WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard compliant distributed

  1. Toward a Standards-Compliant Genomic and Metagenomic Publication Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrity, GM; Field, D; Kyrpides, N

    2008-01-01

    and related data types, we feel the scientific community would be best served by the immediate launch of a central repository of short, highly structured "Genome Notes" that must be standards compliant. This could be done in the context of an existing journal, but we also suggest the more radical solution...... of launching a new journal. Such a journal could be designed to cater to a wide range of standards-related content types that are not currently centralized in the published literature. It could also support the demand for centralizing aspects of the "gray literature" (documents developed by institutions...... or communities) such as the call by the GSC for a central repository of Standard Operating Procedures describing the genomic annotation pipelines of the major sequencing centers. We argue that such an "eJournal," published under the Open Access paradigm by the GSC, could be an attractive publishing forum...

  2. Lowering the Barrier for Standards-Compliant and Discoverable Hydrological Data Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.

    2013-12-01

    The growing need for sharing and integration of hydrological and climate data across multiple organizations has resulted in the development of distributed, services-based, standards-compliant hydrological data management and data hosting systems. The problem with these systems is complicated set-up and deployment. Many existing systems assume that the data publisher has remote-desktop access to a locally managed server and experience with computer network setup. For corporate websites, shared web hosting services with limited root access provide an inexpensive, dynamic web presence solution using the Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP (LAMP) software stack. In this paper, we hypothesize that a webhosting service provides an optimal, low-cost solution for hydrological data hosting. We propose a software architecture of a standards-compliant, lightweight and easy-to-deploy hydrological data management system that can be deployed on the majority of existing shared internet webhosting services. The architecture and design is validated by developing Hydroserver Lite: a PHP and MySQL-based hydrological data hosting package that is fully standards-compliant and compatible with the Consortium of Universities for Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) hydrologic information system. It is already being used for management of field data collection by students of the McCall Outdoor Science School in Idaho. For testing, the Hydroserver Lite software has been installed on multiple different free and low-cost webhosting sites including Godaddy, Bluehost and 000webhost. The number of steps required to set-up the server is compared with the number of steps required to set-up other standards-compliant hydrologic data hosting systems including THREDDS, IstSOS and MapServer SOS.

  3. Standard requirements for GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohmann, Christian; Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Canham, Steve

    2011-01-01

    A recent survey has shown that data management in clinical trials performed by academic trial units still faces many difficulties (e.g. heterogeneity of software products, deficits in quality management, limited human and financial resources and the complexity of running a local computer centre......). Unfortunately, no specific, practical and open standard for both GCP-compliant data management and the underlying IT-infrastructure is available to improve the situation. For that reason the "Working Group on Data Centres" of the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) has developed...... a standard specifying the requirements for high quality GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials....

  4. Standard Compliant Hazard and Threat Analysis for the Automotive Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Beckers

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry has successfully collaborated to release the ISO 26262 standard for developing safe software for cars. The standard describes in detail how to conduct hazard analysis and risk assessments to determine the necessary safety measures for each feature. However, the standard does not concern threat analysis for malicious attackers or how to select appropriate security countermeasures. We propose the application of ISO 27001 for this purpose and show how it can be applied together with ISO 26262. We show how ISO 26262 documentation can be re-used and enhanced to satisfy the analysis and documentation demands of the ISO 27001 standard. We illustrate our approach based on an electronic steering column lock system.

  5. Fir Filters Compliant with the IEEE Standard for M Class PMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is shown that M class PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit reference model for phasor estimation recommended by the IEEE Standard C37.118.1 with the Amendment 1 is not compliant with the Standard. The reference filter preserves only the limits for TVE (total vector error, and exceeds FE (frequency error and RFE (rate of frequency error limits. As a remedy we propose new filters for phasor estimation for M class PMU that are fully compliant with the Standard requirements. The proposed filters are designed: 1 by the window method; 2 as flat-top windows; or as 3 optimal min-max filters. The results for all Standard compliance tests are presented, confirming good performance of the proposed filters. The proposed filters are fixed at the nominal frequency, i.e. frequency tracking and adaptive filter tuning are not required, therefore they are well suited for application in lowcost popular PMUs.

  6. Protection efficiency of a standard compliant EUV reticle handling solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Long; Lystad, John; Wurm, Stefan; Orvek, Kevin; Sohn, Jaewoong; Ma, Andy; Kearney, Patrick; Kolbow, Steve; Halbmaier, David

    2009-03-01

    For successful implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology for late cycle insertion at 32 nm half-pitch (hp) and full introduction for 22 nm hp high volume production, the mask development infrastructure must be in place by 2010. The central element of the mask infrastructure is contamination-free reticle handling and protection. Today, the industry has already developed and balloted an EUV pod standard for shipping, transporting, transferring, and storing EUV masks. We have previously demonstrated that the EUV pod reticle handling method represents the best approach in meeting EUVL high volume production requirements, based on then state-of-the-art inspection capability at ~53nm polystyrene latex (PSL) equivalent sensitivity. In this paper, we will present our latest data to show defect-free reticle handling is achievable down to 40 nm particle sizes, using the same EUV pod carriers as in the previous study and the recently established world's most advanced defect inspection capability of ~40 nm SiO2 equivalent sensitivity. The EUV pod is a worthy solution to meet EUVL pilot line and pre-production exposure tool development requirements. We will also discuss the technical challenges facing the industry in refining the EUV pod solution to meet 22 nm hp EUVL production requirements and beyond.

  7. Standard requirements for GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ohmann, Christian

    2011-03-22

    Abstract Background A recent survey has shown that data management in clinical trials performed by academic trial units still faces many difficulties (e.g. heterogeneity of software products, deficits in quality management, limited human and financial resources and the complexity of running a local computer centre). Unfortunately, no specific, practical and open standard for both GCP-compliant data management and the underlying IT-infrastructure is available to improve the situation. For that reason the "Working Group on Data Centres" of the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) has developed a standard specifying the requirements for high quality GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials. Methods International, European and national regulations and guidelines relevant to GCP, data security and IT infrastructures, as well as ECRIN documents produced previously, were evaluated to provide a starting point for the development of standard requirements. The requirements were produced by expert consensus of the ECRIN Working group on Data Centres, using a structured and standardised process. The requirements were divided into two main parts: an IT part covering standards for the underlying IT infrastructure and computer systems in general, and a Data Management (DM) part covering requirements for data management applications in clinical trials. Results The standard developed includes 115 IT requirements, split into 15 separate sections, 107 DM requirements (in 12 sections) and 13 other requirements (2 sections). Sections IT01 to IT05 deal with the basic IT infrastructure while IT06 and IT07 cover validation and local software development. IT08 to IT015 concern the aspects of IT systems that directly support clinical trial management. Sections DM01 to DM03 cover the implementation of a specific clinical data management application, i.e. for a specific trial, whilst DM04 to DM12 address the data management of trials across the unit

  8. Effects of wall condition on flow distributions in arterial modeling: comparison of rigid, dynamic, and compliant walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fan [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing (China); Hua, Lu; Gao, Li jian [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    Blood flow distributions were evaluated using various computational strategies. Three commonly used wall conditions in arterial modeling were employed, namely rigid, dynamic and compliant walls. The results show that the velocity distributions are similar under rigid and dynamic walls, developing into the Poiseuille flow, but they are blunt under compliant walls. The peak pressure under rigid walls is highest, but the model of dynamic walls has a good approximation of pressure against the model of compliant walls. The results indicate that a model of compliant walls appears to be a computationally and reasonably accurate approximation of blood velocity distributions compared with the analysis under rigid or dynamic walls. Introducing fluid-structure interaction into arterial modeling is necessary to ensure reliable results and information. However, a model of dynamic walls seems to be a computationally inexpensive yet reasonably accurate approximation for pressure.

  9. A Standard-Compliant Virtual Meeting System with Active Video Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yao-Jen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an H.323 standard compliant virtual video conferencing system. The proposed system not only serves as a multipoint control unit (MCU for multipoint connection but also provides a gateway function between the H.323 LAN (local-area network and the H.324 WAN (wide-area network users. The proposed virtual video conferencing system provides user-friendly object compositing and manipulation features including 2D video object scaling, repositioning, rotation, and dynamic bit-allocation in a 3D virtual environment. A reliable, and accurate scheme based on background image mosaics is proposed for real-time extracting and tracking foreground video objects from the video captured with an active camera. Chroma-key insertion is used to facilitate video objects extraction and manipulation. We have implemented a prototype of the virtual conference system with an integrated graphical user interface to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  10. Conception and Implementation of an OGC-Compliant Sensor Observation Service for a Standardized Access to Raster Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Sorg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The target of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC is interoperability of geographic information, which means creating opportunities to access geodata in a consistent, standardized way. In the domain of sensor data, the target will be picked up within the OGC Sensor Web Enablement Initiative and especially reached through the Sensor Observation Service (SOS standard. This one defines a service for a standardized access to time series data and is usually used for in situ sensors (like discharge gauges and climate stations. Although the standard considers raster data, no implementation of the standard for raster data exists presently. In this paper an OGC-compliant Sensor Observation Service for a standardized access to raster data is described. A data model was developed that enables effective storage of the raster data with the corresponding metadata in a database, reading this data in an efficient way, and encoding it with result formats that the SOS-standard provides.

  11. A standard MIGS/MIMS compliant XML Schema: toward the development of the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, Renzo; Gray, Tanya; Murphy, Sean; Kagan, Leonid; Kravitz, Saul; Lombardot, Thierry; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML) is a core project of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that implements the "Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence" (MIGS) specification and its extension, the "Minimum Information about a Metagenome Sequence" (MIMS). GCDML is an XML Schema for generating MIGS/MIMS compliant reports for data entry, exchange, and storage. When mature, this sample-centric, strongly-typed schema will provide a diverse set of descriptors for describing the exact origin and processing of a biological sample, from sampling to sequencing, and subsequent analysis. Here we describe the need for such a project, outline design principles required to support the project, and make an open call for participation in defining the future content of GCDML. GCDML is freely available, and can be downloaded, along with documentation, from the GSC Web site (http://gensc.org).

  12. Augmented Reality Applications for Substation Management by Utilizing Standards-Compliant SCADA Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Antonijević

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most electrical substations are remotely monitored and controlled by using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA applications. Current SCADA systems have been significantly enhanced by utilizing standardized communication protocols and the most prominent is the IEC 61850 international standard. These enhancements enable improvements in different domains of SCADA systems such as communication engineering, data management and visualization of automation process data in SCADA applications. Process data visualization is usually achieved through Human Machine Interface (HMI screens in substation control centres. However, this visualization method sometimes makes supervision, control and maintenance procedures executed by engineers slow and error-prone because it separates equipment from its automation data. Augmented reality (AR and mixed reality (MR visualization techniques have matured enough to provide new possibilities of displaying relevant data wherever needed. This paper presents a novel methodology for visualizing process related SCADA data to enhance and facilitate human-centric activities in substations such as regular equipment maintenance. The proposed solution utilizes AR visualization techniques together with standards-based communication protocols used in substations. The developed proof-of-concept AR application that enables displaying SCADA data on the corresponding substation equipment with the help of AR markers demonstrates originality and benefits of the proposed visualization method. Additionally, the application enables displaying widgets and 3D models of substation equipment to make the visualization more user-friendly and intuitive. The visualized SCADA data needs to be refreshed considering soft real-time data delivery restrictions. Therefore, the proposed solution is thoroughly tested to demonstrate the applicability of proposed methodology in real substations.

  13. Standard-Compliant Multiple Description Video Coding over Packet Loss Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective scheme of multiple description video coding is proposed for transmission over packet loss network. Using priority encoding transmission, we attempt to overcome the limitation of specific scalable video codec and apply FEC-based multiple description to a common video coder, such as the standard H.264. Firstly, multiple descriptions can be generated using temporal downsampling and the frame with high motion changing is duplicated in each description. Then according to different motion characteristics between frames, each description can be divided into several messages, so in each message better temporal correlation can be maintained for better estimation when information losses occur. Based on priority encoding transmission, unequal protections are assigned in each message. Furthermore, the priority is designed in view of packet loss rate of channels and the significance of bit streams. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme with better performance than the equal protection scheme and other state-of-the-art methods.

  14. SED-ML web tools: generate, modify and export standard-compliant simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar; Scharm, Martin

    2017-04-15

    The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) is a standardized format for exchanging simulation studies independently of software tools. We present the SED-ML Web Tools, an online application for creating, editing, simulating and validating SED-ML documents. The Web Tools implement all current SED-ML specifications and, thus, support complex modifications and co-simulation of models in SBML and CellML formats. Ultimately, the Web Tools lower the bar on working with SED-ML documents and help users create valid simulation descriptions. http://sysbioapps.dyndns.org/SED-ML_Web_Tools/ . fbergman@caltech.edu . © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Cigarette Fires Involving Upholstered Furniture in Residences: The Role that Smokers, Smoker Behavior, and Fire Standard Compliant Cigarettes Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butry, David T; Thomas, Douglas S

    2017-05-01

    Residential structure fires pose a significant risk to life and property. A major source of these fires is the ignition of upholstered furniture by cigarettes. It has long been established that cigarettes and other lighted tobacco products could ignite upholstered furniture and were a leading cause of fire deaths in residences. In recent years, states have adopted fire standard compliant cigarettes ('FSC cigarettes') that are made with a wrapping paper that contains regularly spaced bands, which increases the likelihood of self-extinguishment. This paper measures the effectiveness of FSC cigarettes on the number of residential fires involving upholstered furniture, and the resulting fatalities, injuries, and extent of flame spread, while accounting for the under-reporting of fire incidents. In total, four models were estimated using fire department data from 2002 to 2011. The results provide evidence that FSC cigarettes, on average, reduced the number of residential fires by 45 %, reduced fatalities by 23 %, and extent of flame spread by 27 % in 2011. No effect on injuries was found. Within each state, effectiveness is moderated by the number of smokers and their consumption patterns. In general, FSC cigarettes are more effective in places with a large smoking population who engage in heavier smoking. There is a very limited effect on the lightest of smokers, suggesting behavioral differences between heavy and light smokers that influence fire risk.

  16. MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Fink, Dennis; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2010-06-30

    Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL) and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3). The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export

  17. MetaBar - a tool for consistent contextual data acquisition and standards compliant submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottmann Renzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental sequence datasets are increasing at an exponential rate; however, the vast majority of them lack appropriate descriptors like sampling location, time and depth/altitude: generally referred to as metadata or contextual data. The consistent capture and structured submission of these data is crucial for integrated data analysis and ecosystems modeling. The application MetaBar has been developed, to support consistent contextual data acquisition. Results MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3. Conclusion The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as

  18. The Time Series Data Server (TSDS) for Standards-Compliant, Convenient, and Efficient Access to Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, D. M.; Weigel, R. S.; Wilson, A.; Ware Dewolfe, A.

    2009-12-01

    Data analysis in the physical sciences is often plagued by the difficulty in acquiring the desired data. A great deal of work has been done in the area of metadata and data discovery, however, many such discoveries simply provide links that lead directly to a data file. Often these files are impractically large, containing more time samples or variables than desired, and are slow to access. Once these files are downloaded, format issues further complicate using the data. Some data servers have begun to address these problems by improving data virtualization and ease of use. However, these services often don't scale to large datasets. Also, the generic nature of the data models used by these servers, while providing greater flexibility, may complicate setting up such a service for data providers and limit sufficient semantics that would otherwise simplify use for clients, machine or human. The Time Series Data Server (TSDS) aims to address these problems within the limited, yet common, domain of time series data. With the simplifying assumption that all data products served are a function of time, the server can optimize for data access based on time subsets, a common use case. The server also supports requests for specific variables, which can be of type scalar, structure, or sequence. It also supports data types with higher level semantics, such as "spectrum." The TSDS is implemented using Java Servlet technology and can be dropped into any servlet container and customized for a data provider's needs. The interface is based on OPeNDAP (http://opendap.org) and conforms to the Data Acces Protocol (DAP) 2.0, a NASA standard (ESDS-RFC-004), which defines a simple HTTP request and response paradigm. Thus a TSDS server instance is a compliant OPeNDAP server that can be accessed by any OPeNDAP client or directly via RESTful web service requests. The TSDS reads the data that it serves into a common data model via the NetCDF Markup Language (NcML, http

  19. Compliant Space Mechanisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OBJECTIVES The proposed research will combine the areas of compliant mechanisms and space technology. Compliant mechanisms perform their function through the elastic...

  20. Handbook of compliant mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Larry L; Olsen, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    A fully illustrated reference book giving an easy-to-understand introduction to compliant mechanisms A broad compilation of compliant mechanisms to give inspiration and guidance to those interested in using compliant mechanisms in their designs, the Handbook of Compliant Mechanisms includes graphics and descriptions of many compliant mechanisms. It comprises an extensive categorization of devices that can be used to help readers identify compliant mechanisms related to their application. It also provides chapters on the basic background in compliant mechanisms, the categories o

  1. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Cybersecurity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Danish [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-11-08

    This presentation covers the work that Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are doing for distributed energy resource cybersecurity standards, prepared for NREL's Annual Cybersecurity & Resilience Workshop on October 9-10, 2017.

  2. Banding of connection standards for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This report presents the views of distributed network operators (DNOs), developers, equipment manufacturers and consultants on the current banding of distributed generation in terms of connection standards and recommendations. The Documents ER G59/1, ER G75/1, ER G83/1 and ETR 113/1 covering recommendations for the connection of embedded generating plant to distribution systems and guidance notes for the protection of embedded generating plant are examined. The way in which the recommendations are applied in practice is investigated. Multiple distribution generator installations, fault ride through, and banding are considered as well as both protection required and maximum generator sizes at respective voltage levels.

  3. PROWAY - a standard for distributed control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellie, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The availability of cheap and powerful microcomputer and data communications equipment has led to a major revision of instrumentation and control systems. Intelligent devices can now be used and distributed about the control system in a systematic and economic manner. These sub-units are linked by a communications system to provide a total system capable of meeting the required plant objectives. PROWAY, an international standard process data highway for interconnecting processing units in distributed industrial process control systems, is currently being developed. This paper describes the salient features and current status of the PROWAY effort. (auth)

  4. Compliant thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1999-01-01

    Two dimensional compliant metallic thermal microactuators are designed using topology optimisation, and microfabricated using rapid prototyping techniques. Structures are characterised using advanced image analysis, yielding a very high precision. Characterised structures behave in a way which can...

  5. Mobility of the compliant joints and compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Nenad T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a mobility of the single compliant joints and entire compliant mechanisms. The compliance of the joints and the mobility of the compliant mechanism can be increased by variations of geometry as well as material type of the joints. Therefore the mobility of three kinds of compliant joints with different geometrical shapes (beam joints, film joints and notch joints will be researched. The mobility of the compliant joints made of different material types (plastic joints, silicone joints will be also researched. The mobility of compliant mechanisms will be analyzed by using of the Roberts-Tchebicheff mechanism which coupler point can be guided on an approximately rectilinear path.

  6. Design of compliant mechanisms with selective compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasse, Alexander; Campanile, Lucio Flavio

    2009-01-01

    Conventional mechanisms provide a defined mobility, which expresses the number of degrees of freedom of the mechanism. This allows the system to be driven by a low number of control outputs. This property is virtually retained in the case of compliant mechanisms with lumped compliance, which are obtained by replacing the conventional hinges by solid-state ones. Compliant mechanisms with distributed compliance have, in general, an infinite number of degrees of freedom and therefore cannot guarantee defined kinematics. In this paper the concept of compliant mechanisms with selective compliance is introduced. This special class of compliant mechanisms combines the advantages of distributed compliance with the easy controllability of systems with defined kinematics. The task is accomplished by introducing a new design criterion based on a modal formulation. After this design criterion has been implemented in an optimization formulation for a formal optimization procedure, mechanisms are obtained in which a freely chosen deformation pattern is associated with a low deformation energy while other deformation patterns are considerably stiffer. Besides the description of the modal design criterion and the associated objective function, the sensitivity analysis of the objective function is presented and an application example is shown

  7. Compliant seal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  8. Characterization of Distributive and Standard Ideals in Semilattices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    introduced and studied by Hashimoto (1952); and Gratzer and Schmidt (1961). Properties of distributive ideals of Birkhoff (1967) are considered in our work. In this paper we studied the notion of distributive (dually) ideal and standard ideal in a semilattice of Gratzer (1978) and produced a characterization theorem of ...

  9. Trade and the distributional politics of international labour standards

    OpenAIRE

    Oslington, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper constructs a simple general equilibrium model of the trade and distributional effects of spreading advanced country international labour standards to developing countries. Labour standards (including minimum safety requirements, prohibition of prison and child labour, and rights to unionise) are represented as a floor to the cost of employing labour. The model shows how the spread of standards affects the terms of trade and pattern of international specialisation, and can shift ...

  10. Large-scale double-patterning compliant layouts for DP engine and design rule development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Lucas, Kevin; Hapli, John; Raffard, Herve; Barnes, Levi

    2009-03-01

    Double Patterning is seen as the prime technology to keep Moore's law on path while EUV technology is still maturing into production worthiness. As previously seen for alternating-Phase Shift Mask technology[1], layout compliance of double patterning is not trivial [2,3] and blind shrinks of anything but the most simplistic existing layouts, will not be directly suitable for double patterning. Evaluating a production worthy double patterning engine with highly non-compliant layouts would put unrealistic expectations on that engine and provide metrics with poor applicability for eventual large designs. The true production use-case would be for designs that have at least some significant double patterning compliance already enforced at the design stage. With this in mind a set of ASIC design blocks of different sizes and complexities were created that were double patterning compliant. To achieve this, a set of standard cells were generated, which individually and in isolation were double patterning compliant, for multiple layers simultaneously. This was done using the automated Standard Cell creation tool CadabraTM [4]. To create a full ASIC, however, additional constraints were added to make sure compliance would not be broken across the boundaries between standard cells when placed next to each other [5]. These standard cells were then used to create a variety of double patterning compliant ASICs using iCCompilerTM to place the cells correctly. Now with a compliant layout, checks were made to see if the constraints made at the micro level really do ensure a fully compliant layout on the whole chip and if the coloring engine could cope with such large datasets. A production worthy double patterning engine is ideally distributable over multiple processors [6,7] so that fast turn-around time can be achievable on even the largest designs. We demonstrate the degree of linearity of scaling achievable with our double patterning engine. These results can be understood

  11. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  12. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  13. AASM standards of practice compliant validation of actigraphic sleep analysis from SOMNOwatch(TM) versus polysomnographic sleep diagnostics shows high conformity also among subjects with sleep disordered breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R; Schulz, J; Penzel, T; Fietze, I; Partinen, M; Hein, H

    2010-01-01

    In recent AASM practice, parameter actimetry is cited to measure total sleep time in obstructive sleep apnoea patients, when polysomnography is not available. An actigraph was therefore compared to polysomnographic data in 28 subjects with known sleep disordered breathing. Total sleep time (TST), sleep period time (SPT), sleep efficiency (SE), sustained sleep efficiency (SSE), sleep onset latency (SL) and sleep/wake pattern were compared to gold standard polysomnography. The results of an epoch-by-epoch comparison of sleep/wake from actigraphy to sleep stages from polysomnography gave a sensitivity of 90.2%, a specificity of 95.2% and an overall accuracy of 85.9%. Correlations were moderately strong for SE (0.71, p < 0.001) and SSE (0.65, p < 0.001) and high for TST (0.89, p < 0.001), SPT (0.91, p < 0.001) and SL (0.89, p < 0.001). It was concluded that actigraphy is not identical with PSG recording but gives good results in sleep/wake patterns and predicting TST, SPT, SSE, SE and SL also in sleep apnoea patients not suffering from other sleep disorders. The difficult detection of correct sleep onset causes SSE and SL to be less predictable. Therefore a 15-epoch criterion was introduced and resulted in high correlation of 0.89 for sleep latency, but has to be tested on a bigger population

  14. International Review of Standards and Labeling Programs for Distribution Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scholand, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carreño, Ana María [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hernandez, Carolina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Transmission and distribution (T&D) losses in electricity networks represent 8.5% of final energy consumption in the world. In Latin America, T&D losses range between 6% and 20% of final energy consumption, and represent 7% in Chile. Because approximately one-third of T&D losses take place in distribution transformers alone, there is significant potential to save energy and reduce costs and carbon emissions through policy intervention to increase distribution transformer efficiency. A large number of economies around the world have recognized the significant impact of addressing distribution losses and have implemented policies to support market transformation towards more efficient distribution transformers. As a result, there is considerable international experience to be shared and leveraged to inform countries interested in reducing distribution losses through policy intervention. The report builds upon past international studies of standards and labeling (S&L) programs for distribution transformers to present the current energy efficiency programs for distribution transformers around the world.

  15. Standardized approach for developing probabilistic exposure factor distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) depends critically on the quality of input information that is available to the risk assessor and specifically on the probabilistic exposure factor distributions that are developed and used in the exposure and risk models. Deriving probabilistic distributions for model inputs can be time consuming and subjective. The absence of a standard approach for developing these distributions can result in PRAs that are inconsistent and difficult to review by regulatory agencies. We present an approach that reduces subjectivity in the distribution development process without limiting the flexibility needed to prepare relevant PRAs. The approach requires two steps. First, we analyze data pooled at a population scale to (1) identify the most robust demographic variables within the population for a given exposure factor, (2) partition the population data into subsets based on these variables, and (3) construct archetypal distributions for each subpopulation. Second, we sample from these archetypal distributions according to site- or scenario-specific conditions to simulate exposure factor values and use these values to construct the scenario-specific input distribution. It is envisaged that the archetypal distributions from step 1 will be generally applicable so risk assessors will not have to repeatedly collect and analyze raw data for each new assessment. We demonstrate the approach for two commonly used exposure factors--body weight (BW) and exposure duration (ED)--using data for the U.S. population. For these factors we provide a first set of subpopulation based archetypal distributions along with methodology for using these distributions to construct relevant scenario-specific probabilistic exposure factor distributions.

  16. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  17. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  18. Compliant actuation of rehabilitation robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallery, Heike; Veneman, J.F.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Ekkelenkamp, R.; Buss, Martin; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of compliant actuation for rehabilitation robots on the example of LOPES, focusing on the cons. After illustrating the bandwidth limitations, a new result has been derived: if stability in terms of passivity of the haptic device is desired, the renderable

  19. Applicability of the FASTBUS standard to distributed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiss, S.R.; Downing, R.W.; Gustavson, D.B.; Larsen, R.S.; Logg, C.A.; Paffrath, L.

    1981-03-01

    The new FASTBUS standard has been designed to provide a framework for distributed processing in both experimental data acquisition and accelerator control. The features of FASTBUS which support distributed control are a priority arbitration scheme which allows intercrate as well as intracrate message flow between processors and slave devices; and a high bandwidth to permit efficient sharing of the data paths by high-speed devices. Sophisticated diagnostic aids permit system-wide error checking and/or correction. Software has been developed for large distributed systems. This consists of a system data base description, and initialization algorithms to allocate address space and establish preferred message routes. A diagnostics package is also being developed, based on an independent Ethernet-like serial link. The paper describes available hardware and software, on-going developments, and current applications

  20. Compliant model of a coupled sequential coronary arterial bypass graft: effects of vessel wall elasticity and non-Newtonian rheology on blood flow regime and hemodynamic parameters distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabinejadian, Foad; Ghista, Dhanjoo N

    2012-09-01

    We have recently developed a novel design for coronary arterial bypass surgical grafting, consisting of coupled sequential side-to-side and end-to-side anastomoses. This design has been shown to have beneficial blood flow patterns and wall shear stress distributions which may improve the patency of the CABG, as compared to the conventional end-to-side anastomosis. In our preliminary computational simulation of blood flow of this coupled sequential anastomoses design, the graft and the artery were adopted to be rigid vessels and the blood was assumed to be a Newtonian fluid. Therefore, the present study has been carried out in order to (i) investigate the effects of wall compliance and non-Newtonian rheology on the local flow field and hemodynamic parameters distribution, and (ii) verify the advantages of the CABG coupled sequential anastomoses design over the conventional end-to-side configuration in a more realistic bio-mechanical condition. For this purpose, a two-way fluid-structure interaction analysis has been carried out. A finite volume method is applied to solve the three-dimensional, time-dependent, laminar flow of the incompressible, non-Newtonian fluid; the vessel wall is modeled as a linearly elastic, geometrically non-linear shell structure. In an iteratively coupled approach the transient shell equations and the governing fluid equations are solved numerically. The simulation results indicate a diameter variation ratio of up to 4% and 5% in the graft and the coronary artery, respectively. The velocity patterns and qualitative distribution of wall shear stress parameters in the distensible model do not change significantly compared to the rigid-wall model, despite quite large side-wall deformations in the anastomotic regions. However, less flow separation and reversed flow is observed in the distensible models. The wall compliance reduces the time-averaged wall shear stress up to 32% (on the heel of the conventional end-to-side model) and somewhat

  1. Potential of Sharia-compliant investments

    OpenAIRE

    Ishuayed, Mohamed; Ruiz, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Islamic finance and Sharia-compliant investing has seen substantial growth over the years. As more investors are interested in becoming fully Sharia-compliant, the question of what may they be giving up in exchange arises. This has led us to analyze the potential of Sharia-compliant investments. It is well known that having a Sharia-compliant investment portfolio could be rather restrictive as some sectors and investment instruments are forbidden such as tobacco, alcohol, gambling, pork produ...

  2. Distribution of Standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of in...

  3. Data distribution architecture based on standard real time protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.; Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Data distribution architecture (DDAR) has been designed conforming to new requirements, taking into account the type of data that is going to be generated from experiments in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The main goal of this architecture is to implement a system that is able to manage on line all data that is being generated by an experiment, supporting its distribution for: processing, storing, analysing or visualizing. The first objective is to have a distribution architecture that supports long pulse experiments (even hours). The described system is able to distribute, using real time protocol (RTP), stored data or live data generated while the experiment is running. It enables researchers to access data on line instead of waiting for the end of the experiment. Other important objective is scalability, so the presented architecture can easily grow based on actual necessities, simplifying estimation and design tasks. A third important objective is security. In this sense, the architecture is based on standards, so complete security mechanisms can be applied, from secure transmission solutions until elaborated access control policies, and it is full compatible with multi-organization federation systems as PAPI or Shibboleth.

  4. Compliant electro-thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes design, microfabrication and characterisation of topology optimised compliant electro-thermal microactuators. The actuators are fabricated by a fast prototyping process using laser micromachining and electroplating. Actuators are characterised with respect to displacement......, force and work, by use of image analysis. Four different actuators are presented. These actuators are capable of displacements of 30 μm and forces of 15 mN. The most recent actuator designs function in reasonable accordance with design predictions....

  5. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  6. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  7. RELIABLE COGNITIVE DIMENSIONAL DOCUMENT RANKING BY WEIGHTED STANDARD CAUCHY DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Florence Vijila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Categorization of cognitively uniform and consistent documents such as University question papers are in demand by e-learners. Literature indicates that Standard Cauchy distribution and the derived values are extensively used for checking uniformity and consistency of documents. The paper attempts to apply this technique for categorizing question papers according to four selective cognitive dimensions. For this purpose cognitive dimensional keyword sets of these four categories (also termed as portrayal concepts are assumed and an automatic procedure is developed to quantify these dimensions in question papers. The categorization is relatively accurate when checked with manual methods. Hence simple and well established term frequency / inverse document frequency ‘tf/ IDF’ technique is considered for automating the categorization process. After the documents categorization, standard Cauchy formula is applied to rank order the documents that have the least differences among Cauchy value, (according to Cauchy theorem so as obtain consistent and uniform documents in an order or ranked. For the purpose of experiments and social survey, seven question papers (documents have been designed with various consistencies. To validate this proposed technique social survey is administered on selective samples of e-learners of Tamil Nadu, India. Results are encouraging and conclusions drawn out of the experiments will be useful to researchers of concept mining and categorizing documents according to concepts. Findings have also contributed utility value to e-learning system designers.

  8. IT Consumerization and Compliant Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüker, Nele; Winkler, Till J.; Kude, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Facing the ongoing IT consumerization trend, organizations take different strategies that permit or regulate the acquisition and use of consumer-originated IT devices at the workplace. This paper investigates the effect of two types of IT consumerization strategies (‘laissez-faire’ and ‘middle gr....... Extending the procedural justice view, we conclude that transaction cost theory serves as a complementary lens to explain policy compliance....... ground’) on the policy-related attitudes of employees and their level of policy-compliant device usage (voice, email, and data) at two higher education institutions. Based on hypotheses derived from two theories – i.e., procedural justice theory and transaction cost theory – and mixed methods interviews...

  9. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that values in certain tables of the...,'' including distribution transformers. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT 1992), Public Law 102-486, amended...

  10. Printed-Compliant Electrochemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Abhinav Machhindra

    Compliant electronic devices such as health monitoring tags, wearable electronics, fabricated using add-on printing techniques or by patterning traditional silicon based electronics in ultrathin format, enable them to flex, stretch and twist without any noticeable change in performance. These devices require a power source---a primary or secondary battery---to power the electronics. Traditional forms of batteries are bulky and negate the advantages of this new class of devices. Herein, I investigate various printing techniques and architectures that enable compliant batteries and study the performance of such batteries under mechanical deformations. Firstly, this dissertation investigates electrochemical-mechanical performance of a dispenser printed micro-battery using a microfluidic cell. Nanoparticulate silver ink was printed and cured to form silver electrodes, which was charged in-situ to form a silver-zinc battery. The electrochemical performance of the silver-zinc micro-battery was similar to macro-sized batteries. The shear stress generated by flow of electrolyte over the electrode was used to emulate the shear stress generated during flexing and was used as a tool to study the shear strength of the silver electrode at different state of charge. The dissertation then investigates supported architecture as a reinforcement to maintain the performance of the battery under strain. We demonstrate a highly flexible Zn-MnO2 alkalinebattery by embedding the electrochemically active particles in a mesh support. The mesh support absorbs the stresses generated during flexing. A Similar principle was used to make a stretchable battery. The backbone of the stretchable electrode was a stretchable fabric with silver-coated fibers weaved through a rubber network, which served as the current collector. The fabric was coated with Zn and MnO2 to form a stretchable electrode. Due to the weave architecture the electrode could stretch by 100% without any loss is contact between

  11. Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Länger, Thomas; Lenhart, Gaby

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been the object of intensive research activities and of rapid progress, and it is now developing into a competitive industry with commercial products. Once QKD systems are transferred from the controlled environment of physical laboratories into a real-world environment for practical use, a number of practical security, compatibility and connectivity issues need to be resolved. In particular, comprehensive security evaluation and watertight security proofs need to be addressed to increase trust in QKD. System interoperability with existing infrastructures and applications as well as conformance with specific user requirements have to be assured. Finding common solutions to these problems involving all actors can provide an advantage for the commercialization of QKD as well as for further technological development. The ETSI industry specification group for QKD (ISG-QKD) offers a forum for creating such universally accepted standards and will promote significant leverage effects on coordination, cooperation and convergence in research, technical development and business application of QKD.

  12. Extremely compliant and highly stretchable patterned graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shuze; Huang, Yinjun; Li, Teng, E-mail: LiT@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Graphene is intrinsically ultra-stiff in its plane. Its huge mechanical mismatch when interfacing with ultra-compliant biological tissues and elastomers (7–9 orders of magnitude difference in stiffness) poses significant challenge in its application to functional devices such as epidermal electronics and sensing prosthesis. We offer a feasible and promising solution to this significant challenge by suitably patterning graphene into a nanomesh. Through systematic coarse-grained simulations, we show that graphene nanomesh can be made extremely compliant with nearly zero stiffness up to about 20% elongation and then remain highly compliant up to about 50% elongation.

