WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard culture techniques

  1. [Comparison study on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and standard culture technique in detecting mycobacterium tuberculosis to diagnose of joint tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-sheng; Wen, Jian-min; Lü, Wei-xin; Lou, Si-quan; Jiao, Chang-geng; Yang, Su-min; Xu, Hai-bin; Duan, Yong-zhuang

    2009-07-01

    To study the role of PCR technique in detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the samples from joint tuberculosis, and to evaluate the clinical value of PCR in diagnosis of joint tuberculosis. From June 1993 to August 2001, PCR was used to detect DNA of mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the standard culture was applied to detect mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis were respectively blindly by the two techniques in the samples obtained from 95 patients with joint tuberculosis (55 males and 40 females, the age ranging from 2 to 75 years, with an average of 34 years). The positive rate of mycobacterium tuberculosis detection was calculated. In the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis, positive rate was 82% (78/95) in PCR technique, and 16% (15/95) in standard culture technique. There were statistical differences between the two groups (chi2=67, Ptechnique is a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the samples of joint tuberculosis, showing more marked advantages than the standard culture technique. It is valuable in the early rapid diagnosis and differential diagnosis of joint tuberculosis.

  2. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  3. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in naturally infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: comparison of a standard co-culture technique with a newly developed microculture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, B; Baur, A; Neundorfer, M; Jahn, G

    1991-05-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 29 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were cultured by two different methods. One was the standard co-culture technique, the other a newly developed microculture method. In this assay 10(6) PBMCs were cultivated in 250 microliters medium, no activating agents or allogeneic cells were present. P24 antigen production measured by this method was found in 7 out of 11 PBMC cultures of patients in the Walter Reed (WR) stage 1 or 2, whereas only 4 samples were positive by the co-culture procedure. Cultures from patients in the later stages of the disease (WR 5/6) showed a higher p24 production by the co-culture method than by the microculture assay. It is assumed that rapidly growing HIV strains can be better assessed by the co-culture method which may select for these strains. P24 expression can be more easily obtained by the microculture technique even in cases where slowly replicating strains may be present. In conclusion, results from the microculture procedure described may be a useful supplementation to findings observed by the co-culture method.

  4. Cultural models of linguistic standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Geeraerts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In line with well-known trends in cultural theory (see Burke et al., 2000, Cognitive Linguistics has stressed the idea that we think about social reality in terms of models – ‘cultural models’ or ‘folk theories’: from Holland & Quinn (1987 over Lakoff (1996 and Palmer (1996 to Dirven et al. (2001a, 2001b, Cognitive linguists have demonstrated how the technical apparatus of Cognitive Linguistics can be used to analyze how our conception of social reality is shaped by underlying patterns of thought. But if language is a social and cultural reality, what are the models that shape our conception of language? Specifically, what are the models that shape our thinking about language as a social phenomenon? What are the paradigms that we use to think about language, not primarily in terms of linguistic structure (as in Reddy 1979, but in terms of linguistic variation: models about the way in which language varieties are distributed over a language community and about the way in which such distribution should be evaluated?In this paper, I will argue that two basic models may be identified: a rationalist and a romantic one. I will chart the ways in which they interact, describe how they are transformed in the course of time, and explore how the models can be used in the analysis of actual linguistic variation.

  5. ELISA technique standardization for strongyloidiasis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huapaya, P.; Espinoza, I.; Huiza, A.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sevilla, C.

    2002-01-01

    To standardize ELISA technique for human Strongyloides stercoralis infection diagnosis a crude antigen was prepared using filariform larvae obtained from positive stool samples cultured with charcoal. Harvested larvae were crushed by sonication and washed by centrifugation in order to obtain protein extracts to be used as antigen. Final protein concentration was 600 μg/mL. Several kinds of ELISA plates were tested and antigen concentration, sera dilution, conjugate dilution and cut off were determined to identify infection. Sera from patients with both hyper-infection syndrome and intestinal infection demonstrated by parasitological examination were positive controls and sera from people living in non-endemic areas with no infection demonstrated by parasitological examination were negative controls. Best values were 5 μg/mL for antigen, 1/64 for sera, 1/1000 for conjugate; optical density values for positive samples were 1,2746 (1,1065 - 1,4206, DS = 0,3284) and for negative samples 0,4457 (0,3324 - 0,5538, DS = 0,2230). Twenty sera samples from positive subjects and one hundred from negative subjects were examined, obtaining 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The results show this technique could be useful as strongyloidiasis screening test in population studies

  6. Inoculation Technique for Fungus Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Ramon M.

    1972-01-01

    A plastic straw and wood applicator stick serve as a simple, inexpensive, and disposable inoculation unit for fungal studies. The method gives a uniform and intact inoculum. The technique is especially useful because a large number of agar plates can be inoculated rapidly. Images PMID:5059618

  7. Basic Techniques in Mammalian Cell Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Katy; May, Kristin M

    2016-11-01

    Cultured mammalian cells are used extensively in cell biology studies. It requires a number of special skills in order to be able to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of the cells in culture. This unit describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. The Standard of Management and Application of Cultural Heritage Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ya Ning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using digital technology for cultural heritage documentation is a global trend in the 21 st century. Many important techniques are currently under development, including 3D digital imaging, reverse engineering, GIS (Geographic Information Systems etc. However, no system for overall management or data integration is yet available. Therefore, we urgently need such a system to efficiently manage and interpret data for the preservation of cultural heritages. This paper presents a digitizing process developed in Taiwan by the authors. To govern and manage cultural property, three phases of property conservation, registration, restoration and management, has been set up along a timeline. In accordance with the laws of cultural property, a structural system has been built for project management, including data classification and data interpretation with self-documenting characteristics. Through repository information and metadata, a system catalogue (also called data dictionary (Figure 1 was created. The primary objective of the study is to create an integrated technology for an efficient management of databases. Several benefits could be obtained from this structural standard: (1 cultural heritage management documentation can be centralized to minimize the possibility of data re-entry resulting inconsistency, and also to facilitate simultaneous updating of data; (2 since multiple data can be simultaneously retrieved and saved in real time, the incidence of errors can be reduced; (3 this system could be easily tailored to meet the administrative requirements for the standardization of documentation exchanged between cultural properties institutions and various county and city governments.

  9. Comparison of chromosome analysis using cell culture by coverslip technique with flask technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajapala, Suraphan; Buranawut, Kitti; NiwatArunyakasemsuk, Md

    2014-02-01

    To determine accuracy rate ofchromosome study from amniotic cellculture by coverslip technique compared with flask technique and to compared timing ofamniotic cell culture, amount ofamniotic cell culture media and cost ofamniotic cell culture. Cross sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Phramongkutklao Hospital. Subjects: 70 pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis at Phramongkutklao Hospital during November 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008. Amniotic cell culture by flask technique and coverslip technique. Accuracy of amniotic cell culture for chromosome study by coverslip technique compared with flask technique. Totally 70 pregnant women who underwent to amniocentesis and dividedamniotic fluid to cell culture by flask technique and coverslip technique. 69 samples had similar resultfrom both techniques. The only one sample had cell culture failure inboth methods due to blood contamination. Accuracy in coverslip technique was 100% compared with flask technique. In timing of amniotic cell culture, amount ofamniotic cell culture media and cost of amniotic cell culture between 2 methods that coverslip technique was lesser than flask technique. There is statistically significant of accuracy in chromosome result between coverslip technique and flask technique. Coverslip technique was lesser than flask technique in timing, amniotic cell culture media and costs ofamniotic cell culture.

  10. Extra thin alginate film: an efficient technique for protoplast culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, P K; Sharma, Madhu; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports an efficient protoplast culture technique, the "extra thin alginate film" technique. The development of this improved method of protoplast culture was an outcome of an assessment of the efficiency and shortcomings of various protoplast culture techniques. The efficiency of this technique was evaluated with two model plant systems, viz., Nicotiana tabacum and Lotus corniculatus, and a comparison was made with the "thin alginate layer" technique, another efficient protoplast culture system. Results indicate that the culture technique with extra thin alginate film is as efficient as the technique with thin alginate layer, with many additional advantages. The present innovation overcomes most of the limitations of protoplast culture techniques described so far and can now be applied to a wide variety of crops to check its general applicability.

  11. An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

  12. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some application areas of video compression focused on the problem of optimizing storage space and transmission bandwidth (BW). The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is an integral part of video and image compression, which is used in Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG) encoding standards.

  13. A microlagoon technique for the culture of mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, C. D., Jr.; Peddrew, K. H.

    1968-01-01

    Technique obtains micropartitioning in a simple and reproducible manner by forming a field of tiny ponds or lagoons on the surface of a suitable culturing vessel. The technique allows free access of the common culture to all parts of the field.

  14. Human mixed lymphocyte cultures. Evaluation of microculture technique utilizing the multiple automated sample harvester (MASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, G. B.; Strong, D. M.; Ahmed, A.; Green, S. S.; Sell, K. W.; Hartzman, R. J.; Bach, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Use of lymphocyte cultures for in vitro studies such as pretransplant histocompatibility testing has established the need for standardization of this technique. A microculture technique has been developed that has facilitated the culturing of lymphocytes and increased the quantity of cultures feasible, while lowering the variation between replicate samples. Cultures were prepared for determination of tritiated thymidine incorporation using a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). Using this system, the parameters that influence the in vitro responsiveness of human lymphocytes to allogeneic lymphocytes have been investigated. PMID:4271568

  15. Profound improvements of isolated microspores culture techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of sampling stages, physical conditions (like temperature), culture conditions, embryo long-distance transportation methodology and plantlet regeneration on isolated microspores from donor plants in field. Results indicated that if microspores were sampled in bud stage instead of blooming stage to ...

  16. The matter of technique. Cultural and aesthetic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Parra Valencia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, thinking about technique, runs several scenarios that integrate forms of apprehension of the human and its integration into the cultural evolution. The technique overlaps the use of objects and devices, as well as coding systems that allow a social articulation of a zitgeist of the the contemporary, whether at a discursive level or in the socio-economic and cultural practices. This paper aims to present an overview about contemporary meanings of the concept of technique, based on etymological details and historical contextualization in order to find a functional transversality linking it to aesthetic axes in an expanded sense, defining a cultural appropriation of the phenomenon .

  17. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  18. The study of cultural objects by nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Tulio A.

    2000-01-01

    A survey is given of the techniques that are used at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina for the characterization and study of cultural and archaeological specimens. A short history of these activities is also given. (author)

  19. Application of Hanging Drop Technique for Kidney Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Wang, Ximing; Boone, Jasmine; Wie, Jin; Yip, Kay-Pong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Lei; Liu, Ruisheng

    2017-01-01

    The hanging drop technique is a well-established method used in culture of animal tissues. However, this method has not been used in adult kidney tissue culture yet. This study was to explore the feasibility of using this technique for culturing adult kidney cortex to study the time course of RNA viability in the tubules and vasculature, as well as the tissue structural integrity. In each Petri dish with the plate covered with sterile buffer, a section of mouse renal cortex was cultured within a drop of DMEM culture medium on the inner surface of the lip facing downward. The tissue were then harvested at each specific time points for Real-time PCR analysis and histological studies. The results showed that the mRNA level of most Na+ related transporters and cotransporters were stably maintained within 6 hours in culture, and that the mRNA level of most receptors found in the vasculature and glomeruli were stably maintained for up to 9 days in culture. Paraffin sections of the cultured renal cortex indicated that the tubules began to lose tubular integrity after 6 hours, but the glomeruli and vasculatures were still recognizable up to 9 days in culture. We concluded that adult kidney tissue culture by hanging drop method can be used to study gene expressions in vasculature and glomeruli. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  1. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening

  2. Standardization of P-33 by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available and Isotopes 60 (2004) 465?468 The standardization of 33P by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique B.R.S. Simpson*, W.M. Morris Radioactivity Standards Laboratory, CSIR?NML, 15 Lower Hope Road, Rosebank, Cape Town 7700, South Africa Abstract The activity... allowed). 2. Review of the TDCR efficiency calculation technique A LS source is viewed by a three-phototube detection system and the double-tube coincidence counting rate Nd and the triple-tube rate Nt are recorded simulta- neously. If N0 is the 33P...

  3. [How to write an andrological paper: standardization, mechanics and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Jin-Chun

    2010-12-01

    Andrological research papers not only reflect the current status and academic level of andrology, but also constitute an important communication platform for researchers and clinicians engaged in this field and contribute significantly to the development of andrology. It would be made easier to write a high-quality andrological paper once the author observes the basic requirements of research papers, adheres to the use of standard scientific terminology, knows the special writing mechanics, and equips himself with some essential writing techniques. Based on the long experience of editorship, we present a detailed introduction of the standardization, mechanics and techniques of writing an andrological paper.

  4. Paediatric sutureless circumcision-an alternative to the standard technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Circumcision is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in male children. A range of surgical techniques exist for this commonly performed procedure. The aim of this study is to assess the safety, functional outcome and cosmetic appearance of a sutureless circumcision technique. METHODS: Over a 9-year period, 502 consecutive primary sutureless circumcisions were performed by a single surgeon. All 502 cases were entered prospectively into a database including all relevant clinical details and a review was performed. The technique used to perform the sutureless circumcision is a modification of the standard sleeve technique with the use of a bipolar diathermy and the application of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) to approximate the tissue edges. RESULTS: All boys in this study were pre-pubescent and the ages ranged from 6 months to 12 years (mean age 3.5 years). All patients had this procedure performed as a day case and under general anaesthetic. Complications included: haemorrhage (2.2%), haematoma (1.4%), wound infection (4%), allergic reaction (0.2%) and wound dehiscence (0.8%). Only 9 (1.8%) parents or patients were dissatisfied with the cosmetic appearance. CONCLUSION: The use of 2-OCA as a tissue adhesive for sutureless circumcisions is an alternative to the standard suture technique. The use of this tissue adhesive, 2-OCA, results in comparable complication rates to the standard circumcision technique and results in excellent post-operative cosmetic satisfaction.

  5. Creating Standardized Video Recordings of Multimodal Interactions across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth; Bee, Nikolaus

    2009-01-01

    the literature is often too anecdotal to serve as the basis for modeling a system’s behavior, making it necessary to collect multimodal corpora in a standardized fashion in different cultures. In this chapter, the challenges of such an endeavor are introduced and solutions are presented by examples from a German...

  6. Household Work as an Ordeal: Culture of Standards Versus Standardization of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J.; Clignet, Remi

    1984-01-01

    By viewing housework as simply a way in which men oppress women, much understanding of how different cultures mediate between the natural and civilized worlds is lost. Simply rejecting housework as a valid task may also move societies further into the world of consumerism and control by large corporations. (IS)

  7. A novel wireless modulation technique for inter-standard communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkaoui, A.; Haartsen, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique is presented with permits transceivers of different radio standards to communicate with each other. Applications are found in unlicensed bands where radios using different technologies, like for example Bluetooth, ZigBee, or WLAN IEEE 802.11, have to share the same radio spectrum. If

  8. Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassant, Lunes

    This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

  9. In vitro spermatogenesis using an organ culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokonishi, Tetsuhiro; Sato, Takuya; Katagiri, Kumiko; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Research on in vitro spermatogenesis has a long history and remained to be an unaccomplished task until very recently. In 2010, we succeeded in producing murine sperm from primitive spermatogonia using an organ culture method. The fertility of the sperm or haploid spermatids was demonstrated by microinsemination. This organ culture technique uses the classical air-liquid interphase method and is based on conditions extensively examined by Steinbergers in 1960s. Among adaptations in the new culture system, application of serum-free media was the most important. The system is very simple and easy to follow.

  10. A technique for in vitro culture of canine valvular interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Allison M; Bulmer, Barret J; Ross, Christopher R; Schermerhorn, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    To develop a method for in vitro culture of canine valvular interstitial cells (VICs). Canine VICs were isolated from the distal third of the anterior mitral valve leaflet using an explant technique and maintained in cell culture. Molecular phenotyping of the cultured cells was performed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Cells resembling fibroblasts migrated from canine mitral valve explants and were maintained in culture for up to eight passages. Establishment of the valve explant required collagen but once established, subsequent passages grew on non-coated plastic plates. At confluence the cultured cells exhibited the characteristic whorled pattern of fibroblasts in culture. The isolated valve cells expressed vimentin but not platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule or von Willebrand's factor, consistent with the molecular phenotype of VICs. VICs can be readily isolated from canine mitral valve leaflets and successfully maintained in culture using standard culture techniques. The described techniques permit the study of bioactive VICs in a controlled environment and may be a useful in vitro model for investigation of cellular and molecular alterations associated with canine chronic degenerative valve disease.

  11. Enumeration of probiotic strains: Review of culture-dependent and alternative techniques to quantify viable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Standard culture techniques are commonly used to quantify probiotic strains, but cell culture only measures replicating cells. In response to the stresses of processing and formulation, some fraction of the live probiotic microbes may enter a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) in which they are dormant but metabolically active. These microbes are capable of replicating once acclimated to a more hospitable host environment. An operating definition of live probiotic bacteria that includes this range of metabolic states is needed for reliable enumeration. Alternative methods, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), nucleic acid amplification techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR), reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR), propidium monoazide-PCR, and cell sorting techniques such as flow cytometry (FC)/fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) offer the potential to enumerate both culturable and VBNC bacteria. Modern cell sorting techniques have the power to determine probiotic strain abundance and metabolic activity with rapid throughput. Techniques such as visual imaging, cell culture, and cell sorting, could be used in combination to quantify the proportion of viable microbes in various metabolic states. Consensus on an operational definition of viability and systematic efforts to validate these alternative techniques ultimately will strengthen the accuracy and reliability of probiotic strain enumeration. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Misting cooling technique for protected culture of Oncidium orchids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncidium are planted in open protected culture or under shading nets in subtropical regions. Because of the lack of cooling techniques for the inside microclimates, the production period is limited, and the quantity and quality of flowers is unstable. Without ventilating, high humidity and temperature induces severe growth ...

  13. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Recovery of regenerants from transformed cells. - Cell culture .... methods. Micropropagation techniques. Micropropagation is a simple concept. The basic pro- tocols were well established by the 1960s and a whole research field and ... the environment are naturally contaminated on their sur- faces (and ...

  14. Generative Research Techniques Crossing Cultures : A Field Study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, C.; van Boeijen, A.G.C.; Sonneveld, M.H.; Stappers, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The value of understanding user needs has been recognized by industry, and user research methods have become an accepted part of industrial design practice. These techniques were originally developed and tested for Western markets, with participants from Western cultures. More recently, companies

  15. Propagation of Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings through tissue culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahbiah Abdul Majid; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Rafaie Abdul Salam; Nurhayati Irwan; Affrida Abu Hassan; Rusli Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis or karas is the principal source of gaharu resin, which is used in many cultures for incense, perfumes and traditional medicines. The species is mainly propagated conventionally through seeds, cuttings and graftings. Propagation by seeds is usually a reliable method for other forest species, but for karas, this technique is inadequate to meet the current demand of seedling supplies. This is principally due to its low seed viability, low germination rate, delayed rooting of seedlings, long life-cycle and rare seed production. Tissue culture has several advantages over conventional propagation, especially for obtaining large number of uniform and high-yielding plantlets or clones. This paper presents the current progress on mass-propagation of Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings through tissue culture technique at Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  16. Standardization of surgical techniques used in facial bone contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sung

    2015-12-01

    Since the introduction of facial bone contouring surgery for cosmetic purposes, various surgical methods have been used to improve the aesthetics of facial contours. In general, by standardizing the surgical techniques, it is possible to decrease complication rates and achieve more predictable surgical outcomes, thereby increasing patient satisfaction. The technical strategies used by the author to standardize facial bone contouring procedures are introduced here. The author uses various pre-manufactured surgical tools and hardware for facial bone contouring. During a reduction malarplasty or genioplasty procedure, double-bladed reciprocating saws and pre-bent titanium plates customized for the zygomatic body, arch and chin are used. Various guarded oscillating saws are used for mandibular angloplasty. The use of double-bladed saws and pre-bent plates to perform reduction malarplasty reduces the chances of post-operative asymmetry or under- or overcorrection of the zygoma contours due to technical faults. Inferior alveolar nerve injury and post-operative jawline asymmetry or irregularity can be reduced by using a guarded saw during mandibular angloplasty. For genioplasty, final placement of the chin in accordance with preoperative quantitative analysis can be easily performed with pre-bent plates, and a double-bladed saw allows more procedural accuracy during osteotomies. Efforts by the surgeon to avoid unintentional faults are key to achieving satisfactory results and reducing the incidence of complications. The surgical techniques described in this study in conjunction with various in-house surgical tools and modified hardware can be used to standardize techniques to achieve aesthetically gratifying outcomes. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.

  18. Standardized fluoroscopy-based technique to measure intraoperative cup anteversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Matthieu; Boudabbous, Sana; Hannouche, Didier; Montet, Xavier; Boettner, Friedrich

    2017-10-01

    Direct anterior approach (DAA) with the patient lying supine has facilitated the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy and allows for standardized positioning of the patient. The current study presents a new technique to measure acetabular component anteversion using intraoperative fluoroscopy. The current paper describes a mathematical formula to calculate true acetabular component anteversion based on the acetabular component abduction angle and the c-arm tilt angle (CaT). The CaT is determined by tilting the c-arm until an external pelvic oblique radiograph with the equatorial plane of the acetabular component perpendicular to the fluoroscopy receptor is obtained. CaT is determined by direct reading on the C-arm device. The technique was validated using a radiopaque synbone model comparing the described technique to computed tomography anteversion measurement. The experiment was repeated 25 times. The difference in anteversion between the two measuring techniques was on average 0.2° (range -3.0-3.1). The linear regression coefficients evaluating the agreement between the experimental and control methods were 0.99 (95%CI 0.88-1.10, p < 0.001) and 0.33 (95%CI -1.53-2.20, p = 0.713) for the slope and intercept, respectively. The current study confirms that the described three-step c-arm acetabular cup measuring technique can reproducibly and reliably assess acetabular component anteversion in the supine position, as compared to CT-imaging. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2307-2312, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sensitivities, specificities, and predictive values of microbiological culture techniques for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W; Smith, Nicholas A; Saithna, Adnan; Sprowson, Andrew P; Foguet, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the microorganism in a prosthetic joint infection is the key to appropriately targeting antimicrobial treatment. Despite the availability of various techniques, no single test is considered the definitive gold standard. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values for a variety of culture techniques. We performed a retrospective case series of 219 patients undergoing revision surgery of their hip or knee replacement between May 2004 and February 2013. The patients were classified as either infected or noninfected according to criteria set out by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. The number and type of samples taken intraoperatively varied between cases but included tissue samples and fluid sent in either blood culture vials or sterile containers. The highest sensitivity was found with blood culture vials (0.85) compared to fluid in sterile containers (0.26) and tissues samples (0.32). Blood culture vials also had a better specificity and positive and negative predictive values profile. We conclude that, of the techniques studied, fluid in blood culture vials had the best profile for the correct identification of microorganisms and advocate its use.

  20. Virus Elimination from Ornamental Plants Using in vitro Culture Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are responsible for numerous epidemics in different crops in all parts of the world.As a consequence of their presence great economic losses are being incurred. In addition tothe development of sensitive techniques for detection, identification and characterization ofviruses, substantial attention has also been paid to biotechnological methods for their eliminationfrom plants. In this review article, the following biotechnological in vitro culture techniquesfor virus elimination from ornamental plants are presented: meristem culture, thermotherapy,chemotherapy, cryotherapy or a combination of these methods. The plant species,as well as the type of virus determine the choice of a most suitable method. The state ofthe art in investigation of virus elimination from Impatiens sp. in Serbia is summarized.

  1. The use of tissue culture techniques to detect irradiated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Sharabi, N.E.; Nabulsi, I

    2001-01-01

    the ability of two tissue culture methods, callus and vegetable growth induction, to detect irradiated vegetables was evaluated. Potato tubers, carrot roots, garlic cloves and onion bulbs were subjected to various gamma radiation doses (0, 25, 100, 150, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 Gy). Irradiated vegetables were cultured in vitro and in vivo (pots). Gamma irradiation significantly reduced callus-forming ability especially in carrot and potato where no callus was observed in doses higher than 50 Gy. Length of shoots and roots growing from irradiated garlic and onion explants was considerably reduced starting from the 25 Gy dose. No roots were formed on garlic explants at any irradiation dose. Garlic leaves growing from irradiated explants were spotted with purple to brown spots. The intensity of these spots increased as gamma ray dosage increased. In the pot experiment, potato plant appeared in the control only. On the contrary, a complete sprouting of garlic and onion was seen in all irradiation treatments. It was not possible to distinguish between the various irradiation treatments and the control 3 days after planting in pots. The two in vitro techniques, tested in our study, may effectively be used to detect irradiated vegetables and estimate the range of doses used. The callus formation method is more useful for potato and carrot, since regeneration of shoots in vitro from these two plants takes along time, making this method unpractical. The other technique is very useful in the case of onion and garlic since it is rapid. The two techniques can be used with most of the vegetables that can be cultured in vitro. (Author)

  2. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%, their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  3. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  4. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  5. Promouvoir la culture scientifique et technique en Afrique

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrié, Marie-Lise

    2012-01-01

    La mise en place par l’Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) d’un programme de promotion de la culture scientifique et technique dans dix pays africains a permis de mettre en évidence les attentes des populations mais également les faiblesses structurelles dans ce domaine : l’une des responsables de ce projet dresse le bilan de cette opération qui – malgré les difficultés constatées – laisse entrevoir des possibilités futures de développement pour les initiatives en faveur de la d...

  6. A new culture technique that allows in vitro meiotic prophase development of fetal human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieño-Enríquez, M A; Robles, P; García-Cruz, R; Roig, I; Cabero, L; Martínez, F; Garcia Caldés, M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate meiosis in the human female fetus as a result of the technical difficulties in obtaining samples. Currently, there is no technique for human fetal oocyte culture that permits the maintenance of fetal ovarian tissue in vitro which allows the progression of meiosis in a reproducible and standardized way. Meiotic progression was analyzed following pairing-synapsis and recombination progress. A total of 7119 oocytes were studied and analyzed. The proteins used to evaluate meiotic progression were: REC8, SYCP1, SYCP3 and MLH1, studied by immunofluorescence. Four different sample disaggregating methods were used, two enzymatic (trypsin and collagenase + hyaluronidase) and two mechanical (puncture and ovarian fragments). Two different culture media were used, control media and stem cell factor (SCF)-supplemented media. The oocytes were studied at initial time T0, and then at T7, T14 and T21 days after culture. The mechanical methods increased the total number of oocytes found at the different times of culture and decreased the number of degenerated oocytes. Independently of the disaggregation method used, oocytes cultured with SCF-supplemented media showed a higher proportion of viable oocytes and fewer degenerated cells at all culture timepoints. No evidence of abnormal homologous chromosome synapsis was observed. Meiotic recombination was only observed in oocytes mechanically disaggregated and cultured with supplemented media. The oocytes obtained by mechanical disaggregating methods and cultured with SCF-supplemented media are able to follow pairing-synapsis and recombination, comparable to oocytes in vivo. The culture conditions described herein confirm the methodology as a standardized and reproducible method.

  7. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  8. A New Standardized Emotional Film Database for Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaling; Yang, Meng; Zhou, Renlai

    2017-01-01

    Researchers interested in emotions have endeavored to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory and have determined that films were one of the most effective ways to elicit emotions. The present study presented the development of a new standardized emotional film database for Asian culture. There were eight kinds of emotion: fear, disgust, anger, sadness, neutrality, surprise, amusement, and pleasure. Each kind included eight film clips, and a total of 64 emotional films were viewed by 110 participants. We analyzed both the subjective experience (valence, arousal, motivation, and dominance) and physiological response (heart rate and respiration rate) to the presentation of each film. The results of the subjective ratings indicated that our set of 64 films successfully elicited the target emotions. Heart rate declined while watching high-arousal films compared to neutral ones. Films that expressed amusement elicited the lowest respiration rate, whereas fear elicited the highest. The amount and category of emotional films in this database were considerable. This database may help researchers choose applicable emotional films for study according to their own purposes and help in studies of cultural differences in emotion. PMID:29163312

  9. A New Standardized Emotional Film Database for Asian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Deng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers interested in emotions have endeavored to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory and have determined that films were one of the most effective ways to elicit emotions. The present study presented the development of a new standardized emotional film database for Asian culture. There were eight kinds of emotion: fear, disgust, anger, sadness, neutrality, surprise, amusement, and pleasure. Each kind included eight film clips, and a total of 64 emotional films were viewed by 110 participants. We analyzed both the subjective experience (valence, arousal, motivation, and dominance and physiological response (heart rate and respiration rate to the presentation of each film. The results of the subjective ratings indicated that our set of 64 films successfully elicited the target emotions. Heart rate declined while watching high-arousal films compared to neutral ones. Films that expressed amusement elicited the lowest respiration rate, whereas fear elicited the highest. The amount and category of emotional films in this database were considerable. This database may help researchers choose applicable emotional films for study according to their own purposes and help in studies of cultural differences in emotion.

  10. Ion beam analysis and spectrometry techniques for Cultural Heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of experimental techniques for the characterisation of Cultural heritage materials has to take into account some requirements. The complexity of these past materials requires the development of new techniques of examination and analysis, or the transfer of technologies developed for the study of advanced materials. In addition, due to precious aspect of artwork it is also necessary to use the non-destructive methods, respecting the integrity of objects. It is for this reason that the methods using radiations and/or particles play a important role in the scientific study of art history and archaeology since their discovery. X-ray and γ-ray spectrometry as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) are analytical tools at the service of Cultural heritage. This report mainly presents experimental developments for IBA: PIXE, RBS/EBS and NRA. These developments were applied to the study of archaeological composite materials: layered materials or mixtures composed of organic and non-organic phases. Three examples are shown: evolution of silvering techniques for the production of counterfeit coinage during the Roman Empire and in the 16. century, the characterization of composites or mixed mineral/organic compounds such as bone and paint. In these last two cases, the combination of techniques gave original results on the proportion of both phases: apatite/collagen in bone, pigment/binder in paintings. Another part of this report is then dedicated to the non-invasive/non-destructive characterization of prehistoric pigments, in situ, for rock art studies in caves and in the laboratory. Finally, the perspectives of this work are presented. (author) [fr

  11. Standard Establishment Through Scenarios (SETS): A new technique for occupational fitness standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, R E; Reilly, T J; Spivock, M; Newton, P S; Olinek, S M

    2015-01-01

    An objective and scientific task analysis provides the basis for establishing legally defensible Physical Employment Standards (PES), based on common and essential occupational tasks. Infrequent performance of these tasks creates challenges when developing PES based on criterion, or content validity. Develop a systematic approach using Subject Matter Experts (SME) to provide tasks with 1) an occupationally relevant scenario considered common to all personnel; 2) a minimum performance standard defined by time, distance, load or work. Examples provided here relate to the development of a new PES for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). SME of various experience are selected based on their eligibility criteria. SME are required to define a reasonable scenario for each task from personal experience, provide occupational performance requirements of the scenario in sub-groups, and discuss and agree by consensus vote on the final standard based on the definition of essential. A common and essential task for the CAF is detailed as a case example of process application. Techniques to avoid common SME rating errors are discussed and advantages to the method described. The SETS method was developed as a systematic approach to setting occupational performance standards and qualifying information from SME.

  12. Characterisation and preservation of cultural heritage artefacts using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the studies performed for the identification and preservation of cultural heritage using nuclear analytical techniques (NAT). Within the context of the project financed by the IAEA, cultural articles from various excavation regions and from the Anatolian Civilizations Museum were analyzed and identified using the instruments at our Center and information was provided regarding their manufacturing techniques, past restoration history and socioeconomic indicators about the period within which these articles were used. The analysis of the articles which could not be removed from the museum were performed in-situ using portable instruments and support was provided to the experts for some articles from excavation regions for the evaluation of their originality. Within the framework the of this Project, five experts attended to the workshops and meetings organised by the IAEA and in the context of scientific visits and bilateral cooperation, one expert from Greece and three experts from Macedonia visited our Center and Anatolian Civilizations Museum and experimental studies were performed together

  13. NET European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youtsos, A.

    2004-01-01

    Improved performance and safety of European energy production systems is essential for providing safe, clean and inexpensive electricity to the citizens of the enlarged EU. The state of the art in assessing internal stresses, micro-structure and defects in welded nuclear components -as well as their evolution due to complex thermo-mechanical loads and irradiation exposure -needs to be improved before relevant structural integrity assessment code requirements can safely become less conservative. This is valid for both experimental characterization techniques and predictive numerical algorithms. In the course of the last two decades neutron methods have proven to be excellent means for providing valuable information required in structural integrity assessment of advanced engineering applications. However, the European industry is hampered from broadly using neutron research due to lack of harmonised and standardized testing methods. 35 European major industrial and research/academic organizations have joined forces, under JRC coordination, to launch the NET European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity in May 2002. The NET collaborative research initiative aims at further development and harmonisation of neutron scattering methods, in support of structural integrity assessment. This is pursued through a number of testing round robin campaigns on neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering - SANS and supported by data provided by other more conventional destructive and non-destructive methods, such as X-ray diffraction and deep and surface hole drilling. NET also strives to develop more reliable and harmonized simulation procedures for the prediction of residual stress and damage in steel welded power plant components. This is pursued through a number of computational round robin campaigns based on advanced FEM techniques, and on reliable data obtained by such novel and harmonized experimental methods. The final goal of

  14. Computational Swarming: A Cultural Technique for Generative Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Vehlken

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After a first wave of digital architecture in the 1990s, the last decade saw some approaches where agent-based modelling and simulation (ABM was used for generative strategies in architectural design. By taking advantage of the self-organisational capabilities of computational agent collectives whose global behaviour emerges from the local interaction of a large number of relatively simple individuals (as it does, for instance, in animal swarms, architects are able to understand buildings and urbanscapes in a novel way as complex spaces that are constituted by the movement of multiple material and informational elements. As a major, zoo-technological branch of ABM, Computational Swarm Intelligence (SI coalesces all kinds of architectural elements – materials, people, environmental forces, traffic dynamics, etc. – into a collective population. Thereby, SI and ABM initiate a shift from geometric or parametric planning to time-based and less prescriptive software tools.Agent-based applications of this sort are used to model solution strategies in a number of areas where opaque and complex problems present themselves – from epidemiology to logistics, and from market simulations to crowd control. This article seeks to conceptualise SI and ABM as a fundamental and novel cultural technique for governing dynamic processes, taking their employment in generative architectural design as a concrete example. In order to avoid a rather conventional application of philosophical theories to this field, the paper explores how the procedures of such technologies can be understood in relation to the media-historical concept of Cultural Techniques.

  15. The influence of organizational culture on the use of quality techniques and its impact on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambi, Lillian; Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study about the influence of organizational culture on quality techniques and the impact of matching culture and technique to enhance performance. Data were drawn from 250 manufacturing companies in Brazil and Denmark. Profiles were identified according...... to the companies’ cultural characteristics and use of quality techniques. Findings suggest: 1- Certain cultural profiles predict the use of certain quality techniques better than others. For example, companies with a group culture, which is oriented towards collaboration and development of human resources, tend...... to use goal setting and continuous improvement techniques, rather than measurement techniques. In turn, companies that have a rational or hierarchical culture, which are oriented towards control and competition, tend to use measurement techniques more than cultures oriented to collaboration or creation...

  16. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 100 years ago, Haberlandt envisioned the concept of plant tissue culture and provided the groundwork for the cultivation of plant cells, tissues and organs in culture. Initially plant tissue cultures arose as a research tool and focused on attempts to culture and study the development of small, isolated cells and segments ...

  17. [Study on standardization of cupping technique: elucidation on the establishment of the National Standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-zhong; Liu, Bing

    2010-02-01

    From the aspects of basis, technique descriptions, core contents, problems and solutions, and standard thinking in standard setting process, this paper states experiences in the establishment of the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping, focusing on methodologies used in cupping standard setting process, the method selection and operating instructions of cupping standardization, and the characteristics of standard TCM. In addition, this paper states the scope of application, and precautions for this cupping standardization. This paper also explaines tentative ideas on the research of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  18. The influence of organizational culture on the use of quality techniques and its impact on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambi, Lillian; Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    to enhanced performance more than if those culture profiles are combined with the use of measurement techniques. This research has important implications for managers in the sense that they need to be actively aware of the need to adopt quality techniques that fit with the culture of their organization.......This report presents the results of a study about the influence of organizational culture on quality techniques and the impact of matching culture and technique to enhance performance. Data were drawn from 250 manufacturing companies in Brazil and Denmark. Profiles were identified according...... to the companies’ cultural characteristics and use of quality techniques. Findings suggest: 1- Certain cultural profiles predict the use of certain quality techniques better than others. For example, companies with a group culture, which is oriented towards collaboration and development of human resources, tend...

  19. A modified micro chamber agar spot slide culture technique for microscopic examination of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Peralam Yegneswaran; Bhargava, Kanika

    2016-04-01

    The slide culture technique aids in the study of undisturbed microscopic morphological details of filamentous fungi. The existing methods for setting up of slide culture are quite cumbersome, time-consuming and require elaborate preparation. We describe a modified and easy to perform micro chamber agar spot slide culture technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of molecular techniques for the assessment of microorganism diversity on cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their unpredictable ability to adapt to varying environmental conditions, microorganisms inhabit different types of biological niches on Earth. Owing to the key role of microorganisms in many biogeochemical processes, trends in modern microbiology emphasize the need to know and understand the structure and function of complex microbial communities. This is particularly important if the strategy relates to microbial communities that cause biodeterioration of materials that constitute our cultural heritage. Until recently, the detection and identification of microorganisms inhabiting objects of cultural value was based only on cultivation-dependent methods. In spite of many advantages, these methods provide limited information because they identify only viable organisms capable of growth under standard laboratory conditions. However, in order to carry out proper conservation and renovation, it is necessary to know the complete composition of microbial communities and their activity. This paper presents and characterizes modern techniques such as genetic fingerprinting and clone library construction for the assessment of microbial diversity based on molecular biology. Molecular methods represent a favourable alternative to culture-dependent methods and make it possible to assess the biodiversity of microorganisms inhabiting technical materials and cultural heritage objects.

  1. Technique for fabrication of gradual standards of radiographic image blachening density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of fabrication of gradual standards of blackening density for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The technique is designed for possibilities of industrial laboratoriesof radiation defectoscopy possessing no special-purpose sensitometric equipment

  2. Teaching Organizational Culture Using a Projective Technique: Collage Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Saba; Littlefield, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Although the topic of "organizational culture" is an integral part of syllabi across a wide range of core business classes such as Principles of Management, Organizational Behavior, and Human Resource Management, few experiential exercises exist that can enhance student understanding and learning of different layers of organizational culture. In…

  3. VALUES AS A CULTURAL STANDARD IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Považanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals the issue of meaningfulness, significance, importance, and pragmaticallyspeaking, the usefulness of human life, in his private and family or the public, the workingenvironment. The topic today is an important topic of thinking, at least with respect toeconomic and financial crisis that devastates the global economic environment, both inconnection with the growing influence of global problems of mankind or by naturalimpending natural disasters around the world. Through axiological reflection reveals ourfundamental notions about quality of life. Naming the biased dissemination strategydrinking lifestyle, satisfaction and pseudo saturation mainly consumer needs. Theenvironment needs a new sense of permanent, other, innovative, naturally loses and dullsthe sense of genuine, real and substantial work and life values. Their commemoration,historical significance and generate real cultural values, reveals the essential foundations ofvalues and culture in general shows a tendency of a transformed form perceptions of thecultural dimension of social interaction a person at any level of social life, family andfriends and from work and career ending. The promotion of social, cultural maturity ofindividuals and groups which in the process of socialization creates must build on thetradition of values that forms the history of each culture.

  4. Cross-Cultural Concept Mapping of Standardized Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2012-01-01

    This work compares four feature-based similarity measures derived from cognitive sciences. The purpose of the comparative analysis is to verify the potentially most effective model that can be applied for mapping independent ontologies in a culturally influenced domain [1]. Here, datasets based...

  5. Cross-Cultural Concept Mapping of Standardized Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2012-01-01

    This work compares four feature-based similarity measures derived from cognitive sciences. The purpose of the comparative analysis is to verify the potentially most effective model that can be applied for mapping independent ontologies in a culturally influenced domain [1]. Here, datasets based o...

  6. Basic prediction techniques in modern video coding standards

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the basic algorithms of video compression that are widely used in modern video codec. The authors dissect complicated specifications and present material in a way that gets readers quickly up to speed by describing video compression algorithms succinctly, without going to the mathematical details and technical specifications. For accelerated learning, hybrid codec structure, inter- and intra- prediction techniques in MPEG-4, H.264/AVC, and HEVC are discussed together. In addition, the latest research in the fast encoder design for the HEVC and H.264/AVC is also included.

  7. Preliminary detection of explosive standard components with Laser Raman Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, S.; Ciardi, R.

    2008-01-01

    Presently, our section is leader of the ISOTREX project (Integrated System for On-line TRace EXplosives detection in solid, liquid and vapour state), funded in the frame of the PASR 2006 action (Preparatory Action on the enhancement of the European industrial potential in the field of Security Research Preparatory Action) of the 6. EC framework. ISOTREX project will exploit the capabilities of different laser techniques as LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), LPA (Laser Photo Acustic) and CRDS (Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy) to monitor explosive traces. In this frame, we extended our investigation also to the laser induced Raman effect spectroscopy, in order to investigate its capabilities and possible future integration. We analysed explosive samples in bulk solid phase, diluted liquid phase and as evaporated films over suitable substrate. In the following, we present the main results obtained, outlining preliminary conclusions [it

  8. Documentation of cultural heritage; techniques, potentials, and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, F.; Moser, M.; Rampold, R.; Wu, C.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural Heritage is known as an invaluable asset of human being, which portrays his achievements over centuries. The need for identification and preservation of cultural heritage is well understood and experts' attempt is to exploit any possible method to fulfill this aim. There are several published literatures and documents, which emphasize on the importance of the documentation of the cultural heritage such as Burra Charter. However, with the development of human and invention of new tools and technologies, the concept of the conservation of cultural heritage has changed considerably. The new technologies such as computers and digital tools have opened new windows and bestowed new opportunities in the process of conservation of cultural heritage. In this regard, it is important to review different technologies in order to make the best advantage of these tools in the cultural heritage field. The focus of this paper would be on the non-technical users who need to gain an overall comprehension of these new emerging tools. The foundation of this paper will be on the existing literatures published by various experts in addition to the author's experience and research in the conservation field.

  9. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  10. Simple and inexpensive technique for measuring oxygen consumption rate in adherent cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiji; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa

    2017-11-01

    Measurement of cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is essential in assessing roles of mitochondria in physiology and pathophysiology. Classical techniques, in which polarographic oxygen electrode measures the extracellular oxygen concentration in a closed measuring vessel, require isolation and suspension of the cell. Because cell functions depend on the extracellular milieu including the extracellular matrix, isolation of cultured cells prior to the measurement may significantly affect the OCR. More recent techniques utilize optical methods in which oxygen-dependent quenching of fluorophores determines oxygen concentration in the medium at a few microns above the surface of the cultured cells. These techniques allow the OCR measurement in cultured cells adhered to the culture dish. However, this technique requires special equipment such as a fluorescence lifetime microplate reader or specialized integrated system, which are usually quite expensive. Here, we introduce a simple and inexpensive technique for measuring OCR in adherent cultured cells that utilizes conventional fluorescence microscopy and a glassware called a gap cover glass.

  11. Evaluation of conventional castaneda and lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa G; Mangalgi, Smita S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the role of the lysis centrifugation blood culture technique over the conventional Castaneda technique for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The lysis centrifugation technique has been found to be more sensitive in both acute (20% higher sensitivity; P centrifugation was in the mean detection time, which was only 2.4 days in acute and 2.7 days in chronic cases, with 103 out of 110 (93.6%) and 17 out of 20 (85%) cultures from acute and chronic brucellosis, respectively, detected before the conventional culture was positive. Our results confirmed the potential usefulness of the lysis technique in diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  12. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  13. Headset Culture, Audile, Technique, and sound Space as Private Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterne, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    abstractThis essay offers a story about changing meanings of listening. The techniques of listening that became widespread with the diffusion of the telephone, the phonograph, and the radio early in the twentieth century were themselves transposed and elaborated from techniques of listening

  14. Comparison of Nested-PCR technique and culture method in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... tuberculosis (GUTB) compared with acid fast staining and culture method. In total ... tuberculosis; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; MTB,. Mycobacterium tuberculosis;. EPTB, extrapulmonary tuberculosis; AFB, acid-fast bacilli; SDS, sodium ..... Dingtoumda B, Diallo B, Defer MC, Sombié I, Zanetti S, Sechi LA.

  15. From cultural aesthetic to perfor- mance technique: continuities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. A broad-based survey of Malawian dances that I undertook several years ago aimed rather ambitiously to identify persistent regional forms of these dances as well as their governing aesthetic(s). In the course of the field work, a recurrent ~estion emerged: how do we approach dance as cultural performance?

  16. Callus formation using in vitro tissue culture technique in cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abhishek

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... cotyledon, coteledonary node and hypocotyl measuring 4 to 5 mm obtained from asceptically grown seedlings were inoculated on the surface of different culture medium. Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts supplemented with B5 vitamins was used as basal medium and fortified with different concentrations of ...

  17. Development and Standardization of Inventory for Measuring Students' Integration into University Academic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esomonu, Nkechi Patricia-Mary; Okeaba, James Uzoma

    2016-01-01

    The study developed and standardized an Inventory for measuring Students' Integration into University Academic Culture named Inventory for Students' Integration into University Academic Culture (ISIUAC). The increase in dropout rates, substance use, cultism and other deviant behaviours in Nigerian universities makes it necessary for one to ask the…

  18. Developing Cultural Responsiveness While Teaching Content Standards: Lessons from a Brazilian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason Brent; Abreu-Ellis, Carla; Moor, Alexa; Aukerman, Kaitlyn; Buttil, Michael; Edwards, Alyssa

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how teachers can represent a different culture in their instructional planning while still meeting state-mandated content standards. It shares the lessons learned by practicing and pre-service teachers through an experience designed to help them become more culturally responsive teachers. Participants spent a month in…

  19. Analyzing and Prioritizing the Dimensions of Patient Safety Culture in Emergency Wards Using the TOPSIS Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Hassani, Mahdi; Ayoubian, Ali; Habibi, Mansooreh; Zaboli, Rouhollah

    2015-01-01

    Doubtlessly, permanent development in patient care services is not feasible without paying attention to the culture of safety by health and treatment institutes. The present study is an attempt to analyze the cultural aspects of patient safety in the emergency wards of hospitals affiliated with the Tehran Medical Science University. The viewpoint of the nurses and hospital officials and their priorities were studied. For prioritizing the results of this study the TOPSIS technique was chosen. The study was conducted as an analytical-descriptive and cross-sectional one. It was carried out in two parts: at first the cultural aspects of the patients were measured using a questionnaire for a six months period in 2011 in emergency wards of the hospitals under study. The study population was constituted of physicians and nurses of the emergency wards. The sample group (n=270) was selected through a cluster sampling and its size was determined by using the sample size formula. For data gathering, the standard questionnaire of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) was used. The data were analyzed in SPSS. The aspects of the safety culture were prioritized using the TOPSIS model. The criteria were ranked by using the MATLAB software. There was a significant relationship among the aspects of performance, teamwork, feedback, mistake relationships, and the support of the managers (P ? 0.05). The total point of the patient safety culture in the majority of the hospitals were at a mean level of 3. The maximum score was 5. The maximum and minimum mean points were obtained by the Hasheminejad and Sina hospitals respectively. The results of the multivariate decision-making analysis indicated that human, managerial, organizational, and environmental factors were at the top of priorities in a descending order. The factors were extremely effective in the improvement of safety in hospitals. Human factors were the most effective and important factors in the improvement of

  20. Chikungunya virus isolation using simplified cell culture technique in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndiah, M N; Pursem, V; Meetoo, G; Daby, S; Ramuth, V; Bhinkah, P; Chuttoo, R; Paratian, U

    2012-03-01

    During the chikungunya outbreak of 2005 - 2006, the only laboratory facilities available in Mauritius were virus isolation in cell culture tubes and serology. The laboratory was submerged with large numbers of blood samples. Comparative isolation was made in human embryonic lung (HEL) and VERO cells grown in 96-well plate. Culture on HEL cells was found to be more sensitive and presence of cytopathic effect (CPE) was observed earlier than in VERO cells. Out of the 18 300 blood samples inoculated on HEL, 11 165 were positive. This virus isolation method was of great help for the surveillance and control of the vectors. In cases of an outbreak a cheap, rapid and simple method of isolating chikungunya virus is described.

  1. Polymicrobial chronic endophthalmitis diagnosed by culture and molecular technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Pramanik, S; Das, D; Roy, R; Therese, K L

    2014-01-01

    Accurate etiological diagnosis is the key to prevention of ocular morbidity in endophthalmitis cases. A 66 year old male was suffering from chronic endophthalmitis post-cataract surgery. Polymerase chain reaction examination on anterior chamber fluid was positive for Propionibacterium acnes but negative for the panfungal genome. He was advised vitrectomy with intravitreal injections. Polymerase chain reaction of vitreous aspirate was positive for P.acnes as well as panfungal genome. The vitreous sample also grew yeast in culture which was identified as Candida pseudotropicalis. Patient was treated on an alternate day regimen of intravitreal Vancomycin and Amphotericin B in the post-operative period. There was improvement in vision at final follow up. Chronic endophthalmitis can have polymicrobial etiology which will require appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The role of molecular testing is vital in these cases as growth in culture is often negative.

  2. A modified technique for culturing primary fetal rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sui-Yi; Wu, Yong-Min; Ji, Zhong; Gao, Xiao-Ya; Pan, Su-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The study explored a modified primary culture system for fetal rat cortical neurons. Day E18 embryos from pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were microdissected under a stereoscope. To minimize enzymatic damage to the cultured neurons, we applied a sequential digestion protocol using papain and Dnase I. The resulting sifted cell suspension was seeded at a density of 50,000 cells per cm(2) onto 0.1 mg/mL L-PLL-covered vessels. After a four-hour incubation in high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (HG-DMEM) to allow the neurons to adhere, the media was changed to neurobasal medium that was refreshed by changing half of the volume after three days followed by a complete medium change every week. The cells displayed progressively robust neurite extension, and nonneuronal-like cells could barely be detected by five days in vitro (DIV); cell growth was still substantial at 14 DIV. Neurons were identified by β-tubulin III immunofluorescence, and neuronal purity within the cultures was assessed at over 95% by both flow cytometry and by dark-field counting of β-tubulin III-positive cells. These results suggest that the protocol was successful and that the high purity of neurons in this system could be used as the basis for generating various cell models of neurological disease.

  3. A Modified Technique for Culturing Primary Fetal Rat Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored a modified primary culture system for fetal rat cortical neurons. Day E18 embryos from pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were microdissected under a stereoscope. To minimize enzymatic damage to the cultured neurons, we applied a sequential digestion protocol using papain and Dnase I. The resulting sifted cell suspension was seeded at a density of 50,000 cells per cm2 onto 0.1 mg/mL L-PLL-covered vessels. After a four-hour incubation in high-glucose Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (HG-DMEM to allow the neurons to adhere, the media was changed to neurobasal medium that was refreshed by changing half of the volume after three days followed by a complete medium change every week. The cells displayed progressively robust neurite extension, and nonneuronal-like cells could barely be detected by five days in vitro (DIV; cell growth was still substantial at 14 DIV. Neurons were identified by β-tubulin III immunofluorescence, and neuronal purity within the cultures was assessed at over 95% by both flow cytometry and by dark-field counting of β-tubulin III-positive cells. These results suggest that the protocol was successful and that the high purity of neurons in this system could be used as the basis for generating various cell models of neurological disease.

  4. Withania somnifera: Advances and Implementation of Molecular and Tissue Culture Techniques to Enhance Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Pandey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha an important medicinal plant largely used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. Being a medicinal plant, dried powder, crude extract as well as purified metabolies of the plant has shown promising therapeutic properties. Withanolides are the principal metabolites, responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant. Availability and amount of particular withanolides differ with tissue type and chemotype and its importance leads to identification characterization of several genes/ enzymes related to withanolide biosynthetic pathway. The modulation in withanolides can be achieved by controlling the environmental conditions like, different tissue culture techniques, altered media compositions, use of elicitors, etc. Among all the in vitro techniques, hairy root culture proved its importance at industrial scale, which also gets benefits due to more accumulation (amount and number of withanolides in roots tissues of W. somnifera. Use of media compostion and elicitors further enhances the amount of withanolides in hairy roots. Another important modern day technique used for accumulation of desired secondary metabolites is modulating the gene expression by altering environmental conditions (use of different media composition, elicitors, etc. or through genetic enginnering. Knowing the significance of the gene and the key enzymatic step of the pathway, modulation in withanolide contents can be achieved upto required amount in therapeutic industry. To accomplish maximum productivity through genetic enginnering different means of Withania transformation methods have been developed to obtain maximum transformation efficiency. These standardized transformation procedues have been used to overexpress/silence desired gene in W. somnifera to understand the outcome and succeed with enhanced metabolic production for the ultimate benefit of human race.

