao; Ooi, Andrew; Hutchins, Nicholas; Poon, Eric; Thondapu, Vikas; Barlis, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Stent placement restores blood flow in diseased coronary arteries and is the standard treatment for obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Analysis of the hemodynamic characteristics of stented arteries is essential for better understanding of the relationship between key fluid dynamic variables and stent designs. Previous computational studies have been limited to idealised stents in curved arterial segments or more realistic stents in straight segments. In clinical practice, however, it is often necessary to place stents in geometrically complex arterial curvatures. Thus, numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to investigate the effects of curvature on hemodynamics using detailed, commercially available coronary stents. The computational domain is a 3mm curved coronary artery model and simulations are conducted using a physiologically realistic inlet condition. The averaged flow rate is about 80 mL/min, similar to the normal human resting condition. The examination of hemodynamic parameters will assess the performance of several commercially available stents in curved arteries and identify regions that may be at risk for restenosis. It is anticipated that this information will lead to improvements in future stent design and deployment.

  19. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  20. Open Timelike Curves Violate Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, J. L.; Ralph, T. C.; Myers, C. R.

    2013-02-01

    Toy models for quantum evolution in the presence of closed timelike curves have gained attention in the recent literature due to the strange effects they predict. The circuits that give rise to these effects appear quite abstract and contrived, as they require nontrivial interactions between the future and past that lead to infinitely recursive equations. We consider the special case in which there is no interaction inside the closed timelike curve, referred to as an open timelike curve (OTC), for which the only local effect is to increase the time elapsed by a clock carried by the system. Remarkably, circuits with access to OTCs are shown to violate Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, allowing perfect state discrimination and perfect cloning of coherent states. The model is extended to wave packets and smoothly recovers standard quantum mechanics in an appropriate physical limit. The analogy with general relativistic time dilation suggests that OTCs provide a novel alternative to existing proposals for the behavior of quantum systems under gravity.

  1. Open timelike curves violate Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, J L; Ralph, T C; Myers, C R

    2013-02-08

    Toy models for quantum evolution in the presence of closed timelike curves have gained attention in the recent literature due to the strange effects they predict. The circuits that give rise to these effects appear quite abstract and contrived, as they require nontrivial interactions between the future and past that lead to infinitely recursive equations. We consider the special case in which there is no interaction inside the closed timelike curve, referred to as an open timelike curve (OTC), for which the only local effect is to increase the time elapsed by a clock carried by the system. Remarkably, circuits with access to OTCs are shown to violate Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, allowing perfect state discrimination and perfect cloning of coherent states. The model is extended to wave packets and smoothly recovers standard quantum mechanics in an appropriate physical limit. The analogy with general relativistic time dilation suggests that OTCs provide a novel alternative to existing proposals for the behavior of quantum systems under gravity.

  2. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  3. Determination of efficiency curves for HPGE detector in different counting geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Josianne L.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first experimental results related to determination of efficiency curves for HPGe detector in different counting geometries. The detector is a GX2520 Canberra belonging to CDTN/CNEN. Efficiency curves for punctual were determined by using a certified set of gamma sources. These curves were determined for three counting geometries. Following that, efficiency curves for non punctual samples were determined by using standard solutions of radionuclides in 500 ml and 1000 ml wash bottle Marinelli

  4. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  5. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  6. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  7. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2018-03-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This is the sort of project that should provide a fascinating research experience for the introductory physics student. In this article I will discuss the galvanometers that I used in this work, and will show a resonance curve for one of them.

  8. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...... increased wages and lower unemployment, foreign workers are adversely affected....

  9. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  10. Influence of centrifugation conditions on the results of 77 routine clinical chemistry analytes using standard vacuum blood collection tubes and the new BD-Barricor tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadamuro, Janne; Mrazek, Cornelia; Leichtle, Alexander B; Kipman, Ulrike; Felder, Thomas K; Wiedemann, Helmut; Oberkofler, Hannes; Fiedler, Georg M; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth

    2018-02-15

    Although centrifugation is performed in almost every blood sample, recommendations on duration and g-force are heterogeneous and mostly based on expert opinions. In order to unify this step in a fully automated laboratory, we aimed to evaluate different centrifugation settings and their influence on the results of routine clinical chemistry analytes. We collected blood from 41 healthy volunteers into BD Vacutainer PST II-heparin-gel- (LiHepGel), BD Vacutainer SST II-serum-, and BD Vacutainer Barricor heparin-tubes with a mechanical separator (LiHepBar). Tubes were centrifuged at 2000xg for 10 minutes and 3000xg for 7 and 5 minutes, respectively. Subsequently 60 and 21 clinical chemistry analytes were measured in plasma and serum samples, respectively, using a Roche COBAS instrument. High sensitive Troponin T, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, ß human chorionic gonadotropin and rheumatoid factor had to be excluded from statistical evaluation as many of the respective results were below the measuring range. Except of free haemoglobin (fHb) measurements, no analyte result was altered by the use of shorter centrifugation times at higher g-forces. Comparing LiHepBar to LiHepGel tubes at different centrifugation setting, we found higher lactate-dehydrogenase (LD) (P = 0.003 to centrifuged at higher speed (3000xg) for a shorter amount of time (5 minutes) without alteration of the analytes tested in this study. When using LiHepBar tubes for blood collection, a separate LD reference value might be needed.

  11. Effectiveness of blood flow restricted exercise compared with standard exercise in patients with recurrent low back pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Shinichi; Ludin, Arimi Fitri Mat; Clift, Rachel; Nakazawa, Masato; Law, Timothy D; Rush, Laura J; Manini, Todd M; Thomas, James S; Russ, David W; Clark, Brian C

    2016-02-12

    Low back pain is a highly prevalent condition in the United States and has a staggeringly negative impact on society in terms of expenses and disability. It has previously been suggested that rehabilitation strategies for persons with recurrent low back pain should be directed to the medial back muscles as these muscles provide functional support of the lumbar region. However, many individuals with low back pain cannot safely and effectively induce trunk muscle adaptation using traditional high-load resistance exercise, and no viable low-load protocols to induce trunk extensor muscle adaptation exist. Herein, we present the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial that will investigate the "cross-transfer" of effects of a novel exercise modality, blood flow restricted exercise, on cross-sectional area (primary outcome), strength and endurance (secondary outcomes) of trunk extensor muscles, as well as the pain, disability, and rate of recurrence of low back pain (tertiary outcomes). This is a single-blinded, single-site, randomized controlled trial. A minimum of 32 (and up to 40) subjects aged 18 to 50 years with recurrent low back pain and poor trunk extensor muscle endurance will be recruited, enrolled and randomized. After completion of baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive a 10-week resistance exercise training program with blood flow restriction (BFR exercise group) or without blood flow restriction (control exercise group). Repeat assessments will be taken immediately post intervention and at 12 weeks after the completion of the exercise program. Furthermore, once every 4 weeks during a 36-week follow-up period, participants will be asked to rate their perceived disability and back pain over the past 14 days. This study will examine the potential for blood flow restricted exercise applied to appendicular muscles to result in a "cross-transfer" of therapeutic effect to the lumbar musculature in individuals with

  12. Estimated venous return surface and cardiac output curve precisely predicts new hemodynamics after volume change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Uemura, Kazunori; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shimizu, Shuji; Inagaki, Masashi; Shishido, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    In our extended Guyton's model, the ability of heart to pump blood is characterized by a cardiac output curve and the ability of vasculature to pool blood by a venous return surface. These intersect in a three-dimensional coordinate system at the operating right atrial pressure, left atrial pressure, and cardiac output. The baseline cardiac output curve and venous return surface and their changes after volume change would predict new hemodynamics. The invasive methods needed to precisely characterize cardiac output curve and venous return surface led us to aim at estimating cardiac output curve and venous return surface from a single hemodynamic measurement. Using the average values for two logarithmic function parameters, and for two slopes of a surface, we were able to estimate cardiac output curve and venous return surface. The estimated curve and surface predicted new hemodynamics after volume change precisely.

  13. Tight intra-operative blood pressure control versus standard care for patients undergoing hip fracture repair - Hip Fracture Intervention Study for Prevention of Hypotension (HIP-HOP) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moppett, Iain Keith; White, Stuart; Griffiths, Richard; Buggy, Donal

    2017-07-25

    Hypotension during anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery is common. Recent data suggest that there is an association between the lowest intra-operative blood pressure and mortality, even when adjusted for co-morbidities. This is consistent with data derived from the wider surgical population, where magnitude and duration of hypotension are associated with mortality and peri-operative complications. However, there are no trial to data to support more aggressive blood pressure control. We are conducting a three-centre, randomised, double-blinded pilot study in three hospitals in the United Kingdom. The sample size will be 75 patients (25 from each centre). Randomisation will be done using computer-generated concealed tables. Both participants and investigators will be blinded to group allocation. Participants will be aged >70 years, cognitively intact (Abbreviated Mental Test Score 7 or greater), able to give informed consent and admitted directly through the emergency department with a fractured neck of the femur requiring operative repair. Patients randomised to tight blood pressure control or avoidance of intra-operative hypotension will receive active treatment as required to maintain both of the following: systolic arterial blood pressure >80% of baseline pre-operative value and mean arterial pressure >75 mmHg throughout. All participants will receive standard hospital care, including spinal or general anaesthesia, at the discretion of the clinical team. The primary outcome is a composite of the presence or absence of defined cardiovascular, renal and delirium morbidity within 7 days of surgery (myocardial injury, stroke, acute kidney injury, delirium). Secondary endpoints will include the defined individual morbidities, mortality, early mobility and discharge to usual residence. This is a small-scale pilot study investigating the feasibility of a trial of tight intra-operative blood pressure control in a frail elderly patient group with known high morbidity

  14. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  15. Archaeomagnetic SV curve for Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ech-chakrouni, Souad; Hus, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    Archaeomagnetic secular variation curves have been established for different countries in Europe, especially when different archeological sites are more or less uniformly distributed in time are available. The disadvantage in that case is that data had to be relocated to a single reference site. The proximity of the reference locality Paris to Belgium makes that we used the French archaeomagnetic SV curve for the last three millennia up to the present for archaeomagnetic dating undated baked structures. In total, 85 baked structures have been examined, unearthed in 24 archaeological sites of the territory of Belgium. The ChRM of each sample was obtained by principal component analysis for at least three demagnetisation steps (Kirschvink 1980). Except for some outliers, the ChRM directions are very coherent with a high confidence factor (α95archaeomagnetism. At present, only six baked structures were dated radiometrically and may be considered as reference data for a limited area about 30500 km2 in Western Europe. The ultimate aim is to construct an archaeomagnetic SV curve for Belgium with Uccle as reference locality, where the first measurement of the geomagnetic field was done in 1895. This curve would include all the available reference data in a radius of about 500 km around Uccle. Keywords: secular variation, archaeomagnetic dating, Belgium.

  16. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  17. A Curve for all Reasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cause-effect relationship for a wide variety of biologi- cal processes from molecular to ecosystem levels can be described by a curvilinear function called the rectangular hyperbola. Although a simple algebraic equation adequately describes this curve, biological models have generated different equations incorporating ...

  18. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  19. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  20. Ultrasonic Fetal Cephalometry: Percentiles Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, P.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements by ultrasound of the biparietal diameter of the fetal head during pregnancy are a reliable guide to fetal growth. As a ready means of comparison with the normal we constructed from 4,170 measurements in 1,394 cases a curve showing the percentiles distribution of biparietal diameters for each week of gestation. PMID:5070162

  1. Interpolation and Polynomial Curve Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajun; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2014-01-01

    Two points determine a line. Three noncollinear points determine a quadratic function. Four points that do not lie on a lower-degree polynomial curve determine a cubic function. In general, n + 1 points uniquely determine a polynomial of degree n, presuming that they do not fall onto a polynomial of lower degree. The process of finding such a…

  2. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  3. Blood volume changes after radiotherapy of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, F.; Fuss, M.; Scholdei, R.; Essig, M.; Lohr, F.; Rempp, K.; Brix, G.; Knopp, M.V.; Engenhart, R.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1996-01-01

    The pathogenesis of late delayed radiation damage in normal brain tissue is most likely due to damage to the vascular endothelium. The mitotic activity of gliomas was shown to correlate with the tumor induced angiogenesis. Dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) allows the measurement of the cerebral hemodynamics based on the indicator dilution theory. We describe theory and technique of the method and present our experience with blood volume measurements after irradiation of the CNS. We established a double slice technique on a standard 1.5 T MR system without hardware modifications, which allows an absolute quantification of the blood volume in regions of interest (ROI) within the brain. Fifty-five T2* weighted double slice images were acquired before, during and after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg in 5 sec.) using a SD FLASH sequence (simultaneous dual fast low angle shot, TR/TE1/TE2 31/16/25, flip angle 10 ). Concentration-time curves were calculated from the measured signal-time curves. Blood volume values in tissue were normalised and calculated in absolute values (ml/100 g) based on the knowledge of the arterial input function (AIF), which was measured in the brain supplying arteries. The whole procedure requires only 2 to 3 minutes, the time for post processing is about 15 to 20 minutes. Blood volume parameter images of representative cases demonstrate the blood volume changes after radiotherapy. A reduction in blood volume could be observed in normal brain tissue and low-grade gliomas, while recurrent tumors were accompanied by a local increase in blood volume. Radiation induced blood volume changes in the CNS can be measured using dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging. The measurements in normal brain tissue allow a functional in-vivo analysis of late delayed radiation reactions of the CNS. (orig.) [de

  4. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill K. Wright; Richard N. Wright; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2014-03-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves for Alloy 617 up to a temperature of 1000°C will be required to qualify the material for elevated temperature design in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Several potential methods for developing these curves are reviewed in this report. It is shown that in general power-law creep is the rate controlling deformation mechanism for a wide range of alloy heats, test temperatures and stresses. Measurement of the strain rate sensitivity of Alloy 617 indicates that the material is highly strain rate sensitive in the tensile deformation range above about 750°C. This suggests that the concept of a hot tensile curve as a bounding case on the isochronous stress-strain diagrams is problematic. The impact of strain rate on the hot tensile curves is examined and it is concluded that incorporating such a curve is only meaningful if a single tensile strain rate (typically the ASTM standard rate of 0.5%/min) is arbitrarily defined. Current experimentally determined creep data are compared to isochronous stress-strain curves proposed previously by the German programs in the 1980s and by the 1990 draft ASME Code Case. Variability in how well the experimental data are represented by the proposed design curves that suggests further analysis is necessary prior to completing a new draft Code Case.