  13. Tsallis distribution as a standard maximum entropy solution with 'tail' constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercher, J.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We show that Tsallis' distributions can be derived from the standard (Shannon) maximum entropy setting, by incorporating a constraint on the divergence between the distribution and another distribution imagined as its tail. In this setting, we find an underlying entropy which is the Renyi entropy. Furthermore, escort distributions and generalized means appear as a direct consequence of the construction. Finally, the 'maximum entropy tail distribution' is identified as a Generalized Pareto Distribution

  14. Pulsatile flow in a compliant stenosed asymmetric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Abdullah Y.; Muralidhar, K.

    2016-12-01

    Time-varying velocity field in an asymmetric constricted tube is experimentally studied using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry system. The geometry resembles a vascular disease which is characterized by arterial narrowing due to plaque deposition. The present study compares the nature of flow patterns in rigid and compliant asymmetric constricted tubes for a range of dimensionless parameters appearing in a human artery. A blood analogue fluid is employed along with a pump that mimics cardioflow conditions. The peak Reynolds number range is Re 300-800, while the Womersley number range considered in experiments is Wo 6-8. These values are based on the peak velocity in a straight rigid tube connected to the model, over a pulsation frequency range of 1.2-2.4 Hz. The medial-plane velocity distribution is used to investigate the nature of flow patterns. Temporal distribution of stream traces and hemodynamic factors including WSS, TAWSS and OSI at important phases of the pulsation cycle are discussed. The flow patterns obtained from PIV are compared to a limited extent against numerical simulation. Results show that the region downstream of the constriction is characterized by a high-velocity jet at the throat, while a recirculation zone, attached to the wall, evolves in time. Compliant models reveal large flow disturbances upstream during the retrograde flow. Wall shear stress values are lower in a compliant model as compared to the rigid. Cross-plane flow structures normal to the main flow direction are visible at select phases of the cycle. Positive values of largest Lyapunov exponent are realized for wall movement and are indicative of chaotic motion transferred from the flow to the wall. These exponents increase with Reynolds number as well as compliance. Period doubling is observed in wall displacement of highly compliant models, indicating possible triggering of hemodynamic events in a real artery that may cause fissure in the plaque deposits.

  15. Scaling laws for a compliant biomimetic swimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibouin, Florence; Raufaste, Christophe; Bouret, Yann; Argentina, Mederic

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the seminal work of Lord Lighthill in the sixties, we study the motion of inertial aquatic swimmers that propels with undulatory gaits. In 2014, Gazzola et al. have uncovered the law linking the swimming velocity to the kinematics of the swimmer and the fluid properties. At high Reynolds numbers, the velocity appears to be equal to 0.4 Af /(2 π) , where A and f are respectively the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillating fin. We have constructed a compliant biomimetic swimmer, whose muscles have been modeled through a torque distribution thanks to a servomotor. A soft polymeric material mimics the flesh and provides the flexibility. By immersing our robot into a water tunnel, we find and characterize the operating point for which the propulsive force balances the drag. We bring the first experimental proof of the former law and probe large amplitude undulations which exhibits nonlinear effects. All data collapse perfectly onto a single master curve. We investigate the role of the fin flexibility by varying its length and its thickness and we figured out the existence of an efficient swimming regime. We thank the support of CNRS and Université Côte d'Azur.

  16. Linear Estimation of Standard Deviation of Logistic Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a theoretical method based on order statistics and a FORTRAN program for computing the variance and relative efficiencies of the standard deviation of the logistic population with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower variance bound and the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUE\\'s) when the mean is ...

  17. 78 FR 43817 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 RIN 0920-AA53 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological... sections of its regulations titled ``Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological... section states that HHS/CDC may prepare any biological product described under section 351 of the Public...

  18. Dividend policies of shariah-compliant and non-shariah-compliant firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Tbeur, Oumkeltoum

    2013-01-01

    Do shariah-compliant firms pay higher dividends than other firms? Using data from the MENA (Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain) region, this paper shows that shariah-compliant firms not only have higher payout ratios but also have higher likelihood...

  19. 77 FR 32916 - Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...-2010-BT-STD-0048] RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers: Public... information that it is making available about the liquid-immersed distribution transformer equipment classes... equipment classes for several different types of liquid-immersed distribution transformers. In addition to...

  20. 76 FR 45471 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... EERE-2010-BT-STD-0048] RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice...-type distribution transformers. The purpose of the subcommittee will be to discuss and, if possible, reach consensus on a proposed rule for the energy efficiency of distribution transformers, as authorized...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distributing system. 25.1445 Section 25.1445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is supplied to both crew and passengers, the distribution system must be designed for either— (1) A source of...

  2. Preliminary Assessment of a Compliant Gait Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.

  3. Identifying links between origami and compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Greenberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Origami is the art of folding paper. In the context of engineering, orimimetics is the application of folding to solve problems. Kinetic origami behavior can be modeled with the pseudo-rigid-body model since the origami are compliant mechanisms. These compliant mechanisms, when having a flat initial state and motion emerging out of the fabrication plane, are classified as lamina emergent mechanisms (LEMs. To demonstrate the feasibility of identifying links between origami and compliant mechanism analysis and design methods, four flat folding paper mechanisms are presented with their corresponding kinematic and graph models. Principles from graph theory are used to abstract the mechanisms to show them as coupled, or inter-connected, mechanisms. It is anticipated that this work lays a foundation for exploring methods for LEM synthesis based on the analogy between flat-folding origami models and linkage assembly.

  4. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  5. Establishing an Iso-Compliant Modern Cancer-Biobank in a Developing Country: A Model for International Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughayer, Maher A; Souan, Lina

    2015-01-01

    King Hussein Cancer (KHCC) is a specialized cancer center that treats both adult and pediatric cancer patients from Jordan and the neighboring countries. KHCC is acknowledged as a leader in cancer treatment in the Middle East and its vision is to maintain its leading position in cancer therapy and research. Hence, KHCC embarked on establishing the first ISO compliant cancer biobank (KHCCBIO) in Jordan.Currently, there are very few biobanks in the Middle East, hence, KHCC wanted to change this situation by establishing an ISO-compliant cancer biobank which would incorporate all current international guidelines and best-in class practices under an approved quality management system for the benefit of researchers in Jordan, its neighboring countries, and throughout the world. The established biobank would follow the highest ethical standards in collecting, processing, storing and distributing high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens.The strategy used in establishing KHCCBIO was based on taking advantage of international networking and collaboration. This in essence led to knowledge transfer between well established organizations, institutions and individuals from Europe and Jordan, in existing technological innovation and internationally recognized quality standards. KHCC efforts were facilitated by a grant from the European Union under the seventh frame work program.Future aims of KHCCBIO are to develop KHCC's research infrastructure, increase its scope and visibility and improve its competitiveness throughout the biomedical science arena. Moreover, KHCCBIO is aiming to establish a platform for future knowledge transfer and collaborative research; develop partnerships between European and Middle Eastern organizations.

  6. From IEC 61131 to IEC 61499 for Distributed Systems: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gerber

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new concept for distributed control systems based on the new IEC 61499 standard is tested in this work in cooperation with LAE Engineering GmbH, a medium-sized company. Based on a catalogue of requirements, a customer-related testbed is developed. In the following this testbed is used as a reference to realise an IEC 61499 compliant-distributed control system based on PC technics. By doing this, rules are defined to convert user-owned IEC 61131 function blocks to IEC 61499 compliant function blocks. Concluding, some trends for IEC 61499-based distributed control systems will be summarised.

  7. Multichannel Linear Prediction Method Compliant with the MPEG-4 ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamamoto, Yutaka; Harada, Noboru; Moriya, Takehiro

    A new linear prediction analysis method for multichannel signals was devised, with the goal of enhancing the compression performance of the MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding (ALS) compliant encoder and decoder. The multichannel coding tool for this standard carries out an adaptively weighted subtraction of the residual signals of the coding channel from those of the reference channel, both of which are produced by independent linear prediction. Our linear prediction method tries to directly minimize the amplitude of the predicted residual signal after subtraction of the signals of the coding channel, and the method has been implemented in the MPEG-4 ALS codec software. The results of a comprehensive evaluation show that this method reduces the size of a compressed file. The maximum improvement of the compression ratio is 14.6% which is achieved at the cost of a small increase in computational complexity at the encoder and without increase in decoding time. This is a practical method because the compressed bitstream remains compliant with the MPEG-4 ALS standard.

  8. Assuring image authenticity within a data grid using lossless digital signature embedding and a HIPAA-compliant auditing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper C.; Ma, Kevin C.; Liu, Brent J.

    2008-03-01

    A Data Grid for medical images has been developed at the Image Processing and Informatics Laboratory, USC to provide distribution and fault-tolerant storage of medical imaging studies across Internet2 and public domain. Although back-up policies and grid certificates guarantee privacy and authenticity of grid-access-points, there still lacks a method to guarantee the sensitive DICOM images have not been altered or corrupted during transmission across a public domain. This paper takes steps toward achieving full image transfer security within the Data Grid by utilizing DICOM image authentication and a HIPAA-compliant auditing system. The 3-D lossless digital signature embedding procedure involves a private 64 byte signature that is embedded into each original DICOM image volume, whereby on the receiving end the signature can to be extracted and verified following the DICOM transmission. This digital signature method has also been developed at the IPILab. The HIPAA-Compliant Auditing System (H-CAS) is required to monitor embedding and verification events, and allows monitoring of other grid activity as well. The H-CAS system federates the logs of transmission and authentication events at each grid-access-point and stores it into a HIPAA-compliant database. The auditing toolkit is installed at the local grid-access-point and utilizes Syslog [1], a client-server standard for log messaging over an IP network, to send messages to the H-CAS centralized database. By integrating digital image signatures and centralized logging capabilities, DICOM image integrity within the Medical Imaging and Informatics Data Grid can be monitored and guaranteed without loss to any image quality.

  9. Approach for Structurally Clearing an Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Lokos, William A.; Cruz, Josue; Crampton, Glen; Stephens, Craig A.; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Flick, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap was flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Gulfstream GIII testbed at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. This smoothly curving flap replaced the existing Fowler flaps creating a seamless control surface. This compliant structure, developed by FlexSys Inc. in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory, supported NASA objectives for airframe structural noise reduction, aerodynamic efficiency, and wing weight reduction through gust load alleviation. A thorough structures airworthiness approach was developed to move this project safely to flight. A combination of industry and NASA standard practice require various structural analyses, ground testing, and health monitoring techniques for showing an airworthy structure. This paper provides an overview of compliant structures design, the structural ground testing leading up to flight, and the flight envelope expansion and monitoring strategy. Flight data will be presented, and lessons learned along the way will be highlighted.

  10. Control of compliant anthropomimetic robot joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetozarević Bratislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a control strategy for a robot joint which fully mimics the typical human joint structure. The joint drive is based on two actuators (dc motors, agonist and antagonist, acting through compliant tendons and forming a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO system. At any time, we consider one actuator, the puller, as being responsible for motion control, while the role of the other is to keep its tendon force at some appropriate low level. This human-like and energetically efficient approach requires the control of 'switching', or exchanging roles between actuators. Moreover, an algorithm based on adaptive force reference is used to solve a problem of slacken tendons during the switching and to increase the energy efficiency. This approach was developed and evaluated on increasingly complex robot joint configurations, starting with simple and noncompliant system, and finishing with nonlinear and compliant system.

  11. Modeling compliant grasps exploiting environmental constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Salvietti, Gionata; Malvezzi, Monica; Gioioso, Guido; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical framework to describe the interaction between compliant hands and environmental constraints during grasping tasks. In the proposed model, we considered compliance at wrist, joint and contact level. We modeled the general case in which the hand is in contact with the object and the surrounding environment. All the other contact cases can be derived from the proposed system of equations. We performed several numerical simulation using the SynGrasp Matlab ...

  12. Non-compliant Actors (NONCAS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    2006): p. 3). Inclusive strategies can hardly ever be performed by external actors or coalition forces alone. The relevant arenas of meaningful...expected) to be punished and to cause disadvantages to the actor performing this behaviour or activity. Besides their deterrent and coercive...SUBTITLE Non-compliant Actors (NONCAS) Handbook 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  13. Nonlinear aeroelastic behavior of compliant airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwapiah, G; Campanile, L F

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of aviation and up to the present time, airfoils have always been built as rigid structures. They are designed to fly under their divergence speed in order to avoid static aeroelastic instabilities and the resulting large deformations, which are not compatible with the typically low compliance of such airfoils. In recent years, research on airfoil morphing has generated interest in innovative ideas like the use of compliant systems, i.e. systems built to allow for large deformations without failure, in airfoil construction. Such systems can operate in the neighborhood of divergence and take advantage of large aeroelastic servo-effects. This, in turn, allows compact, advanced actuators to control the airfoil's deformation and loads, and hence complement or even replace conventional flaps. In order to analyze and design such compliant, active aeroelastic structures a nonlinear approach to static aeroelasticity is needed, which takes into account the effect of large deformations on aerodynamics and structure. Such an analytical approach is presented in this paper and applied to a compliant passive airfoil as the preliminary step in the realization of a piezoelectrically driven, active aeroelastic airfoil. Wind tunnel test results are also presented and compared with the analytic prediction. The good agreement and the observed behavior in the wind tunnel give confidence in the potential of this innovative idea

  14. Nonlinear aeroelastic behavior of compliant airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwapiah, G.; Campanile, L. F.

    2010-03-01

    Since the beginning of aviation and up to the present time, airfoils have always been built as rigid structures. They are designed to fly under their divergence speed in order to avoid static aeroelastic instabilities and the resulting large deformations, which are not compatible with the typically low compliance of such airfoils. In recent years, research on airfoil morphing has generated interest in innovative ideas like the use of compliant systems, i.e. systems built to allow for large deformations without failure, in airfoil construction. Such systems can operate in the neighborhood of divergence and take advantage of large aeroelastic servo-effects. This, in turn, allows compact, advanced actuators to control the airfoil's deformation and loads, and hence complement or even replace conventional flaps. In order to analyze and design such compliant, active aeroelastic structures a nonlinear approach to static aeroelasticity is needed, which takes into account the effect of large deformations on aerodynamics and structure. Such an analytical approach is presented in this paper and applied to a compliant passive airfoil as the preliminary step in the realization of a piezoelectrically driven, active aeroelastic airfoil. Wind tunnel test results are also presented and compared with the analytic prediction. The good agreement and the observed behavior in the wind tunnel give confidence in the potential of this innovative idea.

  15. Scratch resistance of brittle thin films on compliant substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong; Wu, Linda Y.L.; Chwa, Edmund; Tham, Otto

    2008-01-01

    There has been intensive interest in studying the behavior of hard and brittle thin films on compliant substrates under scratch action. The examples include sol-gel protective coatings on plastic optical lenses, safe windows, and flexible electronic devices and displays. Hard ceramic coatings have been widely used to prolong the life of cutting tools and biomedical implants. In this work, the scratch resistance of sol-gel coatings with different amount of colloidal silica on polycarbonate substrates was tested by the pencil scratch test following the ISO 15184 standard. The scratch failure was found to be tensile trailing cracking in the coating and substrate gouging. The indentation hardness, elasticity modulus and fracture toughness of the coatings were determined and correlated to the observed pencil scratch hardness. Based on the analysis, the main factors to improve the scratch resistance are the elasticity modulus, thickness and fracture toughness of the coatings. General consideration for the improvement of scratch resistance of hard coatings on compliant substrates was also discussed

  16. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  17. Standard services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William H.

    1989-01-01

    Standard functional services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized data are discussed with particular reference to the future implementation of packet processing systems, such as those for the Space Station Freedom. The major functions are listed under the following major categories: input processing, packet processing, and output processing. A functional block diagram of a packet data processing facility is presented, showing the distribution of the various processing functions as well as the primary data flow through the facility.

  18. Standardization of 32P activity determination method in soil-root cores for root distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.B.; Ghildyal, B.P.

    1976-01-01

    The root distribution of wheat variety UP 301 was obtained by determining the 32 P activity in soil-root cores by two methods, viz., ignition and triacid digestion. Root distribution obtained by these two methods was compared with that by standard root core washing procedure. The percent error in root distribution as determined by triacid digestion method was within +- 2.1 to +- 9.0 as against +- 5.5 to +- 21.2 by ignition method. Thus triacid digestion method proved better over the ignition method. (author)

  19. 78 FR 57293 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 RIN 0920-AA52 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human...

  20. Standard Error of Linear Observed-Score Equating for the NEAT Design with Nonnormally Distributed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Jiyun; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2012-01-01

    In the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design, the standard error of linear observed-score equating is commonly estimated by an estimator derived assuming multivariate normality. However, real data are seldom normally distributed, causing this normal estimator to be inconsistent. A general estimator, which does not rely on the…

  1. Compliant sleeve for ceramic turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongda; Narasimhan, Dave; Strangman, Thomas E.; Easley, Michael L.; Schenk, Bjoern

    2000-01-01

    A compliant sleeve for attaching a ceramic member to a metal member is comprised of a superalloy substrate having a metal contacting side and a ceramic contacting side. The ceramic contacting side is plated with a layer of nickel followed by a layer of platinum. The substrate is then oxidized to form nickel oxide scale on the ceramic contacting side and a cobalt oxide scale on the metal contacting side. A lubricious coating of boron nitride is then applied over the metal contacting side, and a shear-stress limiting gold coating is applied over the ceramic contacting side.

  2. Mounting with compliant cylinders for deformable mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinlein, Claudia; Goy, Matthias; Lange, Nicolas; Appelfelder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A method is presented to mount large aperture unimorph deformable mirrors by compliant cylinders (CC). The CCs are manufactured from a soft silicone, and shear testing is performed in order to evaluate the Young's modulus. A scale mirror model is assembled to evaluate mount-induced change of piezoelectric deformation, and its applicability for tightly focusing mirrors. Experiments do not show any decrease of piezoelectric stroke. Further it is shown that the changes of surface fidelity by the attachment of the deformable mirror to its mount are neglectable.

  3. Standard compliant channel selection scheme for TV white space networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available an open issue. In this paper, an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) based scheme is proposed for optimal channel decision. The best channel is selected from a pool of available channels provided by the GSDB. Each channel is ranked based on the current class...

  4. Toward a standards-compliant genomic and metagenomic publication record.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrity, G.M.; Field, D.; Kyrpides, N.; Hirschman, L.; Sansone, S.A.; Angiuoli, S.; Cole, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Kolker, E.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Moran, M.A.; Ussery, D.; White, O.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, we are aware as a community of the growing need to manage the avalanche of genomic and metagenomic data, in addition to related data types like ribosomal RNA and barcode sequences, in a way that tightly integrates contextual data with traditional literature in a machine-readable way.

  5. Toward a Standards-Compliant Genomic and Metagenomic Publication Record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrity, G.; Field, D.; Kyrpides, N.; Hirschman, L.; Sansone, S-A.; Angiuoli, S.V.; Cole, J.; Glöckner, F.O.; Kolker, E.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Moran, M.A.; Ussery, D.; White, O.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, we are aware as a community of the growing need to manage the avalanche of genomic and metagenomic data, in addition to related data types like ribosomal RNA and barcode sequences, in a way that tightly integrates contextual data with traditional literature in a machine-readable way.

  6. Design of 3D-Printed Titanium Compliant Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Howell, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes 3D-printed titanium compliant mechanisms for aerospace applications. It is meant as a primer to help engineers design compliant, multi-axis, printed parts that exhibit high performance. Topics covered include brief introductions to both compliant mechanism design and 3D printing in titanium, material and geometry considerations for 3D printing, modeling techniques, and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful part geometries. Key findings include recommended flexure geometries, minimum thicknesses, and general design guidelines for compliant printed parts that may not be obvious to the first time designer.

  7. Code Compliant School Buildings Boost Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Lumpkin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.

  8. Bionic robot arm with compliant actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehl, Bernhard

    2000-10-01

    Traditional robotics uses non-compliant materials for all components involved in the production of movement. Elasticity is avoided as far as possible, because it leads to hazardous oscillations and makes control of precise movements very difficult. Due to this deliberate stiffness, robots are typically heavy and clumsy structures in comparison to their living counterparts (i.e. man and animals). Yet, moving systems in nature cope not only with the difficulties introduced by compliant materials, they also take advantage of the elasticity in muscles and tendons to produce smooth and even rapid movements. It is understood, that elasticity in a multi-jointed moving system requires sophisticated control mechanisms- as provided by a nervous system or a suitably programmed computer. In this contribution I shall describe a two-jointed robot with purpose-built elasticity in its actuators. This is accomplished by spiral springs places in series with a conventional electric motor and a tendon to the arm. It is shown that, with sufficiently soft elasticity, oscillations can be avoided by active oscillation damping. (Such active oscillation damping presumably also governs movement control in man and animals.) Furthermore, once the major problem has been overcome, elasticity is found to offer a wide spectrum of valuable advantages, as far as the most serious problems in traditional robotics are concerned. They are summarized by terms such as less dangerous, position tolerant, lightweight construction, controlled forces, and ballistic movements. These will be explained in detail and presented for discussion.

  9. Modeling of a compliant joint in a Magnetic Levitation System for an endoscopic camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compliant Magnetic Levitation System (MLS for a wired miniature surgical camera robot was designed, modeled and fabricated. The robot is composed of two main parts, head and tail, linked by a compliant beam. The tail module embeds two magnets for anchoring and manual rough translation. The head module incorporates two motorized donut-shaped magnets and a miniaturized vision system at the tip. The compliant MLS can exploit the static external magnetic field to induce a smooth bending of the robotic head (0–80°, guaranteeing a wide span tilt motion of the point of view. A nonlinear mathematical model for compliant beam was developed and solved analytically in order to describe and predict the trajectory behaviour of the system for different structural parameters. The entire device is 95 mm long and 12.7 mm in diameter. Use of such a robot in single port or standard multiport laparoscopy could enable a reduction of the number or size of ancillary trocars, or increase the number of working devices that can be deployed, thus paving the way for multiple view point laparoscopy.

  10. An experimental investigation of a compliant surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David Earl

    The interaction between a passive compliant surface and a turbulent boundary layer was studied using a 0.6 m diameter water tunnel. The key idea was the simultaneous determination of surface displacement and turbulence structure. A standard turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate was identified by measuring the first four moments of the streamwise velocity component. Then, two compliant surfaces, consisting of different mixtures of silicone elastomer and silicone oil, were studied by replacing a rigid insert in the flat plate. Varying the amount and viscosity of the oil in the mix allowed one to alter the response of the surface at a variety of Reynolds numbers of interest; in each case, a stable pattern of small amplitude displacements representing the footprints of individual flow structures was obtained. A localized averaging technique (VITA) was used to study any changes in the bursting process that might occur in the presence of a compliant surface. The results indicate that positive pressure pulses which are known to accompany bursting events in the buffer layer produced associated negative displacements in the compliant material beneath.

  11. A study of standard building blocks for the design of fault-tolerant distributed computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, D. A.; Avizienis, A.; Ercegovac, M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that has established a standard set of four semiconductor VLSI building-block circuits. These circuits can be assembled with off-the-shelf microprocessors and semiconductor memory modules into fault-tolerant distributed computer configurations. The resulting multi-computer architecture uses self-checking computer modules backed up by a limited number of spares. A redundant bus system is employed for communication between computer modules.

  12. Standard test method for distribution coefficients of inorganic species by the batch method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of distribution coefficients of chemical species to quantify uptake onto solid materials by a batch sorption technique. It is a laboratory method primarily intended to assess sorption of dissolved ionic species subject to migration through pores and interstices of site specific geomedia. It may also be applied to other materials such as manufactured adsorption media and construction materials. Application of the results to long-term field behavior is not addressed in this method. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in selected geomedia are commonly determined for the purpose of assessing potential migratory behavior of contaminants in the subsurface of contaminated sites and waste disposal facilities. This test method is also applicable to studies for parametric studies of the variables and mechanisms which contribute to the measured distribution coefficient. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement a...

  13. Regional drought assessment using a distributed hydrological model coupled with Standardized Runoff Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought assessment is essential for coping with frequent droughts nowadays. Owing to the large spatio-temporal variations in hydrometeorology in most regions in China, it is very necessary to use a physically-based hydrological model to produce rational spatial and temporal distributions of hydro-meteorological variables for drought assessment. In this study, the large-scale distributed hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC was coupled with a modified standardized runoff index (SRI for drought assessment in the Weihe River basin, northwest China. The result indicates that the coupled model is capable of reasonably reproducing the spatial distribution of drought occurrence. It reflected the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improved the physical mechanism of SRI. This model also has potential for drought forecasting, early warning and mitigation, given that accurate meteorological forcing data are available.

  14. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant open-source web-based reporting platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Dos Santos, Daniel; Klos, G; Kloeckner, R; Oberle, R; Dueber, C; Mildenberger, P

    2017-01-01

    To develop a platform that uses structured reporting templates according to the IHE Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, and to implement this platform into clinical routine. The reporting platform uses standard web technologies (HTML / JavaScript and PHP / MySQL) only. Several freely available external libraries were used to simplify the programming. The platform runs on a standard web server, connects with the radiology information system (RIS) and PACS, and is easily accessible via a standard web browser. A prototype platform that allows structured reporting to be easily incorporated into the clinical routine was developed and successfully tested. To date, 797 reports were generated using IHE MRRT-compliant templates (many of them downloaded from the RSNA's radreport.org website). Reports are stored in a MySQL database and are easily accessible for further analyses. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant platform for structured reporting is feasible using only standard web technologies. All source code will be made available upon request under a free license, and the participation of other institutions in further development is welcome. • A platform for structured reporting using IHE MRRT-compliant templates is presented. • Incorporating structured reporting into clinical routine is feasible. • Full source code will be provided upon request under a free license.

  15. Design of a statically balanced fully compliant grasper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.J.; Gallego Sanchez, J.A.; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic and thus fully compliant surgical graspers are promising when they provide equal or better force feedback than conventional graspers. In this work for the first time a fully compliant grasper is designed to exhibit zero stiffness and zero operation force. The design problem is addressed

  16. On the design of compliant mechanisms using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for optimal design of compliant mechanism topologies. The method is based on continuum-type topology optimization techniques and finds the optimal compliant mechanism topology within a given design domain and a given position and direction of input and output forces. ...... manufactured, both in macroscale (hand-size) made in Nylon, and in microscale (

  17. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  18. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As

  19. TIDAL TURBULENCE SPECTRA FROM A COMPLIANT MOORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Richmond, Marshall C.; Talbert, Joe; deKlerk, Alex; Polagye, Brian; Guerra, Maricarmen; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo

    2013-06-13

    A compliant mooring to collect high frequency turbulence data at a tidal energy site is evaluated in a series of short demon- stration deployments. The Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) improves upon recent bottom-mounted approaches by suspend- ing Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) at mid-water depths (which are more relevant to tidal turbines). The ADV turbulence data are superior to Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data, but are subject to motion contamination when suspended on a mooring in strong currents. In this demonstration, passive stabilization is shown to be sufficient for acquiring bulk statistics of the turbulence, without motion correction. With motion cor- rection (post-processing), data quality is further improved; the relative merits of direct and spectral motion correction are dis- cussed.

  20. An overview on STEP-NC compliant controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. A.; Minhat, M.; Jamaludin, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The capabilities of conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools as termination organiser to fabricate high-quality parts promptly, economically and precisely are undeniable. To date, most CNCs follow the programming standard of ISO 6983, also called G & M code. However, in fluctuating shop floor environment, flexibility and interoperability of current CNC system to react dynamically and adaptively are believed still limited. This outdated programming language does not explicitly relate to each other to have control of arbitrary locations other than the motion of the block-by-block. To address this limitation, new standard known as STEP-NC was developed in late 1990s and is formalized as an ISO 14649. It adds intelligence to the CNC in term of interoperability, flexibility, adaptability and openness. This paper presents an overview of the research work that have been done in developing a STEP-NC controller standard and the capabilities of STEP-NC to overcome modern manufacturing demands. Reviews stated that most existing STEP-NC controller prototypes are based on type 1 and type 2 implementation levels. There are still lack of effort being done to develop type 3 and type 4 STEP-NC compliant controller.

  1. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  2. Optimal transformations leading to normal distributions of positron emission tomography standardized uptake values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpelli, Matthew; Eickhoff, Jens; Cuna, Enrique; Perlman, Scott; Jeraj, Robert

    2018-02-01

    The statistical analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements is challenging due to the skewed nature of SUV distributions. This limits utilization of powerful parametric statistical models for analyzing SUV measurements. An ad-hoc approach, which is frequently used in practice, is to blindly use a log transformation, which may or may not result in normal SUV distributions. This study sought to identify optimal transformations leading to normally distributed PET SUVs extracted from tumors and assess the effects of therapy on the optimal transformations. Methods. The optimal transformation for producing normal distributions of tumor SUVs was identified by iterating the Box-Cox transformation parameter (λ) and selecting the parameter that maximized the Shapiro-Wilk P-value. Optimal transformations were identified for tumor SUVmax distributions at both pre and post treatment. This study included 57 patients that underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET scans (publically available dataset). In addition, to test the generality of our transformation methodology, we included analysis of 27 patients that underwent 18F-Fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) PET scans at our institution. Results. After applying the optimal Box-Cox transformations, neither the pre nor the post treatment 18F-FDG SUV distributions deviated significantly from normality (P  >  0.10). Similar results were found for 18F-FLT PET SUV distributions (P  >  0.10). For both 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT SUV distributions, the skewness and kurtosis increased from pre to post treatment, leading to a decrease in the optimal Box-Cox transformation parameter from pre to post treatment. There were types of distributions encountered for both 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT where a log transformation was not optimal for providing normal SUV distributions. Conclusion. Optimization of the Box-Cox transformation, offers a solution for identifying normal SUV transformations for when

  3. An EMOF-Compliant Abstract Syntax for Bigraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kehrer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bigraphs are an emerging modeling formalism for structures in ubiquitous computing. Besides an algebraic notation, which can be adopted to provide an algebraic syntax for bigraphs, the bigraphical theory introduces a visual concrete syntax which is intuitive and unambiguous at the same time; the standard visual notation can be customized and thus tailored to domain-specific requirements. However, in contrast to modeling standards based on the Meta-Object Facility (MOF and domain-specific languages typically used in model-driven engineering (MDE, the bigraphical theory lacks a precise definition of an abstract syntax for bigraphical modeling languages. As a consequence, available modeling and analysis tools use proprietary formats for representing bigraphs internally and persistently, which hampers the exchange of models across tool boundaries. Moreover, tools can be hardly integrated with standard MDE technologies in order to build sophisticated tool chains and modeling environments, as required for systematic engineering of large systems or fostering experimental work to evaluate the bigraphical theory in real-world applications. To overcome this situation, we propose an abstract syntax for bigraphs which is compliant to the Essential MOF (EMOF standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG. We use typed graphs as a formal underpinning of EMOF-based models and present a canonical mapping which maps bigraphs to typed graphs in a natural way. We also discuss application-specific variation points in the graph-based representation of bigraphs. Following standard techniques from software product line engineering, we present a framework to customize the graph-based representation to support a variety of application scenarios.

  4. Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Zafer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.

  5. Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eryong; Li, Longyang; Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Xue, Qunji

    2017-01-01

    Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, semisolid and liquid state all have good adhesion with modified mesh. The states of n-octadecane changed with temperature, thus, the surface contact angle and adhesive force all varies obviously at different state. The contact angle decreases with temperature, the adhesive force shows a lower value at semisolid state. Furthermore, the drag testing results show that the compliant n-octadecane film is more effectively in drag reduction than superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS film, indicating that the drag reduction mechanism of n-octadecane is significantly different with superhydrophobic film. Further research shows that the water flow leads to self-texturing of semisolid state n-octadecane, which is similar with compliant fish skin. Therefore, the compliant bionic materials of semisolid state n-octadecane with regular bulge plays a major role in the drag reduction.

  6. GLN standard as a facilitator of physical location identification within process of distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Dujak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distribution, from the business point of view, is a set of decisions and actions that will provide the right products at the right time and place, in line with customer expectations. It is a process that generates significant cost, but also effectively implemented, significantly affects the positive perception of the company. Institute of Logistics and Warehousing (IliM, based on the research results related to the optimization of the distribution network and consulting projects for companies, indicates the high importance of the correct description of the physical location within the supply chains in order to make transport processes more effective. Individual companies work on their own geocoding of warehouse locations and location of their business partners (suppliers, customers, but the lack of standardization in this area causes delays related to delivery problems with reaching the right destination. Furthermore, the cooperating companies do not have a precise indication of the operating conditions of each location, e.g. Time windows of the plant, logistic units accepted at parties, supported transport etc. Lack of this information generates additional costs associated with re-operation and the costs of lost benefits for the lack of goods on time. The solution to this problem seems to be a wide-scale implementation of GS1 standard which is the Global Location Number (GLN, that, thanks to a broad base of information will assist the distribution processes. Material and methods: The results of survey conducted among Polish companies in the second half of 2016 indicate an unsatisfactory degree of implementation of the transport processes, resulting from incorrect or inaccurate description of the location, and thus, a significant number of errors in deliveries. Accordingly, authors studied literature and examined case studies indicating the possibility of using GLN standard to identify the physical location and to show the

  7. On the design of compliant mechanisms using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for optimal design of compliant mechanism topologies. The method is based on continuum-type topology optimization techniques and finds the optimal compliant mechanism topology within a given design domain and a given position and direction of input and output forces....... By constraining the allowed displacement at the input port, it is possible to control the maximum stress level in the compliant mechanism. The ability of the design method to find a mechanism with complex output behavior is demonstrated by several examples. Some of the optimal mechanism topologies have been...... manufactured, both in macroscale (hand-size) made in Nylon, and in microscale (

  8. Shock Reactivity Study on Standard and Reduced Sensitivity Rdx of Different Particle Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, N. M.; Lindfors, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Embedded gauge experiments have been performed using a three inch high velocity powder gun to assess the effects of RDX particle size and crystal quality on shock induced reactivity in support of the Combat Safe Insensitive Munitions (CSIM) program. Four monomodal experimental compositions containing 73% solids loading by weight and 27% HTPB binder were tested. The compositions were made using either standard or reduced sensitivity grades of RDX in Class 5 or Class 1 150-300 micron sieve cut particle size classes. Results have shown marked changes in the mode of reaction between the two particle size classes. Both RDX grades at the Class 1 sieve cut particle size distribution showed significant reaction at the shock front as well as behind the front. The Class 5 RDX compositions however showed little reaction at the shock front with rapid growth behind the front. Reaction modes were similar but occurring at greater input pressures for the reduced sensitivity grade of RDX compared to the corresponding particle size distribution standard grade RDX counterpart.

  9. Tax evasion, labor market effects, and income distribution

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm

    2014-01-01

    To determine the full effects of taxation on income distribution, policymakers need to consider the impacts of tax evasion. In the standard analysis of tax evasion, all the benefits are assumed to accrue to tax evaders. But tax evasion has other impacts that determine its true effects. As factors of production move from tax-compliant to tax-evading (informal) sectors, changes in relative prices and productivity reduce incentives for workers to enter the informal sector. At least some of the g...

  10. System Compliant Actuation for Structural Engine Noise Remission, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the research into ?Compliant Actuator? design will be to demonstrate to prototype level a low profile fully integrated control mechanism. This...