  5. Withania somnifera: Advances and Implementation of Molecular and Tissue Culture Techniques to Enhance Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vibha; Ansari, Waquar Akhter; Misra, Pratibha; Atri, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha an important medicinal plant largely used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. Being a medicinal plant, dried powder, crude extract as well as purified metabolies of the plant has shown promising therapeutic properties. Withanolides are the principal metabolites, responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant. Availability and amount of particular withanolides differ with tissue type and chemotype and its importance leads to identification characterization of several genes/ enzymes related to withanolide biosynthetic pathway. The modulation in withanolides can be achieved by controlling the environmental conditions like, different tissue culture techniques, altered media compositions, use of elicitors, etc. Among all the in vitro techniques, hairy root culture proved its importance at industrial scale, which also gets benefits due to more accumulation (amount and number) of withanolides in roots tissues of W. somnifera. Use of media compostion and elicitors further enhances the amount of withanolides in hairy roots. Another important modern day technique used for accumulation of desired secondary metabolites is modulating the gene expression by altering environmental conditions (use of different media composition, elicitors, etc.) or through genetic enginnering. Knowing the significance of the gene and the key enzymatic step of the pathway, modulation in withanolide contents can be achieved upto required amount in therapeutic industry. To accomplish maximum productivity through genetic enginnering different means of Withania transformation methods have been developed to obtain maximum transformation efficiency. These standardized transformation procedues have been used to overexpress/silence desired gene in W. somnifera to understand the outcome and succeed with enhanced metabolic production for the ultimate benefit of human race. PMID:28848589

  6. Technology and Technique Standards for Camera-Acquired Digital Dermatologic Images: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Elizabeth A; Tokay, Barbara A; Jewell, Sarah T; Marchetti, Michael A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-08-01

    Photographs are invaluable dermatologic diagnostic, management, research, teaching, and documentation tools. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards exist for many types of digital medical images, but there are no DICOM standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images to date. To identify and describe existing or proposed technology and technique standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images in the scientific literature. Systematic searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were performed in January 2013 using photography and digital imaging, standardization, and medical specialty and medical illustration search terms and augmented by a gray literature search of 14 websites using Google. Two reviewers independently screened titles of 7371 unique publications, followed by 3 sequential full-text reviews, leading to the selection of 49 publications with the most recent (1985-2013) or detailed description of technology or technique standards related to the acquisition or use of images of skin disease (or related conditions). No universally accepted existing technology or technique standards for camera-based digital images in dermatology were identified. Recommendations are summarized for technology imaging standards, including spatial resolution, color resolution, reproduction (magnification) ratios, postacquisition image processing, color calibration, compression, output, archiving and storage, and security during storage and transmission. Recommendations are also summarized for technique imaging standards, including environmental conditions (lighting, background, and camera position), patient pose and standard view sets, and patient consent, privacy, and confidentiality. Proposed standards for specific-use cases in total body photography, teledermatology, and dermoscopy are described. The literature is replete with descriptions of obtaining photographs of skin disease, but universal imaging standards have not been developed

  7. A review of the three-dimensional cell culture technique: Approaches, advantages and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijie; Zhuang, Ai; Gu, Ping; Zhou, Huifang; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture is a core and basic technique in biotechnology and is widely applied in biology, medicine, drug research and development. Traditional two-dimensional cell culture methods have undergone great developments. However, with in-depth basic research, higher requirements are needed to better mimic the in vivo environment to accurately observe cell behavior and explore its mechanisms. To comply with this situation, the three-dimensional cell culture technique emerged and has made profound advances in sustaining inherent cell properties. Here, we briefly review the development of this technique, including the main approaches to form three-dimensional microtissues, and its application and potential for future clinical therapies.

  8. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-Safadi, B.; Mir Ali, N.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  9. CATEGORICAL IMAGE COMPONENTS IN THE FORMING SYSTEM OF A MARKETING TECHNIQUES MANAGER’S IMAGE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna Cherednyakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding of the image culture formation of managers of marketing techniques, as a representative of the social and communication interaction of public structures, categorical apparatus of image culture with an emphasis on the etymology of the image, as an integral component of image culture was analyzed. Categorical components of the image are presented from the standpoint of image culture, as personal new formation, an integral part of the professional activity of the marketing techniques manager: object-communicative categorical component, subject-activity categorical component of image, personality-oriented categorical component, value-acmeological categorical component of image.The aim is to identify and justify the image categorical components as a component of image culture of the marketing techniques manager.Method and methodology of work – a general scientific research approach reflecting scientific apparatus of research.Results. Categorical components of the image, as an image culture component of manager of marketing techniques were defined.Practical implication of the results. The theoretical part of «Imageology» course, special course «Image culture of manager of marketing techniques», the theoretical and methodological study and the formation of image culture.

  10. Project 'Use of nuclear techniques in investigation, conservation and management of the cultural historical patrimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, Sonnia

    2000-12-01

    This project is aimed at solving problems of conservation of the cultural historical patrimony through the active participation of the member countries of ARCAL by the application of Analytic Nuclear Techniques [es

  11. Development of a novel technique for axenic isolation and culture of thraustochytrids from New Zealand marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, S L; Maas, E W

    2012-02-01

    To maintain axenic cultures of commercially important thraustochytrids, a novel procedure was developed for the isolation of zoospores and sporangium from heterotrophic seawater samples and axenic culture on solid media. Thraustochytrid cultures were isolated from Whangapoua Harbour in North East New Zealand and subjected to two antibiotic and antifungal treatment regimes designed to eliminate bacteria and fungi. Antibiotic trial 1 was designed to determine the appropriate combination of antibiotics (including streptomycin/penicillin, ampicillin, rifampicin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, gentamicin and the antifungal agent nystatin). Antibiotic trial 2 determined the optimal dosing frequency and concentration of the antibiotics, and antifungal found to be the most promising in trial 1. Axenic cultures were then spread plated onto nutrient agar containing the optimal antibiotic cocktail, and pure thraustochytrid colonies were purified on solid media using standard microbiological techniques. Removal of bacteria and fungi was best accomplished using a mixture of three antibiotics and one antifungal; rifampicin (300 mg l(-1)), streptomycin/penicillin (25 mg l(-1)) and nystatin (10 mg l(-1)) were incorporated in seawater samples and incorporated into cultures every 24 h for a minimum of 2 days. The axenic isolation and culture of marine thraustochytrids from a marine habitat in New Zealand have significant implications for the biotechnological development of these potentially valuable protists. This method has global significance as it is reasonable to assume it could be used throughout the world to obtain axenic thraustochytrid cultures. © 2011The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Cultural Variations in Mothers' Acceptance of and Intent to Use Behavioral Child Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    We examined cultural differences in mothers' acceptance of and intent to use behavioral parenting techniques for managing disruptive child behavior, and the possible roles of parenting styles and implicit theories in explaining these cultural differences. A community sample of 117 Euro-Canadian and Chinese-immigrant mothers of boys aged 4- to…

  13. Effect of the initial specimen diversion technique on blood culture contamination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkhamis, Khalifa; Forward, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    The initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT) was first described by Patton and Schmitt (J. Clin. Microbiol. 48:4501-4503, 2010, doi:10.1128/JCM.00910-10). This study looked at the effect of implementation of the ISDT on blood culture contamination rates at our center. We found a reduction of 30.34% in potential blood culture contaminants.

  14. Cross-cultural validity of standardized motor development screening and assessment tools: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Bianca; Sargent, Barbara; Fetters, Linda

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether standardized motor development screening and assessment tools that are used to evaluate motor abilities of children aged 0 to 2 years are valid in cultures other than those in which the normative sample was established. This was a systematic review in which six databases were searched. Studies were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria and appraised for evidence level and quality. Study variables were extracted. Twenty-three studies representing six motor development screening and assessment tools in 16 cultural contexts met the inclusion criteria: Alberta Infant Motor Scale (n=7), Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (n=2), Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (n=8), Denver Developmental Screening Test, 2nd edition (n=4), Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (n=1), and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (n=1). Thirteen studies found significant differences between the cultural context and normative sample. Two studies established reliability and/or validity of standardized motor development assessments in high-risk infants from different cultural contexts. Five studies established new population norms. Eight studies described the cross-cultural adaptation of a standardized motor development assessment. Standardized motor development assessments have limited validity in cultures other than that in which the normative sample was established. Their use can result in under- or over-referral for services. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Comparison of two fecal egg recovery techniques and larval culture for cyathostomins in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Thomas R; Allen, Tammy M

    2009-05-01

    To compare the McMaster and centrifugal flotation techniques and larval culture for recovery of cyathostomin (small strongyle) eggs from the feces of horses. Fecal samples from 101 horses. In experiment I, homogenized fresh feces from a single horse were randomly subsampled by use of each technique for 10 replicates. In experiment II, samples from 43 horses that had no anthelmintic treatment were analyzed by use of McMaster, centrifugal flotation, and larval culture techniques. In experiment III, 57 horses were treated with an anthelmintic by owners, and fecal samples were analyzed as for experiment II. In experiment I, use of the McMaster technique recovered 72% of the eggs obtained by use of centrifugal flotation from paired subsamples. In experiment II, use of the McMaster technique recovered 81% of the eggs obtained by use of centrifugal flotation. Only cyathostomins resulted from individual larval cultures. In experiment III, 24 samples had negative results for all 3 tests, 18 samples had positive results only with larval cultures, and 15 samples had positive results of centrifugal flotation (only 5 of which had positive results via the McMaster technique). Centrifugal flotation consistently was superior to the McMaster technique, especially at low fecal egg numbers. The combination of centrifugal flotation and larval culture may provide the best accuracy for evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy.

  16. Cultural competency assessment tool for hospitals: Evaluating hospitals’ adherence to the culturally and linguistically appropriate services standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L.; Brown, Julie; Pradhan, Rohit; Rubin, Kelly L.; Schiller, Cameron; Hays, Ron D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. national standards for culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) in health care provide guidelines on policies and practices aimed at developing culturally competent systems of care. The Cultural Competency Assessment Tool for Hospitals (CCATH) was developed as an organizational tool to assess adherence to the CLAS standards. Purposes First, we describe the development of the CCATH and estimate the reliability and validity of the CCATH measures. Second, we discuss the managerial implications of the CCATH as an organizational tool to assess cultural competency. Methodology/Approach We pilot tested an initial draft of the CCATH, revised it based on a focus group and cognitive interviews, and then administered it in a field test with a sample of California hospitals. The reliability and validity of the CCATH were evaluated using factor analysis, analysis of variance, and Cronbach’s alphas. Findings Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 12 CCATH composites: leadership and strategic planning, data collection on inpatient population, data collection on service area, performance management systems and quality improvement, human resources practices, diversity training, community representation, availability of interpreter services, interpreter services policies, quality of interpreter services, translation of written materials, and clinical cultural competency practices. All the CCATH scales had internal consistency reliability of .65 or above, and the reliability was .70 or above for 9 of the 12 scales. Analysis of variance results showed that not-for-profit hospitals have higher CCATH scores than for-profit hospitals in five CCATH scales and higher CCATH scores than government hospitals in two CCATH scales. Practice Implications The CCATH showed adequate psychometric properties. Managers and policy makers can use the CCATH as a tool to evaluate hospital performance in cultural competency and identify and target

  17. Common Law as the Element of the Kabardians’ Standard Culture in the XIXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey H. Abazov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The common law is investigated as an element of the standard culture of the Kabardians in the XIXth century. Along with the common law, the separate elements of the traditional standard culture of the Kabardians; such as the traditional institutes of social self-regulation, the system of class relations, the family and household culture, a complex of moral ethical standards and behavior rules are distinguished. Specific features of integration of the common law and of certain institutes of the Kabardians into the legal system of the Russian Empire are demonstrated in these examples. It is claimed that after Kabarda's unification with the Russian Empire the common law of the Kabardians underwent essential transformations. It didn’t, however, completely lose its regulatory functions.

  18. Three-dimensional cell culture technique and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Case, Charles Patrick; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2014-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs consisting of human cells have opened a new avenue for tissue engineering, pharmaceutical and pathophysiological applications, and have great potential to estimate the dynamic pharmacological effects of drug candidates, metastasis processes of cancer cells, and toxicity expression of nano-materials, as a 3D-human tissue model instead of in vivo animal experiments. However, most 3D-cellular constructs are a cell spheroid, which is a heterogeneous aggregation, and thus the reconstruction of the delicate and precise 3D-location of multiple types of cells is almost impossible. In recent years, various novel technologies to develop complex 3D-human tissues including blood and lymph capillary networks have demonstrated that physiological human tissue responses can be replicated in the nano/micro-meter ranges. Here, we provide a brief overview on current 3D-tissue fabrication technologies and their biomedical applications. 3D-human tissue models will be a powerful technique for pathophysiological applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Introducing Mammalian Cell Culture and Cell Viability Techniques in the Undergraduate Biology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowey-Dellinger, Kristen; Dixon, Luke; Ackerman, Kristin; Vigueira, Cynthia; Suh, Yewseok K; Lyda, Todd; Sapp, Kelli; Grider, Michael; Crater, Dinene; Russell, Travis; Elias, Michael; Coffield, V McNeil; Segarra, Verónica A

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students learn about mammalian cell culture applications in introductory biology courses. However, laboratory modules are rarely designed to provide hands-on experience with mammalian cells or teach cell culture techniques, such as trypsinization and cell counting. Students are more likely to learn about cell culture using bacteria or yeast, as they are typically easier to grow, culture, and manipulate given the equipment, tools, and environment of most undergraduate biology laboratories. In contrast, the utilization of mammalian cells requires a dedicated biological safety cabinet and rigorous antiseptic techniques. For this reason, we have devised a laboratory module and method herein that familiarizes students with common cell culture procedures, without the use of a sterile hood or large cell culture facility. Students design and perform a time-efficient inquiry-based cell viability experiment using HeLa cells and tools that are readily available in an undergraduate biology laboratory. Students will become familiar with common techniques such as trypsinizing cells, cell counting with a hemocytometer, performing serial dilutions, and determining cell viability using trypan blue dye. Additionally, students will work with graphing software to analyze their data and think critically about the mechanism of death on a cellular level. Two different adaptations of this inquiry-based lab are presented-one for non-biology majors and one for biology majors. Overall, these laboratories aim to expose students to mammalian cell culture and basic techniques and help them to conceptualize their application in scientific research.

  20. The development of a cultural standardized patient examination for a general surgery residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Maria B J; Young, Keane G M; Honda, Andrea F; Belcher, Gary F; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2012-01-01

    Cultural competency and cross-cultural care issues in surgery resident education are areas of recognized need. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has developed 6 core competencies addressing training to provide high quality care. Of these, cultural training is addressed under 3: patient care, professionalism, and interpersonal and communication skills. Our study sought to develop a measurable tool-a cultural standardized patient (SP) examination-that integrates cross-cultural care issues within the core competencies. All first year surgery residents (PGY-1) were required to participate in the videotaped cultural SP examination as part of the general surgery residency curriculum. Two measures were utilized to assess resident performance. On the same day, we administered a Cross-Cultural Care Survey. The SP examination was assessed by trained surgery teaching faculty using a written checklist that was developed to evaluate residents on all 6 ACGME competencies. Of the 26 eligible participants over 2 years, we were able to analyze the pre- and post-test results for 24 residents. The post-test score of the "attitude toward cross-cultural care" subscale of the Cross-Cultural Care Survey was significantly lower than the pre-test score (p = 0.012; Wilcoxon signed-ranks test). There were significant differences by ethnicity on all 3 subscales of the Cross-Cultural Care Survey (attitude = p cross-cultural health care training as a permanent part of our curriculum. Our hope is that efforts to provide training in cross-cultural healthcare leads to high quality care and positive outcomes for the patient. This will not only enhance our training program, but may also become a useful tool for other surgery residency programs. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Standardization of proton-induced x-ray emission technique for analysis of thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shad; Zeb, Johar; Ahad, Abdul; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Haneef, M.; Akbar, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the standardization of the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique for finding the elemental composition of thick samples. For the standardization, three different samples of standard reference materials (SRMs) were analyzed using this technique and the data were compared with the already known data of these certified SRMs. These samples were selected in order to cover the maximum range of elements in the periodic table. Each sample was irradiated for three different values of collected beam charges at three different times. A proton beam of 2.57 MeV obtained using 5UDH-II Pelletron accelerator was used for excitation of x-rays from the sample. The acquired experimental data were analyzed using the GUPIXWIN software. The results show that the SRM data and the data obtained using the PIXE technique are in good agreement.

  2. Standardization of the PCR technique for the detection of delta toxin in Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marconi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, components of the normal flora of neonates, have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens of nosocomial infections that occur in neonatal intensive care units. Some authors have reported the ability of some CNS strains, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, to produce a toxin similar to S. aureus delta toxin. This toxin is an exoprotein that has a detergent action on the membranes of various cell types resulting in rapid cell lysis. The objectives of the present study were to standardize the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique for the detection of the gene responsible for the production of delta toxin (hld gene in staphylococcal species isolated from catheters and blood cultures obtained from neonates, and to compare the results to those obtained with the phenotypic synergistic hemolysis method. Detection of delta toxin by the phenotypic and genotypic method yielded similar results for the S. aureus isolates. However, in S. epidermidis, a higher positivity was observed for PCR (97.4% compared to the synergistic hemolysis method (86.8%. Among CNS, S. epidermidis was the most frequent isolate and was a delta toxin producer. Staphylococcus simulans and S. warneri tested positive by the phenotypic method, but their positivity was not confirmed by PCR for the hld gene detection. These results indicate that different genes might be responsible for the production of this toxin in different CNS species, requiring highly specific primers for their detection. PCR was found to be a rapid and reliable method for the detection of the hld gene in S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  3. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jae Sung; An, Byung Chull; Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Jae Tack [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: mass culture of the adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor: characterization of a transcription factor EoP gene from centipedegrass and the transcription regulation of LexA from Synechocystis sp PCC6803 and E. coli: identification of gamma-ray induced hydrogenase synthesis in hox gene transformed E. coli: transformation and the selection of the EoP transgene from Arabidopsis, rice and lettuce: Identification of the maysin and maysin derivatives in centipedegrass: characterization of gamma-ray induced color change in Taxus cuspidata: verification of the expression of antioxidant proteins (POD, APX and CAT) to gamma-ray in Arabidopsis: comparison of the response of the expression level to gamma-ray or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in Arabidopsis; verification of the responses and effects to gamma-ray from plants (analysis of NPQ and ROS levels): the development method for rapidly enhancing maysin content of centipede grass; establishment of mass culture system for red beet

  4. A cell culture technique for human epiretinal membranes to describe cell behavior and membrane contraction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Christian; Eibl-Lindner, Kirsten H; Compera, Denise; Kueres, Alexander; Wolf, Armin; Docheva, Denitsa; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Priglinger, Claudia; Schumann, Ricarda G

    2017-11-01

    To introduce a human cell culture technique for investigating in-vitro behavior of primary epiretinal cells and membrane contraction of fibrocellular tissue surgically removed from eyes with idiopathic macular pucker. Human epiretinal membranes were harvested from ten eyes with idiopathic macular pucker during standard vitrectomy. Specimens were fixed on cell culture plastic using small entomological pins to apply horizontal stress to the tissue, and then transferred to standard cell culture conditions. Cell behavior of 400 epiretinal cells from 10 epiretinal membranes was observed in time-lapse microscopy and analyzed in terms of cell migration, cell velocity, and membrane contraction. Immunocytochemistry was performed for cell type-specific antigens. Cell specific differences in migration behavior were observed comprising two phenotypes: (PT1) epiretinal cells moving fast, less directly, with small round phenotype and (PT2) epiretinal cells moving slowly, directly, with elongated large phenotype. No mitosis, no outgrowth and no migration onto the plastic were seen. Horizontal contraction measurements showed variation between specimens. Masses of epiretinal cells with a myofibroblast-like phenotype expressed cytoplasmatic α-SMA stress fibers and correlated with cell behavior characteristics (PT2). Fast moving epiretinal cells (PT1) were identified as microglia by immunostaining. This in-vitro technique using traction application allows for culturing surgically removed epiretinal membranes from eyes with idiopathic macular pucker, demonstrating cell behavior and membrane contraction of primary human epiretinal cells. Our findings emphasize the abundance of myofibroblasts, the presence of microglia and specific differences of cell behavior in these membranes. This technique has the potential to improve the understanding of pathologies at the vitreomacular interface and might be helpful in establishing anti-fibrotic treatment strategies.

  5. How Is Cultural Diversity Positioned in Teacher Professional Standards? An International Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ninetta; Kennedy, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of global mobility mean that culturally homogenous classrooms are now increasingly rare. This brings with it challenges for teachers and raises issues about what constitutes quality teaching and teachers. Professional standards are commonly seen as a key policy instrument through which teacher quality can be enhanced. This…

  6. Ideology and Audit Culture: Standardized Service Quality Surveys in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the standardized service quality survey LibQUAL+ and the rise of audit culture. Recent scholarship examining assessment and accountability systems and the ideological principles driving their implementation in higher education raises concerns about the impact these systems have on teaching, learning,…

  7. Do Auditing and Reporting Standards Affect Firms’ Ethical Behaviours? The Moderating Role of National Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zengin Karaibrahimoglu, Yasemin; Guneri Cangarli, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the impact of national cultural values on the relation between auditing and reporting standards and ethical behaviours of firms. Based on a regression analysis using data regarding 54 countries between the years 2007 and 2012, we found that the impact of the perceived

  8. Native Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: Choosing Language and Cultural Revitalization over Uniformity and Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazzie-Mintz, Tarajean

    2011-01-01

    The goal of implementing a culture-based curriculum that draws upon indigenous knowledge, traditions, and language is currently in competition with demands placed on schools by high stakes educational reform to implement a standards-based curriculum in schools. Though often left out of the policy conversation, Native teachers in particular have…

  9. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; Singh, Sudhir; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Park, Chul Hong; Srilatha, B.; Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Ohchul

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture for Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz.; Identification and functional analysis of AtTDX (chaperone and peroxidase activities); Functional analysis of radiation(gamma ray, electron beam, and proton beam) induced chaperon protein activities (AtTDX); Determine the action mechanism of yPrx2; Development of transgenic plant with bas I gene from Arabidopsis; Development of transgenic plant with EoP gene from centipedegrass; Identification of radiation induced multi functional compounds from Aloe; Determination of the effects of radiation on removing undesirable color and physiological activities (Schizandra chinensis baillon, centipedegrass); Determine the action mechanism of transgenic plant with 2-Cys Prx for heat stress resistance; Determination of the effects of centipedegrass extracts on anti-cancer activities; Functional analysis of centipedegrass extracts (anti-virus effects)

  10. A comparison between two lateral cephalometry techniques (standard and natural head position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayati Z. Assistant Professor. Sang S. DMD

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Cephalometric findings are of high importance in making decision about orthodontic treatment plans and orthognathic surgeries. Natural head position (NHP is considered as a useful and exact radiographic technique."nAim: The aim of the present study was to compare two techniques, namely Standard and NHP, in lateral"ncephalometry."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, performed in Shiraz. 138 randomly selected students {70 males .and 68 females, age ranging from (13-15. were evaluated clinically and radiographically. None of them had a history of orthodontic treatment, head and face fracture or surgical operations. Lateral cephalograms were taken in both standard and natural head position techniques, for each student. For statistical analysis, l-lest for paired samples, was done."nResults: This study showed that in anterior-posterior dimension, among angles with significant differences in two techniques, those of standard one were more reliable, whereas in vertical dimension."nstatistical differences showed natural technique as more useful one."nConclusion: Due to the fact that natural cephalometry requires more patient cooperation, more time and a higher complex technique, it is not suggested, except when different clinical and cepholomeiric findings are observed.

  11. Laryngeal mask airway insertion in children: comparison between rotational, lateral and standard technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Babita; Makkar, Jeetinder Kaur; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Wig, Jyotsna

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the success and ease of insertion of three techniques of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion; the standard Brain technique, a lateral technique with cuff partially inflated and a rotational technique with cuff partially inflated. One hundred and sixty-eight ASA I and II children aged 6 months to 6 years undergoing short elective surgical procedures lasting 40-60 min were included in the study. A standard anesthesia protocol was followed for all patients. Patients were randomly allocated into one of the three groups i.e. standard (S), rotational (R) and lateral (L). The primary outcome measure of the study was success rate at the first attempt using three techniques of LMA insertion. Secondary outcomes measures studied were overall success rate, time before successful LMA insertion, complications and maneuvers used to relieve airway obstruction. Successful insertion at the first attempt was significantly higher in group R (96%) compared with group L (84%) and group S (80%) (P = 0.03). Overall success rate (i.e. successful insertion with two attempts) was 100% for group R, 93% for group L and 87% for group S (P = 0.03). Time for successful insertion was significantly lower in group R compared with group L and S (P insertion and lowest incidence of complications and could be the technique of first choice for LMA insertion in pediatric patients.

  12. Challenges, Strategies and Techniques for International Training in Technology for Cultural Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Almagro Vidal, A.

    2013-07-01

    , Jordan, Argentina, United Arab Emirates, United States of America and around 20 other countries. These strategies deal with establishing methodologies and guiding principles for the selection of technologies, highlighting successful illustrated examples, levelling uneven educational bases and gaining access to expertise. The authors have developed these strategies and techniques to appeal, engage and succeed with such diverse groups - to encourage the participants to cooperate on a common goal and overcome specific challenges while embracing the technology and thinking critically about its appropriate application for the conservation of cultural heritage in their home countries. Other strategies include setting norms that respect the various cultures and differing levels of technology education, offering voluntary sessions for more advanced and ambitious participants, finding and then adopting natural leaders as co-instructors and offering a mix of sessions including standard lectures combined with field and laboratory exercises and distance learning. This methodology and strategies have proven to be successful as the participants have provided positive evaluations months and/or years after the courses, implemented their own courses using the materials and methods and have established a strong, sustainable network related to this topic.

  13. Improvement of rice anther culture and application of the technique in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiufang; Wang Cailian; Lu Yimei; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice type and varieties in anther culture. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the rice anthers at about 30 d after culture on induction medium were irradiated with 20 Gy of γ-rays and calli were cultured on the differentiation medium containing 30 mg/L colchicines. The stimulation effect of γ-irradiation combined with colchicines was much better than that of their single use. Mutation frequency and selective efficiency in M 2 were obviously increased by application of the technique

  14. Standard techniques for presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In September 1977, a crater studies workshop was held for the purpose of developing standard data analysis and presentation techniques. This report contains the unanimous recommendations of the participants. This first meeting considered primarily crater size-frequency data. Future meetings will treat other aspects of crater studies such as morphologies.

  15. Skin Absorbed Doses from Full Mouth Standard Intraoral Radiography in Bisecting Angle and Paralleling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo; Kim, Ae Ji [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Doh, Shi Hong [Dept. of Applied physics . National Fisheries University of Pusan Department of Radiotherapy, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Ja [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Meong Jin [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-08-15

    This study was performed to measure the skin absorbed doses from full mouth standard intraoral radiography(14 exposures) in bisecting angle and paralleling techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in a phantom. Circular tube collimator (60 mm in diameter, 20 cm in length) and rectangular collimator (35 mm X 44 mm, 40 cm in length) were set for bisecting angle and paralleling techniques respectively. All measurement sites were classified into 8 groups according to distance from each point of central rays. The results were as follows: 1. The skin absorbed doses from the paralleling technique were significantly decreased than those from the bisecting technique in both points at central ray and points away from central ray. The percentage rats of decrease were greater at points away from central ray than those at central ray. 2. The skin absorbed doses at the lens of eye, parotid gland, submandibular gland and thyroid region were significantly decreased in paralleling technique, but those of the midline of palate remained similar in both techniques. 3. The highest doses were measured at the site 20 mm above the point of central ray for the mandibular premolars in bisecting angle technique and at the point of central ray for the mandibular premolars in paralleling techniques. The lowest doses were measured at the thyroid region in both techniques.

  16. Skin Absorbed Doses from Full Mouth Standard Intraoral Radiography in Bisecting Angle and Paralleling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo; Kim, Ae Ji; Doh, Shi Hong; Kim, Hyun Ja; Yoo, Meong Jin

    1990-01-01

    This study was performed to measure the skin absorbed doses from full mouth standard intraoral radiography(14 exposures) in bisecting angle and paralleling techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in a phantom. Circular tube collimator (60 mm in diameter, 20 cm in length) and rectangular collimator (35 mm X 44 mm, 40 cm in length) were set for bisecting angle and paralleling techniques respectively. All measurement sites were classified into 8 groups according to distance from each point of central rays. The results were as follows: 1. The skin absorbed doses from the paralleling technique were significantly decreased than those from the bisecting technique in both points at central ray and points away from central ray. The percentage rats of decrease were greater at points away from central ray than those at central ray. 2. The skin absorbed doses at the lens of eye, parotid gland, submandibular gland and thyroid region were significantly decreased in paralleling technique, but those of the midline of palate remained similar in both techniques. 3. The highest doses were measured at the site 20 mm above the point of central ray for the mandibular premolars in bisecting angle technique and at the point of central ray for the mandibular premolars in paralleling techniques. The lowest doses were measured at the thyroid region in both techniques.

  17. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  18. Standardization of the Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty technique: Outcomes of the first 450 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, M; Rodríguez-Calvo-de-Mora, M; Naveiras, M; Cabrerizo, J; Dapena, I; Melles, G R J

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of the first 450 consecutive cases after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), as well as the effect of standardization of the technique. Comparison between 3 groups: Group I: (cases 1-125), as the extended learning curve; Group II: (cases 126-250), transition to technique standardization; Group III: (cases 251-450), surgery with standardized technique. Best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, pachymetry and intra- and postoperative complications were evaluated before, and 1, 3 and 6 months after DMEK. At 6 months after surgery, 79% of eyes reached a best corrected visual acuity of≥0.8 and 43%≥1.0. Mean preoperative endothelial cell density was 2,530±220 cells/mm2 and 1,613±495 at 6 months after surgery. Mean pachymetry measured 668±92 μm and 526±46 μm pre- and (6 months) postoperatively, respectively. There were no significant differences in best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density and pachymetry between the 3 groups (P > .05). Graft detachment presented in 17.3% of the eyes. The detachment rate declined from 24% to 12%, and the rate of secondary surgeries from 9.6% to 3.5%, from group I to III respectively. Visual outcomes and endothelial cell density after DMEK are independent of the technique standardization. However, technique standardization may have contributed to a lower graft detachment rate and a relatively low number of secondary interventions required. As such, DMEK may become the first choice of treatment in corneal endothelial disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of group B streptococci colonization in vaginal and rectal specimens by culture method and polymerase chain reaction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgani, Shahrokh; Navidifar, Tahereh; Najafian, Mahin; Amin, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) is a colonizing microorganism in pregnant women and without causing symptoms. Colonization of GBS in the rectovaginal region in late of pregnancy is a risk factor for newborn diseases. GBS infection in newborn babies is acquired by the aspiration of infected amniotic fluid or vertical transmission during delivery through the birth canal. The aim of this study was determination of GBS prevalence among vaginal and anorectal specimens at gestation females by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture-based methods. In this study, 137 rectal and vaginal swabs were separately collected from women with gestational age 35-37 weeks from July 2013 to March 2014 at the teaching hospital of Razi, Ahvaz, Iran. All samples were enrichment in selective culture media Todd-Hewitt broth for 24 hours and recognized by standard culture using blood agar, phenotypic tests, and amplification of the CFB gene. Age range was 16-45 years (mean, 28.34 ± 0.7 years). Of rectal samples, 42 (30.7%) were positive based on culture method and 57 (41.6%) samples were positive by PCR. Of 137 vaginal samples, 38 (27.7%) were positive by culture and 60 (43.8%) samples were positive by PCR. The chance of colonization with GBS was increased in women with a history of urinary tract infection. The frequency of GBS culture from rectal samples was higher than vaginal samples. However, the detection percentage of GBS using PCR from vaginal samples was higher than rectal samples. By contrast, the culture is a time-consuming method requiring at least 48 hours for GBS fully identification but PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in detection of GBS, with the result was acquired during 3 hours. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Jae Taek; Kim, Mi Ja

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Isolation and identification of radiation induced basI gene; Determination of stresses sensitivities by transformating basI gene into arabidopsis; Isolation and identification of radiation induced chaperon proteins (PaAhpC and yPrxII) from Pseudomonas and yeast, and structural and functional analysis of the proteins; Determination of oxidative and heat resistance by transformating PaAhpC; Isolation and identification of maysin and its derivatives from centipedgrass; Investigation of enhancement technique for improving maysin and its derivatives production using radiation; Investigation of removing undesirable color in maysin and its derivatives using radiation; Determination of the effect of radiation on physiological functions of centipedgrass extracts; Identification of H 2 O 2 removing enzyme in radiation irradiated plant (Spinach); Determination of the effects of centipedgrass extracts on anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities

  1. Concordance between nucleic acid amplification technique and culture for the diagnosis of gonorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, S; Revell, B; Barrow, A

    2009-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the concordance between nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT) and culture for the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae among attendees at a genitourinary medicine clinic in East London. All patients testing positive for N. gonorrhoeae on NAAT and/or culture between 1 April 2007 and 31 August 2008 at the Department of Sexual Health at Homerton University Hospital were included. Male patients had a first void urine sample for NAAT and urethral culture; female patients had a self-taken vulval swab or endocervical sample sent for NAAT and an endocervical culture sample. After interim analysis, discrepant results had both NAAT and culture repeated prior to treatment. Of 159 male patients with a positive NAAT, 22 (13%) had a negative culture. Among 135 female patients with a positive NAAT, 36 (27%) had a negative culture. Three men had a positive culture and negative NAAT. Nineteen of the discrepant samples were retested prior to treatment and 12 (63%) had spontaneously revered to negative. In conclusion, there was concordance in 84% of male and 67% of female samples. In two-thirds of the discrepant cases, the previously positive NAAT had become negative prior to treatment. This study highlights the importance of consideration of the clinical picture when assessing results.

  2. In vitro culture techniques as a tool of sugarcane bud germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... and shoot growth under salt stress with different NaCl concentrations (0, 17, 34, 68 and 102 mM) using cultivar NCo310. ... techniques could be used to evaluate salt stress effects in sugarcane at the germination stage. Key words: in vitro culture, .... l'Enseignement Supérieur, de la Formation des Cadres et.

  3. Technique of the 'in vitro' fertilization and the culture of mouse embryos at preimplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Yamada, Takeshi

    1993-03-01

    The mammal embryo is an intensive cellular proliferating system, very radiosensitive and therefore adequate to the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The technique of the in vitro fertilization and the culture of mouse embryos at preimplantation period, modified by Yamada et al (1982) to improve the efficiency of more than 95% of blastocyst formation is described. (author)

  4. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Rice - azolla - fish culture - use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Iwao.

    1991-01-01

    The primary aim of the expert mission was to provide advice on the use of nuclear techniques to study rice-azolla-fish culture. Results of the work performed so far show that basal application of azolla gives similar or better yields of rice than basal application of urea. Fish productivity was also found to be significantly higher when azolla is present. 2 tabs

  5. Evaluation of the MODS culture technique for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Caws

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating condition. The rapid instigation of appropraite chemotherapy is vital to reduce morbidity and mortality. However rapid diagnosis remains elusive; smear microscopy has extremely low sensitivity on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in most laboratories and PCR requires expertise with advanced infrastructure and has sensitivity of only around 60% under optimal conditions. Neither technique allows for the microbiological isolation of M. tuberculosis and subsequent drug susceptibility testing. We evaluated the recently developed microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay format for speed and accuracy in diagnosing TBM.Two hundred and thirty consecutive CSF samples collected from 156 patients clinically suspected of TBM on presentation at a tertiary referal hospital in Vietnam were enrolled into the study over a five month period and tested by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN smear, MODS, Mycobacterial growth Indicator tube (MGIT and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture. Sixty-one samples were from patients already on TB therapy for >1day and 19 samples were excluded due to untraceable patient records. One hundred and fifty samples from 137 newly presenting patients remained. Forty-two percent (n = 57/137 of patients were deemed to have TBM by clinical diagnostic and microbiological criteria (excluding MODS. Sensitivity by patient against clinical gold standard for ZN smear, MODS MGIT and LJ were 52.6%, 64.9%, 70.2% and 70.2%, respectively. Specificity of all microbiological techniques was 100%. Positive and negative predictive values for MODS were 100% and 78.7%, respectively for HIV infected patients and 100% and 82.1% for HIV negative patients. The median time to positive was 6 days (interquartile range 5-7, significantly faster than MGIT at 15.5 days (interquartile range 12-24, and LJ at 24 days (interquartile range 18-35 days (P<0.01.We have shown MODS to be a sensitive, rapid technique for the diagnosis of TBM with

  6. Single Spore Isolation as a Simple and Efficient Technique to obtain fungal pure culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, E.; Al-Gheethi, AA; Rahman, N. K.; Talip, B.; Mohamed, R.; H, N.; Kadir, O. A.

    2018-04-01

    The successful identification of fungi by phenotypic methods or molecular technique depends mainly on the using an advanced technique for purifying the isolates. The most efficient is the single spore technique due to the simple requirements and the efficiency in preventing the contamination by yeast, mites or bacteria. The method described in the present work is depends on the using of a light microscope to transfer one spore into a new culture medium. The present work describes a simple and efficient procedure for single spore isolation to purify of fungi recovered from the clinical wastes.

  7. Pathogen prevalence, group bias, and collectivism in the standard cross-cultural sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Steele, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    It has been argued that people in areas with high pathogen loads will be more likely to avoid outsiders, to be biased in favor of in-groups, and to hold collectivist and conformist values. Cross-national studies have supported these predictions. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and use them, together with existing pathogen and ethnographic data, to try to replicate these cross-national findings. In support of the theory, we found that cultures in high pathogen areas were more likely to socialize children toward collectivist values (obedience rather than self-reliance). There was some evidence that pathogens were associated with reduced adult dispersal. However, we found no evidence of an association between pathogens and our measures of group bias (in-group loyalty and xenophobia) or intergroup contact.

  8. A thin-layer liquid culture technique for the growth of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jung-Soo; Park, Kyung-Chul; Song, Jae-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Ja; Kwon, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-08-01

    Several attempts have been successful in liquid cultivation of Helicobaccter pylori. However, there is a need to improve the growth of H. pylori in liquid media in order to get affluent growth and a simple approach for examining bacterial properties. We introduce here a thin-layer liquid culture technique for the growth of H. pylori. A thin-layer liquid culture system was established by adding liquid media to a 90-mm diameter Petri dish. Optimal conditions for bacterial growth were investigated and then viability, growth curve, and released proteins were examined. Maximal growth of H. pylori was obtained by adding 3 mL of brucella broth supplemented with 10% horse to a Petri dish. H. pylori grew in both DMEM and RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.5% yeast extract. Serum-free RPMI-1640 supported the growth of H. pylori when supplemented with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (200 microg/mL) and 1% yeast extract. Under optimal growth, H. pylori grew exponentially for 28 hours, reaching a density of 3.4 OD(600) with a generation time of 3.3 hours. After 24 hours, cultures at a cell density of 1.0 OD(600) contained 1.3 +/- 0.1 x 10(9 )CFU/mL. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, nuclease, superoxide dismutase, and urease were not detected in culture supernatants at 24 hours in thin-layer liquid culture, but were present at 48 hours, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase, alkylhydroperoxide reductase, catalase, and vacuolating cytotoxin were detected at 24 hours. Thin-layer liquid culture technique is feasible, and can serve as a versatile liquid culture technique for investigating bacterial properties of H. pylori.

  9. A survey on development of neutron standards and neutron measurement technique corresponding to various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    Various uses of neutrons are being watched in many fields such as industry, medical technology and radiation protection. Especially, high energy neutrons above 15 MeV are important in a radiation exposure issue of an aircraft and a soft error issue of a semiconductor. Therefore neutron fluence standards for the high energy region are very important. However, the standards are not almost provided all over the world. Three reasons are mainly considered: (1) poor measurement techniques for the high energy neutrons, (2) a small number of high energy neutron facilities and (3) lack of nuclear data for high energy particle reactions. In this paper, the present status of the measurement techniques, the facilities and the nuclear data is investigated and discussed. In NMIJ/AIST, the 19.0-MeV neutron fluence standard will be established by 2010, and development of high energy neutron standards above 20 MeV is also examined. An outline of the development of the high energy neutron standards is also shown in this paper. (author)

  10. Use of culture and immunochromatographic technique for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Prathanapan, S; de Silva, G; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2013-09-01

    As a majority of the trichomoniasis patients are asymptomatic, laboratory tests are crucial in case detection. The usefulness of culture and immunochromatographic technique (ICT) compared to microscopy for detection of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka was assessed. Females (16-45 years) from Colombo district were screened for Trichomonas vaginalis using three laboratory tests namely, microscopy of wet smear, Trichomonas liquid culture and ICT (OSOM® trichomonas rapid test). Trichomoniasis by at least one test being positive was 4.8%. Microscopy, culture and ICT detected 2.8%, 4.2% and 10% cases respectively. Microscopy missed 32% of culture positives. ICT is a simple, practical and reliable alternative to microscopy in laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

  11. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  12. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Frey, Eric C; Caffo, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  13. Quench correction in liquid scintillation counting by a combined internal standard-samples channels ratio technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, E.

    1982-01-01

    A well-known problem in liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is that radioactivity cannot be measured with 100% efficiency, e.g., due to ''quenching'', which thus needs be corrected for. Three methods (viz., those of internal standard (IS), samples channels ratio (SCR), and external standard channels ratio (ESCR) are in common use to accomplish quench correction. None of these methods is ideal. This paper shows that a combination of the IS and SCR methods (IS-SCR) ameliorates the major disadvantages of both techniques and the disadvantage of the SCR technique at low count rates have been eliminated in the IS-SCR method, which also has a low volume dependence compared to the IS and ESCR methods. The IS-SCR method is not affected by time-dependent diffusion of solutes and solvents into the walls of plastic counting vials, which is a major drawback of the ESCR technique. Used with a simple linear regression technique, the IS-SCR quench curves may be linearized over wide ranges of efficiencies. In view of the wide-spread application of LSC, the IS-SCR technique is therefore likely to be useful to many investigators. 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Assessment of Snared-Loop Technique When Standard Retrieval of Inferior Vena Cava Filters Fails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, Orla; Noe, Geertje; Given, Mark F.; Foley, Peter T.; Lyon, Stuart M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify the success and complications related to a variant technique used to retrieve inferior vena cava filters when simple snare approach has failed. Methods A retrospective review of all Cook Guenther Tulip filters and Cook Celect filters retrieved between July 2006 and February 2008 was performed. During this period, 130 filter retrievals were attempted. In 33 cases, the standard retrieval technique failed. Retrieval was subsequently attempted with our modified retrieval technique. Results The retrieval was successful in 23 cases (mean dwell time, 171.84 days; range, 5-505 days) and unsuccessful in 10 cases (mean dwell time, 162.2 days; range, 94-360 days). Our filter retrievability rates increased from 74.6% with the standard retrieval method to 92.3% when the snared-loop technique was used. Unsuccessful retrieval was due to significant endothelialization (n = 9) and caval penetration by the filter (n = 1). A single complication occurred in the group, in a patient developing pulmonary emboli after attempted retrieval. Conclusion The technique we describe increased the retrievability of the two filters studied. Hook endothelialization is the main factor resulting in failed retrieval and continues to be a limitation with these filters.

  15. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  16. Extending and simplifying the standard Köhn-pipette technique for grain size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Grain size distribution is a fundamental parameter to characterize physical properties of soils and sediments. Manifold approaches exist and according to the DIN ISO 11277 soil texture is analyzed by default with the combined pipette sieving and sedimentation method developed by Köhn. With this standard technique subfractions of sand and silt as well as the total clay content can be determined but the differentiation of clay subfractions is impossible. As the differentiation of the clay subfractions yields relevant information about pedogenesis, we present a protocol basing on standard techniques of granulometry with easy to handle and low cost equipment. The protocol was tested on a set of soil samples to cover the range of grain size distributions. We used a three-step procedure for achieving the grain size distribution of soil samples taking into account the subfractions of sand, silt and clay by a combination of sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation and wet sieving. The pipetting was done with a piston-stroke pipette instead of the referred complex pipette from the DIN ISO 11277. Our first results show that the applied protocol is less prone to operating errors than the standard Köhn-pipette technique. Furthermore, even a less experienced laboratory worker can handle 10 samples in one day. Analyses of a luvisol profile, sampled in high spatial resolution, showed that the lessivation process is characterized by translocation of fine clay from the eluvial horizon to the illuvial horizon. Therefore our protocol is a fast alternative to detect lessivation, which is otherwise only clearly identifiable by micromorphological investigation and not by the standard Köhn-pipette technique.

  17. Improving tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in melon using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Tutluer, I.; Kunter, B.; Peskircioglu, H.; Sagel, Z.; Erzurum, K.

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant cultivars. During the last three decades, tissue culture techniques have been utilised in crop improvement to generate changes in the genetic material of plants via in vitro somaclonal variations (by organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis) and induced mutagenesis. More recently, researchers have been using in vitro techniques to investigate the effects of fungal culture filtrates or toxins on susceptible and resistant genotypes of different plant species or cultivars to assess disease resistance. This method is effectively used for cucumber and melon. There are various in vitro culture techniques that can be used for cucumber (Malepszy, 1988). In this chapter, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, from both irradiated and non- irradiated explants, is performed using culture filtrates of different FOM races. This research could lead to the development of new melon cultivars resistant to Fusarium wilt. (author)

  18. Insights into the multifaceted application of microscopic techniques in plant tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mack; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Microscopic techniques remain an integral tool which has allowed for the better understanding and manipulation of in vitro plant culture systems. The recent advancements will inevitably help to unlock the long-standing mysteries of fundamental biological mechanisms of plant cells. Beyond the classical applications in micropropagation aimed at the conservation of endangered and elite commercial genotypes, plant cell, tissue and organ cultures have become a platform for elucidating a myriad of fundamental physiological and developmental processes. In conjunction with microscopic techniques, in vitro culture technology has been at the centre of important breakthroughs in plant growth and development. Applications of microscopy and plant tissue culture have included elucidation of growth and development processes, detection of in vitro-induced physiological disorders as well as subcellular localization using fluorescent protein probes. Light and electron microscopy have been widely used in confirming the bipolarity of somatic embryos during somatic embryogenesis. The technique highlights basic anatomical, structural and histological evidence for in vitro-induced physiological disorders during plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss some significant biological insights in plant growth and development, breakthroughs and limitations of various microscopic applications and the exciting possibilities offered by emergent in vivo live imaging and fluorescent protein engineering technologies.

  19. Impact of Standardized Communication Techniques on Errors during Simulated Neonatal Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nicole K; Fuerch, Janene H; Halamek, Louis P

    2016-03-01

    Current patterns of communication in high-risk clinical situations, such as resuscitation, are imprecise and prone to error. We hypothesized that the use of standardized communication techniques would decrease the errors committed by resuscitation teams during neonatal resuscitation. In a prospective, single-blinded, matched pairs design with block randomization, 13 subjects performed as a lead resuscitator in two simulated complex neonatal resuscitations. Two nurses assisted each subject during the simulated resuscitation scenarios. In one scenario, the nurses used nonstandard communication; in the other, they used standardized communication techniques. The performance of the subjects was scored to determine errors committed (defined relative to the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm), time to initiation of positive pressure ventilation (PPV), and time to initiation of chest compressions (CC). In scenarios in which subjects were exposed to standardized communication techniques, there was a trend toward decreased error rate, time to initiation of PPV, and time to initiation of CC. While not statistically significant, there was a 1.7-second improvement in time to initiation of PPV and a 7.9-second improvement in time to initiation of CC. Should these improvements in human performance be replicated in the care of real newborn infants, they could improve patient outcomes and enhance patient safety. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. A Standardized Narrative Profile Approach to Self-Reflection and Assessment of Cross-Cultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J Wilby

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 to explore clinical assessor’s values regarding behaviours related to cultural aspects of care, 2 to generate standardized narrative profiles regarding cultural behavioural outcomes within clinical teaching settings, and 3 to rank order standardized narrative profiles according to performance expectations. Methods: Ten interviews were completed with clinicians to determine values and performance expectations for culturally competent behaviours. Transcripts were produced and coded. Six narrative profiles were developed based on data obtained. Twenty clinicians categorized profiles according to performance expectations and rank ordered. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs determined inter-rater reliability. Clinicians rated usability of profiles in clinical training settings. Results: Eighteen categories were coded with communication, awareness and ability most frequently reported with each ranging from 9.6-11.5% of the utterances. Consensus for categorization of all profiles was achieved at a level of 70% (ICC = 0.837, 95% CI 0.654-0.969. High inter-rater reliability was achieved for rank ordering (ICC = 0.815, 95% CI 0.561 to 0.984. Seventeen (85% clinicians agreed that the profiles would be usable in clinical training settings. Conclusions: Standardized narrative profiles may aid assessment and self-reflection for student performance within culturally diverse interactions. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Original Research

  1. Should Advertising Be Standardized Based on Specific Cultural Dimensions? - A Comparative Study of Ad Preference and Cultural Dimensions in the US and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study is to test the idea that different cultural dimensions have the same degree of impact on consumer preference of advertising standardization. Hofstede’s (1980, 2001 cultural dimensions are used to examine the differences of its impact on advertising standardization between China and US consumer preference in smartphone industry. A preliminary explanation of the management dilemma, the practical and theoretical interest of the study is explained, followed by a brief explanation of the hypothesis, methodologies and research findings. After a statistical analysis based on data collected from existing research, the research finds that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the impact of all cultural dimensions on ad standardization are not all the same across the US and China, which give some weights on the idea that all cultural dimensions should all be considered as a whole and weighted no differently to analyze the linkage between culture and ad preference.

  2. Ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent by using the direct explant cell culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Gürkan Raşit; Aydıntuğ, Yavuz Sinan; Günhan, Omer; Oztürk, Kamile; Gülses, Aydın

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is the histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents using keratinocytes cultured by direct explant technique. Oral mucosa tissue samples were obtained from the keratinized gingival tissues of 14 healthy human subjects. Human oral mucosa keratinocytes from an oral mucosa biopsy specimen were dissociated by the explant technique. Once a sufficient population of keratinocytes was reached, they were seeded onto the type IV collagen coated "AlloDerm" and taken for histological and immunohistochemical examinations at 11 days postseeding of the keratinocytes on the cadaveric human dermal matrix. Histopathologically and immunohistochemically, 12 out of 14 successful ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOME) that consisted of a stratified epidermis on a dermal matrix have been developed with keratinocytes cultured by the explant technique. The technical handling involved in the direct explant method at the beginning of the process has fewer steps than the enzymatic method and use of the direct explant technique protocol for culturing of human oral mucosa keratinocyte may be more adequate for EVPOME production.

  3. Assessing Adipogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Rapid Three-Dimensional Culture Screening Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean F. Welter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have the potential to differentiate into a number of phenotypes, including adipocytes. Adipogenic differentiation has traditionally been performed in monolayer culture, and, while the expression of a fat-cell phenotype can be achieved, this culture method is labor and material intensive and results in only small numbers of fragile adherent cells, which are not very useful for further applications. Aggregate culture is a cell-culture technique in which cells are induced to form three-dimensional aggregates; this method has previously been used successfully, among others, to induce and study chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. We have previously published an adaptation of the chondrogenic aggregate culture method to a 96-well plate format. Based on the success of this method, we have used the same format for the preparation of three-dimensional adipogenic cultures. The MSCs differentiate rapidly, the aggregates can be handled and processed for histologic and biochemical assays with ease, and the format offers significant savings in supplies and labor. As a differentiation assay, this method can distinguish between degrees of senescence and appears suitable for testing medium or drug formulations in a high-volume, high-throughput fashion.

  4. Assessing adipogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells: a rapid three-dimensional culture screening technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Jean F; Penick, Kitsie J; Solchaga, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into a number of phenotypes, including adipocytes. Adipogenic differentiation has traditionally been performed in monolayer culture, and, while the expression of a fat-cell phenotype can be achieved, this culture method is labor and material intensive and results in only small numbers of fragile adherent cells, which are not very useful for further applications. Aggregate culture is a cell-culture technique in which cells are induced to form three-dimensional aggregates; this method has previously been used successfully, among others, to induce and study chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. We have previously published an adaptation of the chondrogenic aggregate culture method to a 96-well plate format. Based on the success of this method, we have used the same format for the preparation of three-dimensional adipogenic cultures. The MSCs differentiate rapidly, the aggregates can be handled and processed for histologic and biochemical assays with ease, and the format offers significant savings in supplies and labor. As a differentiation assay, this method can distinguish between degrees of senescence and appears suitable for testing medium or drug formulations in a high-volume, high-throughput fashion.

  5. [Effects on proliferation ability of vascular smooth muscle cells by static and/or dynamic cell culture: utility of pre-seeding technique for dynamic cell culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomuro, Hiroki; Ozawa, Tsukasa; Fujii, Takeshiro; Shiono, Noritsugu; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Koyama, Nobuya; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2007-11-01

    Conventional biomaterials are not viable, do not grow, and do not provide contractile effects in cardiac tissue. Foreign synthetic material may become thrombogenic or infected. The most recent cardiac constructs consist of biodegradable material which has the potential to solve these problems. However, dynamic three-dimensional cell culture is necessary because conventional culture is limited to construct tough biografts. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from rat aorta were seeded to poly-L-lactide-epsilon-capro-lactone copolymer in three groups; static culture group (static cell seeding + static cell culture), dynamic culture group (dynamic cell seeding + dynamic cell culture), and pre-seeding group [static cell seeding and culture for 1 week (pre-seeding) + dynamic cell culture]. The dynamic cell culture system used an original spinner flask. The pre-seeding technique used static cell seeding and culture before dynamic culture. The three groups were evaluated by cell proliferation and histologic studies. Vascular smooth muscle cells could be proliferated in/on the biodegradable materials. The pre-seeding group cells grew much more efficiently than the other groups. Very few cells were found in the biodegradable materials with the dynamic groups. However, there were many cells in the materials with the static culture group and pre-seeding group, especially the pre-seeding group. Dynamic culture is useful for constructing tough biografts by the pre-seeding technique.

  6. Mutation breeding through in vitro culture techniques for resistance to cocoa swollen shoot virus disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu Ampomah, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) disease is epidemic in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Ghana, but there is no resistant material in the genetic resources available. In order to widen the genetic variability in this crop, efforts were made to apply conventional mutation breeding and in combination with in vitro culture technique. Gamma irradiation with doses less than 100 Gy were applied to pollen, beans and vegetative buds, and more than 1,000 M 2 /F 1 or M 1 V 3 plants for each experiments were screened for CSSV resistance by patch grafting method. The results indicated that it is feasible to use vegetative buds and in vitro culture to generate the desired variation. Some promising CSSV resistant clones are under further testing. In vitro culture conditions are also reported. (author). 7 refs, 7 tabs

  7. Selective Cell Elimination from Mixed 3D Culture Using a Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhide; Choyke, Peter L; Hisataka, Kobayashi

    2016-03-14

    Recent developments in tissue engineering offer innovative solutions for many diseases. For example, tissue engineering using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) emerged as a new method in regenerative medicine. Although this tissue regeneration is promising, contamination with unwanted cells during tissue cultures is a major concern. Moreover, there is a safety concern regarding tumorigenicity after transplantation. Therefore, there is an urgent need for eliminating specific cells without damaging other cells that need to be protected, especially in established tissue. Here, we present a method for specific cell elimination from a mixed 3D cell culture in vitro with near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) without damaging non-targeted cells. This technique enables the elimination of specific cells from mixed cell cultures or tissues.