  5. Ice detection on wind turbines using observed power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Byrkjedal, Øyvind; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    be used to separate iced production periods from non-iced production periods. The first approach relies on a percentage deviation from the manufacturer’s power curve. The other two approaches fit threshold curves based on the observed variance of non-iced production data. These approaches are applied......Icing on the blades of a wind turbine can lead to significant production losses during the winter months for wind parks in cold climate regions. However, there is no standard way of identifying ice-induced power loss. This paper describes three methods for creating power threshold curves that can...... to turbines in four wind parks and compared with each other and to observations of icing on the nacelle of one of the turbines in each park. It is found that setting an ice threshold curve using 0.1 quantile of the observed power data during normal operation with a 2-h minimum duration is the best approach...

  6. Effect of R-CHOP chemotherapy on liver and mediastinal blood pool (18)F-FDG standardized uptake values in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bugra; Dostbil, Zeki; Ismailoglu, Murat; Tasdemir, Bekir; Sahin, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of chemotherapy on (18)F-FDG uptake in the liver and mediastinal blood pool (MBP) among patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Twenty-three patients with NHL underwent baseline, interim, and postchemotherapy (18)F-FDG PET/CT. SUVmax and SUVmean values of the liver and MBP at imaging time were compared statistically. We did not find any significant differences between the liver and mediastinum SUVmean and SUVmax values (P>.05). Our study demonstrates that the (18)F-FDG uptake in the liver and MBP are not significantly affected by R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with NHL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood transfusion in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis-a single-center experience of patient blood management in 210 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Bukhari, Naeem; Dragsted, Casper; Gehrchen, Martin; Johansson, Pär I; Dirks, Jesper; Stensballe, Jakob; Dahl, Benny

    2017-07-01

    The surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be associated with substantial blood loss, requiring allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. This study describes the use of RBC and the effect of a standardized perioperative patient blood management program. Patients treated with posterior instrumented fusion were consecutively enrolled over a 6-year period. Patient blood management strategies were implemented in 2011, including prophylactic tranexamic acid, intraoperative permissive hypotension, restrictive fluid therapy (including avoidance of synthetic colloids), restrictive RBC trigger according to institutional standardized protocol, the use of cell savage, and goal-directed therapy according to thrombelastography. In total, 210 patients were included. 64 patients (31%) received RBC transfusions. A decline in the intraoperative rate of RBC transfusion was observed, from 77% in 2011 to 13% in 2016 (p transfusion group had a significantly larger major curve, lower preoperative hemoglobin, higher estimated blood loss, and an increased use of crystalloid volume resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression showed that significant predictors for RBC transfusion were preoperative hemoglobin level (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.57), estimated blood loss (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42), and year of surgery (indicating the effect of patient blood management) (OR per year, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.99). A perioperative patient blood management program substantially reduced the need for RBC transfusion. A preoperative evaluation of anemia is essential to further minimize transfusion rates. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Use of universal functional optimisation for TL glow curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Linh, H.Q.

    1996-01-01

    The effective use of any TL instrument requires an efficient software package to be able to fulfil different tasks required by research and practical applications. One of the standard features of the package used at the NPI Prague is the application of the interactive modular system Universal Functional Optimisation (UFO) for glow curve deconvolution. The whole system has been tested on standard glow curves using different models of the TL process (a single peak described by the Podgorsak approximation, first order kinetics and/or general order kinetics). Calculated values of basic TL parameters (E and s) show a good agreement with the results obtained by other authors. The main advantage of the system is in its modularity that enables flexible changes in the TL model and mathematical procedures of the glow curve analysis. (author)

  9. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  10. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  11. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. A curved resonant flexoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Liu, Kaiyuan; Xu, Minglong; Shen, Shengping

    2017-08-01

    Flexoelectricity is an electro-mechanical coupling effect that exists in all dielectrics and has the potential to replace piezoelectric actuating on the microscale. In this letter, a curved flexoelectric actuator with non-polarized polyvinylidene fluoride is presented and shown to exhibit good electro-mechanical properties. This provides experimental support for a body of theoretical research into converse flexoelectricity in polymeric materials. In addition, this work demonstrates the feasibility of lead-free microscale actuating without piezoelectricity.

  13. Active Particles on Curved Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the sensitivity of active matter to boundaries and their geometries. Here we develop a general theory for the dynamics and statistics of active particles on curved surfaces and illustrate it on two examples. We first show that active particles moving on a surface with no ability to probe its curvature only exhibit steady-state inhomogeneities in the presence of orientational order. We then consider a strongly confined 3D ideal active gas and compute its steady-...

  14. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-06-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I.

  15. Projection-based curve clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)

  16. 7 CFR 43.105 - Operating characteristics (OC) curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating characteristics (OC) curves. 43.105 Section 43.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR SAMPLING PLANS Sampling Plans § 43.105 Operating characteristics (OC...

  17. Sketching Curves for Normal Distributions--Geometric Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Within statistics instruction, students are often requested to sketch the curve representing a normal distribution with a given mean and standard deviation. Unfortunately, these sketches are often notoriously imprecise. Poor sketches are usually the result of missing mathematical knowledge. This paper considers relationships which exist among…

  18. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  19. Hardware Accelerators for Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Puttmann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore different hardware accelerators for cryptography based on elliptic curves. Furthermore, we present a hierarchical multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC platform that can be used for fast integration and evaluation of novel hardware accelerators. In respect of two application scenarios the hardware accelerators are coupled at different hierarchy levels of the MPSoC platform. The whole system is implemented in a state of the art 65 nm standard cell technology. Moreover, an FPGA-based rapid prototyping system for fast system verification is presented. Finally, a metric to analyze the resource efficiency by means of chip area, execution time and energy consumption is introduced.

  20. Decay curves in coupled, reverberant spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balin, Jamilla; Nolan, Melanie; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of panel and boundary diffusers in a reverberant space. Diffusers are usually mounted in a reverberation chamber to increase the diffuse sound field as recommended in Annex A of ISO 354. The ISO is not specific about the location or the material of the panels......; the standard only states that the absorption coefficient of a highly absorbing material will increase and approach a maximum value. This value is usually much higher than 1 when diffusers are added. It is also known that the reproducibility of absorption coefficient measurements in reverberation chambers...... is unsatisfying. This study investigates the effect of panel diffusers, in particular considering that their dispositioning in a room can create coupled spaces, decreasing the effective volume of the chamber, and leading to an overestimation of the absorption coefficient. The decay curves are measured in a small...

  1. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribet, K A; Takahashi, S

    1997-10-14

    Fix an isogeny class of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements A of have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes--i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X(0)D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A [symbol; see text] A in for which one has a nonconstant map piD : X(0)D(N/D) --> A whose pullback A --> Pic0(X(0)D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of piD is an integer deltaD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class A). We investigate the behavior of deltaD as D varies.

  2. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red ...

  3. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Types What's in this article? Four Blood Groups... Plus Rh Factor... ...Make Eight Blood Types Why Blood Type Matters Print en español Tipos de sangre About 5 million Americans need blood transfusions every ...

  4. Discrepancy in abo blood grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.; Ahmed, Z.; Khan, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. (author)

  5. Factors affecting intrapatient liver and mediastinal blood pool ¹⁸F-FDG standardized uptake value changes during ABVD chemotherapy in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Danieli, Roberta; Abbatiello, Paolo; Di Pietro, Barbara; Travascio, Laura; Cantonetti, Maria; Guazzaroni, Manlio; Orlacchio, Antonio; Simonetti, Giovanni; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the intrapatient variability of 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)-fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake in the liver and in the mediastinum among patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) treated with doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy (CHT). The study included 68 patients (30 men, 38 women; mean age 32 ± 11 years) with biopsy-proven HL. According to Ann Arbor criteria, 6 were stage I, 34 were stage II, 12 were stage 3 and 16 were stage 4. All of them underwent a baseline (PET0) and an interim (PET2) (18)F-FDG whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. All patients were treated after PET0 with two ABVD cycles for 2 months that ended 15 ± 5 days prior to the PET2 examination. All patients were further evaluated 15 ± 6 days after four additional ABVD cycles (PET6). None of the patients presented a serum glucose level higher than 107 mg/dl. The mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV) of the liver and mediastinum were calculated using the same standard protocol for PET0, PET2 and PET6, respectively. Data were examined by means of the Wilcoxon matched pairs test and linear regression analysis. The main results of our study were an increased liver SUVmean in PET2 (1.76 ± 0.35) as compared with that of PET0 (1.57 ± 0.31; p  0.05). Another finding is a relationship in PET0 between liver SUVmean and SUVmax with the stage, which was lower in those patients with advanced disease (r (2) = 0.1456 and p = 0.0013 for SUVmean and r (2) = 0.1277 and p = 0.0028 for SUVmax). The results of our study suggest that liver (18)F-FDG uptake is variable in patients with HL during the CHT treatment and the disease course and should be considered carefully when used to define the response to therapy in the interim PET in HL.

  6. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  7. PLOTTAB, Curve and Point Plotting with Error Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTTAB is designed to plot any combination of continuous curves and/or discrete points (with associated error bars) using user supplied titles and X and Y axis labels and units. If curves are plotted, the first curve may be used as a standard; the data and the ratio of the data to the standard will be plotted. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTTAB: The program has no idea of what data is being plotted and yet by supplying titles, X and Y axis labels and units the user can produce any number of plots with each plot containing almost any combination of curves and points with each plot properly identified. In order to define a continuous curve between tabulated points, this program must know how to interpolate between points. By input the user may specify either the default option of linear x versus linear y interpolation or alternatively log x and/or log Y interpolation. In all cases, regardless of the interpolation specified, the program will always interpolate the data to the plane of the plot (linear or log x and y plane) in order to present the true variation of the data between tabulated points, based on the user specified interpolation law. Tabulated points should be tabulated at a sufficient number of x values to insure that the difference between the specified interpolation and the 'true' variation of a curve between tabulated values is relatively small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A combination of up to 30 curves and sets of discrete points may appear on each plot. If the user wishes to use this program to compare different sets of data, all of the data must be in the same units

  8. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. The second part studies the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. This new edition provides many advancements, including more figures and exercises, and-as a new feature-a good number of so

  9. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  10. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only...... in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimize a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend...

  11. Lightlike contractions in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichelburg, P.C.; Embacher, F.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of lightlike contractions in flat and curved space is described. The method consists in boosting a classical field configuration to the velocity of light by an appropriate generalized Lorentz transformation. Within this framework the gravitational field of a massless neutral particle is a meaningful concept. For electrically charged particles, however, the field equations seem to prevent an analogous procedure. We thus conjecture that general relativity forbids the existance of charged point particles moving with the velocity of light. Further examples for lightlike contractions of a self-dual electromagnetic field and of a linearized Rarita-Schwinger (spin-3/2) field are given. (Author)

  12. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  13. Factors affecting intrapatient liver and mediastinal blood pool {sup 18}F-FDG standardized uptake value changes during ABVD chemotherapy in Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Danieli, Roberta; Abbatiello, Paolo; Di Pietro, Barbara; Travascio, Laura; Cantonetti, Maria; Guazzaroni, Manlio; Orlacchio, Antonio; Simonetti, Giovanni [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    The aim of our study was to assess the intrapatient variability of 2-deoxy-2-({sup 18}F)-fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in the liver and in the mediastinum among patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) treated with doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy (CHT). The study included 68 patients (30 men, 38 women; mean age 32 ± 11 years) with biopsy-proven HL. According to Ann Arbor criteria, 6 were stage I, 34 were stage II, 12 were stage 3 and 16 were stage 4. All of them underwent a baseline (PET0) and an interim (PET2) {sup 18}F-FDG whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. All patients were treated after PET0 with two ABVD cycles for 2 months that ended 15 ± 5 days prior to the PET2 examination. All patients were further evaluated 15 ± 6 days after four additional ABVD cycles (PET6). None of the patients presented a serum glucose level higher than 107 mg/dl. The mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV) of the liver and mediastinum were calculated using the same standard protocol for PET0, PET2 and PET6, respectively. Data were examined by means of the Wilcoxon matched pairs test and linear regression analysis. The main results of our study were an increased liver SUV{sub mean} in PET2 (1.76 ± 0.35) as compared with that of PET0 (1.57 ± 0.31; p < 0.0001) and PET6 (1.69 ± 0.28; p = 0.0407). The same results were obtained when considering liver SUV{sub max} in PET2 (3.13 ± 0.67) as compared with that of PET0 (2.82 ± 0.64; p < 0.0001) and PET6 (2.96 ± 0.52; p = 0.0105). No significant differences were obtained when comparing mediastinum SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} in PET0, PET2 and PET6 (p > 0.05). Another finding is a relationship in PET0 between liver SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} with the stage, which was lower in those patients with advanced disease (r{sup 2} = 0.1456 and p = 0.0013 for SUV{sub mean} and r{sup 2} = 0.1277 and p = 0.0028 for SUV{sub max}). The results of our

  14. The effect of the ratio of standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy on growth performance, blood metabolites and hormones of lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lingfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 335 lactating sows (Landrace × Large White were used in two experiments to determine the optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID-Lys to metabolizable energy (ME for mixed parity sows during lactation. In Exp. 1, 185 sows (weighing an average of 256.2 ± 6.5 kg and having an average parity of 3.4 ± 0.3 were allocated to one of six experimental diets in a completely randomized block design within parity groups (1, 2, and 3+. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 3.06, 3.16, 3.20, 3.25, 3.30 or 3.40 Mcal/kg of ME and each diet was fed to the sows throughout a 28 day lactation. All diets provided a similar SID-lysine level (0.86%. As a result, the diets provided a SID-Lys:ME ratio of 2.81, 2.72, 2.69, 2.65, 2.61 or 2.53 g/Mcal ME. Sow feed intake was significantly (P P P P P P = 0.02; entire cohort, P P P P P P P = 0.04 were decreased as the SID-Lys:ME ratio of the diet increased. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (P = 0.02, estradiol (P P = 0.02 were increased as the SID-Lys:ME ratio in diet increased. Based on a broken-line model, the estimated SID-Lys:ME ratio to maximize litter weight gain was estimated to be 3.05 g/Mcal.