  11. Optimizing compliant, model-based robotic assistance to promote neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbrecht, Eric T; Chan, Vicky; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Bobrow, James E

    2008-06-01

    Based on evidence from recent experiments in motor learning and neurorehabilitation, we hypothesize that three desirable features for a controller for robot-aided movement training following stroke are high mechanical compliance, the ability to assist patients in completing desired movements, and the ability to provide only the minimum assistance necessary. This paper presents a novel controller that successfully exhibits these characteristics. The controller uses a standard model-based, adaptive control approach in order to learn the patient's abilities and assist in completing movements while remaining compliant. Assistance-as-needed is achieved by adding a novel force reducing term to the adaptive control law, which decays the force output from the robot when errors in task execution are small. Several tests are presented using the upper extremity robotic therapy device named Pneu-WREX to evaluate the performance of the adaptive, "assist-as-needed" controller with people who have suffered a stroke. The results of these experiments illustrate the "slacking" behavior of human motor control: given the opportunity, the human patient will reduce his or her output, letting the robotic device do the work for it. The experiments also demonstrate how including the "assist-as-needed" modification in the controller increases participation from the motor system.

  12. ELEGANT: A flexible SDDS-compliant code for accelerator simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borland, M.

    2000-01-01

    ELEGANT (ELEctron Generation ANd Tracking) is the principle accelerator simulation code used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for circular and one-pass machines. Capabilities include 6-D tracking using matrices up to third order, canonical integration, and numerical integration. Standard beamline elements are supported, as well as coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefields, rf elements, kickers, apertures, scattering, and more. In addition to tracking with and without errors, ELEGANT performs optimization of tracked properties, as well as computation and optimization of Twiss parameters, radiation integrals, matrices, and floor coordinates. Orbit/trajectory, tune, and chromaticity correction are supported. ELEGANT is fully compliant with the Self Describing Data Sets (SDDS) file protocol, and hence uses the SDDS Toolkit for pre- and post-processing. This permits users to prepare scripts to run the code in a flexible and automated fashion. It is particularly well suited to multistage simulation and concurrent simulation on many workstations. Several examples of complex projects performed with ELEGANT are given, including top-up safety analysis of the APS and design of the APS bunch compressor

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.

  14. British Standard method for determining the luminance distribution of electro-optical x-ray image intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Electrical Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for determining the luminance distribution of electro-optical X-ray image intensifiers. The luminance distribution is determined from the measurement of the luminance over the area of the output image related to conditions of uniform exposure rate in the entrance plane of an electro-optical X-ray image intensifier. (U.K.)

  15. Establishment of a Standard Analytical Model of Distribution Network with Distributed Generators and Development of Multi Evaluation Method for Network Configuration Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Shoji; Matsuki, Junya; Matsuda, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shigekazu; Miyazaki, Teru; Kobayashi, Naoki

    Since a distribution network has many sectionalizing switches, there are huge radial network configuration candidates by states (opened or closed) of sectionalizing switches. Recently, the total number of distributed generation such as photovoltaic generation system and wind turbine generation system connected to the distribution network is drastically increased. The distribution network with the distributed generators must be operated keeping reliability of power supply and power quality. Therefore, the many configurations of the distribution network with the distributed generators must be evaluated multiply from various viewpoints such as distribution loss, total harmonic distortion, voltage imbalance and so on. In this paper, the authors propose a multi evaluation method to evaluate the distribution network configuration candidates satisfied with constraints of voltage and line current limit from three viewpoints ((1) distribution loss, (2) total harmonic distortion and (3) voltage imbalance). After establishing a standard analytical model of three sectionalized and three connected distribution network configuration with distributed generators based on the practical data, the multi evaluation for the established model is carried out by using the proposed method based on EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Programs).

  16. Thermal neutron standard field with a Maxwellian distribution using the KUR heavy water facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Okamoto, S.; Shibata, T.

    1978-01-01

    A heavy water facility attached to the KUR (Kyoto University Reactor, swimming pool type. 5 MW) yeilds pure thermal neutrons with a Maxwellian distribution. The facility is placed next to the core of KUR and contains about 2t of heavy water. The width of the heavy water layer is about 140 cm. The neutron spectrum was measured with the time-of-flight technique using a fast chopper. The measured spectrum was in good agreement with a Maxwellian distribution in the whole energy region for thermal neutrons. The neutron temperature was slightly higher than the heavy water temperature. The contamination of epithermal and fast neutrons caused by photo-neutrons from the γ-n reaction in heavy water is very small. The maximum intensity of thermal neutrons is 3 X 10 11 n/cm.s. When a bismuth scatterrer is attached, the gamma ray contamination is decreased to a ratio of 0.05 of gamma rays to neutrons in Rem. This standard neutron field has been used for such experiments as thermal neutron cross section measurement, diffusion length measurement, detector calibration, activation analysis and for biomedical purposes. (Auth.)

  17. Mt. Graham: optical turbulence vertical distribution with standard and high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Stoesz, Jeff; Hagelin, Susanna; Lascaux, Franck

    2010-07-01

    A characterization of the optical turbulence vertical distribution and all the main integrated astroclimatic parameters derived from the C2N and the wind speed profiles above Mt. Graham is presented. The statistic includes measurements related to 43 nights done with a Generalized Scidar (GS) used in standard configuration with a vertical resolution of ~1 km on the whole 20-22 km and with the new technique (HVR-GS) in the first kilometer. The latter achieves a resolution of ~ 20-30 m in this region of the atmosphere. Measurements done in different periods of the year permit us to provide a seasonal variation analysis of the C2N. A discretized distribution of the typical C2N profiles useful for the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) simulations is provided and a specific analysis for the LBT Laser Guide Star system ARGOS case is done including the calculation of the 'gray zones' for J, H and K bands. Mt. Graham confirms to be an excellent site with median values of the seeing without dome contribution equal to 0.72", the isoplanatic angle equal to 2.5" and the wavefront coherence time equal to 4.8 msec. We provide a cumulative distribution of the percentage of turbulence developed below H* where H* is included in the (0,1 km) range. We find that 50% of the whole turbulence develops in the first 80 m from the ground. The turbulence decreasing rate is very similar to what has been observed above Mauna Kea.

  18. Mechanical Buckling of Individual Silicon Nanoribbons on a Compliant Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Siang Yee

    About a decade ago, mechanical buckling evolves as a promising metrology to rapidly measure the elastic moduli of thin films and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. This form of metrology translates the geometrical measurements of the buckling profile into material property value. The strategy applied in the mechanical buckling-based metrology consists of three steps: i) applying pre-strain to the compliant substrate, ii) depositing or transferring 1D nanostructures onto the surface of the pre-strained compliant substrate, and iii) releasing the pre-strain of the compliant substrate so as to allow it to return to its original dimensions. The release of the pre-strain on the compliant substrate induces a compressive stress on the strain-free 1D nanostructures which later buckle spontaneously into sinusoidal shape in order to relieve the compressive stress. Using the Newtonian mechanics model, previous researchers developed a relation to identify the elastic properties of the 1D nanostructures by correlating the buckling wavelength with materials and geometric parameters of the system. However, previous work mainly emphasized on application of small strain (less than 40%), and single material system of relatively long and having equal moment of inertia (e.g. circular or hexagon). Without acknowledging the existence of the native sheath layer surrounding the nanostructures could lead to measurement error of 15% or more. In this dissertation work, silicon nanoribbons of variable aspect ratios (width B ranging 40, 60, 80, 100 and 200 nm, and constant thickness H of 30 nm) were individually deposited on a 100% pre-strained elastomeric (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) substrate. Since the as-fabricated Si nanoribbons consist of native oxide layer of 5 nm, the core-sheath structure had to be accounted for the property measurement where the effective modulus was being considered. Upon relaxing the 100% pre-strain on the pristine substrate, Si nanoribbons showed increased

  19. A Virtual Geophysical Network: Using Industry Standard Technology to Link Geographically Distributed Sensors and Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.; Crotwell, H. P.

    2003-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management System has long supported distributed data centers as a method of providing scientific researchers access to data from seismological networks around the world. For nearly a decade, the NetDC system used email as the method through which users could access data centers located around the globe in a seamless fashion. More recently the IRIS DMC has partnered with the University of South Carolina to develop a new method through which a virtual data center can be created. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology is an industry standard distributed computing architecture. Traditionally used by major corporations, IRIS has developed a Data Handling Interface (DHI) system that is capable of connecting services at participating data centers (servers) to applications running on end-users computing platforms (clients). For seismology we have identified three services. 1) A network service that provides information about geophysical observatories around the world such as where the sensors exist, what types of information are recorded on the sensors, and calibration information that allows proper use of the data, 2) an event service that allows applications to access information about earthquakes and seismological events and 3) waveform services that allow users to gain access to seismograms or time series data from other geophysical sensors. Seismological Data Centers operate the servers thereby allowing a variety of client applications to directly access the information at these data centers. Currently IRIS, the U. of South Carolina, UC Berkeley, and a European Data Center (ORFEUS) have been involved in the DHI project. This talk will highlight some of the DHI enabled clients that allow geophysical information to be directly transferred to the clients. Since the data center servers appear with the same interface specification (Interface Definition Language) a client that can talk to one DHI server can talk to any DHI enabled

  20. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant open-source web-based reporting platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto dos Santos, Daniel; Klos, G.; Kloeckner, R.; Oberle, R.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P.

    2017-01-01

    To develop a platform that uses structured reporting templates according to the IHE Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, and to implement this platform into clinical routine. The reporting platform uses standard web technologies (HTML / JavaScript and PHP / MySQL) only. Several freely available external libraries were used to simplify the programming. The platform runs on a standard web server, connects with the radiology information system (RIS) and PACS, and is easily accessible via a standard web browser. A prototype platform that allows structured reporting to be easily incorporated into the clinical routine was developed and successfully tested. To date, 797 reports were generated using IHE MRRT-compliant templates (many of them downloaded from the RSNA's radreport.org website). Reports are stored in a MySQL database and are easily accessible for further analyses. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant platform for structured reporting is feasible using only standard web technologies. All source code will be made available upon request under a free license, and the participation of other institutions in further development is welcome. (orig.)

  1. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant open-source web-based reporting platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto dos Santos, Daniel; Klos, G.; Kloeckner, R.; Oberle, R.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P. [University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To develop a platform that uses structured reporting templates according to the IHE Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, and to implement this platform into clinical routine. The reporting platform uses standard web technologies (HTML / JavaScript and PHP / MySQL) only. Several freely available external libraries were used to simplify the programming. The platform runs on a standard web server, connects with the radiology information system (RIS) and PACS, and is easily accessible via a standard web browser. A prototype platform that allows structured reporting to be easily incorporated into the clinical routine was developed and successfully tested. To date, 797 reports were generated using IHE MRRT-compliant templates (many of them downloaded from the RSNA's radreport.org website). Reports are stored in a MySQL database and are easily accessible for further analyses. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant platform for structured reporting is feasible using only standard web technologies. All source code will be made available upon request under a free license, and the participation of other institutions in further development is welcome. (orig.)

  2. Autoregressive moving average fitting for real standard deviation in Monte Carlo power distribution calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Taro

    2010-01-01

    The noise propagation of tallies in the Monte Carlo power method can be represented by the autoregressive moving average process of orders p and p-1 (ARMA(p,p-1)], where p is an integer larger than or equal to two. The formula of the autocorrelation of ARMA(p,q), p≥q+1, indicates that ARMA(3,2) fitting is equivalent to lumping the eigenmodes of fluctuation propagation in three modes such as the slow, intermediate and fast attenuation modes. Therefore, ARMA(3,2) fitting was applied to the real standard deviation estimation of fuel assemblies at particular heights. The numerical results show that straightforward ARMA(3,2) fitting is promising but a stability issue must be resolved toward the incorporation in the distributed version of production Monte Carlo codes. The same numerical results reveal that the average performance of ARMA(3,2) fitting is equivalent to that of the batch method in MCNP with a batch size larger than one hundred and smaller than two hundred cycles for a 1100 MWe pressurized water reactor. The bias correction of low lag autocovariances in MVP/GMVP is demonstrated to have the potential of improving the average performance of ARMA(3,2) fitting. (author)

  3. Conceptual Design of Compliant Mechanism Based on Port Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an effective method for port-based ontology (PBO to be used to represent and organize product design information and, support product conceptualization. As port is used to map and link components together, it plays an important role in capturing component information. This paper establishes a design method of compliant mechanism based on port ontology. Firstly, the coding rules are constituted based on PBO, and knowledge base of compliant mechanism is constructed, which includes stiffness base and inherent frequency base of flexible cells. Secondly, incidence matrix is established to denote the relationship of components, and based on incidence matrix design, schemes are generated by adopting the genetic algorithm. Thirdly, by selecting suitable parameters, scheme populations are generated towards training neural network (NN, and the trained NN model is employed for choosing preferential schemes to be satisfied with users' demands. At last, an application case is given to demonstrate the conceptual design of compliant mechanism based on port ontology.

  4. Freeform Compliant CMOS Electronic Systems for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-01-17

    The state-of-the-art electronics technology has been an integral part of modern advances. The prevalent rise of the mobile device and computational technology in the age of information technology offers exciting applications that are attributed to sophisticated, enormously reliable, and most mature CMOS-based electronics. We are accustomed to high performance, cost-effective, multifunctional, and energy-efficient scaled electronics. However, they are rigid, bulky, and brittle. The convolution of flexibility and stretchability in electronics for emerging Internet of Everything application can unleash smart application horizon in unexplored areas, such as robotics, healthcare, smart cities, transport, and entertainment systems. While flexible and stretchable device themes are being remarkably chased, the realization of the fully compliant electronic system is unaddressed. Integration of data processing, storage, communication, and energy management devices complements a compliant system. Here, a comprehensive review is presented on necessity and design criteria for freeform (physically flexible and stretchable) compliant high-performance CMOS electronic systems.

  5. Compliant Foil Journal Bearings - Investigation of Dynamic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    and dynamic coefficients, of the compliant foil bearing together with an efficient solution method, which can be easily adopted and implemented by mechanical engineers. A theoretical model of a radial compliant foil bearing that incorporates compressibility of the lubricating gas and flexibility...... a Bubnow-Galerkin approach. This constitutes the main original contribution of this work, considering the fact that the finite difference method is commonly used and thouroughly investigated in the literature. The finite element method leads to a set of non-linear equations for the static fluid film...... on the compliant foil bearings, and the understanding of their dynamic behaviour is growing. However, practical design involving these bearings are still associated with a large degree of trial and error. This study aims at establishing an accurate mathematical model, to calculate the pressure, film height...

  6. Design, realization and structural testing of a compliant adaptable wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, G; Arrieta, A F; Ermanni, P; Quack, M; Morari, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, optimization, realization and testing of a novel wing morphing concept, based on distributed compliance structures, and actuated by piezoelectric elements. The adaptive wing features ribs with a selectively compliant inner structure, numerically optimized to achieve aerodynamically efficient shape changes while simultaneously withstanding aeroelastic loads. The static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the wing, and the effect of activating the actuators, is assessed by means of coupled 3D aerodynamic and structural simulations. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed morphing concept and optimization procedure, the wings of a model airplane are designed and manufactured according to the presented approach. The goal is to replace conventional ailerons, thus to achieve controllability in roll purely by morphing. The mechanical properties of the manufactured components are characterized experimentally, and used to create a refined and correlated finite element model. The overall stiffness, strength, and actuation capabilities are experimentally tested and successfully compared with the numerical prediction. To counteract the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the piezoelectric actuators, a closed-loop controller is implemented, and its capability of accurately achieving the desired shape adaptation is evaluated experimentally. Using the correlated finite element model, the aeroelastic behavior of the manufactured wing is simulated, showing that the morphing concept can provide sufficient roll authority to allow controllability of the flight. The additional degrees of freedom offered by morphing can be also used to vary the plane lift coefficient, similarly to conventional flaps. The efficiency improvements offered by this technique are evaluated numerically, and compared to the performance of a rigid wing. (paper)

  7. VO-compliant libraries of high resolution spectra of cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, D.

    2008-10-01

    In this contribution we describe a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant version of the libraries of high resolution spectra of cool stars described by Montes et al. (1997; 1998; and 1999). Since their publication the fully reduced spectra in FITS format have been available via ftp and in the World Wide Web. However, in the VO all the spectra will be accessible using a common web interface following the standards of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). These libraries include F, G, K and M field stars, from dwarfs to giants. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000 Å, with spectral resolution ranging from 0.09 to 3.0 Å.

  8. Peristaltic transport of a Carreau fluid in a compliant rectangular duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Riaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of peristaltic flow of a Carreau fluid in a compliant rectangular channel has been analyzed in this article. The assumptions of low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximation are utilized here to simplify the complicated governing equations for the three dimensional flow geometry. The resulting highly non-linear partial differential constitutive equations are solved jointly by homotopy perturbation and Eigen function expansion methods. The effects of various physical parameters on velocity distribution have been observed graphically for both two and three dimensional aspects. The trapping scheme has also been discussed by plotting stream lines.

  9. Stress-constrained topology optimization for compliant mechanism design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leon, Daniel M.; Alexandersen, Joe; Jun, Jun S.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an application of stress-constrained topology optimization to compliant mechanism design. An output displacement maximization formulation is used, together with the SIMP approach and a projection method to ensure convergence to nearly discrete designs. The maximum stress...... is approximated using a normalized version of the commonly-used p-norm of the effective von Mises stresses. The usual problems associated with topology optimization for compliant mechanism design: one-node and/or intermediate density hinges are alleviated by the stress constraint. However, it is also shown...

  10. [Development of national and international standards of population age distribution for medical statistics, health-demographic analysis and risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V F; Pal'tsev, M A; Chaban, E A

    2013-01-01

    The current European standard (CES) and the World population age distribution standard is widely used in medical and demographic studies, performed by international (WHO, etc.) and national organizations. The Russian Federal Service of States Statistics (RosStat) uses CES in demographic yearbooks and other publications. The standard is applied in calculation of the standardized mortality rate (SMR) of the population in different countries and territories. Risk assessment is also used CES. In the basis of the standards there has been laid the idea to assess mortality according to uniform standard, so to get possibility to compare the mortality rate of the population in different countries and regions, different genders and different calendar years. Analysis of the results of test calculations of the values of the SMR for the population of Russia and other countries with the use of current standards has revealed serious shortcomings of the latters and set up the task of improving them. A new concept of the development of standards based on the use of the concept of stable equilibrium of the age distribution of the population and survivorship function is proposed.

  11. A data science based standardized Gini index as a Lorenz dominance preserving measure of the inequality of distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ultsch

    Full Text Available The Gini index is a measure of the inequality of a distribution that can be derived from Lorenz curves. While commonly used in, e.g., economic research, it suffers from ambiguity via lack of Lorenz dominance preservation. Here, investigation of large sets of empirical distributions of incomes of the World's countries over several years indicated firstly, that the Gini indices are centered on a value of 33.33% corresponding to the Gini index of the uniform distribution and secondly, that the Lorenz curves of these distributions are consistent with Lorenz curves of log-normal distributions. This can be employed to provide a Lorenz dominance preserving equivalent of the Gini index. Therefore, a modified measure based on log-normal approximation and standardization of Lorenz curves is proposed. The so-called UGini index provides a meaningful and intuitive standardization on the uniform distribution as this characterizes societies that provide equal chances. The novel UGini index preserves Lorenz dominance. Analysis of the probability density distributions of the UGini index of the World's counties income data indicated multimodality in two independent data sets. Applying Bayesian statistics provided a data-based classification of the World's countries' income distributions. The UGini index can be re-transferred into the classical index to preserve comparability with previous research.

  12. A data science based standardized Gini index as a Lorenz dominance preserving measure of the inequality of distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    The Gini index is a measure of the inequality of a distribution that can be derived from Lorenz curves. While commonly used in, e.g., economic research, it suffers from ambiguity via lack of Lorenz dominance preservation. Here, investigation of large sets of empirical distributions of incomes of the World's countries over several years indicated firstly, that the Gini indices are centered on a value of 33.33% corresponding to the Gini index of the uniform distribution and secondly, that the Lorenz curves of these distributions are consistent with Lorenz curves of log-normal distributions. This can be employed to provide a Lorenz dominance preserving equivalent of the Gini index. Therefore, a modified measure based on log-normal approximation and standardization of Lorenz curves is proposed. The so-called UGini index provides a meaningful and intuitive standardization on the uniform distribution as this characterizes societies that provide equal chances. The novel UGini index preserves Lorenz dominance. Analysis of the probability density distributions of the UGini index of the World's counties income data indicated multimodality in two independent data sets. Applying Bayesian statistics provided a data-based classification of the World's countries' income distributions. The UGini index can be re-transferred into the classical index to preserve comparability with previous research.

  13. OVERVIEW OF EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION OF CERTIFICATES OF STANDARDS AND ISO 9000 ISO 14000 IN NATIONAL AND FOREIGN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    GILSON EDUARDO TARRENTO; CELSO FERNANDES JOAQUIM JUNIOR

    2010-01-01

    Quality is considered as an essential factor for the competitiveness of companies due to the necessity to improve processes and better use of their resources. In this context, the standardization of processes can assist on improving customer satisfaction and contribute to sustainability and image of organizations. Considering that quality certification leads to standardization, this paper aimed to discuss the outlook of the distribution of the certificates of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, gr...

  14. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  15. Airside HVAC BESTEST: HVAC Air-Distribution System Model Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ronald [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, Joel [J. Neymark & Associates; Kennedy, Mike D. [Mike D. Kennedy, Inc.; Gall, J. [AAON, Inc.; Henninger, R. [GARD Analytics, Inc.; Hong, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Knebel, D. [AAON, Inc.; McDowell, T. [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Witte, M. [GARD Analytics, Inc.; Yan, D. [Tsinghua University; Zhou, X. [Tsinghua University

    2017-08-07

    This paper summarizes recent work to develop new airside HVAC equipment model analytical verification test cases for ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. The analytical verification test method allows comparison of simulation results from a wide variety of building energy simulation programs with quasi-analytical solutions, further described below. Standard 140 is widely cited for evaluating software for use with performance-path energy efficiency analysis, in conjunction with well-known energy-efficiency standards including ASHRAE Standard 90.1, the International Energy Conservation Code, and other international standards. Airside HVAC Equipment is a common area of modelling not previously explicitly tested by Standard 140. Integration of the completed test suite into Standard 140 is in progress.

  16. Designing a Distributed Space Systems Simulation in Accordance with the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Simulations are essential for engineering design. These virtual realities provide characteristic data to scientists and engineers in order to understand the details and complications of the desired mission. A standard development simulation package known as Trick is used in developing a source code to model a component (federate in HLA terms). The runtime executive is integrated into an HLA based distributed simulation. TrickHLA is used to extend a Trick simulation for a federation execution, develop a source code for communication between federates, as well as foster data input and output. The project incorporates international cooperation along with team collaboration. Interactions among federates occur throughout the simulation, thereby relying on simulation interoperability. Communication through the semester went on between participants to figure out how to create this data exchange. The NASA intern team is designing a Lunar Rover federate and a Lunar Shuttle federate. The Lunar Rover federate supports transportation across the lunar surface and is essential for fostering interactions with other federates on the lunar surface (Lunar Shuttle, Lunar Base Supply Depot and Mobile ISRU Plant) as well as transporting materials to the desired locations. The Lunar Shuttle federate transports materials to and from lunar orbit. Materials that it takes to the supply depot include fuel and cargo necessary to continue moon-base operations. This project analyzes modeling and simulation technologies as well as simulation interoperability. Each team from participating universities will work on and engineer their own federate(s) to participate in the SISO Spring 2011 Workshop SIW Smackdown in Boston, Massachusetts. This paper will focus on the Lunar Rover federate.

  17. Compliant displacement-multiplying apparatus for microelectromechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kota, Sridhar (9391 Quail Ridge Run, Brighton, MI 48114); Rodgers, M. Steven (12216 Papaya Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Hetrick, Joel A. (818 S. Gammon, Apartment 4, Madison, WI 53719)

    2001-01-01

    A pivotless compliant structure is disclosed that can be used to increase the geometric advantage or mechanical advantage of a microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator such as an electrostatic comb actuator, a capacitive-plate electrostatic actuator, or a thermal actuator. The compliant structure, based on a combination of interconnected flexible beams and cross-beams formed of one or more layers of polysilicon or silicon nitride, can provide a geometric advantage of from about 5:1 to about 60:1 to multiply a 0.25-3 .mu.m displacement provided by a short-stroke actuator so that such an actuator can be used to generate a displacement stroke of about 10-34 .mu.m to operate a ratchet-driven MEM device or a microengine. The compliant structure has less play than conventional displacement-multiplying devices based on lever arms and pivoting joints, and is expected to be more reliable than such devices. The compliant structure and an associated electrostatic or thermal actuator can be formed on a common substrate (e.g. silicon) using surface micromachining.

  18. On the response of impacting compliant flex run | Akano | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of an impacting compliant system such as a Flexrun on the ground surface is simulated by the general purpose explicit dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA. The complicated geometry has been modeled in Solid Edge ST6 before being imported into LS PrePost/LS-DYNA for the required analysis.

  19. Design optimization of a twist compliant mechanism with nonlinear stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Y.; Frecker, M. I.; Wissa, A. A.; Hubbard, J. E., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    A contact-aided compliant mechanism called a twist compliant mechanism (TCM) is presented in this paper. This mechanism has nonlinear stiffness when it is twisted in both directions along its axis. The inner core of the mechanism is primarily responsible for its flexibility in one twisting direction. The contact surfaces of the cross-members and compliant sectors are primarily responsible for its high stiffness in the opposite direction. A desired twist angle in a given direction can be achieved by tailoring the stiffness of a TCM. The stiffness of a compliant twist mechanism can be tailored by varying thickness of its cross-members, thickness of the core and thickness of its sectors. A multi-objective optimization problem with three objective functions is proposed in this paper, and used to design an optimal TCM with desired twist angle. The objective functions are to minimize the mass and maximum von-Mises stress observed, while minimizing or maximizing the twist angles under specific loading conditions. The multi-objective optimization problem proposed in this paper is solved for an ornithopter flight research platform as a case study, with the goal of using the TCM to achieve passive twisting of the wing during upstroke, while keeping the wing fully extended and rigid during the downstroke. Prototype TCMs have been fabricated using 3D printing and tested. Testing results are also presented in this paper.

  20. Design optimization of a twist compliant mechanism with nonlinear stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I; Wissa, A A; Hubbard, J E Jr

    2014-01-01

    A contact-aided compliant mechanism called a twist compliant mechanism (TCM) is presented in this paper. This mechanism has nonlinear stiffness when it is twisted in both directions along its axis. The inner core of the mechanism is primarily responsible for its flexibility in one twisting direction. The contact surfaces of the cross-members and compliant sectors are primarily responsible for its high stiffness in the opposite direction. A desired twist angle in a given direction can be achieved by tailoring the stiffness of a TCM. The stiffness of a compliant twist mechanism can be tailored by varying thickness of its cross-members, thickness of the core and thickness of its sectors. A multi-objective optimization problem with three objective functions is proposed in this paper, and used to design an optimal TCM with desired twist angle. The objective functions are to minimize the mass and maximum von-Mises stress observed, while minimizing or maximizing the twist angles under specific loading conditions. The multi-objective optimization problem proposed in this paper is solved for an ornithopter flight research platform as a case study, with the goal of using the TCM to achieve passive twisting of the wing during upstroke, while keeping the wing fully extended and rigid during the downstroke. Prototype TCMs have been fabricated using 3D printing and tested. Testing results are also presented in this paper. (paper)

  1. Dealing with Non-Compliant Actors: Guidelines for Operational Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    interaction possibilities and potential for external actors . In order to get some ideas about the forms and kinds of non-compliance performed and in order to...punished and cause disadvantages to the actor exhibiting this behaviour or performing this activity. Besides their deterrent and coercive character...UNCLASSIFIED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Dealing with Non-Compliant Actors

  2. EPA Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) with ERP Compliant Coke, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Administrative Order on Consent with ERP Compliant Coke was effective August 2016. The Walter Coke facility located in North Birmingham was purchased by ERP Compliant Coke, LLC in February 2016 out of bankruptcy proceedings.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Compliant Wall Surface Deformation in Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Agarwal, Karuna; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    On-going research integrates Tomographic PIV (TPIV) with Mach-Zehnder Interferometry (MZI) to measure the correlations between deformation of a compliant wall and a turbulent channel flow or a boundary layer. Aiming to extend the scope to two-way coupling, in the present experiment the wall properties have been designed, based on a theoretical analysis, to increase the amplitude of deformation to several μm, achieving the same order of magnitude as the boundary layer wall unit (5-10 μm). It requires higher speeds and a softer surface that has a Young's modulus of 0.1MPa (vs. 1Mpa before), as well as proper thickness (5 mm) that maximize the wall response to excitation at scales that fall within the temporal and spatial resolution of the instruments. The experiments are performed in a water tunnel extension to the JHU refractive index matched facility. The transparent compliant surface is made of PDMS molded on the tunnel window, and measurements are performed at friction velocity Reynolds numbers in the 1000-7000 range. MZI measures the 2D surface deformation as several magnifications. The time-resolved 3D pressure distribution is determined by calculating to spatial distribution of material acceleration from the TPIV data and integrating it using a GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration method. ONR.

  4. The negotiation of quality standards: A social interactionists approach to fruit and vegetable distribution in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses food quality standards. It suggests that writing on standards creates a flat view of the subject, failing to grasp the richness of the multiple self-organizing practices that shape quality within functioning markets. The article documents the social dimension of quality and

  5. Investigation of element distribution and homogeneity of TXRF samples using SR-micro-XRF to validate the use of an internal standard and improve external standard quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horntrich, C; Smolek, S; Maderitsch, A; Simon, R; Kregsamer, P; Streli, C

    2011-06-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) offers a nondestructive qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace elements. Due to its outstanding properties TXRF is widely used in the semiconductor industry for the analysis of silicon wafer surfaces and in the chemical analysis of liquid samples. Two problems occur in quantification: the large statistical uncertainty in wafer surface analysis and the validity of using an internal standard in chemical analysis. In general TXRF is known to allow for linear calibration. For small sample amounts (low nanogram (ng) region) the thin film approximation is valid neglecting absorption effects of the exciting and the detected radiation. For higher total amounts of samples deviations from the linear relation between fluorescence intensity and sample amount can be observed. This could be caused by the sample itself because inhomogeneities and different sample shapes can lead to differences of the emitted fluorescence intensities and high statistical errors. The aim of the study was to investigate the elemental distribution inside a sample. Single and multi-element samples were investigated with Synchrotron-radiation-induced micro X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-μ-XRF) and with an optical microscope. It could be proven that the microscope images are all based on the investigated elements. This allows the determination of the sample shape and potential inhomogeneities using only light microscope images. For the multi-element samples, it was furthermore shown that the elemental distribution inside the samples is homogeneous. This justifies internal standard quantification.

  6. Distribution of stress in greenhouses frames estimated by aerodynamic coefficients of Brazilian and European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Vieira Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Widely disseminated in both national and international scenarios, greenhouses are agribusiness solutions which are designed to allow for greater efficiency and control of the cultivation of plants. Bearing this in mind, the construction of greenhouses should take into consideration the incidence of wind, and other such aspects of comfort and safety, and ensure they are factored into the design of structural elements. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pressure coefficients established by the European standard EN 13031-1 (2001 and the Brazilian standard ABNT (1988, which are applicable to the structures of greenhouses with flat roofs, taking into account the following variables: roof slope, external and internal pressure coefficients and height-span ratio of the structure. Using the ANSYSTM computer program, zones of columns and roof were discretized by the Beam44 finite element to identify the maximum and minimum stress portions connected to the aerodynamic coefficients. With this analysis, we found that, in the smallest roof slope (a equal to 20°, the frame stress was quite similar for standards adopted. On the other hand, for the greatest inclination (a equal to 26°, the stress was consistently lower under the Brazilian standard. In view of this, we came to the conclusion that the differences between stresses when applying both standards were more significant at the higher degrees of height-span ratio and roof slope.

  7. BENEFITS OF USING SOFTWARE WITH SIK COMPLIANT ARCHITECTURE IN CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the main benefits that can be obtained by using a SIK (software inherited knowledge) compliant architecture for cloud services and support software used to build, administer and maintaining the cloud. It introduces the basic building blocks for cloud computing together with the main categories of cloud services. For the SIK architecture, shown in connection with a semantic-web application architecture, are introduced the main functionalities. The paper ...

  8. ISA-97 Compliant Architecture Testbed (ICAT) Projectry Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-30

    by the System Integracion Directorate of the USAISEC, August 29, 1992. The report discusses the refinement of the ISA-97 Compliant Architecture Model...and create representations of the system in another form or at a higher level of abstraction." Reverse engineering is a labor intensive process. It is...procedures that the program models. The analysis can be performed manually, but the process is labor intensive and therefore costly in time and resources

  9. Targeted Feature Recognition Using Mechanical Spatial Filtering with a Low-Cost Compliant Strain Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Eli M; Lofton, Julian J; Yu, Miao; Bruck, Hugh A; Smela, Elisabeth

    2017-07-11

    A tactile sensing architecture is presented for detection of surface features that have a particular target size, and the concept is demonstrated with a braille pattern. The approach is akin to an inverse of mechanical profilometry. The sensing structure is constructed by suspending a stretchable strain-sensing membrane over a cavity. The structure is moved over the surface, and a signal is generated through mechanical spatial filtering if a feature is small enough to penetrate into the cavity. This simple design is tailorable and can be realized by standard machining or 3D printing. Images of target features can be produced with even a low-cost compliant sensor. In this work a disposable elastomeric piezoresistive strain sensor was used over a cylindrical "finger" part with a groove having a width corresponding to the braille dot size. A model was developed to help understand the working principle and guide finger design, revealing amplification when the cavity matches the feature size. The new sensing concept has the advantages of being easily reconfigured for a variety of sensing problems and retrofitted to a wide range of robotic hands, as well as compatibility with many compliant sensor types.