  8. Translation of questionnaires into Arabic in cross-cultural research: techniques and equivalence issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2013-10-01

    To describe the translation process of nursing instruments into Arabic and discuss the equivalence issues arising from this process. Review of the literature. The Arabic language is essentially three different languages: Classical Arabic; Modern Standard Arabic (fuS-Ha or MSA); and colloquial Arabic (Lahja A'mmeya), which is itself divided into five different regional Arabic dialects. The Arabic fuS-Ha language is the dialect most widely used in the translation of instruments into Arabic. The literature reveals that only a few studies focused on the linguistic issues in the translation of instruments into Arabic. Brislin's back-translation emerged as the most common method widely used by researchers in studies with Arabic-speaking subjects, but not the perfect one. Linguistic issues in nursing research have not been sufficiently described and discussed in the context of Arabic language and culture. Although there is no standard guideline for instrument translation, the combined translation model is the most recommended procedure to use in cross-cultural research. Linguistic differences between the source culture and the target Arabic culture should be taken into account. Finally, we recommend the use of the fuS-Ha dialect and trilingual translators in the translation of nursing instruments into Arabic.

  9. Infrared thermographic assessment of materials and techniques for the protection of cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Koui, Maria; Delegou, Ekaterini T.; Tsiourva, Theodora

    2001-09-01

    In this work, infrared thermography was applied and investigated as a non-destructive tool in the assessment of materials and techniques for the protection of cultural heritage. Diagnostic studies on monuments and historic buildings, situated in Greece, were performed. Long wave infrared thermography was used on restoration and traditional - historic materials concerning architectural surfaces and historic structures for research purposes such as: the assessment of moisture impact to porous stone masonries and the evaluation of conservation interventions (materials and techniques) regarding, consolidation interventions on porous stone masonries, restoration of masonries by repair mortars, and cleaning of facades. The results of this work indicate that thermography can be considered as a powerful diagnostic nondestructive tool for the preservation and protection of cultural heritage.

  10. Examination, characterisation and analysis techniques for the knowledge and the conservation / restoration of cultural heritage - importance of ionising radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine; J. L.

    2004-01-01

    For the examination, characterisation and analysis of cultural heritage artefacts or art objects and their component materials, the conservation scientist needs a palette of non destructive and non invasive techniques, in order to improve our knowledge concerning their elaboration, their evolution and/or degradation during time, and to give rational basis for their restoration and conservation. A general survey and illustrations showing the usefulness of these techniques will be presented. Among these methods, many are based on the use of ionising radiation. 1. Radiography (using X-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, secondary electrons, neutrons), electron emission radiography, tomodensimetry, 2. Scanning electron microscope associated with X-ray spectrometry, 3. X-ray diffraction, 4. Synchrotron radiation characterisation, 5. X-ray fluorescence analysis, 6. Activation analysis, 7. Ion beam analysis (PIXE, PIGE, RBS, secondary X-ray fluorescence), 8. Thermoluminescence dating, 9. Carbon-14 dating. These methods are used alone or in connection with other analytical methods. Any kind of materials can be encountered, for instance: i. stones, gems, ceramics, terracotta, enamels, glasses, i i. wood, paper, textile, bone, ivory, i i i. metals, jewellery, i v. paint layers, canvas and wooden backings, pigments, dyers, oils, binding media, varnishes, glues. Some examples will be taken, among recent work done at the Centre of Research and Restoration of the Museums of France (C2RMF), from various geographical origins, various ages and different art disciplines. This will illustrate the kind of assistance that science and technology can provide to a better knowledge of mankind's cultural heritage and also to the establishment of rational basis for its better conservation for the future generations. (Author)

  11. [Study on the setup of a new technique of tissue and cell culture for vitreous fluid of vitrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen-lin; Liu, Yue-yue; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng-yue; Wang, Liang-hai

    2008-12-01

    To setup a new technique of tissue and cell culture for vitreous aspirates. Experiment study. Specimens used for supporting new culture technique were selected based on random digit table. Thirty cases with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and forty-eight with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), which undergoing primary pars plana vitrectomy, were selected randomly and included in the study. After being antiphase stained with fluorescein-natrium (0.5%) and digested with hyaluronidase (10(5) U/L) combined with collagenase I (10(6) U/L) for removing vitreous gel, sediment of vitreous fluid after centrifugation were inoculated into standard culturing bottle with which polylysine (0.01%) was pre-set. The bottle which contained F12 medium with 30% fetal bovine serum was placed upside down for 24 hours and consecutively upside for 6 days. During which, F12 medium was replaced once in half volume, and cell growth along the edge of sedimentary membrane was observed at time of the 3rd and the 6th day after upside culture. Under condition of pre-setting by polylysine (0.01%) and being placed upside down for 24 hours, pieces from vitreous fluids could adhere to the bottom of bottle in a way of semi-xerosis with adherence rate of 100% (78/78). No bacteria, fungus and mycoplasma contamination was found within 7 days. Antiphase stained with fluorescein-natrium (0.5%) and digested with hyaluronidase (10(5) U/L) combined with collagenase I (10(6) U/L) for 30 minutes, vitreous gel in 78 specimens could be digested (78/78). Cell emigration could be found in edge area of some pieces of vitreous fluid and cell growth as well as proliferation was shown. In 30 specimens of RRD, cell growth rate were 43.33% (13/30). In 48 specimens of PDR, cell growth rate were 37.50% (18/48). Concerning PDR phase V (PDR-V), cell growth rate reach 41.67% (10/24). Enzymolysis with upside down and semi-xerosis could ensure good adherence of membrane, moreover, no contamination and obvious cell

  12. Standard practice for monitoring atmospheric SO2 using the sulfation plate technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a weighted average effective SO2 level for a 30-day interval through the use of the sulfation plate method, a technique for estimating the effective SO2 content of the atmosphere, and especially with regard to the atmospheric corrosion of stationary structures or panels. This practice is aimed at determining SO2 levels rather than sulfuric acid aerosol or acid precipitation. 1.2 The results of this practice correlate approximately with volumetric SO2 concentrations, although the presence of dew or condensed moisture tends to enhance the capture of SO2 into the plate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Comparisons of neural networks to standard techniques for image classification and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Justin D.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Neural network techniques for multispectral image classification and spatial pattern detection are compared to the standard techniques of maximum-likelihood classification and spatial correlation. The neural network produced a more accurate classification than maximum-likelihood of a Landsat scene of Tucson, Arizona. Some of the errors in the maximum-likelihood classification are illustrated using decision region and class probability density plots. As expected, the main drawback to the neural network method is the long time required for the training stage. The network was trained using several different hidden layer sizes to optimize both the classification accuracy and training speed, and it was found that one node per class was optimal. The performance improved when 3x3 local windows of image data were entered into the net. This modification introduces texture into the classification without explicit calculation of a texture measure. Larger windows were successfully used for the detection of spatial features in Landsat and Magellan synthetic aperture radar imagery.

  14. RADISH SEED PRODUCTION (TRANSPLANTATION CULTURE; STANDARD OF ORGANISATION FOR MODEL TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Pavlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of organization for model technological process of seed production waselaborated at VNIISSOK. Requirements established are for implementation of technological operation at radish seed production as transplantation culture as followed: seed plant growing in polyhouses to produce elite seeds, seedlings planting out, plant nursing, harvesting and postharvest processing. The standard is aimed to provide the qualified work in radish seed production through transplantation culture. Radish seed plants for elite seed production are grown on warmed soil beds in winter greenhouses with use of plastic roofing or in plastic houses supplied with heating system. Seeds with germination not less than 85 % according to GOST 32592-2013 are taken for seed production aims. Hand sowing under marker ensures the identical all-around nutrition for plants that is particularly important when growing and selecting the seed plants (1 hectare - 55-60 thousand seed plant roots. Approbation of seed plants is carried out just before harvesting. The terms of seed plant planting are the earliest. Scheme of planting is 70 x 15 - 20 (cm, 60 x 30 (cm or 90 x 15 (cm. To protect the seed production plantation of radish against weeds, diseases and pests, the pesticides are allowed to apply in accordance with State Catalogue of Pesticides and Agrochemicals, permitted to use in the territory of Russian Federation. Postharvest desiccation of seed plants enables to yield radish by means of direct combining. Radish seeds after processing on sowing qualities have to meet all sowing requirements according to the acting standard. The standard of organization is agreed and affirmed in 2016 CTO45727225-52-16.

  15. Standard PREanalytical Codes: A New Paradigm for Environmental Biobanking Sectors Explored in Algal Culture Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Erica E; Betsou, Fotini; Amaral, Raquel; Santos, Lília M A; Harding, Keith

    2011-12-01

    The Standard PREanalytical Code (SPREC) was developed by the medical/clinical biobanking sector motivated by the need to harmonize biospecimen traceability in preanalytical processes and enable interconnectivity and interoperability between different biobanks, research consortia, and infrastructures. The clinical SPREC (01) consists of standard preanalytical variable options (7-code elements), which comprise published and (ideally) validated methodologies. Although the SPREC has been designed to facilitate clinical research, the concept could have utility in biorepositories and culture collections that service environmental and biodiversity communities. The SPREC paradigm can be applied to different storage regimes across all types of biorepository. The objective of this article is to investigate adapting the code in nonclinical biobanks using algal culture collections and their cryostorage as a case study. The SPREC (01) is recalibrated as a putative code that might be adopted for biobanks holding different types of biodiversity; it is extended to include optional coding from the point of sample collection to postcryostorage manipulations, with the caveat that the processes are undertaken by biorepository personnel.

  16. Application of Tissue Culture and Transformation Techniques in Model Species Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Bahar; Budak, Hikmet

    2018-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon has recently emerged as a model plant species for the grass family (Poaceae) that includes major cereal crops and forage grasses. One of the important traits of a model species is its capacity to be transformed and ease of growing both in tissue culture and in greenhouse conditions. Hence, plant transformation technology is crucial for improvements in agricultural studies, both for the study of new genes and in the production of new transgenic plant species. In this chapter, we review an efficient tissue culture and two different transformation systems for Brachypodium using most commonly preferred gene transfer techniques in plant species, microprojectile bombardment method (biolistics) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.In plant transformation studies, frequently used explant materials are immature embryos due to their higher transformation efficiencies and regeneration capacity. However, mature embryos are available throughout the year in contrast to immature embryos. We explain a tissue culture protocol for Brachypodium using mature embryos with the selected inbred lines from our collection. Embryogenic calluses obtained from mature embryos are used to transform Brachypodium with both plant transformation techniques that are revised according to previously studied protocols applied in the grasses, such as applying vacuum infiltration, different wounding effects, modification in inoculation and cocultivation steps or optimization of bombardment parameters.

  17. Outcome of a standardized technique of preputial preservation surgery for phimosis: A single institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pathological phimosis or preputial stenosis is a distressing problem in children leading to recurrent balanoposthitis, ballooning of prepuce, and rarely back pressure changes in the urinary tract. Circumcision has been the standard of care for such situations, although recently, various alternatives to circumcision have been reported in the literature. Most of these techniques are often complex and are met with poor acceptance. Moreover, besides personal preferences (in Hindus, advantages of preputial preservation is increasingly being realized recently. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in which a simple standardized technique of preputioplasty (dorsal slit was used in 40 pediatric preputial stenosis cases. The outcome of this procedure including cosmesis and parental satisfaction was evaluated. Results: The average duration of this procedure was from 10 to 25 min with no intraoperative complications. The cosmetic outcome was good in 62.5%, satisfactory in 30%, and poor in 7.5% of cases. All of the boys had retractable prepuce with no functional problems. There was 100% parental satisfaction. None of the patients required a redo procedure or circumcision. Conclusion: A dorsal slit of adequate length i.e.; 1/3 rd the length from the corona to the tip leads to a satisfactory cosmetic outcome in more than 92% of cases. Preputioplasty is a safe and simple alternative to more radical procedure of circumcision.

  18. Real-time PCR versus viral culture on urine as a gold standard in the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jutte J. C.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Wolthers, Katja C.; Rusman, Lisette G.; Pas, Suzan D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Claas, Eric C.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common cause of congenital infection. Whereas CMV PCR has replaced viral culture and antigen detection in immunocompromised patients because of higher sensitivity, viral culture of neonatal urine is still referred to as the gold standard in the

  19. Closing the gap: accelerating the translational process in nanomedicine by proposing standardized characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ali A; Weaver, James L; Salvador-Morales, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    On the cusp of widespread permeation of nanomedicine, academia, industry, and government have invested substantial financial resources in developing new ways to better treat diseases. Materials have unique physical and chemical properties at the nanoscale compared with their bulk or small-molecule analogs. These unique properties have been greatly advantageous in providing innovative solutions for medical treatments at the bench level. However, nanomedicine research has not yet fully permeated the clinical setting because of several limitations. Among these limitations are the lack of universal standards for characterizing nanomaterials and the limited knowledge that we possess regarding the interactions between nanomaterials and biological entities such as proteins. In this review, we report on recent developments in the characterization of nanomaterials as well as the newest information about the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins in the human body. We propose a standard set of techniques for universal characterization of nanomaterials. We also address relevant regulatory issues involved in the translational process for the development of drug molecules and drug delivery systems. Adherence and refinement of a universal standard in nanomaterial characterization as well as the acquisition of a deeper understanding of nanomaterials and proteins will likely accelerate the use of nanomedicine in common practice to a great extent. PMID:25525356

  20. Study of the standard direct costs of various techniques of advanced endoscopy. Comparison with surgical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loras, Carme; Mayor, Vicenç; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, Maria

    2018-03-12

    The complexity of endoscopy has carried out an increase in cost that has a direct effect on the healthcare systems. However, few studies have analyzed the cost of advanced endoscopic procedures (AEP). To carry out a calculation of the standard direct costs of AEP, and to make a financial comparison with their surgical alternatives. Calculation of the standard direct cost in carrying out each procedure. An endoscopist detailed the time, personnel, materials, consumables, recovery room time, stents, pathology and medication used. The cost of surgical procedures was the average cost recorded in the hospital. Thirty-eight AEP were analyzed. The technique showing lowest cost was gastroscopy + APC (€116.57), while that with greatest cost was ERCP with cholangioscopy + stent placement (€5083.65). Some 34.2% of the procedures registered average costs of €1000-2000. In 57% of cases, the endoscopic alternative was 2-5 times more cost-efficient than surgery, in 31% of cases indistinguishable or up to 1.4 times more costly. Standard direct cost of the majority of AEP is reported using a methodology that enables easy application in other centers. For the most part, endoscopic procedures are more cost-efficient than the corresponding surgical procedure. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Closing the gap: accelerating the translational process in nanomedicine by proposing standardized characterization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ali A; Weaver, James L; Salvador-Morales, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    On the cusp of widespread permeation of nanomedicine, academia, industry, and government have invested substantial financial resources in developing new ways to better treat diseases. Materials have unique physical and chemical properties at the nanoscale compared with their bulk or small-molecule analogs. These unique properties have been greatly advantageous in providing innovative solutions for medical treatments at the bench level. However, nanomedicine research has not yet fully permeated the clinical setting because of several limitations. Among these limitations are the lack of universal standards for characterizing nanomaterials and the limited knowledge that we possess regarding the interactions between nanomaterials and biological entities such as proteins. In this review, we report on recent developments in the characterization of nanomaterials as well as the newest information about the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins in the human body. We propose a standard set of techniques for universal characterization of nanomaterials. We also address relevant regulatory issues involved in the translational process for the development of drug molecules and drug delivery systems. Adherence and refinement of a universal standard in nanomaterial characterization as well as the acquisition of a deeper understanding of nanomaterials and proteins will likely accelerate the use of nanomedicine in common practice to a great extent.

  2. Open Partial Nephrectomy in Renal Cancer: A Feasible Gold Standard Technique in All Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Cozar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Partial nephrectomy (PN is playing an increasingly important role in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC as a true alternative to radical nephrectomy. With the greater experience and expertise of surgical teams, it has become an alternative to radical nephrectomy in young patients when the tumor diameter is 4 cm or less in almost all hospitals since cancer-specific survival outcomes are similar to those obtained with radical nephrectomy. Materials and Methods. The authors comment on their own experience and review the literature, reporting current indications and outcomes including complications. The surgical technique of open partial nephrectomy is outlined. Conclusions. Nowadays, open PN is the gold standard technique to treat small renal masses, and all nonablative techniques must pass the test of time to be compared to PN. It is not ethical for patients to undergo radical surgery just because the urologists involved do not have adequate experience with PN. Patients should be involved in the final treatment decision and, when appropriate, referred to specialized centers with experience in open or laparoscopic partial nephrectomies.

  3. Comparative analysis of photograph-based clinical goniometry to standard techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasto, Jared A; Sayari, Arash J; Gray, Robert R-L; Askari, Morad

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of joint range of motion (ROM) is an accepted evaluation of disability as well as an indicator of recovery from musculoskeletal injuries. Many goniometric techniques have been described to measure ROM, with variable validity due to inter-rater reliability. In this report, we assessed the validity of photograph-based goniometry in measurement of ROM and its inter-rater reliability and compared it to two other commonly used techniques. We examined three methods for measuring ROM in the upper extremity: manual goniometry (MG), visual estimations (VE), and photograph-based goniometry (PBG). Eight motions of the upper extremity were measured in 69 participants at an academic medical center. We found visual estimations and photograph-based goniometry to be clinically valid when tested against manual goniometry (r avg. 0.58, range 0.28 to 0.87). Photograph-based measurements afforded a satisfactory degree of inter-rater reliability (ICC avg. 0.77, range 0.28 to 0.96). Our study supports photograph-based goniometry as the new standard goniometric technique, as it has been clinically validated, is performed with greater consistency and better inter-rater reliability when compared with manual goniometry. It also allows for better documentation of measurements and potential incorporation into medical records in direct contrast to visual estimation.

  4. MATLAB Toolboxes for Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) of Scalp EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Fali; Liu, Qiang; Wen, Xin; Lai, Yongxiu; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Reference electrode standardization technique (REST) has been increasingly acknowledged and applied as a re-reference technique to transform an actual multi-channels recordings to approximately zero reference ones in electroencephalography/event-related potentials (EEG/ERPs) community around the world in recent years. However, a more easy-to-use toolbox for re-referencing scalp EEG data to zero reference is still lacking. Here, we have therefore developed two open-source MATLAB toolboxes for REST of scalp EEG. One version of REST is closely integrated into EEGLAB, which is a popular MATLAB toolbox for processing the EEG data; and another is a batch version to make it more convenient and efficient for experienced users. Both of them are designed to provide an easy-to-use for novice researchers and flexibility for experienced researchers. All versions of the REST toolboxes can be freely downloaded at http://www.neuro.uestc.edu.cn/rest/Down.html, and the detailed information including publications, comments and documents on REST can also be found from this website. An example of usage is given with comparative results of REST and average reference. We hope these user-friendly REST toolboxes could make the relatively novel technique of REST easier to study, especially for applications in various EEG studies.

  5. Are neck nodal volumes drawn on CT slices covered by standard three-field technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Culp, Laura R; Endres, Eugene J; Bayouth, John E

    2004-07-01

    Several definitions have been proposed in the past few years on how to contour the various neck nodal levels on CT slices. However, whether the resulting nodal volumes would have been covered by standard techniques is unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify this issue. Eight patients (N0-N1) with head-and-neck cancer from various primary sites referred to us for definitive radiotherapy were included in this study. Two observers contoured the level Ib-V neck nodal volumes on planning CT according to seven reported definitions. Each observer also drew blocks on digitally reconstructed radiographs for the initial (on-cord) phase of a standard three-field technique (parallel opposed lateral fields and AP supraclavicular field) for three different clinical settings: "medium" larynx (to cover upper, mid, and low jugular nodes), "big" larynx (same as for medium, plus posterior cervical nodes), and "tonsil" (same as for big plus retropharyngeal nodes). Fields blocks were concentrically reduced 5 mm in all directions as a surrogate for the clinical target volume to planning target volume expansion. A plan was created for each of the clinical settings, delivering 2 Gy to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements reference point. The coverage of the nodal levels according to the various definitions was investigated throughout the analysis of the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 95% of the prescribed dose (V(50), V(80), and V(95), respectively) and dose covering at least 95% of the volume (D(95)) values extracted from their cumulative dose-volume histograms in the three clinical settings. The V(50) coverage of levels III and IV was adequate for all definitions and trials. For level V, about 3-5% of the volume was outside the 50% isodose of those trials that targeted the posterior cervical chain. Coverage of level Ib was highly dependent on the definition, with up to 21% of the volume outside the standard tonsillar fields. For level II, although

  6. Basis for cumulative cultural evolution in chimpanzees: social learning of a more efficient tool-use technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence for culture in non-human animals has been growing incrementally over the past two decades. However, the ability for cumulative cultural evolution, with successive generations building on earlier achievements, in non-human animals remains debated. Faithful social learning of incremental improvements in technique is considered to be a defining feature of human culture, differentiating human from non-human cultures. This study presents the first experimental evidence for chimpanzees' social transmission of a more efficient tool-use technique invented by a conspecific group member. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The chimpanzees were provided with a straw-tube, and spontaneously demonstrated two different techniques in obtaining juice through a small hole: "dipping" and "straw-sucking". Both the "dipping" and "straw-sucking" techniques depended on the use of the same tool (straw-tube for the same target (juice accessible from exactly the same location (small hole 1 cm in diameter. Therefore the difference between "dipping" and "straw-sucking" was only in "technique". Although the two techniques differed significantly in their efficiency, their cognitive and perceptuo-motor complexity were comparable. All five chimpanzees who initially performed the "dipping" technique switched to using the more efficient "straw-sucking" technique upon observing a conspecific or human demonstrate the more proficient alternate "straw-sucking" technique. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The social learning mechanism involved here was clearly not local or stimulus enhancement, but imitation or emulation of a tool-use technique. When there is no biologically relevant difference in cognitive or perceptuo-motor complexity between two techniques, and when chimpanzees are dissatisfied with their own technique, chimpanzees may socially learn an improved technique upon close observation of a proficient demonstrator. This study provides important insights into

  7. Basis for cumulative cultural evolution in chimpanzees: social learning of a more efficient tool-use technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Humle, Tatyana; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The evidence for culture in non-human animals has been growing incrementally over the past two decades. However, the ability for cumulative cultural evolution, with successive generations building on earlier achievements, in non-human animals remains debated. Faithful social learning of incremental improvements in technique is considered to be a defining feature of human culture, differentiating human from non-human cultures. This study presents the first experimental evidence for chimpanzees' social transmission of a more efficient tool-use technique invented by a conspecific group member. The chimpanzees were provided with a straw-tube, and spontaneously demonstrated two different techniques in obtaining juice through a small hole: "dipping" and "straw-sucking". Both the "dipping" and "straw-sucking" techniques depended on the use of the same tool (straw-tube) for the same target (juice) accessible from exactly the same location (small hole 1 cm in diameter). Therefore the difference between "dipping" and "straw-sucking" was only in "technique". Although the two techniques differed significantly in their efficiency, their cognitive and perceptuo-motor complexity were comparable. All five chimpanzees who initially performed the "dipping" technique switched to using the more efficient "straw-sucking" technique upon observing a conspecific or human demonstrate the more proficient alternate "straw-sucking" technique. The social learning mechanism involved here was clearly not local or stimulus enhancement, but imitation or emulation of a tool-use technique. When there is no biologically relevant difference in cognitive or perceptuo-motor complexity between two techniques, and when chimpanzees are dissatisfied with their own technique, chimpanzees may socially learn an improved technique upon close observation of a proficient demonstrator. This study provides important insights into the cognitive basis for cumulative culture in chimpanzees, and also suggests possible

  8. Bridging Mediterranean cultures in the IYS: A documentary exhibition on irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Louki, Amina; Ben Slima, Zied; Ezzahra Ghaouch, Fatima; Labaran, Raisa; Raffelli, Giulia; Peli, Marco; Vitale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Brescia, an industrial city in Northern Italy, is now experiencing a crucial change in its traditional structure. In recent years in fact it has been elected as living and working seat by many foreigners and it is now one of the cities with the greatest percentage of migrants in the Country. This is an important challenge for the city and an opportunity to merge, compare and integrate different cultures to build its future. In this context some students of different Courses (engineering and medicine), belonging both to the Arabian and local community, met together and with researchers in the study team 'Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i , for culture, science and society'. The team aims at organising cultural events in which, starting from the figure of the Persian scientist Ab¯u Raih. ¯a n Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i (about 973, 1051), the contribution of the Arabian and Islamic culture to the development of the European one in the middle ages is investigated. Moving from the initial idea of the study team Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i and from the suggestions of the World Soil Day 2014 and of the International Year of Soils 2015, we built a documentary exhibition entitled 'Irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions'. The exhibition, which stresses the importance of the irrigation techniques for the soil conservation, is focused on the idea of disseminating two main concepts, i.e. (1) the technological continuity of some water supply systems in countries, around the Mediterranean Sea, affected by similar conditions of water availability, and (2) the possibility of building environments where, due to severe or extreme climatic conditions, the sustainability is reached when the man lives in equilibrium with the nature. The exhibition, which is written in Italian and will move around in the city during all 2015, consists of about twenty posters organized into three main chapters, corresponding to three main classes of water supply systems which are common in most of the countries surrounding

  9. Caractérisation des itinéraires techniques de la culture de courgette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les périmètres publics irrigués (PPI), en Tunisie, ont été créés pour développer les conditions socio-économiques des agriculteurs et faire face à l'irrégularité des précipitations. Aujourd'hui, l'activité de certains périmètres est en deçà de leurs potentialités. Le diagnostic des itinéraires techniques des cultures est un ...

  10. A Cultural Psychological Approach to Analyze Intercultural Learning: Potential and Limits of the Structure Formation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Weidemann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the huge interest in sojourner adjustment, there is still a lack of qualitative as well as of longitudinal research that would offer more detailed insights into intercultural learning processes during overseas stays. The present study aims to partly fill that gap by documenting changes in knowledge structures and general living experiences of fifteen German sojourners in Taiwan in a longitudinal, cultural-psychological study. As part of a multimethod design a structure formation technique was used to document subjective theories on giving/losing face and their changes over time. In a second step results from this study are compared to knowledge-structures of seven long-term German residents in Taiwan, and implications for the conceptualization of intercultural learning will be proposed. Finally, results from both studies serve to discuss the potential and limits of structure formation techniques in the field of intercultural communication research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901435

  11. Improvement and optimization of the classical gastric biopsy culture technique for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis using trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Paritsky, Maya; Pastukh, Nina; Koifman, Anna; Brodsky, Diana; Glyatman, Tatyana; On, Avi

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection represents a key factor in the aetiology of various gastrointestinal diseases. H. pylori infection diagnosis is generally achieved using both invasive (e.g. biopsy of the gastric epithelium) and non-invasive methods. Therefore, cultivation on a growth medium becomes complex. Trypsin is a proteinase enzyme that plays a role in an early stage of tissue digestion. In this study, we used trypsin in order to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of the H. pylori cultivation technique. We used 46 duplicate antrum biopsy specimens, divided into trypsin-treated and non-treated groups. The tissues were seeded on a selective H. pylori growth agar medium. We demonstrated that the classic H. pylori culture technique misses the growth of a large number of H. pylori colonies. Significantly more colonies were found in the trypsin-treated specimens group.

  12. A standardized infrared imaging technique that specifically detects UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; Mottillo, Emilio P; Farncombe, Troy H; Morrison, Katherine M; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2014-07-01

    The activation and expansion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a promising strategy to counter obesity and the metabolic syndrome by increasing energy expenditure. The subsequent testing and validation of novel agents that augment BAT necessitates accurate pre-clinical measurements in rodents regarding the capacity for BAT-derived thermogenesis. We present a novel method to measure BAT thermogenesis using infrared imaging following β3-adrenoreceptor stimulation in mice. We show that the increased body surface temperature observed using this method is due solely to uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis and that this technique is able to discern differences in BAT activity in mice acclimated to 23 °C or thermoneutrality (30 °C). These findings represent the first standardized method utilizing infrared imaging to specifically detect UCP1 activity in vivo.

  13. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Rapid and Efficient Production of Stevia Tissue Culture Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Peng, C.S.; Rusli Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a non-caloric natural sweetener which is 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. Extracts from stevia leaves has vast application in food and beverages based industries, can be added to tea and coffee, cooked or baked goods, processed foods and confectionary goods. Recently, stevia attained awareness owing to its natural, non-caloric sweetness by diet/ health conscious and diabetic persons (Arpita et al., 2011). This natural sweetener has high commercial value in global market, it was estimated that global market value for stevia is be around USD11 billion by year 2015. Although stevia is being largely popularized in Malaysia and other countries but large-scale propagation procedures for the continuous supply of planting materials in commercial plantation has yet to be established, optimized and standardized. Furthermore, propagation through stevia seeds is often very difficult due to self-incompatibility which results in sterile seeds (Sakaguchi et al., 1982). Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia and there have been few reports of in vitro growth of stevia (Miyagaya et al., 1986) and in vitro micropropagation from shoot tip and leaf (Uddin et al., 2006). Hence, study was carried out to establish a suitable protocol for in vitro propagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni that can be further up-scaled for mass propagation of stevia seedlings. The established Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) will ensure rapid and efficient production of stevia tissue culture seedlings for continuous supply of planting materials for commercial stevia plantations in Malaysia. Preparation of growth medium, multiplication of shoots, rooting of plant lets and hardening of ex-vitro rooted plant lets is discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. The Accounting Standardization System in Portugal and Its First-Time Adoption Effects in the Olive and Cork Tree Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas da Silva Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the quantitative impact of the first-time adoption of the Portuguese Accounting Standardization System on individual annual reports of Portuguese unlisted companies in the cork and olive tree culture sector. Findings indicate that the items which showed significant changes in the transition from the previous accounting frame of reference to the Portuguese Accounting Standardization System are mainly those regarding to biological assets, inventories, liabilities, current ratio, and return on assets. The adoption of the Portuguese Accounting Standardization System has led generally to less conservative accounting practices, indicating that characteristics of code-law countries such as cultural aspects and country enforcement regimes did not influence the adoption of IAS/IFRS-based accounting standards by Portuguese unlisted companies in the cork and olive tree culture sectors.

  15. Effect of specimen collection techniques, transport media, and incubation of cultures on the detection rate of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Verheul, S. B.; Weel, J. F.; Gerrits, Y.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    Culture and histologic examination are considered "gold standard" methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori, but discrepancies may occur with either method. Failure to detect Helicobacter pylori may be due to sampling error, inappropriate transport or culture media, or insufficient duration

  16. The use of tissue culture techniques with irradiation to improve potato resistance to late blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2004-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) resistance to late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4 t h generation (MV 4 ) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3000 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure using co-culture technique. MV 4 explants were incubated in jars, containing MS medium, with mycelia of P. infestans. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-incubated with the pathogen for three consecutive generations. Resistant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later inoculated, at the adult stage, with sporangial suspension. Cultivar Draga produced the highest number of resistant plants. Ten plants of Draga appeared to be resistant to late blight whereas only one plant from each of the other 2 cultivars was resistant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 13 to 70, Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 35 grams. Selected mutant lines will undergo further testing under field conditions for P. infestans resistance and other agronomic characteristics. (author)

  17. Mutation breeding for disease resistance using in-vitro culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Breeding for disease resistance is a major aspect of plant breeding, which may take at least 20% of a plant breeder's time, effort and budget. Nevertheless, numerous resistance problems remain unsolved and present major constraints to the production of food, feed, fiber and industrial commodities. The application of novel biotechnology and genetic engineering will extend the possibilities of conventional plant breeding. Therefore a meeting of experts in plant protection, plant breeding and in-vitro culture technology was convened by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in Vienna. The experts were asked to discuss and give advice on prospects of biotechnology, especially plant in-vitro cultures, to contribute towards improved chances of success in mutation breeding for disease resistance. The plant breeder, in searching for resistance to a particular pathogen, like for any other desirable character, needs genetic variation to begin with. In addition he needs an appropriate screening method to detect the desired character. Science has developed so fast that it is now time to apply the existing knowledge of biotechnology to practical problems in agriculture, also in developing countries. In the near future this may be true also for novel techniques of genetic engineering. The usefulness and feasibility of the application of in-vitro techniques for these purposes varies with crops and pathogens, but also depends on the strength of plant breeding and plant pathology and the facilities available in a particular country. The members of the Advisory Group attempted to discuss the various aspects and to reach sound conclusions

  18. Identification of Viable Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water Supplies by Cultural and Molecular Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paula; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, M Antonía

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infection in humans, directly related to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been suggested that H. pylori can be acquired through different transmission routes, including water. In this study, culture and qPCR were used to detect and identify the presence of H. pylori in drinking water. Furthermore, the combined techniques PMA-qPCR and DVC-FISH were applied for detection of viable cells of H. pylori. Among 24 drinking water samples, 16 samples were positive for the presence of H. pylori, but viable cells were only detected in six samples. Characteristic colonies, covered by a mass of bacterial unspecific growth, were observed on selective agar plates from an only sample, after enrichment. The mixed culture was submitted to DVC-FISH and qPCR analysis, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Molecular techniques confirmed the growth of H. pylori on the agar plate. Our results demonstrate for the first time that H. pylori can survive and be potentially infective in drinking water, showing that water distribution systems could be a potential route for H. pylori transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Spatial Techniques to Visualize Acoustic Comfort along Cultural and Heritage Routes for a World Heritage City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes. Route-based tourism is crucial to the sustainability of tourism development in historic areas. Applying the concept of route-based tourism to guide tourists rambling along cultural and heritage routes can relieve overcrowded condition at hot scenic spots and increase the overall carrying capacity of the city. However, acoustic comfort along tourist routes is rarely addressed in academic studies and decision-making. Taking Macao as an example, this paper has studied pedestrian exposure to traffic noise along the cultural and heritage routes. The study is based on a GIS-based traffic noise model system with a high spatial resolution down to individual buildings along both sides of the street. Results show that tourists suffer from excessive traffic noise at certain sites, which may have negative impact on the promotion of route-based tourism in the long run. In addition, it is found that urban growth affects urban form and street layout, which in turn affect traffic flow and acoustic comfort in urban area. The present study demonstrates spatial techniques to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes, and the techniques are foreseen to be used more frequently to support effective tourism planning in the future.

  20. A novel buoyancy technique optimizes simulated microgravity conditions for whole sensory organ culture in rotating bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Heinz J P; Müller, Marcus; Waldhaus, Jörg; Hahn, Hartmut; Löwenheim, Hubert

    2010-02-01

    Whole-organ culture of a sensory organ in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor provides a powerful in vitro model for physiological and pathophysiological investigation as previously demonstrated for the postnatal inner ear. The model is of specific relevance as a tool for regeneration research. In the immature inner ear explant, the density was only 1.29 g/cm(3). The high density of 1.68 g/cm(3) of the functionally mature organ resulted in enhanced settling velocity and deviation from its ideal circular orbital path causing enhanced shear stress. The morphometric and physical properties, as well as the dynamic motion patterns of explants, were analyzed and numerically evaluated by an orbital path index. Application of a novel buoyancy bead technique resulted in a 6.5- to 14.8-fold reduction of the settling velocity. The deviation of the explant from its ideal circular orbital path was adjusted as indicated by an optimum value for the orbital path index (-1.0). Shear stress exerted on the inner ear explant was consequently reduced 6.4- to 15.0-fold. The culture conditions for postnatal stages were optimized, and the preconditions for transferring this in vitro model toward mature high-density stages established. This buoyancy technique may also be useful in tissue engineering of other high-density structures.

  1. Impact of accelerator-based analytical techniques on the knowledge and conservation of cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dran, Jean Claude

    2001-01-01

    A large set of modern analytical techniques is currently applied to get a better insight on art and archaeological objects as well as to contribute to their conservation and restoration. Because of the precious and sometimes unique character of the works, non-destructive techniques and even those requiring no (or only minute) sampling, are preferred. From this standpoint, ion beam analysis (IBA) constitutes one of the best choices, since it combines quite good analytical performance and non-destructiveness. For over 10 years, an IBA facility has been installed in the Research Laboratory of the Museums of France. Until now it is the only facility of this kind entirely devoted to the study of cultural heritage. A special set-up, namely an external beam line, has been developed which permits the in-air analysis of large or fragile works of art without sampling. This facility is used for both short investigations at the request of museum curators and extensive research works in art history and archaeology. Numerous examples will be given to highlight the impact of this tool on cultural heritage. (author)

  2. Standardization of Berberis aristata extract through conventional and modern HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae is an important medicinal plant, found in the different region of the world. It has significant medicinal value in the traditional Indian and Chinese system of medicine. The aim of the present investigation includes qualitative and quantitative analysis of Berberis aristata extract. Methods: Present study includes determination of phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis by HPTLC method. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloid, protein, amino acid, saponin, tannin and flavonoid. Solubility in water and alcohal were found to be 81.90% in water and 84.52% in 50% in alcohal. Loss on drying was found to be 5.32%. Total phenol and flavonoid content were found to be 0.11% and 2.8%. Level of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complies the standard level. E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent whereas total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit. Content of berberine was found to be 13.47% through HPTLC techniques. Conclusions: The results obtained from the present studies could be used as source of valuable information which can play an important role for the food scientists, researchers and even the consumers for its standards.

  3. A standardized technique for high-pressure cooling of protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirnheim Pais, David; Rathmann, Barbara; Koepke, Juergen; Tomova, Cveta; Wurzinger, Paul; Thielmann, Yvonne

    2017-12-01

    Cryogenic temperatures slow down secondary radiation damage during data collection from macromolecular crystals. In 1973, cooling at high pressure was identified as a method for cryopreserving crystals in their mother liquor [Thomanek et al. (1973). Acta Cryst. A29, 263-265]. Results from different groups studying different crystal systems indicated that the approach had merit, although difficulties in making the process work have limited its widespread use. Therefore, a simplified and reliable technique has been developed termed high-pressure cooling (HPC). An essential requirement for HPC is to protect crystals in capillaries. These capillaries form part of new sample holders with SPINE standard dimensions. Crystals are harvested with the capillary, cooled at high pressure (220 MPa) and stored in a cryovial. This system also allows the usage of the standard automation at the synchrotron. Crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme and concanavalin A have been successfully cryopreserved and yielded data sets to resolutions of 1.45 and 1.35 Å, respectively. Extensive work has been performed to define the useful working range of HPC in capillaries with 250 µm inner diameter. Three different 96-well crystallization screens that are most frequently used in our crystallization facility were chosen to study the formation of amorphous ice in this cooling setup. More than 89% of the screening solutions were directly suitable for HPC. This achievement represents a drastic improvement for crystals that suffered from cryoprotection or were not previously eligible for cryoprotection.

  4. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques and standard wedged tangents for whole breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, Andrew; Bromley, Regina; Beat, Mardi; Vien, Din; Dineley, Jude; Morgan, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Prior to introducing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) into our department we undertook a comparison of the dose parameters of several IMRT techniques and standard wedged tangents (SWT). Our aim was to improve the dose distribution to the breast and to decrease the dose to organs at risk (OAR): heart, lung and contralateral breast (Contra Br). Treatment plans for 20 women (10 right-sided and 10 left-sided) previously treated with SWT for WBRT were used to compare (a) SWT; (b) electronic compensators IMRT (E-IMRT); (c) tangential beam IMRT (T-IMRT); (d) coplanar multi-field IMRT (CP-IMRT); and (e) non-coplanar multi-field IMRT (NCP-IMRT). Plans for the breast were compared for (i) dose homogeneity (DH); (ii) conformity index (CI); (iii) mean dose; (iv) maximum dose; (v) minimum dose; and dose to OAR were calculated (vi) heart; (vii) lung and (viii) Contra Br. Compared with SWT, all plans except CP-IMRT gave improvement in at least two of the seven parameters evaluated. T-IMRT and NCP-IMRT resulted in significant improvement in all parameters except DH and both gave significant reduction in doses to OAR. As on initial evaluation NCP-IMRT is likely to be too time consuming to introduce on a large scale, T-IMRT is the preferred technique for WBRT for use in our department.

  5. Cost minimisation analysis of using acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) for breast reconstruction compared with standard techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R K; Wright, C K; Gandhi, A; Charny, M C; Barr, L

    2013-03-01

    We performed a cost analysis (using UK 2011/12 NHS tariffs as a proxy for cost) comparing immediate breast reconstruction using the new one-stage technique of acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) with implant versus the standard alternative techniques of tissue expander (TE)/implant as a two-stage procedure and latissimus dorsi (LD) flap reconstruction. Clinical report data were collected for operative time, length of stay, outpatient procedures, and number of elective and emergency admissions in our first consecutive 24 patients undergoing one-stage Strattice reconstruction. Total cost to the NHS based on tariff, assuming top-up payments to cover Strattice acquisition costs, was assessed and compared to the two historical control groups matched on key variables. Eleven patients having unilateral Strattice reconstruction were compared to 10 having TE/implant reconstruction and 10 having LD flap and implant reconstruction. Thirteen patients having bilateral Strattice reconstruction were compared to 12 having bilateral TE/implant reconstruction. Total costs were: unilateral Strattice, £3685; unilateral TE, £4985; unilateral LD and implant, £6321; bilateral TE, £5478; and bilateral Strattice, £6771. The cost analysis shows a financial advantage of using acellular dermal matrix (Strattice) in unilateral breast reconstruction versus alternative procedures. The reimbursement system in England (Payment by Results) is based on disease-related groups similar to that of many countries across Europe and tariffs are based on reported hospital costs, making this analysis of relevance in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Critical Appraisal of Techniques, Software Packages, and Standards for Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Craig; Hubbard, Simon J.; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Hermjakob, Henning; Jones, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New methods for performing quantitative proteome analyses based on differential labeling protocols or label-free techniques are reported in the literature on an almost monthly basis. In parallel, a correspondingly vast number of software tools for the analysis of quantitative proteomics data has also been described in the literature and produced by private companies. In this article we focus on the review of some of the most popular techniques in the field and present a critical appraisal of several software packages available to process and analyze the data produced. We also describe the importance of community standards to support the wide range of software, which may assist researchers in the analysis of data using different platforms and protocols. It is intended that this review will serve bench scientists both as a useful reference and a guide to the selection and use of different pipelines to perform quantitative proteomics data analysis. We have produced a web-based tool (http://www.proteosuite.org/?q=other_resources) to help researchers find appropriate software for their local instrumentation, available file formats, and quantitative methodology. PMID:22804616

  7. Age and sex correlation of Chlamydia trachomatis infections evaluated by the culture technique and by an enzyme immunosorbent assay, IDEIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend

    1990-01-01

    tested by the tissue-culture technique, and the results were confirmed by the IDEIA (Boots-Celltech) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (EIA) for detection of C. trachomatis. The original smear was used for both culture and EIA. The EIA test was evaluated to have a sensitivity of 90...

  8. Flow Diversion versus Standard Endovascular Techniques for the Treatment of Unruptured Carotid-Ophthalmic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, F; Pistocchi, S; Clarençon, F; Bartolini, B; Blanc, R; Biondi, A; Redjem, H; Chiras, J; Sourour, N; Piotin, M

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few years, flow diversion has been increasingly adopted for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms, especially in the paraclinoid and paraophthalmic carotid segment. We compared clinical and angiographic outcomes and complication rates in 2 groups of patients with unruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms treated for 7 years by either standard coil-based techniques or flow diversion. From February 2006 to December 2013, 162 unruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms were treated endovascularly in 138 patients. Sixty-seven aneurysms were treated by coil-based techniques in 61 patients. Flow diverters were deployed in 95 unruptured aneurysms (77 patients), with additional coiling in 27 patients. Complication rates, clinical outcome, and immediate and long-term angiographic results were retrospectively analyzed. No procedure-related deaths occurred. Four procedure-related thromboembolic events (6.6%) leading to permanent morbidity in 1 case (1.6%) occurred in the coiling group. Neurologic complications were observed in 6 patients (7.8%) in the flow-diversion group, resulting in 3.9% permanent morbidity. No statistically significant difference was found between complication (P = .9) and morbidity rates (P = .6). In the coiling group (median follow-up, 31.5 ± 24.5 months), recanalization occurred at 1 year in 23/50 (54%) aneurysms and 27/55 aneurysms (50.9%) at the latest follow-up, leading to retreatment in 6 patients (9%). In the flow-diversion group (mean follow-up, 13.5 ± 10.8 months), 85.3% (35/41) of all aneurysms were occluded after 12 months, and 74.6% (50/67) on latest follow-up. The retreatment rate was 2.1%. Occlusion rates between the 2 groups differed significantly at 12 months (P < .001) and at the latest follow-up (P < .005). Our retrospective analysis shows better long-term occlusion of carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms after use of flow diverters compared with standard coil-based techniques, without significant differences in permanent morbidity

  9. [Precut technique for Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty, preparation and storage in organ culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyoud, T; Röck, D; Hofmann, J; Bartz-Schmidt, K-U; Yoeruek, E

    2012-06-01

    The preparation of the Descemet's membrane (DM) with the endothelial cell layer may be performed directly prior to surgery or as a precut tissue procedure. The purpose of the current study was the evaluation of the preparation technique and the tissue culture of 10 days regarding potential endothelial cell loss. Ten corneoscleral rims with an average age of 64.3 years were dissected to obtain 8.5 mm in diameter endothelial-DM complexes, which subsequently were organ cultured for 10 days. The endothelial cell density (ECD) was assessed during the cell culture period at days 1., 4., 7. and 10. In addition, time of preparation and transplant morphology were evaluated. The DM with the endothelial cell layer could successfully be dissected from all corneoscleral rims. The average preparation time was 8.3 min. The average ECD count was 2183 ± 77 cells/mm2 prior to, 2094 ± 110 cells/ mm2 at day 1, 2078 ± 134 cells/mm2 at day 4, 1977 ± 107 cells/mm2 at day 7 and 1898 ± 170 cells/mm2 at day 10 after preparation, respectively. Endothelial cell loss was 4.1 %, 4.8 %, 9.4 % and 13.1 % after preparation, respectively. None of the transplants exhibited large, centrally-located cell deficits. The isolated storage of DM with the endothelial layer, without any stromal remnants, showed gratifying results under storage conditions in organ culture with a moderate ECD decrease. Hence, the implementation of a precut DMEK is conceivable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The “excluding” suture technique for surgical closure of ventricular septal defects: A retrospective study comparing the standard technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Surgical closure of VSDs can be accomplished by placing sutures along the margins or away with comparable results. The incidence of CHB, however, seems to be less when the “excluding” technique is employed.

  11. Reduced Rate of Dehiscence After Implementation of a Standardized Fascial Closure Technique in Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Watt, Sara Kehlet; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    is lacking. We aimed to investigate whether this technique would reduce the rate of dehiscence. METHODS: A standardized procedure of closing the midline laparotomy by using a "small steps" technique of continuous suturing with a slowly absorbable (polydioxanone) suture material in a wound-suture ratio...

  12. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Tsusu, K.; Minami, K.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique

  13. A new culture technique for hepatocyte organoid formation and long-term maintenance of liver-specific functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Kazuhisa; Nakazawa, Kohji; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Funatsu, Kazumori; Kajiwara, Toshihisa

    2008-06-01

    To develop a useful hybrid artificial liver, it is important to use cultured hepatocytes that maintain liver-specific functions for a long time. These requirements were achieved recently by the use of a hepatocyte multicellular aggregate (organoid) with a tissue-like structure. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional culture of hepatocytes that formed an organoid. Primary rat hepatocytes were immobilized inside hollow fibers (for plasma separation) by centrifugation. Hepatocytes formed a cylindrical organoid (cylindroid) of 200 mum in diameter by day 2 of culture. We used two types of culture media, medium A (Williams' medium E containing insulin and epidermal growth factor) and medium B (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing insulin, epidermal growth factor, and hydrocortisone). In medium A, the hepatocyte cylindroid diminished after 14 days of culture and liver-specific functions of the hepatocyte cylindroid nearly disappeared after 1 month of culture. In contrast, hepatocyte cylindroid cultured in medium B maintained its morphology and liver-specific functions for 2-5 months. These results indicate that a combination of the new culture technique and suitable culture medium is effective for expression and maintenance of liver-specific functions of hepatocytes. This culture technique will be helpful in the development of a hybrid artificial liver.

  14. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Y; Tsusu, K; Minami, K; Nakanishi, Y

    2014-06-01

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique.

  15. Comparison of two culture techniques used to detect environmental contamination with Salmonella enterica in a large-animal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Catriona H; Annandale, Cornelius H; Gouws, Johan; Morley, Paul S

    2015-08-13

    Salmonellosis is a common healthcare-associated infection in large-animal hospitals, and surveillance for Salmonella is an integral part of comprehensive infection control programmes in populations at risk. The present study compares the effectiveness of two culture techniques for recovery of Salmonella from environmental samples obtained in a large-animal referral veterinary hospital during a Salmonella outbreak. Environmental samples were collected using household cleaning cloths that were incubated overnight in buffered peptone water (BPW). Aliquots of BPW were then processed using two different selective enrichment and culture techniques. In the first technique (TBG-RV-XLT4) samples were incubated at 43 °C in tetrathionate broth and then Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth before plating on XLT4 agar. The second technique (SEL-XLD) involved incubation at 37 °C in selenite broth before plating on XLD agar. Salmonella was recovered from 49.7% (73/147) of samples using the TBG-RV-XLT4 technique, but only 10.2% (15/147) of samples using the SEL-XLD method. Fourteen samples (9.5%) were culture-positive using both methods, and 73 (49.7%) were culture-negative using both techniques. There were discordant results for 60 samples, including 59 that were only culture-positive using the TBG-RV-XLT4 method, and one sample that was only culture-positive using the SEL-XLD method. Salmonella was much more likely to be recovered using the TBG-RV-XLT4 method, and there appeared to be five times more false-negative results using the SEL-XLD technique. Environmental contamination with Salmonella may be underestimated by certain culture techniques, which may impair efforts to control spread in veterinary hospitals.

  16. Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological…

  17. Application of culture dependent and cultural-independent techniques to investigate the dynamics of microorganisms during industrial cheese making of a Gouda type cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Perolari, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the microbial dynamic in a Gouda type cheese applying a comparison between culture-dependent technique, plate count, and culture-independent technique as PCR-DGGE. The study was also focus on the analyse of the efficiency of the pasteurizer, and its cleaning steps. The study was conducted analysing 4 batches for each of the two days of production, Monday and Friday. Between batch 16 and 17 there was a quick cleaning, and between batch 32 and batch 1, of th...

  18. [Abdominothoracic esophageal resection according to Ivor Lewis with intrathoracic anastomosis : standardized totally minimally invasive technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, N; Walz, M; Ketelhut, M

    2015-05-01

    The clinical and scientific interest in minimally invasive techniques for esophagectomy (MIE) are increasing; however, the intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis remains a surgical challenge and lacks standardization. Surgeons either transpose the anastomosis to the cervical region or perform hybrid thoracotomy for stapler access. This article reports technical details and early experiences with a completely laparoscopic-thoracoscopic approach for Ivor Lewis esophagectomy without additional thoracotomy. The extent of radical dissection follows clinical guidelines. Laparoscopy is performed with the patient in a beach chair position and thoracoscopy in a left lateral decubitus position using single lung ventilation. The anvil of the circular stapler is placed transorally into the esophageal stump. The specimen and gastric conduit are exteriorized through a subcostal rectus muscle split incision. The stapler body is placed into the gastric conduit and both are advanced through the abdominal mini-incision transhiatally into the right thoracic cavity, where the anastomosis is constructed. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 23 non-selected consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, range 46-80 years) with adenocarcinoma (n = 19) or squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4) were surgically treated between June 2010 and July 2013. Neoadjuvant therapy was performed in 15 patients resulting in 10 partial and 4 complete remissions. There were no technical complications and no conversions. Mean operative time was 305 min (range 220-441 min). The median lymph node count was 16 (range 4-42). An R0 resection was achieved in 91 % of patients and 3 anastomotic leaks occurred which were successfully managed endoscopically. There were no postoperative deaths. The intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis during minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy can be constructed in a standardized fashion without an additional thoracotomy

  19. Chondrogenesis of human adipose derived stem cells for future microtia repair using co-culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Bee See; Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ubaidah, Muhammad Azhan; Saim, Lokman; Sulaiman, Shamsul; Chua, Kien Hui

    2017-04-01

    In conclusion, these result showed HADSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes-like cells, dependent on signaling induced by TGF-β3 and chondrocytes. This is a promising result and showed that HADSCs is a potential source for future microtia repair. The technique of co-culture is a positive way forward to assist the microtia tissue. Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons. Its repair is associated with donor-site morbidity and the degree of infection is inevitable when using alloplastic prosthesis with uncertain long-term durability. Thus, human adipose derived stem cells (HADSCs) can be an alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. This study aims to evaluate the chondrogenic potential of HADSCs cultured with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interaction of auricular chondrocytes with HADSCs for new cartilage generation. Multi-lineages differentiation features of HADSCs were monitored by Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red, and Oil Red O staining for chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity, respectively. Further, HADSCs alone were culture in medium added with TGF-β3; and human auricular chondrocytes were interacted indirectly in the culture with and without TGF-βs for up to 21 days, respectively. Cell morphology and chondrogenesis were monitored by inverted microscope. For cell viability, Alamar Blue assay was used to measure the cell viability and the changes in gene expression of auricular chondrocyte markers were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. For the induction of chondrogenic differentiation, HADSCs showed a feature of aggregation and formed a dense matrix of proteoglycans. Staining results from Alizirin Red and Oil Red O indicated the HADSCs also successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages after 21 days. According to a previous study, HADSCs were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73

  20. Standardization of MIP technique in three-dimensional CT portography: usefulness in evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Gi; Kim, Yong; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Suk Hong

    2003-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of three-dimensional CT portography using a standardized maximum intensity projection (MIP) technique for the evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in cirrhotic patients. In 25 cirrhotic patients with portosystemic collaterals, three-phase CT using a multide-tector-row helical CT scanner was performed to evaluate liver disease. Late arterial-phase images were transferred to an Advantage Windows 3.1 workstation (Gener Electric). Axial images were reconstructed by means of three-dimensional CT portography, using both a standardized and a non-standardized MIP technique, and the respective reconstruction times were determined. Three-dimensional CT portography with the standardized technique involved eight planes, namely the spleno-portal confluence axis (coronal, lordotic coronal, lordotic coronal RAO 30 .deg. C, and lordotic coronal LAO 30 .deg. C), the left renal vein axis (lordotic coronal), and axial MIP images (lower esophagus level, gastric fundus level and splenic hilum). The eight MIP images obtained in each case were interpreted by two radiologists, who reached a consensus in their evaluation. The portosystemic collaterals evaluated were as follows: left gastric vein dilatation; esophageal, paraesophageal, gastric, and splenic varix; paraumbilical vein dilatation; gastro-renal, spleno-renal, and gastro-spleno-renal shunt; mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and omental collaterals. The average reconstruction time using the non-standardized MIP technique was 11 minutes 23 seconds, and with the standardized technique, the time was 6 minutes 5 seconds. Three-dimensional CT portography with the standardized technique demonstrated left gastric vein dilatation (n=25), esophageal varix (n=18), paraesophageal varix (n=13), gastric varix (n=4), splenic varix (n=4), paraumbilical vein dilatation (n=4), gastro-renal shunt (n=3), spleno-renal shunt (n=3), and gastro-spleno-renal shunt (n=1). Using three-dimensional CT protography and the non-standardized

  1. Parathyroid Autotransplantation During Thyroid Surgery: A Novel Technique Using a Cell Culture Nutrient Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famà, Fausto; Cicciù, Marco; Polito, Francesca; Cascio, Antonio; Gioffré-Florio, Maria; Piquard, Arnaud; Saint-Marc, Olivier; Sindoni, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Parathyroid autotransplantation is an easy procedure with a low complication rate. We adopted the transplantation into the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which allows an easier and time-saving surgical procedure using the same surgical incision. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 396 consecutive patients, who underwent total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid disease. In all cases in which a parathyroid was damaged or inadvertently removed, the gland was transplanted; before the autotransplantation, the parathyroid tissue was put in a cell culture nutrient solution for 5 min, afterward fragmented, and then was transplanted in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. To demonstrate a beneficial effect of the cell nutrient solution step, we compared data of transplanted patients with a control group of cases (n = 190) undergoing a standard immediate autotransplantation. We divided patients in two main groups: group A (n = 160) including subjects that underwent one or more parathyroid gland autotransplantation using the cell nutrient solution, and group B (n = 236) concerning those who were not transplanted. Among patients, 62 hypocalcemias occurred, 40 in the group A and 22 in the group B (P culture nutrient solution before gland transplantation.