  15. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  16. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  17. Deformation Based Curved Shape Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demisse, Girum G; Aouada, Djamila; Ottersten, Bjorn

    2017-06-02

    In this paper, we introduce a deformation based representation space for curved shapes in Rn. Given an ordered set of points sampled from a curved shape, the proposed method represents the set as an element of a finite dimensional matrix Lie group. Variation due to scale and location are filtered in a preprocessing stage, while shapes that vary only in rotation are identified by an equivalence relationship. The use of a finite dimensional matrix Lie group leads to a similarity metric with an explicit geodesic solution. Subsequently, we discuss some of the properties of the metric and its relationship with a deformation by least action. Furthermore, invariance to reparametrization or estimation of point correspondence between shapes is formulated as an estimation of sampling function. Thereafter, two possible approaches are presented to solve the point correspondence estimation problem. Finally, we propose an adaptation of k-means clustering for shape analysis in the proposed representation space. Experimental results show that the proposed representation is robust to uninformative cues, e.g. local shape perturbation and displacement. In comparison to state of the art methods, it achieves a high precision on the Swedish and the Flavia leaf datasets and a comparable result on MPEG-7, Kimia99 and Kimia216 datasets.

  18. Quantitative analysis of tyrosinase transcripts in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M; Pisa, E K; Törmänen, V; Arstrand, K; Kågedal, B

    2000-07-01

    Tyrosinase is an enzyme unique to pigment-forming cells. Methods using this transcript for detection of melanoma cells in blood have given divergent results. Quantitative analytical procedures are therefore needed to study the analytical performance of the methods. Mononucleated cells were isolated by Percoll centrifugation. RNA was isolated by each of three methods: Ultraspec(TM)-II RNA isolation system, FastRNA(TM) GREEN Kit, and QIAamp RNA Blood Mini Kit. cDNA was synthesized using random hexamer primers. A tyrosinase-specific product of 207 bp was amplified by PCR. As an internal standard (and competitor) we used a 207-bp cDNA with a base sequence identical to the tyrosinase target except for a 20-bp probe-binding region. The PCR products were identified by 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-labeled probes specific for tyrosinase (5'DNP-GGGGAGCCTTGGGGTTCTGG-3') and internal standard (5'DNP-CGGAGCCCCGAAACCACATC-3') and quantified by ELISA. The calibration curves were linear and had a broad dynamic measuring range. A detection limit (2 SD above zero) of 48 transcripts/mL of blood was obtained from a low control. The analytical imprecision was 50% and 48% at concentrations of 1775 and 17 929 transcripts/mL (n = 12 and 14, respectively). With the cell line SK-Mel 28 added to blood and RNA extracted with the Ultraspec, Fast RNA, and QIAamp RNA methods, we found (mean +/- SD) 1716+/-1341, 2670+/-3174, and 24 320+/-5332 transcripts/mL of blood. Corresponding values were 527+/-497, 2497+/-1033, 14 930+/-1927 transcripts/mL of blood when the cell line JKM86-4 was added. One high-risk patient was followed by repeated analysis of tyrosinase transcripts in blood. The melanoma marker 5-S-cysteinyldopa in serum and urine was within reference values, but tyrosinase mRNA was slightly increased (120-168 transcripts/mL of blood). The tyrosinase mRNA increased to 1860 transcripts/mL concomitant with the increase in 5-S-cysteinyldopa; later a spleen metastasis was found. The results

  19. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ill patients. Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations The Foundation for America's Blood Centers Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations About Blood What is Blood? ...

  20. Evaluation of biomarker using two parameter bi-exponential ROC curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Pundir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curve is used for assessing the ability of a biomarker/screening test to discriminate between non-diseased and diseased subject. In this paper, the parametric ROC curve is studied by assuming two-parameter exponential distribution to the biomarker values. The ROC model developed under this assumption is called bi-exponential ROC (EROC model. Here, the research interest is to know how far the biomarker will make a distinction between diseased and non-diseased subjects when the gold standard is available using parametric EROC curve and its Area Under the EROC Curve (AUC.  Here, the standard error is used as an estimate of the precision of the accuracy measure AUC. The properties of EROC curve that explains the behavior of the EROC curve are also discussed. The AUC along with its asymptotic variance and confidence interval are derived.  

  1. Smarandache Curves In Terms of Sabban Frame of Fixed Pole Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Şenyurt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve interms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

  2. Change Curve of Urine HCG and β-HCG Levels in Normal Gestation in Fuzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dan; Zhao Meng; Lin Manjun

    2010-01-01

    To draw up the change curve of standardized urine HCG and β-HCG levels in normal gestation women in Fuzhou. The HCG and β-HCG levels in 180 normal pregnant women (gestational week 5-40) urine samples were detected by RIA and the urinary creatinine was also measured by enzymatic analysis. The standardized urine HCG and β-HCG levels were calculated by correction with urinary creatinine, and the change curves of standardized urine HCG and β-HCG throughout normal gestation were made. The results showed that the curves of standardized urine HCG and β-HCG were fitted normally (P<0.05), and the related coefficient (R2) were 0.628 and 0.702 respectively. The change curves of standardized urine HCG and β-HCG in normal gestation and changes of HCG in urine and serum in Fuzhou were matched with early reports in literature. (authors)

  3. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  4. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  5. Integration over Tropical Plane Curves and Ultradiscretization

    OpenAIRE

    Iwao, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    In this article we study holomorphic integrals on tropical plane curves in view of ultradiscretization. We prove that the lattice integrals over tropical curves can be obtained as a certain limit of complex integrals over Riemannian surfaces.

  6. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... Since M-curves play a special role in the topology of real algebraic varieties, it is useful to have a criterion for M-curves. It was proved earlier that a curve defined over R is an. M-curve if and only if its Jacobian is an M-variety [5]. We use this result of [5] and the. Picard bundle to prove that the n-th symmetric ...

  7. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Erdmann; Demetrio Humana; Samuel Franco Domínguez; Lorgio Mercado Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV) distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887) and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required...

  8. Modeling fertility curves in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Gayawan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of fertility patterns is an essential method researchers use to understand world-wide population patterns. Various types of fertility models have been reported in the literature to capture the patterns specific to developed countries. While much effort has been put into reducing fertility rates in Africa, models which describe the fertility patterns have not been adequately described. This article presents a flexible parametric model that can adequately capture the varying patterns of the age-specific fertility curves of African countries. The model has parameters that are interpretable in terms of demographic indices. The performance of this model was compared with other commonly used models and Akaike's Information Criterion was used for selecting the model with best fit. The presented model was able to reproduce the empirical fertility data of 11 out of 15 countries better than the other models considered.

  9. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  10. Separation control on curved boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Kumar, R.; Mathur, Manikandan

    2017-11-01

    Flow separation and its characteristics are an important consideration in the field of bluff body aerodynamics. Specifically, the location and slope of the separation, and the size of the re-circulation bubble that forms downstream of the bluff body significantly affect the resulting aerodynamic forces. Recent theories based on dynamical systems (Haller, 2004) have established criteria based on wall-based quantities that identify the location and slope of separation in unsteady flows. In this work, we adapt the closed-loop separation control algorithm proposed by Alam, Liu & Haller (2006) to curved boundaries, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the same via numerical simulations on the flow past a cylinder in the vortex-shedding regime. Using appropriately placed wall-based actuators that use inputs from shear stress sensors placed between the actuators, we demonstrate that the separation characteristics including the re-circulation bubble length, can be desirably modified.

  11. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  12. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  13. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  14. Legendre Elliptic Curves over Finite Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, Roland; Top, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    We show that every elliptic curve over a finite field of odd characteristic whose number of rational points is divisible by 4 is isogenous to an elliptic curve in Legendre form, with the sole exception of a minimal respectively maximal elliptic curve. We also collect some results concerning the

  15. Cubic spline functions for curve fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    FORTRAN cubic spline routine mathematically fits curve through given ordered set of points so that fitted curve nearly approximates curve generated by passing infinite thin spline through set of points. Generalized formulation includes trigonometric, hyperbolic, and damped cubic spline fits of third order.

  16. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  17. Holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds: Kuranishi structure

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This paper constructs a Kuranishi structure for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds. To avoid some technicalities of abstract Kuranishi structures, we embed our Kuranishi structure inside a moduli stack of curves. The construction also works for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in any compact symplectic manifold.

  18. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  19. Observational evidence of dust evolution in galactic extinction curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.zza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Casu, Silvia; Mulas, Giacomo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Zonca, Alberto, E-mail: cecchi-pestellini@astropa.unipa.it, E-mail: silvia@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: gmulas@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: azonca@oa-cagliari.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Strada Prov.le Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-04-10

    Although structural and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbons are known to respond to varying physical conditions, most conventional extinction models are basically curve fits with modest predictive power. We compare an evolutionary model of the physical properties of carbonaceous grain mantles with their determination by homogeneously fitting observationally derived Galactic extinction curves with the same physically well-defined dust model. We find that a large sample of observed Galactic extinction curves are compatible with the evolutionary scenario underlying such a model, requiring physical conditions fully consistent with standard density, temperature, radiation field intensity, and average age of diffuse interstellar clouds. Hence, through the study of interstellar extinction we may, in principle, understand the evolutionary history of the diffuse interstellar clouds.

  20. Modeling error distributions of growth curve models through Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    Growth curve models are widely used in social and behavioral sciences. However, typical growth curve models often assume that the errors are normally distributed although non-normal data may be even more common than normal data. In order to avoid possible statistical inference problems in blindly assuming normality, a general Bayesian framework is proposed to flexibly model normal and non-normal data through the explicit specification of the error distributions. A simulation study shows when the distribution of the error is correctly specified, one can avoid the loss in the efficiency of standard error estimates. A real example on the analysis of mathematical ability growth data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 is used to show the application of the proposed methods. Instructions and code on how to conduct growth curve analysis with both normal and non-normal error distributions using the the MCMC procedure of SAS are provided.

  1. Umbilical cord blood lactate: a valuable tool in the assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Staer-Jensen, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    asphyxia using ROC-curves, where an ABE value less than -12 was used as "gold standard" for significant intrapartum asphyxia. STUDY DESIGN: This is a descriptive study of umbilical cord arterial blood samples from 2554 singleton deliveries. The deliveries took place at the Department of Obstetrics.......83). ROC-curves suggested a lactate cut-off level of 8mmol/l for indicating intrapartum asphyxia. CONCLUSION: Lactate in arterial umbilical cord blood might be a more direct and accordingly more correct indicator of fetal asphyxia at delivery than pH and SBE (or ABE). Its potential as a predictor...... of neonatal outcome needs to be evaluated in future studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  2. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  3. Power forward curves: a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, Shankar

    1999-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on managerial application of power forward curves, and examines the determinants of electricity prices such as transmission constraints, its inability to be stored in a conventional way, its seasonality and weather dependence, the generation stack, and the swing risk. The electricity forward curve, classical arbitrage, constructing a forward curve, volatilities, and electricity forward curve models such as the jump-diffusion model, the mean-reverting heteroscedastic volatility model, and an econometric model of forward prices are examined. A managerial perspective of the applications of the forward curve is presented covering plant valuation, capital budgeting, performance measurement, product pricing and structuring, asset optimisation, valuation of transmission options, and risk management

  4. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  5. Impaired Curve Negotiation in Drivers with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergun Y Uç

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability to negotiate curves in drivers with Parkinson’s disease (PD. METHODS: Licensed active drivers with mild-moderate PD (n= 76; 65 male, 11 female and elderly controls (n= 51; 26 male, 25 female drove on a simulated 2-lane rural highway in a high-fidelity simulator scenario in which the drivers had to negotiate 6 curves during a 37-mile drive. The participants underwent motor, cognitive, and visual testing before the simulator drive. RESULTS: Compared to controls, the drivers with PD had less vehicle control and driving safety, both on curves and straight baseline segments, as measured by significantly higher standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP and lane violation counts. The PD group also scored lower on tests of motor, cognitive, and visual abilities. In the PD group, lower scores on tests of motion perception, visuospatial ability, executive function, postural instability, and general cognition, as well as a lower level of independence in daily activities predicted low vehicle control on curves. CONCLUSION: Drivers with PD had less vehicle control and driving safety on curves compared to controls, which was associated primarily with impairments in visual perception and cognition, rather than motor function

  6. The role of experience curves for setting MEPS for appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. - Highlights: • We integrate experience curves into life cycle cost calculations for MEPS. • For driers and refrigerators this results in at least twice the energy savings. • For flat panel televisions an experience curve is provided

  7. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Erdmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887 and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required for obtaining an EFV curve. Any commercial simulator able to model petroleum can be used for the simulation (HYSYS and CHEMCAD simulators were used here. Several types of petroleum and fractions were experimentally analysed for evaluating the proposed method; this data was then put into a process si-mulator (according to the proposed method to estimate the corresponding EFV curves. HYSYS- and CHEMCAD-estimated curves were compared to those produced by two traditional estimation methods (Edmister’s and Maswell’s methods. Simulation-estimated curves were close to average Edmister and Maxwell curves in all cases. The propo-sed method has several advantages; it avoids the need for experimentally obtaining an EFV curve, it does not de-pend on the type of experimental curve used to fit the model and it enables estimating several pressures by using just one experimental curve as data.