  10. Effects of Year-Round Schooling on Disadvantaged Students and the Distribution of Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Using detailed longitudinal data for the state of California, this paper estimates the effect of year-round school calendars on nationally standardized test performance of traditionally disadvantaged students. The student subgroups studied in this paper are: low socioeconomic status, limited English proficiency, Hispanic and Latino, and African…

  11. Determination of the relations governing the evolution of the standard deviations of the distribution of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1985-04-01

    An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere

  12. Security Standards and Best Practice Considerations for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Information Technology Promotion Agency Netherlands National Communications Security Agency Spain Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas and Centro...communicate via public channel to reveal which basis they selected for each photon. Photons where matching bases were chosen are kept; photons where...Distribution for a Satellite Uplink with 50 dB Channel Loss” addresses how to implement QKD via satellite, which act as a trusted node to link two or more

  13. Standardized Low-Power Wireless Communication Technologies for Distributed Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Vilajosana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM, are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA, are based on contention medium access control (MAC layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

  14. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  15. Standard distribution for unclassified scientific and technical reports: instructions and category scope notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Technical Information Center (DOE/TIC) uses a subject category scheme for classifying and distributing DOE-originated or -sponsored unclassified scientific and technical reports. This document contains the subject category scope notes used for these purposes. Originators of DOE or DOE-sponsored scientific and technical reports are urged to adhere to the instructions contained this publication. A limited number of copies of the unabridged version (addresses included) are available to Department of Energy offices and their contractors as DOE/TIC-4500(Rev.69)(Unabridged)

  16. On the compliant behaviour of free-standing Si nanostructures on Si(001) for Ge nanoheteroepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Grzegorz

    2012-04-24

    Selective chemical vapor deposition Ge heteroepitaxy approaches for high quality Ge nanostructure growth with reasonable thermal budget must be developed for local Ge photonic module integration. A promising vision is offered by the compliant substrate effects within nanometer scale Ge/Si heteroepitaxial structures. Here, in contrast to the classical Ge deposition on bulk Si substrates, the thermal and lattice mismatch strain energy accumulated in the Ge epilayer is partially shifted to the free-standing Si nanostructure. This strain partitioning phenomenon is at the very heart of the nanoheteroepitaxy theory (NHE) and, if strain energy levels are correctly balanced, offers the vision to grow defect-free nanostructures of lattice mismatched semiconductors on Si. In case of the Ge/Si heterosystem with a lattice mismatch of 4.2%, the strain partitioning phenomenon is expected to be triggered when free-standing Si nanopillars with the width of 50 nm and below are used. In order to experimentally verify NHE with its compliant substrate effects, a set of free-standing Ge/Si nanostructures with diameter ranging from 150 to 50 nm were fabricated and investigated. The main limitation corresponds to a simultaneous detection of (a) the strain partitioning phenomenon between Ge and Si and (b) the absence of defects on the nano-scale. In this respect, synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to study the epitaxial relationship, defect and strain characteristics with high resolution and sensitivity in a non-destructive way. Raman spectroscopy supported by finite element method calculations were used to investigate the strain distribution within a single Ge/Si nanostructure. Special focus was devoted to transmission electron microscopy to determine the quality of the Ge epilayer. It was found, that although high quality Ge nanoclusters can be achieved by thermal annealing on Si pillars bigger than 50 nm in width, no proof of strain partitioning

  17. Aeroelastic Airworthiness Assesment of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Lung, Shun-fat; Ervin, Gregory; Flick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) demonstrator is a joint task under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory and FlexSys, Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan). The project goal is to develop advanced technologies that enable environmentally friendly aircraft, such as adaptive compliant technologies. The ACTE demonstrator flight-test program encompassed replacing the Fowler flaps on the SubsoniC Aircraft Testbed, a modified Gulfstream III (Gulfstream Aerospace, Savannah, Georgia) aircraft, with control surfaces developed by FlexSys. The control surfaces developed by FlexSys are a pair of uniquely-designed unconventional flaps to be used as lifting surfaces during flight-testing to validate their structural effectiveness. The unconventional flaps required a multidisciplinary airworthiness assessment to prove they could withstand the prescribed flight envelope. Several challenges were posed due to the large deflections experienced by the structure, requiring non-linear analysis methods. The aeroelastic assessment necessitated both conventional and extensive testing and analysis methods. A series of ground vibration tests (GVTs) were conducted to provide modal characteristics to validate and update finite element models (FEMs) used for the flutter analyses for a subset of the various flight configurations. Numerous FEMs were developed using data from FlexSys and the ground tests. The flap FEMs were then attached to the aircraft model to generate a combined FEM that could be analyzed for aeroelastic instabilities. The aeroelastic analysis results showed the combined system of aircraft and flaps were predicted to have the required flutter margin to successfully demonstrate the adaptive compliant technology. This paper documents the details of the aeroelastic airworthiness assessment described, including the ground testing and analyses, and subsequent flight

  18. Aeroelastic Response of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Transtition Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Lung, Shun-fat

    2016-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge demonstrator was a joint task under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory and FlexSys, Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan), chartered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to develop advanced technologies that enable environmentally friendly aircraft, such as continuous mold-line technologies. The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge demonstrator encompassed replacing the Fowler flaps on the SubsoniC Aircraft Testbed, a Gulfstream III (Gulfstream Aerospace, Savannah, Georgia) aircraft, with control surfaces developed by FlexSys, Inc., a pair of uniquely-designed, unconventional flaps to be used as lifting surfaces during flight-testing to substantiate their structural effectiveness. The unconventional flaps consisted of a main flap section and two transition sections, inboard and outboard, which demonstrated the continuous mold-line technology. Unique characteristics of the transition sections provided a challenge to the airworthiness assessment for this part of the structure. A series of build-up tests and analyses were conducted to ensure the data required to support the airworthiness assessment were acquired and applied accurately. The transition sections were analyzed both as individual components and as part of the flight-test article assembly. Instrumentation was installed in the transition sections based on the analysis to best capture the in-flight aeroelastic response. Flight-testing was conducted and flight data were acquired to validate the analyses. This paper documents the details of the aeroelastic assessment and in-flight response of the transition sections of the unconventional Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge flaps.

  19. Structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber: Experimental and analytical validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Arya, Vinod K.; Kazaroff, John M.; Halford, Gary R.

    1994-03-01

    A new, structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber design has been validated through analysis and experiment. Subscale, tubular channel chambers have been cyclically tested and analytically evaluated. Cyclic lives were determined to have a potential for 1000 percent increase over those of rectangular channel designs, the current state of the art. Greater structural compliance in the circumferential direction gave rise to lower thermal strains during hot firing, resulting in lower thermal strain ratcheting and longer predicted fatigue lives. Thermal, structural, and durability analyses of the combustion chamber design, involving cyclic temperatures, strains, and low-cycle fatigue lives, have corroborated the experimental observations.

  20. Alternative profit rate shariah-compliant for islamic banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, Nadhirah; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Ghazali, Puspa Liza

    2017-09-01

    Profit is the aims for Islamic banking and conventional banking. Determination of profit in Islamic banking in Malaysia depends on the profit rate, whereas profit rate is essentially from reference rate which is known as the base rate (BR). However, the determination of the components contained in the BR such as benchmark cost of funds and the statutory reserve requirement (SRR) is non-compliance with the Shariah because its directly proportional to the overnight policy rate (OPR). Therefore, an alternative formula for the profit rate are proposed which is known as the base profit rate (BPR). Construction of BPR formula is based on the principle that are more Shariah-compliant.

  1. HIPAA-compliant automatic monitoring system for RIS-integrated PACS operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Zhang, Jianguo; Chen, Xiaomeng; Sun, Jianyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Chenwen; Feng, Jie; Sheng, Liwei; Huang, H. K.

    2006-03-01

    As a governmental regulation, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was issued to protect the privacy of health information that identifies individuals who are living or deceased. HIPAA requires security services supporting implementation features: Access control; Audit controls; Authorization control; Data authentication; and Entity authentication. These controls, which proposed in HIPAA Security Standards, are Audit trails here. Audit trails can be used for surveillance purposes, to detect when interesting events might be happening that warrant further investigation. Or they can be used forensically, after the detection of a security breach, to determine what went wrong and who or what was at fault. In order to provide security control services and to achieve the high and continuous availability, we design the HIPAA-Compliant Automatic Monitoring System for RIS-Integrated PACS operation. The system consists of two parts: monitoring agents running in each PACS component computer and a Monitor Server running in a remote computer. Monitoring agents are deployed on all computer nodes in RIS-Integrated PACS system to collect the Audit trail messages defined by the Supplement 95 of the DICOM standard: Audit Trail Messages. Then the Monitor Server gathers all audit messages and processes them to provide security information in three levels: system resources, PACS/RIS applications, and users/patients data accessing. Now the RIS-Integrated PACS managers can monitor and control the entire RIS-Integrated PACS operation through web service provided by the Monitor Server. This paper presents the design of a HIPAA-compliant automatic monitoring system for RIS-Integrated PACS Operation, and gives the preliminary results performed by this monitoring system on a clinical RIS-integrated PACS.

  2. High Level Architecture Distributed Space System Simulation for Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization Simulation Smackdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuqun

    2011-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation plays a very important role in mission design. It not only reduces design cost, but also prepares astronauts for their mission tasks. The SISO Smackdown is a simulation event that facilitates modeling and simulation in academia. The scenario of this year s Smackdown was to simulate a lunar base supply mission. The mission objective was to transfer Earth supply cargo to a lunar base supply depot and retrieve He-3 to take back to Earth. Federates for this scenario include the environment federate, Earth-Moon transfer vehicle, lunar shuttle, lunar rover, supply depot, mobile ISRU plant, exploratory hopper, and communication satellite. These federates were built by teams from all around the world, including teams from MIT, JSC, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Bordeaux from France, and University of Genoa from Italy. This paper focuses on the lunar shuttle federate, which was programmed by the USRP intern team from NASA JSC. The shuttle was responsible for provide transportation between lunar orbit and the lunar surface. The lunar shuttle federate was built using the NASA standard simulation package called Trick, and it was extended with HLA functions using TrickHLA. HLA functions of the lunar shuttle federate include sending and receiving interaction, publishing and subscribing attributes, and packing and unpacking fixed record data. The dynamics model of the lunar shuttle was modeled with three degrees of freedom, and the state propagation was obeying the law of two body dynamics. The descending trajectory of the lunar shuttle was designed by first defining a unique descending orbit in 2D space, and then defining a unique orbit in 3D space with the assumption of a non-rotating moon. Finally this assumption was taken away to define the initial position of the lunar shuttle so that it will start descending a second after it joins the execution. VPN software from SonicWall was used to connect federates with RTI during testing

  3. Multi-physics modelling of a compliant humanoid robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobova, Alexandra A., E-mail: azobova@mech.math.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Habra, Timothée, E-mail: timothee.habra@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Center for Research in Mechatronics, Institute of Mechanics, Materials, and Civil Engineering (Belgium); Van der Noot, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.vandernoot@uclouvain.be, E-mail: nicolas.vandernoot@epfl.ch [EPFL STI IBI BIOROB, Biorobotics Laboratory, Institute of Bioengineering, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland); Dallali, Houman, E-mail: houman.dallali@iit.it; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos G., E-mail: nikos.tsagarakis@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Advanced Robotics (Italy); Fisette, Paul, E-mail: paul.fisette@uclouvain.be; Ronsse, Renaud, E-mail: renaud.ronsse@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Center for Research in Mechatronics, Institute of Mechanics, Materials, and Civil Engineering (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    We present a multibody simulator being used for compliant humanoid robot modelling and report our reasoning for choosing the settings of the simulator’s key features. First, we provide a study on how the numerical integration speed and accuracy depend on the coordinate representation of the multibody system. This choice is particularly critical for mechanisms with long serial chains (e.g. legs and arms). Our second contribution is a full electromechanical model of the inner dynamics of the compliant actuators embedded in the COMAN robot, since joints’ compliance is needed for the robot safety and energy efficiency. Third, we discuss the different approaches for modelling contacts and selecting an appropriate contact library. The recommended solution is to couple our simulator with an open-source contact library offering both accurate and fast contact modelling. The simulator performances are assessed by two different tasks involving contacts: a bimanual manipulation task and a squatting tasks. The former shows reliability of the simulator. For the latter, we report a comparison between the robot behaviour as predicted by our simulation environment, and the real one.

  4. Assessing the degradation of compliant electrodes for soft actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; de Saint-Aubin, Christine; Poulin, Alexandre; Shea, Herbert R.

    2017-10-01

    We present an automated system to measure the degradation of compliant electrodes used in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) over millions of cycles. Electrodes for DEAs generally experience biaxial linear strains of more than 10%. The decrease in electrode conductivity induced by this repeated fast mechanical deformation impacts the bandwidth of the actuator and its strain homogeneity. Changes in the electrode mechanical properties lead to reduced actuation strain. Rather than using an external actuator to periodically deform the electrodes, our measurement method consists of measuring the properties of an electrode in an expanding circle DEA. A programmable high voltage power supply drives the actuator with a square signal up to 1 kHz, periodically actuating the DEA, and thus stretching the electrodes. The DEA strain is monitored with a universal serial bus camera, while the resistance of the ground electrode is measured with a multimeter. The system can be used for any type of electrode. We validated the test setup by characterising a carbon black/silicone composite that we commonly use as compliant electrode. Although the composite is well-suited for tens of millions of cycles of actuation below 5%, we observe important degradation for higher deformations. When activated at a 20% radial strain, the electrodes suffer from important damage after a few thousand cycles, and an inhomogeneous actuation is observed, with the strain localised in a sub-region of the actuator only.

  5. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  6. Investigation of the Mechanical Performance of Compliant Thermal Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2011-01-01

    Compliant thermal barriers play a pivotal role in the thermal protection systems of advanced aerospace vehicles. Both the thermal properties and mechanical performance of these barriers are critical in determining their successful implementation. Due to the custom nature of many thermal barriers, designers of advanced spacecraft have little guidance as to the design, selection, and implementation of these elements. As part of an effort to develop a more fundamental understanding of the interrelationship between thermal barrier design and performance, mechanical testing of thermal barriers was conducted. Two different types of thermal barriers with several core insulation density levels ranging from 62 to 141 kg/cu m were investigated. Room-temperature compression tests were conducted on samples to determine load performance and assess thermal barrier resiliency. Results showed that the loading behavior of these thermal barriers was similar to other porous, low-density, compliant materials, such as elastomeric foams. Additionally, the insulation density level had a significant non-linear impact on the stiffness and peak loads of the thermal barriers. In contrast, neither the thermal barrier type nor the level of insulation density significantly influenced the room-temperature resiliency of the samples.

  7. Compliant threads maximize spider silk connection strength and toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Avery; Pugno, Nicola M.; Cranford, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of years of evolution have adapted spider webs to achieve a range of functionalities, including the well-known capture of prey, with efficient use of material. One feature that has escaped extensive investigation is the silk-on-silk connection joints within spider webs, particularly from a structural mechanics perspective. We report a joint theoretical and computational analysis of an idealized silk-on-silk fibre junction. By modifying the theory of multiple peeling, we quantitatively compare the performance of the system while systematically increasing the rigidity of the anchor thread, by both scaling the stress–strain response and the introduction of an applied pre-strain. The results of our study indicate that compliance is a virtue—the more extensible the anchorage, the tougher and stronger the connection becomes. In consideration of the theoretical model, in comparison with rigid substrates, a compliant anchorage enormously increases the effective adhesion strength (work required to detach), independent of the adhered thread itself, attributed to a nonlinear alignment between thread and anchor (contact peeling angle). The results can direct novel engineering design principles to achieve possible load transfer from compliant fibre-to-fibre anchorages, be they silk-on-silk or another, as-yet undeveloped, system. PMID:25008083

  8. Multi-physics modelling of a compliant humanoid robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zobova, Alexandra A.; Habra, Timothée; Van der Noot, Nicolas; Dallali, Houman; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos G.; Fisette, Paul; Ronsse, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We present a multibody simulator being used for compliant humanoid robot modelling and report our reasoning for choosing the settings of the simulator’s key features. First, we provide a study on how the numerical integration speed and accuracy depend on the coordinate representation of the multibody system. This choice is particularly critical for mechanisms with long serial chains (e.g. legs and arms). Our second contribution is a full electromechanical model of the inner dynamics of the compliant actuators embedded in the COMAN robot, since joints’ compliance is needed for the robot safety and energy efficiency. Third, we discuss the different approaches for modelling contacts and selecting an appropriate contact library. The recommended solution is to couple our simulator with an open-source contact library offering both accurate and fast contact modelling. The simulator performances are assessed by two different tasks involving contacts: a bimanual manipulation task and a squatting tasks. The former shows reliability of the simulator. For the latter, we report a comparison between the robot behaviour as predicted by our simulation environment, and the real one.

  9. Dual arm generalized compliant motion with shared control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1993-03-01

    A multiple arm generalized compliant motion robot control system governs dual multi-joint robot arms handling an object with both of the arms in accordance with input parameters governing plural respective behaviors to be exhibited by the robot in respective behavior spaces simultaneously. A move-squeeze decomposition processor computes actual move and squeeze decomposition forces based upon current robot force sensor outputs. A compliant motion processor transforms plural object position perturbations of the plural behaviors from the respective behavior spaces to a common space and computes a relative transformation to a behavior-commanded object position in accordance with the object position perturbations of the plural behaviors. A kinematics processor updates a transformation to a current commanded object position based upon the relative transformation to the behavior-commanded object position. A multiple arm squeeze control processor computes from appropriate squeeze force input parameters and from actual squeeze forces for each of the arms, a squeeze control position perturbation for each of the arms, to provide squeeze control. An inverse kinematics processor computes from the commanded object position transformation and from the squeeze control position perturbation, new robot joint angles, and controls respective joints of the robot arms in accordance with the new robot joint angles.

  10. Dual-arm generalized compliant motion with shared control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1993-03-01

    A multiple arm generalized compliant motion robot control system governs dual multi-joint robot arms handling an object with both of the arms in accordance with input parameters governing plural respective behaviors to be exhibited by the robot in respective behavior spaces simultaneously. A move-squeeze decomposition processor computes actual move and squeeze decomposition forces based upon current robot force sensor outputs. A compliant motion processor transforms plural object position perturbations of the plural behaviors from the respective behavior spaces to a common space and computes a relative transformation to a behavior-commanded object position in accordance with the object position perturbations of the plural behaviors. A kinematics processor updates a transformation to a current commanded object position based upon the relative transformation to the behavior-commanded object position. A multiple arm squeeze control processor computes from appropriate squeeze force input parameters and from actual squeeze forces for each of the arms, a squeeze control position perturbation for each of the arms, to provide squeeze control. An inverse kinematics processor computes from the commanded object position transformation and from the squeeze control position perturbation, new robot joint angles, and controls respective joints of the robot arms in accordance with the new robot joint angles.

  11. Viability of Distributed Manufacturing of Bicycle Components with 3-D Printing: CEN Standardized Polylactic Acid Pedal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra G. Tanikella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in open-source self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRap have radically reduced costs of 3-D printing. The cost of additive manufacturing enables distributed manufacturing of open source appropriate technologies (OSAT to assist in sustainable development. In order to investigate the potential this study makes a careful investigation of the use of RepRap 3-D printers to fabricate widely used Black Mamba bicycle components in the developing world. Specifically, this study tests pedals. A CAD model of the pedal was created using parametric open source software (FreeCAD to enable future customization. Then poly-lactic acid, a biodegradable and recyclable bioplastic was selected among the various commercial 3-D printable materials based on strength and cost. The pedal was 3-D printed on a commercial RepRap and tested following the CEN (European Committee for Standardization standards for racing bicycles for 1 static strength, 2 impact, and 3 dynamic durability. The results show the pedals meet the CEN standards and can be used on bicycles. The 3-D printed pedals are significantly lighter than the stock pedals used on the Black Mamba, which provides a performance enhancement while reducing the cost if raw PLA or recycled materials are used, which assists in reducing bicycle costs even for those living in extreme poverty. Other bicycle parts could also be manufactured using 3-D printers for a return on investment on the 3-D printer indicating that this model of distributed manufacturing of OSAT may be technically and economically appropriate through much of the Global South.

  12. Material selection for elastic energy absorption in origami-inspired compliant corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, Sean S; Delimont, Isaac L; Howell, Larry L; Fullwood, David T

    2014-01-01

    Elastic absorption of kinetic energy and distribution of impact forces are required in many applications. Recent attention to the potential for using origami in engineering may provide new methods for energy absorption and force distribution. A three-stage strategy is presented for selecting materials for such origami-inspired designs that can deform to achieve a desired motion without yielding, absorb elastic strain energy, and be lightweight or cost effective. Two material indices are derived to meet these requirements based on compliant mechanism theory. Finite element analysis is used to investigate the effects of the material stiffness in the Miura-ori tessellation on its energy absorption and force distribution characteristics compared with a triangular wave corrugation. An example is presented of how the method can be used to select a material for a general energy absorption application of the Miura-ori. Whereas the focus of this study is the Miura-ori tessellation, the methods developed can be applied to other tessellated patterns used in energy absorbing or force distribution applications. (paper)

  13. Experience of plastic surgery registrars in a European Working Time Directive compliant rota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blacam, Catherine; Tierney, Sean; Shelley, Odhran

    2017-08-01

    Surgical training requires exposure to clinical decision-making and operative experience in a supervised environment. It is recognised that learning ability is compromised when fatigued. The European Working Time Directive requires a decrease in working hours, but compliance reduces trainees' clinical exposure, which has profound implications for plastic surgery training. The aim of this study was to evaluate plastic surgery registrars' experience of an EWTD-compliant rota, and to examine its impact on patient care, education, and logbook activity. An electronic survey was distributed to plastic surgery registrars in a university teaching hospital. Registrars were asked to rate 31 items on a five-point Likert scale, including statements on patient care, clinical and operative duties, training, and quality-of-life. Interquartile deviations explored consensus among responses. Operative caseload was objectively evaluated using eLogbook data to compare activity at equal time points before and after implementation of the EWTD rota. Highest levels of consensus among respondents were found in positive statements addressing alertness and preparation for theatre, as well as time to read and study for exams. Registrars agreed that EWTD compliance improved their quality-of-life. However, it was felt that continuity of patient care was compromised by work hours restriction. Registrars were concerned about their operative experience. eLogbook data confirmed a fall-off in mean caseload of 31.8% compared to activity prior to EWTD rota implementation. While EWTD compliant rotas promote trainee quality-of-life and satisfaction with training, attention needs to be paid to optimising operative opportunities.

  14. Preliminary estimation of infantile exposure to BPA based on the standard quality of baby bottles distributed in Isfahan urban society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to estimate the bisphenol A (BPA intake from baby bottles, considering the diversity and the standard quality of the baby bottles distributed in an Isfahan urban society. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan in 2011. Baby shops ( n = 33 and drug stores ( n = 7 in four district areas were included in the study. The distribution of baby bottles was investigated regarding their brand, origin, and being labeled "BPA free." Estimation of exposure to BPA from baby bottles was made based on the national and international representative data. Results: The products marked as "BPA free" were found among the western products and limited to two of the selected areas. No "BPA free" marked baby bottle was distinguished among the Iranian made products. Of the 8% exclusively formula-fed infants, 90% may be the high consumers of BPA from polycarbonate baby bottles, with an intake of 1.5-2 μg/kg b.w./day for the moderate and 7.5-10 μg/kg b.w./day in case of worse condition. Conclusion: Considering the current globally accepted threshold daily intake (TDI for BPA, primary exposure estimation is that feeding using non-BPA-free baby bottles is not a serious health concern in Iran. Thought that threshold level of TDI is discussed to be reduced in future, improvement and revision of the national standards can be effective in reducing the exposure to BPA in Iranian infants so as to provide large margin of safety for them.

  15. Diagnostic spirometry in primary care: Proposed standards for general practice compliant with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society recommendations: a General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG)1 document, in association with the Association for Respiratory Technology & Physiology (ARTP)2 and Education for Health3 1 www.gpiag.org 2 www.artp.org 3 www.educationforhealth.org.uk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mark L; Quanjer, Philip H; Booker, Rachel; Cooper, Brendan G; Holmes, Steve; Small, Iain

    2009-09-01

    Primary care spirometry services can be provided by trained primary care staff, peripatetic specialist services, or through referral to hospital-based or laboratory spirometry. The first of these options is the focus of this Standards Document. It aims to provide detailed information for clinicians, managers and healthcare commissioners on the key areas of quality required for diagnostic spirometry in primary care--including training requirements and quality assurance. These proposals and recommendations are designed to raise the standard of spirometry and respiratory diagnosis in primary care and to provide the impetus for debate, improvement and maintenance of quality for diagnostic (rather than screening) spirometry performed in primary care. This document should therefore challenge current performance and should constitute an aspirational guide for delivery of this service.

  16. A Semianalytical Approach to Large Deflections in Compliant Beams under Point Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolou, N.; Herder, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The deflection of compliant mechanism (CM) which involves geometrical nonlinearity due to large deflection of members continues to be an interesting problem in mechanical systems. This paper deals with an analytical investigation of large deflections in compliant mechanisms. The main objective is to

  17. Modeling of a compliant joint in a Magnetic Levitation System for an endoscopic camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simi, M.; Tolou, N.; Valdastri, P.; Herder, J.L.; Menciassi, A.; Dario, P.

    2012-01-01

    A novel compliant Magnetic Levitation System (MLS) for a wired miniature surgical camera robot was designed, modeled and fabricated. The robot is composed of two main parts, head and tail, linked by a compliant beam. The tail module embeds two magnets for anchoring and manual rough translation. The

  18. Sharia-compliant hotels in Egypt: Concept and chanllenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Ezzat Saad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to provide greater clearness for the meaning of the ShariaCompliant Hotel (SCH and identify the challenges facing the development of this type of hotels in Egypt. To fulfill these objectives, Delphi technique, as a method of refining group opinions, was used. The study used two rounds e-mailed questionnaires. Findings indicated that the most important defining features of SCH were; no alcohol or pork allowed, gender segregation was significant and halal food products are significant. Other important defining features included; Quran and prayer mats in each room, no nightclubs, disco or bars, and signs indicating the direction of Mecca in every room. The main SCH challenges cited by the respondents were deprivation of the insertion in the international or local hotel classifications; competition with other non-Islamic hotels, and need for specific criteria appropriated to the international hotel classifications.

  19. Motion of Elastic Microcapsules on Compliant Surfaces with Adhesive Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresov, Egor; Kolmakov, German; Balazs, Anna

    2011-03-01

    By integrating mesoscale models for hydrodynamics, micromechanics and adhesion, we examine the fluid driven motion of elastic microcapsules on compliant surfaces. The capsules, modeled as three-dimensional fluid-filled elastic shells, represent polymeric microcapsules or biological cells. Our combined integrated Lattice Boltzmann model/Lattice spring model (LBM/LSM) approach allows for a dynamic interaction between the elastic capsule's wall and surrounding fluid. To capture the interaction between the shell and the surface, we adopt the Bell model, used previously to describe the interaction of biological cell like leukocytes rolling on surfaces under the influence of an imposed shear. The surface of the microcapsule contains receptors with an affinity to adhesive ligands of the substrate. We examine how the parameters of adhesion and rigidity of the capsules and the substrate affect movement of the capsules. The findings provide guidelines for creating smart surfaces that could regulate the microcapsules' motion.

  20. Stress relaxation insensitive designs for metal compliant mechanism threshold accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present two designs for metal compliant mechanisms for use as threshold accelerometers which require zero external power. Both designs rely on long, thin flexures positioned orthogonally to a flat body. The first design involves cutting or stamping a thin spring-steel sheet and then bending elements to form the necessary thin flexors. The second design uses precut spring-steel flexure elements mounted into a mold which is then filled with molten tin to form a bimetallic device. Accelerations necessary to switch the devices between bistable states were measured using a centrifuge. Both designs showed very little variation in threshold acceleration due to stress relaxation over a period of several weeks. Relatively large variations in threshold acceleration were observed for devices of the same design, most likely due to variations in the angle of the flexor elements relative to the main body of the devices.

  1. Kinematic Analysis and Optimization of a New Compliant Parallel Micromanipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Xu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new three translational degrees of freedom (DOF compliant parallel micromanipulator (CPM is proposed, which has an excellent accuracy of parallel mechanisms with flexure hinges. The system is established by a proper selection of hardware and analyzed via the derived pseudo-rigid-body model. In view of the physical constraints imposed by both the piezoelectric actuators and flexure hinges, the CPM's reachable workspace is determined analytically, where a maximum cylinder defined as an usable workspace can be inscribed. Moreover, the optimal design of the CPM with the consideration of the usable workspace size and global dexterity index simultaneously is carried out by utilizing the approaches of direct search method, genetic algorithm (GA, and particle swarm optimization (PSO, respectively. The simulation results show that the PSO is the best method for the optimization, and the results are valuable in the design of a new micromanipulator.

  2. Contact-aided compliant mechanisms for morphing aircraft skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vipul; Frecker, Mary; Lesieutre, George

    2008-03-01

    Sandwich structures consisting of contact-aided compliant mechanisms are presented for morphing aircraft skin. A contact mechanism is used to alleviate stresses and to decrease the out-of-plane deflection. A methodology to design such mechanisms, which takes into account the aerodynamic loads, is presented. The method is applied to a small UAV and results are compared with those of honeycomb structures in terms of structural mass, global strain and maximum stresses. Different material models such as linearly elastic and multi-linear elastic are considered. For linearly elastic materials, contact-induced stress-relief is advantageous and for nonlinear elastic materials, reduction of transverse deflection due to contact is useful. In either case, the structural mass of the contact-aided structures is less than that of the corresponding non-contact structures.

  3. A WEB-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR VISUALIZING INDUSTRIAL SPATIOTEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION USING STANDARD DEVIATIONAL ELLIPSE AND SHIFTING ROUTES OF GRAVITY CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  4. a Web-Based Framework for Visualizing Industrial Spatiotemporal Distribution Using Standard Deviational Ellipse and Shifting Routes of Gravity Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Gui, Z.; Wu, H.; Wei, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE) and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise) to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  5. Topological design of compliant smart structures with embedded movable actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqiang; Luo, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Kang, Zhan

    2014-04-01

    In the optimal configuration design of piezoelectric smart structures, it is favorable to use actuation elements with certain predefined geometries from the viewpoint of manufacturability of fragile piezoelectric ceramics in practical applications. However, preserving the exact shape of these embedded actuators and tracking their dynamic motions presents a more challenging research task than merely allowing them to take arbitrary shapes. This paper proposes an integrated topology optimization method for the systematic design of compliant smart structures with embedded movable PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuators. Compared with most existing studies, which either optimize positions/sizes of the actuators in a given host structure or design the host structure with pre-determined actuator locations, the proposed method simultaneously optimizes the positions of the movable PZT actuators and the topology of the host structure, typically a compliant mechanism for amplifying the small strain stroke. A combined topological description model is employed in the optimization, where the level set model is used to track the movements of the PZT actuators and the independent point-wise density interpolation (iPDI) approach is utilized to search for the optimal topology of the host structure. Furthermore, we define an integral-type constraint function to prevent overlaps between the PZT actuators and between the actuators and the external boundaries of the design domain. Such a constraint provides a unified and explicit mathematical statement of the non-overlap condition for any number of arbitrarily shaped embedded actuators. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method.

  6. Attitude and subjective wellbeing of non-compliant mothers to childhood oral polio vaccine supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Gregory C; Nomhwange, Terna Ignatius; Shamang, Anthony F; Zakari, Furera; Musa, Audu I; Dogo, Paul M; Gugong, Victor; Iliyasu, Neyu

    2018-02-08

    Attitude and subjective well-being are important factors in mothers accepting or rejecting Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) supplemental immunization. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of mothers' attitude and subjective wellbeing on non-compliance to OPV supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria. The study utilized a cross-sectional design to assess attitude and subjective well-being of mothers using previously validated VACSATC (Vaccine Safety, Attitudes, Training and Communication-10 items) & SUBI (Subjective Well-being Inventory-40 items) measures. A total of 396 participants (equal number of non-compliant and compliant mothers) from 94 non-compliant settlements were interviewed, after informed consent. T-test was run to assess difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant mothers on VACSATC and SUBI measures. The research showed a significant difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant groups on VACSATC measure of mothers' attitude (M = 18.9 non-compliant, compared to 26.5 compliant; p subjective well-being, the study showed there was no significant difference in the mean scores of the SUBI measure (M = 77.4 non-compliant, compared to 78.0 compliant; p > 0.05). The research has shown that negative attitude is more commonly present in non-compliant mothers and may be a factor in vaccine refusal in Northern Nigeria.

  7. Modelling of a biologically inspired robotic fish driven by compliant parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daou, Hadi El; Salumäe, Taavi; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Chambers, Lily D; Megill, William M

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by biological swimmers such as fish, a robot composed of a rigid head, a compliant body and a rigid caudal fin was built. It has the geometrical properties of a subcarangiform swimmer of the same size. The head houses a servo-motor which actuates the compliant body and the caudal fin. It achieves this by applying a concentrated moment on a point near the compliant body base. In this paper, the dynamics of the compliant body driving the robotic fish is modelled and experimentally validated. Lighthill’s elongated body theory is used to define the hydrodynamic forces on the compliant part and Rayleigh proportional damping is used to model damping. Based on the assumed modes method, an energetic approach is used to write the equations of motion of the compliant body and to compute the relationship between the applied moment and the resulting lateral deflections. Experiments on the compliant body were carried out to validate the model predictions. The results showed that a good match was achieved between the measured and predicted deformations. A discussion of the swimming motions between the real fish and the robot is presented. (paper)

  8. Distribution of hydrogen within the HDR-containment under severe accident conditions. OECD standard problem. Final comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1992-08-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the International Standard Problem Exercise ISP-29, based on the HDR Hydrogen Distribution Experiment E11.2. Post-test analyses are compared to experimentally measured parameters, well-known to the analysis. This report has been prepared by the Institute for Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety of the Technical University Munich under contract with the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which received funding for this activity from the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under the research contract RS 792. The HDR experiment E11.2 has been performed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the project 'Projekt HDR-Sicherheitsprogramm' sponsored by the BMFT. Ten institutions from eight countries participated in the post-test analysis exercise which was focussing on the long-lasting gas distribution processes expected inside a PWR containment under severe accident conditions. The gas release experiment was coupled to a long-lasting steam release into the containment typical for an unmitigated small break loss-of-coolant accident. In lieu of pure hydrogen a gas mixture consisting of 15% hydrogen and 85% helium has been applied in order to avoid reaching flammability during the experiment. Of central importance are common overlay plots comparing calculated transients with measurements of the global pressure, the local temperature-, steam- and gas concentration distributions throughout the entire HDR containment. The comparisons indicate relatively large margins between most calculations and the experiment. Having in mind that this exercise was specified as an 'open post-test' analysis of well-known measured data the reasons for discrepancies between measurements and simulations were extensively discussed during a final workshop. It was concluded that analytical shortcomings as well as some uncertainties of experimental boundary conditions may be responsible for deviations

  9. Variation simulation for compliant sheet metal assemblies with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yufeng

    Sheet metals are widely used in discrete products, such as automobiles, aircraft, furniture and electronics appliances, due to their good manufacturability and low cost. A typical automotive body assembly consists of more than 300 parts welded together in more than 200 assembly fixture stations. Such an assembly system is usually quite complex, and takes a long time to develop. As the automotive customer demands products of increasing quality in a shorter time, engineers in automotive industry turn to computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools for help. Computers are an invaluable resource for engineers, not only to simplify and automate the design process, but also to share design specifications with manufacturing groups so that production systems can be tooled up quickly and efficiently. Therefore, it is beneficial to develop computerized simulation and evaluation tools for development of automotive body assembly systems. It is a well-known fact that assembly architectures (joints, fixtures, and assembly lines) have a profound impact on dimensional quality of compliant sheet metal assemblies. To evaluate sheet metal assembly architectures, a special dimensional analysis tool need be developed for predicting dimensional variation of the assembly. Then, the corresponding systematic tools can be established to help engineers select the assembly architectures. In this dissertation, a unified variation model is developed to predict variation in compliant sheet metal assemblies by considering fixture-induced rigid-body motion, deformation and springback. Based on the unified variation model, variation propagation models in multiple assembly stations with various configurations are established. To evaluate the dimensional capability of assembly architectures, quantitative indices are proposed based on the sensitivity matrix, which are independent of the variation level of the process. Examples are given to demonstrate their applications in selecting robust assembly

  10. A compliant mechanism for inspecting extremely confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascareñas, David; Moreu, Fernando; Cantu, Precious; Shields, Daniel; Wadden, Jack; El Hadedy, Mohamed; Farrar, Charles

    2017-11-01

    We present a novel, compliant mechanism that provides the capability to navigate extremely confined spaces for the purpose of infrastructure inspection. Extremely confined spaces are commonly encountered during infrastructure inspection. Examples of such spaces can include pipes, conduits, and ventilation ducts. Often these infrastructure features go uninspected simply because there is no viable way to access their interior. In addition, it is not uncommon for extremely confined spaces to possess a maze-like architecture that must be selectively navigated in order to properly perform an inspection. Efforts by the imaging sensor community have resulted in the development of imaging sensors on the millimeter length scale. Due to their compact size, they are able to inspect many extremely confined spaces of interest, however, the means to deliver these sensors to the proper location to obtain the desired images are lacking. To address this problem, we draw inspiration from the field of endoscopic surgery. Specifically we consider the work that has already been done to create long flexible needles that are capable of being steered through the human body. These devices are typically referred to as ‘steerable needles.’ Steerable needle technology is not directly applicable to the problem of navigating maze-like arrangements of extremely confined spaces, but it does provide guidance on how this problem should be approached. Specifically, the super-elastic nitinol tubing material that allows steerable needles to operate is also appropriate for the problem of navigating maze-like arrangements of extremely confined spaces. Furthermore, the portion of the mechanism that enters the extremely confined space is completely mechanical in nature. The mechanical nature of the device is an advantage when the extremely confined space features environmental hazards such as radiation that could degrade an electromechanically operated mechanism. Here, we present a compliant mechanism

  11. Design and optimization of a bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I; Wissa, A A; Hubbard Jr, J E

    2013-01-01

    A novel contact aided compliant mechanism called bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism is presented in this paper. This mechanism has nonlinear stiffness properties in two orthogonal directions. An angled compliant joint (ACJ) is the fundamental element of this mechanism. Geometric parameters of ACJs determine the stiffness of the compliant mechanism. This paper presents the design and optimization of bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated for design optimization of the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. The objectives of the optimization problem were to maximize or minimize the bending and sweep displacements, depending on the situation, while minimizing the von Mises stress and mass of each mechanism. This optimization problem was solved using NSGA-II (a genetic algorithm). The results of this optimization for a single ACJ during upstroke and downstroke are presented in this paper. Results of two different loading conditions used during optimization of a single ACJ for upstroke are presented. Finally, optimization results comparing the performance of compliant mechanisms with one and two ACJs are also presented. It can be inferred from these results that the number of ACJs and the design of each ACJ determines the stiffness of the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. These mechanisms can be used in various applications. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of ornithopters by passively morphing their wings. In order to achieve a bio-inspired wing gait called continuous vortex gait, the wings of the ornithopter need to bend, and sweep simultaneously. This can be achieved by inserting the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism into the leading edge wing spar of the ornithopters. (paper)

  12. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 21. Telemetry Network Standard Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    the term “handoff” to describe this type of transition. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 21, July 2017 21-3 • Over-the- Horizon ...model FCAPS, which stands for fault, configuration, accounting , performance, and security. System management is used across a TmNS system to manage...TmNS-compliant components, providing a view of fault, configuration, accounting , performance, and security configuration information on the network

  13. Mechanics of fluid flow over compliant wrinkled polymeric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth; Boyce, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Skin friction coefficients (based on frontal area) of sharks and dolphins are lower than birds, fish and swimming beetles. By either exploiting flow-induced changes in their flexible skin or microscale textures, dolphins and sharks can change the structure of the fluid flow around them and thus reduce viscous drag forces on their bodies. Inspired by this ability, investigators have tried using compliant walls and riblet-like textures as drag reduction methods in aircraft and marine industries and have been able to achieve reductions up to 19%. Here we investigate flow-structure interaction and wrinkling of soft polymer surfaces that can emulate shark riblets and dolphin's flexible skin. Wrinkling arises spontaneously as the result of mismatched deformation of a thin stiff coating bound to a thick soft elastic substrate. Wrinkles can be fabricated by controlling the ratio of the stiffness of the coating and substrate, the applied displacement and the thickness of the coating. In this work we will examine the evolution in the kinematic structures associated with steady viscous flow over the polymer wrinkled surfaces and in particular compare the skin friction with corresponding results for flow over non-textured and rigid surfaces.