  2. Associated callus culture technique for in vitro growth of rust fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kuvalekar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Uromyces hobsoni, a rust fungus, infects Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The infection frequently leads to malformations in tissues, mainly leaves and stems. Disease progression can be assessed morphologically by observing the extent of malformation and occurrence of sporulation. The rust fungi, in general, are obligate parasites, and need a living host to complete their life cycle. The difficulty of in vitro propagation of rust fungi has been a major obstacle in their detailed biochemical and molecular analysis. In this paper, we report successful in vitro culture of rust fungi with induction of callus from infected leaves of host plants which contain initial differentiated structures like haustoria and intercellular hyphae. This ‘associated callus culture’ technique has opened new paths for studying host-pathogen interactions of rust fungi.

  3. Development, improvement and calibration of neutronic reaction rates measurements: elaboration of a standard techniques basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudelot, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    In order to improve and to validate the neutronics calculation schemes, perfecting integral measurements of neutronics parameters is necessary. This thesis focuses on the conception, the improvement and the development of neutronics reaction rates measurements, and aims at building a base of standard techniques. Two subjects are discussed. The first one deals with direct measurements by fission chambers. A short presentation of the different usual techniques is given. Then, those last ones are applied through the example of doubling time measurements on the EOLE facility during the MISTRAL 1 experimental programme. Two calibration devices of fission chambers are developed: a thermal column located in the central part of the MINERVE facility, and a calibration cell using a pulsed high flux neutron generator and based on the discrimination of the energy of the neutrons with a time-of-flight method. This second device will soon allow to measure the mass of fission chambers with a precision of about 1 %. Finally, the necessity of those calibrations will be shown through spectral indices measurements in core MISTRAL 1 (UO 2 ) and MISTRAL 2 (MOX) of the EOLE facility. In each case, the associated calculation schemes, performed using the Monte Carlo MCNP code with the ENDF-BV library, will be validated. Concerning the second one, the goal is to develop a method for measuring the modified conversion ratio of 238 U (defined as the ratio of 238 U capture rate to total fission rate) by gamma-ray spectrometry of fuel rods. Within the framework of the MISTRAL 1 and MISTRAL 2 programmes, the measurement device, the experimental results and the spectrometer calibration are described. Furthermore, the MCNP calculations of neutron self-shielding and gamma self-absorption are validated. It is finally shown that measurement uncertainties are better than 1 %. The extension of this technique to future modified conversion ratio measurements for 242 Pu (on MOX rods) and 232 Th (on

  4. X-ray tomographic techniques for the study of cultural heritages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, T.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) has become an important tool for investigating all kinds of materials. Due to its non-destructive nature, it is especially suitable to investigate samples that may not be altered or damaged during the course of the investigation. CT has been recently introduced in the field of Cultural Heritage diagnostics, where it can be used for the investigation of different works of art, as it preserves the integrity of the object and gives morphological and physical information on its inner structure. This paper describes a methodological approach on the use of the X-ray CT technique to study items belonging to cultural heritage with the aim to obtain information related to their preservation state and therefore, to plan an adequate conservation and restoration procedure. Significant examples of applications are the study of porosity and pore size distribution and their connectivity for different porous materials and the study of kinetics of capillary fluid absorption in sedimentary rocks. Other applications are relevant to the possibility to investigate in a non-destructive way the presence of defects or fractures inside an object and, not last in order of importance, the possibility to study different typologies of woods or waterlogged woods, the presence of an eventual biodegradation state and the possibility to perform a dendrochronology. In this paper, the results of some case studies, obtained through the integrated use of CT systems with different resolutions, are reported. Other expected future developments will be addressed to the integration of CT data with results of compatible non-destructive techniques.

  5. Comparative study of different microscopic techniques and culture media for the isolation of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of two different microscopic techniques and three different culture media for the identification and isolation of dermatophytes from clinical samples. METHODS: Skin, hair and nail samples from 260 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were screened by direct microscopic examination using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH with and without 40% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO mounts. All the samples were inoculated for culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, dermatophyte test medium (DTM and ready to use enriched dermatophyte medium (EDM. RESULTS: Fungal elements were detected in 157 samples by both the methods but faster and better visualization was noted with 40% DMSO added to 10% KOH. Fungi were recovered from SDA, DTM and EDM in 96.5%, 98.3% and 85.3% of the cases respectively. CONCLUSIONS: When performing direct microscopic examination of skin, hair and nail for dermatophytes, addition of 40% DMSO to the KOH mount gives better and faster results. The efficiency of SDA and DTM was found almost equal and slightly better than EDM. The EDM, although quite efficient with 85.3% isolation rate, requires further evaluation as its ready to use format makes the application and microscopy much easier and faster.

  6. IBA techniques: Examples of useful combinations for the characterisation of cultural heritage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Pichon, L.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.; Walter, P.

    2011-01-01

    For many years, ion beam analysis techniques have successfully been used to the study of cultural heritage objects. The chemical composition of work art is usually determined by PIXE, but in many cases, RBS and/or PIGE can provide useful complementary information. RBS gives information about the depth distribution and concentration in light elements, such as carbon and oxygen. In the past years, the experimental facilities at the AGLAE (Accélérateur Grand Louvre d’Analyse Élémentaire) accelerator has been progressively developed in order to apply simultaneously PIXE, PIGE and RBS under optimal conditions using an external beam. This combination is now routinely used for point analyses or mappings. In this contribution, we present several examples of applications: manufacturing technology of lustre-decorated ceramics and silver plating, control of altered or restored surfaces, and quantification of organic phase in painting and bone. The final conclusion is that the association of PIXE with RBS is very attractive for the investigation of cultural heritage objects, in particular of materials containing both mineral and organic components or possessing a multilayered structure. The first results of the production of monochromatic X-rays for radiography purposes by PIXE are also presented.

  7. Standardization of pulmonary ventilation technique using volume-controlled ventilators in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Melo Gallindo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To standardize a technique for ventilating rat fetuses with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH using a volume-controlled ventilator. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into the following groups: a control (C; b exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH; and c exposed to nitrofen without CDH (N-. Fetuses of the three groups were randomly divided into the subgroups ventilated (V and non-ventilated (N-V. Fetuses were collected on day 21.5 of gestation, weighed and ventilated for 30 minutes using a volume-controlled ventilator. Then the lungs were collected for histological study. We evaluated: body weight (BW, total lung weight (TLW, left lung weight (LLW, ratios TLW / BW and LLW / BW, morphological histology of the airways and causes of failures of ventilation. RESULTS: BW, TLW, LLW, TLW / BW and LLW / BW were higher in C compared with N- (p 0.05. The morphology of the pulmonary airways showed hypoplasia in groups N- and CDH, with no difference between V and N-V (p <0.05. The C and N- groups could be successfully ventilated using a tidal volume of 75 ìl, but the failure of ventilation in the CDH group decreased only when ventilated with 50 ìl. CONCLUSION: Volume ventilation is possible in rats with CDH for a short period and does not alter fetal or lung morphology.

  8. Translations of volcanological terms: cross-cultural standards for teaching, communication, and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Belousov, Alexander; Calvari, Sonia; Delgado-Granados, Hugo; Hort, Matthias; Koga, Ken; Wulan Mei, Estuning Tyas; Harijoko, Agung; Pacheco, José; Prival, Jean-Marie; Solana, Carmen; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; Thouret, Jean-Claude; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    When teaching at a non-English language university, we often argue that because English is the international language, students need to become familiar with English terms, even if the bulk of the class is in the native language. However, to make the meaning of the terms clear, a translation into the native language is always useful. Correct translation of terminology is even more crucial for emergency managers and decision makers who can be confronted with a confusing and inconsistently applied mix of terminology. Thus, it is imperative to have a translation that appropriately converts the meaning of a term, while being grammatically and lexicologically correct, before the need for use. If terms are not consistently defined across all languages following industry standards and norms, what one person believes to be a dog, to another is a cat. However, definitions and translations of English scientific and technical terms are not always available, and language is constantly evolving. We live and work in an international world where English is the common language of multi-cultural exchange. As a result, while finding the correct translation can be difficult because we are too used to the English language terms, translated equivalents that are available may not have been through the peer review process. We have explored this issue by discussing grammatically and lexicologically correct French, German, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Japanese versions for terms involved in communicating effusive eruption intensity.

  9. First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, Manchala; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Nagamadhuri, Kandula Venkata; Balakrishna Reddy, Kota; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale materials, whose size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (n-CaO) could transport through phloem tissue of groundnut unlike the corresponding bulk materials. n-CaO particles are prepared using sol-gel method. The size of the as prepared n-CaO measured (69.9 nm) using transmission electron microscopic technique (TEM). Results of the hydroponics experiment using solution culture technique revealed that foliar application of n-CaO at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 ppm) on groundnut plants confirmed the entry of calcium into leaves and stems through phloem compared to bulk source of calcium sprayed (CaO and CaNO3). After spraying of n-CaO, calcium content in roots, shoots and leaves significantly increased. Based on visual scoring of calcium deficiency correction and calcium content in plant parts, we may establish the fact that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (size 69.9 nm) could move through phloem tissue in groundnut. This is the first report on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide particles in plants and this result points to the use of nanoscale calcium oxide particles as calcium source to the plants through foliar application, agricultural crops in particular, as bulk calcium application through foliar nutrition is restricted due to its non-mobility in phloem.

  10. CH Stands for Cheese, Right? A Swiss Culture Class and the National Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlitz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Culture has always been a part of foreign language learning. However, in recent years, more and more language professors advocate placing culture at the center of our classes. The question of just how to teach culture remains a topic of debate. This paper describes the reworking of a traditional German grammar and reading course into a class that…

  11. Modification of the cranial closing wedge ostectomy technique for the treatment of canine cruciate disease. Description and comparison with standard technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A M; Addison, E S; Smith, B A; Radke, H; Hobbs, S J

    2011-01-01

    To describe a modification of the cranial closing wedge ostectomy (CCWO) technique and to compare its efficacy to the standard technique on cadaveric specimens. The standard and modified CCWO technique were applied to eight pairs of cadaveric tibiae. The following parameters were compared following the ostectomy: degrees of plateau levelling achieved (degrees), tibial long axis shift (degrees), reduction in tibial length (mm), area of bone wedge removed (cm²), and the area of proximal fragment (cm²). The size of the removed wedge of bone and the reduction in tibial length were significantly less with the modified CCWO technique. The modified CCWO has two main advantages. Firstly a smaller wedge is removed, allowing a greater preservation of bone stock in the proximal tibia, which is advantageous for implant placement. Secondly, the tibia is shortened to a lesser degree, which might reduce the risk of recurvatum, fibular fracture and patella desmitis. These factors are particularly propitious for the application of this technique to Terrier breeds with excessive tibial plateau angle, where large angular corrections are required. The modified CCWO is equally effective for plateau levelling and results in an equivalent tibial long-axis shift. A disadvantage with the modified technique is that not all of the cross sectional area of the distal fragment contributes to load sharing at the osteotomy.

  12. Drifter technique: a new method to obtain metaphases in Hep-2 cell line cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonidas Moura Lima

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hep-2 cell line is derived from laryngeal carcinoma cells and is often utilized as a model in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis tests. To evaluate the proliferative potential of this line, we developed a cytogenetic methodology (drifter technique to obtain metaphases from cells that loose cellular adhesion when they underwent mitosis in culture. By this procedure, 2000 cells were counted, resulting in a mitotic index (MI of 22.2%. Although this MI was not statistically different from the one obtained using either a classical cytogenetic method or a cell synchronization technique, the drifter technique has the advantage of not requiring the use of some reagents for the obtention of metaphases and also of diminishing the consumption of maintenance reagents for this cell line.A linhagem celular Hep-2 é formada por células de carcinoma da laringe e é muito utilizada em modelos de carcinogênese e mutagenêse. Para avaliar o potencial proliferativo desta linhagem, desenvolvemos uma metodologia citogenética (técnica do sobrenadante para obtenção de metáfases a partir de células que, ao entrarem em mitose, perdem adesão celular, ficando em suspensão no meio de cultura. Através deste procedimento, foram contadas 2000 células, correspondendo a um índice mitótico (IM de 22.2% . Apesar de o IM obtido por esta técnica não ter sido estatisticamente diferente do IM obtido por outras metodologias citogenéticas clássicas, a técnica do sobrenadante é vantajosa porque elimina o uso de alguns reagentes utilizados na obtenção de metáfases e também diminui o consumo de reagentes de manutenção desta linhagem.

  13. Promoting cultural diversity in the Irish broadcasting sector: an assessment of international standards and best practices with a view to their operationalisation in an Irish context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGonagle, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a panorama of international and European legal standards concerning the promotion of cultural diversity. It prises open the notion of cultural diversity, as understood in international legal standards and clarifies the extent to which those standards are relevant for law- and

  14. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  15. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  16. Developing Tobacco Lines Resistant to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum L.) by Anther Culture Technique for the Aegean Region

    OpenAIRE

    GENCER, A. Saniye

    2014-01-01

    The anther culture technique as a biotechnological application was combined with conventional breeding methods in order to improve tobacco varieties' resistant to powdery mildew prevailing in the Aegean region of Turkey. For this, resistance was transferred to two varieties from a genitor by the backcross method leading to derive haploid plants from the cultured anthers of BC1 plants firstly, and dihaploid plants by acenaphthene or colchicine treatments secondly. A total of 14 dihapl...

  17. Comparison of group B streptococci colonization in vaginal and rectal specimens by culture method and polymerase chain reaction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Bidgani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The frequency of GBS culture from rectal samples was higher than vaginal samples. However, the detection percentage of GBS using PCR from vaginal samples was higher than rectal samples. By contrast, the culture is a time-consuming method requiring at least 48 hours for GBS fully identification but PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in detection of GBS, with the result was acquired during 3 hours.

  18. Comparison of anthropometry with photogrammetry based on a standardized clinical photographic technique using a cephalostat and chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihwan; Kwon, Hyuk Joon; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Jun Hyung; Son, Daegu

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize clinical photogrammetric techniques, and to compare anthropometry with photogrammetry. To standardize clinical photography, we have developed a photographic cephalostat and chair. We investigated the repeatability of the standardized clinical photogrammetric technique. Then, with 40 landmarks, a total of 96 anthropometric measurement items was obtained from 100 Koreans. Ninety six photogrammetric measurements from the same subjects were also obtained from standardized clinical photographs using Adobe Photoshop version 7.0 (Adobe Systems Corporation, San Jose, CA, USA). The photogrammetric and anthropometric measurement data (mm, degree) were then compared. A coefficient was obtained by dividing the anthropometric measurements by the photogrammetric measurements. The repeatability of the standardized photography was statistically significantly high (p=0.463). Among the 96 measurement items, 44 items were reliable; for these items the photogrammetric measurements were not different to the anthropometric measurements. The remaining 52 items must be classified as unreliable. By developing a photographic cephalostat and chair, we have standardized clinical photogrammetric techniques. The reliable set of measurement items can be used as anthropometric measurements. For unreliable measurement items, applying a suitable coefficient to the photogrammetric measurement allows the anthropometric measurement to be obtained indirectly.

  19. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, C; Leff, J; Henley, J; Tittl, J; De Nardo, E; Butler, M; Griggs, R; Fierer, N; Edmonds-Wilson, S

    2017-03-28

    Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples ( P microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. IMPORTANCE The hand microbiome is a critical area of research for diverse fields, such as public health and forensics. The suitability of culture-independent methods for assessing effects of hygiene products on microbiota has not been demonstrated. This is the first controlled laboratory clinical hand study to have compared traditional hand hygiene test methods with newer culture-independent characterization methods typically used by skin microbiologists. This study resulted in recommendations for hand hygiene product testing, development of methods, and future hand skin microbiome research. It also demonstrated the importance of inclusion of skin physiological metadata in skin microbiome research, which is atypical for skin

  20. Comparison of the detection of periodontal pathogens in bacteraemia after tooth brushing by culture and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuero, Elena; González, Itziar; O´Connor, Ana; Diz, Pedro; Álvarez, Maximiliano; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence and amounts of periodontal pathogens detected in bacteraemia samples after tooth brushing-induced by means of four diagnostic technique, three based on culture and one in a molecular-based technique, have been compared in this study. Material and Methods Blood samples were collected from thirty-six subjects with different periodontal status (17 were healthy, 10 with gingivitis and 9 with periodontitis) at baseline and 2 minutes after tooth brushing. Each sample was analyzed by three culture-based methods [direct anaerobic culturing (DAC), hemo-culture (BACTEC), and lysis-centrifugation (LC)] and one molecular-based technique [quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)]. With culture any bacterial isolate was detected and quantified, while with qPCR only Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected and quantified. Descriptive analyses, ANOVA and Chi-squared tests, were performed. Results Neither BACTEC nor qPCR detected any type of bacteria in the blood samples. Only LC (2.7%) and DAC (8.3%) detected bacteraemia, although not in the same patients. Fusobacterium nucleatum was the most frequently detected bacterial species. Conclusions The disparity in the results when the same samples were analyzed with four different microbiological detection methods highlights the need for a proper validation of the methodology to detect periodontal pathogens in bacteraemia samples, mainly when the presence of periodontal pathogens in blood samples after tooth brushing was very seldom. Key words:Bacteraemia, periodontitis, culture, PCR, tooth brushing. PMID:26946197

  1. [Fungal composition in massa medicata fermentata based on culture dependent method and independent PCR-SSCP technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Jiao, Xiao-lin; Yang, Chun-yong; Song, Mei-fang; Gao, Wei-wei

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the fungal composition in Massa Medicata Fermentata based on culture dependent method and independent PCR-SSCP technique. Fungi were directly isolated from Massa Medicata Fermentata samples. The obtained strains were identified according to morphology and DNA sequence. Meanwhile the total fungal DNA was extracted from Massa Medicata Fermentata samples, the cultural independent PCR-SSCP technique based on β-tubulin gene were used to identify the mycobiota. According to cultural method, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae were present in Massa Medicata Fermentata samples, while A. flavus and A. niger were present in fried Massa Medicata Fermentata samples. In contrast, 5 species were obtained by PCR-SSCP technique, A. flavus was overlapped with fungal taxa derived from culture dependent method; A. ambiguu and A. s ivoriensis were dominant with relative abundance of 57% and 35% respectively, while the relative abundance of A. flavus was as low as 4%. None species was obtained from fried Massa Medicata Fermentata samples. PCR-SSCP based on β-tubulin gene could distinguish fungi into species, culture dependent method combined with culture independent method could better understand the fungal composition associated with Massa Medicata Fermentata fermentation.

  2. Nuclear techniques for the analysis and dating of cultural heritage with the tandetron accelerator at the CEDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Calcagnile

    2014-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique for measuring carbon isotopes and dating artifacts, together with nuclear techniques of ion beam analysis are widely used in the field of cultural heritage owing to the great advantage of their being non-destructive. In Italy, CEDAD - CEntro Di DAtazione e Diagnostica of the University of Salento, with its tandetron accelerator of 3MV, has played a major role for over ten years, in studying materials of cultural assets requiring the determination of...

  3. Acetic acid bacteria from biofilm of strawberry vinegar visualized by microscopy and detected by complementing culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

    2015-04-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) usually develop biofilm on the air-liquid interface of the vinegar elaborated by traditional method. This is the first study in which the AAB microbiota present in a biofilm of vinegar obtained by traditional method was detected by pyrosequencing. Direct genomic DNA extraction from biofilm was set up to obtain suitable quality of DNA to apply in culture-independent molecular techniques. The set of primers and TaqMan--MGB probe designed in this study to enumerate the total AAB population by Real Time--PCR detected between 8 × 10(5) and 1.2 × 10(6) cells/g in the biofilm. Pyrosequencing approach reached up to 10 AAB genera identification. The combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular techniques provided a broader view of AAB microbiota from the strawberry biofilm, which was dominated by Ameyamaea, Gluconacetobacter, and Komagataeibacter genera. Culture-dependent techniques allowed isolating only one genotype, which was assigned into the Ameyamaea genus and which required more analysis for a correct species identification. Furthermore, biofilm visualization by laser confocal microscope and scanning electronic microscope showed different dispositions and cell morphologies in the strawberry vinegar biofilm compared with a grape vinegar biofilm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultural Adaptation and Reliability of the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (CSPS) for Nurses in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Lam, Simon Ching; Gir, Elucir

    2017-03-02

    this study aimed to carry of the cultural adaptation and to evaluate the reliability of the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (CSPS) for nurses in Brazil. the adaptation process entailed translation, consensus among judges, back-translation, semantic validation and pretest. The reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and stability (test-retest). The instrument was administered to a sample group of 300 nurses who worked in a large hospital located in the city of São Paulo/SP, Brazil. through the semantic validation, the items from the scale were considered understandable and deemed important for the nurse´s clinical practice. The CSPS Brazilian Portuguese version (CSPS-PB) revealed excellent interpretability. The Cronbach`s alpha was 0.61 and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.85. the initial study showed that CSPS-PB is appropriate to assess compliance with standard precautions among nurses in Brazil. The reliability was considered acceptable. Furhter study is necessary to evaluate its comprehensive psychometric properties. adaptar culturalmente y evaluar la confiabilidad de la Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (CSPS) para enfermeros en Brasil. el proceso de adaptación abarcó la traducción, consenso entre jueces, retrotraducción, validación semántica y pretest. La confiabilidad fue evaluada mediante la consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y estabilidad (test-retest). El instrumento fue administrado a una muestra de 300 enfermeros actuantes en un gran hospital ubicado en la ciudad de São Paulo/SP, Brasil. a través de la validación semántica, los ítems de la escala fueron considerados comprensibles e importantes para la práctica clínica enfermera. La versión en portugués de Brasil de la CSPS (CSPS-PB) reveló excelente posibilidad de interpretación. El alfa de Cronbach correspondió a 0.61 y el coeficiente de correlación intraclase fue 0.85. el estudio inicial mostró que la CSPS-PB es

  5. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Neutron Reaction Rates and Thermal Neutron Fluence Rates by Radioactivation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this test method is to define a general procedure for determining an unknown thermal-neutron fluence rate by neutron activation techniques. It is not practicable to describe completely a technique applicable to the large number of experimental situations that require the measurement of a thermal-neutron fluence rate. Therefore, this method is presented so that the user may adapt to his particular situation the fundamental procedures of the following techniques. 1.1.1 Radiometric counting technique using pure cobalt, pure gold, pure indium, cobalt-aluminum, alloy, gold-aluminum alloy, or indium-aluminum alloy. 1.1.2 Standard comparison technique using pure gold, or gold-aluminum alloy, and 1.1.3 Secondary standard comparison techniques using pure indium, indium-aluminum alloy, pure dysprosium, or dysprosium-aluminum alloy. 1.2 The techniques presented are limited to measurements at room temperatures. However, special problems when making thermal-neutron fluence rate measurements in high-...

  6. Nuclear techniques used in study of biological processes in Sinapis alba culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giosanu, D.; Fleancu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study different nuclear techniques, in particular the influence of gamma radiation upon germination, growth and respiration processes in Sinapis alba culture. The dependence of these phenomena on dose of gamma irradiation was studied. Research was done on dry seeds of mustard (Sinapis alba).The doses of gamma irradiation were: 20 krad, 40 krad, 60 krad, 80 krad and 100 krad.The subsequent evolution of the irradiated samples was compared with the evolution of an unirradiated (control) samples. The irradiation was done evenly, in a single phase. The treatment of the dry seeds of mustard with gamma radiation determined a diminution of energy of germination. So, the energy of germination was 57 - 73% in gamma treated batches and 81% in the control batch. Thus, the faculty of germination decreases from 92% (in the control batch) to 83% in the irradiated batches. Growth process (length of roots and hypocotyl) was also studied. For 100 krad gamma irradiation the rate of this process was lower than that of the control batch, both in the first and the four day of irradiation. The inhibition effect manifested on germination and growth processes for gamma treated dry seeds of mustard is determined by the modification in the membrane permeability. The intensity of respiration process in the irradiated lots was lower than that of the control lot. The inhibition effect manifested by respiration process following gamma irradiation could be explained by the enzymatic activity of mustard seeds. (authors)

  7. Whole embryo culture: a "New" technique that enabled decades of mechanistic discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Carney, Edward W

    2010-08-01

    Denis New's development of the rodent whole embryo culture (WEC) method in the early 1960s was a groundbreaking achievement that gave embryologists and teratologists an unprecedented degree of access to the developing postimplantation rodent embryo. In the five decades since its development, WEC has enabled detailed investigations into the regulation of normal embryo development as well as a plethora of research on mechanisms of teratogenesis as induced by a wide range of agents. In addition, WEC is one of the few techniques that has been validated for use in teratogenicity screening of drugs and chemicals. In this review, we retrace the steps leading to New's development of WEC, and highlight many examples in which WEC played a crucial role leading to important discoveries in teratological research. The impact of WEC on the field of teratology has been enormous, and it is anticipated that WEC will remain a preferred tool for teratologists and embryologists seeking to interrogate embryo development for many years to come. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Characterization of clays used in the fabrication of traditional brazilian ceramic pans: culture and technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borlini, Monica Castoldi; Aguiar, Mariane Costalonga de, E-mail: mborlini@cetem.gov.br, E-mail: maricostalonga2@gmail.com [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM/MCT), Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, ES (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia Mineral; Vieira, Carlos Mauricio Fontes; Monteiro, Sergio Neves, E-mail: vieira@uenf.br, E-mail: sergio.neves@ig.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados

    2009-07-01

    The fabrication process of clay pans in the state of Espirito Santo, southeast of Brazil, is a recognized part of the country's popular culture. In Goiabeiras, a district of the state capital Vitoria, the traditional production of these pans is the source of income for many families. The technique used in these ceramic pans is of indigenous origin, characterized by manual molding, outdoor burning and application of tannin dye. The clay pans are distributed to several Brazilian states and are nowadays conquering the external market. In producing these pans, two types of, yellow and gray, clays are used. The actual source of raw material comes from the deposit of the Mulemba valley, where a concern on the possibility of exhaustion exists. The objective of this study was then to characterize these two types of clays and so contribute to the continuity of traditional clay pan production by knowing the characteristics of the local clays in case of an eventual need for their replacement. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, plasticity and thermal analysis of the clays were performed. The results showed that the clays are high plasticity kaolinite with considerable amounts of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as of alkaline oxides, earth alkaline oxides and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (author)

  9. THE BECOMING OF INFORMATION CULTURE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION’S IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapina Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the approaches to the definition of “information culture”, its components, the system of personal values needed to succeed in the information and professional activities, the problem of students’ information culture formation in the modern information society. The analysis of the implementation of the Federal state educational standard of vocational education in "teaching in primary schools" is held. The variable part cycles of the basic professional educational programs is distributed on the base of the local professional community’s research and additional competencies. Such subjects as “Russian language and Speech”, “The cultural world of students”, “Ethics in business communication” are introduced through the variable part of the educational standard. The general amount of hours for such subject as «Computer science, information and communication technology in the professional activity" is increased. The results of the special study reveal the level of information culture of the future primary school teachers. According to the results it can be concluded that insufficient level of information culture’s development is impossible for a successful career and self-fulfillment in the present conditions. The article proposes the directions for the formation of future primary school teachers’ information culture in the implementation of the federal state educational standard of vocational education. According to the results of this research it is possible to tell about the effectiveness of these directions’ implementation.

  10. THE BECOMING OF INFORMATION CULTURE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION’S IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Николаевна Лапина

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the approaches to the definition of “information culture”, its components, the system of personal values needed to succeed in the information and professional activities, the problem of students’ information culture formation in the modern information society. The analysis of the implementation of the Federal state educational standard of vocational education in "teaching in primary schools" is held. The variable part cycles of the basic professional educational programs is distributed on the base of the local professional community’s research and additional competencies. Such subjects as “Russian language and Speech”, “The cultural world of students”, “Ethics in business communication” are introduced through the variable part of the educational standard. The general amount of hours for such subject as «Computer science, information and communication technology in the professional activity" is increased. The results of the special study reveal the level of information culture of the future primary school teachers. According to the results it can be concluded that insufficient level of information culture’s development is impossible for a successful career and self-fulfillment in the present conditions. The article proposes the directions for the formation of future primary school teachers’ information culture in the implementation of the federal state educational standard of vocational education. According to the results of this research it is possible to tell about the effectiveness of these directions’ implementation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-31

  11. [Health protection for rural workers: the need to standardize techniques for quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Giuliana da Fontoura Rodrigues; Trapé, Angelo Zanaga

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of dermal exposure to pesticides in rural workers, used in risk assessment, can be performed with different techniques such as patches or whole body evaluation. However, the wide variety of methods can jeopardize the process by producing disparate results, depending on the principles in sample collection. A critical review was thus performed on the main techniques for quantifying dermal exposure, calling attention to this issue and the need to establish a single methodology for quantification of dermal exposure in rural workers. Such harmonization of different techniques should help achieve safer and healthier working conditions. Techniques that can provide reliable exposure data are an essential first step towards avoiding harm to workers' health.

  12. Standard techniques for presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data. [on moon and planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Boyce, J.; Chapman, C.; Cintala, M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Moore, H.; Soderblom, L.; Neukum, G.; Schultz, P.; Strom, R.

    1979-01-01

    In September 1977 a crater studies workshop was held for the purpose of developing standardized data analysis and presentation techniques. The present report contains the unanimous recommendations of the participants. Recommendations are devoted primarily to crater size-frequency data and refer to cumulative and relative size-frequency distribution plots and to morphological analysis.

  13. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical vs temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ard& #243; n; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to measure leaf chemistry. We used standardized analytical techniques to measure chemistry and breakdown rate of leaves from common riparian tree species at 2 sites, 1...

  14. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the 13C2H2 P(16) (ν1 + ν3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal...

  15. Comparison of the detection of periodontal pathogens in bacteraemia after tooth brushing by culture and molecular techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mar?n, Mar?a-Jose; Figuero, Elena; Gonz?lez, Itziar; O?Connor, Ana; Diz, Pedro; ?lvarez, Maximiliano; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence and amounts of periodontal pathogens detected in bacteraemia samples after tooth brushing-induced by means of four diagnostic technique, three based on culture and one in a molecular-based technique, have been compared in this study. Material and Methods Blood samples were collected from thirty-six subjects with different periodontal status (17 were healthy, 10 with gingivitis and 9 with periodontitis) at baseline and 2 minutes after tooth brushing. Each sample was a...

  16. Building Trans-Cultural Standards. On Demolishing the Barriers to Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Bortun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the individual and intercultural communication becomes clear when weunderstand culture within the cultural anthropology paradigm. From this point of view, any individual is thebarer of a certain culture (subculture, sub-subculture etc., and interindividual communication is anintercultural one. That is why the issue of tolerance between individuals and groups becomes an issue of theefficient communication and mutual understanding between cultures. My research on demolishing thebarriers to intercultural communication aims not only to institutionalized communication (betweengovernments or national organizations, but also to communication between well established culturalcommunities, with a strong identity (linguistic, ethnic or religious communities: they regard any act ofcommunication, including here the international professional one (where the main barriers dwell in thecommunication between national cultures. I think that in its current shape, based on economic criteria (whichsplit rather than unify, the European Union does not offer enough “common tasks” in order to give birth to anew Pan-European civic culture, as a variety of the third culture. But, a European Federation could offer thepolitical, economical, social and cultural framework necessary for the achievement of what Casmir called“the third culture”.

  17. A Systematic Review: The Next Generation Science Standards and the Increased Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asowayan, Alaa A.; Ashreef, Samaar Y.; Omar, Sozan H.

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to explore the effect of NGSS on students' academic excellence. Specifically, considering increased cultural diversity, it is appropriate to identify student's science-related values, respectful features of teachers' cultural competence, and underlying challenges and detect in what ways these objectives are addressed by…

  18. Methods and Techniques of Sampling, Culturing and Identifying of Subsurface Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon

    2010-11-01

    This report described sampling, culturing and identifying of KURT underground bacteria, which existed as iron-, manganese-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The methods of culturing and media preparation were different by bacteria species affecting bacteria growth-rates. It will be possible for the cultured bacteria to be used for various applied experiments and researches in the future

  19. 78 FR 58539 - National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in Health and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... actual Standards ensures that every person who uses the Standards will understand their importance... are substantial increases in provider knowledge and skill acquisition and improvements in provider...\\ At the organizational level, hospitals and clinics that support effective communication by addressing...

  20. Comparison of the detection of periodontal pathogens in bacteraemia after tooth brushing by culture and molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, M-J; Figuero, E; González, I; O'Connor, A; Diz, P; Álvarez, M; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence and amounts of periodontal pathogens detected in bacteraemia samples after tooth brushing-induced by means of four diagnostic technique, three based on culture and one in a molecular-based technique, have been compared in this study. Blood samples were collected from thirty-six subjects with different periodontal status (17 were healthy, 10 with gingivitis and 9 with periodontitis) at baseline and 2 minutes after tooth brushing. Each sample was analyzed by three culture-based methods [direct anaerobic culturing (DAC), hemo-culture (BACTEC), and lysis-centrifugation (LC)] and one molecular-based technique [quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)]. With culture any bacterial isolate was detected and quantified, while with qPCR only Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected and quantified. Descriptive analyses, ANOVA and Chi-squared tests, were performed. Neither BACTEC nor qPCR detected any type of bacteria in the blood samples. Only LC (2.7%) and DAC (8.3%) detected bacteraemia, although not in the same patients. Fusobacterium nucleatum was the most frequently detected bacterial species. The disparity in the results when the same samples were analyzed with four different microbiological detection methods highlights the need for a proper validation of the methodology to detect periodontal pathogens in bacteraemia samples, mainly when the presence of periodontal pathogens in blood samples after tooth brushing was very seldom.

  1. Light and electron microscopic localization of GABAA-receptors on cultured cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes using immunohistochemical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Hösli, E; Belhage, B

    1991-01-01

    . At the light microscope level specific staining of GABAA-receptors was localized in various types of neurones in explant cultures of rat cerebellum using the indirect peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique, whereas no specific staining was found in astrocytes. At the electron microscope level labeling...

  2. Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to serve as a model for use to develop and adopt building codes, appendices to codes, or standards specifically applicable to unique local or regional radon control requirements.

  3. Evaluation of the overlapping of posterior teeth in two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic program and standard panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi pour D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Overlapping of the proximal surfaces of posterior teeth in the panoramic radiography is a major concern. Therefore, an option has been developed in the panoramic unit of Planmeca Promax, namely improved interproximal mode. This mode causes lower horizental angle with the teeth contact region during the unit rotation decreasing overlapping of the panoramic images of the posterior teeth especially premolar teeth. The present study was done to compare the overlapping of posterior teeth using two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic program and standard panoramic. "nMaterials and Methods: In this diagnostic study, 32 patients requiring panoramic radiographies at their posterior teeth during their routine diagnosis and treatment process with the mean age of 27.3 years were participated. No patients showed crowding of posterior teeth or missed and restored posterior teeth. The participants' panoramic radiographies were randomly taken by two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic and standard panoramic using Planmeca Promax device. The overlapping of the panoramic images was blindly assessed by an oral radiologist. The overlapping in both techniques was reported by frequency and percentage. The comparisons were done by Chi-square test between two techniques and the odds ratio of overlapping was estimated using regression analysis. "nResults: In standard panoramic techniques, 38.5% (148 contacts of 384 contacts of the proximal surfaces overlapped while the overlapping of the proximal surfaces was observed in 18.8% (72 contacts of 384 overall contacts in improved interproximal technique. Significant differences were noted between two techniques regarding overlapping (P<0.001. Also 66.4% and 39.1% of 4-5 teeth contacts overlapped in standard and improved techniques. The values were reported to be 39.1% and 12.5% in contacts of 5-6 teeth and 10.2% and 4.7% in the contacts of 6-7 teeth in both techniques

  4. Promoting cross-culture research on moral decision-making with standardized, culturally-equivalent dilemmas: The 4CONFiDe set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Cecchetto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Moral dilemmas are a common tool in moral decision-making research. However, they are often hardly comparable across languages and cultures. Here, we propose a methodology to adapt, convert and test moral dilemmas in languages different from English, by outlining the process followed for the creation of the comprehensive 4CONFiDe set. Methods: To evaluate cultural effects, English and Italian versions of the 4CONFiDe were evaluated by English-native speakers profi cient in Italian, and Italian-native speakers proficient in English (Study 1. To assess the contribution of the four conceptual factors used by Christensen et al. to the levels of arousal, valence and familiarity experienced with each dilemma, an independent group of Italian native speakers (n = 112 completed the 4CONFiDe set (Study 2. Results: Both linear mixed models and Bayesian statistics confi rmed that moral choices were made irrespective of participants’ native language and dilemmas’ version, suggesting that the translation was culturally-representative. Moreover, they showed that the proposed dilemmas were perceived by participants with diff erent degrees of arousal, pleasantness and familiarity based on some of the conceptual factors and that three of the four conceptual factors (Personal force, Intentionality and Evitability determined participants’ moral choices. Conclusions:Standardized, culturally-equivalent moral dilemmas provide researchers with a tool that allows further developments of the field.

  5. Remnant preservation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction versus standard techniques: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianjun; Zeng, Chun; Pan, Jianying; Zhao, Chang; Fang, Hang; Cai, Daozhang

    2017-01-01

    Preserving the remnant during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is considered beneficial for graft healing, but it might increase the technical difficulties and complications. This study was to compare outcomes of using the technique of remnant preservation during the ACL reconstruction versus the standard procedure with the debridement of remnant. We searched PubMed and EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing the outcomes of ACL reconstruction both with and without remnant preservation. The risk of bias was assessed in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed to compare results. Six randomized controlled trials with 346 patients were included. Statistically significant differences in favor of using technique of remnant preservation were observed for Lysholm Score, arthrometer measurements, and tibial tunnel enlargement. There was no significant difference between remnant technique of preservation and the standard procedure with respect to the IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) grade, IKDC score, Lachman Test, Pivot-shift Test, range of motion (ROM), and the incidence of the cyclops lesion. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that ACL reconstruction with technique of remnant preservation cannot provide superior clinical outcomes compared with the standard procedure.

  6. Development of sulfide calibration standards for the laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.A.; Ridley, W.I.; Koenig, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The requirements of standard materials for LA-ICP-MS analysis have been difficult to meet for the determination of trace elements in sulfides. We describe a method for the production of synthetic sulfides by precipitation from solution. The method is detailed by the production of approximately 200 g of a material, PS-1, with a suite of chalcophilic trace elements in an Fe-Zn-Cu-S matrix. Preliminary composition data, together with an evaluation of the homogeneity for individual elements, suggests that this type of material meets the requirements for a sulfide calibration standard that allows for quantitative analysis. Contamination of the standard with Na suggests that H2S gas may prove a better sulfur source for future experiments. We recommend that calibration data be collected in whatever mode is closest to that employed for the analysis of the unknown material, because of variable fractionation effects as a function of analytical mode. For instance, if individual spot analyses are attempted on unknown sample, then a raster of several individual spot analyses, not a continuous scan, should be collected and averaged for the standard. Hg and Au are exceptions to the above and calibration data should always be collected in a scanning mode. Au is more heterogeneously distributed than other trace metals and large-area scans are required to provide an average value for calibration purposes. We emphasize that the values given in Table 1 are preliminary values. Further chemical characterization of this standard, through a round-robin analysis program, will allow the USGS to provide both certified and recommended values for individual elements. The USGS has developed PS-1 as a potential new LA-ICP-MS standard for use by the analytical community, and requests for this material should be addressed to S. Wilson. However, it is stressed that an important aspect of the method described here is the flexibility for individual investigators to produce sulfides with a wide range

  7. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zapka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one’s own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water. We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P < 0.001; we were unable to detect changes with glove-based samples. Bacterial cell counts significantly decreased with use of the ABHS (P < 0.05 and ethanol control (P < 0.05. Skin hydration at baseline correlated with bacterial abundances, bacterial community composition, pH, and redness across subjects. The importance of the method choice was substantial. These findings are important to ensure improvement of hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research.

  8. Standard practice for examination of welds using the alternating current field measurement technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures to be followed during alternating current field measurement examination of welds for baseline and service-induced surface breaking discontinuities. 1.2 This practice is intended for use on welds in any metallic material. 1.3 This practice does not establish weld acceptance criteria. 1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system might not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by 125I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using 125 I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare 125 I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using 125 I absorptiometry. At each site the 125 I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it

  10. Applying Standard Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Techniques Within an Agile Framework: Is There a Compatibility Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, James B.; Arthur, James Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Agile methods have gained wide acceptance over the past several years, to the point that they are now a standard management and execution approach for small-scale software development projects. While conventional Agile methods are not generally applicable to large multi-year and mission-critical systems, Agile hybrids are now being developed (such as SAFe) to exploit the productivity improvements of Agile while retaining the necessary process rigor and coordination needs of these projects. From the perspective of Independent Verification and Validation (IVV), however, the adoption of these hybrid Agile frameworks is becoming somewhat problematic. Hence, we find it prudent to question the compatibility of conventional IVV techniques with (hybrid) Agile practices.This paper documents our investigation of (a) relevant literature, (b) the modification and adoption of Agile frameworks to accommodate the development of large scale, mission critical systems, and (c) the compatibility of standard IVV techniques within hybrid Agile development frameworks. Specific to the latter, we found that the IVV methods employed within a hybrid Agile process can be divided into three groups: (1) early lifecycle IVV techniques that are fully compatible with the hybrid lifecycles, (2) IVV techniques that focus on tracing requirements, test objectives, etc. are somewhat incompatible, but can be tailored with a modest effort, and (3) IVV techniques involving an assessment requiring artifact completeness that are simply not compatible with hybrid Agile processes, e.g., those that assume complete requirement specification early in the development lifecycle.

  11. MIMO wireless networks channels, techniques and standards for multi-antenna, multi-user and multi-cell systems

    CERN Document Server

    Clerckx, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This book is unique in presenting channels, techniques and standards for the next generation of MIMO wireless networks. Through a unified framework, it emphasizes how propagation mechanisms impact the system performance under realistic power constraints. Combining a solid mathematical analysis with a physical and intuitive approach to space-time signal processing, the book progressively derives innovative designs for space-time coding and precoding as well as multi-user and multi-cell techniques, taking into consideration that MIMO channels are often far from ideal. Reflecting developments

  12. Free-field reciprocity calibration of laboratory standard (LS) microphones using a time selective technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Although the basic principle of reciprocity calibration of microphones in a free field is simple, the practical problems are complicated due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the influence of cross talk and reflections from the surroundings. The influence of uncorrelated noise can be reduced...... by conventional narrow-band filtering and time averaging, while correlated signals like cross talk and reflections can be eliminated by using time-selective postprocessing techniques. The technique used at DPLA overcomes both these problems using a B&K Pulse analyzer in the SSR mode (steady state response......) and an FFT-based time-selective technique. The complex electrical transfer impedance is measured in linear frequency steps from a few kHz to about three times the resonance frequency of the microphones. The missing values at low frequencies are estimated from a detailed knowledge of the pressure...

  13. Characterisation of the yeast and mould biota in traditional white pickled cheeses by culture-dependent and independent molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Raspor, Peter; Uroić, Ksenija; Golić, Nataša; Kos, Blaženka; Mihajlović, Sanja; Begović, Jelena; Šušković, Jagoda; Topisirović, Ljubiša; Čadež, Neža

    2016-11-01

    Artisanal white pickled cheese of Western Serbia is a product of complex microbial community which detection by culture-dependent method only is hampered by its limitations. Thus, in the present study, we used a culture-independent, semi-quantitative technique based on construction of an internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-clone library from metagenomic DNA. This approach, based on direct DNA extraction followed by amplification of fungal internal transcribed regions (ITS) cloned into plasmid and restricted by endonucleases, revealed greater species richness in analysed cheeses and their by-products (17 species in total) compared to the more commonly used techniques of the culture-dependent method (8 species) and LSU-DGGE (10 species). The most frequently occurring yeast species which are commonly associated with cheeses production were Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida zeylanoides. On the other hand, Yarrowia lipolytica and Galactomyces geotrichum were detected only in one cheese sample. Moreover, some species, mainly moulds (Filobasidium globisporum, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. or Alternaria sp.) were identified only by culture-independent methods. The discrepancies between the techniques were confirmed by low correlation factor and by different indices of general biodiversity and dominance of species. The ITS-clone library approach provides the opportunity to analyse complex fungal communities associated with food products.

  14. Novel culture technique involving an histone deacetylase inhibitor reduces the marginal islet mass to correct streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jun-Seop; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Lim, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Byoung-Keun; Han, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kim, Sang-Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Islet transplantation is limited by the difficulties in isolating the pancreatic islets from the cadaveric donor and maintaining them in culture. To increase islet viability and function after isolation, here we present a novel culture technique involving an histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) to rejuvenate the isolated islets. Pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and one group (FIs; freshly isolated islets) was used after overnight culture and the other group (RIs; rejuvenated islet) was subjected to rejuvenation culture procedure, which is composed of three discrete steps including degranulation, chromatin remodeling, and regranulation. FIs and RIs were compared with regard to intracellular insulin content, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) capacity, gene expression profile, viability and apoptosis rate under oxidative stresses, and the engraftment efficacy in the xenogeneic islet transplantation models. RIs have been shown to have 1.9 ± 0.28- and 1.7 ± 0.31-fold greater intracellular insulin content and GSIS capacity, respectively, than FIs. HDACi increased overall histone acetylation levels, with inducing increased expression of many genes including insulin 1, insulin 2, GLUT2, and Ogg1. This enhanced islet capacity resulted in more resistance against oxidative stresses and increase of the engraftment efficacy shown by reduction of twofold marginal mass of islets in xenogeneic transplantation model. In conclusion, a novel rejuvenating culture technique using HDACi as chromatin remodeling agents improved the function and viability of the freshly isolated islets, contributing to the reduction of islet mass for the control of hyperglycemia in islet transplantation.

  15. The Effect of Long-Term Therapeutics, Prophylaxis and Screening Techniques on Aircrew Medical Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    350. voel RA, Kirch DC, LeFree MT, Rainwater JO, Jensen DP, Steele PP. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintiaraphy: results of standard aad multi...Reference 3. Further Reference 4.Security Clasification of Document A;ARD4"P-3 10 ISBN 92-835-0288-4 UNCLASSIFIE) 5 Originator Advi,,ory Group for

  16. Admissions Standards and the Use of Key Marketing Techniques by United States' Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldgehn, Leslie A.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of admissions deans and directors investigated the use and perceived effectiveness of 15 well-known marketing techniques: advertising, advertising research, a marketing plan, market positioning, market segmentation, marketing audit, marketing research, pricing, program and service accessibility, program development, publicity, target…

  17. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, F.C.; Atan, S.; Jaafar, H.

    1998-01-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA) n , (TA) n and (TTA) n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of

  18. International intercomparison of standards for low collision kerma rates in air by means of low dose TLD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanne, P.; Carlsson, C.A.; Carlsson, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    An international intercomparison of standards for calibration of radiation protection instruments is described. The intercomparison involved collision kerma rates in air in the range 5.7 to 7.400 μGy.h -1 and was performed using low dose TLD techniques with TL-LiF dosemeters. The dosemeters were specifically tested with regard to their dose rate dependence, but none was found. (author)

  19. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality.

  20. Evaluation of a standard breast tangent technique: a dose-volume analysis of tangential irradiation using three-dimensional tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasin, Matthew; McCall, Anne; King, Stephanie; Olson, Mary; Emami, Bahman

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A thorough dose-volume analysis of a standard tangential radiation technique has not been published. We evaluated the adequacy of a tangential radiation technique in delivering dose to the breast and regional lymphatics, as well as dose delivered to underlying critical structures. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans of 25 consecutive women with breast cancer undergoing lumpectomy and adjuvant breast radiotherapy were studied. Patients underwent two-dimensional (2D) treatment planning followed by treatment with standard breast tangents. These 2D plans were reconstructed without modification on our three-dimensional treatment planning system and analyzed with regard to dose-volume parameters. Results: Adequate coverage of the breast (defined as 95% of the target receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose) was achieved in 16 of 25 patients, with all patients having at least 85% of the breast volume treated to 95% of the prescribed dose. Only 1 patient (4%) had adequate coverage of the Level I axilla, and no patient had adequate coverage of the Level II axilla, Level III axilla, or the internal mammary lymph nodes. Conclusion: Three-dimensional treatment planning is superior in quantification of the dose received by the breast, regional lymphatics, and critical structures. The standard breast tangent technique delivers an adequate dose to the breast but does not therapeutically treat the regional lymph nodes in the majority of patients. If coverage of the axilla or internal mammary lymph nodes is desired, alternate beam arrangements or treatment fields will be necessary

  1. Banking culture and collective responsibility: A memorandum to the UK Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dorn (Nicholas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBasic assumptions • There is wide interest in connecting issues of (i) occupational culture, (ii) compliance/ misconduct, (iii) remuneration and (iv) clawback (the bonus/malus debate). • Individual-focussed measures (supervision, remuneration and measures in civil or criminal law) must

  2. Culturally Diverse Literature: Enriching Variety in an Era of Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Fenice B.; Causey, Lauren L.; Galda, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The authors argue for the overwhelming importance of finding and including culturally diverse literature into the curricula teachers are authorized to teach. They discuss the implications of use and offer ideas on how to identify quality literature to include in classroom and school libraries.

  3. Development and evaluation of a porcine in vitro colon organ culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Matheus O; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2016-10-01

    The intestinal mucosa comprises a complex assemblage of specialized tissues that interact in numerous ways. In vitro cell culture models are generally focused on recreating a specific characteristic of this organ and do not account for the many interactions between the different tissues. In vitro organ culture (IVOC) methods offer a way to overcome these limitations, but prolonging cell viability is essential. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and optimal conditions for in vitro culture of swine colonic mucosa for use as an enteric pathogen infection model. Explants (n = 168) from commercial pigs (n = 12), aged 5 to 10 wk, were used to assess the impact of various culture protocols on explant viability. Explants were cultured for up to 5 d and formalin fixed at 24-h intervals. Following establishment of the culture protocol, explants (n = 208) from 13 pigs were evaluated at Day 0 and 5 of culture. Assessment of viability was based on histological changes (tissue architecture evaluated by H&E, immunostaining of cell proliferation marker Ki-67) and expression of genes encoding IL-1α, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and e-cadherin. After 5 d in culture, 20% of explants displayed over 80% of epithelial coverage, whereas 31% of explants had more than 50% of their surface covered by columnar epithelium, and 81% had crypts but with a decreased number of Ki-67-positive cells when compared to Day 0. Notably, large variability in explant quality was observed between donor pigs. Best possible explants were obtained from the distal colon of pigs, processed immediately after euthanasia, cultured at the liquid-tissue-gas interface in media supplemented with a mixture of antibiotics and antifungals and an oxygen-rich gas mix.

  4. 76 FR 44394 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Pacific Standard Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... in L.A. Painting and Sculpture 1950-1970'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... ``Pacific Standard Time: Crosscurrents in L.A. Painting and Sculpture 1950-1970,'' imported from abroad for...

  5. Phytochemical analysis and standardization of Strychnos nux-vomica extract through HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to develop a noval qualitative and quantitative method by which we can determine different phytoconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Methods: To profile the phyconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica, in the present study hydroalcoholic extract of Strychnos nux-vomica was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activities against certain pathogenic microorganisms, solubility test, loss on drying and pH value. Extract was also subjected to the quantitative analysis including total phenol, flavonoid and heavy metal analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed through HPTLC methods using strychnine and brucine as a standard marker. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside in the extract. Total flavonoid and phenol content of Strychnos nux-vomica L extract was found to be 0.40 % and 0.43%. Result showed that the level of heavy metal (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complie the standard level. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Content of strychnine and brucine were found to be 4.75% and 3.91%. Conclusions: These studies provide valluable information for correct identification and selection of the drug from various adulterations. In future this study will be helpful for the quantitative analysis as well as standardization of the Strychnos nux-vomica L.

  6. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R; Russell, Aidan N; Wheeler, Richard J; Nord, Ashley L; Berry, Richard M

    2016-02-08

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy.

  7. Project on production of mutants by irradiation of in vitro cultured tissues of coconut and banana and their mass propagation by the tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, E.V. de

    1975-01-01

    Fruit pulp tissue, ovary segments with or without ovules and sections from shoot tips of banana were used for studies on growth stimulating or morphogenetic effects of irradiation. Irradiation at 0.1-1.0 kR tended to induce faster callus growth in the otherwise slow-growing cultures. The physical condition and composition of the culture media especially with respect to growth regulators were studied, as were techniques to overcome discoloration of explants, the best choice of plant tissue for explant, and radiation effects on growth and morphogenesis. Due to the difficulty of callus induction with coconut, only the effects of irradiation on embryos cultured in vitro were studied. They were irradiated at various stages of development, i.e. during the early and final stage of liquid culture, and several days after transfer to a solid medium. Adverse effects of irradiation became evident only during the subsequent growth in solid, during the latter stage of which morphological changes were observed. Whereas irradiation of the liquid as well as solid media up to 50 kR had no adverse effect; survival and development became adversely affected at a dose of 1 kR

  8. Virtual Reality Techniques for Eliciting Empathy and Cultural Awareness: Affective Human-Virtual World Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chirino-Klevans, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    On the average human beings have about 50,000 thoughts every day. If we consider that thoughts influence how we feel there is little doubt that the way we perceive reality will strongly correlate with how we act upon that reality. Let’s contextualize this thinking process within the realm of global business where interacting with individuals from other cultural backgrounds is the norm. Our own perceptions and stereotypes towards those cultural groups will strongly influence how we interact wi...