  8. Page curves for tripartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Zoe, Heeseung; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-01-01

    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A , B , and C ) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem. (paper)

  9. MAGNETIC FIELDS AND THE OUTER ROTATION CURVE OF M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Florido, E.; Battaner, E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations of the rotation curve of M31 show a rise of the outer part that cannot be understood in terms of standard dark matter models or perturbations of the galactic disk by M31's satellites. Here, we propose an explanation of this dynamical feature based on the influence of the magnetic field within the thin disk. We have considered standard mass models for the luminous mass distribution, a Navarro-Frenk-White model to describe the dark halo, and we have added up the contribution to the rotation curve of a magnetic field in the disk, which is described by an axisymmetric pattern. Our conclusion is that a significant improvement of the fit in the outer part is obtained when magnetic effects are considered. The best-fit solution requires an amplitude of ∼4 μG with a weak radial dependence between 10 and 38 kpc.

  10. An investigation of the effect of funding on the slope of the yield curve

    OpenAIRE

    D M Egginton; S G Hall

    1993-01-01

    Market practitioners often have a firm view that funding operations have clearly observable effects on the slope of the yield curve. The standard theory of the expectations model of the yield curve, however, suggests that the sole determinant of the slope of the yield curve is expectations of future short-rates and so funding policy, ceteris paribus, should have no effect. This paper develops a high frequency set of data for the UK yield curve. Principal components are used to decompose the y...

  11. Comparison of two methods to determine fan performance curves using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onma, Patinya; Chantrasmi, Tonkid

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates a systematic numerical approach that employs Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to obtain performance curves of a backward-curved centrifugal fan. Generating the performance curves requires a number of three-dimensional simulations with varying system loads at a fixed rotational speed. Two methods were used and their results compared to experimental data. The first method incrementally changes the mass flow late through the inlet boundary condition while the second method utilizes a series of meshes representing the physical damper blade at various angles. The generated performance curves from both methods are compared with an experiment setup in accordance with the AMCA fan performance testing standard.

  12. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  13. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  14. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  15. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toes. Let's find out more about each ingredient. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, ... after you are better, B cells can become memory cells that remember how to make the special ...

  16. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Donating Blood What's in this article? Who Can Donate Blood? Before Donating Are There Any Risks? Print en español Donar sangre According to the American Red Cross, there's a ...

  17. Vomiting Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if vomiting blood causes dizziness after standing, rapid, shallow breathing or other signs of shock. Call 911 ... severe blood loss or shock, such as: Rapid, shallow breathing Dizziness or lightheadedness after standing up Blurred ...

  18. Particles and Dirac-type operators on curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visinescu, Mihai

    2003-01-01

    We review the geodesic motion of pseudo-classical particles in curved spaces. Investigating the generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces, we express the constants of motion in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. Passing from the spinning spaces to the Dirac equation in curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space. From the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors of this space we construct three new Dirac-type operators which are equivalent with the standard Dirac operator. Finally the Runge-Lenz operator for the Dirac equation in this background is expressed in terms of the fourth Killing-Yano tensor which is not covariantly constant. As a rule the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors realize certain square roots of the metric tensor. Such a Killing-Yano tensor produces simultaneously a Dirac-type operator and the generator of a one-parameter Lie group connecting this operator with the standard Dirac one. On the other hand, the not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors are important in generating hidden symmetries. The presence of not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors implies the existence of non-standard supersymmetries in point particle theories on curved background. (author)

  19. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  20. MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA

  1. Evaluation of Effects of Warning Sign Position on Driving Behavior in Horizontal Sharp Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In present time, the guidelines on warning sign position in the China National Standard lack detailed and standard regulations of placing warning signs on sharp curves, which may cause road safety problems. Therefore, this paper briefly discussed how to optimize the position of a warning sign on a sharp curve through a driving simulator experiment. This study concluded that a warning sign placed at different positions prior to a sharp curve will have different influence ranges for drivers approaching and negotiating the curve. Meanwhile, different positions of a warning sign imposed different effect obviously on the adjustment of vehicle's lane position on sharp curves with the same radius, especially at the midpoint of a sharp curve. The evaluation results of five positions (0 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m in advance showed that only when the warning signs were placed 100 m or 200 m prior to sharp curves, can they achieve positive influence on driving behavior. On this basis, the authors look forward to providing rationalization proposals in selecting the best position of a warning sign on a sharp curve for the engineering implementation and national standard.

  2. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  3. Validation of the G.LAB MD2200 wrist blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension, the British Hypertension Society, and the International Organization for Standardization Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Han; Ye, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Da-Peng; Cheng, Kang; Zhang, Chun-Hai; Wan, Yi

    2017-04-01

    To validate the G.LAB MD2200 automated wrist blood pressure (BP) monitors according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010, the British Hypertension Society (BHS), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 81060-2:2013 protocols. The device was assessed on 33 participants according to the ESH requirements and was then tested on 85 participants according to the BHS and ISO 81060-2:2013 criteria. The validation procedures and data analysis followed the protocols precisely. The G.LAB MD2200 devices passed all parts of ESH-IP revision 2010 for both systolic and diastolic BP, with a device-observer difference of 2.15±5.51 and 1.51±5.16 mmHg, respectively. The device achieved A/A grading for the BHS protocol and it also fulfilled the criteria of ISO 81060-2:2013, with mean differences of systolic and diastolic BP between the device and the observer of 2.19±5.21 and 2.11±4.70 mmHg, respectively. The G.LAB MD2200 automated wrist BP monitor passed the ESH-IP revision 2010 and the ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol, and achieved the A/A grade of the BHS protocol, which can be recommended for self-measurement in the general population.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF BIOFEEDBACK SESSIONS IN CLOSED LOOP OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND PACED BREATHING ON SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL DURING STANDARD DRUG THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Belal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes of systolic blood pressure (SBP in biofeedback (BFB sessions with closed loop of paced breathing (PB and heart rate variability (HRV during standard drug therapy of arterial hypertension (AH was studied. 275 patients with 1-3 degree of AH (143 men and 132 women, mean age 58,55 ± 7,99 years was divided into two comparable groups: 1 - BFB (139 patients in investigated PB loop, 2 - control group (136 patients with BFB without PB. In both groups was performed 10 sessions of BFB. Changes of SBP depending on the stage and degree of AH, gender and age was assessed. BP was measured by the method of Korotkov’s with monometer Microlife BP AG1-20 in same conditions. Data were processed by parametric and nonparametric statistics. It is proved that the use of biofeedback in the loop of PB and HRV significantly (p < 0.01 exceeds in efficiency an isolated drug therapy in control of SBP at any stage and degree of AH in patients of both sexes in all age groups. Extent of the effect increases with the stage and degree of the disease and not related to the sex and age of the patient. Findings allow to recommend this technique in clinical practice.

  5. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision by...

  6. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  7. Sildenafil Increases the p50 and Shifts the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve to the Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shantol Sastrice; Pepple, Dagogo John

    2015-12-01

    Sildenafil (Viagra®) is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor that block the breakdown of cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) leading to relaxation of the smooth muscles of the corpus cavernous and an increase in blood flow resulting in penile erection. It is hypothesized that sildenafil will increase the release of oxygen from erythrocytes and shift the oxygen-hemoglobin curve to the right. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of varying doses of sildenafil on the p50 of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve in blood samples from eight (8) healthy adult male volunteers with normal hemoglobin HbAA. The hemox-analyzer was used to generate the p50 and the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves. The effect of different doses of sildenafil on the p50 values and shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin curve were the main outcome measures. Sildenafil caused a statistically significant increase in the p50 values and rightward shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Sildenafil caused a dose-dependent increase in the release of oxygen from the erythrocytes as shown by the increased p50 values and rightward shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Ellis SS and Pepple DJ. Sildenafil increases the p50 and shifts the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Simulation of a G-tolerance curve using the pulsatile cardiovascular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M.; Srinivasan, R.

    1985-01-01

    A computer simulation study, performed to assess the ability of the cardiovascular model to reproduce the G tolerance curve (G level versus tolerance time) is reported. A composite strength duration curve derived from experimental data obtained in human centrifugation studies was used for comparison. The effects of abolishing automomic control and of blood volume loss on G tolerance were also simulated. The results provide additional validation of the model. The need for the presence of autonomic reflexes even at low levels of G is pointed out. The low margin of safety with a loss of blood volume indicated by the simulation results underscores the necessity for protective measures during Shuttle reentry.

  9. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  10. Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de

    2008-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a

  11. Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.

  12. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth.

  13. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-06-14

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  14. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-09-28

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  15. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuhle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009 and 2 (2009/2011. Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth.

  16. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    and on the log of 305-d divided by day in lactation (linear and quadratic) were better than the Gamma function. A study of lactation curves in dairy cattle on farms in central Mexico showed that the Dijkstra function was superior to the Wood, Wilmink and Rook functions for describing the lactation curve (Val-. Arreola et al.

  17. Spectral Curves of Operators with Elliptic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chris Eilbeck

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer-algebra aided method is carried out, for determining geometric objects associated to differential operators that satisfy the elliptic ansatz. This results in examples of Lamé curves with double reduction and in the explicit reduction of the theta function of a Halphen curve.

  18. Inverse Problem for a Curved Quantum Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cardoulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian operator −Δ on a curved quantum guide in ℝ  n(n=2,3 with an asymptotically straight reference curve. We give uniqueness results for the inverse problem associated to the reconstruction of the curvature by using either observations of spectral data or a boot-strapping method.

  19. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  20. The Koch curve as a smooth manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Sniatycki, Jedrzej

    2008-01-01

    We show that there exists a homeomorphism between the closed interval [0,1] is contained in R and the Koch curve endowed with the subset topology of R 2 . We use this homeomorphism to endow the Koch curve with the structure of a smooth manifold with boundary

  1. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    There is a way to describe a family of plane curves different from that using Cartesian or po- lar co-ordinates. This is a trigonometric equation involving two angles. In this article, we highlight the fact that trigonometric equations are conve- nient to describe certain one-parameter families of plane curves. In some cases, the ...

  2. Heterozygote PCR product melting curve prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Zachary L; Palais, Robert; Kent, Jana; Wittwer, Carl T

    2014-03-01

    Melting curve prediction of PCR products is limited to perfectly complementary strands. Multiple domains are calculated by recursive nearest neighbor thermodynamics. However, the melting curve of an amplicon containing a heterozygous single-nucleotide variant (SNV) after PCR is the composite of four duplexes: two matched homoduplexes and two mismatched heteroduplexes. To better predict the shape of composite heterozygote melting curves, 52 experimental curves were compared with brute force in silico predictions varying two parameters simultaneously: the relative contribution of heteroduplex products and an ionic scaling factor for mismatched tetrads. Heteroduplex products contributed 25.7 ± 6.7% to the composite melting curve, varying from 23%-28% for different SNV classes. The effect of ions on mismatch tetrads scaled to 76%-96% of normal (depending on SNV class) and averaged 88 ± 16.4%. Based on uMelt (www.dna.utah.edu/umelt/umelt.html) with an expanded nearest neighbor thermodynamic set that includes mismatched base pairs, uMelt HETS calculates helicity as a function of temperature for homoduplex and heteroduplex products, as well as the composite curve expected from heterozygotes. It is an interactive Web tool for efficient genotyping design, heterozygote melting curve prediction, and quality control of melting curve experiments. The application was developed in Actionscript and can be found online at http://www.dna.utah.edu/hets/. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. A minicourse on moduli of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looijenga, E.

    2000-01-01

    These are notes that accompany a short course given at the School on Algebraic Geometry 1999 at the ICTP, Trieste. A major goal is to outline various approaches to moduli spaces of curves. In the last part I discuss the algebraic classes that naturally live on these spaces; these can be thought of as the characteristic classes for bundles of curves. (author)

  4. Sibling curves of polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in papers [2, 3] as a novel way to visualize the zeros of complex valued functions. In this paper, we continue the work done in those papers by focusing solely on polynomials. We proceed to prove that the number of sibling curves of a polynomial is the degree of the polynomial. Keywords: ...

  5. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  6. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  7. Single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoying Rong; Dewei Qi; Junyong Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of single curved fiber sedimentation under the gravity are simulated by using lattice Boltzmann method. The results of migration and rotation of the curved fiber at different Reynolds numbers are reported. The results show that the rotation and migration processes are sensitive to the curvature of the fiber.

  8. Quantum curves and conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    To a given algebraic curve we assign an infinite family of quantum curves (Schrödinger equations), which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, Virasoro singular vectors. For a spectral curve of a matrix model we build such quantum curves out of an appropriate representation of the Virasoro algebra, encoded in the structure of the α /β -deformed matrix integral and its loop equation. We generalize this construction to a large class of algebraic curves by means of a refined topological recursion. We also specialize this construction to various specific matrix models with polynomial and logarithmic potentials, and among other results, show that various ingredients familiar in the study of conformal field theory (Ward identities, correlation functions and a representation of Virasoro operators acting thereon, Belavin-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov equations) arise upon specialization of our formalism to the multi-Penner matrix model.