  14. A constrained optimization framework for compliant underactuated grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ciocarlie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the design and analysis of underactuated robotic hands that use tendons and compliant joints to enable passive mechanical adaptation during grasping tasks. We use a quasistatic equilibrium formulation to predict the stability of a given grasp. This method is then used as the inner loop of an optimization algorithm that can find a set of actuation mechanism parameters that optimize the stability measure for an entire set of grasps. We discuss two possible approaches to design optimization using this framework, one using exhaustive search over the parameter space, and the other using a simplified gripper construction to cast the problem to a form that is directly solvable using well-established optimization methods. Computations are performed in 3-D, allow arbitrary geometry of the grasped objects and take into account frictional constraints.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  15. Stability Analysis for Compliant Constant-Force Compression Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu Celestine UGWUOKE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Stability analysis in compliant mechanism (CM design is of utmostimportance. From a practical point of view, a CM that is unstable is of nosignificance (has no practical value. Three useful plots were considered in theevaluation of each of the dynamic models of nine configurations of compliantconstant-force compression mechanisms (CCFCMs for their stabilitycharacteristics, which includes the polar plot based on the Routh-Hurwitzstability criterion, the Bode plot, and the Nyquist diagram which considersstability in the real frequency domain. Frequency-domain stability criterion isvery useful for determining suitable approaches to adjusting the CCFCMparameters in order to increase its relative stability. The results obtained showthat the CCFCMs investigated do exhibit higher relative stability for highervalues of damping ratio, and for zero damping ratio, all the CCFCMsinvestigated were unstable. The result also show that for the CCFCMsinvestigated to be stable, damping ratio must be greater than 0.03 (ξ > 0.03and depending on what attributes are most desirable, the CCFCM parameterscan be optimized to achieve the desired results. Nyquist criterion provides uswith suitable information concerning the absolute stability and furthermore,can be utilized to define and ascertain the relative stability of a system.

  16. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  17. Effort Flow Analysis: A Methodology for Directed Product Evolution Using Rigid Body and Compliant Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greer, James

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation presents a systematic design methodology for directed product evolution that uses both rigid body and compliant mechanisms to facilitate component combination in the domain of mechanical products...

  18. Performance of a non-tapered 3D morphing wing with integrated compliant ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previtali, F; Ermanni, P

    2012-01-01

    Morphing wings have a high potential for improving the performance and reducing the fuel consumption of modern aircraft. Thanks to its simplicity, the compliant belt-rib concept is regarded by the authors as a promising solution. Using the compliant rib designed by Hasse and Campanile as a starting point, a compliant morphing wing made of composite materials is designed. Innovative methods for optimal placing of the actuation and for the quantification of the morphing are used. The performance of the compliant morphing wing in terms of three-dimensional (3D) structural behaviour and aerodynamic properties, both two- and three-dimensional, is presented and discussed. The fundamental importance of considering 3D coupling effects in the determination of the performance of morphing aerofoils is shown. (paper)

  19. Compliant mechanism road bicycle brake: a rigid-body replacement case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, Larry L [NON LANL; Magleby, Spencer P [NON LANL

    2011-01-19

    The design of high-performance bicycle brakes is complicated by the competing design objectives of increased performance and low weight. But this challenge also provides a good case study to demonstrate the design of compliant mechanisms to replace current rigid-link mechanisms. This paper briefly reviews current road brake designs, demonstrates the use of rigid-body replacement synthesis to design a compliant mechanism, and illustrates the combination of compliant mechanism design tools. The resulting concept was generated from the modified dual-pivot brake design and is a partially compliant mechanism where one pin has the dual role of a joint and a mounting pin. The pseudo-rigid-body model, finite element analysis, and optimization algorithms are used to generate design dimensions, and designs are considered for both titanium and E-glass flexures. The resulting design has the potential of reducing the part count and overall weight while maintaining a performance similar to the benchmark.

  20. An Experimental Investigation into the Temperature Profile of a Compliant Foil Air Bearing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radil, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump-type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions...

  1. A large-stroke compliant joint–based force/displacement integrated sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechao Duan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The design methodology and validation of a compliant translational joint–based force/displacement integrated sensor is presented in this article. The stiffness analysis of the large displacement high precision compliant translational joint is developed, in which the screw theory–based symbolic formulation method for structures is employed. By combining the stiffness matrix of the single compliant beams and components in this joint, the entire stiffness matrix is derived. The stiffness matrix is validated by finite element analysis (FEA method. Finally, the compliant translational joint was fabricated with a three-dimensional printer and equipped with a linear position sensor and microcontroller. The displacement of the translational joint is measured and then the force is calculated using the stiffness matrix. A calibration is conducted so that the sub-Newton precision of the sensor is achieved.

  2. Conversion of the US State System of Accountancy to be Year 2000 compliant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proco, G.; Brown, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) is the US government's state system of accountancy, maintaining current and historical data on the possession, use and transfer of nuclear material. The system is an important tool in maintaining and monitoring accounting data for nuclear materials inventory and transactions and reporting under the US Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the safeguards agreement between the US and the International Atomic Energy Agency and agreements for cooperation between the US and its international partners for peaceful uses of atomic energy. Accounting information is provided to the system by nuclear facilities under the reporting requirements issued by relevant US government entities: the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NMMSS is operated for the DOE and the NRC by NAC International, Norcross, Georgia. The state system of accountancy was identified by the US government as a 'mission essential' system, an accounting system considered essential to government missions. As such, the system is held to a high standard of reliability. This system was identified in 1996 by the DOE as a system that should be made Year 2000 compliant at an early date - by March 1999. Very detailed planning for system conversion was necessary including: risk and vulnerability assessments, a comprehensive test plan and a contingency plan to be followed in case the conversion was not completed on time. Actual compliance was accomplished well in advance of March 1999. The conversion was complete, tested and capable of receiving data in the revised format in July 1998. All date fields in the data base are now eight characters, with the year reported in four characters. All incoming data that is only six characters is modified through software into an eight-character format by a default provision in the system. Also, output reports now contain eight-character date fields. If any of the systems that

  3. Clinically compliant spatial and temporal imaging of chimeric antigen receptor T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Shahri, Nia; Foster, Julie; Kashani, Roxana; Gazinska, Patrycja; Cook, Celia; Sosabowski, Jane; Maher, John; Papa, Sophie

    2018-03-14

    The unprecedented efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy of CD19 + B-cell malignancy has established a new therapeutic pillar of hematology-oncology. Nonetheless, formidable challenges remain for the attainment of comparable success in patients with solid tumors. To accelerate progress and rapidly characterize emerging toxicities, systems that permit the repeated and non-invasive assessment of CAR T-cell bio-distribution would be invaluable. An ideal solution would entail the use of a non-immunogenic reporter that mediates specific uptake of an inexpensive, non-toxic and clinically established imaging tracer by CAR T cells. Here we show the utility of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) for the temporal and spatial monitoring of CAR T-cell behavior in a cancer-bearing host. This system provides a clinically compliant toolkit for high-resolution serial imaging of CAR T cells in vivo, addressing a fundamental unmet need for future clinical development in the field.

  4. Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.

  5. Evaluation of Load Analysis Methods for NASAs GIII Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Josue; Miller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), and FlexSys Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan) have collaborated to flight test the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flaps. These flaps were installed on a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) GIII aircraft and tested at AFRC at various deflection angles over a range of flight conditions. External aerodynamic and inertial load analyses were conducted with the intention to ensure that the change in wing loads due to the deployed ACTE flap did not overload the existing baseline GIII wing box structure. The objective of this paper was to substantiate the analysis tools used for predicting wing loads at AFRC. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and distributed mass inertial models were developed for predicting the loads on the wing. The analysis tools included TRANAIR (full potential) and CMARC (panel) models. Aerodynamic pressure data from the analysis codes were validated against static pressure port data collected in-flight. Combined results from the CFD predictions and the inertial load analysis were used to predict the normal force, bending moment, and torque loads on the wing. Wing loads obtained from calibrated strain gages installed on the wing were used for substantiation of the load prediction tools. The load predictions exhibited good agreement compared to the flight load results obtained from calibrated strain gage measurements.

  6. GMP-compliant isolation and large-scale expansion of bone marrow-derived MSC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Fekete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have gained importance in tissue repair, tissue engineering and in immunosupressive therapy during the last years. Due to the limited availability of MSC in the bone marrow, ex vivo amplification prior to clinical application is requisite to obtain therapeutic applicable cell doses. Translation of preclinical into clinical-grade large-scale MSC expansion necessitates precise definition and standardization of all procedural parameters including cell seeding density, culture medium and cultivation devices. While xenogeneic additives such as fetal calf serum are still widely used for cell culture, its use in the clinical context is associated with many risks, such as prion and viral transmission or adverse immunological reactions against xenogeneic components. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We established animal-free expansion protocols using platelet lysate as medium supplement and thereby could confirm its safety and feasibility for large-scale MSC isolation and expansion. Five different GMP-compliant standardized protocols designed for the safe, reliable, efficient and economical isolation and expansion of MSC was performed and MSC obtained were analyzed for differentiation capacity by qPCR and histochemistry. Expression of standard MSC markers as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy as well as expression of additional MSC markers and of various chemokine and cytokine receptors was analysed by flow cytometry. Changes of metabolic markers and cytokines in the medium were addressed using the LUMINEX platform. CONCLUSIONS: The five different systems for isolation and expansion of MSC described in this study are all suitable to produce at least 100 millions of MSC, which is commonly regarded as a single clinical dose. Final products are equal according to the minimal criteria for MSC defined by the ISCT. We showed that chemokine and integrin receptors analyzed had the same expression pattern

  7. Passively morphing ornithopter wings constructed using a novel compliant spine: design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissa, A A; Hubbard Jr, J E; Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I

    2012-01-01

    Ornithopters or flapping wing uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in civil and military sectors. Amongst the UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and also have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work is to improve the steady level flight performance of an ornithopter by implementing a continuous vortex gait using a novel passive compliant spine inserted in the ornithopter’s wings. This paper presents an optimal compliant spine concept for ornithopter applications. A quasi-static design optimization procedure was formulated to design the compliant spine. Finite element analysis was performed on a first generation spine and the spine was fabricated. This prototype was then tested by inserting it into an ornithopter’s wing leading edge spar. The effect of inserting the compliant spine into the wings on the electric power required, the aerodynamic loads and the wing kinematics was studied. The ornithopter with the compliant spines inserted in its wings consumed 45% less power and produced an additional 16% of its weight in mean lift compared to the same ornithopter without the compliant spine. The results indicate that this passive morphing approach is promising for improved steady level flight performance. (paper)

  8. Topology optimization of compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xinxing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach for designing the compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite material is proposed based on the topology optimization. Firstly, an equivalent constitutive relationship of laminated glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite plates has been built based on the symmetric laminated plate theory. Then, an optimization objective function of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was used to minimize the least square error (LSE between deformed curve and desired aerodynamics shape. After that, the topology structures of wing leading edge of different glass fiber ply-orientations were obtained by using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP model and sensitivity filtering technique. The desired aerodynamics shape of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was obtained based on the proposed approach. The topology structures of wing leading edge depend on the glass fiber ply-orientation. Finally, the corresponding morphing experiment of compliant wing leading edge with composite materials was implemented, which verified the morphing capability of topology structure and illustrated the feasibility for designing compliant wing leading edge. The present paper lays the basis of ply-orientation optimization for compliant adaptive wing leading edge in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV field.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study on a compliant flipper-leg during terrestrial locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tao; Zhou, Youcheng; Li, Shikun; Xu, Min; Liang, Haiyi; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Shiwu

    2016-08-17

    An amphibious robot with straight compliant flipper-legs can conquer various amphibious environments. The robot can rotate its flipper-legs and utilize their large deflection to walk on rough terrain, and it can oscillate the straight flipper-legs to propel itself underwater. This paper focuses on the dynamics of the compliant straight flipper-legs during terrestrial locomotion by modeling its deformation dynamically with large deflection theory and simulating it to investigate the parameters of locomotion such as trajectory, velocity, and propulsion. To validate the theoretical model of dynamic locomotion, a single-leg experimental platform is used to explore the flipper-legs in motion with various structural and kinematic parameters. Furthermore, a robotic platform mounting with four compliant flipper-legs is also developed and used to experiment with locomotion. The trajectories of the rotating axle of the compliant flipper-leg during locomotion were approximately coincidental in simulation and in experiments. The speed of locomotion and cost of transport during locomotion were explored and analyzed. The performance of different types of compliant flipper-legs during locomotion shows that varying the degrees of stiffness will have a significant effect on their locomotion. The dynamic model and analysis of the compliant flipper-leg for terrestrial locomotion facilitates the ability of amphibious robots to conquer complex environments.

  10. DICOM-compliant PACS with CD-based image archival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert D.; Henri, Christopher J.; Rubin, Richard K.; Bret, Patrice M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low- cost PACS conforming to the DICOM 3.0 standard. The goal was to provide an efficient image archival and management solution on a heterogeneous hospital network as a basis for filmless radiology. The system follows a distributed, client/server model and was implemented at a fraction of the cost of a commercial PACS. It provides reliable archiving on recordable CD and allows access to digital images throughout the hospital and on the Internet. Dedicated servers have been designed for short-term storage, CD-based archival, data retrieval and remote data access or teleradiology. The short-term storage devices provide DICOM storage and query/retrieve services to scanners and workstations and approximately twelve weeks of 'on-line' image data. The CD-based archival and data retrieval processes are fully automated with the exception of CD loading and unloading. The system employs lossless compression on both short- and long-term storage devices. All servers communicate via the DICOM protocol in conjunction with both local and 'master' SQL-patient databases. Records are transferred from the local to the master database independently, ensuring that storage devices will still function if the master database server cannot be reached. The system features rules-based work-flow management and WWW servers to provide multi-platform remote data access. The WWW server system is distributed on the storage, retrieval and teleradiology servers allowing viewing of locally stored image data directly in a WWW browser without the need for data transfer to a central WWW server. An independent system monitors disk usage, processes, network and CPU load on each server and reports errors to the image management team via email. The PACS was implemented using a combination of off-the-shelf hardware, freely available software and applications developed in-house. The system has enabled filmless operation in CT, MR and ultrasound within

  11. Digital Imagery Compression Best Practices Guide - A Motion Imagery Standards Profile (MISP) Compliant Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    is shown on the Y- axis. Higher levels of PSNR translate to higher levels of quality for the encoding results. For each of the three compression...coding for generic audiovisual service | Information Technology – Coding of audio-visual objects Part 10: Advanced Video Coding. ITU-T Rec. H.264 (03

  12. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    Robotic systems are increasingly being utilized in applications that require interaction with humans. In order to enable safe physical human-robot interaction, light weight and compliant manipulation are desirable. These requirements are problematic for many conventional actuation systems, which are often heavy, and typically use high stiffness to achieve high performance, leading to large impact forces upon collision. However, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators that can satisfy these safety requirements while offering power-to-weight ratios comparable to those of conventional actuators. PAMs are extremely lightweight actuators that produce force in response to pressurization. These muscles demonstrate natural compliance, but have a nonlinear force-contraction profile that complicates modeling and control. This body of research presents solutions to the challenges associated with the implementation of PAMs as actuators in robotic manipulators, particularly with regard to modeling, design, and control. An existing PAM force balance model was modified to incorporate elliptic end geometry and a hyper-elastic constitutive relationship, dramatically improving predictions of PAM behavior at high contraction. Utilizing this improved model, two proof-of-concept PAM-driven manipulators were designed and constructed; design features included parallel placement of actuators and a tendon-link joint design. Genetic algorithm search heuristics were employed to determine an optimal joint geometry; allowing a manipulator to achieve a desired torque profile while minimizing the required PAM pressure. Performance of the manipulators was evaluated in both simulation and experiment employing various linear and nonlinear control strategies. These included output feedback techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic, a model-based control for computed torque, and more advanced controllers, such as sliding mode, adaptive sliding mode, and

  13. Modeling and experimental parametric study of a tri-leg compliant orthoplanar spring based multi-mode piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Sharvari; Yang, Zhengbao; Zu, Jean

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and experimental parametric study of a nonlinear multi-frequency broad bandwidth piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester. The proposed harvester consists of a tri-leg compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS) and multiple masses with piezoelectric plates attached at three different locations. The vibration modes, resonant frequencies, and strain distributions are studied using the finite element analysis. The prototype is manufactured and experimentally investigated to study the effect of single as well as multiple light-weight masses on the bandwidth. The dynamic behavior of the harvester with a mass at the center is modeled numerically and characterized experimentally. The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement. A wide bandwidth with three close nonlinear vibration modes is observed during the experiments when four masses are added to the proposed harvester. The current generator with four masses shows a significant performance improvement with multiple nonlinear peaks under both forward and reverse frequency sweeps.

  14. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  15. A prospective study of the effect of education on non-compliant behaviour in contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, B E; Efron, N; Woods, C

    1997-03-01

    The contact lens practitioner and patient present a specific case for the study of non-compliance in areas such as hygiene, solution use, appointment attendance and wearing times. Education is one of the factors thought to influence compliance among patients in general health care situations and contact lens practitioners are encouraged to educate patients in the care and maintenance of contact lenses. A prospective, randomized, controlled and double masked study was performed to assess the effect of a 'compliance enhancement strategy' on levels of compliance among contact lens wearers over twelve months. Eighty experienced contact lens patients were randomly allocated to two experimental groups. A standard level of contact lens instruction was applied to the first group and in addition the compliance enhancement strategy was applied to patients assigned to the second group. The strategy consisted of extra education for patients using a video, booklets, posters, a checklist and a health care contract. Patients were given free supplies of ReNu multipurpose solution and Medalist 38 soft contact lenses (Bausch and Lomb, Rochester, New York). Compliance levels were assessed at a twelve month aftercare appointment by demonstration and questionnaire. The results indicate that the compliance enhancement strategy had little significant effect on the compliance levels of the patients to who it was applied. The population of contact lens wearers were generally very compliant and the contact lenses and care regimen were clinically successful. The possibility that the assessment of non-compliance was not adequately sensitive to highlight small differences in non-compliant behaviour is discussed. The standard level of education applied to this sample of contact lens patient were adequate to ensure generally high levels of compliance with the simple care and maintenance regimen recommended.

  16. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 4 - Atlas of temperature / salinity frequency distributions (2 disc set) (NCEI Accession 0101473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Atlas presents more than 80,000 plots of the empirical frequency distributions of temperature and salinity for each 5-degree square area of the North Atlantic...

  17. Size reduction techniques for vital compliant VHDL simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Marvin J.; Misra, Ashutosh

    2006-08-01

    A method and system select delay values from a VHDL standard delay file that correspond to an instance of a logic gate in a logic model. Then the system collects all the delay values of the selected instance and builds super generics for the rise-time and the fall-time of the selected instance. Then, the system repeats this process for every delay value in the standard delay file (310) that correspond to every instance of every logic gate in the logic model. The system then outputs a reduced size standard delay file (314) containing the super generics for every instance of every logic gate in the logic model.

  18. Direct evidence of strain transfer for InAs island growth on compliant Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marçal, L. A. B.; Magalhães-Paniago, R.; Malachias, Angelo, E-mail: angeloms@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Richard, M.-I. [European Synchrotron (ESRF), ID01 beamline, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP-CNRS, Faculté des Sciences de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille (France); Cavallo, F. [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Lagally, M. G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schülli, T. Ü. [European Synchrotron (ESRF), ID01 beamline, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Deneke, Ch. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia (LNNano/CNPEM), C.P. 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil)

    2015-04-13

    Semiconductor heteroepitaxy on top of thin compliant layers has been explored as a path to make inorganic electronics mechanically flexible as well as to integrate materials that cannot be grown directly on rigid substrates. Here, we show direct evidences of strain transfer for InAs islands on freestanding Si thin films (7 nm). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements using a beam size of 300 × 700 nm{sup 2} can directly probe the strain status of the compliant substrate underneath deposited islands. Using a recently developed diffraction mapping technique, three-dimensional reciprocal space maps were reconstructed around the Si (004) peak for specific illuminated positions of the sample. The strain retrieved was analyzed using continuous elasticity theory via Finite-element simulations. The comparison of experiment and simulations yields the amount of strain from the InAs islands, which is transferred to the compliant Si thin film.

  19. An Experimental Investigation Into the Temperature Profile of a Compliant Foil Air Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin; Zeszotek, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump-type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions. The temperature profile was collected by instrumenting a foil bearing with nine, type K thermocouples arranged in the center and along the bearing s edges in order to measure local temperatures and estimate thermal gradients in the axial and circumferential directions. To facilitate the measurement of maximum temperatures from viscous shearing in the air film, the thermocouples were tack welded to the backside of the bumps that were in direct contact with the top foil. The mating journal was coated with a high temperature solid lubricant that, together with the bearing, underwent high temperature start-stop cycles to produce a smooth, steady-state run-in surface. Tests were conducted at speeds from 20 to 50 krpm and loads ranging from 9 to 222 N. The results indicate that, over the conditions tested, both journal rotational speed and radial load are responsible for heat generation with speed playing a more significant role in the magnitude of the temperatures. The temperature distribution was nearly symmetric about the bearing center at 20 and 30 krpm but became slightly skewed toward one side at 40 and 50 krpm. Surprisingly, the maximum temperatures did not occur at the bearing edge where the minimum film thickness is expected but rather in the middle of the bearing where analytical investigations have predicted the air film to be much thicker. Thermal gradients were common during testing and were strongest in the axial direction from the middle of the bearing to its edges, reaching 3.78 8C/mm. The temperature profile indicated the circumferential thermal gradients were negligible.

  20. Information and communication technologies for operating of smart distribution grids based on the German standardization roadmap; Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien zur Betriebsfuehrung smarter Verteilungsnetze auf Basis der Deutschen Normungsroadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Christoph [IT4Power, Zug (Switzerland); Buchholz, Bernd Michael [NTB Technoservice, Pyrbaum (Germany); Hampel, Herman [iAD GmbH, Grosshabersdorf (Germany); Naumann, A. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The current challenges of the distribution networks are caused by a growing volume of distributed energy in-feed and new types of load. They require the introduction of information and communication technologies (ICT) down to the low voltage level. Innovative monitoring and control tasks are developed in the framework of the European lighthouse project ''Web2Energy'' (W2E) and performed in the practice of the 20/0.4 kV network of the HSE AG in Darmstadt. The overview of the realized functions is given and the related information exchange between the control centre and the distributed plants is considered. The project applies the standards IEC 61850 for data communication and IEC 61968/70 for the data management (CIM - Common Information Model) in the control center (CC). The client - server architecture of the developed communication system is considered in detail. The project related W2E CC serves the aspects of smart distribution also in the context with market activities. Data acquisition and control of the 20/0.4 kV terminals and the various power plants are executed by a mini remote terminal unit. The W2E RTU offers a 100 MBd Ethernet interface providing the IEC 61850 protocol for the access to the communication system. The required application specific extensions of the standards are discussed and the first experiences for application in the practice are demonstrated. (orig.)

  1. Influence of forest roads standards and networks on water yield as predicted by the distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salli F. Dymond; W. Michael Aust; Steven P. Prisley; Mark H. Eisenbies; James M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the country, foresters are continually looking at the effects of logging and forest roads on stream discharge and overall stream health. In the Pacific Northwest, a distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) has been used to predict the effects of logging on peak discharge in mountainous regions. DHSVM uses elevation, meteorological, vegetation, and...

  2. Compliant Electrode and Composite Material for Piezoelectric Wind and Mechanical Energy Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thin film device for harvesting energy from wind. The thin film device includes one or more layers of a compliant piezoelectric material formed from a composite of a polymer and an inorganic material, such as a ceramic. Electrodes are disposed on a first side and a second side of the piezoelectric material. The electrodes are formed from a compliant material, such as carbon nanotubes or graphene. The thin film device exhibits improved resistance to structural fatigue upon application of large strains and repeated cyclic loadings.

  3. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 1: Journal bearing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitto, D.; Mccormick, J.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    A 38.1 mm (1.5 inch) diameter Hydresil Compliant Surface Air Lubricated Journal Bearing was designed and tested to obtain bearing performance characteristics at both room temperature and 315 C (600 F). Testing was performed at various speeds up to 60,000 rpm with varying loads. Rotating sensors provided an opportunity to examine the film characteristics of the compliant surface bearing. In addition to providing minimum film thickness values and profiles, many other insights into bearing operation were gained such as the influence of bearing fabrication accuracy and the influence of smooth foil deflection between the bumps.

  4. MIG version 0.0 model interface guidelines: Rules to accelerate installation of numerical models into any compliant parent code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A set of model interface guidelines, called MIG, is presented as a means by which any compliant numerical material model can be rapidly installed into any parent code without having to modify the model subroutines. Here, {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} usually means a material model such as one that computes stress as a function of strain, though the term may be extended to any numerical operation. {open_quotes}Parent code{close_quotes} means a hydrocode, finite element code, etc. which uses the model and enforces, say, the fundamental laws of motion and thermodynamics. MIG requires the model developer (who creates the model package) to specify model needs in a standardized but flexible way. MIG includes a dictionary of technical terms that allows developers and parent code architects to share a common vocabulary when specifying field variables. For portability, database management is the responsibility of the parent code. Input/output occurs via structured calling arguments. As much model information as possible (such as the lists of required inputs, as well as lists of precharacterized material data and special needs) is supplied by the model developer in an ASCII text file. Every MIG-compliant model also has three required subroutines to check data, to request extra field variables, and to perform model physics. To date, the MIG scheme has proven flexible in beta installations of a simple yield model, plus a more complicated viscodamage yield model, three electromechanical models, and a complicated anisotropic microcrack constitutive model. The MIG yield model has been successfully installed using identical subroutines in three vectorized parent codes and one parallel C++ code, all predicting comparable results. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort, thereby reducing the cost of installing and sharing models in diverse new codes.

  5. SysGRID: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 Standard Based Engineering Tool for Smart Grid Automation Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The so called Smart Grid is said to be distributed in nature with an accompanying control architecture which is made up of a heterogeneous network of controllers communicating in a peer-to-peer manner. The paper proposes a novel computer-aided model-based system engineering process for the design of a Smart Grid applications from the initial design specification through to the validation of the control system and hardware deployment. The process is supported by the SysGRID tool, which plays the roles of a system configurator and device configurator adopted from the International Standard IEC 61850. SysGRID supports system-level design of automation logic in the form of function block networks compliant with the international standard IEC 61499. The capabilities of SysGRID are demonstrated through the process of designing a distributed protection application based on IEC 61850 and the resultant validation process in a close-loop co-simulation.

  6. Finite element analysis of the stress distributions in peri-implant bone in modified and standard-threaded dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Dundar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the stress distributions with three different loads in two different geometric and threaded types of dental implants by finite element analysis. For this purpose, two different implant models, Nobel Replace and Nobel Active (Nobel Biocare, Zurich, Switzerland, which are currently used in clinical cases, were constructed by using ANSYS Workbench 12.1. The stress distributions on components of the implant system under three different static loadings were analysed for the two models. The maximum stress values that occurred in all components were observed in FIII (300 N. The maximum stress values occurred in FIII (300 N when the Nobel Replace implant is used, whereas the lowest ones, in the case of FI (150 N loading in the Nobel Active implant. In all models, the maximum tensions were observed to be in the neck region of the implants. Increasing the connection between the implant and the bone surface may allow more uniform distribution of the forces of the dental implant and may protect the bone around the implant. Thus, the implant could remain in the mouth for longer periods. Variable-thread tapered implants can increase the implant and bone contact.

  7. 48 CFR 352.239-71 - Standard for encryption language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... computers, desktop computers, and other mobile devices and portable media that store or process sensitive... Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2-compliant encryption (Security Requirements for Cryptographic...” in accordance with FIPS 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer products...

  9. Inventory of platforms towards the design of a statically balanced six degrees of freedom compliant precision stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunning, A.G.; Tolou, N.; Herder, J.

    2011-01-01

    For many applications in precision engineering, a six degrees of freedom (DoF) compliant stage (CS) with zero stiffness is desirable, to deal with problems like backlash, friction, lubrication, and at the same time, reduce the actuation force. To this end, the compliant stage (also known as

  10. Mobility particle size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedensohler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobility particle size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers have found a wide range of applications in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards and guidelines with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry to perform long-term atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations include continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyzer.

    We compared commercial and custom-made inversion routines to calculate the particle number size distributions from the measured electrical mobility distribution. All inversion routines are comparable within few per cent uncertainty for a given set of raw data.

    Furthermore, this work summarizes the results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research and ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network to determine present uncertainties especially of custom-built mobility particle size spectrometers. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the particle number size distributions from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility particle size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of around ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. For particles larger than 200 nm, the uncertainty range increased to 30%, which could not be explained. The network reference mobility spectrometers with identical design agreed within ±4% in the

  11. NCI's Distributed Geospatial Data Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraondo, P. R.; Evans, B. J. K.; Antony, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth systems, environmental and geophysics datasets are an extremely valuable source of information about the state and evolution of the Earth. However, different disciplines and applications require this data to be post-processed in different ways before it can be used. For researchers experimenting with algorithms across large datasets or combining multiple data sets, the traditional approach to batch data processing and storing all the output for later analysis rapidly becomes unfeasible, and often requires additional work to publish for others to use. Recent developments on distributed computing using interactive access to significant cloud infrastructure opens the door for new ways of processing data on demand, hence alleviating the need for storage space for each individual copy of each product. The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has developed a highly distributed geospatial data server which supports interactive processing of large geospatial data products, including satellite Earth Observation data and global model data, using flexible user-defined functions. This system dynamically and efficiently distributes the required computations among cloud nodes and thus provides a scalable analysis capability. In many cases this completely alleviates the need to preprocess and store the data as products. This system presents a standards-compliant interface, allowing ready accessibility for users of the data. Typical data wrangling problems such as handling different file formats and data types, or harmonising the coordinate projections or temporal and spatial resolutions, can now be handled automatically by this service. The geospatial data server exposes functionality for specifying how the data should be aggregated and transformed. The resulting products can be served using several standards such as the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) or Web Feature Service (WFS), Open Street Map tiles, or raw binary arrays under

  12. Service Oriented Integration of Distributed Heterogeneous IT Systems in Production Engineering Using Information Standards and Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Shariat Zadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While design of production systems based on digital models brings benefits, the communication of models comes with challenges since models typically reside in a heterogeneous IT environment using different syntax and semantics. Coping with heterogeneity requires a smart integration strategy. One main paradigm to integrate data and IT systems is to deploy information standards. In particular, ISO 10303 STEP has been endorsed as a suitable standard to exchange a wide variety of product manufacturing data. One the other hand, service-oriented tool integration solutions are progressively adopted for the integration of data and IT-tools, especially with the emergence of Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration whose focus is on the linking of data from heterogeneous software tools. In practice, there should be a combination of these approaches to facilitate the integration process. Hence, the aim of this paper is to investigate the applications of the approaches and the principles behind them and try to find criteria for where to use which approach. In addition, we explore the synergy between them and consequently suggest an approach based on combination of them. In addition, a systematic approach is suggested to identify required level of integrations and their corresponding approaches exemplified in a typical IT system architecture in Production Engineering.

  13. Selecting and Expressing Communicative Functions in a SAIBA-Compliant Agent Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafaro, Angelo; Bruijnes, Merijn; van Waterschoot, Jelte Barachia; Pelachaud, Catherine; Theune, Mariët; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Beskow, Jonas; Peters, Christopher; Castellano, Ginevra; O'Sullivan, Carol; Leite, Iolanda; Kopp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In SAIBA-compliant agent systems, the Function Markup Language (FML) is used to describe the agent's communicative functions that are transformed into utterances accompanied with appropriate non-verbal behaviours. In the context of the ARIA Framework, we propose a template-based approach, grounded

  14. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shang-Chang; Hu, Chia-Jui; Shih, Wen-Pin; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic ...

  15. Compliant liquid column damper modified by shape memory alloy device for seismic vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, Sourav; Mishra, Sudib Kumar; Bhowmick, Sutanu; Chakraborty, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Liquid column dampers (LCDs) have long been used for the seismic vibration control of flexible structures. In contrast, tuning LCDs to short-period structures poses difficulty. Various modifications have been proposed on the original LCD configuration for improving its performance in relatively stiff structures. One such system, referred to as a compliant-LCD has been proposed recently by connecting the LCD to the structure with a spring. In this study, an improvement is attempted in compliant LCDs by replacing the linear spring with a spring made of shape memory alloy (SMA). Considering the dissipative, super-elastic, force-deformation hysteresis of SMA triggered by stress-induced micro-structural phase transition, the performance is expected to improve further. The optimum parameters for the SMA-compliant LCD are obtained through design optimization, which is based on a nonlinear random vibration response analysis via stochastic linearization of the force-deformation hysteresis of SMA and dissipation by liquid motion through an orifice. Substantially enhanced performance of the SMA–LCD over a conventional compliant LCD is demonstrated, the consistency of which is further verified under recorded ground motions. The robustness of the improved performance is also validated by parametric study concerning the anticipated variations in system parameters as well as variability in seismic loading. (paper)

  16. Energy expenditure and muscular activation patterns through active sitting on compliant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Clark Dickin

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Compliant surfaces resulted in higher levels of muscular activation in the lower extremities facilitating increased caloric expenditure. Given the increasing trends in sedentary careers and the increases in obesity, this is an important finding to validate the merits of active sitting facilitating increased caloric expenditure and muscle activation.