  9. Smelling Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections using a whole-cell biosensor - An alternative for the gold-standard culturing assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviatkovski, Igor; Shushan, Sagit; Oron, Yahav; Frumin, Idan; Amir, Daniel; Secundo, Lavi; Livne, Eitan; Weissbrod, Aharon; Sobel, Noam; Helman, Yael

    2018-02-10

    Improved easy-to-use diagnostic tools for infections are in strong demand worldwide. Yet, despite dramatic advances in diagnostic technologies, the gold-standard remains culturing. Here we offer an alternative tool demonstrating that a bacterial biosensor can efficiently detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients suffering from otitis externa. Detection was based on specific binding between the biosensor and 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA), a volatile produced by P. aeruginosa in high amounts. We collected pus samples from ears of 26 subjects exhibiting symptoms of otitis externa. Detection of P. aeruginosa using the biosensor was compared to detection using gold-standard culturing assay and to gas-chromatograph-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of 2-AA. The biosensor strain test matched the culture assay in 24 samples (92%) and the GC-MS analyses in 25 samples (96%). With this result in hand, we designed a device containing a whole-cell luminescent biosensor combined with a photo-multiplier tube. This device allowed detection of 2-AA at levels as low as 2 nmol, on par with detection level of GC-MS. The results of the described study demonstrate that the volatile 2-AA serves as an effective biomarker for P. aeruginosa in ear infections, and that activation of the biosensor strain by 2-AA provides a unique opportunity to design an easy-to-use device that can specifically detect P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-western cultures: in search of biologically based standards of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, G; Yoshikawa, S; Clark, A; Lee, K; McKay, R; Akamatsu, S

    2001-01-01

    Averageness and symmetry are attractive in Western faces and are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A hallmark of such standards is that they are shared across cultures. We examined whether facial averageness and symmetry are attractive in non-Western cultures. Increasing the averageness of individual faces, by warping those faces towards an averaged composite of the same race and sex, increased the attractiveness of both Chinese (experiment 1) and Japanese (experiment 2) faces, for Chinese and Japanese participants, respectively. Decreasing averageness by moving the faces away from an average shape decreased attractiveness. We also manipulated the symmetry of Japanese faces by blending each original face with its mirror image to create perfectly symmetric versions. Japanese raters preferred the perfectly symmetric versions to the original faces (experiment 2). These findings show that preferences for facial averageness and symmetry are not restricted to Western cultures, consistent with the view that they are biologically based. Interestingly, it made little difference whether averageness was manipulated by using own-race or other-race averaged composites and there was no preference for own-race averaged composites over other-race or mixed-race composites (experiment 1). We discuss the implications of these results for understanding what makes average faces attractive. We also discuss some limitations of our studies, and consider other lines of converging evidence that may help determine whether preferences for average and symmetric faces are biologically based.

  11. A double labeling technique for performing immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization in virus infected cell cultures and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendelman, H.E.; Moench, T.R.; Narayan, O.; Griffin, D.E.; Clements, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a combined immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization procedure which allows visualization of cellular or viral antigens and viral RNA in the same cell. Cultures infected with visna or measles virus were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde, stained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique using antibodies to viral or cellular proteins and then incubated with radiolabeled specific DNA probes (in situ hybridization). This technique provides a new approach to the study of viral pathogenesis by: (1) identifying the types of cells which are infected in the host and (2) identifying points of blockade in the virus life cycle during persistent infections. (Auth.)

  12. Effect of Different Concentrations of Growth Regulators on Gardenia jasminoides cv. Veitchii Micropropagation by Tissue Culture Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Abdullah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation techniques were set up for Gardenia jasminoides c.v. veitchi. Many plantlets were obtained by culturing shoot cuttings in MS nutrient media, 30 g/L Sucrose, 7 g/L Agar Agar, and different concentrations of BAP and IAA. The best concentration was 1mg /L BAP with 0.5 mg/L IAA. This concentration gave the best sprout growth suitable for rooting in primary and secondary culture by reculturing the stuck cutting every 6 weeks and for many times. We also obtained a high rooting percentage up to 98 % of natural rooting in rooting media different from propagation media by reducing mineral salt concentration to half, Sucrose to 20gm/L, and 2gm/L active charcoal, and 1mg/L IAA. Plantlets were transferred to greenhous and subjected for hardening. This technique gave 22 plantlets from one cutting in one year.

  13. Standardization of the radioimmunoassay technique for the determination of human gastrin and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peig Ginabredra, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    It was developed and standardized a system of radioimmunoassay for the determination of gastrin, employing synthetic human gastrin for radioiodination and preparation of standard as well as specific antibody raised rabbits. The hormone was labeled with 125 I by the Cloramine T techique and purified by anion exchange chromatography in QAE-Sephadex A-25, being determined its specific activity. The tracer thus obtained was submitted to analysis of purity by poliacrilamide gel eletrophoresis and precipitation of proteins by trichloroacetic acid. Its stability evaluated according to the time of storage, being its purity and adequation for the use in radioimmunoassay also compared to a tracer obtained from a commercial diagnosis kit. The assays were performed by incubation of radioiodinated gastrin, standard gastrin prepared in plasma free from this hormone (from zero to 500 pmol/l) or samples to be assayed with the antiserum for 4 days at 4 0 C. The separation between the free gastrin and the gastrin bound to the antibody was carried out by adsorption of the free hormone to the charcoal, whose ideal concentration was previously determined. Plasma free from gastrin was obtained from time-expired blood bank plasma submitted to extraction with charcoal. When performed the quality control, this radioimmunoassay was shown specific, accurate, precise and sensitive, allowing the performance of valid assays. Its validation was even confirmed by clear discrimination not only of the gastrin concentration in subjects with very low levels (gastrectomized) and extremely high levels (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) as well as gastrin concentrations in subjects with other diseases, such as Chagas disease, pernicious anemia and chronic renal failure. (author) [pt

  14. Designing media for animal cell culture: CHO cells, the industrial standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    The success of culturing CHO cells solely depends on functionality of the used media. Cell culture technology is more than 50 years old, and the knowledge of cell requirements increased steadily. In the beginning, animal-sourced components were the key to growth. Nowadays state-of-the-art media do not contain any animal or naturally sourced components. The compositions are based on scientific awareness of the needs of the cells. The result is high lot-to-lot consistency and high performance.In this book section, a method for the development of a synthetic, animal component-free medium is described. The composition is based on public available formulations and information based on the work of many scientists printed in numerous papers and manuscripts. The method shall help beginners to design their own medium, although some knowledge of biochemistry and animal cells is still required.

  15. Characterization of the neutron sources storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory, using Montecarlo Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo Blanco, X.

    2015-01-01

    The development of irradiation damage resistant materials is one of the most important open fields in the design of experimental facilities and conceptual nucleoelectric fusion plants. The Neutron Standards Laboratory aims to contribute to this development by allowing the neutron irradiation of materials in its calibration neutron sources storage pool. For this purposes, it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron fluence and spectra due to the calibration neutron sources. In this work, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool is carried out. Finally, an application is shown of the obtained results to the neutron irradiation of material.

  16. Culture-dependent and independent techniques to monitor yeast species during cold soak carried out at different temperatures in winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturano, Y Paola; Mestre, M Victoria; Combina, Mariana; Toro, María Eugenia; Vazquez, Fabio; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-11-21

    Transformation of grape must into wine is a process that may vary according to the consumers' requirements. Application of cold soak prior to alcoholic fermentation is a common practice in cellars in order to enhance flavor complexity and extraction of phenolic compounds. However, the effect of this step on wine yeast microbiota is not well-known. The current study simultaneously analyzed the effect of different cold soak temperatures on the microbiological population throughout the process and the use of culture-dependent and independent techniques to study this yeast ecology. The temperatures assayed were those normally applied in wineries: 2.5, 8 and 12°C. PCR-DGGE allowed detection of the most representative species such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As could be expected, highest diversity indices were obtained at the beginning of each process, and survival of H. uvarum or S. bacillaris depended on the temperature. Our results are in agreement with those obtained with culture independent methods, but qPCR showed higher precision and a different behavior was observed for each yeast species and at each temperature assayed. Comparison of both culture-independent techniques can provide a general overview of the whole process, although DGGE does not reveal the diversity expected due to the reported problems with the sensitivity of this technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of anti-inflammatory mesenchymal stem/precursor cells (MSCs) through sphere formation using hanging-drop culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosh, Thomas J; Ylostalo, Joni H

    2014-02-06

    Herein, we describe a protocol for preparation of pre-activated anti-inflammatory human mesenchymal stem/precursor cells (MSCs) in 3-D culture without addition of exogenous chemicals or gene-transfer approaches. MSCs are an easily procurable source of multipotent adult stem cells with therapeutic potential largely attributed to their paracrine regulation of inflammation and immunity. However, the culture conditions to prepare the ideal MSCs for cell therapy remain elusive. Furthermore, the reported lag time for activation in experimental models has prompted investigations on pre-activating the cells prior to their administration. In this protocol, standard 2-D culture-expanded MSCs are activated by aggregation into 3-D spheres using hanging-drop cultures. MSC activation is evaluated by real-time PCR and/or ELISA for anti-inflammatory factors (TSG-6, STC-1, PGE2), and by a functional assay using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cultures. Further, we elucidate methods to prepare MSC-sphere conditioned medium, intact spheres, and suspension of single cells from spheres for experimental and clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Mise au point d'une technique de culture in vitro d'embryons immatures de Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Schmit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vitro culture technique for immature Phaseolus embryos. In the interspecific crosses Phaseolus polyanthus (or P. coccineus (i? x P. vulgaris, the hybrid embryos abort very early. Therefore, it is essentiel to develop an in vitro culture technique that allows the rescue of beau embryos at globular or early heart-shaped stages. After several trials conceming the salts composition, the sugar rate and the amino acid concentration of différent in vitro culture media, a technique has been developed for heart-shaped Phaseolus embryos. This technique consists of two stages. In a first step, embryos are cultivated under darkness until their germination on a medium containing the salts of Gamborg et al. (1968, 400 mg . 1` (5mM - 1 -' NHNO,, 1 mg . 1-' thiamine HCI, 5 mg . l` nicotinic acid, 0.5 mg - l` pyridoxine, 1,000 mg . l` -glutamine, 1,000 mg . l` casein hydrolysate, 100 mg . l` myo-inositol, 0.028 mg . P N6-benzyladenine, 30 g . l` sucrase, and 8 g -1-' DIFCO agar. After germination, the embryos are cultivated under light on a second medium that does not contain any NHNO, complément and is poorer in amino acids (100 mg • 1-' L-glutamine. Developed with six deys old heart-shaped embryos of the P. vulgaris Bico de Ouro (NI 637 variety, this technique has proved its efficiency with other P. vulgaris and P. polyanthus génotypes. It allows an average régénération rate of 30% from the total number of cultivated embryos.

  19. Examining English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Instruction through Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…

  20. Learning by Experience in a Standardized Testing Culture: Investigation of a Middle School Experiential Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…

  1. New fabrication technique of conductive polymer/insulating polymer composite films and evaluation of biocompatibility in neuron cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Abe, Yayoi; Tada, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, produces a flexible composite polymer film with electrical, optical and electrochemical properties very similar to those of polypyrrole (PPy). The rate of electrochemical polymerization depends on the diffusion rate of the electrolyte across the PVA film to the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, a solvent with a hydrophilic nature easily penetrates into the PVA film. By applying this new process, we demonstrate a unique method of forming an electrically conductive pattern in PVA film. It will be possible to develop electrodes for electrical stimulation of the nervous system using the conducting polymer, PPy. Then, by applying a similar technique, we fabricated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT/PVA, composite films and investigated their basic electrochemical properties. Moreover, in this study, in order to develop a novel cell-culture system which makes it possible to communicate with cultured cells, fibroblasts were cultured on PPy- and PEDOT-coated ITO conductive glass plates for 7 days. The result reveals that the PPy and PEDOT films support the secretory functions of the cells cultured on its surface. The PPy- and PEDOT-coated electrodes may be useful to culture the cells on.

  2. New fabrication technique of conductive polymer/insulating polymer composite films and evaluation of biocompatibility in neuron cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi, E-mail: onoda@eng.u-hyogo.ac.j [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himwji Shosha Campus, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Abe, Yayoi; Tada, Kazuya [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himwji Shosha Campus, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, produces a flexible composite polymer film with electrical, optical and electrochemical properties very similar to those of polypyrrole (PPy). The rate of electrochemical polymerization depends on the diffusion rate of the electrolyte across the PVA film to the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, a solvent with a hydrophilic nature easily penetrates into the PVA film. By applying this new process, we demonstrate a unique method of forming an electrically conductive pattern in PVA film. It will be possible to develop electrodes for electrical stimulation of the nervous system using the conducting polymer, PPy. Then, by applying a similar technique, we fabricated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT/PVA, composite films and investigated their basic electrochemical properties. Moreover, in this study, in order to develop a novel cell-culture system which makes it possible to communicate with cultured cells, fibroblasts were cultured on PPy- and PEDOT-coated ITO conductive glass plates for 7 days. The result reveals that the PPy and PEDOT films support the secretory functions of the cells cultured on its surface. The PPy- and PEDOT-coated electrodes may be useful to culture the cells on.

  3. Evaluation of Visualization Using a 50/50 (Contrast Media/Glucose 5% Solution) Technique for Radioembolization as an Alternative to a Standard Sandwich Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, Karolin J; Todica, Andrei; Ilhan, Harun; Rübenthaler, Johannes; Schoeppe, Franziska; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Bartenstein, Peter; Reiser, Maximilian F; Paprottka, Philipp M

    2017-11-01

    Radioembolization (RE) with 90 yttrium ( 90 Y) resin microspheres generally employs a sandwich technique with separate sequential administration of contrast medium (CM), followed by vehicle (e.g., glucose 5% [G5] solution), then 90 Y resin microspheres (in G5), then G5, and then CM again to avoid contact of CM and microspheres under fluoroscopic guidance. This study evaluates the visualization quality and safety of a modified sandwich technique with a 50/50-mixture of CM (Imeron 300) and G5 for administration of 90 Y resin microspheres. A retrospective analysis of 81 RE procedures in patients with primary or secondary liver tumors was performed. The quality of angiographic visualization of the hepatic vessels was assessed before the first injection and immediately before the whole dose has been injected. Visualization and flow rate were graded on a 5-point scale: 1 = very good to 5 = not visible/no antegrade flow. Univariate logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic variables associated with visualization and flow scores. Visualization quality was inversely related to flow rate, the lower the flow rate the better the grade of the visualization. Visualization quality was also inversely related to body-mass-index (BMI). Performing RE with the 50/50-CM/G5 mixture resulted in a mean injection time for 1 GBq of 15 min. No clinically significant adverse events, including radiation-induced liver disease were reported. RE with a 50/50-mixture of CM and G5 for administration of 90 Y resin microspheres in a modified sandwich technique is a safe administration alternative and provides good visualization of hepatic vessels, which is inversely dependent on flow rate and BMI. Injection time was reduced compared with our experience with the standard sandwich technique.

  4. Robot-assisted repair of tricuspid leaflet prolapse using standard valvuloplasty techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder, Christopher W; Suri, Rakesh M; Rehfeldt, Kent; Pislaru, Sorin; Burkhart, Harold M

    2012-11-01

    While minimally invasive approaches are used routinely to correct severe mitral regurgitation due to leaflet prolapse, isolated tricuspid valve prolapse is less frequent and usually addressed via sternotomy. A 34-year-old female presented with exertional dyspnea and severe tricuspid regurgitation due to an unsupported anterior leaflet causing prolapse, a tethered septal leaflet, and dilated annulus. Herein, the technique is described of a robot-assisted tricuspid valve repair using established open valvuloplasty principles. The robotic repair was performed by the placement of Gore-Tex neochordae from the anterior papillary muscle to the anterior tricuspid leaflet, plication of the anteroseptal and anteroposterior commissures, closure of an anterior leaflet cleft, and the insertion of an annuloplasty band. The patient had an uncomplicated hospital course and was dismissed home on the third postoperative day.

  5. Model-Based Data Integration and Process Standardization Techniques for Fault Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Deepak; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Johnson, Stephen B.; Moore, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of model-based techniques to assimilate information from disjoint knowledge sources for performing NASA's Fault Management (FM)-related activities using the TEAMS® toolset. FM consists of the operational mitigation of existing and impending spacecraft failures. NASA's FM directives have both design-phase and operational-phase goals. This paper highlights recent studies by QSI and DST of the capabilities required in the TEAMS® toolset for conducting FM activities with the aim of reducing operating costs, increasing autonomy, and conforming to time schedules. These studies use and extend the analytic capabilities of QSI's TEAMS® toolset to conduct a range of FM activities within a centralized platform.

  6. Standard practice for evaluation of hydrogen uptake, permeation, and transport in metals by an electrochemical technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice gives a procedure for the evaluation of hydrogen uptake, permeation, and transport in metals using an electrochemical technique which was developed by Devanathan and Stachurski. While this practice is primarily intended for laboratory use, such measurements have been conducted in field or plant applications. Therefore, with proper adaptations, this practice can also be applied to such situations. 1.2 This practice describes calculation of an effective diffusivity of hydrogen atoms in a metal and for distinguishing reversible and irreversible trapping. 1.3 This practice specifies the method for evaluating hydrogen uptake in metals based on the steady-state hydrogen flux. 1.4 This practice gives guidance on preparation of specimens, control and monitoring of the environmental variables, test procedures, and possible analyses of results. 1.5 This practice can be applied in principle to all metals and alloys which have a high solubility for hydrogen, and for which the hydrogen permeation is ...

  7. Pyrite: A blender plugin for visualizing molecular dynamics simulations using industry-standard rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, Nivedita; Durrant, Jacob D

    2018-05-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide critical insights into many biological mechanisms. Programs such as VMD, Chimera, and PyMOL can produce impressive simulation visualizations, but they lack many advanced rendering algorithms common in the film and video-game industries. In contrast, the modeling program Blender includes such algorithms but cannot import MD-simulation data. MD trajectories often require many gigabytes of memory/disk space, complicating Blender import. We present Pyrite, a Blender plugin that overcomes these limitations. Pyrite allows researchers to visualize MD simulations within Blender, with full access to Blender's cutting-edge rendering techniques. We expect Pyrite-generated images to appeal to students and non-specialists alike. A copy of the plugin is available at http://durrantlab.com/pyrite/, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License Version 3. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nuclear techniques for the analysis and dating of cultural heritage with the tandetron accelerator at the CEDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Calcagnile

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique for measuring carbon isotopes and dating artifacts, together with nuclear techniques of ion beam analysis are widely used in the field of cultural heritage owing to the great advantage of their being non-destructive. In Italy, CEDAD - CEntro Di DAtazione e Diagnostica of the University of Salento, with its tandetron accelerator of 3MV, has played a major role for over ten years, in studying materials of cultural assets requiring the determination of their elemental composition and determination of absolute chronology using radiocarbon. This study describes the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique used with the accelerator at CEDAD to determine age by means of radiocarbon and PIXE-PIGE techniques, and to determine elements, even in traces, present in materials. Some case studies carried out at CEDAD are reported, including those on the Riace Bronzes and Capitoline Wolf. The latter has been definitively dated to the Middle Ages, 17 centuries later than the previously attributed dating by historians. In addition, an important technical innovation is described, achieved within the framework of the IT@CHA Project enabling organic materials to be dated using only 10 μg of carbon.

  9. Psychovisual masks and intelligent streaming RTP techniques for the MPEG-4 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Falconi, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    In today multimedia audio-video communication systems, data compression plays a fundamental role by reducing the bandwidth waste and the costs of the infrastructures and equipments. Among the different compression standards, the MPEG-4 is becoming more and more accepted and widespread. Even if one of the fundamental aspects of this standard is the possibility of separately coding video objects (i.e. to separate moving objects from the background and adapt the coding strategy to the video content), currently implemented codecs work only at the full-frame level. In this way, many advantages of the flexible MPEG-4 syntax are missed. This lack is due both to the difficulties in properly segmenting moving objects in real scenes (featuring an arbitrary motion of the objects and of the acquisition sensor), and to the current use of these codecs, that are mainly oriented towards the market of DVD backups (a full-frame approach is enough for these applications). In this paper we propose a codec for MPEG-4 real-time object streaming, that codes separately the moving objects and the scene background. The proposed codec is capable of adapting its strategy during the transmission, by analysing the video currently transmitted and setting the coder parameters and modalities accordingly. For example, the background can be transmitted as a whole or by dividing it into "slightly-detailed" and "highly detailed" zones that are coded in different ways to reduce the bit-rate while preserving the perceived quality. The coder can automatically switch in real-time, from one modality to the other during the transmission, depending on the current video content. Psychovisual masks and other video-content based measurements have been used as inputs for a Self Learning Intelligent Controller (SLIC) that changes the parameters and the transmission modalities. The current implementation is based on the ISO 14496 standard code that allows Video Objects (VO) transmission (other Open Source Codes

  10. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part II. Renormalization procedures and computational techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, are discussed in part III where numerical results, e.g. for the complex poles of the unstable gauge bosons, are shown. An attempt is made to define the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the two-loop level. (orig.)

  11. Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover determination of the total normal emittance (Note) of surfaces by means of portable, inspection-meter instruments. Note 1—Total normal emittance (εN) is defined as the ratio of the normal radiance of a specimen to that of a blackbody radiator at the same temperature. The equation relating εN to wavelength and spectral normal emittance [εN (λ)] is where: L b(λ, T) = Planck's blackbody radiation function = c1π −1λ−5(ec2/λT − 1)−1, c1 = 3.7415 × 10−16 W·m 2, c2 = 1.4388 × 10−2 m·K, T = absolute temperature, K, λ = wavelength, m, Lb(λ, T)dλ = Δπ −1T4, and Δ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.66961 × 10 −8 W·m2·K−4 1.2 These test methods are intended for measurements on large surfaces when rapid measurements must be made and where a nondestructive test is desired. They are particularly useful for production control tests. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measu...

  12. Isolation of Mycobacterium chelonei with the lysis-centrifugation blood culture technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Fojtasek, M F; Kelly, M T

    1982-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonei was isolated from a patient by the lysis-centrifugation and the conventional two-bottle blood culture methods. The lysis-centrifugation method was significantly more sensitive and rapid than the conventional method in detecting and isolating this organism; quantitations done by this method were useful for monitoring response to therapy.

  13. Writing for Immediacy: Narrative Writing as a Teaching Technique in Undergraduate Cultural Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Narrative inquiry is an innovative means of encouraging students to internalize concepts, reflect on experiences or create applications for theoretical ideas. The use of first-person creative writing in a second-year cultural geography course prompted initial scepticism from students but eventually highlighted their constructivist engagement with…

  14. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of coastal bioaerosols using culture dependent and independent techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, R.; Palenik, B.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-02-01

    Bioaerosols are emerging as important yet poorly understood players in atmospheric processes. Microorganisms can impact atmospheric chemistry through metabolic reactions and can potentially influence physical processes by participating in ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Microbial roles in atmospheric processes are thought to be species-specific and potentially dependent on cell viability. Using a coastal pier monitoring site as a sampling platform, culture-dependent (i.e. agar plates) and culture-independent (i.e. DNA clone libraries from filters) approaches were combined with 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene targeting to obtain insight into the local atmospheric microbial composition. From 13 microbial isolates and 42 DNA library clones, a total of 55 sequences were obtained representing four independent sampling events. Sequence analysis revealed that in these coastal samples two fungal phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, predominate among eukaryotes while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominate among bacteria. Furthermore, our culture-dependent study verifies the viability of microbes from all four phyla detected through our culture-independent study. Contrary to our expectations and despite oceanic air mass sources, common marine planktonic bacteria and phytoplankton were not typically found. The abundance of terrestrial and marine sediment-associated microorganisms suggests a potential importance for bioaerosols derived from beaches and/or coastal erosion processes.

  15. Improvement of potato tolerance to salinity using tissue culture techniques and irradiation with in vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2005-06-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to salinity. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy.Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4th generation (MV 4 ) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3000 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure. MV 4 explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with the NaCl in varying concentrations ranging between 50 to 200 mM. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-cultured on a similar medium to insure their tolerance to salinity. Tolerant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later subjected to another selection pressure, by irrigating them using water containing NaCl in concentrations ranging between 50-250 mM in addition to controls irrigated with normal water. Cultivar Spunta produced the highest number of tolerant plants. Four plants of Spunta appeared to be tolerant to salinity whereas only one plant from Diamant and was tolerant and no plants from cultivar Draga were tolerant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 8 - 14. Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 31 grams. (author)

  16. Metataxonomic and Metagenomic Approaches Versus Culture-Based Techniques For Clinical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Hilton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses that are both timely and accurate are critically important for patients with life-threatening or drug resistant infections. Technological improvements in High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS have led to its use in pathogen detection and its application in clinical diagnoses of infectious diseases. The present study compares two HTS methods, 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing (metataxonomics and whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing (metagenomics, in their respective abilities to match the same diagnosis as traditional culture methods (culture inference for patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP. The metagenomic analysis was able to produce the same diagnosis as culture methods at the species-level for five of the six samples, while the metataxonomic analysis was only able to produce results with the same species-level identification as culture for two of the six samples. These results indicate that metagenomic analyses have the accuracy needed for a clinical diagnostic tool, but full integration in diagnostic protocols is contingent on technological improvements to decrease turnaround time and lower costs.

  17. A sandwiched-culture technique for evaluation of heterologous protein production in a filamentous fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgeirsdottir, SA; Scholtmeijer, K; Wessels, JGH

    Aspergillus niger is known for its efficient excretion machinery. However, problems have often arisen in obtaining high amounts of heterologous proteins in the culture medium. Here we present a quick method using sandwiched colonies to evaluate transgenic strains for secretion of heterologous

  18. Development and evaluation of a porcine in vitro colon organ culture technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Matheus O; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa comprises a complex assemblage of specialized tissues that interact in numerous ways. In vitro cell culture models are generally focused on recreating a specific characteristic of this organ and do not account for the many interactions between the different tissues. In vitro

  19. Immunoperoxidase technique using an anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum in the diagnosis of culture-confirmed American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintella, Leonardo P; Cuzzi, Tullia; Madeira, Maria de F; Okamoto, Thais; Schubach, Armando de O

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports the production of the rabbit anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum, the standardization of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique and the evaluation of its employment in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions diagnosed by Leishmania sp. culture isolation. Thirty fragments of active CL lesions were examined as well as 10 fragments of cutaneous mycosis lesions as control group. IHC proved more sensitive in detecting amastigotes than conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained slides: the former was positive in 24 (80%) biopsies whereas the latter, in 16 (53%) (p = 0.028). The reaction stained different fungus species causing cutaneous mycosis. Besides, positive reaction was noticed in mononuclear and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this finding was present in the control group biopsies. It is concluded that IHC showed good sensitivity in detecting amastigotes.

  20. Watermarking Techniques Using Least Significant Bit Algorithm for Digital Image Security Standard Solution- Based Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Muzakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing. 

  1. Characterization of the storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT, using Monte Carlo techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo B, X.; Mendez V, R.; Embid S, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sanz G, J., E-mail: xandra.campo@ciemat.es [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, C. Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT in Spain is a brand new irradiation facility, with {sup 241}Am-Be (185 GBq) and {sup 252}Cf (5 GBq) calibrated neutron sources which are stored in a water pool with a concrete cover. From this storage place an automated system is able to take the selected source and place it in the irradiation position, 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical center of the Irradiation Room with 9 m (length) x 7.5 m (width) x 8 m (height). For calibration or irradiation purposes, detectors or materials can be placed on a bench but it is possible to use the pool (1.0 m x 1.5 m and more than 1.0 m depth) for long time irradiations in thermal neutron fields. For this reason it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron spectrum. In this document, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool in terms of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectrum has been carried out using simulations with MCNPX-2.7.e code. The MCNPX-2.7.e model has been validated using experimental measurements outside the pool (Bert hold LB6411). Inside the pool, the fluence rate decreases and the spectra is thermalized with the distance to the {sup 252}Cf source. This source predominates and the effect of the {sup 241}Am-Be source in these magnitudes is not shown until positions closer than 20 cm from it. (author)

  2. Characterization of the storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT, using Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo B, X.; Mendez V, R.; Embid S, M.; Vega C, H. R.; Sanz G, J.

    2014-08-01

    Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT in Spain is a brand new irradiation facility, with 241 Am-Be (185 GBq) and 252 Cf (5 GBq) calibrated neutron sources which are stored in a water pool with a concrete cover. From this storage place an automated system is able to take the selected source and place it in the irradiation position, 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical center of the Irradiation Room with 9 m (length) x 7.5 m (width) x 8 m (height). For calibration or irradiation purposes, detectors or materials can be placed on a bench but it is possible to use the pool (1.0 m x 1.5 m and more than 1.0 m depth) for long time irradiations in thermal neutron fields. For this reason it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron spectrum. In this document, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool in terms of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectrum has been carried out using simulations with MCNPX-2.7.e code. The MCNPX-2.7.e model has been validated using experimental measurements outside the pool (Bert hold LB6411). Inside the pool, the fluence rate decreases and the spectra is thermalized with the distance to the 252 Cf source. This source predominates and the effect of the 241 Am-Be source in these magnitudes is not shown until positions closer than 20 cm from it. (author)

  3. Comparison of four different techniques to evaluate the elastic properties of phantom in elastography: is there a gold standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique

    2014-10-07

    Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young's modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young's modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.

  4. Standardization of the Fricke gel dosimetry method and tridimensional dose evaluation using the magnetic resonance imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavinato, Christianne Cobello

    2009-01-01

    This study standardized the method for obtaining the Fricke gel solution developed at IPEN. The results for different gel qualities used in the preparation of solutions and the influence of the gelatin concentration in the response of dosimetric solutions were compared. Type tests such as: dose response dependence, minimum and maximum detection limits, response reproducibility, among others, were carried out using different radiation types and the Optical Absorption (OA) spectrophotometry and Magnetic Resonance (MR) techniques. The useful dose ranges for Co 60 gamma radiation and 6 MeV photons are 0,4 to 30,0 Gy and 0,5 to 100,0 Gy , using OA and MR techniques, respectively. A study of ferric ions diffusion in solution was performed to determine the optimum time interval between irradiation and samples evaluation; until 2,5 hours after irradiation to obtain sharp MR images. A spherical simulator consisting of Fricke gel solution prepared with 5% by weight 270 Bloom gelatine (national quality) was developed to be used to three-dimensional dose assessment using the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique. The Fricke gel solution prepared with 270 Bloom gelatine, that, in addition to low cost, can be easily acquired on the national market, presents satisfactory results on the ease of handling, sensitivity, response reproducibility and consistency. The results confirm their applicability in the three-dimensional dosimetry using MRI technique. (author)

  5. The 'Pull' Technique for Removal of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters: A Call for Re-Evaluation of Practice Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieff, Marvin; Mamo, Elizabeth; Scroggins, Gina; Kurchin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: The most commonly used peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters have silicon tubing with attached Dacron cuffs. The current standard of care for PD catheter removal is by complete surgical dissection, withdrawing both the tubing and the cuffs. The intention is to avoid infection of any residual part of the catheter. We retrospectively analyzed our results with the alternative 'pull' technique, by which the silicon tube is pulled out, leaving the Dacron cuffs within the abdominal wall. This technique never gained popularity due to concern that the retained cuffs would get infected. ♦ METHODS: We reviewed our experience from an 18-month period, between January 2014 and June 2015. There were 46 catheter removals in 40 patients. All the catheters were of the double-cuffed coiled Tenckhoff type (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland). ♦ RESULTS: Of the 46 catheter removals by the 'pull' technique, there was only 1 case of retained cuff infection. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: The 'pull' technique is a safe method for Tenckhoff catheter removal with low risk of infection. We strongly recommend it as the procedure of choice. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  6. Advancing pluripotent stem cell culture: it is a matter of setting the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartipy, Peter

    2013-04-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), defined by their ability to proliferate indefinitely and the capacity to differentiate into all tissue cell types of the adult, represent a platform for the realization of breakthrough technologies for industrial and regenerative medicine applications. We have witnessed tremendous developments over the last decade related to methods for establishment, maintenance, differentiation, and applications of hPSCs and their derivatives. Despite all progress made in the hPSC field, there are still fundamental issues yet to be resolved. For example, our understanding of the pluripotent state remains limited, which in turn may have substantial consequences on how we interpret and communicate scientific data concerning hPSCs. This brief commentary aims to highlight recent important findings that demonstrate additional levels of complexity to the current assessment of pluripotent stem cell cultures. In addition, these data may help to provide some explanations for the challenges in reproducing hPSC differentiation protocols across laboratories.

  7. [The standard implantation of a total hip prosthesis via two incisions (the Yale Technique)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Implantation of a total hip endoprosthesis with minimal trauma to the soft tissue. The need for visual aids (e.g., navigation or X-rays) during the procedure is frequently avoided. All kinds of coxarthrosis for every age group, for every variation of bone construction, and even in obese patients. Extremely dysplastic hip joints involving the development of a secondary socket and the necessity of reconstruction of the acetabular socket (e.g., in the Harris method). Using a fixed lateral position, a small entry incision is made between the tensor fasciae latae and the sartorius muscles and the prosthesis socket is put into place. Via a second dorsal incision, after stripping the exterior rotators, the prosthesis stem and ball are implanted and the two parts of the prosthesis are attached. Full weight bearing allowed immediately. A luxation prophylaxis, in the form of a self-developed hip bodice (the so-called Yale bandage), is used until the end of the 4th postoperative week. Discharge from hospital is possible after just a few days. Upon discharge, the patient is sent to a rehabilitation facility, either as a resident or as an outpatient, for approximately 3 weeks. Return to the workplace, with only light physical activity, is possible once the wound has healed completely; this could be as soon as 14 days after the operation. Checkups are made after 4 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and then every year; these checkups include a full examination, X-rays and laboratory tests. Full exposure to sport or heavy manual labor is usually approved after the 6-month checkup. Between October 2004 and April 2006, a total of 221 patients underwent surgery using this new technique (of these 15 patients underwent two-stage bilateral hip joint replacements). Patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 30 months. The Harris Hip Score improved from an average of 45.25 preoperatively to 96.4 postoperatively.

  8. The liquid overlay technique is the key to formation of co-culture spheroids consisting of primary osteoblasts, fibroblasts and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Wolfgang; Sossong, Daniela; Bächle, Annick; Pütz, Norbert; Wennemuth, Gunther; Pohlemann, Tim; Oberringer, Martin

    2011-09-01

    The 3-dimensional (3-D) culture of various cell types reflects the in vivo situation more precisely than 2-dimensional (2-D) cell culture techniques. Spheroids as 3-D cell constructs have been used in tumor research for a long time. They have also been used to study angiogenic mechanisms, which are essential for the success of many tissue-engineering approaches. Several methods of forming spheroids are known, but there is a lack of systematic studies evaluating the performance of these techniques. We evaluated the performance of the hanging drop technique, carboxymethyl cellulose technique and liquid overlay technique to form both mono- and co-culture spheroids consisting of primary osteoblasts, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The performance of the three techniques was evaluated in terms of rate of yield and reproducibility. The size of the generated spheroids was determined systematically. The liquid overlay technique was the most suitable for generating spheroids reproducibly. The rate of yield for this technique was between 60% and 100% for monoculture spheroids and 100% for co-culture spheroids. The size of the spheroids could be adjusted easily and precisely by varying the number of seeded cells organized in one spheroid. The formation of co-culture spheroids consisting of three different cell types was possible. Our results show that the most suitable technique for forming spheroids can vary from the chosen cell type, especially if primary cells are used. Co-culture spheroids consisting of three different cell types will be used to study angiogenic phenomena in further studies.

  9. The specific diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in livestock: larval culture technique, its limitations and alternative DNA-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Florian; Kahn, Lewis

    2014-10-15

    The specific diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in ruminants is routinely based on larval culture technique and on the morphological identification of developed third-stage larvae. However, research on the ecology and developmental requirements of different species suggests that environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and humidity) for optimal development to occur vary between the different species. Thus, employing a common culture protocol for all species will favour the development of certain species over others and can cause a biased result in particular when species proportions in a mixed infection are to be determined. Furthermore, the morphological identification of L3 larvae is complicated by a lack of distinctive, obvious features that would allow the identification of all key species. In the present paper we review in detail the potential limitations of larval culture technique and morphological identification and provide account to some modern molecular alternatives to the specific diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infection in ruminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Human nasal turbinates as a viable source of respiratory epithelial cells using co-culture system versus dispase-dissociation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruddin, Nur Adelina Ahmad; Saim, Aminuddin B; Chua, Kien Hui; Idrus, Ruszymah

    2007-12-01

    To compare a co-culture system with a conventional dispase-dissociation method for obtaining functional human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates for tissue engineering application. Human respiratory epithelial cells were serially passaged using a co-culture system and a conventional dispase-dissociation technique. The growth kinetics and gene expression levels of the cultured respiratory epithelial cells were compared. Four genes were investigated, namely cytokeratin-18, a marker for ciliated and secretory epithelial cells; cytokeratin-14, a marker for basal epithelial cells; MKI67, a proliferation marker; and MUC5B, a marker for mucin secretion. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the high molecular-weight cytokeratin 34 beta E12, cytokeratin 18, and MUC5A to investigate the protein expression from cultured respiratory epithelial cells. Respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both methods maintained polygonal morphology throughout the passages. At passage 1, co-cultured respiratory epithelial showed a 2.6-times higher growth rate compared to conventional dispase dissociation technique, and 7.8 times higher at passage 2. Better basal gene expression was observed by co-cultured respiratory epithelial cells compared to dispase dissociated cells. Immunocytochemical analyses were positive for the respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both techniques. Co-culture system produced superior quality of cultured human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates as compared to dispase dissociation technique.

  11. Use of radiation for inducing mutants in potatoes through tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Meristem-tips obtained from sprouts of potato tubers, cv. 'Diamant' (Solanum tuberosum) were cultured on MS-medium and multiplied into plantlets through micropropagation. After 2-3 weeks, the micropropagated plantlets had 5-6 nodes each. The plantlets were irradiated with 20 to 40 Gy gamma rays at 27.7 rad/sec. Irradiated plantlets were cut into single nodes and cultured on MS-medium supplemented with 2 g NaCl. Salt resistant plantlets were transferred to MS-liquid medium supplemented with 2g NaCl/l 5.2, and microtubers were collected after 6 weeks. Minitubers were produced under the same level of salinity. (author). 2 tabs

  12. Detection of microorganisms in culture medium through the neutron radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacha, Reinaldo

    1999-05-01

    The study aims to obtain a more effective and faster method for the detection of bacteria in several culture media, such as potable water and blood. After the process growth in the culture medium, separation and suspension in buffer solution based in boron, the bacteria are deposited in track detectors that are submitted to thermal neutron beams (neutron flux: 2,2 x 10 5 n.cm -2 .s -1 ), resulting from the channel J-9 of the Argonauta research reactor, from the Nuclear Engineering Institute, IEN/CNEN. The latent tracks arisen from the alpha particles proceeding from the reaction B (η, α) Li and, after having been revealed, are analyzed by an optical microscope that allows to detect the existence of the bacteria. Afterwards, they were analyzed in a nanoscope which helps the identification of the tracks of the alpha particles. (author)

  13. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles...... in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  14. Efficiency of anther culture technique in the production of wheat double haploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Špika Ankica Đ.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate efficiency of anther culture in the production of spontaneous double haploids from randomly selected heterozygous genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Anthers of 20 F1 wheat combinations were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 medium. All of the examined genotypes have shown the ability to produce pollen calluses as well as to regenerate green plants. On average for the whole experiment material, 47.2 calluses were produced per 100 cultured anthers. The green plant regeneration ranged from 0.8 to 13.4 green plants per spike, with an overall mean of 5.8. From the total of 582 regenerated green plants, 47.9% (279 were spontaneous double haploids. The final average yield from the study was 2.8 double haploids per spike.

  15. Analytical techniques for characterization of raw materials in cell culture media

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Chandana; Drew, Barry; Head, Kevin; Pusuluri, Rani; Caple, Matthew V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Raw materials are a critical part of any cell culture medium; therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand and characterize them for high-quality product. The raw material characterization (RMC) program at SAFC focuses on individual screening of raw materials both analytically and biologically. The goal of the program is to develop the best-in-class knowledge base of the raw materials used in SAFC’s media formulations and their impact on performance of products.

  16. Prospective comparison of a PCR assay and a microbiological culture technique for identification of pathogens from blood and non-blood samples in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettig, Runa; Nowak, Andreas; Balau, Veronika; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Usichenko, Taras

    2015-01-01

    Molecular amplification techniques are suggested to be a useful adjunct in early detection of pathogens in septic patients. The aim was to study the feasibility of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to the standard microbiological culture (MC) technique in identification of pathogenic microorganisms from blood and non-blood samples in septic patients. Samples for pathogen identification were taken during febrile septic episodes (SE) in 54 patients with sepsis and analyzed using both MC and PCR. Semi-automated multiplex PCR, provided by Philips Medical Systems, was able to detect nine different pathogens. The accuracy of pathogen identification using PCR vs. MC as well as the time-saving effect of PCR on the potential decision-making process for antimicrobial therapy was evaluated. In a total of 258 samples taken during 87 SE, both methods yielded more pathogens from the non-blood than blood samples (87 % vs. 45 %; p = 0.002). PCR identified more pathogens than MC in the blood samples (98 vs. 21; p technique. In the non-blood samples, PCR was comparable to that of MC.

  17. Production of monozygotic twin calves using the blastomere separation technique and Well of the Well culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, M; Matoba, S; Narita, M; Saito, N; Nagai, T; Imai, K

    2008-03-15

    The present study was conducted to establish a simple and efficient method of producing monozygotic twin calves using the blastomere separation technique. To produce monozygotic twin embryos from zona-free two- and eight-cell embryos, blastomeres were separated mechanically by pipetting to form two demi-embryos; each single blastomere from the two-cell embryo and tetra-blastomeres from the eight-cell embryo were cultured in vitro using the Well of the Well culture system (WOW). This culture system supported the successful arrangement of blastomeres, resulting in their subsequent aggregation to form a demi-embryo developing to the blastocyst stage without a zona pellucida. There was no significant difference in the development to the blastocyst stage between blastomeres separated from eight-cell (72.0%) and two-cell (62.0%) embryos. The production rates of the monozygotic pair blastocysts and transferable paired blastocysts for demi-embryos obtained from eight-cell embryos (64.0 and 45.0%, respectively) were higher than those for demi-embryos obtained from two-cell embryos (49.0 and 31.0%, PWOW culture system, yielded viable monozygotic demi-embryos, resulting in high rates of pregnancy and twinning rates after embryo transfer.

  18. Next-generation sequencing and culture-based techniques offer complementary insights into fungi and prokaryotes in beach sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Daniela; Staley, Christopher; Ferreira, Filipa; Rodrigues, Raquel; Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Wang, Ping; Sadowsky, Michael; Brandão, João

    2017-06-15

    A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach, in conjunction with culture-based methods, was used to examine fungal and prokaryotic communities for the presence of potential pathogens in beach sands throughout Portugal. Culture-based fungal enumeration revealed low and variable concentrations of the species targeted (yeasts and dermatophytes), which were underrepresented in the community characterized by NGS targeting the ITS1 region. Conversely, NGS indicated that the potentially pathogenic species Purpureocillium liliacinum comprised nearly the entire fungal community. Culturable fecal indicator bacterial concentrations were low throughout the study and unrelated to communities characterized by NGS. Notably, the prokaryotic communities characterized revealed a considerable abundance of archaea. Results highlight differences in communities between methods in beach sand monitoring but indicate the techniques offer complementary insights. Thus, there is a need to leverage culture-based methods with NGS methods, using a toolbox approach, to determine appropriate targets and metrics for beach sand monitoring to adequately protect public health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A Rapid Culture Technique Produces Functional Dendritic-Like Cells from Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies involving dendritic cells (DC as vaccines rely upon the adoptive transfer of DC loaded with exogenous tumour-peptides. This study utilized human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells as progenitors from which functional dendritic-like antigen presenting cells (DLC were generated, that constitutively express tumour antigens for recognition by CD8+ T cells. DLC were generated from AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3 using rapid culture techniques and appropriate cytokines. DLC were evaluated for their cell-surface phenotype, antigen uptake and ability to stimulate allogeneic responder cell proliferation, and production of IFN-γ; compared with DC derived from normal human PBMC donors. KG-1 and MUTZ-3 DLC increased expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR, and MUTZ-3 DLC downregulated CD14 and expressed CD1a. Importantly, both KG-1 and MUTZ-3-derived DLC promoted proliferation of allogeneic responder cells more efficiently than unmodified cells; neither cells incorporated FITC-labeled dextran, but both stimulated IFN-γ production from responding allogeneic CD8+ T cells. Control DC produced from PBMC using the FastDC culture also expressed high levels of critical cell surface ligands and demonstrated good APC function. This paper indicates that functional DLC can be cultured from the AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3, and FastDC culture generates functional KG-1 DLC.

  20. Radiation induced variation in potato for tolerance to salinity using tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Meristem-tips of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. 'Diamant', obtained from tuber sprouts, were cultured on MS medium, and multiplied into plantlets through micropropagation. To induce variation for salt tolerance, the obtained plantlets were irradiated with 0, 20, and 40 Gy gamma rays at 27.7 rad/sec. Irradiated plantlets were cut into single nodes and cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 2000 and 4000 ppm NaCI. Salt tolerant plantlets were transferred for tuberization on MS liquid medium supplemented with the same concentration of NaCI. Micro-tubers, collected after 6 weeks of culture, had fresh weight between 0.03 to 0.3 g. Mini-tubers were obtained by planting micro-tubers in 25 cm pots under insect proof greenhouse. Mini-tuber number per plant ranged from 3 to 6, and the mini-tuber weight ranged from 0.5-3.0 g, depending upon the treatment. Further studies are in progress to produce conventional tubers under salinity stress from the promising variants, specially those tolerant to 4000 ppm, and to assure the stability of the obtained variants. (author)

  1. Microfluidic Genipin Deposition Technique for Extended Culture of Micropatterned Vascular Muscular Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Eric S; Steucke, Kerianne E; Reeves, Jack A; Win, Zaw; Alford, Patrick W

    2015-06-26

    The chronic nature of vascular disease progression requires the development of experimental techniques that simulate physiologic and pathologic vascular behaviors on disease-relevant time scales. Previously, microcontact printing has been used to fabricate two-dimensional functional arterial mimics through patterning of extracellular matrix protein as guidance cues for tissue organization. Vascular muscular thin films utilized these mimics to assess functional contractility. However, the microcontact printing fabrication technique used typically incorporates hydrophobic PDMS substrates. As the tissue turns over the underlying extracellular matrix, new proteins must undergo a conformational change or denaturing in order to expose hydrophobic amino acid residues to the hydrophobic PDMS surfaces for attachment, resulting in altered matrix protein bioactivity, delamination, and death of the tissues. Here, we present a microfluidic deposition technique for patterning of the crosslinker compound genipin. Genipin serves as an intermediary between patterned tissues and PDMS substrates, allowing cells to deposit newly-synthesized extracellular matrix protein onto a more hydrophilic surface and remain attached to the PDMS substrates. We also show that extracellular matrix proteins can be patterned directly onto deposited genipin, allowing dictation of engineered tissue structure. Tissues fabricated with this technique show high fidelity in both structural alignment and contractile function of vascular smooth muscle tissue in a vascular muscular thin film model. This technique can be extended using other cell types and provides the framework for future study of chronic tissue- and organ-level functionality.

  2. Russian Language Development Assessment as a Standardized Technique for Assessing Communicative Function in Children Aged 3–9 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda N.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the Russian Language Development Assessment, a standardized individual diagnostic tool for children aged from 3 to 9 that helps to assess the following components of a child’s communicative function: passive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, knowledge of semantic constructs with logical, temporal and spatial relations, passive perception and active use of syntactic and morphological features of words in a sentence, active and passive phonological awareness, active and passive knowledge of syntactic structures and categories. The article provides descriptions of content and diagnostic procedures for all 7 subtests included in the assessment (Passive Vocabulary, Active Vocabulary, Linguistic Operators, Sentence structure, Word Structure, Phonology, Sentence Repetition. Basing on the data collected in the study that involved 86 first- graders of a Moscow school, the article analyzes the internal consistency and construct validity of each subtest of the technique. It concludes that the Russian Language Development Assessment technique can be of much use both in terms of diagnostic purposes and in supporting children with ASD taking into account the lack of standardized tools for language and speech development assessment in Russian and the importance of this measure in general.

  3. A comparative study of standard vs. high definition colonoscopy for adenoma and hyperplastic polyp detection with optimized withdrawal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J E; Stavrindis, M; Thomas-Gibson, S; Guenther, T; Tekkis, P P; Saunders, B P

    2008-09-15

    Colonoscopy has a known miss rate for polyps and adenomas. High definition (HD) colonoscopes may allow detection of subtle mucosal change, potentially aiding detection of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. To compare detection rates between HD and standard definition (SD) colonoscopy. Prospective, cohort study with optimized withdrawal technique (withdrawal time >6 min, antispasmodic, position changes, re-examining flexures and folds). One hundred and thirty patients attending for routine colonoscopy were examined with either SD (n = 72) or HD (n = 58) colonoscopes. Groups were well matched. Sixty per cent of patients had at least one adenoma detected with SD vs. 71% with HD, P = 0.20, relative risk (benefit) 1.32 (95% CI 0.85-2.04). Eighty-eight adenomas (mean +/- standard deviation 1.2 +/- 1.4) were detected using SD vs. 93 (1.6 +/- 1.5) with HD, P = 0.12; however more nonflat, diminutive (9 mm) hyperplastic polyps was 7% (0.09 +/- 0.36). High definition did not lead to a significant increase in adenoma or hyperplastic polyp detection, but may help where comprehensive lesion detection is paramount. High detection rates appear possible with either SD or HD, when using an optimized withdrawal technique.

  4. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  5. Depression symptoms across cultures: an IRT analysis of standard depression symptoms using data from eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, E E; Bolton, P; Gross, A; Chan, K S; Michalopoulos, L; Bass, J

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence estimates of depression vary between countries, possibly due to differential functioning of items between settings. This study compared the performance of the widely used Hopkins symptom checklist 15-item depression scale (HSCL-15) across multiple settings using item response theory analyses. Data came from adult populations in the low and middle income countries (LMIC) of Colombia, Indonesia, Kurdistan Iraq, Rwanda, Iraq, Thailand (Burmese refugees), and Uganda (N = 4732). Item parameters based on a graded response model were compared across LMIC settings. Differential item functioning (DIF) by setting was evaluated using multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models. Most items performed well across settings except items related to suicidal ideation and "loss of sexual interest or pleasure," which had low discrimination parameters (suicide: a = 0.31 in Thailand to a = 2.49 in Indonesia; sexual interest: a = 0.74 in Rwanda to a = 1.26 in one region of Kurdistan). Most items showed some degree of DIF, but DIF only impacted aggregate scale-level scores in Indonesia. Thirteen of the 15 HSCL depression items performed well across diverse settings, with most items showing a strong relationship to the underlying trait of depression. The results support the cross-cultural applicability of most of these depression symptoms across LMIC settings. DIF impacted aggregate depression scores in one setting illustrating a possible source of measurement invariance in prevalence estimates.

  6. Simulation of limiting dilution technique in determination of immunocompetent cells frequency in irradiated cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini Filho, R.J.; Barlette, V.E.; Goes, E.G.; Covas, D.T.; Orellana, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limiting dilution techniques (LDA) dose-response data have been used to detect immunocompetent T-Cells in microcultures. In this work, LDA frequencies estimates was obtained using χ2 minimization for irradiated cells in a range of 500 to 1,500 cGy. (author)

  7. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Results Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Conclusion Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale

  8. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale-up family planning services and sensitization

  9. Seafood Wars: Reviving a Tired Sustainability Education Program with Pop Culture Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    Texas State Aquarium revived its sustainable seafood education program by embedding expert speakers into the pop culture chef competition. Chefs are nominated by diners and vetted by Aquarium staff. Seafood selections are made in consultation with fishery experts and sustainability partners including Gulf United for Lasting Fisheries. Through these efforts, the Seafood Wars audience has expanded from the over-40 set to college and graduate students, families, and adults of all ages. Surveyed participants at these sell-out events are 100% as, or more likely to purchase and consume featured sustainable selections.

  10. Development of an Ex Vivo Organ Culture Technique to Evaluate Probiotic Utilization in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnini, Cristiano; Martorelli, Michela; Lanini, Claudio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    The consistent technical and conceptual progress in the study of the microbiota has led novel impulse to the research for therapeutical application of probiotic bacteria in human pathologies, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Considering the heterogenous results of probiotics in clinical studies, the model of translational medicine may lead to a more specific and efficacious utilization of probiotic bacteria in IBD. In this regard, the selection and utilization of appropriate experimental models may drive the transition from pure in vitro systems to practical clinical application. We developed a simple and reproducible ex vivo organ culture method with potential utilization for the evaluation of probiotic bacteria efficacy in IBD patients.

  11. Comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques in the identification of Tannerella forsythia in periodontal health and disease, an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankur, Praveen Kumar; Nayak, Aarati; Bhat, Kishore; Bankur, Rashmi; Naik, Reshma; Rajpoot, Nami

    2014-03-01

    Various bacterial species from subgingival biofilm have demonstrated aetiological relevance in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Tannerella forsythia (Tf) in subgingival plaque of periodontally healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients by using both culture and PCR technique and compare the two techniques. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken using sterile curettes from predetermined sites in 50 periodontally healthy subjects and from 50 periodontitis subjects. Samples were analyzed for the presence of T. forsythia using both techniques. Statistical analysis of the results was done using Chi-square test, sensitivity, and specificity tests. Both techniques could detect T. forsythia in subgingival plaque samples from healthy and periodontitis subjects. Periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis using the culture technique showed the presence of T. forsythia in 14 and 34%, respectively. PCR technique showed the presence of T. forsythia in 20% healthy and 40% chronic periodontitis patients. T. forsythia detection in the periodontitis group was statistically significantly higher when compared to the healthy group by both culture and PCR technique (P = 0.019 and P = 0.029). PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and low specificity when compared to the culture technique. The results indicated that T. forsythia was more prevalent in periodontitis patients when compared with healthy subjects. The PCR was found to be more sensitive than culture technique for detection of T. forsythia from the subgingival plaque samples.