  9. Curved and conformal high-pressure vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Paul F.; Kuczek, Andrzej E.; Zhao, Wenping

    2016-10-25

    A high-pressure vessel is provided. The high-pressure vessel may comprise a first chamber defined at least partially by a first wall, and a second chamber defined at least partially by the first wall. The first chamber and the second chamber may form a curved contour of the high-pressure vessel. A modular tank assembly is also provided, and may comprise a first mid tube having a convex geometry. The first mid tube may be defined by a first inner wall, a curved wall extending from the first inner wall, and a second inner wall extending from the curved wall. The first inner wall may be disposed at an angle relative to the second inner wall. The first mid tube may further be defined by a short curved wall opposite the curved wall and extending from the second inner wall to the first inner wall.

  10. Nasal lavage, blood or sputum: Which is best for phenotyping asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, Camyla F; Amorim, Maria M F; Dracoulakis, Michel; Caetano, Lilian B; Santoro, Ilka L; Fernandes, Ana L G

    2017-05-01

    Determination of asthma phenotypes, particularly inflammatory phenotypes, helps guide treatment and management of this heterogeneous disease. Induced sputum cytology has been the gold standard for determination of inflammatory phenotypes, but sputum induction is fairly invasive and technically challenging. Blood and nasal lavage cytology have been suggested as substitutes, but have not been fully verified. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of blood and nasal lavage cytometry as indicators of inflammatory phenotypes in asthma. Clinical evaluation, Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and spirometry were performed for 121 adult asthma patients, and blood, nasal lavage and induced sputum samples were taken. Eosinophils and neutrophils were counted in three samples from each subject. Inflammatory phenotypes (eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed and paucicellular) and cells counts were analysed using Venn diagram and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, respectively. ACQ score, spirometry and bronchodilator response did not differ among subjects with different inflammatory phenotypes. Inflammatory phenotypes defined by nasal lavage cytometry were in better concordance than those defined by blood cell counts with phenotypes determined by sputum cytology, and were significantly correlated with sputum phenotypes. For eosinophilia, nasal lavage cytology showed better accuracy than blood cytology (area under the curve (AUC): 0.89 vs 0.65). For all phenotypes, sensitivity and positive and negative predictive power were higher for nasal lavage cytometry than for blood. Blood cell counts gave a high level of false positives for all inflammatory phenotypes. We recommend nasal lavage cytology over blood cell count as a substitute for sputum cytology to identify inflammatory phenotypes in asthma. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de

    2015-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  12. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de, E-mail: velosom@cdtn.br, E-mail: jrmattos@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  13. Radioimmunoassay screening and GC/MS confirmation of whole blood samples for drugs of abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiehler, V.R.; Sedgwick, P.

    From 1981 to 1984, an average of 300 radioimmunoassay screens on whole blood were performed each week in the authors laboratory. Most samples were screened for opiates phencyclidine and its analogs, barbiturates, and cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine. A commercially available radioimmunoassay was used with modifications to facilitate screening of whole blood. Increasing sample size increased the sensitivity of the assay. Changing reagent concentration (1:1 dilution), incubation time, sample matrix (water, urine, or blood), or fraction counted (precipitate or supernatant) did not affect the utility of the standard curve or the sensitivity of the assay. All positive results for phencyclidine, opiates, cocaine, and related compounds were confirmed by GC/MA. Barbiturate positives were confirmed by UV spectrophotometry.

  14. Stage discharge curve for Guillemard Bridge streamflow sation based on rating curve method using historical flood event data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, F C; Sidek, L M; Desa, M N; Arifin, K; Tosaka, H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the stage-discharge curves varies from water quality study, flood modelling study, can be used to project climate change scenarios and so on. As the bed of the river often changes due to the annual monsoon seasons that sometimes cause by massive floods, the capacity of the river will changed causing shifting controlled to happen. This study proposes to use the historical flood event data from 1960 to 2009 in calculating the stage-discharge curve of Guillemard Bridge located in Sg. Kelantan. Regression analysis was done to check the quality of the data and examine the correlation between the two variables, Q and H. The mean values of the two variables then were adopted to find the value of difference between zero gauge height and the level of zero flow, 'a', K and 'n' to fit into rating curve equation and finally plotting the stage-discharge rating curve. Regression analysis of the historical flood data indicate that 91 percent of the original uncertainty has been explained by the analysis with the standard error of 0.085.

  15. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  16. Prognosis of spontaneous thoracic curve correction after the selective anterior fusion of thoracolumbar/lumbar (Lenke 5C) curves in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkoylu, Alpaslan; Luk, Keith D K; Wong, Yat W; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2014-07-01

    Prognosis of minor lumbar curve correction after selective thoracic fusion in idiopathic scoliosis is well defined. However, the prognosis of minor thoracic curve after isolated anterior fusion of the major lumbar curve has not been well described. To define the prognosis of spontaneous thoracic curve correction after selective anterior fusion of the lumbar/thoracolumbar curve in idiopathic scoliosis. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis of the minor curve after selective anterior correction and fusion of the lumbar/thoracolumbar curve in idiopathic scoliosis. Idiopathic lumbar scoliosis patients treated with anterior spinal fusion. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 questionnaire was used as an outcome measure at the final follow-up. Twenty-eight patients were included in this study. Four patients were male, 24 patients were female, and average age at the time of surgery was 16 years. Mean follow-up was 48 months. According to the Lenke Classification, 22 patients were 5CN, 5 were 5C-, and 1 was 5C+. All operations were performed in the same institution. Standing long posterior-anterior and lateral radiographs were taken just before surgery, 1 week after surgery, and at final follow-up. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the lumbar (major) curve was 53° (standard deviation [SD]=8.6) and that of the thoracic (minor) curve was 38.4° (SD=6.24). The lumbar and thoracic curves were corrected to 10° (SD=7.6) and 25° (SD=8.3) postoperatively and measured 17° (SD=10.6) and 27° (SD=7.7), respectively, at the last follow-up. There was a significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative measurements of the minor curves (p.05). Regarding the overall sagittal balance, there was no significant difference between preoperative, early, and late postoperative measurements (p>.05). Selective anterior fusion of the major thoracolumbar/lumbar curve was an effective method for the treatment of Lenke Type 5C curves. Minor thoracic curves did not progress

  17. Blood pressure-to-height ratio for diagnosing hypertension in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ambarita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diagnosing hypertension in children and adolescents is not always straightforward. The blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR has been reported as a screening tool for diagnosing hypertension. Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of blood pressure-to-height ratio for evaluating hypertension in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 432 healthy adolescents aged 12-17 years in Singkuang, North Sumatera from April to May 2016. Blood pressure tables from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents were used as our standard of comparison. Sex-specific systolic and diastolic blood pressure-to-height ratios (SBPHR and DBPHR were calculated. ROC curve analyses were performed to assess the accuracy of BPHR for discriminating between hypertensive and non-hypertensive adolescents. Optimal thresholds of BPHR were determined and validated using 2x2 table analyses. Results The accuracies of BPHR for diagnosing hypertension were > 90% (P93%, and specificities in both sexes were all >81%. Positive predictive values for SBPHR and DBPHR were 38.7% and 45.2% in boys, respectively; and 55.9% and 42.4% in girls, respectively; negative predictive values in both sexes were all >97%, positive likelihood ratios in both sexes were all >5, and negative likelihood ratios in both sexes were all <1. Conclusion Blood pressure-to-height ratio is a simple screening tool with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing hypertension in adolescents.

  18. PulseCam: high-resolution blood perfusion imaging using a camera and a pulse oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mayank; Suliburk, James; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    Measuring blood perfusion is important in medical care as an indicator of injury and disease. However, currently available devices to measure blood perfusion like laser Doppler flowmetry are bulky, expensive, and cumbersome to use. An alternative low-cost and portable camera-based blood perfusion measurement system has recently been proposed, but such camera-only system produces noisy low-resolution blood perfusion maps. In this paper, we propose a new multi-sensor modality, named PulseCam, for measuring blood perfusion by combining a traditional pulse oximeter with a video camera in a unique way to provide low noise and high-resolution blood perfusion maps. Our proposed multi-sensor modality improves per pixel signal to noise ratio of measured perfusion map by up to 3 dB and improves the spatial resolution by 2 - 3 times compared to best known camera-only methods. Blood perfusion measured in the palm using our PulseCam setup during a post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) test replicates standard PORH response curve measured using laser Doppler flowmetry device but with much lower cost and a portable setup making it suitable for further development as a clinical device.

  19. Postattachment neutralization of a primary strain of HIV type 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is mediated by CD4-specific antibodies but not by a glycoprotein 120-specific antibody that gives potent standard neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, T L; Dimmock, N J

    2001-11-20

    De novo infecting HIV-1 or virus released from an infected cell in vivo attaches relatively quickly to a target cell, but the rate of fusion-entry of such virus is slow, with 50% entry taking > or =2 hr. It is thus desirable that antibodies stimulated by any vaccine or given in immunotherapy are able to neutralize not only free virus, but also virus attached to the target cell. Here we investigated postattachment neutralization (PAN) of a primary HIV-1 strain (JRCSF) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and of a T cell line-adapted strain (IIIB) in C8166 T lymphoblastoid cells, using the highly potent gp120-specific human monoclonal b12 monoclonal IgG, and monoclonal antibodies specific for the CD4 primary cell receptor. In addition, we improved the experimental protocols of related studies by using a pulse of antibody, thus avoiding the complication of neutralizing progeny virus. We found that b12 IgG PAN was inefficient, with PAN of IIIB needing a 1000-fold greater concentration of antibody than was required for standard neutralization, and PAN of JRCSF being detected erratically only at 4 degrees C and unphysiologically high concentrations (300 microg/ml). Nonetheless, under identical conditions a 10-microg/ml pulse of the CD4-specific MAb Q4120 gave up to 99% PAN of JRCSF, and more than 95% even when added 3 hr after infection at 37 degrees C. Possible mechanisms by which PAN by CD4- specific antibodies is mediated are discussed. We suggest that such anti-CD4 antibodies should be considered as a component of HIV-1 immunotherapy.

  20. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  1. Blood wastage management in a regional blood transfusion centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadeh Shahshahani, H; Taghvai, N

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of blood component wastage before and after interventions at Yazd Blood Transfusion Center. The growing need for blood components along with blood safety issues and rising costs constantly pressurise blood centres to improve their efficiency. Reducing the quantity of discarded blood at all stages of the supply chain can decrease the total costs. Data on discarded blood components were extracted from the database of Yazd Blood Transfusion Center. Multiple interventions, including implementation of wastage management standard operating procedures and reduction of red blood cells (RBCs) inventory level, were implemented. Discard rates of blood components in the 3 years after intervention (2013-2015) were compared with the discard rates in the 3 years before interventions. The total wastage rate of blood components decreased by almost 60%. Discard rates of RBCs, platelets and plasma decreased from 9·7%, 18·5% and 5·4% to 2·9%, 10·5% and 2·3%, (P supply saving. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Fellowship training as a modifier of the surgical learning curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, FJ; Cronin, AM; Klein, EA; Pontes, JE; Scardino, PT; Vickers, AJ

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of fellowship training on the learning curve for cancer control after open radical prostatectomy. Methods The study cohort included 7765 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons at four major U.S. academic medical centers between 1987 and 2003. Multivariable models were used to determine the learning curves for biochemical recurrence and surgical margins, separately for surgeons with and without fellowship training, with adjustment for standard prognostic variables. Results Initial results of fellowship and non-fellowship trained surgeons were similar (5-year probability of recurrence for first case 19.4% vs 18.3%, respectively; absolute difference −1.1%; 95% CI −5.5% to 3.0%; p=0.7). However, the rate of learning was faster among fellowship trained surgeons (p=0.006), resulting in superior cancer control overall for fellowship trained surgeons (p=0.001; difference 4.7%; 95% CI 2.6% to 7.4%). In contrast, fellowship trained surgeons started off with superior positive margin rates (p=0.005; 36% vs 42%; absolute difference 6%; 95% CI 1% to 10%), but there was no obvious difference in the subsequent learning curve (p=0.9). Conclusions The learning curve for biochemical recurrence depends on surgical training, whereas the learning curve for surgical margins does not. This suggests that improvements in margin rates result from reflection on specific aspects of surgical procedure, while improvements in biochemical recurrence occur by some general process of improved surgical technique. Further research into the mechanisms of surgical learning is warranted. PMID:20520043

  3. Modelling curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloninko K.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the issue of functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. Settlement of the problem, and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks. According to its nature, the market economy is unstable and is in constant movement. Economy has an effective instrument for explanation of changes in economic environment; this tool is called the modelling of economic processes. The modelling of economic processes depends first and foremost on the building of economic model which is the base for the formalization of economic process, that is, the building of mathematical model. The effective means for formalization of economic process is the creation of the model of hypothetic or imaginary economy. The building of demand model is significant for the market of goods and services. The problem includes the receiving (as the result of modelling definite functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand according to which one can determine their mathematical model. Another problem lies in obtaining majorant properties of curves of joint demand on the market of goods and services. Analysis of the latest researches and publications. Many domestic and foreign scientists dedicated their studies to the researches and building of the models of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. In spite of considerable work of the scientists, such problems as functional properties of the curves and their practical use in modelling. The purpose of the article is to describe functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand on the market of goods and services on the base of modelling of their building. Scientific novelty and practical value. The theoretical regulations (for functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand received as a result of the present research, that is convexity, give extra practical possibilities in a microeconomic

  4. Study and program implementation of transient curves' piecewise linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yang; Zu Hongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transient curves are essential for the stress analysis of related equipment in nuclear power plant (NPP). The actually operating data or the design transient data of a NPP usually consist of a large number of data points with very short time intervals. To simplify the analysis, transient curves are generally piecewise linearized in advance. Up to now, the piecewise linearization of transient curves is accomplished manually, Purpose: The aim is to develop a method for the piecewise linearization of transient curves, and to implement it by programming. Methods: First of all, the fitting line of a number of data points was obtained by the least square method. The segment of the fitting line is set while the accumulation error of linearization exceeds the preset limit with the increasing number of points. Then the linearization of subsequent data points was begun from the last point of the preceding curve segment to get the next segment in the same way, and continue until the final data point involved. Finally, averaging of junction points is taken for the segment connection. Results: A computer program named PLTC (Piecewise Linearization for Transient Curves) was implemented and verified by the linearization of the standard sine curve and typical transient curves of a NPP. Conclusion: The method and the PLTC program can be well used to the piecewise linearization of transient curves, with improving efficiency and precision. (authors)

  5. Detecting Methemoglobinemia in Animals with a Drop of Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni G Patton

    Full Text Available A major concern during pesticide development and use is the impact on non-target species, such as raptors or domestic cats and dogs. Sodium nitrite and para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP are two toxicants currently being studied for the control of invasive species, such as starlings and feral swine. When given to an animal these compounds oxidize hemoglobin, which renders it unable to carry oxygen resulting in methemoglobinemia. This study developed a method to estimate methemoglobin levels in mammals and birds by examining the efficacy of sodium nitrite to induce the conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin. Varying concentrations of sodium nitrite were added to aliquots of coyote, vole, feral swine, starling, and duck blood, collected from captive animals. The blood samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically to determine percent methemoglobin and digitally to determine red color values (RCV associated with different methemoglobin levels. The avian and mammalian blood reached 100% methemoglobin levels at 200 mM and 15 mM sodium nitrite, respectively. All animals had similar RCV for a given percent methemoglobin. In conclusion, this study developed a procedure to quickly determine methemoglobin levels in mammals and birds. Furthermore, percent methemoglobin can be estimated with one standard curve from any animal species and an image of a blood spot. The technique will be useful during field studies, in agricultural areas, or in a veterinarian's office for the rapid diagnosis of methemoglobinemia in non-target animals that have eaten toxicants/baits or baited animals.