  17. Strategies for follow-up care of non-compliant HIV-positive pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NM Jama, N Tshotsho. Abstract. In an effort to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, this study was designed to explore and describe the strategies used by nurses as a follow-up with newly-diagnosed ... The strategies for following up non-compliant women are recommended as guidelines to promote compliance.

  18. The extent of non-compliant plumbing components used in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A worrying finding is that the level of non-compliance seems to be particularly large in low-cost housing developments. The main reasons for the low levels of compliance are a lack of enforcement at local government level and the fact that legislation does not prohibit the import and sale of non-compliant components.

  19. Design of a piezoelectric inchworm actuator and compliant end effector for minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Shawn; Edinger, Ben; Frecker, Mary I.; Koopmann, Gary H.

    1999-06-01

    Recent advances in robotics, tele-robotics, smart material actuators, and mechatronics raise new possibilities for innovative developments in millimeter-scale robotics capable of manipulating objects only fractions of a millimeter in size. These advances can have a wide range of applications in the biomedical community. A potential application of this technology is in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The focus of this paper is the development of a single degree of freedom prototype to demonstrate the viability of smart materials, force feedback and compliant mechanisms for minimally invasive surgery. The prototype is a compliant gripper that is 7-mm by 17-mm, made from a single piece of titanium that is designed to function as a needle driver for small scale suturing. A custom designed piezoelectric `inchworm' actuator drives the gripper. The integrated system is computer controlled providing a user interface device capable of force feedback. The design methodology described draws from recent advances in three emerging fields in engineering: design of innovative tools for MIS, design of compliant mechanisms, and design of smart materials and actuators. The focus of this paper is on the design of a millimeter-scale inchworm actuator for use with a compliant end effector in MIS.

  20. Tuning of structural color using a dielectric actuator and multifunctional compliant electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhao H; Punckt, Christian; Leung, Eva Y; Schniepp, Hannes C; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2010-12-10

    We have developed electrically conducting silicone elastomer nanocomposites that serve both as compliant electrodes in an electrostatic actuator and, at the same time, as optically active elements creating structural color. We demonstrate the capabilities of our setup by actuating an elastomeric diffraction grating and colloidal-crystal-based photonic structures.

  1. Vibration Isolation by an Actively Compliantly Mounted Sensor Applied to a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes; Lötters, Joost Conrad; de Boer, Andries

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a vibration isolated design of a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM) is proposed by introducing a compliant connection between the casing and the tube displacement sensors, with the objective to obtain a relative displacement measurement of the fluid conveying tube, dependent on the tube

  2. Geometrical design parameters for journal bearings with flexure pads and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A hydrodynamic journal bearing utilizing flexure pads with a compliant liner is studied and its performance enhanced through a parametric study. The main geometrical dimensions are varied and the affect on pad performance is analyzed. This will put more knowledge into the design and function...

  3. Dynamic Locomotion and Whole-Body Control for Compliant Humanoids

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Michael Anthony

    2015-01-01

    With the ability to navigate natural and man-made environments and utilize standard human tools, humanoid robots have the potential to transform emergency response and disaster relief applications by serving as first responders in hazardous scenarios. Such applications will require major advances in humanoid control, enabling robots to traverse difficult, cluttered terrain with both speed and stability. To advance the state of the art, this dissertation presents a complete dynamic locomotion ...

  4. Low HAP/VOC Compliant Resins for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    on lauric acid FAVE-O fatty acid vinyl ester resin system based on octanoic acid FTIR Fourier transform infrared GIC Mode 1 fracture energy... lauric acid MOct methacrylated octanoic acid MPa megapascals Msi 1 million lb per square inch mW mega watt NESHAP National Emissions Standard... lauric acid (MLau) monomers represent a balance of these factors, as they have good resin and polymer properties, and low cost. Due to the low cost of

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as compliant electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Soo-Lim; Neo, Xin-Hui; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2011-04-01

    A stacked dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) consists of multiple layers of elastomeric dielectrics interleaved with compliant electrodes. It is capable of taking a tensile load if only the interleaving compliant electrodes provide a good bonding and enough elasticity. However, the stacked configuration of DEA was found to produce less actuation strain as compared to a single-layer configuration of pre-stretched membrane. It is believed the binder for compliant electrodes has a significant influence on the actuation strain. Yet, there has yet systematic study on the effect of binder. In this paper, we will study the effects of binder, solvent, and surface fictionalization on the compliant electrodes using the conductive filler of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT). Two types of binders are used, namely a soft silicone rubber (Mold Max 10T) and a soft silicone gel (Sylgard 527 gel). The present experiments show that the actuators using binders in the compliant electrodes produce a much lower areal strain as compared to the ones without binders in them. It is found that introducing a binder in the electrodes decreases the conductivity. The MWCNT compliant electrode with binder remains conductive (<1TΩ) up to a strain of 300%, whereas the one without binder remains conductive up to a strain of 800%. Changing the type of binder to a softer and less-viscous one increases the percolation ratio for MWCNT-COOH filler from 5% to 15% but this does not significantly increase the actuation strain. In addition, this study investigates the effect of MWCNT functionalization on the dielectric elastomeric actuation. The compliant electrodes using the MWCNT functionalized with (-COOH) group was also found to have a lower electrical conductivity and areal actuation strain, in comparison to the ones using the pristine MWCNT filler. In addition to binder, solvent for dispersing MWCNT-COOH was found to affect the actuation strain even though the solvent is eventually removed by

  6. Standard bone healing stages occur during delayed bone healing, albeit with a different temporal onset and spatial distribution of callus tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anja; Schell, Hanna; Bail, Hermann J; Hannemann, Marion; Schumann, Tanja; Duda, Georg N; Lienau, Jasmin

    2010-09-01

    Bone healing is considered as a recapitulation of a developmental program initiated at the time of injury. This study tested the hypothesis that in delayed bone healing the regular cascade of healing events, including remodeling of woven to lamellar bone, would be similar compared to standard healing, although the temporal onset would be delayed. A tibial osteotomy was performed in sheep and stabilized with a rotationally unstable fixator leading to delayed healing. The sheep were sacrificed at 2, 3, 6, 9 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The temporal and spatial tissue distributions in the calluses and the bone microstructure were examined by histology. Although histological analysis demonstrated temporal and spatial callus tissue distribution differences, delayed healing exhibited the same characteristic stages as those seen during uneventful standard healing. The delayed healing process was characterized by a prolonged presence of hematoma, a different spatial distribution of new bone and delayed and prolonged endochondral bone formation. A change in the spatial distribution of callus formation was seen by week 6 leading to bone formation and resorption of the cortical bone fragments, dependent on the degree to which the cortical bone fragments were dislocated. At 6 months, only 5 out of 8 animals showed complete bony bridging with a continuous periosteum, although lamellar bone and newly formed woven bone were present in the other 3 animals. This study demonstrates that during delayed bone healing all stages of the healing cascade likely take place, even if bony consolidation does not occur. Furthermore, the healing outcome might be related to the periosteum's regenerative capacity leading to bony union or absence of bony bridging.

  7. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-09

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance. Results show that the small-diameter system provides more uniform temperatures from floor to floor in the three-story townhome. No clear energy consumption benefit was observed from either system. The builder is continuing to explore the small-diameter system as its new standard system to provide better comfort and indoor air quality. The homebuilder also explored the possibility of shifting its townhome product to meet the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home National Program Requirements. Ultimately, the builder decided that adoption of these practices would be too disruptive midstream in the construction cycle. However, the townhomes met the ENERGY STAR Version 3.0 program requirements.

  8. Evaluation of GMP-compliant culture media for in vitro expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchter, Patrick; Vetter, Marcel; Saffrich, Rainer; Diehlmann, Anke; Bieback, Karen; Ho, Anthony D; Horn, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow serve as a resource for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. Clinical applications require standardized protocols according to good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines. Donor variability as well as the intrinsic heterogeneity of MSC populations must be taken into consideration. The composition of the culture medium is a key factor in successful MSC expansion. The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the efficiency of xeno-free human platelet lysate (HPL)-based cell expansion with two commercially available media-StemPro MSC SFM CTS (for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications) and MSCGM (non-GMP-compliant, for research only)-in an academic setting as the first optimization step toward GMP-compliant manufacturing. We report the feasibility of MSC expansion up to the yielded cell number with all three media. MSCs exhibited the typical fibroblastoid morphology, with distinct differences in cell size depending on the medium. The differentiation capacity and characteristic immunophenotype were confirmed for all MSC populations. Proliferation was highest using StemPro MSC SFM CTS, whereas HPL medium was more cost-effective and its composition could be adjusted individually according to the respective needs. In summary, we present a comprehensive evaluation of GMP-compatible culture media for MSC expansion. Both StemPro and HPL medium proved to be suitable for clinical application and allowed sufficient cell proliferation. Specific differences were observed and should be considered according to the intended use. This study provides a detailed cost analysis and tools that may be helpful for the establishment of GMP-compliant MSC expansion. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Climate effects of non-compliant Volkswagen diesel cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Lund, Marianne T.; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje

    2018-04-01

    On-road operations of Volkswagen light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with defeat devices cause emissions of NOx up to 40 times above emission standards. Higher on-road NOx emissions are a widespread problem not limited to Volkswagen vehicles, but the Volkswagen violations brought this issue under the spotlight. While several studies investigated the health impacts of high NOx emissions, the climatic impacts have not been quantified. Here we show that such diesel cars generate a larger warming on the time scale of several years but a smaller warming on the decadal time scale during actual on-road operations than in vehicle certification tests. The difference in longer-term warming levels, however, depends on underlying driving conditions. Furthermore, in the presence of defeat devices, the climatic advantage of ‘clean diesel’ cars over gasoline cars, in terms of global-mean temperature change, is in our view not necessarily the case.

  10. Dose distribution of gamma radiation in a new geometric configuration of a standard carton date package and its experimental application for disinfestation of packed dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. S. H.; Al-Taweel, A. A.; Hameed, A. A.

    1994-06-01

    A new geometrical configuration composed of three standard carton boxes (SCBs) full with polyethylene bags (PBs), where each bag contains 1 kg of date, was placed on a single turntable of Gammabeam-650 and irradiated with low doses. The mean "radiation absorbed dose" for disinfestation of this geometrical unit at 15 equally distributed positions (Fricke dosimeters) inside 3 SCBs put on a single turntable was calculated to be 0.46 ± 0.20 kGy and dose uniformity ratio ( U) = 1.0019/0.2500 = 4.00. The development and genetic tests carried out on insects found in the PBs 1-2 days after irradiation resulted in that all insects were completely sterile and died within a short period of time. No sign of any reinfestation was recorded at all in the treated packages even after 30 days of storage in an insectory. Apparently the prevention of insects from invading and/or penetrating the date packages is due mainly to the new combination of standard carton boxes that are widely used for commercial purposes and hermetically heat-sealed polyethylene bags of dates in addition to the entire prevention of reproduction induced by the "low" doses of γ radiation. Therefore, by using similar geometrical configuration, 18 big standard carton date packages can be simultaneously disinfected, using the same range of doses or so, by utilizing all the 6 turntables inside the radiation chamber of the Gammabeam-650 irradiation facility.

  11. A proposal for benchmark tests for underactuated or compliant hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Kragten

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of agreement in the literature as to what exactly quantifies the performance of underactuated hands. This paper proposes two benchmark tests to measure the ability of underactuated hands to grasp different objects and the ability to hold the objects when force disturbances apply. The first test determines the smallest and largest cylindrical object which can be successfully grasped in an enveloping grasp or in a pinch grasp. The second test provides the maximal allowable force which can be applied to a grasped object without loosing it. A setup was constructed consisting of standard components. Exemplary tests were applied to the Delft Hand 2. The proposed benchmark tests are representative to quantify the performance of pick and place operations with underactuated hands. The results of the tests can be applied to evaluate, compare, and improve the performance of robotic hands.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  12. SU-F-T-485: Independent Remote Audits for TG51 NonCompliant Photon Beams Performed by the IROC Houston QA Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Taylor, P; Kry, S; Followill, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: IROC_H conducts external audits for output check verification of photon and electron beams. Many of these beams can meet the geometric requirements of the TG 51 calibration protocol. For those photon beams that are non TG 51 compliant like Elekta GammaKnife, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy, IROC_H has specific audit tools to monitor the reference calibration. Methods: IROC_H used its TLD and OSLD remote monitoring systems to verify the output of machines with TG 51 non compliant beams. Acrylic OSLD miniphantoms are used for the CyberKnife. Special TLD phantoms are used for TomoTherapy and GammaKnife machines to accommodate the specific geometry of each machine. These remote audit tools are sent to institutions to be irradiated and returned to IROC_H for analysis. Results: The average IROC_H/institution ratios for 480 GammaKnife, 660 CyberKnife and 907 rotational TomoTherapy beams are 1.000±0.021, 1.008±0.019, 0.974±0.023, respectively. In the particular case of TomoTherapy, the overall ratio is 0.977±0.022 for HD units. The standard deviations of all results are consistent with values determined for TG 51 compliant photon beams. These ratios have shown some changes compared to values presented in 2008. The GammaKnife results were corrected by an experimentally determined scatter factor of 1.025 in 2013. The TomoTherapy helical beam results are now from a rotational beam whereas in 2008 the results were from a static beam. The decision to change modality was based on recommendations from the users. Conclusion: External audits of beam outputs is a valuable tool to confirm the calibrations of photon beams regardless of whether the machine is TG 51 or TG 51 non compliant. The difference found for TomoTherapy units is under investigation. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI

  13. Design and Optimization of Revolute Flexure Joints for Compliant Parallel Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaokang LIANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexure joints are widely incorporated in a large number of precise applications such as micro-positioning stages and high-accuracy alignment instruments due to their monolithic character. As the main constituents of compliant mechanisms, the joint characters can influence the static and dynamic performances of the overall mechanism. This paper describes the Simulation-Driven Design and Optimization (SDDO of the revolute flexure joint with high performance. By the implementation of the SDDO, the designed joint possesses high performance such as high precision of output motion, low energy consumption, large capacity of rotation, high stiffness, simultaneously. A prismatic flexure joint and a universal flexure joint constructed of designed joints are included to illustrate the analysis and design techniques. The presented design can be usefully used in other parallel compliant mechanisms and the SDDO method can also be used to develop industrial products.

  14. Multistable Compliant Auxetic Metamaterials Inspired by Geometric Patterns in Islamic Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano; PasiniLab Team

    Beyond their aesthetic significance, geometric patterns in Islamic arts can offer a rich source of inspiration that can be used to create new mechanical metamaterials. In this work, we follow this route and present a new class of compliant mechanical metamaterials which simultaneously exhibit negative Poisson's ratio and structural bistability. Designed by finite element simulations, this multifunctional metamaterial is fabricated by perforating a symmetric cut pattern into a sheet of natural rubber. Its building blocks are rotating units with square or triangular shapes connected together with compliant flexure hinges. Under the action of uniaxial extension, the relative rotation between the adjacent members triggers snap-through instability and brings together auxeticity and structural bistability. As a result, this metamaterial can accomplish reversible reconfiguration between two stable arrangements.

  15. Quantifying the effect of squirt flow dispersion from compliant clay porosity in clay bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Compliant porosity in the form of cracks is known to cause significant attenuation and velocity dispersion through pore pressure gradients and consequent relaxation, dubbed squirt flow. Squirt flow from cracks vanish at high confining stress due to crack closing. Studies on clay bearing sandstones......, however, show high attenuation and velocity dispersion remaining at high confining stress. Such dispersion is proposed to be caused by pressure gradients induced by compliant porosity within clay inclusions. By modeling the response of two extreme systems we quantify the possible effects of such clay......-squirt flow on the bulk modulus of a clay bearing sandstone. The predicted magnitude of the clay-squirt effect on the bulk modulus is compared with experimental data. The clay-squirt effect is found to possibly account for a significant portion of the deviances from Gassmann fluid substitution in claybearing...

  16. Design and Testing of a 2-DOF Flexure-based Compliant Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yunsong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical design and testing of a 2-DOF flexure-based compliant stage. The prismatic joints are first discussed. To obtain high resonance frequency and decoupled property, the stage composed of four parallel chains with symmetrical configuration should be employed. Finally, an experimental platform is set up to test the cooperative tracking performance. The experimental trajectory is in good agreement with the desired trajectory under various input frequencies. It shows that the maximum tracking error exhibits an increase from 0.8% to 2.7%. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed compliant stage possess good tracking performance under 100 Hz, which also validates the reasonability of the stage.

  17. Ankle rehabilitation device with two degrees of freedom and compliant joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racu (Cazacu, C.-M.; Doroftei, I.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a rehabilitation device that we intend to be low cost and easy to manufacture. The system will ensure functionality but also have a small dimensions and low mass, considering the physiological dimensions of the foot and lower leg. To avoid injure of the ankle joint, this device is equipped with a compliant joint between the motor and mechanical transmission. The torque of this joint is intended to be adjustable, according to the degree of ankle joint damage. To choose the material and the dimensions of this compliant joint, in this paper we perform the first stress simulation. The minimum torque is calculated, while the maximum torque is given by the preliminary chosen actuator.

  18. Fully Decoupled Compliant Parallel Mechanism: a New Solution for the Design of Multidimensional Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen GAO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multidimensional accelerometer is proposed based on fully decoupled compliant parallel mechanism. Three separated chains, which are served as the elastic body, are perpendicular to each other for sensing the kinetic information in different directions without decoupling process. As the crucial part of the whole sensor structure, the revolute and prismatic joints in three pairwise orthogonal branches of the parallel mechanism are manufactured with the alloy aluminium as flexure hinge-based compliant joints. The structure development is first introduced, followed by the comprehensive finite-element analysis including the strain of the sensitive legs, modal analysis for total deformation under different frequency, and the performance of harmonic response. Then, the shape optimization is conducted to reduce the unnecessary parts. Compliance optimization with particle swarm algorithm is implemented to redesign the dimension of the sensitive legs. The research supplies a new viewpoint for the mechanical design of physical sensor, especially acceleration sensor.

  19. Buckling of a stiff thin film on an elastic graded compliant substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhou; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou

    2017-12-01

    The buckling of a stiff film on a compliant substrate has attracted much attention due to its wide applications such as thin-film metrology, surface patterning and stretchable electronics. An analytical model is established for the buckling of a stiff thin film on a semi-infinite elastic graded compliant substrate subjected to in-plane compression. The critical compressive strain and buckling wavelength for the sinusoidal mode are obtained analytically for the case with the substrate modulus decaying exponentially. The rigorous finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to validate the analytical model and investigate the postbuckling behaviour of the system. The critical buckling strain for the period-doubling mode is obtained numerically. The influences of various material parameters on the results are investigated. These results are helpful to provide physical insights on the buckling of elastic graded substrate-supported thin film.

  20. Exploiting Stretchable Metallic Springs as Compliant Electrodes for Cylindrical Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hao Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs have been widely used in soft robots and artificial bio-medical applications. Most DEAs are composed of a thin dielectric elastomer layer sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. DEAs vary in their design to provide bending, torsional, and stretch/contraction motions under the application of high external voltages. Most compliant electrodes are made of carbon powders or thin metallic films. In situations involving large deformations or improper fabrication, the electrodes are susceptible to breakage and increased resistivity. The worst cases result in a loss of conductivity and functional failure. In this study, we developed a method by which to exploit stretchable metallic springs as compliant electrodes for cylindrical DEAs. This design was inspired by the extensibility of mechanical springs. The main advantage of this approach is the fact that the metallic spring-like compliant electrodes remain conductive and do not increase the stiffness as the tube-like DEAs elongate in the axial direction. This can be attributed to a reduction in thickness in the radial direction. The proposed cylindrical structure is composed of highly-stretchable VHB 4905 film folded within a hollow tube and then sandwiched between copper springs (inside and outside to allow for stretching and contraction in the axial direction under the application of high DC voltages. We fabricated a prototype and evaluated the mechanical and electromechanical properties of the device experimentally using a high-voltage source of 9.9 kV. This device demonstrated a non-linear increase in axial stretching with an increase in applied voltage, reaching a maximum extension of 0.63 mm (axial strain of 2.35% at applied voltage of 9.9 kV. Further miniaturization and the incorporation of compressive springs are expected to allow the implementation of the proposed method in soft micro-robots and bio-mimetic applications.

  1. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and...

  2. A Compliant Mechanism Synthesis Theory for Fostering Innovation of Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    extension spring is not capable of bend - ing, as if a prismatic joint is present between the two revolute joints. The torsion springs account for the bending ...stiffness of the compliant soft joint. Due to the combination of bending and extension effects, the PRB parameters are dependent on the aspect ratio... torsion springs, and therefore, it would be possible to vary the equilibrium positions of the springs. In reality, this can be achieved by changes in

  3. Corporate Governance and Islamic Social Responsibility Disclosure In Kuwaiti Shariah Compliant Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shammari, B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between corporate governance characteristics and the extent of Islamic social responsibility disclosure in Kuwait. The annual reports of 40 Shariah-compliant financial institutions listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange in 2010 are examined. Four major corporate governance characteristics are investigated: 1) the existence of a Shariah supervisory board; 2) the number of board members; 3) the proportion of non-executive directors to the total number of di...

  4. MHD peristaltic motion of Johnson-Segalman fluid in a channel with compliant walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, T.; Javed, Maryiam; Asghar, S.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Johnson-Segalman fluid in a channel with compliant walls is analyzed. The flow is engendered due to sinusoidal waves on the channel walls. A series solution is developed for the case in which the amplitude ratio is small. Our computations show that the mean axial velocity of a Johnson-Segalman fluid is smaller than that of a viscous fluid. The variations of various interesting dimensionless parameters are graphed and discussed

  5. Reward-Modulated Hebbian Plasticity as Leverage for Partially Embodied Control in Compliant Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burms, Jeroen; Caluwaerts, Ken; Dambre, Joni

    2015-01-01

    In embodied computation (or morphological computation), part of the complexity of motor control is offloaded to the body dynamics. We demonstrate that a simple Hebbian-like learning rule can be used to train systems with (partial) embodiment, and can be extended outside of the scope of traditional neural networks. To this end, we apply the learning rule to optimize the connection weights of recurrent neural networks with different topologies and for various tasks. We then apply this learning rule to a simulated compliant tensegrity robot by optimizing static feedback controllers that directly exploit the dynamics of the robot body. This leads to partially embodied controllers, i.e., hybrid controllers that naturally integrate the computations that are performed by the robot body into a neural network architecture. Our results demonstrate the universal applicability of reward-modulated Hebbian learning. Furthermore, they demonstrate the robustness of systems trained with the learning rule. This study strengthens our belief that compliant robots should or can be seen as computational units, instead of dumb hardware that needs a complex controller. This link between compliant robotics and neural networks is also the main reason for our search for simple universal learning rules for both neural networks and robotics.

  6. Flight Testing of Novel Compliant Spines for Passive Wing Morphing on Ornithopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissa, Aimy; Guerreiro, Nelson; Grauer, Jared; Altenbuchner, Cornelia; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Tummala, Yashwanth; Frecker, Mary; Roberts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are proliferating in both the civil and military markets. Flapping wing UAVs, or ornithopters, have the potential to combine the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft with excellent performance in low Reynolds number flight regimes. The purpose of this paper is to present new free flight experimental results for an ornithopter equipped with one degree of freedom (1DOF) compliant spines that were designed and optimized in terms of mass, maximum von-Mises stress, and desired wing bending deflections. The spines were inserted in an experimental ornithopter wing spar in order to achieve a set of desired kinematics during the up and down strokes of a flapping cycle. The ornithopter was flown at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in the Air Force Research Laboratory Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) indoor flight facility. Vicon motion tracking cameras were used to track the motion of the vehicle for five different wing configurations. The effect of the presence of the compliant spine on wing kinematics and leading edge spar deflection during flight is presented. Results show that the ornithopter with the compliant spine inserted in its wing reduced the body acceleration during the upstroke which translates into overall lift gains.

  7. Modeling and Control of Adjustable Articulated Parallel Compliant Actuation Arrangements in Articulated Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Roozing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable advances in robotic actuation technology have been made in recent years. Particularly the use of compliance has increased, both as series elastic elements as well as in parallel to the main actuation drives. This work focuses on the model formulation and control of compliant actuation structures including multiple branches and multiarticulation, and significantly contributes by proposing an elegant modular formulation that describes the energy exchange between the compliant elements and articulated multibody robot dynamics using the concept of power flows, and a single matrix that describes the entire actuation topology. Using this formulation, a novel gradient descent based control law is derived for torque control of compliant actuation structures with adjustable pretension, with proven convexity for arbitrary actuation topologies. Extensions toward handling unidirectionality of elastic elements and joint motion compensation are also presented. A simulation study is performed on a 3-DoF leg model, where series-elastic main drives are augmented by parallel elastic tendons with adjustable pretension. Two actuation topologies are considered, one of which includes a biarticulated tendon. The data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control methods. Furthermore, it is shown the biarticulated topology provides significant benefits over the monoarticulated arrangement.

  8. Reward-Modulated Hebbian Plasticity as Leverage for Partially Embodied Control in Compliant Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burms, Jeroen; Caluwaerts, Ken; Dambre, Joni

    2015-01-01

    In embodied computation (or morphological computation), part of the complexity of motor control is offloaded to the body dynamics. We demonstrate that a simple Hebbian-like learning rule can be used to train systems with (partial) embodiment, and can be extended outside of the scope of traditional neural networks. To this end, we apply the learning rule to optimize the connection weights of recurrent neural networks with different topologies and for various tasks. We then apply this learning rule to a simulated compliant tensegrity robot by optimizing static feedback controllers that directly exploit the dynamics of the robot body. This leads to partially embodied controllers, i.e., hybrid controllers that naturally integrate the computations that are performed by the robot body into a neural network architecture. Our results demonstrate the universal applicability of reward-modulated Hebbian learning. Furthermore, they demonstrate the robustness of systems trained with the learning rule. This study strengthens our belief that compliant robots should or can be seen as computational units, instead of dumb hardware that needs a complex controller. This link between compliant robotics and neural networks is also the main reason for our search for simple universal learning rules for both neural networks and robotics. PMID:26347645

  9. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spröwitz, Alexander T; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2-3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  10. Kinematic primitives for a quadruped robot walk and trot with compliant legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Thomas Sprowitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2 to 3 primitives than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (4 primitives, although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  11. High-resolution spectrally-resolved fiber optic sensor interrogation system based on a standard DWDM laser module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njegovec, Matej; Donlagic, Denis

    2010-11-08

    This paper presents a spectrally-resolved integration system suitable for the reading of Bragg grating, all-fiber Fabry-Perot, and similar spectrally-resolved fiber-optic sensors. This system is based on a standard telecommunication dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission module that contains a distributed feedback laser diode and a wavelength locker. Besides the transmission module, only a few additional opto-electronic components were needed to build an experimental interrogation system that demonstrated over a 2 nm wide wavelength interrogation range, and a 1 pm wavelength resolution. When the system was combined with a typical Bragg grating sensor, a strain resolution of 1 με and temperature resolution of 0.1 °C were demonstrated experimentally. The proposed interrogation system relies entirely on Telecordia standard compliant photonic components and can thus be straightforwardly qualified for use within the range of demanding applications.

  12. Weight-for-age standard score - distribution and effect on in-hospital mortality: A retrospective analysis in pediatric cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the distribution of weight for age standard score (Z score in pediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Introduction: WHO recommends Standard Score (Z score to quantify and describe anthropometric data. The distribution of weight for age Z score and its effect on mortality in congenital heart surgery has not been studied. Methods: All patients of younger than 5 years who underwent cardiac surgery from July 2007 to June 2013, under single surgical unit at our institute were enrolled. Z score for weight for age was calculated. Patients were classified according to Z score and mortality across the classes was compared. Discrimination and calibration of the for Z score model was assessed. Improvement in predictability of mortality after addition of Z score to Aristotle Comprehensive Complexity (ACC score was analyzed. Results: The median Z score was -3.2 (Interquartile range -4.24 to -1.91] with weight (mean±SD of 8.4 ± 3.38 kg. Overall mortality was 11.5%. 71% and 52.59% of patients had Z score < -2 and < -3 respectively. Lower Z score classes were associated with progressively increasing mortality. Z score as continuous variable was associated with O.R. of 0.622 (95% CI- 0.527 to 0.733, P < 0.0001 for in-hospital mortality and remained significant predictor even after adjusting for age, gender, bypass duration and ACC score. Addition of Z score to ACC score improved its predictability for in-hosptial mortality (δC - 0.0661 [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.0169], IDI- 3.83% [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.00042]. Conclusion: Z scores were lower in our cohort and were associated with in-hospital mortality. Addition of Z score to ACC score significantly improves predictive ability for in-hospital mortality.

  13. Design and Implementation of a CoAP-Compliant Solution for RFID Inclusion in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Farris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements allowed widening the applicability scope of the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology from item identification to sensor-enabled computation platforms. This feature, added to the native radio energy-harvesting capability and the extremely low power consumption, has attracted the interest of research and industrial communities and pushed them to include the RFID technology into a global network of interconnected objects, as envisaged by the Internet of Things paradigm. In the last few years, standardization bodies have made significant efforts to design lightweight approaches, such as CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol, to efficiently manage resource-constrained nodes by using traditional web interfaces; nevertheless, RFID integration is not addressed yet. In this paper, we propose a CoAP-compliant solution where RFID tags, behaving as virtual CoAP servers, are directly accessible by remote CoAP clients via a reader, which acts as a CoAP proxy. A real testbed, addressing key aspects, such as tag addressing, discovery and management of CoAP requests via RFID operations, is deployed to validate the feasibility of the proposal. Experimental results show rapid response times: less than 60 ms are requested for resource retrieval, while from 80 to 360 ms for sending data to the RFID device, depending on the tag memory dimension.

  14. The impact of compliant surfaces on in-hospital chest compressions: effects of common mattresses and a backboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordergraaf, Gerrit J; Paulussen, Igor W F; Venema, Alyssa; van Berkom, Paul F J; Woerlee, Pierre H; Scheffer, Gert J; Noordergraaf, Abraham

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate, in a hospital setting, the influence of different, common mattresses, with and without a backboard, on chest movement during CPR. Sixty CPR sessions (140s each, 30:2, C:R ratio 1:1) were performed using a manikin on standard hospital mattresses, with or without a backboard in combination with variable weights. Sternum-to-spine compression distance was controlled (range 30-60mm) allowing evaluation of the underlying compliant surface on total hand travel. Movement of the caregiver's hands was significantly larger (up to 111mm at 50mm compression depth, pcompressions were performed without a backboard than with one. The extent of this variable extra travel effect depended on the type of mattress as well as the force of compression. Foam mattresses and air chamber systems act as springs and follow hand movement, while 'slow foam' mattresses incorporate time delays, making depth and force sensing harder. A backboard decreases the extra hand movement due to mattress effects by more than 50%, strongly reducing caregiver work. Total vertical hand movement is significantly, and clinically relevantly much, larger than sternum-to-spine compression depth when CPR is performed on a mattress. Additional movement depends on the type of mattress and can be strongly reduced, but not eliminated, when a backboard is applied. The additional motion and increased work load adds extra complexity to in-hospital CPR. We propose that this should be taken into account during training by in-hospital caregivers.

  15. Expansion of Human Tregs from Cryopreserved Umbilical Cord Blood for GMP-Compliant Autologous Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard R. Seay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood is a traditional and convenient source of cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Thymic regulatory T cells (Tregs are also present in cord blood, and there is growing interest in the use of autologous Tregs to provide a low-risk, fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched cell product for treating autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. Here, we describe a good manufacturing practice (GMP-compatible Treg expansion protocol using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, resulting in a mean 2,092-fold expansion of Tregs over a 16-day culture for a median yield of 1.26 × 109 Tregs from single-donor cryopreserved units. The resulting Tregs passed prior clinical trial release criteria for Treg purity and sterility, including additional rigorous assessments of FOXP3 and Helios expression and epigenetic analysis of the FOXP3 Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR. Compared with expanded adult peripheral blood Tregs, expanded cord blood Tregs remained more naive, as assessed by continued expression of CD45RA, produced reduced IFN-γ following activation, and effectively inhibited responder T cell proliferation. Immunosequencing of the T cell receptor revealed a remarkably diverse receptor repertoire within cord blood Tregs that was maintained following in vitro expansion. These data support the feasibility of generating GMP-compliant Tregs from cord blood for adoptive cell transfer therapies and highlight potential advantages in terms of safety, phenotypic stability, autoantigen specificity, and tissue distribution.

  16. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglino Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930® is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. Methods The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm, keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient’s suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. Results The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Conclusion Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that Tango

  17. Solving the interoperability challenge of a distributed complex patient guidance system: a data integrator based on HL7's Virtual Medical Record standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Carlos; González-Ferrer, Arturo; Peleg, Mor; Cavero, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    We show how the HL7 Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standard can be used to design and implement a data integrator (DI) component that collects patient information from heterogeneous sources and stores it into a personal health record, from which it can then retrieve data. Our working hypothesis is that the HL7 vMR standard in its release 1 version can properly capture the semantics needed to drive evidence-based clinical decision support systems. To achieve seamless communication between the personal health record and heterogeneous data consumers, we used a three-pronged approach. First, the choice of the HL7 vMR as a message model for all components accompanied by the use of medical vocabularies eases their semantic interoperability. Second, the DI follows a service-oriented approach to provide access to system components. Third, an XML database provides the data layer.Results The DI supports requirements of a guideline-based clinical decision support system implemented in two clinical domains and settings, ensuring reliable and secure access, high performance, and simplicity of integration, while complying with standards for the storage and processing of patient information needed for decision support and analytics. This was tested within the framework of a multinational project (www.mobiguide-project.eu) aimed at developing a ubiquitous patient guidance system (PGS). The vMR model with its extension mechanism is demonstrated to be effective for data integration and communication within a distributed PGS implemented for two clinical domains across different healthcare settings in two nations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Stiffness characteristics of compliant three segment leg with the self-stable region in slow and fast running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Oh Seok; Ha, Sung Mok; Lee, Dong Ha [Convergence Research Center for WellnessDaegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and TechnologyDaegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we propose the stiffness characteristics of compliant three segment leg that can have a self-stable region in slow and fast running. This proposition can contribute to reducing the control effort and enhancing the locomotion energy efficiency for the compliant three segment legged robot in slow and fast running. Previous research indicated that the running self-stable region of the spring-mass system is located in a relatively fast running region and that of the two segment leg is located in a relatively slow running region. In this paper, we analyze the stiffness characteristics of the spring-mass system and the two segment leg to explain the previous research results. From this analysis, we propose the stiffness characteristics of the compliant three segment leg with a self-stable region in slow and fast running. We further design the compliant three segment leg based on this proposition and check its structural stability. We examine the running self-stable region of this compliant three segment leg to determine whether it has a self-stable region in slow and fast running. We also examine the walking self-stable region of this compliant three segment leg.