  12. Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  13. Production of virus-free orchid Cymbidium aloifolium (L. Sw. by various tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeti Pradhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are affected by many viruses resulting in poor growth, yield and quality, and an overall decline in population. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV is one of the common orchid viruses found in Cymbidium species but it infects different orchid genera. In this study Cymbidium aloifolium was propagated in vitro using MS medium at different strength (1.0, ½, and ¼ with or without 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid. To provide disease-free planting material, source plant for in vitro propagation needs to be screened for pathogenic viruses. In the present study, in vivo-grown source (mother plants and tissue culture-derived plants of C. aloifolium were tested for CymMV virus using Double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. All the tissue cultured plants were found to be 100% virus-free whereas the in vivo grown source plants were highly affected by CymMV virus (83.33%. The virus-free in vitro plantlets were multiplied in large scale and then acclimatized on earthen pot containing a mixture of cocopeat, litter and clay in the ratio of 3:2:1. Eighty five percent of acclimatized plantlets survived making this method an efficient mass production system for high quality virus-free C. aloifolium for commercial floriculture and germplasm preservation.

  14. A Novel Technique for Accelerated Culture of Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells that Allows for Sustained Multipotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroti, Courtney M; Ahn, Hyunhee; Salazar, Hector F; Joseph, Giji; Sankar, Sitara B; Willett, Nick J; Wood, Levi B; Taylor, W Robert; Lyle, Alicia N

    2017-10-17

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regularly utilized for translational therapeutic strategies including cell therapy, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine and are frequently used in preclinical mouse models for both mechanistic studies and screening of new cell based therapies. Current methods to culture murine MSCs (mMSCs) select for rapidly dividing colonies and require long-term expansion. These methods thus require months of culture to generate sufficient cell numbers for feasibility studies in a lab setting and the cell populations often have reduced proliferation and differentiation potential, or have become immortalized cells. Here we describe a simple and reproducible method to generate mMSCs by utilizing hypoxia and basic fibroblast growth factor supplementation. Cells produced using these conditions were generated 2.8 times faster than under traditional methods and the mMSCs showed decreased senescence and maintained their multipotency and differentiation potential until passage 11 and beyond. Our method for mMSC isolation and expansion will significantly improve the utility of this critical cell source in pre-clinical studies for the investigation of MSC mechanisms, therapies, and cell manufacturing strategies.

  15. Development of a refined tenocyte differentiation culture technique for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yiwei; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yaonan; Rout, Raj; Carr, Andrew J; Zhu, Liwei; Xia, Zhidao; Sabokbar, Afsie

    2013-01-01

    We have established that human tenocytes can differentiate in the absence of exogenous fetal bovine serum (FBS) but in the presence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3). The extent of tenocyte differentiation was assessed by examining cell survival, collagen synthesis, cell morphology and expression of tenocyte differentiation markers such as scleraxis (Scx), tenomodulin (Tnmd), collagen type I (Col-I) and decorin (Dcn). Our results indicate that 50 ng/ml IGF-1 and 10 ng/ml TGF-β3 (in the absence of FBS) were capable of maintaining in vitro human tenocyte survival in 14-day cultures. The extent of collagen synthesis and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of Scx, Tnmd, Col-I and Dcn were significantly upregulated in response to IGF-1 and TGF-β3. These findings have shown for the first time that human tenocytes can be maintained in long-term culture, in serum-free conditions, making this approach a suitable one for the purpose of tendon tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Isolation and detection of Listeria monocytogenes in poultry meat by standard culture methods and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureljušić, J.; Rokvić, N.; Jezdimirović, N.; Kureljušić, B.; Pisinov, B.; Karabasil, N.

    2017-09-01

    Listeria is the genus of a bacteria found in soil and water and some animals, including poultry and cattle. It can be present in raw milk and food made from raw milk. It can also live in food processing plants and contaminate a variety of processed meats. Microscopically, Listeria species appear as small, Gram-positive rods, which are sometimes arranged in short chains. In direct smears, they can be coccoid, so they can be mistaken for streptococci. Longer cells can resemble corynebacteria. Flagella are produced at room temperature but not at 37°C. Haemolytic activity on blood agar has been used as a marker to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes among other Listeria species, but it is not an absolutely definitive criterion. Further biochemical characterization is necessary to distinguish between the different Listeria species. The objective of this study was to detect, isolate and identify Listeria monocytogenes from poultry meat. Within a period of six months from January to June 2017, a total of 15 samples were collected. Three samples were positive for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. Biochemical and microbiological tests as well as PCR technique using specific primers were used to confirm L. Monocytogenes in the samples.

  17. Genetic improvement of cocoa for resistance to swollen shoot disease through mutation breeding and in vitro culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Ampomah, Y.; Novak, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Various tissues (vegetative buds, pollen and selfed beans) of three cocoa types were irradiated with gamma rays with the view to inducing mutants resistant to cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV). To save time and space in cocoa mutation breeding, certain aspects of the tissue culture techniques in cocoa were also investigated. Efforts were made to delimit some of the factors crucial to producing plants via cocoa tissues in vitro. Use of concentrations of 2-4 mg/L of BAP coupled with weekly subculturing and light durations between 16-20 hours at 2000 lx greatly enhanced differentiation, plantlet growth and plant production. Indications are that the possibility of using in vitro techniques for mutation breeding in cocoa could be exploited. 5 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  18. The use of the Meek technique in conjunction with cultured epithelial autograft in the management of major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Seema; Li, Zhe; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2013-06-01

    The management of major paediatric burns remains challenging, in part due to limited donor sites. Skin graft expansion facilitates rapid closure of the burn wound, reducing the risk of sepsis. We reviewed our unit's experience with a combined modified Meek technique and cultured epithelial autograft (CEA). A retrospective chart review over a seven year period from April 2004 to April 2011 was conducted of patients whose burns were treated with Meek and CEA. The Meek technique was combined with meshed split skin grafts and CEA to either donor, graft site or both in 7 cases. One case had Meek skin grafts alone with cultured cells applied to both donor and graft sites. There were two scald burns and five flame burns, with total body surface area ranging from 30% to 70%. Mean length of stay was 51 days (range 41-74 days). The average number of surgical procedures undergone to obtain good coverage was 3.3. There were small (1-3%) areas of breakdown in six cases which received regrafting. Two of these patients had confirmed wound infections. All patients had varying degrees of hypertrophic scarring (HTS) but remained well at follow up. The Meek technique facilitates high expansion ratios, allowing for a greater area of skin coverage. Epithelialisation in the burn wound appeared to be enhanced by the application of CEA. The Meek technique in combination with CEA would appear a useful additional option in achieving wound closure in the severely burned paediatric patient. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scaling-Up Techniques for the Nanofabrication of Cell Culture Substrates via Two-Photon Polymerization for Industrial-Scale Expansion of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ricci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem-cell-based therapies require a high number (106–109 of cells, therefore in vitro expansion is needed because of the initially low amount of stem cells obtainable from human tissues. Standard protocols for stem cell expansion are currently based on chemically-defined culture media and animal-derived feeder-cell layers, which expose cells to additives and to xenogeneic compounds, resulting in potential issues when used in clinics. The two-photon laser polymerization technique enables three-dimensional micro-structures to be fabricated, which we named synthetic nichoids. Here we review our activity on the technological improvements in manufacturing biomimetic synthetic nichoids and, in particular on the optimization of the laser-material interaction to increase the patterned area and the percentage of cell culture surface covered by such synthetic nichoids, from a low initial value of 10% up to 88% with an optimized micromachining time. These results establish two-photon laser polymerization as a promising tool to fabricate substrates for stem cell expansion, without any chemical supplement and in feeder-free conditions for potential therapeutic uses.

  20. Parathyroid Allotransplant for Persistent Hypocalcaemia: A New Technique Involving Short-Term Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Kilic, Ulkan; Gok, Ozlem; Altug, Burcugul; Ercan, Cilem; Kesgin Toka, Cemile; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2016-04-01

    To develop a new parathyroid allotransplant method for the treatment of permanent hypoparathyroidism. Parathyroid cells 50 × 10(6) derived from a parathyroid hyperplasia patient were transferred to a 61-year-old patient who had thyroidectomy 17 years earlier, allowing to papillary thyroid cancer; he was admitted to our outpatient clinic with symptomatic chronic hypocalcemia. Cell isolation, cryopreservation, and culturing were conducted according to a new protocol. During a follow-up of 5 months, the patient had no complications that could indicate rejection, and clinical symptoms completely resolved without requiring any drug supplementation. Here, we report a new method, enabling fast and cost-effective parathyroid allotransplant with maintained tissue viability sufficient to treat persistent hypocalcemia.

  1. Improved growth media and culture techniques for genetic analysis and assessment of biomass utilization by Caldicellulosiruptor bescii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Joel; Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Copeland, Jennifer; Grayeski, Philip; Westpheling, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Methods for efficient growth and manipulation of relatively uncharacterized bacteria facilitate their study and are essential for genetic manipulation. We report new growth media and culture techniques for Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, the most thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium known. A low osmolarity defined growth medium (LOD) was developed that avoids problems associated with precipitates that form in previously reported media allowing the monitoring of culture density by optical density at 680 nm (OD(680)) and more efficient DNA transformation by electroporation. This is a defined minimal medium and does not support growth when a carbon source is omitted, making it suitable for selection of nutritional markers as well as the study of biomass utilization by C. bescii. A low osmolarity complex growth medium (LOC) was developed that dramatically improves growth and culture viability during storage, making it a better medium for routine growth and passaging of C. bescii. Both media contain significantly lower solute concentration than previously published media, allowing for flexibility in developing more specialized media types while avoiding the issues of growth inhibition and cell lysis due to osmotic stress. Plating on LOD medium solidified by agar results in ~1,000-fold greater plating efficiency than previously reported and allows the isolation of discrete colonies. These new media represent a significant advance for both genetic manipulation and the study of biomass utilization in C. bescii, and may be applied broadly across the Caldicellulosiruptor genus.

  2. Monitoring ground deformation of cultural heritage sites using UAVs and geodetic techniques: the case study of Choirokoitia, JPI PROTHEGO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Danezis, Chris; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Lymperopoulou, Efstathia

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the integrated methods using UAVs and geodetic techniques to monitor ground deformation within the Choirokoitia UNESCO World Heritage Site in Cyprus. The Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia, occupied from the 7th to the 4th millennium B.C., is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the eastern Mediterranean. The study is conducted under the PROTHEGO (PROTection of European Cultural HEritage from GeO-hazards) project, which is a collaborative research project funded in the framework of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPICH) - Heritage Plus in 2015-2018 (www.prothego.eu) and through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. PROTHEGO aims to make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geo-hazards in areas of cultural heritage, and uses novel space technology based on radar interferometry to retrieve information on ground stability and motion in the 400+ UNESCO's World Heritage List monuments and sites of Europe. The field measurements collected at the Choirokoitia site will be later compared with SAR data to verify micro-movements in the area to monitor potential geo-hazards. The site is located on a steep hill, which makes it vulnerable to rock falls and landslides.

  3. The Adoption of European Standards in the Sphere of Economic Law and (Anticipated Cultural Change in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Serbian society has undergone significant changes over the last ten years. The transformation of the legal system has taken place mostly through the process of European integrations and harmonization of legislation with the EU legal order. The primary focus of the paper is on the study of (anticiapted cultural change which is brought about by changes in economic law. By studying changing attitudes to business operation, the paper seeks to answer the questions of whether we can learn something about cultural change by analyzing economic law and whether we are witnessing the transformation of Serbian citizens into "European citizens", consumers, businessmen, farmers, bureaucrats or politicians. Some of these changes are already in evidence, and it can be said that considerable progress has already been made. Nevertheless, in most areas reforms have yet to be enacted, and therefore this transformation along with its outcome and results can only be anticipated. Following an overview of the Stabilization and Association Process, the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA, and the process of harmonization of legislation and monitored reforms, the paper goes on to analyze whether and to what extent the following have taken place: 1 the opening up of the Serbian economy to foreign competition (primarily European, 2 the implementation of reforms and the introduction of competition rights and government subsidy control, 3 changes in rural Serbia as part of the process of preparation for accession to the EU. It can be concluded that European integrations and the adoption of a series of different standards represent an instrumental framework for significant cultural change in Serbian society. The change will be fundamental and will take long to bring about. For this reason it can only be partially anticipated what its effects will be and whether and to what extent changes will be accopmlished in each of the areas mentioned.

  4. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun Joo; Cheon, Keun Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun Chung; Park, Jee In; Kim, Young Shin

    2017-03-01

    Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6-12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created.

  5. Demonstration of a 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard system based on a multi-chip technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T; Sasaki, H; Yamamori, H; Shoji, A [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)], E-mail: yamada-takahiro@aist.go.jp

    2008-03-01

    We have demonstrated a programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) operation up to 10.84 V using a multi-chip technique. We combined two PJVS chips fabricated using NbN/(TiN{sub x}/NbN){sub 2} junction technology. Each PJVS chip was mounted on a single chip carrier using bonding wire, and the two chip carriers were connected by a simple Cu lead wire, and mounted on a cryocooler. High-precision measurements confirmed flat voltage steps for all 22 cells, with a peak-to-peak variation of 100 nV and wide margins of at least 0.35 mA. We also confirmed the stability of the voltage steps in spite of a temperature and RF frequency variation of {+-} 0.1 K and {+-} 0.1 GHz, respectively.

  6. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  7. Multi-technique characterization of gold electroplating on silver substrates for cultural heritage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Feliu, I.; Ager, F. J.; Roldán, C.; Ferretti, M.; Juanes, D.; Scrivano, S.; Respaldiza, M. A.; Ferrazza, L.; Traver, I.; Grilli, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a detailed study of a series of silver plates gilded via electroplating techniques in which the characteristics of the coating gold layers are investigated as a function of the electroplating variables (voltage, time, anode surface and temperature). Some reference samples were coated by radio frequency sputtering in order to compare gold layer homogeneity and effective density. Surface analysis was performed by means of atomic and nuclear techniques (SEM-EDX, EDXRF, PIXE and RBS) to obtain information about thickness, homogeneity, effective density, profile concentration of the gold layers and Au-Ag diffusion profiles. The gold layer thickness obtained by PIXE and EDXRF is consistent with the thickness obtained by means of RBS depth profiling. Electroplated gold mass thickness increases with electroplating time, anode area and voltage. However, electrodeposited samples present rough interfaces and gold layer effective densities lower than the nominal density of Au (19.3 g/cm3), whereas sputtering produces uniform layers with nominal density. These analyses provide valuable information to historians and curators and can help the restoration process of gold-plated silver objects.

  8. PREFACE: International Conference on the Use of X-ray (and related) Techniques in Arts and Cultural Heritage (XTACH 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nasser; El-Khatib, Sami

    2012-07-01

    The International Conference on the Use of X-Ray (and related) Techniques in Arts and Cultural Heritage (XTACH11) was held on 7 and 8 December 2011 at the American University of Sharjah (AUS) in the United Arab Emirates. The conference was organized in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National X-ray Fluorescence Laboratory (NXFL). The conference was inaugurated by Dr Peter Heath, Chancellor of the American University of Shrjah and attended by Mr Kwaku Aning, deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy and Ambassador Hamad Al-Kaabi, Ambassador of the UAE to the International Atomic Energy university officials, faculty and students. The conference covered a variety of topics including the use of x-ray and micro beam x-ray analysis, synchrotron based techniques, ion beam and neutron based techniques, optical imaging and mass spectroscopy and chromatography techniques as well as best conservation practices. XTACH11 provided an excellent forum for scientists in the region to interact, exchange ideas and to initiate collaborations with each other as well as with the international community. It showcased some of the latest technical developments in the field of non-destructive testing for the diagnosis and conservation of cultural heritage materials. In addition to the presentations by the invited speakers (Rene van Grieken and K Janssens, University of Antwerp, Belgium; Thomas Calligaro, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France; Stefano Ridolfi, Ars Mensurae, Rome, Italy, and Andrzej Markowicz, IAEA, Austria), a total of 25 other research papers were also presented and discussed. Scientists from many countries participated in the conference: Austria, Belgium, Egypt, Italy, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The conference concluded with a Discussion Panel. Thomas Calligaro (Centre de Recherché et de

  9. Late effects of craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma in paediatric patients: A comparison of treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survival rates for standard risk medulloblastoma are favourable, but craniospinal irradiation (CSI) necessary to eradicate microscopic spread causes life limiting late effects. Aims: The aim of this paper is to compare CSI techniques in terms of toxicity and quality of life for survivors. Methods and materials: A literature search was conducted using synonyms of ‘medulloblastoma’, ’craniospinal’, ‘radiotherapy’ and ‘side effects’ to highlight 29 papers that would facilitate this discussion. Results and discussion: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), tomotherapy and protons all provide CSI which can reduce dose to normal tissue, however photon methods cannot eliminate exit dose as well as protons can. Research for each technique requires longer term follow up in order to prove that survival rates remain high whilst reducing late effects. Findings/conclusion: Proton therapy is the superior method of CSI in term of late effects, but more research is needed to evidence this. Until proton therapy is available in the UK IMRT should be utilised. - Highlights: • Craniospinal irradiation is vital in the treatment of medulloblastoma. • Survivors often suffer long term side effects which reduce quality of life. • Tomotherapy, IMRT and proton therapy reduce late effects by sparing normal tissue. • Proton therapy offers superior dose distribution but further research is necessary. • IMRT should be employed for photon radiotherapy.

  10. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta F. Simões

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM. Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  11. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta F; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  12. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    KAUST Repository

    Simoes, Marta

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  13. Salt Tolerant Mutants in Potato sp. Cara Induced by Gamma Irradiation and Tissue Culture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.; Mohamed, A.A.; Ahmed, F.A.; Afifi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Sprouts of 2-3 cm length were cut off from potatoes cv. Cara tubers and sterilized. Apical meristemic tips were sown to produce virus free plantlets. After 6-8 weeks, the new plantlets became at 5-7cm heights. Micro-propagation was begun to obtain sufficient number of plantlets. Plantlets obtained from micro-propagation stage were divided into 3 groups to be exposed to 0.0,20 or 40Gy gamma rays. The dose rate was 27.7rad/sec. Irradiated and unirradiated plantlets were trimmed to be with 5-6 nodes and without leaves. They were transplanted onto 1/2MS [1] liquid medium supplemented with sodium chloride at different concentrations, i.e.,0.0, 2000 or 4000 ppm. Healthy plantlets were chosen, and all unfit ones were excluded. The plantlets were sub-cultured six times on the same fresh medium with the same concentrations of NaCI, with insisting to exclude all unfit plantlets. All maintained healthy plantlets, in the sixth vegetative generation (M 1 V 6 ), grown under salinity stress, whatever the concentration of NaCI, were considered as mutant lines

  14. Tools, techniques, organisation and culture of the CADD group at Sygnature Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gallay, Steve A.; Sambrook-Smith, Colin P.

    2017-03-01

    Computer-aided drug design encompasses a wide variety of tools and techniques, and can be implemented with a range of organisational structures and focus in different organisations. Here we outline the computational chemistry skills within Sygnature Discovery, along with the software and hardware at our disposal, and briefly discuss the methods that are not employed and why. The goal of the group is to provide support for design and analysis in order to improve the quality of compounds synthesised and reduce the timelines of drug discovery projects, and we reveal how this is achieved at Sygnature. Impact on medicinal chemistry is vital to demonstrating the value of computational chemistry, and we discuss the approaches taken to influence the list of compounds for synthesis, and how we recognise success. Finally we touch on some of the areas being developed within the team in order to provide further value to the projects and clients.

  15. Cultural Heritage Documentation and Integrated Geomatics Techniques in AN Educational Context: Case Bois-Du (belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, C.; Goossens, R.; Carlier, L.; Debie, J.; Haoudy, K.; Nuttens, T.; De Wulf, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Walloon Region in Belgium played a leading role in the world economy and in the industrial sciences and engineering since the 19th century. Several relicts, such as important industrial buildings or sites, are spread over a large area and are still dominating the current landscape. Some of these remnants are preserved as monuments, representing the industrial, cultural and ecological transition of the region during the last two centuries. Since 2012, UNESCO recognized the importance of four of the best preserved 19th and 20th century coal mining sites and classified them as World Heritage ("Major Mining Sites of Wallonia", Le Grand-Hornu, Bois-du- Luc, Le Bois du Cazier and Blegny Mine). The four recognised mining sites together form a strip of about 170 km long, containing important examples of the so-called 'neo classical architecture' from the early periods of the industrial era in continental Europe. Motivated by this recognition and by the huge touristic and educational potential of the sites, a partnership between the Walloon government and Ghent University was organized. In this first stage, the collaboration focuses on the site of Bois-du-Luc in the municipality of La Louvière, containing a large series of dwellings, several equipments built between 1853 and 1923 by the Société des Charbonnages du Bois-du-Luc, workshops and heaps. Consisting of numerous buildings dating back to the period between 1838 and 1923, this site is one of Europe's oldest collieries. The collaboration between the Walloon government and Ghent University - Department of Geography fits in the hands-on training which students in land surveying and geomatics receive during their Bachelor studies. For the students it is very interesting that their practical exercises are not limited to the university campus, but that they are involved in a real measurement campaign. The project consists of a series of intensive land surveying campaigns, resulting in highly detailed and accurate

  16. [A comparative study of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique for the diagnosis of fungemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Axel Rodolfo; Hernández, Betsy; Rodríguez, Marina; Romero, Hilda

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique. Out of 450 blood specimens received in one year, 100 where chosen for this comparative study: 60 from patients with AIDS, 15 from leukemic patients, ten from febrile neutropenic patients, five from patients with respiratory infections, five from diabetics and five from septicemic patients. The specimens were processed, simultaneously, according to the above mentioned methodologies with daily inspections searching for fungal growth in order to obtain the final identification of the causative agent. The number (40) of isolates recovered was the same using both methods, which included; 18 Candida albicans (45%), ten Candida spp. (25%), ten Histoplasma capsulatum (25%), and two Cryptococcus neoformans (5%). When the fungal growth time was compared by both methods, growth was more rapid when using the modified lysis/centrifugation technique than when using the conventional method. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (pcentrifugation technique showed to be more efficacious than the conventional one, and therefore the implementation of this methodology is highly recommended for the isolation of fungi from blood.

  17. [Western blot technique standardization of the diagnosis of human fasciolosis using Fasciola hepatica excreted-secreted antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Hermes; Davelois, Kelly; Ortiz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Hans; Díaz, Enrique; Jara, César

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB, Western blot) using excretory/secretory antigens from adult forms of Fasciola hepatica (Fh E/S Ag) for the diagnosis of human fasciolosis. Antigens were obtained after 18 hours of incubation in culture medium Minimum Essential Eagle, prepared at a protein concentration of 0.15 ug/uL and run against a pool of sera of patients with proven fasciolosis (confirmed by the finding of parasite eggs in the stool microscopy). Antigens of 10, 12, 17, 23, 27, 30, 36, 43, 66 and 136 kDa were detected and used to develop the Western blot technique. The sensitivity was evaluated using sera from 67 fasciolosis patients, and the specificity using sera from 57 patients with other parasitic diseases, and 10 from healthy individuals. Out of the 67 sera, 64 reacted with the 23 kDa band and 61 with the one of 17 kDa. These two bands were not detected in sera from patients with other parasitic diseases or in those from healthy volunteers and thus could be considered specific and diagnostic. The sensitivity of the test, using the bands of 17 and 23 kDa, was 95.5% for positive reactions to at least one of these two bands, being its specificity 100% with a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 95.71%.

  18. A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Florin

    2012-06-01

    To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E+IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E+IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E+IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E+IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning

  19. Development, improvement and calibration of neutronic reaction rate measurements: elaboration of a base of standard techniques; Developpement, amelioration et calibration des mesures de taux de reaction neutroniques: elaboration d`une base de techniques standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudelot, J.P

    1998-06-19

    In order to improve and to validate the neutronic calculation schemes, perfecting integral measurements of neutronic parameters is necessary. This thesis focuses on the conception, the improvement and the development of neutronic reaction rates measurements, and aims at building a base of standard techniques. Two subjects are discussed. The first one deals with direct measurements by fission chambers. A short presentation of the different usual techniques is given. Then, those last ones are applied through the example of doubling time measurements on the EOLE facility during the MISTRAL 1 experimental programme. Two calibration devices of fission chambers are developed: a thermal column located in the central part of the MINERVE facility, and a calibration cell using a pulsed high flux neutron generator and based on the discrimination of the energy of the neutrons with a time-of-flight method. This second device will soon allow to measure the mass of fission chambers with a precision of about 1 %. Finally, the necessity of those calibrations will be shown through spectral indices measurements in core MISTRAL 1 (UO{sub 2}) and MISTRAL 2 (MOX) of the EOLE facility. In each case, the associated calculation schemes, performed using the Monte Carlo MCNP code with the ENDF-BV library, will be validated. Concerning the second one, the goal is to develop a method for measuring the modified conversion ratio of {sup 238}U (defined as the ratio of {sup 238}U capture rate to total fission rate) by gamma-ray spectrometry of fuel rods. Within the framework of the MISTRAL 1 and MISTRAL 2 programmes, the measurement device, the experimental results and the spectrometer calibration are described. Furthermore, the MCNP calculations of neutron self-shielding and gamma self-absorption are validated. It is finally shown that measurement uncertainties are better than 1 %. The extension of this technique to future modified conversion ratio measurements for {sup 242}Pu (on MOX rods) and

  20. Efforts towards domestication of wild tomato (solanum pimpinellifolium L.) using mutation and in vitro culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartey, E. K.

    2010-06-01

    antioxidant properties (90% DPPH inhibition at 75 and 100 ml volumes) compared to the control (84.4% DPPH inhibition at 100 ml). Fruits of variant line C-2*1(4) (yellow fruits) recorded higher total solids of 17.9% and the lowest pH value of 4.17 compared to 12.8% and 4.36 for fruits from un-irradiated plants. The highest amounts of total soluble solids (7%) were contained in fruits harvested from variant lines G-1 *4(4) (light red fruits) and P-2*3(29) (deep red fruits) as against 5.6% for fruits from control plants. Similarly, fruits of line X- 1*4(9) (deep red fruits) contained highest amounts of potassium (7.31 g/kg in pericarp; 4.80 g/kg in pulp + seeds), sodium (106.3 mg/kg in pericarp; 120.6 mg/kg in pulp + seeds) and manganese (10.03 mg/kg in pericarp; 39.21 mg/kg in pulp + seeds). Fruits of lines G-1*4(4), SA-2*1(27) (deep red fruits) and C-2*1(4) contained highest amounts of magnesium (0.17 g/kg in pericarp; 0.34 g/kg in pulp + seeds), calcium (0.22 g/kg in pericarp and pulp + seeds) and vanadium (0.28 mg/kg in pericarp; 0.35 mg/kg in pulp + seeds) respectively. Soft vines propagated in vivo recorded optimum performance on a substrate of 3:1:1 of topsoil, cow dung and coconut fibre respectively (91.7% shoot regeneration). Hormone-free MS basal medium supported full plantlet regeneration (100%) from nodal cuttings under in vitro culture conditions. Hypocotyls proved to be better explants compared to cotyledons for callus induction using same MS medium supplemented with phytohormones at concentrations of 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.5 mg/L 2, 4-D under 16/8-hr light/dark after three (3) weeks in culture. Significant differences (p≤0.05) were recorded for most of the traits studied among the selected variants. These include lycopene content, total solids and total soluble solids. There were also improvements in the macro and micro elemental composition of fruits of the selected variants. Additionally lower pH value, which is a more acceptable characteristic for processing of

  1. Development of a technique based on multi-spectral imaging for monitoring the conservation of cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Manfredi, Marcello; Zerbinati, Orfeo; Robotti, Elisa; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gosetti, Fabio; Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Shor, Pnina

    2011-11-14

    A new approach for monitoring the state of conservation of cultural heritage objects surfaces is being developed. The technique utilizes multi-spectral imaging, multivariate analysis and statistical process control theory for the automatic detection of a possible deterioration process, its localization and identification, and the wavelengths most sensitive to detecting this before the human eye can detect the damage or potential degradation changes occur. A series of virtual degradation analyses were performed on images of parchment in order to test the proposed algorithm in controlled conditions. The spectral image of a Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) parchment, IAA (Israel Antiquities Authority) inventory plate # 279, 4Q501 Apocryphal Lamentations B, taken during the 2008 Pilot of the DSS Digitization Project, was chosen for the simulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques to study long non-coding RNA expression in cultured cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Ricardo J; Maglieri, Giulia; Gutschner, Tony

    2018-01-01

    approach with or without enzymatic signal amplification, a branched-DNA (bDNA) probe and an LNA-modified probe with enzymatic signal amplification. All four methods adequately stained MALAT1 in the nucleus in all of three cell lines investigated, HeLa, NHDF and T47D, and three of the methods detected......Deciphering the functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is facilitated by visualization of their subcellular localization using in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. We evaluated four different ISH methods for detection of MALAT1 and CYTOR in cultured cells: a multiple probe detection...... the less expressed CYTOR. The sensitivity of the four ISH methods was evaluated by image analysis. In all three cell lines, the two methods involving enzymatic amplification gave the most intense MALAT1 signal, but the signal-to-background ratios were not different. CYTOR was best detected using the b...

  3. Integration of Geomatics Techniques for Digitizing Highly Relevant Geological and Cultural Heritage Sites: the Case of San Leo (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, V. A.; Borgatti, L.; Dellapasqua, M.; Mandanici, E.; Spreafico, M. C.; Tini, M. A.; Bitelli, G.

    2017-08-01

    The research activities described in this contribution were carried out at San Leo (Italy). The town is located on the top of a quadrangular rock slab affected by a complex system of fractures and has a wealth of cultural heritage, as evidenced by the UNESCO's nomination. The management of this fragile set requires a comprehensive system of geometrical information to analyse and preserve all the geological and cultural features. In this perspective, the latest Geomatics techniques were used to perform some detailed surveys and to manage the great amount of acquired geometrical knowledge of both natural (the cliff) and historical heritage. All the data were also georeferenced in a unique reference system. In particular, high accurate terrestrial laser scanner surveys were performed for the whole cliff, in order to obtain a dense point cloud useful for a large number of geological studies, among others the analyses of the last rockslide by comparing pre- and post-event data. Moreover, the geometrical representation of the historical centre was performed using different approaches, in order to generate an accurate DTM and DSM of the site. For these purposes, a large scale numerical map was used, integrating the data with GNSS and laser surveys of the area. Finally, many surveys were performed with different approaches on some of the most relevant monuments of the town. In fact, these surveys were performed by terrestrial laser scanner, light structured scanner and photogrammetry, the last mainly applied with the Structure from Motion approach.

  4. Improved enrichment culture technique for methane-oxidizing bacteria from marine ecosystems: the effect of adhesion material and gas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekeman, Bram; Dumolin, Charles; De Vos, Paul; Heylen, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation. This positive effect was attributed to bacterial adhesion on the particles via extracellular compounds, with a minimum amount of particles required for effect. As a result, the particles were immobilized, thus creating a stratified environment in which a limited diffusive gas gradients could build up and various microniches were formed. Such diffusive gas gradient might necessitate high headspace concentrations of CH 4 and CO 2 for sufficient concentrations to reach the methane-oxidizing bacteria in the enrichment culture technique. Therefore, high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide, in addition to the addition of adhesion material, were tested and indeed further stimulated methane oxidation. Use of adhesion material in combination with high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide might thus facilitate the cultivation and subsequent enrichment of environmentally important members of this functional guild. The exact mechanism of the observed positive effects on methane oxidation and the differential effect on methanotrophic diversity still needs to be explored.

  5. Expert training with standardized operative technique helps establish a successful penile prosthetics program for urologic resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley B; Klausner, Adam P; Johnson, Corey M; Moore, Blake W; Wilson, Steven K; Grob, B Mayer

    2011-10-01

    The challenge of resident education in urologic surgery programs is to overcome disparity imparted by diverse patient populations, limited training times, and inequalities in the availability of expert surgical educators. Specifically, in the area of prosthetic urology, only a small proportion of programs have full-time faculty available to train residents in this discipline. To examine whether a new model using yearly training sessions from a recognized expert can establish a successful penile prosthetics program and result in better outcomes, higher case volumes, and willingness to perform more complex surgeries. A recognized expert conducted one to two operative training sessions yearly to teach standardized technique for penile prosthetics to residents. Each session consisted of three to four operative cases performed under the direct supervision of the expert. Retrospective data were collected from all penile prosthetic operations before (February, 2000 to June, 2004: N = 44) and after (July, 2004 to October, 2007: N = 79) implementation of these sessions. Outcomes reviewed included patient age, race, medical comorbidities, operative time, estimated blood loss, type of prosthesis, operative approach, drain usage, length of stay, and complications including revision/explantation rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests, Fisher's tests, and survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier technique (P value ≤ 0.05 to define statistical significance). Patient characteristics were not significantly different pre- vs. post-training. Operative time and estimated blood loss significantly decreased. Inflatable implants increased from 19/44 (43.2%, pre-training) to 69/79 (87.3%, post-training) (P prosthetics surgery. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. The Canadian minimum dataset for chronic low back pain research: a cross-cultural adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Task Force Research Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Parent, Alexandre J; Noushi, Nioushah; Odenigbo, Chúk; Pagé, Gabrielle; Beaudet, Nicolas; Choinière, Manon; Stone, Laura S; Ware, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    To better standardize clinical and epidemiological studies about the prevalence, risk factors, prognosis, impact and treatment of chronic low back pain, a minimum data set was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a culturally adapted questionnaire that could be used for chronic low back pain research among French-speaking populations in Canada. The adaptation of the French Canadian version of the minimum data set was achieved according to guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-reported measures (double forward-backward translation, expert committee, pretest among 35 patients with pain in the low back region). Minor cultural adaptations were also incorporated into the English version by the expert committee (e.g., items about race/ethnicity, education level). This cross-cultural adaptation provides an equivalent French-Canadian version of the minimal data set questionnaire and a culturally adapted English-Canadian version. Modifications made to the original NIH minimum data set were minimized to facilitate comparison between the Canadian and American versions. The present study is a first step toward the use of a culturally adapted instrument for phenotyping French- and English-speaking low back pain patients in Canada. Clinicians and researchers will recognize the importance of this standardized tool and are encouraged to incorporate it into future research studies on chronic low back pain.

  7. The Canadian minimum dataset for chronic low back pain research: a cross-cultural adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Task Force Research Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Parent, Alexandre J.; Noushi, Nioushah; Odenigbo, Chúk; Pagé, Gabrielle; Beaudet, Nicolas; Choinière, Manon; Stone, Laura S.; Ware, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To better standardize clinical and epidemiological studies about the prevalence, risk factors, prognosis, impact and treatment of chronic low back pain, a minimum data set was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a culturally adapted questionnaire that could be used for chronic low back pain research among French-speaking populations in Canada. Methods: The adaptation of the French Canadian version of the minimum data set was achieved according to guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-reported measures (double forward-backward translation, expert committee, pretest among 35 patients with pain in the low back region). Minor cultural adaptations were also incorporated into the English version by the expert committee (e.g., items about race/ethnicity, education level). Results: This cross-cultural adaptation provides an equivalent French-Canadian version of the minimal data set questionnaire and a culturally adapted English-Canadian version. Modifications made to the original NIH minimum data set were minimized to facilitate comparison between the Canadian and American versions. Interpretation: The present study is a first step toward the use of a culturally adapted instrument for phenotyping French- and English-speaking low back pain patients in Canada. Clinicians and researchers will recognize the importance of this standardized tool and are encouraged to incorporate it into future research studies on chronic low back pain. PMID:28401140

  8. Should hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy replace the standard laparoscopic technique for living donor nephrectomy? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Kamel, Moaz; Negida, Ahmed; Naser, Omar

    2017-04-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to compare hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic (HARP) and traditional laparoscopic (TLS) techniques for living donor nephrectomy. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, and Web of science for prospective studies, comparing HARP and TLS techniques. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled as risk ratios (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD), using RevMan software (version 5.3 for windows). We performed a sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our evidence and a subgroup analysis to stratify intraoperative complications on Clavien-Dindo score. Seven studies (498 patients) were included in the final analysis. HARP was superior to TLS in terms of shortening the operative duration (SMD = -0.84, 95% CI [-1.18 to -0.50]) and warm ischemia time (SMD = -0.93, 95% CI [-1.13 to -0.72]). There was no significant difference between HARP and TLS in terms of blood loss (SMD = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.50 to 0.76]), hospital stay (SMD = -0.27, 95% CI [-0.70 to 0.15]) or graft survival (RR = 0.97, 95% CI [0.92 to 1.02]). The overall risk ratio of intraoperative complications did not differ significantly between the two groups (RR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.31 to 1.21]). Our meta-analysis shows that HARP was associated with a shorter surgery duration and less warm ischemia time than TLS. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of graft survival or intraoperative complication rates. We recommend HARP over TLS for living donor nephrectomy; however, future studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to compare both techniques in terms of operative safety and quality of life outcomes. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutagenic treatments towards increasing the frequency of day-neutral mutations and standardization of procedures for tissue culture, in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhya, M.D.; Chandra, R.; Abraham, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Various chemical mutagens and gamma radiation have been used on single dormant eyes and true seeds with a view to finding effective mutagenic treatment for the induction of day-length neutral mutants in potato using an effective screening technique for the isolation of day-length neutral mutants. Sodium meta bisulphite (SMS) was found to be an efficient mutagen in inducing mutations for this trait in true seeds although the same concentrations, when used for treating the single tuber eyes proved lethal. Pre-soaking the seeds for 24 hrs prior to treatment with 0.0025M SMS gave highest frequency of the mutants followed by 48 hrs presoaking, indicating a sensitive stage during the cell cycle in true seeds. Other mutagen treatments gave different frequencies of mutations. The highest frequency of day-length neutral mutants was observed when seeds irradiated with 40 Kr of gamma radiation were treated with 0.05M hydrazinium dichloride solution. Screening procedures have also been standardised with the development of synethetic media for the isolation of biochemical mutants at the true seed level. Initial efforts have yielded mutants resistant to LD 100 doses of ethionine. Another aspect of the study was to develop a proper potato callus culture technique. A medium has been developed to produce and maintain callus from potato leaf strips. Efforts on the regeneration of shoot and roots from callus, have so far lead to differentiation of callus to form roots. The ultimate aim of these studies is to develop plantlets from single cell which would form the units of mutation induction and isolation. (author)

  10. Standard Test Method for Oxygen Content Using a 14-MeV Neutron Activation and Direct-Counting Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of oxygen concentration in almost any matrix by using a 14-MeV neutron activation and direct-counting technique. Essentially, the same system may be used to determine oxygen concentrations ranging from over 50 % to about 10 g/g, or less, depending on the sample size and available 14-MeV neutron fluence rates. Note 1 - The range of analysis may be extended by using higher neutron fluence rates, larger samples, and higher counting efficiency detectors. 1.2 This test method may be used on either solid or liquid samples, provided that they can be made to conform in size, shape, and macroscopic density during irradiation and counting to a standard sample of known oxygen content. Several variants of this method have been described in the technical literature. A monograph is available which provides a comprehensive description of the principles of activation analysis using a neutron generator (1). 1.3 The values stated in either SI or inch-pound units are to be regarded...

  11. Technique for evaluation of spatial resolution and microcalcifications in digital and scanned images of a standard breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Priscila do C.; Gomes, Danielle S.; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Nogueira-Tavares, Maria S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an automated methodology to evaluate digital and scanned images of a standard phantom (Phantom Mama) was studied. The Phantom Mama was used as an important tool to check the quality of mammographs. The scanned images were digitized using a ScanMaker 9800XL, with resolution of 900 dpi. The aim of this work is to test an automatic methodology for evaluation of spatial resolution and microcalcifications group of phantom mama images acquired with the same parameters in the same equipment. In order to analyze the images we have used the ImageJ software (in Java) which is public domain. We have used the Fast Fourier transform technique to evaluate the spatial resolution and used the ImageJ function Subtract Background and the Light Background plus Sliding Paraboloid on the evaluation of the five groups of microcalcifications on the breast phantom to assess the viability of using automated methods for both types of images. The methodology was adequate for evaluated the microcalcifications group and the spatial resolution in scanned and digital images, but the Phantom Mama doesn't provide sufficient parameters to evaluate the spatial resolution in this images. (author)

  12. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhirong; Chen Yan; Labinskyy, Nazar; Hsieh Tzechen; Ungvari, Zoltan; Wu, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that low to moderate consumption of red wine is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease; the protection is in part attributed to grape-derived polyphenols, notably trans-resveratrol, present in red wine. It is not clear whether the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol can be reproduced by standardized grape extracts (SGE). In the present studies, we determined, using cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), growth and specific gene responses to resveratrol and SGE provided by the California Table Grape Commission. Suppression of HASMC proliferation by resveratrol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 and heat shock protein HSP27. Using resveratrol affinity chromatography and biochemical fractionation procedures, we showed by immunoblot analysis that treatment of HASMC with resveratrol increased the expression of quinone reductase I and II, and also altered their subcellular distribution. Growth of HASMC was significantly inhibited by 70% ethanolic SGE; however, gene expression patterns in various cellular compartments elicited in response to SGE were substantially different from those observed in resveratrol-treated cells. Further, SGE also differed from resveratrol in not being able to induce relaxation of rat carotid arterial rings. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HASMC growth and gene expression by SGE and resveratrol

  13. Blood culture collection technique and pneumococcal surveillance in Malawi during the four year period 2003–2006: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijlstra Eduard E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood culture surveillance will be used for assessing the public health effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Africa. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed blood culture outcome and performance in adult patients in the central public hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, before and after the introduction of a dedicated nurse led blood culture team. Methods A prospective observational study. Results Following the introduction of a specialised blood culture team in 2005, the proportion of contaminated cultures decreased (19.6% in 2003 to 5.0% in 2006, blood volume cultured increased and pneumococcal recovery increased significantly from 2.8% of all blood cultures to 6.1%. With each extra 1 ml of blood cultured the odds of recovering a pneumococcus increased by 18%. Conclusion Standardisation and assessment of blood culture performance (blood volume and contamination rate should be incorporated into pneumococcal disease surveillance activities where routine blood culture practice is constrained by limited resources.

  14. Comparison of measured and calculated contralateral breast doses in whole breast radiotherapy for VMAT and standard tangent techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, T.L.J; Bromley, R.; Booth, J.; Gray, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Objective This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of calculated dose with the Eclipse analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) for contralateral breast (CB) in left-sided breast radiotherapy for dual-arc VMA T and standard wedged tangent (SWT) techniques. Methods and materials Internal and surface CB doses were measured with EBT2 film in an anthropomorphic phantom mounted with C-cup and D-cup breasts. The measured point dose was approximated by averaging doses over the 4 x 4 mm 2 central region of each 2 x 2 cm2 piece of film. The dose in the target region of the breast was also measured. The measured results were compared to AAA calculations with calculation grids of I, 2.5 and 5 mm. Results In SWT plans, the average ratios of calculation to measurement for internal doses were 0.63 ± 0.081 and 0.5 I ± 0.28 in the medial and lateral aspects, respectively. Corresponding ratios for surface doses were 0.88 ± 0.22 and 0.38 ± 0.38. In VMAT plans, however, the calculation accuracies showed little dependence on the measurement locations, the ratios were 0.78 ± O. I I and 0.81 ± 0.085 for internal and surface doses. In general, finer calculation resolutions did not inevitably improve the dose estimates of internal doses. For surface doses, using smaller grid size I mm could improve the calculation accuracies on the medial but not the lateral aspects of CB. Conclusion In all plans, AAA had a tendency to underestimate both internal and surface CB doses. Overall, it produces more accurate results in VMAT than SWT plans.

  15. Comparison of ankle-brachial index measured by an automated oscillometric apparatus with that by standard Doppler technique in vascular patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korno, M.; Eldrup, N.; Sillesen, H.

    2009-01-01

    was calculated twice using both the methods on both legs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested the automated oscillometric blood pressure device, CASMED 740, for measuring ankle and arm blood pressure and compared it with the current gold standard, the hand-held Doppler technique, by the Bland-Altman analysis....... RESULTS: Using the Doppler-derived ABI as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the oscillometric method for determining an ABI Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11...

  16. [Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops".

  17. Results of Applying Cultural Domain Analysis Techniques and Implications for the Design of Complementary Feeding Interventions in Northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Stephanie; Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Wittenbrink, Brittney; Milani, Peiman; Diallo, Abdoulaye Moussa; Ndoye, Tidiane; Wone, Issa; Parker, Megan

    2017-12-01

    Designing effective nutrition interventions for infants and young children requires knowledge about the population to which the intervention is directed, including insights into the cognitive systems and values that inform caregiver feeding practices. To apply cultural domain analysis techniques in the context of implementation research for the purpose of understanding caregivers' knowledge frameworks in Northern Senegal with respect to infant and young child (IYC) feeding. This study was intended to inform decisions for interventions to improve infant and young child nutrition. Modules from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were employed in interviews with a sample of 126 key informants and caregivers from rural and peri-urban sites in the Saint-Louis region of northern Senegal. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and qualitative thematic analysis were used to analyze the data. Cluster analysis showed that caregivers identified 6 food clusters: heavy foods, light foods, snack foods, foraged foods, packaged foods, and foods that are good for the body. The study also revealed similarities and differences between the 2 study sites in caregivers' knowledge frameworks. The demonstration of differences between biomedical concepts of nutrition and the knowledge frameworks of northern Senegalese women with regard to IYC feeding highlights the value of knowledge about emic perspectives of local communities to help guide decisions about interventions to improve nutrition.

  18. Degradation measurement of bronzes, a recent application of the TLA techniques in the field of cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Laguzzi, G.; Luvidi, L

    2001-01-01

    The thin layer technique is normally applied in wear and corrosion monitoring of mechanical and plant components. A recent applications refers to the field of Cultural Heritage. In particular thought national and international research programmes TLA is used as a sensitivity toll in determining the properties towards corrosion of new bronze alloys to be used for artistic purposes, as in manufacturing of outdoor artworks. One activated and exposed to natural or artificial corrosive environments the bronze surface is treated with pick ling solutions to remove the corrosion products, The corresponding thickness loss is determined by the relevant γ-activity loss. The method sensitivity allows of the thickness loss evaluation in the order micrometers of lower. Besides comparative analyses of the behaviour of different bronze alloys, this method is also applied in determining the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitor or protective films, normally used on outdoor bronze sculptures. The metal activation is carried out by using a cyclotron accelerated proton beam (11.5 MeV) which products on the bronze surface and along a defined depth γemitting radionuclide 65 Zn (t 1/2 = 244 days). In the present paper, bronze corrosion results obtained in different environmental conditions as outdoor exposures and artificial weathering experiments are reported

  19. Verification of the hygienic adequacy of beef carcass cooling processes by microbiological culture and the temperature-function integration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericho, K W; O'Laney, G; Kozub, G C

    1998-10-01

    To enhance food safety and keeping quality, beef carcasses are cooled immediately after leaving the slaughter floor. Within hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems, this cooling process needs to be monitored by the industry and verified by regulatory agencies. This study assessed the usefulness of the temperature-function integration technique (TFIT) for the verification of the hygienic adequacy of two cooling processes for beef carcasses at one abattoir. The cooling process passes carcasses through a spray cooler for at least 17 h and a holding cooler for at least 7 h. The TFIT is faster and cheaper than culture methods. For spray cooler 1, the Escherichia coli generations predicted by TFIT for carcass surfaces (pelvic and shank sites) were compared to estimated E. coli counts from 120 surface excision samples (rump, brisket, and sacrum; 5 by 5 by 0.2 cm) before and after cooling. Counts of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli were decreased after spray cooler 1 (P < or = 0.001). The number of E. coli generations (with lag) at the pelvic site calculated by TFIT averaged 0.85 +/- 0.19 and 0.15 +/- 0.04 after emerging from spray coolers 1 and 2, respectively. The TFIT (with lag) was considered convenient and appropriate for the inspection service to verify HACCP systems for carcass cooling processes.

  20. Diagnosing toxigenic Clostridium difficile: new confidence bounds show culturing increases sensitivity of the toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay and refute gold standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattner, Frauke; Winterfeld, Ingo; Mattner, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    To scrutinize published sensitivity estimates obtained using questionable gold standards by comparing sensitivities of culturing Clostridium difficile in commercially available media followed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) toxin A or B detection (culture test) with applying the EIA to stool samples alone (direct test). In 2008, consecutive stool samples were cultured on C. difficile selective culture media: (1) medium I: Clostridium difficile-selective agar (CDSA; Becton Dickinson); (2) medium II: CLO agar (BioMérieux); (3) medium III: C. difficile agar according to Brazier (Oxoid). In addition, a direct test was performed (Ridascreen, r-Biopharm), which was also used to confirm toxin A or B production in the cultured C. difficile. New confidence bounds for sensitivities were applied, without assuming any perfect reference test or any conditional independence of the tests compared. Of 256 liquid stool samples, 18.4% were diagnosed as positive by at least 1 of the 4 tests; 12.8% were positive with culture medium I, 16.4% with medium II, and 13.6% with medium III, and 10.1% were positive by the direct test. Assuming culture tests to be at least as specific as the direct test yields an upper bound of 61% (upper 95% confidence bound (CB) 81%) for the sensitivity of the direct test. Assuming a prevalence of 15% yields sensitivity gains of the culture tests of at least 18% (lower 95% CB--4%) for medium I, 40% (lower 95% CB 21%) for medium II, and 23% (lower 95% CB 2%) for medium III. Published high sensitivities of direct toxin A/B EIAs, up to 96%, and the correctness of the cytotoxicity test assumed for their estimation are doubtful. With culture medium II, sensitivity gains of at least about 20% are obtainable. Direct toxin A/B EIAs alone are insufficiently sensitive for the clinical diagnosis of C. difficile infections.

  1. Improvement of security techniques and protection of biometric data in biometric systems: Presentation of International Standard ISO 24745

    OpenAIRE

    Milinković, Milorad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the International Standard ISO 24745 as a potential security tool for biometric information protection, more precisely as a tool for privacy protection in biometric systems. This is one of the latest internationally accepted standards that address the security issues of biometric systems.

  2. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhelst Rita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics, followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete. We compared different sampling and culture techniques for the detection of GBS. Methods A total of 300 swabs was taken from 100 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. For each subject, one rectovaginal, one vaginal and one rectal ESwab were collected. Plating onto Columbia CNA agar (CNA, group B streptococcus differential agar (GBSDA (Granada Medium and chromID Strepto B agar (CA, with and without Lim broth enrichment, were compared. The isolates were confirmed as S. agalactiae using the CAMP test on blood agar and by molecular identification with tDNA-PCR or by 16S rRNA gene sequence determination. Results The overall GBS colonization rate was 22%. GBS positivity for rectovaginal sampling (100% was significantly higher than detection on the basis of vaginal sampling (50%, but not significantly higher than for rectal sampling (82%. Direct plating of the rectovaginal swab on CNA, GBSDA and CA resulted in detection of 59, 91 and 95% of the carriers, respectively, whereas subculturing of Lim broth yielded 77, 95 and 100% positivity, respectively. Lim broth enrichment enabled the detection of only one additional GBS positive subject. There was no significant difference between GBSDA and CA, whereas both were more sensitive than CNA. Direct culture onto GBSDA or CA (91 and 95% detected more carriers than Lim broth enrichment and subculture onto CNA (77%. One false negative isolate was observed on GBSDA, and three false positives on CA. Conclusions In

  3. Quantitative molecular and culture analyses of bacterial elimination in oval-shaped root canals by a single-file instrumentation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, F R F; Rôças, I N; Almeida, B M; Neves, M A S; Zoffoli, J; Siqueira, J F

    2012-09-01

    Bacterial reduction in oval-shaped root canals by a single-instrument technique was compared ex vivo with a conventional nickel-titanium rotary technique. Data obtained from two quantification methods, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture, were also compared. Oval-shaped canals of extracted teeth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis were instrumented using either a single Reciproc instrument or the BioRaCe instrument series. Bacteriological samples were taken before (S1) and after instrumentation (S2). Bacterial quantification was performed using qPCR and culture. Intragroup analysis showed that both protocols promoted a highly significant bacterial reduction (P 0.05). As for the quantification methods, qPCR revealed significantly higher counts of E. faecalis in S1 than culture (P 0.05). The single-file technique was comparable with the conventional technique in oval-shaped canals provided the width of apical preparation, volume of irrigants and duration of irrigation are kept similar. No significant difference was observed for qPCR and culture in post-instrumentation samples, indicating that both methods can be reliably used for studies of antibacterial effectiveness. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  4. Screening for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)) viruses and their elimination using thermotheraphy-meristem tip culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkorful, E.

    2012-11-01

    Despite its high potential for food security, production of sweet potato is constrained by viruses which reduce yield by 90%. It is therefore essential to screen for, identify and eliminate these viruses in elite clones before dissemination to farmers. In this study, visual symptomatology and PCR-based techniques were used to identify sweet potato viruses. Visual symptomatology revealed virus associated symptoms ranging from vein clearing, interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic spots, upward curling on leaf edges, leaf narrowing and distortion, purpling, blistering, reduction of the leaf blades and general leaf yellowing in all 22 accessions grown on the field. Disease Incidence (DI) significantly (p≤0.05) varied between accessions with US003 having the lowest (20%) while ten accessions had 90% DI at the end of the study. Index of symptom severity of all plants (ISSap) ranged from 1.08±0.09 to 3.67 ±0.11 with VOTCR003 having the lowest suggesting that it is a moderately susceptible accession while VOTCR002 had the highest suggesting that it is susceptible to viral diseases. Contrarily, index of symptom severity of diseased plants (ISSdp) ranged from 2.00±0.25 to 3.75±0.32. The accession VOTCR002 had the highest ISSdp. Visual symptomatology showed that VOTCR002 had the highest DI, ISSap and ISSdp suggesting that it is highly susceptible to viral diseases. Ten severely infected accessions were tested for Sweet Potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet Potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet Potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) using PCR and RT-PCR techniques. RT-PCR did not amplify any of the virus genomes due to prolonged storage enzymes, In contrast, PCR detected SPLCV in 30% of the accessions. Plants infected with SPLCV were grown in the chamber at 35 degrees celsius for 4 weeks followed by meristem top culture. The regenerants were indexed after ten weeks for SPLCV. Fifty two percent (52.385 od the regenerants were

  5. The Parthenogenetic Cosmopolitan Chironomid, Paratanytarsus grimmii, as a New Standard Test Species for Ecotoxicology: Culturing Methodology and Sensitivity to Aqueous Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Bryant S; Long, Sara M; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-09-01

    Chironomids from the genus Chironomus are widely used in laboratory ecotoxicology, but are prone to inbreeding depression, which can compromise test results. The standard Chironomus test species (C. riparius, C. dilutus and C. yoshimatsui) are also not cosmopolitan, making it difficult to compare results between geographic regions. In contrast, the chironomid Paratanytarsus grimmii is cosmopolitan, and not susceptible to inbreeding depression because it reproduces asexually by apomictic parthenogenesis. However, there is no standardised culturing methodology for P. grimmii, and a lack of acute toxicity data for common pollutants (metals and pesticides). In this study, we developed a reliable culturing methodology for P. grimmii. We also determined 24-h first instar LC50s for the metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and the insecticide imidacloprid. By developing this culturing methodology and generating the first acute metal and imidacloprid LC50s for P. grimmii, we provide a basis for using P. grimmii in routine ecotoxicological testing.