  6. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  7. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amount of blood given. Although rare, a hemolytic transfusion reaction can occur when transfused red cells are damaged ... center staff needs to be aware of this reaction and take precautions if you undergo subsequent transfusions. Viral infection transmission . Since blood is a biological ...

  8. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  9. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  10. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  11. Morse theory on timelike and causal curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)

  12. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus' Forgetting Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M J; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus' classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point.

  13. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus’ classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point. PMID:26148023

  14. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus' Forgetting Curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap M J Murre

    Full Text Available We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus' classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point.

  15. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  16. Reflected Light Curves of Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.; Matthews, J.; Kuschnig, R.; Seager, S.

    The planned launches of ultra-precise photometric satellites such as MOST, COROT and MONS should provide the first opportunity to study the reflected light curves from extrasolar planets. To predict the capabilities of these missions, we have constructed a series of models of such light curves, improving upon the Monte Carlo simulations by Seager et al. (2000). These models include more realistic features such limb darkening of the star and broad band photometry. For specific models, the resulting planet light curves exhibit unique behavior with the variation of radius, inclination and presence or absence of clouds.

  17. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...... to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted...

  18. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Lemming, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted on the Nordic power exchange

  19. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  20. A procedure for the improvement in the determination of a TXRF spectrometer sensitivity curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennun, Leonardo; Sanhueza, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    A simple procedure is proposed to determine the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer sensitivity curve; this procedure provides better accuracy and exactitude than the standard established method. It uses individual pure substances instead of the use of vendor-certified values of reference calibration standards, which are expensive and lack any method to check their quality. This method avoids problems like uncertainties in the determination of the sensitivity curve according to different standards. It also avoids the need for validation studies between different techniques, in order to assure the quality of their TXRF results. (author)

  1. A procedure for the improvement in the determination of a TXRF spectrometer sensitivity curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennun, Leonardo; Sanhueza, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    A simple procedure is proposed to determine the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer sensitivity curve; this procedure provides better accuracy and exactitude than the standard established method. It uses individual pure substances instead of the use of vendor-certified values of reference calibration standards, which are expensive and lack any method to check their quality. This method avoids problems like uncertainties in the determination of the sensitivity curve according to different standards. It also avoids the need for validation studies between different techniques, in order to assure the quality of their TXRF results.

  2. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  3. Technological change in energy systems. Learning curves, logistic curves and input-output coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Haoran; Koehler, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Learning curves have recently been widely adopted in climate-economy models to incorporate endogenous change of energy technologies, replacing the conventional assumption of an autonomous energy efficiency improvement. However, there has been little consideration of the credibility of the learning curve. The current trend that many important energy and climate change policy analyses rely on the learning curve means that it is of great importance to critically examine the basis for learning curves. Here, we analyse the use of learning curves in energy technology, usually implemented as a simple power function. We find that the learning curve cannot separate the effects of price and technological change, cannot reflect continuous and qualitative change of both conventional and emerging energy technologies, cannot help to determine the time paths of technological investment, and misses the central role of R and D activity in driving technological change. We argue that a logistic curve of improving performance modified to include R and D activity as a driving variable can better describe the cost reductions in energy technologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the top-down Leontief technology can incorporate the bottom-up technologies that improve along either the learning curve or the logistic curve, through changing input-output coefficients. An application to UK wind power illustrates that the logistic curve fits the observed data better and implies greater potential for cost reduction than the learning curve does. (author)

  4. Soil Water Thermodynamic to Unify Water Retention Curve by Pressure Plates and Tensiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eBraudeau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pressure plate method is a standard method for measuring the pF curves, also called soil water retention curves, in a large soil moisture range from saturation to a dry state corresponding to a tension pressure of near 1500 kPa. However, the pressure plate can only provide discrete water retention curves represented by a dozen measured points. In contrast, the measurement of the soil water retention curves by tensiometer is direct and continuous, but limited to the range of the tensiometer reading: from saturation to near 70-80 kPa. The two methods stem from two very different concepts of measurement and the compatibility of both methods has never been demonstrated. The recently established thermodynamic formulation of the pedostructure water retention curve, will allow the compatibility of the two curves to be studied, both theoretically and experimentally. This constitutes the object of the present article. We found that the pressure plate method provides accurate measurement points of the pedostructure water retention curve h(W, conceptually the same as that accurately measured by the tensiometer. However, contrarily to what is usually thought, h is not equal to the applied air pressure on the sample, but rather, is proportional to its logarithm, in agreement with the thermodynamic theory developed in the article. The pF curve and soil water retention curve, as well as their methods of measurement are unified in a same physical theory. It is the theory of the soil medium organization (pedostructure and its interaction with water. We show also how the hydrostructural parameters of the theoretical curve equation can be estimated from any measured curve, whatever the method of measurement. An application example using published pF curves is given.

  5. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  6. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  7. Safety evaluation of curve warning speed signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a review of a research effort to evaluate the safety implications of advisory speeds at horizontal curve locations on Oregon rural two-lane highways. The primary goals of this research effort were to characterize driving operatio...

  8. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  9. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  10. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1994-11-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs

  11. On ``minimally curved spacetimes'' in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh

    1997-01-01

    We consider a spacetime corresponding to uniform relativistic potential analogus to Newtonian potential as an example of ``minimally curved spacetime''. We also consider a radially symmetric analogue of the Rindler spacetime of uniform proper acceleration relative to infinity.

  12. Quaternion orders, quadratic forms, and Shimura curves

    CERN Document Server

    Alsina, Montserrat

    2004-01-01

    Shimura curves are a far-reaching generalization of the classical modular curves. They lie at the crossroads of many areas, including complex analysis, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic geometry, algebra, and arithmetic. The text provides an introduction to the subject from a theoretic and algorithmic perspective. The main topics covered in it are Shimura curves defined over the rational number field, the construction of their fundamental domains, and the determination of their complex multiplication points. The study of complex multiplication points in Shimura curves leads to the study of families of binary quadratic forms with algebraic coefficients and to their classification by arithmetic Fuchsian groups. In this regard, the authors develop a theory full of new possibilities which parallels Gauss' theory on the classification of binary quadratic forms with integral coefficients by the action of the modular group. Each topic covered in the book begins with a theoretical discussion followed by carefully worked...

  13. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  14. Procedures for setting curve advisory speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The procedures described in this handbook are intended to improve consistency in curve signing and driver compliance with the advisory speed. The handbook describes guidelines for determining when an advisory speed is needed, criteria for identifying...

  15. Testicular blood flow in varicocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Teruaki; Hirokawa, Makoto.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotopic scrotal angiography was applied for study of testicular blood flow of patients with varicocele. Following iv. bolus injection of 10 ∼ 20 mCi of Tc human serum albumine, Tc RBC or Tc pertechnetate, time activity curve of radioactivity at corresponding bilateral areas of scrotum was simultaneously generated and compared. Eighty-four patients with overt varicocele (grade 2 and 3) at left side only, were selected for the present study and eight healthy young volunteers were studied as a control group. Three patterns of time activity curves were recognized. They are as follows. Type 1, where radioactivity was accumulated quickly in left side and then decreased gradually. Bilateral time activity curves were asymmetrical. Type 2, where time activity curves rose gradually and to a higher level at the left side than at the right side. Type 3, where bilateral time activity curves increased gradually, and symmetrically. All of the control group showed the same pattern as Type 3. Of the 84 patients examined, 34 patients showed Type 1, including 7 with grade 2 and 27 with grade 3. Twenty-four patients showed Type 2. consisting of 12 with grade 2 and 12 with grade 3. Twenty-six patients showed Type 3, consisting of 14 with grade 2 and 12 with grade 3. We presumed the following about testicular blood flow in varicocele: Type 1 pattern shows retrograde blood flow from the renal vein to the internal spermatic vein, Type 2 pattern shows poor venous return through the internal spermatic vein and Type 3 pattern shows good venous return though the presence of dilatated pampiniform plexus. (author)

  16. Liquefaction Probability Curves for Surficial Geologic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Liquefaction probability curves that predict the probability of surface manifestations of earthquake-induced liquefaction are developed for 14 different surficial geologic deposits. The geologic units include alluvial fan, beach ridge, river delta, eolian dune, point bar, floodbasin, natural river levee, abandoned river channel, deep-water lake, lagoonal, sandy artificial fill, and valley train deposits. Probability is conditioned on earthquake magnitude and peak ground acceleration. Curves are developed for water table depths of 1.5 and 5.0 m. Probabilities were derived from complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) that were computed from 935 cone penetration tests. Most of the curves can be fit with a 3-parameter logistic function, which facilitates computations of probability. For natural deposits with a water table at 1.5 m depth and subjected to an M7.5 earthquake with a PGA = 0.25 g, probabilities range from 0.5 for fluvial point bar, barrier island beach ridge, and deltaic deposits. Retrospective predictions of liquefaction during historical earthquakes based on the curves compare favorably to post-earthquake observations. We also have used the curves to assign ranges of liquefaction probabilities to the susceptibility categories proposed by Youd and Perkins (1978) for different geologic deposits. For the earthquake loading and conditions described above, probabilities range from 0-0.08 for low, 0.09-0.30 for moderate, 0.31-0.62 for high, to 0.63-1.00 for very high susceptibility. Liquefaction probability curves have two primary practical applications. First, the curves can be combined with seismic source characterizations to transform surficial geologic maps into probabilistic liquefaction hazard maps. Geographic specific curves are clearly desirable, but in the absence of such information, generic liquefaction probability curves provide a first approximation of liquefaction hazard. Such maps are useful both

  17. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  18. Curves along which plane waves can interfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, S.N.; Machover, M.

    1977-07-01

    Partial results are given on a conjecture in inverse scattering theory concerning the interference of two-dimensional plane waves. The conjecture states that an odd number of plane waves of the same frequency can only cancel each other at isolated points and not along a simple continuous curve. It is partially confirmed here for curves which are nearly flat at some point. An analysis is also made for various possible nodes for an even number of plane waves.

  19. [Biomechanic principles of the sagittal compensating curve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubein-Meesenburg, D; Nägerl, H; Fanghänel, J

    1990-07-01

    The alignment of the buccal teeth along the compensating curve is of functional importance. It is closely related with the functional gear system of anterior and posterior guidance. Measurements have shown that individual differences between masticatory systems are mainly attributable to functional parameters. Purely skeletal parameters are of comparatively little variability. The compensating curve may be regarded as a guiding element within a master gear systems which includes the gear system of anterior and posterior guidance.

  20. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus? Forgetting Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus’ classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbingha...

  1. Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ujiie, Yoshiki; Kato, Takeo; Sato, Koichiro; Matsuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribu...

  2. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  3. Potential Energy Curve of N2 Revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špirko, Vladimír; Xiangzhu, L.; Paldus, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 4 (2011), s. 327-341 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GAP208/11/0436 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : reduced multireference coupled-cluster method * reduced potential curve method * nitrogen molecule potential energy curves Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  4. Learning curves in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A

    2015-08-01

    Learning curves, which graphically show the relationship between learning effort and achievement, are common in published education research but are not often used in day-to-day educational activities. The purpose of this article is to describe the generation and analysis of learning curves and their applicability to health professions education. The authors argue that the time is right for a closer look at using learning curves-given their desirable properties-to inform both self-directed instruction by individuals and education management by instructors.A typical learning curve is made up of a measure of learning (y-axis), a measure of effort (x-axis), and a mathematical linking function. At the individual level, learning curves make manifest a single person's progress towards competence including his/her rate of learning, the inflection point where learning becomes more effortful, and the remaining distance to mastery attainment. At the group level, overlaid learning curves show the full variation of a group of learners' paths through a given learning domain. Specifically, they make overt the difference between time-based and competency-based approaches to instruction. Additionally, instructors can use learning curve information to more accurately target educational resources to those who most require them.The learning curve approach requires a fine-grained collection of data that will not be possible in all educational settings; however, the increased use of an assessment paradigm that explicitly includes effort and its link to individual achievement could result in increased learner engagement and more effective instructional design.