  19. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  20. A novel standardized algorithm using SPECT/CT evaluating unhappy patients after unicondylar knee arthroplasty– a combined analysis of tracer uptake distribution and component position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Basil; Testa, Enrique; Stämpfli, Patrick; Konala, Praveen; Rasch, Helmut; Friederich, Niklaus F; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of a standardized SPECT/CT algorithm including a localization scheme, which allows accurate identification of specific patterns and thresholds of SPECT/CT tracer uptake, could lead to a better understanding of the bone remodeling and specific failure modes of unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). The purpose of the present study was to introduce a novel standardized SPECT/CT algorithm for patients after UKA and evaluate its clinical applicability, usefulness and inter- and intra-observer reliability. Tc-HDP-SPECT/CT images of consecutive patients (median age 65, range 48–84 years) with 21 knees after UKA were prospectively evaluated. The tracer activity on SPECT/CT was localized using a specific standardized UKA localization scheme. For tracer uptake analysis (intensity and anatomical distribution pattern) a 3D volumetric quantification method was used. The maximum intensity values were recorded for each anatomical area. In addition, ratios between the respective value in the measured area and the background tracer activity were calculated. The femoral and tibial component position (varus-valgus, flexion-extension, internal and external rotation) was determined in 3D-CT. The inter- and intraobserver reliability of the localization scheme, grading of the tracer activity and component measurements were determined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The localization scheme, grading of the tracer activity and component measurements showed high inter- and intra-observer reliabilities for all regions (tibia, femur and patella). For measurement of component position there was strong agreement between the readings of the two observers; the ICC for the orientation of the femoral component was 0.73-1.00 (intra-observer reliability) and 0.91-1.00 (inter-observer reliability). The ICC for the orientation of the tibial component was 0.75-1.00 (intra-observer reliability) and 0.77-1.00 (inter-observer reliability). The SPECT

  1. A novel standardized algorithm using SPECT/CT evaluating unhappy patients after unicondylar knee arthroplasty--a combined analysis of tracer uptake distribution and component position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Basil; Testa, Enrique; Stämpfli, Patrick; Konala, Praveen; Rasch, Helmut; Friederich, Niklaus F; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2015-03-20

    The introduction of a standardized SPECT/CT algorithm including a localization scheme, which allows accurate identification of specific patterns and thresholds of SPECT/CT tracer uptake, could lead to a better understanding of the bone remodeling and specific failure modes of unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). The purpose of the present study was to introduce a novel standardized SPECT/CT algorithm for patients after UKA and evaluate its clinical applicability, usefulness and inter- and intra-observer reliability. Tc-HDP-SPECT/CT images of consecutive patients (median age 65, range 48-84 years) with 21 knees after UKA were prospectively evaluated. The tracer activity on SPECT/CT was localized using a specific standardized UKA localization scheme. For tracer uptake analysis (intensity and anatomical distribution pattern) a 3D volumetric quantification method was used. The maximum intensity values were recorded for each anatomical area. In addition, ratios between the respective value in the measured area and the background tracer activity were calculated. The femoral and tibial component position (varus-valgus, flexion-extension, internal and external rotation) was determined in 3D-CT. The inter- and intraobserver reliability of the localization scheme, grading of the tracer activity and component measurements were determined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The localization scheme, grading of the tracer activity and component measurements showed high inter- and intra-observer reliabilities for all regions (tibia, femur and patella). For measurement of component position there was strong agreement between the readings of the two observers; the ICC for the orientation of the femoral component was 0.73-1.00 (intra-observer reliability) and 0.91-1.00 (inter-observer reliability). The ICC for the orientation of the tibial component was 0.75-1.00 (intra-observer reliability) and 0.77-1.00 (inter-observer reliability). The SPECT/CT algorithm

  2. Winching up heavy loads with a compliant arm: a new local joint controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Axel; Cruse, Holk; Schmitz, Josef

    2008-05-01

    A closed kinematic chain, like an arm that operates a crank, has a constrained movement space. A meaningful movement of the chain's endpoint is only possible along the free movement directions which are given implicitly by the contour of the object that confines the movement of the chain. Many technical solutions for such a movement task, in particular those used in robotics, use central controllers and force-torque sensors in the arm's wrist or a leg's ankle to construct a coordinate system (task frame formalism) at the local point of contact the axes of which coincide with the free and constrained movement directions. Motivated by examples from biology, we introduce a new control system that solves a constrained movement task. The control system is inspired by the control architecture that is found in stick insects like Carausius morosus. It consists of decentral joint controllers that work on elastic joints (compliant manipulator). The decentral controllers are based on local positive velocity feedback (LPVF). It has been shown earlier that LPVF enables contour following of a limb in a compliant motion task without a central controller. In this paper we extend LPVF in such a way that it is even able to follow a contour if a considerable counter force drags the limb away along the contour in a direction opposite to the desired. The controller extension is based on the measurement of the local mechanical power generated in the elastic joint and is called power-controlled relaxation LPVF. The new control approach has the following advantages. First, it still uses local joint controllers without knowledge of the kinematics. Second, it does not need a force or torque measurement at the end of the limb. In this paper we test power-controlled relaxation LPVF on a crank turning task in which a weight has to be winched up by a two-joint compliant manipulator.

  3. Distribution and persistence of the anti sea-lice drug teflubenzuron in wild fauna and sediments around a salmon farm, following a standard treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Ole B. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Lunestad, Bjørn T.; Hannisdal, Rita [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Bannister, Raymond; Olsen, Siri [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Tjensvoll, Tore [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Farestveit, Eva; Ervik, Arne [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2015-03-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed. Most of the organic waste was distributed to the bottom close to the farm but organic particles containing teflubenzuron were collected 1100 m from the farm. The sediment under the farm consisted of 5 to 10% organic material and therefore the concentration of teflubenzuron was much lower than in the organic waste. Teflubenzuron was persistent in the sediment with a stipulated halflife of 170 days. Sediment consuming polychaetes had high but decreasing concentrations of teflubenzuron throughout the experimental period, reflecting the decrease of teflubenzuron in the sediment. During medication most wild fauna contained teflubenzuron residues and where polychaetes and saith had highest concentrations. Eight months later only polychaetes and some crustaceans contained drug residues. What dosages that induce mortality in various crustaceans following short or long-term exposure is not known but the results indicate that the concentrations in defined individuals of king crab, shrimp, squat lobster and Norway lobster were high enough shortly after medication to induce mortality if moulting was imminent. Considering food safety, saith and the brown meat of crustaceans contained at first sampling concentrations of teflubenzuron higher than the MRL-value set for Atlantic salmon. The concentrations were, however, moderate and the amount of saith fillet or brown meat of crustaceans to be

  4. Advances in a Distributed Approach for Ocean Model Data Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Signell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An infrastructure for earth science data is emerging across the globe based on common data models and web services. As we evolve from custom file formats and web sites to standards-based web services and tools, data is becoming easier to distribute, find and retrieve, leaving more time for science. We describe recent advances that make it easier for ocean model providers to share their data, and for users to search, access, analyze and visualize ocean data using MATLAB® and Python®. These include a technique for modelers to create aggregated, Climate and Forecast (CF metadata convention datasets from collections of non-standard Network Common Data Form (NetCDF output files, the capability to remotely access data from CF-1.6-compliant NetCDF files using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS, a metadata standard for unstructured grid model output (UGRID, and tools that utilize both CF and UGRID standards to allow interoperable data search, browse and access. We use examples from the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS® Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed, a project in which modelers using both structured and unstructured grid model output needed to share their results, to compare their results with other models, and to compare models with observed data. The same techniques used here for ocean modeling output can be applied to atmospheric and climate model output, remote sensing data, digital terrain and bathymetric data.

  5. Advances in a distributed approach for ocean model data interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard P.; Snowden, Derrick P.

    2014-01-01

    An infrastructure for earth science data is emerging across the globe based on common data models and web services. As we evolve from custom file formats and web sites to standards-based web services and tools, data is becoming easier to distribute, find and retrieve, leaving more time for science. We describe recent advances that make it easier for ocean model providers to share their data, and for users to search, access, analyze and visualize ocean data using MATLAB® and Python®. These include a technique for modelers to create aggregated, Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention datasets from collections of non-standard Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) output files, the capability to remotely access data from CF-1.6-compliant NetCDF files using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Observation Service (SOS), a metadata standard for unstructured grid model output (UGRID), and tools that utilize both CF and UGRID standards to allow interoperable data search, browse and access. We use examples from the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed, a project in which modelers using both structured and unstructured grid model output needed to share their results, to compare their results with other models, and to compare models with observed data. The same techniques used here for ocean modeling output can be applied to atmospheric and climate model output, remote sensing data, digital terrain and bathymetric data.

  6. Force Displacement Model of Compliant Mechanisms Using Assur Sub-Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durango, Sebastian; Correa, Jorge; Aristizabal, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    This article develops a modular procedure to perform force-displacement modeling of planar flexurebased Compliant Mechanisms (CMs). The procedure is mostly suitable for planar lumped CMs. To achieve the position analysis of CMs requires: (i) to implement the kinematic analysis as in the case...... of ordinary mechanisms, (ii) to solve the equilibrium problem by means of a static analysis and (iii) to model the flexures behavior through a deflection analysis. The novel contribution of this article relies on the fact that a division strategy of the CM into Assur sub-chains is implemented, so that any CM...

  7. A Compliant Bistable Mechanism Design Incorporating Elastica Buckling Beam Theory and Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Ümit; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new compliant bistable mechanism design is introduced. The combined use of pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM) and the Elastica buckling theory is presented for the first time to analyze the new design. This mechanism consists of the large deflecting straight beams, buckling beams......, and a slider. The kinematic analysis of this new mechanism is studied, using nonlinear Elastica buckling beam theory, the PRBM of a large deflecting cantilever beam, the vector loop closure equations, and numerically solving nonlinear algebraic equations. A design method of the bistable mechanism...

  8. Structurally-compliant rocket engine combustion chamber: Experimental/analytical validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovsky, R. S.; Kazaroff, J. M.; Galford, G. R.; Arya, V. K.

    1993-11-01

    A new, structurally-compliant rocket engine combustion chamber design has been validated through analysis and experiment. Subscale, tubular channel chambers have been cyclically tested, and analytically evaluated. Cyclic lives were determined to have a potential for 1000 percent increase in life over that of rectangular channel designs, the current state-of-the-art. Greater structural compliance in the circumferential direction gives rise to lower thermal strains during hot firing, resulting in lower thermal strain ratcheting and longer predicted fatigue lives. Thermal/durability analyses of the combustion chamber design, involving cyclic temperatures, strains, and low-cycle fatigue lives have corroborated the experimental observations.

  9. Nickel-Graphite Composite Compliant Interface and/or Hot Shoe Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A.; Chun-Yip Li, Billy; Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Anjunyan, Harut

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation high-temperature thermoelectric-power-generating devices will employ segmented architectures and will have to reliably withstand thermally induced mechanical stresses produced during component fabrication, device assembly, and operation. Thermoelectric materials have typically poor mechanical strength, exhibit brittle behavior, and possess a wide range of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. As a result, the direct bonding at elevated temperatures of these materials to each other to produce segmented leg components is difficult, and often results in localized microcracking at interfaces and mec hanical failure due to the stresses that arise from the CTE mismatch between the various materials. Even in the absence of full mechanical failure, degraded interfaces can lead to increased electrical and thermal resistances, which adversely impact conversion efficiency and power output. The proposed solution is the insertion of a mechanically compliant layer, with high electrical and thermal conductivity, between the low- and high-temperature segments to relieve thermomechanical stresses during device fabrication and operation. This composite material can be used as a stress-relieving layer between the thermoelectric segments and/or between a thermoelectric segment and a hot- or cold-side interconnect material. The material also can be used as a compliant hot shoe. Nickel-coated graphite powders were hot-pressed to form a nickel-graphite composite material. A freestanding thermoelectric segmented leg was fabricated by brazing the compliant pad layer between the high-temperature p- Zintl and low-temperature p-SKD TE segments using Cu-Ag braze foils. The segmented leg stack was heated in vacuum under a compressive load to achieve bonding. The novelty of the innovation is the use of composite material that re duces the thermomechanical stresses en - countered in the construction of high-efficiency, high-temperature therm - o-electric devices. The

  10. A highly compliant protein native state with a spontaneous-like mechanical unfolding pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri; Valpapuram, Immanuel; Camilloni, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    states, such as molten globules, are compliant and can deform elastically a great amount before crossing the transition state barrier. Moreover, under tension proteins appear to unfold through a different sequence of events than during spontaneous unfolding. Here, we describe the response to force...... by populating a transition state that resembles that observed during chemical denaturation, both for structure and position along the reaction coordinate. Our data provide the first experimental evidence of a spontaneous-like mechanical unfolding pathway of a protein. The mechanical behavior of ACBP...

  11. Mechanically compliant electrodes and dielectric elastomers from PEG-PDMS copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Soft conducting elastomers have been prepared from polydimethylsiloxane-polyethyleneglycol (PDMS-PEG) copolymer and surfactant-stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The copolymer was chain-extended with PDMS of molecular weight 17.2 kg mol-1 in order to obtain a crosslinkable PDMS...... showed high conductivity combined with inherent softness. The high conductivity and softness, PDMS-PEG copolymers with incorporated MWCNTs hold great promises as compliant and highly stretchable electrodes for stretchable devices such as electro-mechanical transducers....

  12. Buckling of Slender Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes with Compliant Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schnabl

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an exact model for studying the global buckling of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST columns with compliant interfaces between the concrete core and steel tube. This model is then used to evaluate exact critical buckling loads and modes of CFST columns. The results prove that interface compliance can considerably reduce the critical buckling loads of CFST columns. A good agreement between analytical and experimental buckling loads is obtained if at least one among longitudinal and radial interfacial stiffnesses is high. The parametric study reveals that buckling loads of CFST columns are very much affected by the interfacial stiffness and boundary conditions.

  13. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff...... bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas...... the liner has practically no influence on the flexure journal bearing's performance....

  14. A compliant underactuated hand with suction flow for underwater mobile manipulation

    KAUST Repository

    Stuart, Hannah S.

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Fingertip suction is investigated using a compliant, underactuated, tendon-driven hand designed for underwater mobile manipulation. Tendon routing and joint stiffnesses are designed to provide ease of closure while maintaining finger rigidity, allowing the hand to pinch small objects, as well as secure large objects, without diminishing strength. While the hand is designed to grasp a range of objects, the addition of light suction flow to the fingertips is especially effective for small, low-friction (slippery) objects. Numerical simulations confirm that changing suction parameters can increase the object acquisition region, providing guidelines for future versions of the hand.

  15. Distribution-based estimates of clinically significant changes in the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury motor and sensory scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scivoletto, G; Tamburella, F; Laurenza, L; Molinari, M

    2013-06-01

    Although the psychometric properties and statistical significance of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Patients (ISNCSCI) have been widely examined, the clinical significance of motor and sensory scores (i.e., the improvement in score that has a meaningful impact on patients) is unknown. To calculate the clinical significance of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Patients (ISNCSCI). Analysis of prospectively collected data. Spinal Cord Unit of a rehabilitation hospital in the centre of Italy. Analysis of the data of 600 patients with registration of the ISNCSCI Motor scores (total score and separately upper and lower extremity scores) and ISNCSCI Sensory scores. Clinical significance was calculated per several distribution-based approaches: minimal important differences, effect size-based estimates for small and substantial changes, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. The calculated clinical significance was compared with improvements by the patients to determine the percentage of patients who achieved significant improvement. Furthermore, the functional status (as evaluated by the Spinal Cord Independence measure [SCIM III]) was studied in patients who achieved significant improvement compared to those who did not achieve them. The results of the study showed that motor scores were more amenable to change than sensory scores. A 5-point change in motor score resulted in a clinically significant improvement of 0.2 standard deviation units, and an 11-point change in motor score was associated with an improvement of 0.5 standard deviation units. The percentages of patients with a significant improvement varied from 8 to 80% according to the level and severity of the lesion. In some AIS grade/level of lesion groups, patients who achieved clinical significant scores also showed a better functional status with significantly higher SCIM III scores than

  16. Adaptation Measurement of CAD/CAM Dental Crowns with X-Ray Micro-CT: Metrological Chain Standardization and 3D Gap Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tapie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing systems are increasingly used to produce dental prostheses, but the parts produced suffer from a lack of evaluation, especially concerning the internal gap of the final assembly, that is, the space between the prepared tooth and the prosthesis. X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT is a noninvasive imaging technique enabling the internal inspection of the assembly. It has proved to be an efficient tool for measuring the gap. In this study, a critical review of the protocols using micro-CT to quantify the gap is proposed as an introduction to a new protocol aimed at minimizing errors and enabling comparison between CAD/CAM systems. To compare different systems, a standardized protocol is proposed including two reference geometries. Micro-CT is used to acquire the reference geometries. A new 3D method is then proposed and a new indicator is defined (Gap Size Distribution (GSD. In addition, the usual 2D measurements are described and discussed. The 3D gap measurement method proposed can be used in clinical case geometries and has the considerable advantage of minimizing the data processing steps before performing the measurements.

  17. Evaluation of Kinetic Entropy of Breast Masses Initially Found on MRI using Whole-lesion Curve Distribution Data: Comparison with the Standard Kinetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimauchi, Akiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Schacht, David V; Yulei, Jian; Pineda, Federico D; Jansen, Sanaz A; Ganesh, Rajiv; Newstead, Gillian M

    2015-08-01

    To quantify kinetic heterogeneity of breast masses that were initially detected with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, using whole-lesion kinetic distribution data obtained from computer-aided evaluation (CAE), and to compare that with standard kinetic curve analysis. Clinical MR images from 2006 to 2011 with breast masses initially detected with MRI were evaluated with CAE. The relative frequencies of six kinetic patterns (medium-persistent, medium-plateau, medium-washout, rapid-persistent, rapid-plateau, rapid-washout) within the entire lesion were used to calculate kinetic entropy (KE), a quantitative measure of enhancement pattern heterogeneity. Initial uptake (IU) and signal enhancement ratio (SER) were obtained from the most-suspicious kinetic curve. Mann-Whitney U test and ROC analysis were conducted for differentiation of malignant and benign masses. Forty benign and 37 malignant masses comprised the case set. IU and SER were not significantly different between malignant and benign masses, whereas KE was significantly greater for malignant than benign masses (p = 0.748, p = 0.083, and p kinetic heterogeneity of whole-lesion time-curve data with KE has the potential to improve differentiation of malignant from benign breast masses on breast MRI. • Kinetic heterogeneity can be quantified by computer-aided evaluation of breast MRI • Kinetic entropy was greater in malignant masses than benign masses • Kinetic entropy has the potential to improve differentiation of breast masses.

  18. A modified pseudo-rigid-body modeling approach for compliant mechanisms with fixed-guided beam flexures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we investigate a modified pseudo-rigid-body (MPRB modeling approach for compliant mechanisms with fixed-guided beam flexures by considering the nonlinear effects of center-shifting and load-stiffening. In particular, a fixed-guided compliant beam is modeled as a pair of fixed-free compliant beams jointed at the inflection point, where each fixed-free beam flexure is further modeled by a rigid link connected with an extension spring by a torsion spring, based on the beam constraint model (BCM. Meanwhile, the characteristic parameters of the proposed MPRB model are no longer constant values, but affected by the applied general tip load, especially the axial force. The developed MPRB modeling method is then applied to the analysis of three common compliant mechanisms (i.e. compound parallelogram mechanisms, bistable mechanisms and 1-DOF translational mechanisms, which is further verified by the finite element analysis (FEA results. The proposed MPRB model provides a more accurate method to predict the performance characteristics such as deformation capability, stiffness variation, as well as error motions of complaint mechanisms with fixed-guided beam flexures, and offers a new look into the design and optimization of beam-based compliant mechanisms.

  19. Force-Sensing Actuator with a Compliant Flexure-Type Joint for a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Grossard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the mechatronic design of a novel self-sensing motor-to-joint transmission to be used for the actuation of robotic dexterous manipulators. Backdrivability, mechanical simplicity and efficient flexure joint structures are key concepts that have guided the mechanical design rationale to provide the actuator with force sensing capabilities. Indeed, a self-sensing characteristic is achieved by the specific design of high-resolution cable-driven actuators based on a DC motor, a ball-screw and a monolithic compliant anti-rotation system together with a novel flexure pivot providing a frictionless mechanical structure. That novel compliant pivot with a large angular range and a small center shift has been conceived of to provide the inter-phalangeal rotational degree of freedom of the fingers’ joints to be used for integration in a multi-fingered robotic gripper. Simultaneously, it helps to remove friction at the joint level of the mechanism. Experimental tests carried out on a prototype show an accurate matching between the model and the real behavior. Overall, this mechatronic design contributes to the improvement of the manipulation skills of robotic grippers, thanks to the combination of high performance mechanics, high sensitivity to external forces and compliance control capability.

  20. Shari’ah-Compliant E-Commerce Models and Consumer Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kholifatul I Ardiansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the real picture of Shari’ah-compliant E-commerce model and consumer trust in e-commerce today, analyzing its drawbacks, and finding out how they influence each other. Shari'ah-compliant E-commerce model is a model that describes how e-commerce should run in accordance with the provisions of the Shari’ah. Broadly speaking, e-commerce in the perspective of Shari’ah must comply with some rules, namely: 1. the form of the offer and transaction agreement; 2. the transacting parties (buyers and sellers; 3. Objects and prices in the transaction; 4. Free from major prohibitions in transactions. The sample in this study is Indonesian citizen who are consumers of e-commerce. This research uses descriptive and statistical methods with multiple linear regression model. This model is considered relevant and good to be studied in order to enlighten how e-commerce is currently in the perspective of IslamDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.2913

  1. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  2. A JESD204B-Compliant Architecture for Remote and Deterministic-Latency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Raffaele; Izzo, Vincenzo; Perrella, Sabrina; Aloisio, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    High-speed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are key components in a huge variety of systems, including trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) systems of nuclear and subnuclear physics experiments. Over the last decades, the sample rate and dynamic range of high-speed ADCs underwent a continuous growth, and it required the development of suitable interface protocols, such as the new JESD204B serial interface protocol. In this paper, we present an original JESD204B-compliant architecture we designed, which is able to operate an ADC in a remote fashion. Our design includes a deterministic-latency high-speed serial link, which is the only connection between the local and remote logic of the architecture and which preserves the deterministic timing features of the protocol. By means of our solution, it is possible to read data out of several converters, even remote to each other, and keep them operating synchronously. Our link also supports forward error correction (FEC) capabilities, in the view of the operation in radiation areas (e.g., on-detector in TDAQ systems). We describe an implementation of our concept in a latest generation field programmable gate array (Xilinx Kintex-7 325T) for reading data from a high-speed JESD204B-compliant ADC. We present measurements of the jitter of JESD204B timing-critical signals forwarded over the link and of latency determinism of the FEC-protected link.

  3. [Patients with the highest cardiovascular risk are the least compliant with their antihypertensive therapy (DESIR study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumont, M C; Allaert, F A; Garnier, L

    2006-01-01

    To identify the sociodemographic and clinical profile of hypertensive patients who are not compliant with their antihypertensive treatment. each cardiologist described his or her next 4 hypertensive patients from a clinical standpoint and gave them a self-administered compliance questionnaire developed by the French Committee to Fight Hypertension, which they returned directly to the analysis center using a postage-paid reply envelope. 1965 patients 63.9 +/- 12.1 years old, 55.3% of whom were male, were included in the study. According to the specific questionnaire, compliance is definitely satisfactory in 35.9% of patients, is probably satisfactory in 28.3%, is probably poor in 19.4% and is definitely poor in 16.4%. Poor compliance is more frequent among men (38.1 vs. 33.4%; p age (51.6 vs. 34.1%; p age 55 on patient compliance. patients with the highest CV risk are those who are the least compliant with their antihypertensive treatment. These results raise the question of the appropriateness of the prevention information given to the most at-risk patients.

  4. Project Management Plan to Maintain Safe and Compliant Conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COX, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This Project Management Plan presents the overall plan, description, mission, and workscope for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) maintain safe and compliant conditions project at PFP. This plan presents the overall description, mission, work scope, and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Maintain Safe and Compliant Conditions Project at PFP. This project includes all tasks required to maintain the safety boundary for the PFP Complex, except for the 2736-2 Vault Complex and the 234-52 vaults and vault-type rooms. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with the stabilization, and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This is the top-level definitive project management document that specifies the technical (work scope), schedule, and cost baselines that will manage the execution of this project. It describes the organizational approach and roles/responsibilities implemented to execute the project. This plan is under configuration management and any deviations must be authorized by appropriate change control action

  5. The Determinants of Voluntary Risk Disclosures: The Case of Shariah Compliant Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Nurul Fida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk reporting is essential in notifying investors on how companies manage the risks they engage in. Even though companies nowadays release information through press releases, corporate websites, and other forms of communications, they still have to disclose more information in their annual reports. The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of voluntary risk disclosures of Shariah compliant companies (ShCCs in Malaysia, focusing on the religiosity factor and the ownership structure. A quantitative analysis using secondary data was employed as a method to assess the annual reports of 116 Shariah compliant companies in Malaysia for the financial years of 2012 and 2013. The findings of this study reveal that the voluntary risk disclosures in ShCCs on average are not more than sixty per cent. This study indicates no relationship between the religiosity of board members and directors’ ownership to the level of voluntary risk disclosure. More importantly, this study finds the relationship between the existence of government ownership and voluntary risk disclosure in ShCCs. The study adds value to the current body of knowledge in voluntary risk disclosures and suggests the importance of risk management information in the annual reports of ShCCs as Malaysia grows as a leading country in the Islamic economy.

  6. Flectofold—a biomimetic compliant shading device for complex free form facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, A.; Born, L.; Mader, A.; Sachse, R.; Saffarian, S.; Westermeier, A. S.; Poppinga, S.; Bischoff, M.; Gresser, G. T.; Milwich, M.; Speck, T.; Knippers, J.

    2018-01-01

    Smart and adaptive outer façade shading systems are of high interest in modern architecture. For long lasting and reliable systems, the abandonment of hinges which often fail due to mechanical wear during repetitive use is of particular importance. Drawing inspiration from the hinge-less motion of the underwater snap-trap of the carnivorous waterwheel plant (Aldrovanda vesiculosa), the compliant façade shading device Flectofold was developed. Based on computational simulations of the biological role-model’s elastic and reversible motion, the actuation principle of the plant can be identified. The enclosed geometric motion principle is abstracted into a simplified curved-line folding geometry with distinct flexible hinge-zones. The kinematic behaviour is translated into a quantitative kinetic model, using finite element simulation which allows the detailed analyses of the influence of geometric parameters such as curved-fold line radius and various pneumatically driven actuation principles on the motion behaviour, stress concentrations within the hinge-zones, and actuation forces. The information regarding geometric relations and material gradients gained from those computational models are then used to develop novel material combinations for glass fibre reinforced plastics which enabled the fabrication of physical prototypes of the compliant façade shading device Flectofold.

  7. The Puller-Follower Control of Compliant and Noncompliant Antagonistic Tendon Drives in Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Potkonjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new control strategy for noncompliant and compliant antagonistic tendon drives. It is applied to a succession of increasingly complex single‐joint systems, starting with a linear and noncompliant system and ending with a revolute, nonlinearly tendon coupled and compliant system. The last configuration mimics the typical human joint structure, used as a model for certain joints of the anthropomimetic robot ECCEROBOT. The control strategy is based on a biologically inspired puller‐ follower concept, which distinguishes the roles of the agonist and antagonist motors. One actuator, the puller, is considered as being primarily responsible for the motion, while the follower prevents its tendon from becoming slack by maintaining its tendon force at some non‐zero level. Certain movements require switching actuator roles; adaptive co‐contraction is used to prevent tendons slackening, while maintaining energetic efficiency. The single‐joint control strategy is then evaluated in a multi‐ joint system. Dealing with the gravitational and dynamic effects arising from the coupling in a multi‐joint system, a robust control design has to be applied with on‐line gravity compensation. Finally, an experiment corresponding to object grasping is presented to show the controller

  8. The Puller-Follower Control of Compliant and Noncompliant Antagonistic Tendon Drives in Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Potkonjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new control strategy for noncompliant and compliant antagonistic tendon drives. It is applied to a succession of increasingly complex single-joint systems, starting with a linear and noncompliant system and ending with a revolute, nonlinearly tendon coupled and compliant system. The last configuration mimics the typical human joint structure, used as a model for certain joints of the anthropomimetic robot ECCEROBOT. The control strategy is based on a biologically inspired puller-follower concept, which distinguishes the roles of the agonist and antagonist motors. One actuator, the puller, is considered as being primarily responsible for the motion, while the follower prevents its tendon from becoming slack by maintaining its tendon force at some non-zero level. Certain movements require switching actuator roles; adaptive co-contraction is used to prevent tendons slackening, while maintaining energetic efficiency. The single-joint control strategy is then evaluated in a multi-joint system. Dealing with the gravitational and dynamic effects arising from the coupling in a multi-joint system, a robust control design has to be applied with on-line gravity compensation. Finally, an experiment corresponding to object grasping is presented to show the controller's robustness to external disturbances.

  9. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lassooij

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of the monolithic grasper has been compensated using pre-curved straight guided beams that are preloaded collinear with the direction of actuation of the grasper. The result is a fully compliant statically balanced laparoscopic grasper. The grasper has been successfully adapted to a robotic arm. The maximum force and stiffness compensations were measured to be 94% and 97% (i.e. near zero stiffness respectively. Furthermore, the feasibility of adjusting for bi-stable behavior has been shown. This research can be a preliminary step towards the design of a statically balanced fully compliant robotic arm for laparoscopic surgery and similar areas.

  10. An efficient architecture to support digital pathology in standard medical imaging repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Godinho, Tiago; Lebre, Rui; Silva, Luís Bastião; Costa, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, digital pathology and whole-slide imaging (WSI) have been gaining momentum with the proliferation of digital scanners from different manufacturers. The literature reports significant advantages associated with the adoption of digital images in pathology, namely, improvements in diagnostic accuracy and better support for telepathology. Moreover, it also offers new clinical and research applications. However, numerous barriers have been slowing the adoption of WSI, among which the most important are performance issues associated with storage and distribution of huge volumes of data, and lack of interoperability with other hospital information systems, most notably Picture Archive and Communications Systems (PACS) based on the DICOM standard. This article proposes an architecture of a Web Pathology PACS fully compliant with DICOM standard communications and data formats. The solution includes a PACS Archive responsible for storing whole-slide imaging data in DICOM WSI format and offers a communication interface based on the most recent DICOM Web services. The second component is a zero-footprint viewer that runs in any web-browser. It consumes data using the PACS archive standard web services. Moreover, it features a tiling engine especially suited to deal with the WSI image pyramids. These components were designed with special focus on efficiency and usability. The performance of our system was assessed through a comparative analysis of the state-of-the-art solutions. The results demonstrate that it is possible to have a very competitive solution based on standard workflows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adapting a Low-Cost Selective Compliant Articulated Robotic Arm for Spillage Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Li, Jonathan; Muradoglu, Murat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-12-01

    Flexible automation systems provide the needed adaptability to serve shorter-term projects and specialty applications in biochemical analysis. A low-cost selective compliant articulated robotic arm designed for liquid spillage avoidance is developed here. In the vertical-plane robotic arm movement test, the signals from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and accelerometer were able to sense collisions. In the horizontal movement test, however, only the signals from the IMU enabled collision to be detected. Using a calculation method developed, it was possible to chart the regions where the obstacle was likely to be located when a collision occurred. The low cost of the IMU and its easy incorporation into the robotic arm offer the potential to meet the pressures of lowering operating costs, apply laboratory automation in resource-limited venues, and obviate human intervention in response to sudden disease outbreaks. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. Facilitating the production of ISO-compliant metadata of geospatial datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Gregory; Guigoz, Yaniss; Lacroix, Pierre; Ray, Nicolas; Lehmann, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Metadata are recognized as an essential element to enable efficient and effective discovery of geospatial data published in spatial data infrastructures (SDI). However, metadata production is still perceived as a complex, tedious and time-consuming task. This typically results in little metadata production and can seriously hinder the objective of facilitating data discovery. In response to this issue, this paper presents a proof of concept based on an interoperable workflow between a data publication server and a metadata catalog to automatically generate ISO-compliant metadata. The proposed approach facilitates metadata creation by embedding this task in daily data management workflows; ensures that data and metadata are permanently up-to-date; significantly reduces the obstacles of metadata production; and potentially facilitates contributions to initiatives like the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) by making geospatial resources discoverable.

  13. Modal Measurements and Model Corrections of A Large Stroke Compliant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijma W.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling flexure based mechanisms, generally flexures are modelled perfectly aligned and nominal values are assumed for the dimensions. To test the validity of these assumptions for a two Degrees Of Freedom (DOF large stroke compliant mechanism, eigenfrequency and mode shape measurements are compared to results obtained with a flexible multibody model. The mechanism consists of eleven cross flexures and seven interconnecting bodies. From the measurements 30% lower eigenfrequencies are observed than those obtained with the model. With a simplified model, it is demonstrated that these differences can be attributed to wrongly assumed leaf spring thickness and misalignment of the leaf springs in the cross flexures. These manufacturing tolerances thus significantly affect the behaviour of the two DOF mechanism, even though it was designed using the exact constraint design principle. This design principle avoids overconstraints to limit internal stresses due to manufacturing tolerances, yet this paper shows clearly that manufacturing imperfections can still result in significantly different dynamic behaviour.

  14. Displacement measurement of the compliant positioning stage based on a computer micro-vision method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a practical computer micro-vision-based method for displacement measurements of the compliant positioning stage. The algorithm of the proposed method is based on a template matching approach composed of an integer-pixel search and a sub-pixel search. By combining with an optical microscopy, a high resolution CCD camera and the proposed algorithm, an extremely high measuring precision is achieved. Various simulations and experiments are conducted. The simulation results demonstrate that the matching precision can reach to 0.01 pixel when the noise interference is low. A laser interferometer measurement system (LIMS is established for comparison. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method possesses the same performance as the LIMS but exhibits a greater flexibility and operability. The measuring precision can theoretically attain to 2.83 nm/pixel.

  15. Development of a low mobility IEEE 802.15.4 compliant VANET system for urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-05-29

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds.

  16. Quasi-static modelling of compliant mechanisms: application to a 2-DOF underactuated finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Quennouelle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the kinematostatic and the quasi-static models of parallel mechanisms are applied to underactuated mechanisms. Both models are extended to the cases for which the actuated joints are not kinematically independent, and for which the external loads are function of the configuration of the mechanism, the grasped object being considered as not perfectly rigid. An application to a 2-DOF underactuated compliant finger is then presented with details about the implementation of the kinematostatic and the quasi-static models. Finally, some numerical results are given that illustrate possible contributions of these models for the analysis and the control of underactuated mechanisms.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  17. Human-Robot Interaction during Walking with a Powered Compliant Knee Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeusen Romain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of locomotor training involve taskspecificity, repeatability, variability, intensity and self-initiative. KNEXO, a unilateral knee exoskeleton has been developed to study the effects of compliant assistance during treadmill gait. Overall, walking within KNEXO, leads to asymmetric kinematics (Figure 1 and changes in naturally occurring muscle activity. Walking without KNEXO and with KNEXO in unassisted mode is difficult to compare as the device is unilateral and the pneumatic muscles give, although weight-compensated, a certain amount of inertia to the movement. Walking with KNEXO in high compliance resembles walking with KNEXO in unassisted mode. Overall, kinematic and EMG data show that the device has its shortcomings (unilateral, 1 DoF, 1 joint when assisting healthy gait, yet it gives opportunities to study the effects of assistanceas-needed on gait biomechanics.