  6. Duration of Hemodialysis Following Peritoneal Dialysis Cessation in Australia and New Zealand: Proposal for a Standardized Definition of Technique Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Patrick G; Clayton, Philip A; Johnson, David W; McDonald, Stephen P; Borlace, Monique; Badve, Sunil V; Sud, Kamal; Boudville, Neil

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Although technique failure is a key outcome in peritoneal dialysis (PD), there is currently no agreement on a uniform definition. We explored different definitions of PD technique failure using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) Registry. ♦ METHODS: We included 16,612 incident PD patients in Australia and New Zealand from January 1998 to December 2012. Different definitions of technique failure were applied according to the minimum number of days (30, 60, 90, 180, or 365) the patient received hemodialysis after cessation of PD. ♦ RESULTS: Median technique survival varied from 2.0 years with the 30-day definition to 2.4 years with the 365-day definition. For all definitions, the most common causes of technique failure were death, followed by infectious complications. The likelihood of a patient returning to PD within 12 months of technique failure was highest in the 30-day definition (24%), and was very small when using the 180- and 365-day definitions (3% and 0.8%, respectively). Patients whose technique failed due to mechanical reasons were the most likely to return to PD (46% within 12 months using the 30-day definition). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Both 30- and 180-day definitions have clinical relevance but offer different perspectives with very different prognostic implications for further PD. Therefore, we propose that PD technique failure be defined by a composite endpoint of death or transfer to hemodialysis using both 30-day and 180-day definitions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  7. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from broiler chicken-related samples using BAX PCR and conventional International Organization for Standardization culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa K; McMeechan, Alisdair; Baalham, Tamsin; Ward, Laura; Humphrey, Tom J; Jørgensen, Frieda

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the conventional International Organization for Standardization (ISO) culture method was compared with the DuPont Qualicon BAX system, a high-throughput, rapid molecular assay that can be used to detect several bacterial species, including Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in diverse sample types. Standard enrichment culture is a time-consuming process, taking up to 6 days to obtain a confirmed result. Rapid molecular assays have been developed that provide results within 24 h. Naturally contaminated samples from the poultry production chain were examined for the presence of Campylobacter spp. Samples from broiler chicken ceca (n = 100), fresh chicken carcass rinses (n = 60), and bootsocks (gauze sock walked through a broiler chicken house; n = 50) were enriched according to the ISO 10272 method in Bolton broth specifically designed to detect Campylobacter spp. in complex sample types. Samples were enriched without blood for use with the BAX system using the Campylobacter BAX kits for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli. Samples also were directly plated onto modified charcoal cefperazone deoxycholate agar, and results were compared with those from the enriched samples for the ability to detect Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 49% of samples with conventional enrichment cultures, from 48% with direct culture, from 68% with the BAX system and enrichment cultures, and from 62% with the BAX system used directly with samples. Overall, the BAX system detected more positive samples than did the conventional culture method and is an effective methodology for the rapid and reliable detection of Campylobacter spp. from diverse sample types.

  8. Toxicity assessment of pharmaceutical compounds on mixed culture from activated sludge using respirometric technique: The role of microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, I A; Molina, R; Martinez, F; Melero, J A; Stathopoulou, P M; Tsiamis, G

    2018-02-26

    Micropollutants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals can significantly affect the performance of secondary biological processes in wastewater treatment plants. The present study is aimed to evaluate the toxicity and inhibition of three pharmaceutical compounds (caffeine, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine) on two cultures of microbial consortia enriched from wastewater aerobic activated sludge. One of them was acclimated to pharmaceuticals and the other was non-acclimated as control bioassay. The toxic and inhibitory effects on these cultures were assessed by respirometric tests through the oxygen uptake rate as an indicator of their capacity to degrade a readily available carbon source. Higher values of toxicity and inhibition of pharmaceutical compounds were observed for the control culture as compared to the acclimated one. Sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine exhibited higher toxicity and inhibition effects than caffeine in both acclimated and control cultures. The microbial diversity of the two cultures was also studied. The composition of microbial community of acclimated and control cultures, was determined by targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. It was observed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, with Gammaproteobacteria dominating both cultures. Control culture was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and mostly by the genera Pseudomonas and Sodalis, which belong to common families present in wastewater. Results suggested that the acclimated culture to the three pharmaceuticals was mostly comprised of the extremely multiresistant genera Escherichia-Shigella (38%) of Gammaproteobacteria, resulting to higher resistance as compared to the control culture (Escherichia-Shigella, 7%). Finally, the microbial structure of the microorganisms present in a real bioreactor, which was initially seeded with the acclimated culture and fed in a continuous mode with the selected pharmaceuticals, was also analyzed. The continuous loading of pharmaceuticals

  9. Long-term culture of rat hippocampal neurons at low density in serum-free medium: combination of the sandwich culture technique with the three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ai; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The primary culture of neuronal cells plays an important role in neuroscience. There has long been a need for methods enabling the long-term culture of primary neurons at low density, in defined serum-free medium. However, the lower the cell density, the more difficult it is to maintain the cells in culture. Therefore, we aimed to develop a method for long-term culture of neurons at low density, in serum-free medium, without the need for a glial feeder layer. Here, we describe the work leading to our determination of a protocol for long-term (>2 months) primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons in serum-free medium at the low density of 3×10(4) cells/mL (8.9×10(3) cells/cm2) without a glial feeder layer. Neurons were cultured on a three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel, PuraMatrix, and sandwiched under a coverslip to reproduce the in vivo environment, including the three-dimensional extracellular matrix, low-oxygen conditions, and exposure to concentrated paracrine factors. We examined the effects of varying PuraMatrix concentrations, the timing and presence or absence of a coverslip, the timing of neuronal isolation from embryos, cell density at plating, medium components, and changing the medium or not on parameters such as developmental pattern, cell viability, neuronal ratio, and neurite length. Using our method of combining the sandwich culture technique with PuraMatrix in Neurobasal medium/B27/L-glutamine for primary neuron culture, we achieved longer neurites (≥3,000 µm), greater cell viability (≥30%) for 2 months, and uniform culture across the wells. We also achieved an average neuronal ratio of 97%, showing a nearly pure culture of neurons without astrocytes. Our method is considerably better than techniques for the primary culture of neurons, and eliminates the need for a glial feeder layer. It also exhibits continued support for axonal elongation and synaptic activity for long periods (>6 weeks).

  10. Use of Tissue Culture Techniques for Producing Virus-Free Plant in Garlic and Their Identification through Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatıra Taşkın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed for comparison of meristem culture technique with shoot tip culture technique for obtaining virus-free plant, comparison of micropropagation success of two different nutrient media, and determination of effectiveness of real-time PCR assay for the detection of viruses. Two different garlic species (Allium sativum and Allium tuncelianum and two different nutrient media were used in this experiment. Results showed that Medium 2 was more successful compared to Medium 1 for both A. tuncelianum and A. sativum (Kastamonu garlic clone. In vitro plants obtained via meristem and shoot tip cultures were tested for determination of onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV through real-time PCR assay. In garlic plants propagated via meristem culture, we could not detect any virus. OYDV and LYSV viruses were detected in plants obtained via shoot tip culture. OYDV virus was observed in amount of 80% and 73% of tested plants for A. tuncelianum and A. sativum, respectively. LYSV virus was found in amount of 67% of tested plants of A. tuncelianum and in amount of 87% of tested plants of A. sativum in this study.

  11. Use of tissue culture techniques for producing virus-free plant in garlic and their identification through real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkın, Hatıra; Baktemur, Gökhan; Kurul, Mehmet; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed for comparison of meristem culture technique with shoot tip culture technique for obtaining virus-free plant, comparison of micropropagation success of two different nutrient media, and determination of effectiveness of real-time PCR assay for the detection of viruses. Two different garlic species (Allium sativum and Allium tuncelianum) and two different nutrient media were used in this experiment. Results showed that Medium 2 was more successful compared to Medium 1 for both A. tuncelianum and A. sativum (Kastamonu garlic clone). In vitro plants obtained via meristem and shoot tip cultures were tested for determination of onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) through real-time PCR assay. In garlic plants propagated via meristem culture, we could not detect any virus. OYDV and LYSV viruses were detected in plants obtained via shoot tip culture. OYDV virus was observed in amount of 80% and 73% of tested plants for A. tuncelianum and A. sativum, respectively. LYSV virus was found in amount of 67% of tested plants of A. tuncelianum and in amount of 87% of tested plants of A. sativum in this study.

  12. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-12-23

    Microbial successions on the surface and in the interior of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Culture-independent detection of microorganisms was obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture-independent techniques correlated, a higher number of genera were detected by pyrosequencing compared to DGGE. Additionally, minor parts of the microbiota, i.e. comprising 4.0% of the OTUs), as well as Pseudoclavibacter, Alkalibacterium and Marinilactibacillus, which represented <2% of the OTUs. At smearing, yeast counts were low with Debaryomyces being the dominant genus accounting for 46.5% of the OTUs. During ripening the yeast counts increased significantly with Debaryomyces being the predominant genus, on average accounting for 96.7%±4.1% of the OTUs. The interior of the cheeses was dominated by Lactococcus spp. comprising on average 93.9%±7.8% of the OTUs throughout the cheese processing. The microbial dynamics described at genus level in this study add to a comprehensive understanding of the complex microbiota existing especially on surface ripened semi-hard cheeses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Cultural Climate of the Arts in Schools: Beyond the Color Wheel and the Bust of Beethoven Using Ethnographic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robin Ruth

    The document discusses a study to describe, analyze, and interpret the cultural climate of an elementary school in Texas which has a special fine arts program. Cultural climate is defined as the atmosphere that surrounds an arts program as defined by comments and actions of school administrators, art teachers, classroom teachers, students,…

  14. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    cultured species. The chicken ileum was dominated by lactobacilli, whereas the cecum harbored a more diverse microbial community. The cecum was dominated by a large group of bacteria with hitherto no close cultured relatives but most closely related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Approximately 49 and 20...

  15. Unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures: operative technique and early clinical experience with the standard locking option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettek, C; Rudolf, J; Schandelmaier, P; Guy, P; Könemann, B; Tscherne, H

    1996-05-01

    Nailing techniques have changed in recent years in ways which are not just limited to omitting the reaming process. These changes concern positioning patients, techniques of reduction and selecting implants. Techniques of approach and exposure have been modified to new, less-invasive procedures to fulfill technical, functional and cosmetic requirements. In addition, techniques have been developed to avoid fragment diastasis, rotational and sagittal malalignment, and leg-length discrepancy. Finally, simple algorithms have been elaborated for the management of specific fracture patterns (bilateral shaft fractures, ipsilateral tibial fractures or associated femoral neck fractures) and to determine the number and location of locking bolts. We developed these algorithms, techniques and procedures in a series of 133 femoral shafts, which were stabilized with the AO unreamed femoral nail (URFN) in a prospective study between 1991 and 1994. Of these, the first 57 cases with a mean follow-up of 17.9 months (range, 5-44) after injury were reviewed. Fractures were classified according to Müller's 1990 system: 12 type A, 29 type B and 16 type C. Closed soft-tissue injuries were classified by our classification of 1982: 17 type C 0/I, 42 type C II. Of 15 open fractures, six were OI, six OII, two OIIIA and one was OIIIB by Gustilo's classification of 1984. The major complications were two broken locking bolts, one nail breaking after 9 weeks, one case of osteitis and one of intra-operative lung embolism.

  16. Comparison of conventional PCR, quantitative PCR, bacteriological culture and the Warthin Starry technique to detect Leptospira spp. in kidney and liver samples from naturally infected sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide importance. The development of diagnostic techniques allows sick animals to be identified, reservoirs to be eliminated and the disease prevented and controlled. The present study aimed to compare different techniques for diagnosing leptospirosis in sheep. Samples of kidney, liver and blood were collected from 465 animals that originated from a slaughterhouse. The sera were analyzed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and kidney and liver samples of seropositive animals were analyzed using four techniques: bacteriological culture, the Warthin Starry (WS) technique, conventional PCR (cPCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). With the MAT, 21 animals were positive (4.5%) to serovars Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) and Shermani (n=1). Titers were 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) and 1600 (n=3). No animal was positive by bacteriological culture; four animals were positive by the WS technique in kidney samples; six animals were positive by cPCR in kidney samples; and 11 animals were positive by qPCR, eight of which in kidney samples and three in liver. The bacterial quantification revealed a median of 4.3 bacteria/μL in liver samples and 36.6 bacteria/μL in kidney samples. qPCR presented the highest sensitivity among the techniques, followed by cPCR, the WS technique and bacteriological culture. These results indicate that sheep can carry leptospires of the Sejroe serogroup, and demonstrate the efficiency of quantitative PCR to detect Leptospira spp. in tissue samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on a Shoot and Root Formation from the Leaf and Flower Culture of a Standard-type Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Lee, G.J.; Chung, S.J.; Kim, J.B.; Kim, D.S.; Kang, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the conditions of a higher frequency for regenerated plants from different explants of a standard-type chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. In vitro culture was initiated on an MS medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, and 5 μM benzyl adenine (BA) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using surface-sterilized leaf and flower tissues from greenhouse-grown plants. Direct shoot regeneration from the leaf and flower explants was obtained 21 to 28 days after the initial culture. Among the seven combinations of the growth regulators used for the culture, the most efficient condition for the shoot and root formation from the leaf tissue was obtained when the MS basic medium was supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, while the culture using floret tissues was most efficient on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA. These results will provide valuable information to help set up an efficient system for a tissue culture of chrysanthemum cv. Jinba to improve one or some of its negative traits in combination with a radiation mutagenesis approach

  18. A co-culture microtunnel technique demonstrating a significant contribution of unmyelinated Schwann cells to the acceleration of axonal conduction in Schwann cell-regulated peripheral nerve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji; Shimba, Kenta; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2017-08-14

    Schwann cells (SCs) contribute to the regulation of axonal conduction in a myelin-dependent and -independent manner. However, due to the lack of investigative techniques that are able to record axonal conduction under conditions that control the proliferation of specific SC types, little is known about the extent to which myelinated SCs (mSCs) and unmyelinated SCs (umSCs) modulate axonal conduction. In this study, a microtunnel-electrode approach was applied to a neuron/SC co-culture technique. Rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and SCs were co-cultured in a microtunnel-electrode device, which enabled recording of the conduction delay in multiple axons passing through microtunnels. Despite the absence of nuclei in the microtunnel when SCs were eliminated, cultured cells were densely packed and expressed S100 beta (an SC marker) at a rate of 96% in neuron/SC co-culture, indicating that SCs migrated into the microtunnel. In addition, supplementation with ascorbic acid after 6 days in vitro (DIV) successfully induced myelination from 22 DIV. Activity recording experiments indicated that the conduction delay decreased with culture length from 17 DIV in the neuron/SC co-culture but not in neuron monoculture. Interestingly, the SC-modulated shortening of conduction delay was attenuated at 17 DIV and 22 DIV by supplementing the culture medium with ascorbic acid and, at the same time, suppressing SC proliferation, suggesting that immature umSCs increased axonal conduction velocity in a cell density-dependent manner before the onset of myelination. These results suggest that this method is an effective tool for investigating the contributions of mSCs or umSCs to the regulation of axonal conduction.

  19. Evaluation of culture-based techniques and 454 pyrosequencing for the analysis of fungal diversity in potting media and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadi, A M; Al-Mazroui, S S; Phillips, A J L

    2015-08-01

    Potting media and organic fertilizers (OFs) are commonly used in agricultural systems. However, there is a lack of studies on the efficiency of culture-based techniques in assessing the level of fungal diversity in these products. A study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of seven culture-based techniques and pyrosequencing for characterizing fungal diversity in potting media and OFs. Fungal diversity was evaluated using serial dilution, direct plating and baiting with carrot slices, potato slices, radish seeds, cucumber seeds and cucumber cotyledons. Identity of all the isolates was confirmed on the basis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA) sequence data. The direct plating technique was found to be superior over other culture-based techniques in the number of fungal species detected. It was also found to be simple and the least time consuming technique. Comparing the efficiency of direct plating with 454 pyrosequencing revealed that pyrosequencing detected 12 and 15 times more fungal species from potting media and OFs respectively. Analysis revealed that there were differences between potting media and OFs in the dominant phyla, classes, orders, families, genera and species detected. Zygomycota (52%) and Chytridiomycota (60%) were the predominant phyla in potting media and OFs respectively. The superiority of pyrosequencing over cultural methods could be related to the ability to detect obligate fungi, slow growing fungi and fungi that exist at low population densities. The evaluated methods in this study, especially direct plating and pyrosequencing, may be used as tools to help detect and reduce movement of unwanted fungi between countries and regions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. A Technique for Standardized Evaluation of Soft and Hard Peri-Implant Tissues in Partially Edentulous Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijndert, Leo; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan

    Background: There is a growing need to evaluate the esthetics of implant-supported crowns and bridges. An important tool for such an evaluation is standardized assessment of the soft and hard peri-implant tissue levels. Methods: A simple acrylic device has been developed for reliable and

  1. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  2. Comparison of conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Listeria spp. in ground beef, turkey, and chicken breast fillets in İzmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of Listeria species in refrigerated fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef was evaluated, comparing the conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH uses hybridization of a nucleic acid sequence target of a microorganism with a specific DNA probe labeled with a fluorochrome and imaging by a fluorescence microscope. First, Listeria was inoculated in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, or ground beef, and the applicability of the FISH method was evaluated. Second, Listeria was detected in fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef by culture and FISH methods. Listeria was isolated from 27 (37.4%) of 216 samples by the standard culture method, whereas FISH detected 25 (24.7%) preenriched samples. Of these isolates, 17 (63%) were L. innocua, 6 (22%) L. welshimeri, and 4 (14.8%) L. seeligeri. Overall, the prevalences of Listeria spp. found with the conventional culture method in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef were 9.7, 6.9, and 20.8%, whereas with the FISH technique these values were 11.1, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. The molecular FISH technique appears to be a cheap, sensitive, and time-efficient procedure that could be used for routine detection of Listeria spp. in meat. This study showed that retail raw meats are potentially contaminated with Listeria spp. and are, thus, vehicles for transmitting diseases caused by foodborne pathogens, underlining the need for increased precautions, such as implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points and consumer food safety education.

  3. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Shin; Song, J; Leventhal, BL; Koh, YJ; Cheon, KA; Hong, HJ; Kim, YK; Cho, K; Lim, EC; Park, JI; Kim, YS

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children.Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n

  4. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P; Kuijer, Joost P A; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M; van de Ven, Peter M; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin

    2017-12-01

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. • Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.

  5. Positive selection of Wharton's jelly-derived CD105(+) cells by MACS technique and their subsequent cultivation under suspension culture condition: A simple, versatile culturing method to enhance the multipotentiality of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Fatemeh; Halabian, Raheleh; Dehgan Harati, Mozhgan; Bahadori, Marzie; Mehdipour, Ahmad; Mohammadi Roushandeh, Amaneh; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar

    2015-05-01

    Wharton's jelly (WJ), an appropriate source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), has been shown to have a wide array of therapeutic applications. However, the WJ-derived MSCs are very heterogeneous and have limited expression of pluripotency markers. Hence, improvement of their culture condition would promote the efficiency of WJ-MSCs. This study aims to employ a simple method of cultivation to obtain WJ-MSCs which express more pluripotency markers. CD105(+) cells were separated by magnetic-associated (activated) cell sorting from umbilical cord mucous tissue. CD105(+) cells were added to Methocult medium diluted in α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) and seeded in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA)-coated plates for suspension culture preparation. Differentiation capacity of isolated cells was evaluated in the presence of differentiation-inducing media. The expression of pluripotency markers such as Oct3/4, Nanog, and Sox2 was also analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot techniques. Moreover, immunocytochemistry was performed to detect alpha-smooth muscle actin (antigene) (α-SMA) protein. WJ-MSCs grew homogeneously and formed colonies when cultured under suspension culture conditions (Non-adhesive WJ-MSCs). They maintained their growth ability in both adherent and suspension cultures for several passages. Non-adhesive WJ-MSCs expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Sox2 both at transcriptional and translational levels in comparison to those cultured in conventional adherent cultures. They also expressed α-SMA protein. In this study, we isolated WJ-MSCs using a slightly modified culture condition. Our simple non-genetic method resulted in a homogeneous population of WJ-MSCs, which highly expressed pluripotency markers. In the future, more multipotent WJ-MSCs can be harnessed as a non-embryonic source of MSCs in MSC-based cell therapy.

  6. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Nijveldt, Robin [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, and Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ven, Peter M. van de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meine, Mathias [University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, INSA, CNRS UMR 5520, INSERM U1206, CREATIS, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2017-12-15

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. (orig.)

  7. Bayesian techniques for comparison of the test performance of PCR and culture for the identification of Campylobacter in enriched comminuted chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Tankson, J

    2016-05-01

    Using Bayesian methods that do not require the definition of a gold standard, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay are compared to those of an enriched culture assay for detection of Campylobacter in enriched comminuted chicken samples. Food Safety and Inspection Service comminuted chicken samples were collected from production facilities across the United States. Enriched samples were examined using a commercial real-time PCR kit and plated for culture. Allowing for conditional dependence between these approaches and defining relatively uninformed prior distributions, the 'no gold standard' Bayesian methods generated estimates of the means (95% credible interval) of the posterior distributions for sensitivity and specificity of the PCR as 93% (79, 100%) and 95% (87, 100%) respectively. The estimated sensitivity implies a mean false negative frequency of 7%. The estimated means of the posterior distributions for sensitivity and specificity of the culture assay were 91% (76, 100%) and 96% (88, 100%) respectively. In this case, the mean false negative frequency is 9%. Graphical comparisons of the posterior distributions with their corresponding prior distributions suggested only subtle differences in the sensitivities of both tests, but the posterior distributions for specificities are substantially more certain than the prior distributions. The study suggests that the commercial real-time PCR assay is a more sensitive screening test that would provide timelier negative test results. The modest 1% reduction in specificity of this PCR assay, as compared to an enriched culture assay, is less of a concern for regulatory testing programs if a culture-based confirmatory assay is applied to all presumptive positive samples. The sensitivity and specificity of a PCR assay and a culture assay for Campylobacter in comminuted poultry produced in the United States were estimated. The PCR assay was shown to be an

  8. Chemical Separation Technique of Strontium-90 in the Soil Water as theStandard Methods for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngasifudin-Hamdani; Suratman; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign; Winduanto-Wahyu SP

    2000-01-01

    Research about separation technique of strontium-90 from its materialmatrix using chemical precipitation method has been done. That technique wasapplied on the detection of radionuclide strontium-90 containing in the soilwater of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN in three location. The twoimportant parameters used in this technique were growth time of Y-90 andstirring time. The result shown that activity of strontium-90 in the pos-01was between 1.801x10 -19 - 9.616x10 -17 μCi/cm 3 , pos-02 was8.448x10 -19 - 1.003x X 10 -16 μCi/cm 3 and pos-03 was 6.719x10 -19 - 11.644x10 -16 μCi/cm 3 . From those data shown that activity of Sr-90in the soil water of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN was still belowthe limit value of maximum concentration permitted i.e. 4.0x10 -7 -3.5x10 -6 μCi/cm 3 . The statistic test using analysis of varian twofactorial with random block design shown that the activity of Sr-90 in thesoil water was influenced by the interaction which take place between growthlong time of Y-90 and stirring long time. (author)

  9. [Western blot technique standardization for specific diagnosis of Chagas disease using excretory-secretory antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Hermes; Jara, César; Davelois, Kelly; Iglesias, Miguel; Benites, Adderly; Espinoza, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of Western Blot for the specific diagnosis of Chagas disease using excretory-secretory antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Antigens were obtained after twenty hours of incubation in Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium, which were prepared at a protein concentration of 0.2 ug/uL to be faced with 10 mL pool of serum from patients with Chagas disease and a conjugated anti-IgG labeled with peroxidase. The presence of the following antigens was observed: 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, 26, 30, 33, 36, 40, 42, 46, 58, 63, 69, 91, 100, and 112 kDa; of which antigens of 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, and 26 kDa were considered to be specific using pools of serum from patients with other parasitosis and serum from people with no parasites. The sensitivity of the technique was assessed using individual serum from 65 patients with Chagas disease; and the specificity with serum from 40 patients with other parasitosis, and serums from five people who did not have parasites. The technique has a sensitivity of 95.4% in the detection of one to eight specific bands, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 93.7%. Western Blot technique with excretory-secretory antigens of T. cruzi epimastigotes is effective in the diagnosis of Chagas disease in Peru; therefore, it can be used as a confirmatory test.

  10. Construction of three-dimensional liver tissue models by cell accumulation technique and maintaining their metabolic functions for long-term culture without medium change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) hepatocyte cultures have attracted much attention to obtain high biological functions of hepatocyte for pharmaceutical drug assessment. However, maintaining the high functions for over one month is still a key challenge although many approaches have been reported. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time simple and rapid construction of 3D-hepatocyte constructs by our cell accumulation technique and their high biological functions for one month, without any medium change. The human hepatocyte carcinoma (HepG2) cells were coated with ∼ 7 nm-sized extracellular matrix (ECM) films consisting of fibronectin (FN) and gelatin (G), and then incubated in cell culture insert to construct 3D-tissue constructs for 24 h. The thickness of obtained 3D-HepG2 constructs was easily controlled by altering seeding cell number and the maximum is over 100 μm. When a large volume of culture media was employed, the 3D-constructs showed higher mRNA expression of albumin and some cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes as compared to general two-dimensional (2D) culture. Surprisingly, their high cell viabilities (over 80%) and high mRNA expressions were successfully maintained without medium change for at least 27 days. These results demonstrate novel easy and rapid technique to construct 3D-human liver tissue models which can maintain their high functions and viability for 1 month without medium change. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A new standard of sexual behavior? Are claims associated with the "hookup culture" supported by general social survey data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monto, Martin A; Carey, Anna G

    2014-01-01

    Popular media have described intimate relationships among contemporary college students as dominated by a pervasive sexual "hookup culture," implying that students are involved in frequent sexual encounters pursued by both participants without the expectation of a continuing relationship. The hookup culture has been described as "a nationwide phenomenon that has largely replaced traditional dating on college campuses" (Bogle, 2008 , p. 5). We tested whether these claims are supported among young adults (18-25) who had completed at least one year of college. Contrasting 1988-1996 waves of the General Social Survey with 2004-2012 waves, we found respondents from the current era did not report more sexual partners since age 18, more frequent sex, or more partners during the past year than respondents from the earlier era. Sexually active respondents from the current era were more likely than those from the earlier era to report sex with a casual date/pickup or friend, and less likely to report sex with a spouse/regular partner. These modest changes are consistent with cultural shifts in the "scripts" and terminology surrounding sexuality. We find no evidence of substantial changes in sexual behavior that would indicate a new or pervasive pattern of non-relational sex among contemporary college students.

  12. Tissue Culture Technique and Gamma Irradiation Used in Evaluation of Five Genotypes of Bread Wheat to Salinity Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL Jibouri, A. A. M.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Dallul, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Callus has been induced from immature embryos of five genotypes of Triticum aestivum L (i.e. Maxipak, IPA99, 113, Tamus 3 and Babylon) on MS culture media. The calli were irradiated by Gamma ray at doses (0,15, 30,45, And 60) Gray, and cultured on MS media supplemented with salt mixture consist of sodium, calcium and magnesium chlorides in portions 3; 3; 1 respectively.The results showed significant differences in genotype responses to irradiation and salinity . A significant reduction in fresh and dry weights with increasing of irradiation dose and salt concentration in culture media in all genotypes. The genotype IPA99 showed a highest fresh and dry weight than the other genotypes . The proline contents increased significantly in callus with irradiation doses and concentration increases. On the other hand callus carbohydrate content reduced significantly with increased salt concentration in culture media. The capability of callus regeneration was reduced by increasing irradiation doses and salt concentration in culture media. (author)

  13. Feasibility of establishing a biosafety level 3 tuberculosis culture laboratory of acceptable quality standards in a resource-limited setting: an experience from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Willy; Gelderbloem, Sebastian J; Mboowa, Gerald; Wajja, Anne; Namaganda, Carolyn; Musoke, Philippa; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2015-01-15

    Despite the recent innovations in tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) diagnosis, culture remains vital for difficult-to-diagnose patients, baseline and end-point determination for novel vaccines and drug trials. Herein, we share our experience of establishing a BSL-3 culture facility in Uganda as well as 3-years performance indicators and post-TB vaccine trials (pioneer) and funding experience of sustaining such a facility. Between September 2008 and April 2009, the laboratory was set-up with financial support from external partners. After an initial procedure validation phase in parallel with the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and legal approvals, the laboratory registered for external quality assessment (EQA) from the NTRL, WHO, National Health Laboratories Services (NHLS), and the College of American Pathologists (CAP). The laboratory also instituted a functional quality management system (QMS). Pioneer funding ended in 2012 and the laboratory remained in self-sustainability mode. The laboratory achieved internationally acceptable standards in both structural and biosafety requirements. Of the 14 patient samples analyzed in the procedural validation phase, agreement for all tests with NTRL was 90% (P 80% in all years from NTRL, CAP, and NHLS, and culture was 100% for CAP panels and above regional average scores for all years with NHLS. Quarterly DST scores from WHO-EQA ranged from 78% to 100% in 2010, 80% to 100% in 2011, and 90 to 100% in 2012. From our experience, it is feasible to set-up a BSL-3 TB culture laboratory with acceptable quality performance standards in resource-limited countries. With the demonstrated quality of work, the laboratory attracted more research groups and post-pioneer funding, which helped to ensure sustainability. The high skilled experts in this research laboratory also continue to provide an excellent resource for the needed national discussion of the laboratory and quality management systems.

  14. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Costantini, Alberto; de Gasperis, Nicola; De Vita, Andrea; Lin, Bernard K. H.; Francone, Marco; Beccaglia, Mario A. Rojas; Mastantuono, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Aims: One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. Materials and Methods: A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. Results: The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P Latarjet procedure. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Clinical Relevance: Prospective case series, Treatment study. PMID:23858288

  15. Deconstructing Institutionalisation of the European Standards for Quality Assurance: From Instrument Mixes to Quality Cultures and Implications for International Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The paper enquires into the implementation of the European Standards and Guidelines for Internal Quality Assurance of Higher Education Institutions (ESG 1). The enquiry uses data from universities in the Czech Republic and compares them against those obtained in the relevant pan-European survey. The aims are to empirically deconstruct ESG 1…

  16. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry F; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2013-04-30

    Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR = 1.01), CDC-LT (RR = 1.18), and ITT (RR = 1.39); moderate for WET (RR = 0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR = 0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR < 0.08 for all). For Anopheles funestus, relative catch rates were high for ITT (RR = 1.21); moderate for HLC outdoor (RR = 0.47), CDC-LT (RR = 0.69), and WET (RR = 0.49); and low for all resting traps (RR < 0.02 for all). At finer geographic scales, however, efficacy of each trap type varied from district to district. ITT, CDC-LT, and WET appear to be effective methods for large-scale vector sampling in

  17. Determination of Pu-238 Abundance in a Plutonium Standard by an Advanced Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P.; Thomas, R.

    2006-12-01

    New developments in thermal ionization mass spectrometers allow for the determination of very small minor isotope ratios. The new hardware and software capabilities require attention to detail and accounting for additional sources of measurement uncertainty. The Pu-238 isotopic composition in New Brunswick Laboratory plutonium metal standard CRM 126-A was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using combined Faraday cup and ion counting detection. A dynamic acquisition scheme was employed which provided for near real-time mass fractionation correction and ion counter/Faraday detector inter-calibration. Steps taken to minimize or eliminate isobaric U-238 interferences will be described, and an evaluation detailing contributions to the uncertainty, including SEM non-linearity, will be presented.

  18. A semi-automated technique determining the liver standardized uptake value reference for tumor delineation in FDG PET-CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Hirata

    Full Text Available 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET-computed tomography (CT has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV, which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation.A large spherical volume of interest (VOI was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared.The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d = 80 mm. The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61 was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58. The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods.Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response.

  19. Minimal immunoreactive plasma beta-endorphin and decrease of cortisol at standard analgesia or different acupuncture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbach, H; Moll, B; Boedeker, R-H; Vigelius-Rauch, U; Otto, H; Muehling, J; Hempelmann, G; Markart, P

    2007-04-01

    Acupuncture has been claimed to be associated with activation of the endogenous antinociceptive system. The analgesic effects of acupuncture have been ascribed to beta-endorphin interacting with opioid receptors. However, firstly, the release of beta-endorphin into the blood has been proven to be induced by stress, i.e. under dysphoric conditions, and, secondly, if released under stress, beta-endorphin has been shown not to be analgesic. Our aim was to test whether beta-endorphin immunoreactive material is released into the cardiovascular compartment during acupuncture comparing the most frequently used types of acupuncture with standard pain treatment under apparently low stress conditions. This prospective study included 15 male patients suffering from chronic low back pain. beta-Endorphin immunoreactive material and cortisol were measured in the plasma of patients who underwent, in random order, therapy according to a standard pain treatment, traditional Chinese acupuncture, sham acupuncture, electro acupuncture and electro acupuncture at non-acupuncture points before, at and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. A decrease in plasma cortisol concentration measured over the five treatment protocols was highly significant (P < 0.001). The beta-endorphin immunoreactive material concentrations in plasma were minimal at all times and in all treatment conditions. The influence of treatments by various acupuncture procedures on cortisol and beta-endorphin immunoreactive material plasma concentrations over the three time points was not significantly different. beta-endorphin immunoreactive material in blood is not released by any type of acupuncture as tested under low stress conditions.

  20. Impact of Standardized Simulated Patients on First-Year Pharmacy Students' Knowledge Retention of Insulin Injection Technique and Counseling Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Riley; Tunney, Robert; Kelly, Kim; Mills, Beth; Trotta, Katie; Wheeless, C Neil; Drew, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To compare pre- and post-intervention test scores assessing insulin injection technique and counseling skills among P1 students with (intervention) or without (control) simulated patients, and to compare counseling checklist and knowledge retention test scores between groups. Methods. This study utilized cluster randomization. In addition to traditional instruction, the intervention group counseled a simulated patient on the use of insulin using the teach-back method. Test score changes from baseline were analyzed via two-sample t-test. Results. The intervention group exhibited a significantly greater increase in knowledge test scores from baseline compared to the control group. Similar changes were seen in post-instruction counseling checklist scores and knowledge retention test scores from baseline. Conclusion. Simulated patient interactions, when added to traditional coursework within a P1 skills lab, improve student counseling aptitude and knowledge retention scores.

  1. Layout techniques to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard CMOS technologies demonstrated on a pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Burns, M; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Carrer, N; Casagrande, L; Cavagnoli, A; Dachs, C; Di Liberto, S; Formenti, F; Giraldo, A; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Letheren, M F; Marchioro, A; Martinengo, P; Meddi, F; Mikulec, B; Morando, M; Morel, M; Noah, E; Paccagnella, A; Ropotar, I; Saladino, S; Sansen, Willy; Santopietro, F; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Signe, P M; Soramel, F; Vannucci, Luigi; Vleugels, K

    2000-01-01

    A new pixel readout prototype has been developed at CERN for high- energy physics applications. This full mixed mode circuit has been implemented in a commercial 0.5 mu m CMOS technology. Its radiation tolerance has been enhanced by designing all NMOS transistors in enclosed geometry and introducing guardrings wherever necessary. The technique is explained and its effectiveness demonstrated on various irradiation measurements on individual transistors and on the prototype. Circuit performance started to degrade only after a total dose of 600 krad-1.7 Mrad depending on the type of radiation. 10 keV X-rays, /sup 60/Co gamma-rays, 6.5 MeV protons, and minimum ionizing particles were used. Implications of this layout approach on the circuit design and perspectives for even deeper submicron technologies are discussed. (20 refs).

  2. Use of the iTClamp versus standard suturing techniques for securing chest tubes: A randomized controlled cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mckee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Tube thoracostomy (TT is a common yet potentially life-saving trauma procedure. After successful placement however, securing a TT through suturing is a skillset that requires practice, risking that the TT may become dislodged during prehospital transport. The purpose of this study was to examine if the iTClamp was a simpler technique with equivalent effectiveness for securing TTs. Materials and methods: In a cadaver model, a 1.5 inch incision was utilized along the upper border of the rib below the 5th intercostal space at the anterior axillary line. TTs (sizes 28Fr, 32Fr, 36Fr and 40Fr were inserted and secured with both suturing and iTClamp techniques according to the preset randomization. TT were then functionally tested for positive and negative pressure as well as the force required to remove the TT (pull test-up to 5 lbs. Time to secure the TT was also recorded. Results: When sutured is placed by a trained surgeon, the sutures and iTClamp were functionally equivalent for holding a positive and negative pressure. Mean pull force for both sutures and iTClamp exceeded the 5 lb threshold; there was no significant difference between the groups. Securing the TT with the iTClamp was significantly faster (p < 0.0001 with the iTClamp having a mean application time of 37.0 ± 22.8 s and using a suture had a man application time of 96.3 ± 29.0 s. Conclusion: The iTClamp was effective in securing TTs. The main benefit to the iTClamp is that minimal skill is required to adequately secure a TT to ensure that it does not become dislodged during transport to a trauma center. Keywords: Chest tube, Tube thoracostomy, Securing chest tubes

  3. Investigating the diversity of Pseudomonas spp. in soil using culture dependent and independent techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Bergmark, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Less than 1% of bacterial populations present in environmental samples are culturable, meaning that cultivation will lead to an underestimation of total cell counts and total diversity. However, it is less clear whether this is also true for specific well-defined groups of bacteria for which...

  4. Changing organizational culture: using the CEO cancer gold standard policy initiatives to promote health and wellness at a school of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Samuel D; Anderson, Kelsey E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Kellstedt, Debra; Purcell, Ninfa Pena; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-09-03

    Worksite wellness initiatives for health promotion and health education have demonstrated effectiveness in improving employee health and wellness. We examined the effects of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on organizational capacity to meet requirements to become CEO Cancer Gold Standard Accredited. We conducted an online survey to assess perceived organizational values and support for the five CEO Cancer Gold Standard Pillars for cancer prevention: tobacco cessation; physical activity; nutrition; cancer screening and early detection; and accessing information on cancer clinical trials. Baseline and follow-up surveys were sent 6-months apart to faculty, staff, and students at a school of public health to test the impact of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on perceived organizational change. Descriptive analyses were used to characterize percent improvement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to control for participants' university status. The current organizational culture highly supported tobacco cessation at both time points. Significant improvements (p initiatives.

  5. In vitro culture and in vitro fertilization techniques for prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Kengo; Hidema, Shizu; Hirayama, Takashi; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-07

    Prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a highly social animal and is a commonly used animal model for neuropsychopharmacological and psychiatric studies. To date, only a few reports on the development of transgenic prairie voles which was primarily due to the suboptimal development of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in prairie voles. Limitations in ART further hinder the development of genetically modified prairie voles such as the application of conventional gene targeting technologies using embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to generate chimeric prairie voles. Moreover, recent advancement in genome-editing tools such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas technology provide an unprecedented opportunity to create gene targeting animal model and the development of ART in prairie voles is necessary for future development of novel transgenic prairie vole model. We have established efficient method for in vitro embryo culture and sperm cryopreservation with high fertilization rate. In G-1 PLUS and G-2 PLUS sequential culture condition, 81.0% (# of Blastocysts/total n) of one-cell embryos developed to blastocysts. In contrary, no embryos were developed to blastocyst stage in KSOM medium (0/total # of embryos in culture). In vitro fertilization rate using fresh and frozen-thawed sperm was 32.6% and 29.3%, respectively. This is the first report of IVF using cryopreserved prairie vole sperm. We employed mouse IVF methods in prairie voles and optimize culture conditions using human G-1/G-2 PLUS sequential culture method that resulted in high embryonic development rate. The development in vole reproductive technology will facilitate the generation of transgenic voles in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development, standardization and validation of purine excretion technique for measuring microbial protein supply for Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozdemir, H.; Gucus, A.I.; Ozcan, H.; Sogut, A.; Yaman, S.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate of the developed techniques for uric acid, allantoin and creatinine in Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle on farm at different feeding level locally available feed resources and linking the observed information to feed intake and to assess of protein nutrition status of Yerli Kara cross-breed dairy cattle using urinary PD and creatinine excretion. In Experiment I. Response of daily PD excretion to feed intake in Yerli Kara cross-breed on state farm was measured. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30 % wheat straw and 70 % compounded feed. The diet contained 90 % DM, its N and OM contents were 124 and 950 g/kg DM, respectively. In Experiment II. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at state farm. Four Yerli Kara cross-breed bulls live weight with a mean of 211±41.3 kg were used. Experimental design, feeding and diet were the same as in Experiment I. The treatments were [located according to a 4x4 Latin Square design. In Experiment III. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at smallholder farms. Compound feed containing 65 % barley, 25 % bran, 6 % sunflower seed meal, 3 % manner dust and 1 % mineral and vitamin mixture (120 g/kg DM-Crude Protein and 950 g/kg DM-Organic Matter)- was offered total in between 2 to 3 kg in two parts one in the morning (07:30 h) and one in the afternoon (17:00 h). Compound feed ingredients were similar given to all animals but Groups I, II and III animals were receiving 1 to 2 kg/d of straw (30 g CP/kg DM, 93Og OM/kg DM), grass hay (70g CP/kg DM, 915 g OM/kg DM), straw and grass hay respectively. There were significant correlations (R 2 =0.99) between PD excretion (mmol/d) and DOMI (kg/d) for YK-C cattle. PD execration (mmol/L) was plotted against PD: Creatinine W 0.75 to obtain slope and use as constant for the estimation of daily PD excretion from spot sampling from animals held by small holders. The equation could be expressed as: PD (mmol/d)=8.27+0.960 (PD:CxW 0.75 ). The

  7. Determination of the cause of the symptoms on yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.) leaf tissue and their eradication, enriching the culture medium and using techniques of meristem culture, thermo and chemotherapy on in vitro conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes Huertas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp) has been cultivated for exportation in Costa Rica, in North Huetar region. In vitro culture technique has been used for multiplying planting material for many advantages. However, cleaning of viruses that affect has been ineffective. Viruses such as: the potyvirus, potexvirus, cucumovirus . Methods like meristem culture, chemotherapy, thermotherapy and combinations of these have been used for the elimination of virus in plant species. The plants were evaluated in indexing assays, observing symptoms, serological methods and electron microscopy, among others. Other problems that have been affecting in vitro plant are deficient culture media in some nutrient. The presence of some abnormal characteristics in leaf tissue was determined whether have been caused by a virus or a nutritional deficiency in the culture medium. The presence of the virus has tried to find using ELISA and electron microscopy. Tests meristem culture, thermotherapy and chemotherapy have been made for the eradication of a possible virus; which have been assessed by observation of symptomatology and ELISA. The efficiency of the culture medium was evaluated to enrich it with nitrogen or excess iron. None of the suspected virus found in ELISA tests. Filaments are presumably viral particles were found through analysis of ultrastructure, as well as alterations in chloroplasts which indicated the presence of a pathogen or toxicity. Thermotherapy and chemotherapy with the concentration of 40 mg/L of ribavirin have been the most effective for the elimination of symptoms in virus eradication treatments. Assessments nutrient concentrations have shown that the differences between the various treatments used were undetectable. The symptoms presented were caused, according to the conclusions, by a virus which should preferably deal with thermotherapy. (author) [es

  8. Internal standardization--atomic spectrometry and geographical pattern recognition techniques for the multielement analysis and classification of Catalonian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Mònica; Besalú, Emili; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2007-01-24

    Major and minor (K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Sr) and trace (Ba, Ni, Pb, V, Co, Cd, and Sb) elements from wine samples from the Denomination of Origin (DO) Empordà-Costa Brava (Catalonia, Spain) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) respectively. Previously, a comparison of different calibration methodologies and sample digestion treatments had been carried out using ANOVA statistical tool. The obtained results demonstrated that internal standardization provides reliable results with the advantage that no further manipulation of the sample is needed. A principal component analysis of the concentration data was performed to differentiate the samples of DO Empordà-Costa Brava from wine samples from other wine-producing regions in Spain (i.e., Penedès, Somontano, and Rioja). It was found that Sr and Ba contents discriminate the two DO groups. Moreover, a discriminant analysis function involving both variables distinguishes the two groups with a 100% classification rate. At the level of the leave-one-out cross-validation, all of the Empordà-Costa Brava samples were well classified, whereas the other DOs presented two borderline misclassifications.

  9. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Embrittlement Threshold in Steel by the Incremental Step Loading Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a procedure to measure the susceptibility of steel to a time-delayed failure such as that caused by hydrogen. It does so by measuring the threshold for the onset of subcritical crack growth using standard fracture mechanics specimens, irregular-shaped specimens such as notched round bars, or actual product such as fasteners (2) (threaded or unthreaded) springs or components as identified in SAE J78, J81, and J1237. 1.2 This test method is used to evaluate quantitatively: 1.2.1 The relative susceptibility of steels of different composition or a steel with different heat treatments; 1.2.2 The effect of residual hydrogen in the steel as a result of processing, such as melting, thermal mechanical working, surface treatments, coatings, and electroplating; 1.2.3 The effect of hydrogen introduced into the steel caused by external environmental sources of hydrogen, such as fluids and cleaners maintenance chemicals, petrochemical products, and galvanic coupling in an aqueous enviro...

  10. Detection of active noise control on the standard motorcycle exhaust Supra X 125 D using PVC pipe technique form Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isranuri, I.; Alfisyahrin; Nasution, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This detection aims to obtain noise reduction on the supra X 125D motorcycle exhaust by using the Active Noise Control Method. The technique is done using a Y-shaped PVC pipe to be bolted on the exhaust, which then branch Y PVC is placed loudspeaker with impermeable conditions. The function of this loudspeaker is as a secondary noise to counter the primary noise of the sound of exhaust motorcycle Supra X 125D. The sound generator in this study is the ISD 4004 module, which serves to generate noise to counter the source noise. How this ISD 4004 module works is by recording source noise then recording the source noise and then reversed the phase 180° by phase reversing circuit. So that, the noise generated by the sound generator will hit the source noise and encounter or such as addition of two different phase of sound will result in noise reduction when detected at the end of the Y-shaped PVC pipe. Inverted phase reversed using feed-back resistor 1 kΩ and 2 kΩ input resistors, 16V capacitor 2500μf and as amplifier using ICL 7660 and TL 702 CP. Test results on the highest 1000 rpm rotation engine speed on the Z axis of 2 dB, and at the highest 2000 rpm rotation engine speed also occurs on the Z axis of 1.5 dB.

  11. Evaluation of Image Processing Technique for Measuring of Nitrogen and Yield in Paddy Rice and Comparing it with Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Larijani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to use new and low cost methods in precision agriculture, nitrogen should be supplied for plants on time and precisely. For determining the required nitrogen of paddy rice in the clustering stage, a series of experiments were conducted using three different methods of: image processing, kjeldahl and chlorophyll meter set (SPAD-502, in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 at Rice Research Center of Tonekabon, Iran. Four experimental treatments were different level of fertilizer (Urea with 46% nitrogen. In the clustering stage, some images from rice plants were taken vertically by a digital camera and were analyzed using image processing technique. Simultaneously the chlorophyll index of plants was measured by SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter set and the percentage amount of nitrogen was measured using of the so called kjeldahl laboratory method. The results showed that the three methods of determining nitrogen of rice plant were highly correlated. Moreover, the correlation among the three methods and crop yield were almost the same. In general, the method of image processing could have a high potential for nitrogen management in the field, while this method was low-cost, faster and also nondestructive in comparison to the other methods.

  12. Scaffolds with a standardized macro-architecture fabricated from several calcium phosphate ceramics using an indirect rapid prototyping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; van Blitterswijk, C. A.; Verbout, A. J.; de Bruijn, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics, commonly applied as bone graft substitutes, are a natural choice of scaffolding material for bone tissue engineering. Evidence shows that the chemical composition, macroporosity and microporosity of these ceramics influences their behavior as bone graft substitutes and bone tissue engineering scaffolds but little has been done to optimize these parameters. One method of optimization is to place focus on a particular parameter by normalizing the influence, as much as possible, of confounding parameters. This is difficult to accomplish with traditional fabrication techniques. In this study we describe a design based rapid prototyping method of manufacturing scaffolds with virtually identical macroporous architectures from different calcium phosphate ceramic compositions. Beta-tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite (at two sintering temperatures) and biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds were manufactured. The macro- and micro-architectures of the scaffolds were characterized as well as the influence of the manufacturing method on the chemistries of the calcium phosphate compositions. The structural characteristics of the resulting scaffolds were remarkably similar. The manufacturing process had little influence on the composition of the materials except for the consistent but small addition of, or increase in, a beta-tricalcium phosphate phase. Among other applications, scaffolds produced by the method described provide a means of examining the influence of different calcium phosphate compositions while confidently excluding the influence of the macroporous structure of the scaffolds. PMID:21069558

  13. Effects of cell culture techniques on gene expression and cholesterol efflux in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells derived from milk and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, D; Potzel, A; Beck, M; Meyer, H H D; Viturro, E; Kliem, H

    2012-10-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are often used in cell culture to study metabolic and inflammatory processes in the udder of dairy cows. The most common source is udder tissue from biopsy or after slaughter. However, it is also possible to culture them from milk, which is non-invasive, repeatable and yields less contamination with fibroblasts. Generally, not much is known about the influence of cell origin and cell culture techniques such as cryopreservation on pbMEC functionality. Cells were extracted from milk and udder tissue to evaluate if milk-derived pbMEC are a suitable alternative to tissue-derived pbMEC and to test what influence cryopreservation has. The cells were cultivated for three passages and stored in liquid nitrogen. The relative gene expression of the five target genes kappa-casein, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin, lysozyme (LYZ1) and the prolactin receptor normalised with keratin 8 showed a tendency to decrease in the tissue cultures, but not in the milk-derived cultures, suggesting a greater influence of the cultivation process on tissue-derived cells, freezing lowered expression levels in both cultures. Overall expression of LAP and LYZ1 tended to be higher in milk cells. Cholesterol efflux was measured to compare passages one to seven in milk-derived cells. Passage number did not alter the efflux rate (p ≤ 0.05). We showed for the first time that the extraction of pbMEC from milk can be a suitable alternative to tissue extraction.

  14. Salmonella L-forms: formation in human bile in vitro and isolation culture from patients' gallbladder samples by a non-high osmotic isolation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D N; Wu, W J; Wang, T; Pan, Y Z; Tang, K L; She, X L; Ding, W J; Wang, H

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial L-forms have always been considered as osmotic-pressure-sensitive cell-wall-deficient bacteria and isolation culture of L-forms must use media with high osmotic pressure. However, isolation culture of stable L-forms formed in humans and animals is very difficult because they have adapted to the physiological osmotic pressure condition of the host. We use a non-high osmotic isolation technique to isolate stable L-forms of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A from bile-inducer cultures in vitro and from patients' gallbladder specimens. Multiplex PCR assay for Salmonella-specific genes and nucleotide sequencing are used to identify the Salmonella L-forms in stable L-form isolates. Using this method, we confirmed that Salmonella Paratyphi A and Salmonella Typhi cannot be isolated from bile-inducer cultures cultured for 6 h or 48 h, but the L-forms can be isolated from 1 h to 45 days. In the 524 gallbladder samples, the positive rate for bacterial forms was 19.7% and the positive rate for Salmonella spp. was 0.6% by routine bacteriological methods. The positive rate for bacterial L-forms was 75.4% using non-high osmotic isolation culture. In the L-form isolates, the positive rate of Salmonella invA gene was 3.1%. In these invA-positive L-form isolates, four were positive for the invA and flic-d genes of Salmonella Typhi, and ten were positive for the invA and flic-a genes of Salmonella Paratyphi A. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Explant culture: a simple, reproducible, efficient and economic technique for isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells from human adipose tissue and lipoaspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Nancy; Sarcar, Shilpita; Majumdar, Anish Sen; SundarRaj, Swathi

    2014-09-01

    Adipose tissue has emerged as a preferred source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), due to its easy accessibility and high MSC content. The conventional method of isolation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) involves enzymatic digestion and centrifugation, which is a costly and time-consuming process. Mechanical stress during isolation, use of bacterial-derived products and potential contamination with endotoxins and xenoantigens are other disadvantages of this method. In this study, we propose explant culture as a simple and efficient process to isolate ASC from human adipose tissue. This technique can be used to reproducibly isolate ASC from fat tissue obtained by liposuction as well as surgical resection, and yields an enriched ASC population free from contaminating haematopoietic cells. We show that explanting adipose tissue results in a substantially higher yield of ASC at P0 per gram of initial fat tissue processed, as compared to that obtained by enzymatic digestion. We demonstrate that ASC isolated by explant culture are phenotypically and functionally equivalent to those obtained by enzymatic digestion. Further, the explant-derived ASC share the immune privileged status and immunosuppressive properties implicit to MSC, suggesting that they are competent to be tested and applied in allogeneic clinical settings. As explant culture is a simple, inexpensive and gentle method, it may be preferred over the enzymatic technique for obtaining adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, especially in cases of limited starting material. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Actual survey of dose evaluation method for standardization of radiation therapy techniques. With special reference to display method of radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kozo; Yoshiura, Takao; Izumi, Takashi; Araki, Fujio; Takada, Takuo; Jingu, Kenichi.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of questionnaire survey for actual conditions of radiation therapy, which was conducted with the aim of establishing the standardization of radiation therapy techniques. Questionnaires were sent to 100 facilities in Japan, and 86 of these answered, consisting of 62 university hospitals, 2 national hospitals, 14 cancer centers, 4 prefectural or municipal hospitals, and 4 other hospitals. In addition to electron beam therapy, the following typical diseases for radiation therapy were selected as standard irradiation models: cancers of the larynx, esophagus, breast, and uterine cervix, and malignant lymphomas. According to these models, questionnaire results are analyzed in terms of the following four items: (1) irradiation procedures, (2) energy used for radiotherapy, (3) the depth for calculating target absorption doses, and (4) points for displaying target absorption doses. (N.K.)