  5. Verified Indifferentiable Hashing into Elliptic Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Barthe, Gilles; Grégoire, Benjamin; Heraud, Sylvain; Olmedo, Federico; Zanella-Béguelin, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Many cryptographic systems based on elliptic curves are proven secure in the Random Oracle Model, assuming there exist probabilistic functions that map elements in some domain (e.g. bitstrings) onto uniformly and independently distributed points in a curve. When implementing such systems, and in order for the proof to carry over to the implementation, those mappings must be instantiated with concrete constructions whose behavior does not deviate significantly from rand...

  6. Constructing elliptic curves from Galois representations

    OpenAIRE

    Snowden, Andrew; Tsimerman, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Given a non-isotrivial elliptic curve over an arithmetic surface, one obtains a lisse $\\ell$-adic sheaf of rank two over the surface. This lisse sheaf has a number of straightforward properties: cyclotomic determinant, finite ramification, rational traces of Frobenius, and somewhere not potentially good reduction. We prove that any lisse sheaf of rank two possessing these properties comes from an elliptic curve.

  7. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G

    2015-11-03

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5.

  8. Environmental bias and elastic curves on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guven, Jemal; María Valencia, Dulce; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of an elastic curve bound to a surface will reflect the geometry of its environment. This may occur in an obvious way: the curve may deform freely along directions tangent to the surface, but not along the surface normal. However, even if the energy itself is symmetric in the curve's geodesic and normal curvatures, which control these modes, very distinct roles are played by the two. If the elastic curve binds preferentially on one side, or is itself assembled on the surface, not only would one expect the bending moduli associated with the two modes to differ, binding along specific directions, reflected in spontaneous values of these curvatures, may be favored. The shape equations describing the equilibrium states of a surface curve described by an elastic energy accommodating environmental factors will be identified by adapting the method of Lagrange multipliers to the Darboux frame associated with the curve. The forces transmitted to the surface along the surface normal will be determined. Features associated with a number of different energies, both of physical relevance and of mathematical interest, are described. The conservation laws associated with trajectories on surface geometries exhibiting continuous symmetries are also examined. (paper)

  9. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5curves. If 2curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  10. Piecewise power laws in individual learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Yoni; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    The notion that human learning follows a smooth power law (PL) of diminishing gains is well-established in psychology. This characteristic is observed when multiple curves are averaged, potentially masking more complex dynamics underpinning the curves of individual learners. Here, we analyzed 25,280 individual learning curves, each comprising 500 measurements of cognitive performance taken from four cognitive tasks. A piecewise PL (PPL) model explained the individual learning curves significantly better than a single PL, controlling for model complexity. The PPL model allows for multiple PLs connected at different points in the learning process. We also explored the transition dynamics between PL curve component pieces. Performance in later pieces typically surpassed that in earlier pieces, after a brief drop in performance at the transition point. The transition rate was negatively associated with age, even after controlling for overall performance. Our results suggest at least two processes at work in individual learning curves: locally, a gradual, smooth improvement, with diminishing gains within a specific strategy, which is modeled well as a PL; and globally, a discrete sequence of strategy shifts, in which each strategy is better in the long term than the ones preceding it. The piecewise extension of the classic PL of practice has implications for both individual skill acquisition and theories of learning.

  11. Global experience curves for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    In order to forecast the technological development and cost of wind turbines and the production costs of wind electricity, frequent use is made of the so-called experience curve concept. Experience curves of wind turbines are generally based on data describing the development of national markets, which cause a number of problems when applied for global assessments. To analyze global wind energy price development more adequately, we compose a global experience curve. First, underlying factors for past and potential future price reductions of wind turbines are analyzed. Also possible implications and pitfalls when applying the experience curve methodology are assessed. Second, we present and discuss a new approach of establishing a global experience curve and thus a global progress ratio for the investment cost of wind farms. Results show that global progress ratios for wind farms may lie between 77% and 85% (with an average of 81%), which is significantly more optimistic than progress ratios applied in most current scenario studies and integrated assessment models. While the findings are based on a limited amount of data, they may indicate faster price reduction opportunities than so far assumed. With this global experience curve we aim to improve the reliability of describing the speed with which global costs of wind power may decline

  12. Stenting for curved lesions using a novel curved balloon: Preliminary experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Hideshi; Higaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Fujii, Takanari; Fujimoto, Kazuto

    2015-08-01

    Stenting may be a compelling approach to dilating curved lesions in congenital heart diseases. However, balloon-expandable stents, which are commonly used for congenital heart diseases, are usually deployed in a straight orientation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of stenting with a novel curved balloon considered to provide better conformability to the curved-angled lesion. In vitro experiments: A Palmaz Genesis(®) stent (Johnson & Johnson, Cordis Co, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) mounted on the Goku(®) curve (Tokai Medical Co. Nagoya, Japan) was dilated in vitro to observe directly the behavior of the stent and balloon assembly during expansion. Animal experiment: A short Express(®) Vascular SD (Boston Scientific Co, Marlborough, MA, USA) stent and a long Express(®) Vascular LD stent (Boston Scientific) mounted on the curved balloon were deployed in the curved vessel of a pig to observe the effect of stenting in vivo. In vitro experiments: Although the stent was dilated in a curved fashion, stent and balloon assembly also rotated conjointly during expansion of its curved portion. In the primary stenting of the short stent, the stent was dilated with rotation of the curved portion. The excised stent conformed to the curved vessel. As the long stent could not be negotiated across the mid-portion with the balloon in expansion when it started curving, the mid-portion of the stent failed to expand fully. Furthermore, the balloon, which became entangled with the stent strut, could not be retrieved even after complete deflation. This novel curved balloon catheter might be used for implantation of the short stent in a curved lesion; however, it should not be used for primary stenting of the long stent. Post-dilation to conform the stent to the angled vessel would be safer than primary stenting irrespective of stent length. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Power Curves in a Wind Turbine Array: A Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul

    The impact of measuring a power curve inside a wind turbine array is investigated using computational fluid dynamics. The array consists of five aligned rotors that yaw with the free-stream wind direction. The flow-field in front of a wind turbine array changes with wind direction and hence...... the individual power output of each turbine. By incorporating the current IEC standards on power performance measurements, the bias in the power performance of turbines in an array over an isolated rotor is determined. The power change depends on the position of the turbine in the array and reaches maximally 9...

  14. Curved characteristics best suited for Growth rates, Relative strength and Performance Time of female Olympic weightlifters

    OpenAIRE

    EBADA, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify Growth rates, Relative strength, and performance time for female lifters and defining Curved characteristics best suited for growth rates, relative strength, and performance Time of female Olympic weightlifters and evaluate the performance of snatch and Clean & Jerk for female lifters, coaches use the curved characteristics as standard guide them through planning and preparing training programs. The study Applied on a sample of 88 female lifter participants...

  15. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a doctor immediately. There have been many research advances that have improved the prevention and treatment of blood clots. Some current treatments include: Anticoagulants - medicine that prevents clots from forming Thrombolytics - medicine that ...

  16. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen (hemoglobinopathies) Iron deficiency Liver disease Spleen removal Presence of ... in which there is excessive breakdown of hemoglobin ( thalassemia ) The presence of cells called burr cells may ...

  17. Effects of Aggregation on Blood Sedimentation and Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhbanov, Alexander; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test has been used for over a century. The Westergren method is routinely used in a variety of clinics. However, the mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation remains unclear, and the 60 min required for the test seems excessive. We investigated the effects of cell aggregation during blood sedimentation and electrical conductivity at different hematocrits. A sample of blood was drop cast into a small chamber with two planar electrodes placed on the bottom. The measured blood conductivity increased slightly during the first minute and decreased thereafter. We explored various methods of enhancing or retarding the erythrocyte aggregation. Using experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, we show that the initial increase in blood conductivity was indeed caused by aggregation, while the subsequent decrease in conductivity resulted from the deposition of erythrocytes. We present a method for calculating blood conductivity based on effective medium theory. Erythrocytes are modeled as conducting spheroids surrounded by a thin insulating membrane. A digital camera was used to investigate the erythrocyte sedimentation behavior and the distribution of the cell volume fraction in a capillary tube. Experimental observations and theoretical estimations of the settling velocity are provided. We experimentally demonstrate that the disaggregated cells settle much slower than the aggregated cells. We show that our method of measuring the electrical conductivity credibly reflected the ESR. The method was very sensitive to the initial stage of aggregation and sedimentation, while the sedimentation curve for the Westergren ESR test has a very mild slope in the initial time. We tested our method for rapid estimation of the Westergren ESR. We show a correlation between our method of measuring changes in blood conductivity and standard Westergren ESR method. In the future, our method could be examined as a potential means of accelerating

  18. On algebraic cycles on complex Abelian schemes over smooth projective curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeev, S G

    2008-01-01

    If the Hodge conjecture holds for some generic (in the sense of Weil) geometric fibre X s of an Abelian scheme π:X→C over a smooth projective curve C, then numerical equivalence of algebraic cycles on X coincides with homological equivalence. The Hodge conjecture for all complex Abelian varieties is equivalent to the standard conjecture B(X) of Lefschetz type on the algebraicity of the Hodge operator * for all Abelian schemes π:X→C over smooth projective curves. We investigate some properties of the Gauss-Manin connection and Hodge bundles associated with Abelian schemes over smooth projective curves, with applications to the conjectures of Hodge and Tate

  19. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  20. Development of the curve of Spee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Steven D; Caspersen, Matthew; Hardinger, Rachel R; Franciscus, Robert G; Aquilino, Steven A; Southard, Thomas E

    2008-09-01

    Ferdinand Graf von Spee is credited with characterizing human occlusal curvature viewed in the sagittal plane. This naturally occurring phenomenon has clinical importance in orthodontics and restorative dentistry, yet we have little understanding of when, how, or why it develops. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding by examining the development of the curve of Spee longitudinally in a sample of untreated subjects with normal occlusion from the deciduous dentition to adulthood. Records of 16 male and 17 female subjects from the Iowa Facial Growth Study were selected and examined. The depth of the curve of Spee was measured on their study models at 7 time points from ages 4 (deciduous dentition) to 26 (adult dentition) years. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare changes in the curve of Spee depth between time points. For each subject, the relative eruption of the mandibular teeth was measured from corresponding cephalometric radiographs, and its contribution to the developing curve of Spee was ascertained. In the deciduous dentition, the curve of Spee is minimal. At mean ages of 4.05 and 5.27 years, the average curve of Spee depths are 0.24 and 0.25 mm, respectively. With change to the transitional dentition, corresponding to the eruption of the mandibular permanent first molars and central incisors (mean age, 6.91 years), the curve of Spee depth increases significantly (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 1.32 mm. The curve of Spee then remains essentially unchanged until eruption of the second molars (mean age, 12.38 years), when the depth increases (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 2.17 mm. In the adolescent dentition (mean age, 16.21 years), the depth decreases slightly (P = 0.0009) to a mean maximum depth of 1.98 mm, and, in the adult dentition (mean age 26.98 years), the curve remains unchanged (P = 0.66), with a mean maximum depth of 2.02 mm. No significant differences in curve of Spee development were found between

  1. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  2. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  3. Intra-patient variability of FDG standardized uptake values in mediastinal blood pool, liver, and myocardium during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Yi, Hyun Kyung; Lim, Chae Hong; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Moon, Seung Hwan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated. The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUV{sub mean} of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p = 0.019). SUV{sub mean} of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUV{sub mean} of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r = -0.547, p < 0.001; r = -0.502, p < 0.001). Positive myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed in interim and final scans than in the baseline scan, but there was no significant association between the MBP and liver uptake and myocardial uptake. The SUV of the liver was not significantly changed during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL, whereas the MBP SUV of the interim scan decreased slightly. However, the SUV of the reference organs may be affected by tumor burden, and this should be considered when assessing follow-up scans. Although myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed after R-CHOP chemotherapy, it did not affect the SUV of the MBP and liver.

  4. Intra-patient variability of FDG standardized uptake values in mediastinal blood pool, liver, and myocardium during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Yi, Hyun Kyung; Lim, Chae Hong; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Moon, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated. The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUV mean of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p = 0.019). SUV mean of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUV mean of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r = -0.547, p < 0.001; r = -0.502, p < 0.001). Positive myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed in interim and final scans than in the baseline scan, but there was no significant association between the MBP and liver uptake and myocardial uptake. The SUV of the liver was not significantly changed during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL, whereas the MBP SUV of the interim scan decreased slightly. However, the SUV of the reference organs may be affected by tumor burden, and this should be considered when assessing follow-up scans. Although myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed after R-CHOP chemotherapy, it did not affect the SUV of the MBP and liver

  5. 21 CFR 640.6 - Modifications of Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modifications of Whole Blood. 640.6 Section 640.6...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.6 Modifications of Whole Blood. Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, of a supplement to...

  6. 21 CFR 640.33 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.33 Section 640.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from...

  7. How much blood is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos-Pinto, M.M.P.; Cadena, M.; Santos, N.; Fernandes, T.S.; Borges, E.; Amaral, A., E-mail: marcelazoo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2015-10-15

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates. (author)

  9. Lenke 5C Curves in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Anterior vs Posterior Selective Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yulei; Weng, Xisheng; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Jianguo; Shen, Jianxiong; Qiu, Guixing

    2016-03-01

    The optimal treatment of Lenke 5C curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is still unclear. To compare the outcomes and the spontaneous correction behavior between anterior and posterior selective fusion techniques in a large case series. Demographic and surgical data for patients with Lenke 5C curves treated with anterior or posterior fusion were collected from July 2002 to September 2011. Clinical assessment and radiographic parameters were compared preoperatively and postoperatively and at a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Fifty-three Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases with an average follow-up of 4 years (range, 2-9.6 years) were included. The clinical scores were similar between the 2 groups. Postoperative major thoracic curvature changes were similar. The minor thoracic curve demonstrated a higher spontaneous correction rate in the posterior group. At follow-up, the minor thoracic curve showed a greater loss of correction in the posterior group, and finally both groups were comparable. Surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, and complications were comparable. A total of 5 patients had a final thoracic curve larger than the preoperative degrees. Selective fusion of the major thoracolumbar/lumbar curve in Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be achieved by anterior and posterior techniques. The spontaneous correction of the unfused thoracic curve was comparable after an average of 4 years follow-up.

  10. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Pinto, M M P; Cadena, M; Santos, N; Fernandes, T S; Borges, E; Amaral, A

    2015-10-01

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates.

  11. Carbon Intensities of Economies from the Perspective of Learning Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While some countries have achieved considerable development, many others still lack accessto the goods and services considered standard in the modern society. As CO2 emissions and development are often correlated, this paper employs the theoretical background of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC and the learning curves toolkit to analyze how carbon intensities have changed as countries move towards higher development (and cumulative wealth levels. The EKC concept is then tested with the methodology of learning curves for the period between 1971 and 2010, so as to capture a dynamic picture of emissions trends and development. Results of both analyses reveal that empirical data fails to provide direct evidence of an EKC for emissions and development. The data does show, however, an interesting pattern in the dispersion of emissions levels for countries within the same HDI categories. While data does not show that countries grow more polluting during intermediary development stages, it does provide evidence that countries become more heterogeneous in their emission intensities as they develop, later re-converging to lower emission intensities at higher HDI levels. Learning rates also indicate heterogeneity among developing countries and relative convergence among developed countries. Given the heterogeneity of development paths among countries, the experiences of those which are managing to develop at low carbon intensities can prove valuable examples for ongoing efforts in climate change mitigation, especially in the developing world.

  12. Numerical analysis of heat-curved I-girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Gergess

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat curving is a practical and economical process used by steel fabricators for curving structural steel. In this method, the flange edges of a fabricated straight girder are asymmetrically heated to induce residual curvature on cooling. Available analytical methods for predicting the resulting residual stress, strain and curvature are complex and iterative because of the need to account for material and geometric non-linearity. This paper presents a single-step, non-iterative, numerical procedure for determining the effects of heat-curving on residual stress and strain based on a previously developed simplified analysis. Thermal equilibrium equations for idealized heating profiles are first recast in a general parametric form and then solved numerically for standard heating width and temperature using modern technical computing. The resulting solutions are expressed as polynomial functions to allow the solution space for the residual curvature to be graphically represented. Curvature predictions using this simplified approach are shown to be within 11% of measured values and within 5% of values obtained using more rigorous numerical methods.

  13. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montés-Micó, Robert; Esteve Taboada, José J; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R 2 ≥ 0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets ( p emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones.

  14. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Montés-Micó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods. The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results. A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2≥0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results reveal that the replacement of a word or several words by detailed or nondetailed emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones.

  15. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montés-Micó, Robert; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2 ≥ 0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones. PMID:29082040

  16. Experimental study of curved guide tubes for pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Milora, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of curved guide tubes for transporting frozen hydrogen pellets offers great flexibility for pellet injection into plasma devices. While this technique has been previously employed, an increased interest in its applicability has been generated with the recent ASDEX Upgrade experimental data for magnetic high-field side (HFS) pellet injection. In these innovative experiments, the pellet penetration appeared to be significantly deeper than for the standard magnetic low-field side injection scheme, along with corresponding greater fueling efficiencies. Thus, some of the major experimental fusion devices are planning experiments with HFS pellet injection. Because of the complex geometries of experimental fusion devices, installations with multiple curved guide tube sections will be required for HFS pellet injection. To more thoroughly understand and document the capability of curved guide tubes, an experimental study is under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In particular, configurations and pellet parameters applicable for the DIII-D tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were simulated in laboratory experiments. Initial test results with nominal 2.7- and 10-mm-diam deuterium pellets are presented and discussed

  17. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of the blood. (a) The source blood shall be collected as prescribed in § 640.4. (b) Source blood may also be...

  18. 21 CFR 640.14 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.14 Section 640.14 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter and...

  19. Peripheral blood collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franken, Carmen; Remy, Sylvie; Lambrechts, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    - and glucocorticoid-mediated networks, and specifically interleukin-8 (IL-8). These findings suggest that even short bench times affect gene expression, requiring to carry out blood collection in a strictly standardized way. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.......A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of m......RNA in the presence of different stabilization buffers (TempusTM Blood RNA tube and RNAlater® Stabilization Reagent). Microarray analyzes showed significant changes over short periods of time in expression of a considerate part of the transcriptome (2356 genes) with a prominent role for NFкB-, cancer...

  20. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  2. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  3. Laboratory testing of hemolytic properties of materials that come in contact with blood: Comparative application testing method’s two variants according to the standard ASTM F756 in accordance with ISO 10993-4

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Katarina B.; Božanić Vojislav N.; Stanojević Jasna V.; Milićević Vesna K.; Ilić Bojan J.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of hemolytic material in contact with blood may produce increased levels of blood cell lysis and increased levels of plasma hemoglobin. This may induce toxic effects or other effects which may stress the kidneys or other organs. In this paper two variants of in vitro method and obtained results’ comparison were presented for testing of hemolytic properties of six raw materials (Polipropylene Moplen EP 540 P, Policarbonate colorless 164 R-112, Policarbonate brown 164 R-51918, Poli...

  4. Twists of genus three curves and their Jacobians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meagher, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    An algebraic curve is a curve defined over by polynomial equations with coefficients in a given field. This thesis treats problems which arise from genus three curves over finite fields. An important tool for treating such curves is the Jacobian variety of the curve. One problem is how many points

  5. Some issues using the master curve concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehrig, H.W.; Boehmert, J.

    2000-01-01

    The state-of-the-art structural integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is based on the Reference Temperature Concept, initially proposed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). An experimentally ensured fracture toughness curve was constructed as the lower boundary of the available fracture toughness, K IC , of RPV steels. This conservative curve describing K IC as a function of temperature is used as a universal curve. For different RPV steels the curve is placed on the temperature axis over a reference temperature. In the initial state the nil-ductility-transition temperature (RT NDT ) is applied as reference temperature. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift caused by the neutron irradiation is determined by Charpy V impact tests. The Charpy V DBTT shift is one of the results of the RPV surveillance programmes. The concept based on the ASME curve has the following disadvantages: - it is not consistent since it links fracture mechanical and technological parameters and - margins of safety and uncertainties cannot be quantified. (orig.)

  6. Brachistochrone curve of a fluid filled cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Srikanth; Raja, Sharan; Mahapatra, Pallab Sinha; Panchangnula, Mahesh

    2017-11-01

    The brachistochrone curve for a non-dissipative particle tries to maximize inertia of the particle but for a fluid filled cylinder, increasing inertia would amount to high dissipative losses. Hence the trade off between inertia and dissipation plays a vital role in the dynamics of a fluid filled cylinder. This trade off manifests itself in the form of an integro-differential equation governing the angular acceleration of the cylinder. Here, we compute the brachistochrone curve using optimal control principles and investigate the effect of the fore mentioned trade off on the deviation of the brachistochrone curve from that of a non-dissipative particle. Also, we investigate the effects of the non-dimensional parameters of the problem on the shape of the brachistochrone curve. We analyze the dissipation rate during the cylinder's motion and show that energy based arguments don't hold good for a fluid filled cylinder. We then analyze the stability of the time varying fluid flow in the cylinder and find an admissible region for the terminal point which would ensure the stability of the fluid flow as the cylinder rolls over the brachistochrone curve.

  7. Applications for curved glass in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Neugebauer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last years an increase of the number of building projects with built-in curved glass can be observed. The applications can principally be curved monolithic glass, laminated safety glass or insulated glass. This fact makes it absolute of interest to make more investigations in this field. The investigations can be focused on e.g. the process of the bending of the glass to bring it into a certain shape, or the very difficult topic of pre-stressing it. The state of the art of the production process of such glass shows some different ways to produce curved glass. The most used way is to bend the glass at a high temperature of more than 550° Celsius. Another kind of curved glass can be achieved in combination with the laminating process. With the cooling down at the end of the laminating process the interlayer becomes stiff enough to hold the shape by activated shear forces between the glass layers. Another possibility is to produce flat glass and bend it while mounting the glass. The question how to pre-stress curved glass is on the very first beginning of investigations. All these different processes are on the first view very easy but very difficult in the detail.

  8. Comparison of power curve monitoring methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambron Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance monitoring is an important aspect of operating wind farms. This can be done through the power curve monitoring (PCM of wind turbines (WT. In the past years, important work has been conducted on PCM. Various methodologies have been proposed, each one with interesting results. However, it is difficult to compare these methods because they have been developed using their respective data sets. The objective of this actual work is to compare some of the proposed PCM methods using common data sets. The metric used to compare the PCM methods is the time needed to detect a change in the power curve. Two power curve models will be covered to establish the effect the model type has on the monitoring outcomes. Each model was tested with two control charts. Other methodologies and metrics proposed in the literature for power curve monitoring such as areas under the power curve and the use of statistical copulas have also been covered. Results demonstrate that model-based PCM methods are more reliable at the detecting a performance change than other methodologies and that the effectiveness of the control chart depends on the types of shift observed.

  9. Critical Factors for Inducing Curved Somatosensory Saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamami Nakano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We are able to make a saccade toward a tactile stimuli to one hand, but trajectories of many saccades curved markedly when the arms were crossed (Groh & Sparks, 2006. However, it remains unknown why some curved and others did not. We therefore examined critical factors for inducing the curved somatosensory saccades. Participants made a saccade as soon as possible from a central fixation point toward a tactile stimulus delivered to one of the two hands, and switched between arms-crossed and arms-uncrossed postures every 6 trials. Trajectories were generally straight when the arms were uncrossed, but all participants made curved saccades when the arms were crossed (12–64%. We found that the probability of curved saccades depended critically on the onset latency: the probability was less than 5% when the latency was larger than 250 ms, but the probability increased up to 70–80% when the onset latency was 160 ms. This relationship was shared across participants. The results suggest that a touch in the arms-crossed posture was always mapped to the wrong hand in the initial phase up to 160 ms, and then remapped to the correct hand during the next 100 ms by some fundamental neural mechanisms shared across participants.

  10. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  11. Quantification and optimization of Candida albicans DNA in blood samples using Real- Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabili, Mojtaba; Ashrafi, Mohsen; Janbabaie, Ghasem; Hedayati, Mohamad Taghi; Ali-Moghaddam, Kamran; Shokohi, Tahereh

    2013-10-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a major cause of candidaemia in people with impaired immunity. Blood culture is a "gold standard" for candidaemia detection but is time-consuming and relatively insensitive. We established a real-time PCR assay for C. albicans detection in blood by LightCycler PCR and melting curve analysis. Five milliliter blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with 10(0)-10(6) C. albicans cells to determine the detection limit of our method. DNA was extracted from whole blood using glass beads and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden Germany). DNA from C. albicans isolates were amplified with primers and inserted into Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α.1 cells with the TA cloning vector (Invitrogen). The plasmid was used for standardization and optimization. A quantitative PCR assay with the LightCycler amplification and detection system based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with two different specific probes was established. To assess the precision and reproducibility of real-time PCR the intra-assay precision was determined in six consecutive assays. No cross-reactivity of the hybridization probes with the DNA of non-C. albicans species or human genomic DNA was observed, which confirmed its 100% specificity. The minimum limit detected was one C. albicans cell or 10(0) CFU/ml (10 fg) per PCR reaction. The real-time PCR efficiency rate for Candida was high (E = 1.95). Melting curve analysis of C. albicans showed a specific melting peak temperature of 65.76 °C. The real-time PCR assay we developed is highly specific and sufficiently sensitive to detect the fungal load for early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  12. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks

  13. Standard-model bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan; Donagi, Ron; Ovrut, Burt; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We describe a family of genus one fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds with fundamental group ${\\mathbb Z}/2$. On each Calabi-Yau $Z$ in the family we exhibit a positive dimensional family of Mumford stable bundles whose symmetry group is the Standard Model group $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ and which have $c_{3} = 6$. We also show that for each bundle $V$ in our family, $c_{2}(Z) - c_{2}(V)$ is the class of an effective curve on $Z$. These conditions ensure that $Z$ and $V$ can be used for a phenomenologically relevant compactification of Heterotic M-theory.

  14. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  15. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-06-19

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence.

  16. Asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.B.; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P.; Hagel, K.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; Mabiala, J.; May, L.W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G.A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron–proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N−Z)/A . An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei

  17. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  18. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  19. Differential geometry of curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Students and professors of an undergraduate course in differential geometry will appreciate the clear exposition and comprehensive exercises in this book that focuses on the geometric properties of curves and surfaces, one- and two-dimensional objects in Euclidean space. The problems generally relate to questions of local properties (the properties observed at a point on the curve or surface) or global properties (the properties of the object as a whole). Some of the more interesting theorems explore relationships between local and global properties. A special feature is the availability of accompanying online interactive java applets coordinated with each section. The applets allow students to investigate and manipulate curves and surfaces to develop intuition and to help analyze geometric phenomena.

  20. The many radial access learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegass, William B

    2017-04-01

    The radial approach to endovascular procedures has a series of learning curves: diagnostic heart catheterization, low-risk settings and "straightforward" percutaneous coronary intervention, high-risk settings, and complex coronary intervention, and peripheral vascular angiography and intervention. For diagnostic and low-risk interventional procedures, incremental improvements in technical success and safety are observed in the initial 200 procedures for most operators compared to highly experienced operators. Formal didactic training and ongoing support/review from an experienced radial operator(s) may expedite surmounting the series of radial learning curves while maintaining optimal procedural success and safety. Advances in technology and understanding will require the most experienced radial operators to continually embrace their next learning curve. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.