  17. Drug uptake (DAPI) of trypanosomes (T. brucei) and antitrypanosomal activity in vitro, in culture and in vivo studied by microscope fluorometry, chromatogram spectrophotometry and radiotracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The present study had the following objectives: 1) Investigation of the specific binding and location of the diamidine DAPI within trypanosomes by fluorescence microscopy. 2) Development and standardization of a microscope fluorometry technique for measuring DAPI uptake of single trypanosomes. 3) Determination of the effect of incubation media, exposure time, and drug concentration on DAPI uptake of single trypanosomes. 4) Development of a technique applicable for quantitative fluorescence chemical analysis of DAPI uptake of trypanosomes. 5) Determination of drug uptake of trypanosomes using 14 C labelled DAPI. 6) Comparison of the values obtained by the three methods. (orig./MG)

  18. Salivary Fluoride level in preschool children after toothbrushing with standard and low fluoride content dentifrice, using the transversal dentifrice application technique: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Jandre Melo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF and low (500ppmF/NaF fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student’s-t test (p<0.05. Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

  19. Precision of a photogrammetric method to perform 3D wound measurements compared to standard 2D photographic techniques in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labens, R; Blikslager, A

    2013-01-01

    Methods of 3D wound imaging in man play an important role in monitoring of healing and determination of the prognosis. Standard photographic assessments in equine wound management consist of 2D analyses, which provide little quantitative information on the wound bed. 3D imaging of equine wounds is feasible using principles of stereophotogrammetry. 3D measurements differ significantly and are more precise than results with standard 2D assessments. Repeated specialised photographic imaging of 4 clinical wounds left to heal by second intention was performed. The intraoperator variability in measurements due to imaging and 3D processing was compared to that of a standard 2D technique using descriptive statistics and multivariate repeated measures ANOVA. Using a custom made imaging system, 3D analyses were successfully performed. Area and circumference measurements were significantly different between imaging modalities. The intraoperator variability of 3D measurements was up to 2.8 times less than that of 2D results. On average, the maximum discrepancy between repeated measurements was 5.8% of the mean for 3D and 17.3% of the mean for 2D assessments. The intraoperator repeatability of 3D wound measurements based on principles of stereophotogrammetry is significantly increased compared to that of a standard 2D photographic technique indicating it may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool. The equine granulation bed plays an important role in equine wound healing. When compared to 2D analyses 3D monitoring of the equine wound bed allows superior quantitative characterisation, contributing to clinical and experimental investigations by offering potential new parameters. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Plastic compressed collagen constructs for ocular cell culture and transplantation: a new and improved technique of confined fluid loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Hannah J; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Drake, Rosemary A L; Daniels, Julie T

    2013-01-01

    Cultured limbal epithelial cell transplantation is a commonly used clinical treatment for ocular surface repair. We have previously shown that plastic compressed (PC) type I collagen constructs are a suitable substrate for human limbal epithelial cell (HLEC) culture for transplantation. For this process to achieve compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice, and therefore be suitable for therapeutic cell therapy manufacture, the original method required substantial modification. The compression method was changed from unconfined (highly variable reproducibility) to confined compression (CC) (highly reproducible manufacture) and we assessed whether this altered the physical characteristics of the substrate. We have measured transparency, assessed scanning electron microscope images of the surface and performed live/dead cell viability assays of cells within the constructs. HLECs were then cultured on the surface of both types of construct and the resulting cell phenotype characterized. We have determined that the change in process does not alter the physical characteristics of the substrate. Furthermore, there is no change to the substrate's ability to support HLEC culture and maintenance of a mixed population of stem and differentiated cells. Additionally, cells were able to form a confluent sheet and multilayer to produce an intact epithelium. This modification allows scaling up of the process in a well-plate format, which is essential for creation of multiple corneal epithelial models for in vitro testing. This improvement to the original plastic compression method also allows the process to be employed in custom-made cassettes, the design of which takes into consideration the manufacturing and regulatory requirements for delivery of a cell therapy.

  1. Controlling the Effective Oxygen Tension Experienced by Cells Using a Dynamic Culture Technique for Hematopoietic Ex Vivo Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Abhilasha; Wong, Cynthia S; Nekkanti, Lakshmi P; Deane, James A; McDonald, Courtney; Li, Jingang; Pham, Yen; Sutherland, Amy E; Jenkin, Graham; Kirkland, Mark A

    2018-02-28

    Clinical hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) transplantation outcomes are strongly correlated with the number of cells infused. Hence, to generate sufficient HSPCs for transplantation, the best culture parameters for expansion are critical. It is generally assumed that the defined oxygen (O 2 ) set for the incubator reflects the pericellular O 2 to which cells are being exposed. Studies have shown that low O 2 tension maintains an undifferentiated state, but the expansion rate may be constrained because of limited diffusion in a static culture system. A combination of low ambient O 2 and dynamic culture conditions has been developed to increase the reconstituting capacity of human HSPCs. In this unit, the protocols for serum-free expansion of HSPCs at 5% and 20% O 2 in static and dynamic nutrient flow mode are described. Finally, the impact of O 2 tension on HSPC expansion in vitro by flow cytometry and colony forming assays and in vivo through engraftment using a murine model is assessed. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. [New microbiological techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Wieser, A; Bonkat, G

    2017-06-01

    Microbiological diagnostic procedures have changed rapidly in recent years. This is especially true in the field of molecular diagnostics. Classical culture-based techniques are still the gold standard in many areas; however, they are already complemented by automated and also molecular techniques to guarantee faster and better quality results. The most commonly used techniques include real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based systems and nucleic acid hybridization. These procedures are used most powerfully from direct patient samples or in assays to detect the presence of nonculturable or fastidious organisms. Further techniques such as DNA sequencing are not yet used routinely for urological samples and can be considered experimental. However, in conjunction with dropping prices and further technical developments, these techniques promise to be used much more in the near future. Regarding bacterial identification from culture, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the technique of choice in recent years especially in Europe. It has tremendously shortened the time to result. This is now going to be extended to antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is of paramount importance in view of ever rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Techniques described in this review offer a faster and better microbiological diagnosis. Such continuous improvements are critical especially in times of cost pressure and rising antimicrobial resistance rates. It is in our interest to provide the best possible care for patients and in this regard a good and effective communication between the laboratory and the clinician is of vital importance.

  3. A technique for quantifying intracellular free sodium ion using a microplate reader in combination with sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate and probenecid in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Daisuke; Hongo, Kenichi; Ito, Keiichi; Yoshino, Takuya; Kayama, Yosuke; Komukai, Kimiaki; Kawai, Makoto; Date, Taro; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2013-12-26

    Intracellular sodium ([Na+]i) kinetics are involved in cardiac diseases including ischemia, heart failure, and hypertrophy. Because [Na+]i plays a crucial role in modulating the electrical and contractile activity in the heart, quantifying [Na+]i is of great interest. Using fluorescent microscopy with sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI) is the most commonly used method for measuring [Na+]i. However, one limitation associated with this technique is that the test cannot simultaneously evaluate the effects of several types or various concentrations of compounds on [Na+]i. Moreover, there are few reports on the long-term effects of compounds on [Na+]i in cultured cells, although rapid changes in [Na+]i during a period of seconds or several minutes have been widely discussed. We established a novel technique for quantifying [Na+]i in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes attached to a 96-well plate using a microplate reader in combination with SBFI and probenecid. We showed that probenecid is indispensable for the accurate measurement because it prevents dye leakage from the cells. We further confirmed the reliability of this system by quantifying the effects of ouabain, which is known to transiently alter [Na+]i. To illustrate the utility of the new method, we also examined the chronic effects of aldosterone on [Na+]i in cultured cardiomyocytes. Our technique can rapidly measure [Na+]i with accuracy and sensitivity comparable to the traditional microscopy based method. The results demonstrated that this 96-well plate based measurement has merits, especially for screening test of compounds regulating [Na+]i, and is useful to elucidate the mechanisms and consequences of altered [Na+]i handling in cardiomyocytes.

  4. On the advance of non-invasive techniques implementation for monitoring moisture distribution in cultural heritage: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Gómez Heras, Miguel; Fort González, Rafael; Valles Iriso, Javier; José Varas Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a case study developed in San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (12th -16th Century), which have been selected as an example of a historical church with a complex construction with subsequent combination of architectural styles and building techniques and materials. These materials have a differential behavior under the influence of external climatic conditions and constructive facts. Many decay processes related to humidity are affecting the building's walls and also have influence in the environmental dynamics inside the building. A methodology for monitoring moisture distribution on stone and masonry walls and floors was performed with different non-invasive techniques as thermal imaging, wireless sensor networks (WSN), portable moisture meter, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), in order to the evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques for the knowledge of moisture distribution inside the walls and the humidity origin. North and south oriented sections, both on walls and floors, were evaluated and also a general inspection in the church was carried out with different non-invasive techniques. This methodology implies different monitoring stages for a complete knowledge of the implication of outdoors and indoors conditions on the moisture distribution. Each technique is evaluated according to its effectiveness in the detection of decay processes and maintenance costs. Research funded by Geomateriales (S2013/MIT-2914) and Deterioration of stone materials in the interior of historic buildings as a result induced variation of its microclimate (CGL2011-27902) projects. The cooperation received from the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio (ref. 921349), the Laboratory Network in Science and Technology for Heritage Conservation (RedLabPat, CEI Moncloa) and the Diocese of Alcalá is gratefully acknowledged. MI Mart

  5. Rapid detection of coliforms in drinking water of Arak city using multiplex PCR method in comparison with the standard method of culture (Most Probably Number).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemeh, Dehghan; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad; Mohammad, Arjomandzadegan; Salomeh, Kalantari; Reza, Ahmari Gholam; Hossein, Sarmadian; Maryam, Sadrnia; Azam, Ahmadi; Mana, Shojapoor; Negin, Najarian; Reza, Kasravi Alii; Saeed, Falahat

    2014-05-01

    To analyse molecular detection of coliforms and shorten the time of PCR. Rapid detection of coliforms by amplification of lacZ and uidA genes in a multiplex PCR reaction was designed and performed in comparison with most probably number (MPN) method for 16 artificial and 101 field samples. The molecular method was also conducted on isolated coliforms from positive MPN samples; standard sample for verification of microbial method certificated reference material; isolated strains from certificated reference material and standard bacteria. The PCR and electrophoresis parameters were changed for reducing the operation time. Results of PCR for lacZ and uidA genes were similar in all of standard, operational and artificial samples and showed the 876 bp and 147 bp bands of lacZ and uidA genes by multiplex PCR. PCR results were confirmed by MPN culture method by sensitivity 86% (95% CI: 0.71-0.93). Also the total execution time, with a successful change of factors, was reduced to less than two and a half hour. Multiplex PCR method with shortened operation time was used for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in distribution system of Arak city. It's recommended to be used at least as an initial screening test, and then the positive samples could be randomly tested by MPN.

  6. Monitoring techniques: “StegoGIS: a geographical information system for knowing and preventing infestation risks in cultural heritage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Baslé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004, the Cicrp: “Centre Interrégional de Conservation et Restauration du Patrimoine”, located in Marseilles has been involved in an interdisciplinary research program dealing with infestation and re-infestation, on lining pastes used in painting conservation, by the Stegobium paniceum through a GIS system : a geographical information system called “StegoGIS”. The GIS helps understand the insects ethology in its environmental context, mainly in flour and semolina millings in order to determine analysis criteria to prevent, mitigate and fight infestation in the cultural property environment. Our approach is based on three main lines: 1- A transverse approach of infestation in any type of cultural heritage institution: archives, libraries, museums, historic buildings where organic material collections and environment are attractive on an “insect point of view”. 2 –An IPM strategy (Integrated Pest Management including conservation and management of collections and buildings also based on an infestation survey with actual or potential risks. 3- A “decision- making tool” in diagnosis, preventing methods and treatments for professional conservation staff.

  7. Monitoring Cultural Heritage Sites with Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Technique: The Case Study of the Summer Palace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage sites are rare and irreplaceable wealth of human civilization. The majority of them are becoming unstable due to a combination of human and natural disturbances. High-precision, efficient deformation monitoring facilitates the early recognition of potential risks and enables preventive diagnosis of heritage sites. In this study, an advanced Multi-Temporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (MTInSAR approach was developed by jointly analyzing Persistent Scatterers (PSs and Distributed Scatterers (DSs using high-resolution SAR images. Taking the World Heritage Site of Summer Palace in Beijing as the experimental site, deformation resulting from PSs/DSs showed that overall the site was generally stable except for specific areas and/or monuments. Urbanization (construction and demolition triggered new subsidence in the vicinity of East and South Gate of the site. Slight to moderate (mm/cm-level instabilities of ruins and monuments on Longevity Hill were detected, perhaps due to a combination of destructive anthropogenic activities and long-term natural decay. Subsidence was also detected along the Kunming Lakeside and was probably attributable to variation of the groundwater level, excessive visitor numbers as well as lack of maintenance. This study presents the potential of the MTInSAR approach for the monitoring and conservation of cultural heritage sites.

  8. Standardization of radiochemical techniques aiming the study of Hg volatilization and methylation in water and sediment of gold mining areas in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee

    1992-09-01

    Methylation of inorganic Hg in aquatic systems is a key process in the environmental cycling of this metal, not yet studied in tropical conditions. Radiochemical techniques were adapted and simplified, aiming at the study of Hg volatilization and methylation in water and sediment of gold mining areas in the Amazon region. Preliminary experiments showed, in 35 days volatilization of up to 32 % of 203 Hg 2+ added to aqueous solutions. Acid K 2 Cr 2 0 7 0.1 M solutions were not effective in 203 Hg 0 trapping and the latter was highly and irreversibly absorbed by a variety of synthetic materials commonly used in laboratory work. Considerably simplified versions of the Furutani and Rudd (1980) radiochemical technique for the determination of methylation rates in environmental samples were developed and showed efficiencies close to 90 % in tests with methyl- 2 0 3 H g standards. In-situ incubations of surface sediments were performed in the Madeira River gold mining region, Rondonia State, Brazil, and potential net Hg methylation rates (MR) of up to 1 %.g-1.h-1 were found in black-water affluent like the Mutum-Parana and Jamari rivers and in the Samuel reservoir. MRs in the Madeira River sediments were lower, ranging 10-5 to 10-3 %.g-1.h-1 . MRs obtained in incubations of samples some weeks after collection were one or two orders of magnitude lower than those resulting from in-situ incubations. Methylation in autoclaved samples was close to minimum detectable rates. MRs in surface water samples was in all cases < 7.10-7 %.ml-1.h-1. The determination of the predominant methylation sites will allow a better standardization of the technique described herein, suitable for MR determinations even under the unfavorable conditions prevailing in the Amazon region. (author)

  9. Sound Objects and Sound Products: Standardizing a New Culture of Listening in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter I develop the psychological underpinnings of environmental music towards an understanding of how the goals of cognitive and behavioral psycholo-gists contributed to a new kind of listening at the beginning of the twentieth century. I begin with an examination of nineteenth-century concerns about both the physical and psychological effects of music and fraught debate among experi-mental psychologists of the role of musical expertise in the laboratory. These con-cerns were, I argue, rooted in the assumption of a direct, corporeal connection between the generation and reception of music, usually bound within a single, individual body. In the twentieth century, new technology liberated the listener from a temporally- and geographically-bound experience of music. The Tone Tests, Re-Creation Recitals, and Mood Change “parties” of Thomas Edison and the psychologist Walter Bingham show that recording technology allowed for a normalization and standardization of listening not previously possible in the music halls and laboratories of the nineteenth century. Rather paradoxically, since it also made music more accessible to the individual listener, recorded music, mobilized by industrial psychologists and record companies alike, created a new sound experience actively designed for the lowest common denominator of mass listen-ing. It also contributed to the cultivation of a new practice of mass listening. The new mass listening practice presents broader questions about the definition of music and its functional role – If the function of music is to be ignored, is it still music?

  10. Correction of Faulty Sensors in Phased Array Radars Using Symmetrical Sensor Failure Technique and Cultural Algorithm with Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three issues regarding sensor failure at any position in the antenna array are discussed. We assume that sensor position is known. The issues include raise in sidelobe levels, displacement of nulls from their original positions, and diminishing of null depth. The required null depth is achieved by making the weight of symmetrical complement sensor passive. A hybrid method based on memetic computing algorithm is proposed. The hybrid method combines the cultural algorithm with differential evolution (CADE which is used for the reduction of sidelobe levels and placement of nulls at their original positions. Fitness function is used to minimize the error between the desired and estimated beam patterns along with null constraints. Simulation results for various scenarios have been given to exhibit the validity and performance of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Bowel sparing in pediatric cranio-spinal radiotherapy: a comparison of combined electron and photon and helical TomoTherapy techniques to a standard photon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harron, Elizabeth; Lewis, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dose to organs at risk (OARs) from different craniospinal radiotherapy treatment approaches available at the Northern Centre for Cancer Care (NCCC), with a particular emphasis on sparing the bowel. Method: Treatment plans were produced for a pediatric medulloblastoma patient with inflammatory bowel disease using 3D conformal 6-MV photons (3DCP), combined 3D 6-MV photons and 18-MeV electrons (3DPE), and helical photon TomoTherapy (HT). The 3DPE plan was a modification of the standard 3DCP technique, using electrons to treat the spine inferior to the level of the diaphragm. The plans were compared in terms of the dose-volume data to OARs and the nontumor integral dose. Results: The 3DPE plan was found to give the lowest dose to the bowel and the lowest nontumor integral dose of the 3 techniques. However, the coverage of the spine planning target volume (PTV) was least homogeneous using this technique, with only 74.6% of the PTV covered by 95% of the prescribed dose. HT was able to achieve the best coverage of the PTVs (99.0% of the whole-brain PTV and 93.1% of the spine PTV received 95% of the prescribed dose), but delivered a significantly higher integral dose. HT was able to spare the heart, thyroid, and eyes better than the linac-based techniques, but other OARs received a higher dose. Conclusions: Use of electrons was the best method for reducing the dose to the bowel and the integral dose, at the expense of compromised spine PTV coverage. For some patients, HT may be a viable method of improving dose homogeneity and reducing selected OAR doses.

  12. Effects of different antibiotic classes on airway bacteria in stable COPD using culture and molecular techniques: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Simon E; Law, Martin; El-Emir, Ethaar; Allinson, James P; James, Phillip; Maddox, Victoria; Donaldson, Gavin C; McHugh, Timothy D; Cookson, William O; Moffatt, Miriam F; Nazareth, Irwin; Hurst, John R; Calverley, Peter M A; Sweeting, Michael J; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term antibiotic therapy is used to prevent exacerbations of COPD but there is uncertainty over whether this reduces airway bacteria. The optimum antibiotic choice remains unknown. We conducted an exploratory trial in stable patients with COPD comparing three antibiotic regimens against placebo. Methods This was a single-centre, single-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Patients aged ≥45 years with COPD, FEV1<80% predicted and chronic productive cough were randomised to receive either moxifloxacin 400 mg daily for 5 days every 4 weeks, doxycycline 100 mg/day, azithromycin 250 mg 3 times a week or one placebo tablet daily for 13 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in total cultured bacterial load in sputum from baseline; secondary outcomes included bacterial load by 16S quantitative PCR (qPCR), sputum inflammation and antibiotic resistance. Results 99 patients were randomised; 86 completed follow-up, were able to expectorate sputum and were analysed. After adjustment, there was a non-significant reduction in bacterial load of 0.42 log10 cfu/mL (95% CI −0.08 to 0.91, p=0.10) with moxifloxacin, 0.11 (−0.33 to 0.55, p=0.62) with doxycycline and 0.08 (−0.38 to 0.54, p=0.73) with azithromycin from placebo, respectively. There were also no significant changes in bacterial load measured by 16S qPCR or in airway inflammation. More treatment-related adverse events occurred with moxifloxacin. Of note, mean inhibitory concentrations of cultured isolates increased by at least three times over placebo in all treatment arms. Conclusions Total airway bacterial load did not decrease significantly after 3 months of antibiotic therapy. Large increases in antibiotic resistance were seen in all treatment groups and this has important implications for future studies. Trial registration number clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01398072). PMID:26179246

  13. Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: How Science and Technique Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pisano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into two parts, this being the first one. The second is entitled ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around Renaissance: Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion’ and will be published in Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum in 2015. Based on our recent studies, we provide here a historical and epistemological feature on the role played by machines and machineries. Ours is an epistemological thesis based on a series of historical examples to show that the relations between theoretical science and the construction of machines cannot be taken for granted, a priori. Our analysis is mainly based on the culture of machines around 15th and 17th centuries, namely the epoch of Late Renaissance and Early Modern Age. For this is the period of scientific revolution and this age offers abundant interesting material for researches into the relations of theoretical science/construction of machines as well. However, to prove our epistemological thesis, we will also exploit examples of machines built in other historical periods. Particularly, a discussion concerning the relationship between science theory and the development of science art crafts produced by non-recognized scientists in a certain historical time is presented. The main questions are: when and why did the tension between science (physics, mathematics and geometry give rise to a new scientific approach to applied discipline such as studies on machines and machineries? What kind of science was used (if at all for projecting machines and machineries? Was science at the time a necessary precondition to build a machine? In the first part we will focus on the difference between Aristotelian-Euclidean and Archimedean approaches and we will outline the heritage of these two different approaches in late medieval and Renaissance science. In the second part, we will apply our reconstructions to some historical and epistemological

  14. Analysis of soil and sewage sludge by ICP-OES and the German standard DIN 38414 sample preparation technique (P3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, M.; Heitland, P.; Visser, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The elemental analyses of soil and sewage sludge has developed to become one of the main applications for ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and is described in many official procedures. These methods include different acid mixtures and digestion techniques. Even though the German standard DIN 38414 part 7 and the Dutch NEN 6465 do not guarantee complete recoveries for all elements, they are widely accepted in Europe. This paper describes sample preparation, line selection and investigates precision, accuracy and Limits of detection. The SPECTRO CIROSCCD EOP with axial plasma observation and the SPECTRO CIROSCCD SOP with radial observation were compared and evaluated for the analyses of soil and sewage sludge. Accuracy was investigated using the certified reference materials CRM-141 R, CRM-143 R and GSD 11. Both instruments show excellent performance in terms of speed, precision, accuracy and detection limits for the determination of trace metals in soil and sewage sludge. (author)

  15. New overlay measurement technique with an i-line stepper using embedded standard field image alignment marks for wafer bonding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulse, P.; Sasai, K.; Schulz, K.; Wietstruck, M.

    2017-06-01

    In the last decades the semiconductor technology has been driven by Moore's law leading to high performance CMOS technologies with feature sizes of less than 10 nm [1]. It has been pointed out that not only scaling but also the integration of novel components and technology modules into CMOS/BiCMOS technologies is becoming more attractive to realize smart and miniaturized systems [2]. Driven by new applications in the area of communication, health and automation, new components and technology modules such as BiCMOS embedded RF-MEMS, high-Q passives, Sibased microfluidics and InP-SiGe BiCMOS heterointegration have been demonstrated [3-6]. In contrast to standard VLSI processes fabricated on front side of the silicon wafer, these new technology modules require addition backside processing of the wafer; thus an accurate alignment between the front and backside of the wafer is mandatory. In previous work an advanced back to front side alignment technique and implementation into IHP's 0.25/0.13 μm high performance SiGe:C BiCMOS backside process module has been presented [7]. The developed technique enables a high resolution and accurate lithography on the backside of BiCMOS wafer for additional backside processing. In addition to the aforementioned back side process technologies, new applications like Through-Silicon Vias (TSV) for interposers and advanced substrate technologies for 3D heterogeneous integration demand not only single wafer fabrication but also processing of wafer stacks provided by temporary and permanent wafer bonding [8]. Therefore, the available overlay measurement techniques are not suitable if overlay and alignment marks are realized at the bonding interface of a wafer stack which consists of both a silicon device and a silicon carrier wafer. The former used EVG 40NT automated overlay measurement system, which use two opposite positioned microscopes inspecting simultaneous the wafer back and front side, is not capable measuring embedded overlay

  16. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondeil, Fanja

    1974-01-01

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL 50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white) [fr

  17. A cross-cultural study on the usage of cooperative learning techniques in graduate level education in five different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Bulut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue examinar las experiencias del aprendizaje cooperativo en estudiantes graduados de nivel universitario en cinco países cultural, etnográfica y geográficamente diferentes. Este estudio fue realizado con el propósito de entender cómo influye la educación culturamente distinta y los ambientes académicos en el proceso de aprendizaje y sus implicaciones en el desarrollo de mejores sistemas educativos. Se encuestaron estudiantes universitarios originarios de Arabia Saudita, Brasil, Corea,Turquía, Estados Unidos. A sus respuestas se les aplicó un análisis de varianza y técnicas de análisis factorial. Los resultados mostraron que la cultura no tuvo efecto alguno en las preferencias de aprendizaje. Los estudiantes universitarios realizaron una elección consciente con respecto a su participación o no en el aprendizaje cooperativo en sus ambientes educativos.

  18. Detection of mycoplasmas in urethral swabs from HIV-1 infected patients and control individuals using culture techniques and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ayr Florio da CUNHA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of certain mycoplasma species, i.e., Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma penetrans, in urethral swabs from HIV-1 infected patients compared to swabs from a control group. Mycoplasmas were detected by routine culture techniques and by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique, using 16SrRNA generic primers of conserved region and Mycoplasma penetrans specific primers. The positivity rates obtained with the two methods were comparable. Nevertheless, PCR was more sensitive, while the culture techniques allowed the quantification of the isolates. The results showed no significant difference (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a prevalência de determinadas espécies de micoplasmas, tais como, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum e Mycoplasma penetrans, em swabs uretrais de pacientes infectados com HIV-1 comparando com um grupo controle. Micoplasmas foram detectados por técnicas padrão de cultivo e pela reação de polimerase em cadeia para a qual foram utilizados "primers" genéricos obtidos da região conservada 16SrRNA e "primers" específicos para Mycoplasma penetrans. A positividade obtida nos dois métodos foi comparável. Contudo, o PCR mostrou ser mais sensível nas condições empregadas enquanto que o cultivo permitiu a quantificação dos isolados. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferenças significantes (p < 0,05 nas taxas de positividade entre os métodos empregados para a detecção dos micoplasmas.

  19. Reliability evaluation of high-performance, low-power FinFET standard cells based on mixed RBB/FBB technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Cui, Xiaoxin; Ni, Yewen; Liao, Kai; Liao, Nan; Yu, Dunshan; Cui, Xiaole

    2017-04-01

    With shrinking transistor feature size, the fin-type field-effect transistor (FinFET) has become the most promising option in low-power circuit design due to its superior capability to suppress leakage. To support the VLSI digital system flow based on logic synthesis, we have designed an optimized high-performance low-power FinFET standard cell library based on employing the mixed FBB/RBB technique in the existing stacked structure of each cell. This paper presents the reliability evaluation of the optimized cells under process and operating environment variations based on Monte Carlo analysis. The variations are modelled with Gaussian distribution of the device parameters and 10000 sweeps are conducted in the simulation to obtain the statistical properties of the worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage for each cell. For comparison, a set of non-optimal cells that adopt the same topology without employing the mixed biasing technique is also generated. Experimental results show that the optimized cells achieve standard deviation reduction of 39.1% and 30.7% at most in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage respectively while the normalized deviation shrinking in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage can be up to 98.37% and 24.13%, respectively, which demonstrates that our optimized cells are less sensitive to variability and exhibit more reliability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306040), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB057201), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152020), and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2015A030313147).

  20. CULTURAL HERITAGE DOCUMENTATION AND INTEGRATED GEOMATICS TECHNIQUES IN AN EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT: CASE BOIS-DU-LUC (BELGIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Walloon Region in Belgium played a leading role in the world economy and in the industrial sciences and engineering since the 19th century. Several relicts, such as important industrial buildings or sites, are spread over a large area and are still dominating the current landscape. Some of these remnants are preserved as monuments, representing the industrial, cultural and ecological transition of the region during the last two centuries. Since 2012, UNESCO recognized the importance of four of the best preserved 19th and 20th century coal mining sites and classified them as World Heritage ("Major Mining Sites of Wallonia", Le Grand-Hornu, Bois-du- Luc, Le Bois du Cazier and Blegny Mine. The four recognised mining sites together form a strip of about 170 km long, containing important examples of the so-called 'neo classical architecture’ from the early periods of the industrial era in continental Europe. Motivated by this recognition and by the huge touristic and educational potential of the sites, a partnership between the Walloon government and Ghent University was organized. In this first stage, the collaboration focuses on the site of Bois-du-Luc in the municipality of La Louvière, containing a large series of dwellings, several equipments built between 1853 and 1923 by the Société des Charbonnages du Bois-du-Luc, workshops and heaps. Consisting of numerous buildings dating back to the period between 1838 and 1923, this site is one of Europe’s oldest collieries. The collaboration between the Walloon government and Ghent University – Department of Geography fits in the hands-on training which students in land surveying and geomatics receive during their Bachelor studies. For the students it is very interesting that their practical exercises are not limited to the university campus, but that they are involved in a real measurement campaign. The project consists of a series of intensive land surveying campaigns, resulting in highly

  1. The Spiritual Form of Ancient Art and Culture - Bharatanatyam (Visual Art Depicted Using Unique Techniques on Scratchboard (Fine Art Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpitha Parthasarathy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The most ancient form of dance that is prevailing todays is a form of classical Indian dance, Bharatanatyam. In Sanskrit (and Devanagri, bharatanatyam means "Indian dance", is believed to have divine origin and is of the most ancient form of classical dance. Bharatanatyam is a two thousand-year-old dance form, originally practiced in the temples of ancient India. The art today remains purely devotional even today and this performing art is yet to gain awareness and interest in the western world. This dance form has various implications in improving the higher order thinking in children and provides health benefits in adults apart from cultural preservation. The current study uses scratchboard as a medium to display the artistic movements and emotions. Scratchboard, a fine art is one means by which the visual art is expressed in this current study using sharp tools, namely X-acto 11 scalpel and tattoo needles. This unique medium made up of a masonite hardboard coated with soft clay and Indian ink has been used to not only show the details of the ancient dance form and expression but also to comprehend and transcribe both visual art and fine art. It is for the first time that scratchboard medium has been the innovatively used to show various textures of flower, glistening gold jewels, hand woven silk and the divine expression in the same art ‘devotion’. The current study was carried out in-order to perpetuate, conserve and disseminate these classic forms of visual art and fine art.

  2. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias; Waelti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E.; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; Czell, David; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  3. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias [Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Waelti, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Roos, Justus E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Czell, David [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Neurology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Reischauer, Carolin [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  4. In vitro culture of Arabidopsis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Friml, Jirí

    2008-01-01

    Embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana follows a nearly invariant cell division pattern and provides an ideal system for studies of early plant development. However, experimental manipulation with embryogenesis is difficult, as the embryo develops deeply inside maternal tissues. Here, we present a method to culture zygotic Arabidopsis embryos in vitro. It enables culturing for prolonged periods of time from the first developmental stages on. The technique omits excision of the embryo by culturing the entire ovule, which facilitates the manual procedure. It allows pharmacological manipulation of embryo development and does not interfere with standard techniques for localizing gene expression and protein localization in the cultivated embryos.

  5. Rhizofiltration of lead using an aromatic medicinal plant Plectranthus amboinicus cultured in a hydroponic nutrient film technique (NFT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, A; Arunbabu, V; Neethu, J; Ramasamy, E V

    2014-11-01

    Heavy metal contamination of water bodies and groundwater is a major concern of the modern world. Rhizofiltration--the use of plant root system to remove/extract pollutants from wastewater--has proven advantages over conventional methods of treatment. However, commercialization of this in situ remediation technology requires a better understanding of plant-metal interactions especially on the ability of different plant species to accumulate metals at different parts of the plant system which is critical for the successful remediation of contaminated medium. Many aquatic and terrestrial plants have been reported to accumulate heavy metals when grown hydroponically. Therefore, a batch experiment with different concentrations of lead and a nutrient film technique (NFT) experiment with recycling of wastewater were employed in this study in order to investigate the rhizofiltration of lead-containing wastewater using Plectranthus amboinicus, an aromatic medicinal plant. Results show that P. amboinicus is tolerant to a wide range of lead concentrations and nutrient deficiency. The plant accumulates considerable amount of lead, particularly in the roots, and translocation to the stem and leaf was limited, indicating that the use of leaves/above-ground parts of the plant for medicinal purposes is not hindered by its ability to remove lead from the soil or water. The study also suggests that the plant can be considered for the clean-up of lead-contaminated wastewater in combination with safe biomass disposal alternatives.

  6. Application of mutation breeding technique for producing NaCl tolerant plants of banana in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedadi, C.; Rahimi, M.; Naserian, B.; Rahmani, E.; Neshan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To study of possibility to induce salt tolerant clones in banana by using mutation technique, an experiment was conducted with factorial (gamma irradiation and salt concentration factors) in a CRD design. In this research, plantlets of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were produced by subculture of irradiated shoot tips. It deserves to mention that consequent subculturing was aimed at getting rid of chimera. Next, these explants were transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg. l- 1 BAP and NaCl concentrations of 0, 6, 7, 8, 9 g.l -1 for 2 months .Then, living buds were transferred to medium without salt. After one month, we repeated the first stage. All living buds rooted and were transferred to potted soil. Acclimatized plants were irrigated weekly with above NaCl solution. Other irrigation was done with salt-free water. There was also a negative relation between salt concentration and survival - proliferation. In second salinity stress, salt had no significant difference on survival percentage. No-significant difference of effect salt on survival in second salinity stress was observed. (author)

  7. Determination of management zones from normalized and standardized equivalent produtivity maps in the soybean culture Unidades de manejo a partir de mapas de produtividade normalizada e padronizada equivalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Suszek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the site-specific management, the precision agriculture brings new techniques for the agricultural sector, as well as a larger detailing of the used methods and increase of the global efficiency of the system. The objective of this work was to analyze two techniques for definition of management zones using soybean yield maps, in a productive area handled with localized fertilization and other with conventional fertilization. The sampling area has 1.74 ha, with 128 plots with site-specific fertilization and 128 plots with conventional fertilization. The productivity data were normalized by two techniques (normalized and standardized equivalent productivity, being later classified in management zones. It can be concluded that the two methods of management zones definition had revealed to be efficient, presenting similarities in the data disposal. Due to the fact that the equivalent standardized productivity uses standard score, it contemplates a better statistics justification.Por meio do manejo diferenciado, a agricultura de precisão traz novas técnicas para o setor agrícola, bem como maior detalhamento dos métodos utilizados e aumento da eficiência global do sistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar duas técnicas para definição de unidades de manejo com base em mapas de produtividade de soja, em uma área produtiva manejada com adubação química localizada e outra com adubação química convencional. A área experimental possui 1,74 ha, constituída de 128 amostras com adubação localizada e 128 com adubação convencional. Os dados de produtividade foram normalizados por duas técnicas (produtividade normalizada e padronizada equivalente e posteriormente definidas unidades de manejo. Pode-se concluir que os dois métodos de definição de unidades de manejo mostraram-se eficientes, apresentando semelhanças na disposição dos dados. Devido à produtividade padronizada equivalente utilizar escore-padrão, ela contempla

  8. Laboratory Workflow Analysis of Culture of Periprosthetic Tissues in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Sedarski, John A; Dylla, Brenda L; Shannon, Samantha K; Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah; Hughes, John G; Cheng, Allen C; Patel, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than conventional techniques, but the impact on laboratory workflow has yet to be addressed. Herein, we examined the impact of culture of periprosthetic tissues in blood culture bottles on laboratory workflow and cost. The workflow was process mapped, decision tree models were constructed using probabilities of positive and negative cultures drawn from our published study (T. N. Peel, B. L. Dylla, J. G. Hughes, D. T. Lynch, K. E. Greenwood-Quaintance, A. C. Cheng, J. N. Mandrekar, and R. Patel, mBio 7:e01776-15, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01776-15), and the processing times and resource costs from the laboratory staff time viewpoint were used to compare periprosthetic tissues culture processes using conventional techniques with culture in blood culture bottles. Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of positive cultures. Annualized labor savings were estimated based on salary costs from the U.S. Labor Bureau for Laboratory staff. The model demonstrated a 60.1% reduction in mean total staff time with the adoption of tissue inoculation into blood culture bottles compared to conventional techniques (mean ± standard deviation, 30.7 ± 27.6 versus 77.0 ± 35.3 h per month, respectively; P < 0.001). The estimated annualized labor cost savings of culture using blood culture bottles was $10,876.83 (±$337.16). Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of culture positivity (5 to 50%). Culture in blood culture bottles was cost-effective, based on the estimated labor cost savings of $2,132.71 for each percent increase in test accuracy. In conclusion, culture of periprosthetic tissue in blood culture bottles is not only more accurate than but is also cost-saving compared to conventional culture methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Marie Payne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor object condition. 3D laser scanning, PTM, and CT scanning are investigated. Case studies are explored to investigate their current role in cultural heritage. The appropriateness of this role and whether it should be expanded is addressed by analysing advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, their feasibility, and risks caused to object preservation and accessibility. The results indicate that the technologies present some advantages over standard digital photography; PTM in particular is found to be an extremely useful, affordable technique. A more established role within conservation, especially for condition assessments, could be worthwhile. Use of the imaging techniques to create models for exhibition can also be advantageous; however, care must be taken to ensure that such models are used to enhance accessibility to original objects and not to replace them.

  10. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Naturally Present on Commercially Grown Basil Leaves: Evaluation of Sample Preparation Prior to Culture-Independent Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Delbeke, Stefanie; De Coninck, Dieter; Boussemaere, Jolien; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Fresh herbs such as basil constitute an important food commodity worldwide. Basil provides considerable culinary and health benefits, but has also been implicated in foodborne illnesses. The naturally occurring bacterial community on basil leaves is currently unknown, so the epiphytic bacterial community was investigated using the culture-independent techniques denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Sample preparation had a major influence on the results from DGGE and NGS: Novosphingobium was the dominant genus for three different basil batches obtained by maceration of basil leaves, while washing of the leaves yielded lower numbers but more variable dominant bacterial genera including Klebsiella, Pantoea, Flavobacterium, Sphingobacterium and Pseudomonas. During storage of basil, bacterial growth and shifts in the bacterial community were observed with DGGE and NGS. Spoilage was not associated with specific bacterial groups and presumably caused by physiological tissue deterioration and visual defects, rather than by bacterial growth. PMID:26308033

  11. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Naturally Present on Commercially Grown Basil Leaves: Evaluation of Sample Preparation Prior to Culture-Independent Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siele Ceuppens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh herbs such as basil constitute an important food commodity worldwide. Basil provides considerable culinary and health benefits, but has also been implicated in foodborne illnesses. The naturally occurring bacterial community on basil leaves is currently unknown, so the epiphytic bacterial community was investigated using the culture-independent techniques denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and next-generation sequencing (NGS. Sample preparation had a major influence on the results from DGGE and NGS: Novosphingobium was the dominant genus for three different basil batches obtained by maceration of basil leaves, while washing of the leaves yielded lower numbers but more variable dominant bacterial genera including Klebsiella, Pantoea, Flavobacterium, Sphingobacterium and Pseudomonas. During storage of basil, bacterial growth and shifts in the bacterial community were observed with DGGE and NGS. Spoilage was not associated with specific bacterial groups and presumably caused by physiological tissue deterioration and visual defects, rather than by bacterial growth.

  12. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique for determining multi-element composition of transformed hairy root cultures of Boerhaavia diffusa L. An important medicinal herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopamudra Sahu; Chand, P.K.; Ray, D.K.; Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutically important inorganic elements in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetically transformed hairy root cultures (HRCs) of a pharmaceutically significant herb Boerhaavia diffusa were quantified using proton induced X-ray emission technique. This was compared with that of roots from the naturally grown donor plant. Two macro-elements (Ca and K) and eight different trace elements namely V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu Zn, and Ni were detected and their content was determined. In HRCs of a transformed rhizoclone, calcium and potassium had values which were significantly higher than that of in vivo roots. The concentrations of several trace elements, which are known to have a positive implication in human healthcare, were found to be either comparable (Fe) to that in the natural root samples or higher (Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Co) in the transformed rhizoclone. The genetically transformed HRCs can thus serve as a fast-proliferating renewable resource of medicinally useful minerals targeting specific diseases. (author)

  13. D Models for All: Low-Cost Acquisition Through Mobile Devices in Comparison with Image Based Techniques. Potentialities and Weaknesses in Cultural Heritage Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, C.; Lo Turco, M.; Bocconcino, M. M.; Donato, V.; Galizia, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, 3D digital imaging proposes effective solutions for preserving the expression of human creativity across the centuries, as well as is a great tool to guarantee global dissemination of knowledge and wide access to these invaluable resources of the past. Nevertheless, in several cases, a massive digitalisation of cultural heritage items (from the archaeological site up to the monument and museum collections) could be unworkable due to the still high costs in terms of equipment and human resources: 3D acquisition technologies and the need of skilled team within cultural institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to explore new possibilities offered by growing technologies: the lower costs of these technologies as well as their attractive visual quality constitute a challenge for researchers. Besides these possibilities, it is also important to consider how information is spread through graphic representation of knowledge. The focus of this study is to explore the potentialities and weaknesses of a newly released low cost device in the cultural heritage domain, trying to understand its effective usability in museum collections. The aim of the research is to test their usability, critically analysing the final outcomes of this entry level technology in relation to the other better assessed low cost technologies for 3D scanning, such as Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques (also produced by the same device) combined with dataset generated by a professional digital camera. The final outcomes were compared in terms of quality definition, time processing and file size. The specimens of the collections of the Civic Museum Castello Ursino in Catania have been chosen as the site of experimentation.

  14. 3D MODELS FOR ALL: LOW-COST ACQUISITION THROUGH MOBILE DEVICES IN COMPARISON WITH IMAGE BASED TECHNIQUES. POTENTIALITIES AND WEAKNESSES IN CULTURAL HERITAGE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Santagati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, 3D digital imaging proposes effective solutions for preserving the expression of human creativity across the centuries, as well as is a great tool to guarantee global dissemination of knowledge and wide access to these invaluable resources of the past. Nevertheless, in several cases, a massive digitalisation of cultural heritage items (from the archaeological site up to the monument and museum collections could be unworkable due to the still high costs in terms of equipment and human resources: 3D acquisition technologies and the need of skilled team within cultural institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to explore new possibilities offered by growing technologies: the lower costs of these technologies as well as their attractive visual quality constitute a challenge for researchers. Besides these possibilities, it is also important to consider how information is spread through graphic representation of knowledge. The focus of this study is to explore the potentialities and weaknesses of a newly released low cost device in the cultural heritage domain, trying to understand its effective usability in museum collections. The aim of the research is to test their usability, critically analysing the final outcomes of this entry level technology in relation to the other better assessed low cost technologies for 3D scanning, such as Structure from Motion (SfM techniques (also produced by the same device combined with dataset generated by a professional digital camera. The final outcomes were compared in terms of quality definition, time processing and file size. The specimens of the collections of the Civic Museum Castello Ursino in Catania have been chosen as the site of experimentation.

  15. Ultrastructure of blood and lymphatic vascular networks in three-dimensional cultured tissues fabricated by extracellular matrix nanofilm-based cell accumulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshiya; Nishiguchi, Akihiro; Matsusaki, Michiya; Okano, Daisuke; Saito, Erina; Akashi, Mitsuru; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Cell accumulation technique is an extracellular matrix (ECM) nanofilm-based tissue-constructing method that enables formation of multilayered hybrid culture tissues. In this method, ECM-nanofilm is constructed using layer-by-layer assembly of fibronectin and gelatin on culture cells. The ECM-nanofilm promotes cell-to-cell interaction; then the three-dimensional (3D) multilayered tissue can be constructed with morphological change of the cells mimicking living tissues. By using this method, we have successfully produced tubular networks of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) in 3D multilayered normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). This study demonstrated morphological characteristics of the vascular networks in the engineered tissues by using light and electron microscopy. In light microscopy, HUVECs and HDLECs formed luminal structures such as native blood and lymphatic capillaries, respectively. Electron microscopy showed distinct ultrastructural aspects of the vasculature of HUVECs or HDLECs with intermediated NHDFs and abundant ECM. The vasculature constructed by HUVECs exhibited structures similar to native blood capillaries, involving overlapping endothelial connections with adherens junctions, abundant vesicles in the endothelial cells and basement membrane-like structure. The detection of laminin around HUVEC-constructed vessels supported the presence of perivascular basal lamina. The vasculature constructed by HDLECs showed some ultrastructural characteristics similar to those of native lymphatic capillaries such as irregular vascular shape, loose adhesive connection and gap formation between endothelial cells. In conclusion, our novel vascular network models fabricated by the cell accumulation technique provide highly organized blood and lymphatic capillary networks mimicking the vasculatures in vivo. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese

  16. 3D GEOMATICS TECHNIQUES FOR AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CULTURAL HERITAGE KNOWLEDGE: THE CASE OF SAN MICHELE IN ACERBOLI’S CHURCH IN SANTARCANGELO DI ROMAGNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bitelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern Geomatics techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and multi-view Structure from Motion (SfM, are gaining more and more interest in the Cultural Heritage field. All the data acquired with these technologies could be stored and managed together with other information in a Historical Building Information Model (HBIM. In this paper, it will be shown the case study of the San Michele in Acerboli’s church, located in Santarcangelo di Romagna, Italy. This church, dated about the 6th century A.D., represents a high relevant Romanic building of the high Medieval period. The building presents an irregular square plan with a different length of the lateral brick walls and a consequential oblique one in correspondence of the apse. Nevertheless, the different lengths of the lateral brick walls are balanced thanks to the irregular spaces between the windows. Different changes occurred during the centuries, such as the closing of the seven main doors and the building of the bell tower, in the 11th century A.D., which is nowadays the main entrance of the church. An integrated survey was realized, covering the exterior and the interior. The final 3D model represents a valid support not only for documentation, but also to maintain and manage in an integrate approach the available knowledge of this Cultural Heritage site, developing a HBIM system in which all the mentioned historical, geometrical, material matters are collected.

  17. Characterization of specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) in vacuum-packed ham by culture-plating techniques and MiSeq next-generation sequencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Myszka, Kamila; Czarny, Jakub; Ratajczak, Katarzyna; Kowalski, Ryszard; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Staninska-Pięta, Justyna; Nowak, Jacek; Cyplik, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding microaerophilic and anaerobic specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) is crucial for an appropriate evaluation of vacuum-packed ham. The objective of this study was to characterize the SSO community in vacuum-packed ham by a culture-dependent technique and MiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. The relation between changes among the SSO group in the ham and changes in sensory characteristics of the product was also assessed. In the study, conventional microbiological analyses were employed in order to establish the participation of several groups of microorganisms in the deterioration of vacuum-packed ham. The diversity of the SSO group in the product was further assessed with the use of MiSeq NGS technology. The bacteria identified in sliced cooked ham belonged mostly to four phyla, namely Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. A temperature of 4 °C favoured the development of mesophilic and psychrophilic/psychrotrophic flora, mainly Lactobacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae families. A high ratio of Brochothrix thermosphacta species and new, cold-tolerant Clostridium spp. was also observed. The growth of these microorganisms facilitated changes in the pH value and organoleptic characteristics of the product. This study confirms that the combination of culturing and MiSeq NGS technology improves the microbial evaluation of food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Rapid method for culturing embryonic neuron-glial cell cocultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Shan, Wei-Song; Colman, David R

    2003-01-01

    A streamlined, simple technique for primary cell culture from E17 rat tissue is presented. In an attempt to standardize culturing methods for all neuronal cell types in the embryo, we evaluated a commercial medium without serum and used similar times for trypsinization and tested different surfaces...

  19. Suction/Inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver : a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M; Wälti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; von Weymarn, Constantin; Czell, David; Goyen, Matthias; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. • Suction/Inspiration against resistance is promising to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery. • Patients potentially suffering pulmonary embolism are able to follow suction/inspiration against resistance. • Contrast density after suction is superior in comparison to other breathing maneuvers.

  20. Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  1. Safety and complications reporting update on the re-implantation of culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells using autologous platelet lysate technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Christopher J; Schultz, John R; Cheever, Michelle; Freeman, Michael; Faulkner, Stephen; Robinson, Brent; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Numerous animal studies have documented the multipotency of MSCs, showing their capabilities for differentiating into orthopedic tissues such as muscle, bone, cartilage, and tendon. However, the safety of culture expanded MSC's for human use has only just begun to be reported. Between 2006 and 2010, two groups of patients were treated for various orthopedic conditions with culture-expanded, autologous, bone marrow-derived MSCs (group 1: n=50; group 2: n=290-one patient in both groups). Cells were cultured in monolayer culture flasks using an autologous platelet lysate technique and re-injected into peripheral joints or into intervertebral discs with use of c-arm fluoroscopy. While both groups had prospective surveillance for complications, Group 1 additionally underwent 3.0T MRI tracking of the re-implant sites. The mean age of patients treated was 53 +/- 13.85 years; 214 were males and 125 females with mean follow-up time from any procedure being 435 days +/- 261 days. Number of contacts initiated based on time from first procedure was 482 at 3 months, 433 at 6 months, 316 contacts at 12 months, 110 contacts at 24 months, and 22 contacts at 36 months. For Group 1, 50 patients underwent 210 MRI surveillance procedures at 3 months, 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years which failed to demonstrate any tumor formation at the re-implant sites. Formal disease surveillance for adverse events based on HHS criteria documented significantly less morbidity than is commonly reported for more invasive surgical procedures, all of which were either self-limited or were remedied with therapeutic measures. Two patients were diagnosed with cancer out of 339 patients treated since study inception; however, this was almost certainly unrelated to the MSC therapy and the neoplasm rate in similar to that seen in the U.S. Caucasian population. Knee outcome data was collected on a subset of patients

  2. SU-F-T-503: Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy of Intracranial Lesions: Development of a Standardized Path-Based Technique for Fully Dynamic Couch-Gantry Modulated Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S; Chin, E; Xing, L; Hristov, D; Fahimian, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Otto, K [University of British Columbia, Victoria (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The integration of couch motion during arc delivery is necessitated to enable irradiation trajectories such as coronal arcs, and to enhance the geometrical sampling for dynamic deliveries to the highest extent. To enable such capability, a platform of Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT) is developed in conjunction with standardized noncollisional dynamic path-set for irradiation of intracranial lesions. Methods: A generalized path-set was constructed through the combination of sagittal arcs (45 degrees from the CAX), axial arcs, and coronal arcs produced through modulation of the dynamic rotation of couch. The standardized path was implemented in a contiguous manner enabling the formation of fully automated sub-trajectories to provide maximal geometrical convergence with minimal number of arcs. Progressive sampling technique is used for direct aperture optimization of the MLCs and the selection of couch positions across the control points. Dosimetry of the resulting plans was assessed relative to clinically delivered plans. Using the TrueBeam Developer Mode, plan deliverability was tested. Results: Treatment planning of TMAT sub-trajectories for central, anterior and posterior tumor sites with volumes ranging from 4.75cc to 107cc demonstrated radically reduced doses to the critical OARs when compared to the clinically treated VMAT. Specifically, percentage reduction in mean dose for critical organs such as brainstem, cochlea, and optic nerve are found to be as low as 74±15%, 50±26% and 74±30% respectively as compared to VMAT. Conformity Index, defined as the ratio of tumor volume (VPTV) and 100% dose volume (V(D100%)), was reduced up to 12% while the Gradient Index, defined as V(D100%)/V(D50%), was concurrently improved by up to 14%. Conclusion: An automated standardized trajectory with dynamically modulated couch-gantry arcs has been developed for intracranial radiotherapy. Through the incorporation of coronal arcs, it is demonstrated that

  3. Preparation of Calibration Standards of N1-H Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Analogues by Large-Scale Culture of Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Suzuki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouse bioassay is the official testing method to quantify paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs in bivalves. A number of alternative analytical methods have been reported. Some methods have been evaluated by a single laboratory validation. Among the different types of methods, chemical analyses are capable of identifying and quantifying the toxins, however a shortage of the necessary calibration standards hampers implementation of the chemical analyses in routine monitoring of PSTs in bivalves. In our present study, we studied preparation of major PST analogues as calibrants by large-scale cultivation of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis TA04. The cells were steadily grown in 10 L bottle for 28 days. The primary N1-H toxins, C1/C2, were produced at a concentration of 1.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L. The intracellular and extracellular toxins occupied 80% and 20%, respectively. Over 220 µmol of the toxins was obtained from approximately 200 L of the culture over six months, demonstrating that it is sufficient to prepare saxitoxin analogues. The toxins were chemically converted to six N1-H analogues. Preparation of the analogues was carried out at relatively high yields (50–90%. The results indicate that our preparation method is useful to produce N1-H toxins. In our present study, detailed conditions for preparation of one of the rare N1-H analogues, gonyautoxin-5, were investigated.

  4. Comparison of automated BAX PCR and standard culture methods for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in blue Crabmeat (Callinectus sapidus) and blue crab processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Parveen, Salina; Schwarz, Jurgen G; Rippen, Thomas; Luchansky, John B

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the automated BAX PCR with the standard culture method (SCM) to detect Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab processing plants. Raw crabs, crabmeat, and environmental sponge samples were collected monthly from seven processing plants during the plant operating season, May through November 2006. For detection of L. monocytogenes in raw crabs and crabmeat, enrichment was performed in Listeria enrichment broth, whereas for environmental samples, demi-Fraser broth was used, and then plating on both Oxford agar and L. monocytogenes plating medium was done. Enriched samples were also analyzed by BAX PCR. A total of 960 samples were examined; 59 were positive by BAX PCR and 43 by SCM. Overall, there was no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between the methods for detecting the presence of L. monocytogenes in samples collected from crab processing plants. Twenty-two and 18 raw crab samples were positive for L. monocytogenes by SCM and BAX PCR, respectively. Twenty and 32 environmental samples were positive for L. monocytogenes by SCM and BAX PCR, respectively, whereas only one and nine finished products were positive. The sensitivities of BAX PCR for detecting L. monocytogenes in raw crabs, crabmeat, and environmental samples were 59.1, 100, and 60%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that BAX PCR is as sensitive as SCM for detecting L. monocytogenes in crabmeat, but more sensitive than SCM for detecting this bacterium in raw crabs and environmental samples.