  18. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic moduli of the composites can be derived. Next, by using the model that links the curved beam mechanics back to the virtual spring, the resultant stiffness of the composite in a half-circular shape can be estimated without going through intensive experimental tryouts. The overall methodology has been experimentally validated, and the fabricated composites were used on a hexapod robot to perform walking and leaping behaviors.

  19. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window

  20. Stability characteristics of compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenrieder, Fabian; Bodony, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Transition prediction at hypersonic flight conditions continues to be a challenge and results in conservative safety factors that increase vehicle weight. The weight and thus cost reduction of the outer skin panels promises significant impact; however, fluid-structure interaction due to unsteady perturbations in the laminar boundary layer regime has not been systematically studied at conditions relevant for reusable, hypersonic flight. In this talk, we develop and apply convective and global stability analyses for compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant panels. This compliance is shown to change the convective stability of the boundary layer modes, with both stabilization and destabilization observed. Finite panel lengths are shown to affect the global stability properties of the boundary layer.

  1. Design, modeling and optimization of an underwater manipulator with four-bar mechanism and compliant linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sang Ok; Kim, Ji Hoon; Bae, Jang Ho; Kim, Jong Won; Seo, Tae Won

    2016-01-01

    Underwater manipulators are very important for a robot to perform a specific operation in water. Conventional robot arm manipulators have been suggested for various operations but have not been suitable for repeated motion in gathering something. This paper presents a new underwater manipulator design for gathering things such as starfish on the sea floor. The manipulator is composed of a four-bar linkage to achieve repeated motion along a loop and compliant linkages to enhance the efficiency of the gathering work. Kinematic and quasi-static analyses were performed to calculate the loop path and the reaction force at the actuation point. Based on the analysis, optimal design was performed to maximize the working distance with the height difference and the reaction moments considered as constraints. A prototype was assembled to test the performance of the manipulator, and the empirical loop path was compared to simulation results

  2. What makes a compliant Phase III and pre-launch patient advocacy strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Nick; Allan, Keith; Thalheim, Christoph; Woods, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background A key task for the pharmaceutical industry is to understand the compliance implications of engaging with a patient advocacy group (PAG). This presents challenges for the industry to negotiate the ethical and reputational issues that can arise when working with a PAG. Objective To gain the views of pharmaceutical industry executives on future compliance challenges when working with PAGs. Study design We conducted two surveys among two sets of industry executives: one group focussed on market access roles and the other focussed on non-market access roles. Results Transparency was identified as the biggest challenge, followed by project rationale and then by project ownership. Conclusion We explore how this can be overcome and make recommendations on how best to work compliantly with PAGs. PMID:28003867

  3. Biomimetic Spider Leg Joints: A Review from Biomechanical Research to Compliant Robotic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landkammer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherent compliance, soft actuated joints are becoming increasingly important for robotic applications, especially when human-robot-interactions are expected. Several of these flexible actuators are inspired by biological models. One perfect showpiece for biomimetic robots is the spider leg, because it combines lightweight design and graceful movements with powerful and dynamic actuation. Building on this motivation, the review article focuses on compliant robotic joints inspired by the function principle of the spider leg. The mechanism is introduced by an overview of existing biological and biomechanical research. Thereupon a classification of robots that are bio-inspired by spider joints is presented. Based on this, the biomimetic robot applications referring to the spider principle are identified and discussed.

  4. An 802.11k Compliant Framework for Cooperative Handoff in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasis Korakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In IEEE 802.11-based wireless networks, the stations (STAs are associated with the available access points (APs and communicate through them. In traditional handoff schemes, the STAs get information about the active APs in their neighborhood by scanning the available channels and listening to transmitted beacons. This paper proposes an 802.11k compliant framework for cooperative handoff where the STAs are informed about the active APs by exchanging information with neighboring STAs. Besides, the APs share useful information that can be used by the STAs in a handoff process. In this way, we minimize the delay of the scanning procedure. We evaluate the performance of our mechanisms through OPNET simulations. We demonstrate that our scheme reduces the scanning delay up to 92%. Consequently, our system is more capable in meeting the needs of QoS-sensitive applications.

  5. An 802.11k Compliant Framework for Cooperative Handoff in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korakis Thanasis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In IEEE 802.11-based wireless networks, the stations (STAs are associated with the available access points (APs and communicate through them. In traditional handoff schemes, the STAs get information about the active APs in their neighborhood by scanning the available channels and listening to transmitted beacons. This paper proposes an 802.11k compliant framework for cooperative handoff where the STAs are informed about the active APs by exchanging information with neighboring STAs. Besides, the APs share useful information that can be used by the STAs in a handoff process. In this way, we minimize the delay of the scanning procedure. We evaluate the performance of our mechanisms through OPNET simulations. We demonstrate that our scheme reduces the scanning delay up to 92%. Consequently, our system is more capable in meeting the needs of QoS-sensitive applications.

  6. Aerodynamic Flight-Test Results for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Ali, Aliyah N.; Bui, Trong T.; Ellsworth, Joel C.; Garcia, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of compliant flaps installed onto a modified Gulfstream III airplane were investigated. Analyses were performed prior to flight to predict the aerodynamic effects of the flap installation. Flight tests were conducted to gather both structural and aerodynamic data. The airplane was instrumented to collect vehicle aerodynamic data and wing pressure data. A leading-edge stagnation detection system was also installed. The data from these flights were analyzed and compared with predictions. The predictive tools compared well with flight data for small flap deflections, but differences between predictions and flight estimates were greater at larger deflections. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight-test results in the areas of vehicle aerodynamics, wing sectional pressure coefficient profiles, and air data.

  7. Design, modeling and optimization of an underwater manipulator with four-bar mechanism and compliant linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sang Ok; Kim, Ji Hoon; Bae, Jang Ho; Kim, Jong Won [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Won [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Underwater manipulators are very important for a robot to perform a specific operation in water. Conventional robot arm manipulators have been suggested for various operations but have not been suitable for repeated motion in gathering something. This paper presents a new underwater manipulator design for gathering things such as starfish on the sea floor. The manipulator is composed of a four-bar linkage to achieve repeated motion along a loop and compliant linkages to enhance the efficiency of the gathering work. Kinematic and quasi-static analyses were performed to calculate the loop path and the reaction force at the actuation point. Based on the analysis, optimal design was performed to maximize the working distance with the height difference and the reaction moments considered as constraints. A prototype was assembled to test the performance of the manipulator, and the empirical loop path was compared to simulation results.

  8. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  9. A study on compliant layers and its influence on dynamic response of a hydrodynamic journal bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2011-01-01

    For some hydrodynamic bearing applications polymer-lined bearings are chosen over traditional metal alloy bearings due to their better wear and friction properties when operating at very thin films, e.g. in the mixed lubrication region. The introduction of a compliant layer also affects the dynamic...... behavior of the bearing. The influence of the liner stiffness on the dynamic response of a highly dynamically loaded journal bearing is evaluated by varying the stiffness and comparing the response. The configurations with different liner stiffnesses are evaluated on the parameters that are traditionally...... used to evaluate hydrodynamic bearing designs: dynamic response, maximum pressure, minimum film thickness, wear, power loss and temperature response. The primary findings are that the maximum pressures are reduced significantly and this comes at the expense of slightly higher eccentricity ratios during...

  10. Extending Mechanical Construction Kits to Incorporate Passive and Compliant Elements for Educational Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, Dorit; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Reichardt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    artificial intelligence and biomechanics to students with different backgrounds. The robots we use both for research and education are usually built incorporating compliant materials as well as passive dynamics. These kind of properties are often not available in classical robot kits or mechanical......Robots are a popular educational tool to introduce science, technology, and engineering to students. The field of educational robotics is growing and consequently a number of ducational robot kits have been developed within the last decade. Our laboratories have radition of teaching embodied...... construction kits. In this paper we describe some of the robots we use for education. So far we built the robots using 3D printing technology which is convenient but too expensive for class use. Our aim is to find cheaper, commercially available solutions. After a short review on educational robot kits...

  11. Maternal Depression History Moderates Parenting Responses to Compliant and Noncompliant Behaviors of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sharon R; O'Brien, Kelly A; Clarke, Tana L; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6 %) and 57 boys (70.4 %) between the ages of 6-12 years old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed.

  12. Comparison of Computerized Sway Referencing and Standing on a Compliant Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, S. Lance; Paloski, William H.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: By removing vision and altering somatosensory inputs, we can examine the contributions of the vestibular system on balance control. Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) systems accomplish this by using a dynamic plate that moves in proportion to the sway of the subject. A potential alternative to CDP is the use of a compliant foam surface. The goal of this study was to compare postural sway during each condition. Methods: Thirty-two healthy subjects (16 male and 16 female) were tested on a Equitest computerized posturography system and on a 5 inch thick block of foam (NeuroCom International; Clackamas, OR). Subjects performed three trials with their head erect and five trials with dynamic head tilts ( 20 at 0.33Hz) in the anterior-posterior (AP) plane. Subjects were instructed to stand quietly with their arms folded and eyes closed for each trial lasting 20 seconds. The sway in both AP and medial-lateral (ML) planes was calculated for each trial, as well as the total sway path length. Results: In general, AP sway tended to be greater on the Equitest than on foam and greater during the head movement trials than the head erect. The ML sway was consistently higher on foam and did not vary between head erect and moving conditions. Sway path length was consistently greater for head erect trials on foam and tended to be greater for head movement trials on the Equitest. The addition of head movements increases AP sway and the total path length. Conclusions: Based on the increase of sway in the ML direction, it is important to quantify sway in all directions when on a compliant foam surface.

  13. Instrumented Compliant Wrist with Proximity and Contact Sensing for Close Robot Interaction Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Laferrière

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Compliance has been exploited in various forms in robotic systems to allow rigid mechanisms to come into contact with fragile objects, or with complex shapes that cannot be accurately modeled. Force feedback control has been the classical approach for providing compliance in robotic systems. However, by integrating other forms of instrumentation with compliance into a single device, it is possible to extend close monitoring of nearby objects before and after contact occurs. As a result, safer and smoother robot control can be achieved both while approaching and while touching surfaces. This paper presents the design and extensive experimental evaluation of a versatile, lightweight, and low-cost instrumented compliant wrist mechanism which can be mounted on any rigid robotic manipulator in order to introduce a layer of compliance while providing the controller with extra sensing signals during close interaction with an object’s surface. Arrays of embedded range sensors provide real-time measurements on the position and orientation of surfaces, either located in proximity or in contact with the robot’s end-effector, which permits close guidance of its operation. Calibration procedures are formulated to overcome inter-sensor variability and achieve the highest available resolution. A versatile solution is created by embedding all signal processing, while wireless transmission connects the device to any industrial robot’s controller to support path control. Experimental work demonstrates the device’s physical compliance as well as the stability and accuracy of the device outputs. Primary applications of the proposed instrumented compliant wrist include smooth surface following in manufacturing, inspection, and safe human-robot interaction.

  14. Effects of fatiguing isometric and isokinetic ankle exercises on postural control while standing on firm and compliant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisson Etienne J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatiguing exercises used across studies to induce alterations in postural control are diverse and may explain the different findings reported. This study aimed to compare the effects of two types of fatiguing plantarflexion exercises on postural control on a firm and a compliant surface. Ten healthy young men (29 ± 4 years were asked to stand as steadily as possible for 30 s, blindfolded with feet together, on a firm and a compliant surface before and immediately after an isometric and an isokinetic fatiguing exercise. Results Maximal force reduction due to fatigue was found significant but similar between exercises. No significant difference was found between the fatiguing exercises on all Center of Pressure (CoP parameters. Both fatiguing exercises induced increases in CoP excursion area, CoP variability and CoP velocity in both planes (antero-posterior, mediolateral on the compliant surface. On the firm surface, both fatiguing exercises only induced increases in CoP variability and CoP velocity in the fatigued plane (antero-posterior. Conclusions Isometric and isokinetic fatiguing exercises, when producing a similar level of force reduction, induce similar decreases in postural control. The effects of fatigue on postural control in healthy young men are more pronounced when standing on a compliant surface, i.e. when proprioceptive information at the ankle is altered.

  15. Comparing Arc-shaped Feet and Rigid Ankles with Flat Feet and Compliant Ankles for a Dynamic Walker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlemann, Ilyas; Matthias Braun, Jan; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2014-01-01

    walking robot RunBot, controlled by an reflexive neural network, uses only few sensors for generating its stable gait. The results show that at feet and compliant ankles extend RunBot's parameter range especially to more leaning back postures. They also allow the robot to stably walk over obstacles...

  16. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassooij, J.; Tolou, N.; Tortora, G.; Caccavaro, S.; Menciassi, A.; Herder, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of

  17. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  18. Full GMP-Compliant Validation of Bone Marrow-Derived Human CD133+ Cells as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product for Refractory Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Medicine Agency (EMA regulatory frameworks, Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP represent a new category of drugs in which the active ingredient consists of cells, genes, or tissues. ATMP-CD133 has been widely investigated in controlled clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases, making CD133+ cells one of the most well characterized cell-derived drugs in this field. To ensure high quality and safety standards for clinical use, the manufacturing process must be accomplished in certified facilities following standard operative procedures (SOPs. In the present work, we report the fully compliant GMP-grade production of ATMP-CD133 which aims to address the treatment of chronic refractory ischemic heart failure. Starting from bone marrow (BM, ATMP-CD133 manufacturing output yielded a median of 6.66 × 106 of CD133+ cells (range 2.85 × 106–30.84 × 106, with a viability ranged between 96,03% and 99,97% (median 99,87% and a median purity of CD133+ cells of 90,60% (range 81,40%–96,20%. Based on these results we defined our final release criteria for ATMP-CD133: purity ≥ 70%, viability ≥ 80%, cellularity between 1 and 12 × 106 cells, sterile, and endotoxin-free. The abovementioned criteria are currently applied in our Phase I clinical trial (RECARDIO Trial.

  19. Full GMP-compliant validation of bone marrow-derived human CD133(+) cells as advanced therapy medicinal product for refractory ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Daniela; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Bassetti, Beatrice; Cabiati, Benedetta; Spaltro, Gabriella; Biagi, Ettore; Parma, Matteo; Biondi, Andrea; Cavallotti, Laura; Gambini, Elisa; Pompilio, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) regulatory frameworks, Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP) represent a new category of drugs in which the active ingredient consists of cells, genes, or tissues. ATMP-CD133 has been widely investigated in controlled clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases, making CD133(+) cells one of the most well characterized cell-derived drugs in this field. To ensure high quality and safety standards for clinical use, the manufacturing process must be accomplished in certified facilities following standard operative procedures (SOPs). In the present work, we report the fully compliant GMP-grade production of ATMP-CD133 which aims to address the treatment of chronic refractory ischemic heart failure. Starting from bone marrow (BM), ATMP-CD133 manufacturing output yielded a median of 6.66 × 10(6) of CD133(+) cells (range 2.85 × 10(6)-30.84 × 10(6)), with a viability ranged between 96,03% and 99,97% (median 99,87%) and a median purity of CD133(+) cells of 90,60% (range 81,40%-96,20%). Based on these results we defined our final release criteria for ATMP-CD133: purity ≥ 70%, viability ≥ 80%, cellularity between 1 and 12 × 10(6) cells, sterile, and endotoxin-free. The abovementioned criteria are currently applied in our Phase I clinical trial (RECARDIO Trial).

  20. Full GMP-Compliant Validation of Bone Marrow-Derived Human CD133+ Cells as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product for Refractory Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Daniela; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Bassetti, Beatrice; Cabiati, Benedetta; Spaltro, Gabriella; Biagi, Ettore; Parma, Matteo; Biondi, Andrea; Cavallotti, Laura; Gambini, Elisa; Pompilio, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) regulatory frameworks, Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP) represent a new category of drugs in which the active ingredient consists of cells, genes, or tissues. ATMP-CD133 has been widely investigated in controlled clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases, making CD133+ cells one of the most well characterized cell-derived drugs in this field. To ensure high quality and safety standards for clinical use, the manufacturing process must be accomplished in certified facilities following standard operative procedures (SOPs). In the present work, we report the fully compliant GMP-grade production of ATMP-CD133 which aims to address the treatment of chronic refractory ischemic heart failure. Starting from bone marrow (BM), ATMP-CD133 manufacturing output yielded a median of 6.66 × 106 of CD133+ cells (range 2.85 × 106–30.84 × 106), with a viability ranged between 96,03% and 99,97% (median 99,87%) and a median purity of CD133+ cells of 90,60% (range 81,40%–96,20%). Based on these results we defined our final release criteria for ATMP-CD133: purity ≥ 70%, viability ≥ 80%, cellularity between 1 and 12 × 106 cells, sterile, and endotoxin-free. The abovementioned criteria are currently applied in our Phase I clinical trial (RECARDIO Trial). PMID:26495296

  1. Standards-based data interoperability in the climate sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Andrew; Cramer, Ray; Gutierrez, Marta; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Kondapalli, Siva; Latham, Susan; Lawrence, Bryan; Lowry, Roy; O'Neill, Kevin

    2005-03-01

    Emerging developments in geographic information systems and distributed computing offer a roadmap towards an unprecedented spatial data infrastructure in the climate sciences. Key to this are the standards developments for digital geographic information being led by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) technical committee on geographic information/geomatics (TC211) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). These, coupled with the evolution of standardised web services for applications on the internet by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), mean that opportunities for both new applications and increased interoperability exist. These are exemplified by the ability to construct ISO-compliant data models that expose legacy data sources through OGC web services. This paper concentrates on the applicability of these standards to climate data by introducing some examples and outlining the challenges ahead. An abstract data model is developed, based on ISO standards, and applied to a range of climate data both observational and modelled. An OGC Web Map Server interface is constructed for numerical weather prediction (NWP) data stored in legacy data files. A W3C web service for remotely accessing gridded climate data is illustrated. Challenges identified include the following: first, both the ISO and OGC specifications require extensions to support climate data. Secondly, OGC services need to fully comply with W3C web services, and support complex access control. Finally, to achieve real interoperability, broadly accepted community-based semantic data models are required across the range of climate data types. These challenges are being actively pursued, and broad data interoperability for the climate sciences appears within reach.

  2. Compliant flooring to prevent fall-related injuries in older adults: A scoping review of biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Jurkowski, Michal P; Dymarz, Ania C; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Feldman, Fabio; Laing, Andrew C; Mackey, Dawn C

    2017-01-01

    Compliant flooring, broadly defined as flooring systems or floor coverings with some level of shock absorbency, may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in older adults; however, a lack of synthesized evidence may be limiting widespread uptake. Informed by the Arksey and O'Malley framework and guided by a Research Advisory Panel of knowledge users, we conducted a scoping review to answer: what is presented about the biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety associated with compliant flooring systems that aim to prevent fall-related injuries in healthcare settings? We searched academic and grey literature databases. Any record that discussed a compliant flooring system and at least one of biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, or workplace safety was eligible for inclusion. Two independent reviewers screened and abstracted records, charted data, and summarized results. After screening 3611 titles and abstracts and 166 full-text articles, we included 84 records plus 56 companion (supplementary) reports. Biomechanical efficacy records (n = 50) demonstrate compliant flooring can reduce fall-related impact forces with minimal effects on standing and walking balance. Clinical effectiveness records (n = 20) suggest that compliant flooring may reduce injuries, but may increase risk for falls. Preliminary evidence suggests that compliant flooring may be a cost-effective strategy (n = 12), but may also result in increased physical demands for healthcare workers (n = 17). In summary, compliant flooring is a promising strategy for preventing fall-related injuries from a biomechanical perspective. Additional research is warranted to confirm whether compliant flooring (i) prevents fall-related injuries in real-world settings, (ii) is a cost-effective intervention strategy, and (iii) can be installed without negatively impacting workplace safety. Avenues for future research are

  3. Determination of the relations governing trends in the standard deviations of the distribution of pollution based on observations on the atmospheric turbulence spectrum and the possibility of laboratory simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Using TAYLOR's calculation, which takes account of the low-pass filter effect of the transfer time on the value for the standard deviation of particle dispersion, we have introduced a high-pass filter which translate the effect of the time of observation, by definition finite, onto the true atmospheric scale. It is then possible to identify those conditions under which the relations governing variation of the standard deviations of pollution distribution are dependent upon: the distance of transfer alone, the time of transfer alone. Thence, making certain simplifying assumptions, practical quantitive relationships are deduced for the variation of the horizontal standard deviation of pollution dispersion as a function of wind speed and time of transfer

  4. The Distribution of Instructional Time and Its Effect on Group Cohesion in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Comparison of Intensive and Standard Format Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinger, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…

  5. New strategies for optimization of compliant tensegrity surfaces for drag reduction in turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H.; Bewley, T. R.

    2002-11-01

    The present project is inspired by two observations from nature: 1) the incredible strength of spider fibers (derived essentially from a tensegrity-based configuration of proteins), and 2) the efficient swimming motion of dolphins (perhaps derived in part from the compliant nature of their skin). Motivated by such observations, we are exploring a new design for a tensegrity-based ``fabric'' consisting of a weave of both members in tension and members designed to support compressive loads. In particular, we are attempting to optimize the surface compliance of such a fabric, that is, the response of the surface of the fabric to externally-applied friction and pressure forces, in order to reduce the drag induced by an overlying turbulent flow at the flow/structure interface. As the first stage of the research, we developed the software simulating the interaction of the two-part system. Direct numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the flow part. To account for the moving walls, we use an immersed-boundary technique which simulates the presence of a moving boundary. In collaboration with another research group, we developed object-oriented software for computation of the dynamics of the tensegrity fabric part. The two codes written in two different languages run in parallel and communicate data at each time step. In this presentation, we will outline the numerical method used, present recent simulation results demonstrating the flow/surface interaction, and outline our ongoing efforts to optimize the compliance properties of the tensegrity fabric.

  6. An Optimal Portfolio and Capital Management Strategy for Basel III Compliant Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant E. Muller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We model a Basel III compliant commercial bank that operates in a financial market consisting of a treasury security, a marketable security, and a loan and we regard the interest rate in the market as being stochastic. We find the investment strategy that maximizes an expected utility of the bank’s asset portfolio at a future date. This entails obtaining formulas for the optimal amounts of bank capital invested in different assets. Based on the optimal investment strategy, we derive a model for the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, which the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS introduced as a measure against banks’ susceptibility to failure. Furthermore, we consider the optimal investment strategy subject to a constant CAR at the minimum prescribed level. We derive a formula for the bank’s asset portfolio at constant (minimum CAR value and present numerical simulations on different scenarios. Under the optimal investment strategy, the CAR is above the minimum prescribed level. The value of the asset portfolio is improved if the CAR is at its (constant minimum value.

  7. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: A caBIG(TM Silver Level Compliant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoying Huang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™ Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system™ (LEAD™, which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK provided by National Cancer Institute’s Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD™ platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD™ could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG™ can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG™ to the management of clinical and biological data.

  8. Patient-oriented presentation of results of radiological procedures using DICOM-compliant DVD media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Aberle, Denise R.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Lu, David S.; Dahlbom, Magdalena; McGill, D. Ric; McCoy, J. Michael

    2003-05-01

    Some institutions have adopted digital media such as CD ROMs to provide patients and referring physicians with results of radiological procedures. These systems require a computer to review the images and lack the supporting explanations and guidance for patients to properly understand the results. We developed a hybrid DVD encoding format that combines DICOM-compliant image storage format with video streams viewable on any consumer DVD players. The addition of the video material allows radiologists to provide explanations, disclaimers and guidance to the patients regarding the results of the study. The diagnostic report is also included on the DVD as a PDF file and as a set of video frames that can be viewed on a DVD player. The native high-resolution images are also included in DICOM format on the DVD and can be accessed by any workstation equipped with a DICOM viewer. The DVD that can be reviewed on any consumer DVD player overcomes the limitation of CD ROMS that require the use of a personal computer. The results of the radiological procedures become more accessible patients that could be reluctant or unable to use a computer. Also, live video clips add a more personalized note and allow radiologists to convey important messages to the patients. This is particularly useful for self-referred screening procedures where results should always be accompanied with education material and explanations of the findings.

  9. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: A caBIG(TM Silver Level Compliant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoying Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™ Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system™ (LEAD™, which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK provided by National Cancer Institute’s Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD™ platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD™ could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG™ can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG™ to the management of clinical and biological data.

  10. Design and control of compliant tensegrity robots through simulation and hardware validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwaerts, Ken; Despraz, Jérémie; Işçen, Atıl; Sabelhaus, Andrew P.; Bruce, Jonathan; Schrauwen, Benjamin; SunSpiral, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of tensegrity structures in biological systems and their application to robotics, the Dynamic Tensegrity Robotics Lab at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA, has developed and validated two software environments for the analysis, simulation and design of tensegrity robots. These tools, along with new control methodologies and the modular hardware components developed to validate them, are presented as a system for the design of actuated tensegrity structures. As evidenced from their appearance in many biological systems, tensegrity (‘tensile–integrity’) structures have unique physical properties that make them ideal for interaction with uncertain environments. Yet, these characteristics make design and control of bioinspired tensegrity robots extremely challenging. This work presents the progress our tools have made in tackling the design and control challenges of spherical tensegrity structures. We focus on this shape since it lends itself to rolling locomotion. The results of our analyses include multiple novel control approaches for mobility and terrain interaction of spherical tensegrity structures that have been tested in simulation. A hardware prototype of a spherical six-bar tensegrity, the Reservoir Compliant Tensegrity Robot, is used to empirically validate the accuracy of simulation. PMID:24990292

  11. Bio-Inspired Control of an Arm Exoskeleton Joint with Active-Compliant Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Folgheraiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology followed on the design of a multi-contact point haptic interface that uses a bio-inspired control approach and a novel actuation system. The combination of these components aims at creating a system that increases the operability of the target, and, at the same time, enables an intuitive and safe tele-operation of any complex robotic system of any given morphology. The novelty lies on the combination of a thoughtful kinematic structure driven by an active-compliant actuation system and a bio-inspired paradigm for its regulation. Due to the proposed actuation approach, the final system will achieve the condition of wearable system. On that final solution, each joint will be able to change its stiffness depending on the task to be executed, and on the anatomical features of each individual. Moreover, the system provides a variety of safety mechanisms at different levels to prevent causing any harm to the operator. In future, the system should allow the complete virtual immersion of the user within the working scenario.

  12. Compliant Buckled Foam Actuators and Application in Patient-Specific Direct Cardiac Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C; Futran, Chaim C; Lee, Jeanne; O'Brien, Kevin W; Amiri Moghadam, Amir A; Mosadegh, Bobak; Silberstein, Meredith N; Min, James K; Shepherd, Robert F

    2018-02-01

    We introduce the use of buckled foam for soft pneumatic actuators. A moderate amount of residual compressive strain within elastomer foam increases the applied force ∼1.4 × or stroke ∼2 × compared with actuators without residual strain. The origin of these improved characteristics is explained analytically. These actuators are applied in a direct cardiac compression (DCC) device design, a type of implanted mechanical circulatory support that avoids direct blood contact, mitigating risks of clot formation and stroke. This article describes a first step toward a pneumatically powered, patient-specific DCC design by employing elastomer foam as the mechanism for cardiac compression. To form the device, a mold of a patient's heart was obtained by 3D printing a digitized X-ray computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan into a solid model. From this model, a soft, robotic foam DCC device was molded. The DCC device is compliant and uses compressed air to inflate foam chambers that in turn apply compression to the exterior of a heart. The device is demonstrated on a porcine heart and is capable of assisting heart pumping at physiologically relevant durations (∼200 ms for systole and ∼400 ms for diastole) and stroke volumes (∼70 mL). Although further development is necessary to produce a fully implantable device, the material and processing insights presented here are essential to the implementation of a foam-based, patient-specific DCC design.

  13. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eFahlman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested Scholander’s hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (Pacific harbor seal, Phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus; California sea lion, Zalophus californianus; and Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus. We found that the chest wall compliance (CCW of all five species was greater than lung compliance (airways and alveoli, CL as predicted by Scholander, which suggests that the chest provides little protection against alveolar collapse or lung squeeze. We also found that specific respiratory compliance was significantly greater in wild animals than in animals raised under human care. While differences in ages between the two groups may affect this incidental finding, it is also possible that lung conditioning in free-living animals may increase pulmonary compliance and reduce the risk of lung squeeze during diving. Overall, our data indicate that compliance of excised pinniped lungs provide a good estimate of total respiratory compliance.

  14. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: A caBIG(tm) Silver level compliant System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Taoying; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Sinha, Rajni; Graiser, Michael; Bumpers, Kevin W.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™) Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system™ (LEAD™), which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK) provided by National Cancer Institute’s Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD™ platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD™ could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG™ can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG™ to the management of clinical and biological data. PMID:19492074

  15. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: a caBIG Silver level compliant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Taoying; Shenoy, Pareen J; Sinha, Rajni; Graiser, Michael; Bumpers, Kevin W; Flowers, Christopher R

    2009-04-03

    Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system (LEAD), which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK) provided by National Cancer Institute's Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG to the management of clinical and biological data.

  16. A detailed analysis of adhesion mechanics between a compliant elastic coating and a spherical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, I; Zheng, Z W; Johnson, K L

    2004-01-01

    As length scales decrease, adhesive forces become increasingly important. These adhesive forces contribute to the normal load in experiments conducted on thin layered systems using micro-probe instruments such as the surface force apparatus (SFA) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). Adhesion between these thin-layer systems was analysed by Sridhar et al (1997 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30 1710) for the SFA geometry and Johnson and Sridhar (2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 683) for AFM using a numerical SJF (Sridhar-Johnson-Fleck) version of the JKR (Johnson-Kendal-Roberts) theory. In this paper, adhesion mechanics between a compliant elastic coating and a spherical probe is investigated using the SJF model in detail. When the substrate is rigid, the non-dimensional pull-off force may differ from the JKR value of -0.5 by as much as 90%. Computations of the contact size at zero load and pull-off force are presented for a range of values of adhesion energy. Finally, empirical relations for the contact load and contact compliance as a function of contact radius were obtained from the numerical data for practical layer-substrate material systems

  17. A cross-platform GUI to control instruments compliant with SCPI through VISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-10-01

    In nuclear physics experiments, it is necessary and important to control instruments from a PC, which automates many tasks that require human operations otherwise. Not only does this make long term measurements possible, but it also makes repetitive operations less error-prone. We created a graphical user interface (GUI) to control instruments connected to a PC through RS232, USB, LAN, etc. The GUI is developed using Qt Creator, a cross-platform integrated development environment, which makes it portable to various operating systems, including those commonly used in mobile devices. NI-VISA library is used in the back end so that the GUI can be used to control instruments connected through various I/O interfaces without any modification. Commonly used SCPI commands can be sent to different instruments using buttons, sliders, knobs, and other various widgets provided by Qt Creator. As an example, we demonstrate how we set and fetch parameters and how to retrieve and display data from an Agilent Digital Storage Oscilloscope X3034A with the GUI. Our GUI can be easily used for other instruments compliant with SCPI and VISA with little or no modification.

  18. HIPAA Compliant Wireless Sensing Smartwatch Application for the Self-Management of Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A T; King, Christine E; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among pediatrics, as it is the leading cause of student absenteeism and hospitalization for those under the age of 15. To address the significant need to manage this disease in children, the authors present a mobile health (mHealth) system that determines the risk of an asthma attack through physiological and environmental wireless sensors and representational state transfer application program interfaces (RESTful APIs). The data is sent from wireless sensors to a smartwatch application (app) via a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant cryptography framework, which then sends data to a cloud for real-time analytics. The asthma risk is then sent to the smartwatch and provided to the user via simple graphics for easy interpretation by children. After testing the safety and feasibility of the system in an adult with moderate asthma prior to testing in children, it was found that the analytics model is able to determine the overall asthma risk (high, medium, or low risk) with an accuracy of 80.10 ± 14.13%. Furthermore, the features most important for assessing the risk of an asthma attack were multifaceted, highlighting the importance of continuously monitoring different wireless sensors and RESTful APIs. Future testing this asthma attack risk prediction system in pediatric asthma individuals may lead to an effective self-management asthma program.

  19. Ciliary metachronal wave propagation on the compliant surface of Paramecium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narematsu, Naoki; Quek, Raymond; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2015-12-01

    Ciliary movements in protozoa exhibit metachronal wave-like coordination, in which a constant phase difference is maintained between adjacent cilia. It is at present generally thought that metachronal waves require hydrodynamic coupling between adjacent cilia and the extracellular fluid. To test this hypothesis, we aspirated a Paramecium cell using a micropipette which completely sealed the surface of the cell such that no fluid could pass through the micropipette. Thus, the anterior and the posterior regions of the cell were hydrodynamically decoupled. Nevertheless, we still observed that metachronal waves continued to propagate from the anterior to the posterior ends of the cell, suggesting that in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, there are other mechanisms that can also transmit the metachronal waves. Such transmission was also observed in computational modeling where the fluid was fully decoupled between two partitions of a beating ciliary array. We also imposed cyclic stretching on the surface of live Paramecium cells and found that metachronal waves persisted in the presence of cyclic stretching. This demonstrated that, in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, a compliant substrate can also play a critical role in mediating the propagation of metachronal waves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H; Johnson, Shawn P; Haulena, Martin; Trites, Andrew W; Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William G

    2014-01-01

    We examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested Scholander's hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (Pacific harbor seal, Phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus; California sea lion, Zalophus californianus; and Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus). We found that the chest wall compliance (CCW) of all five species was greater than lung compliance (airways and alveoli, CL) as predicted by Scholander, which suggests that the chest provides little protection against alveolar collapse or lung squeeze. We also found that specific respiratory compliance was significantly greater in wild animals than in animals raised in an aquatic facility. While differences in ages between the two groups may affect this incidental finding, it is also possible that lung conditioning in free-living animals may increase pulmonary compliance and reduce the risk of lung squeeze during diving. Overall, our data indicate that compliance of excised pinniped lungs provide a good estimate of total respiratory compliance.

  1. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 2: Materials and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, B.; Ruscitto, D.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Material coatings for an air-lubricated, compliant journal bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine were exposed to service test temperatures of 540 C or 650 C for 300 hours, and to 10 temperature cycles from room temperatures to the service test temperatures. Selected coatings were then put on journal and partial-arc foils and tested in start-stop cycle tests at 14 kPa (2 psi) loading for 2000 cycles. Half of the test cycles were performed at a test chamber service temperature of 540 C (1000 F) or 650 C (1200 F); the other half were performed at room temperature. Based on test results, the following combinations and their service temperature limitations are recommended: HL-800 TM (CdO and graphite) on foil versus chrome carbide on journal up to 370 C (700 F); NASA PS 120 (Tribaloy 400, silver and CaF2 on journal versus uncoated foil up to 540 C (1000 F); and Kaman DES on journal and foil up to 640 C (1200 F). Kaman DES coating system was further tested successfully at 35 kPa (5 psi) loading for 2000 start-stop cycles.

  2. Testing of FTS fingers and interface using a passive compliant robot manipulator. [flight telerobot servicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with testing of a pair of robot fingers designed for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) to grasp a cylinder type of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface. The report first describes the objectives of the study and then the testbed consisting of a Stewart Platform-based manipulator equipped with a passive compliant platform which also serves as a force/torque sensor. Kinematic analysis is then performed to provide a closed-form solution for the force inverse kinematics and iterative solution for the force forward kinematics using the Newton's Raphson Method. Mathematical expressions are then derived to compute force/torques applied to the FTS fingers during the mating/demating with the interface. The report then presents the three parts of the experimental study on the feasibility and characteristics of the fingers. The first part obtains data of forces applied by the fingers to the interface under various misalignments, the second part determines the maximum allowable capture angles for mating, and the third part processes and interprets the obtained force/torque data.

  3. Importance of structural damping in the dynamic analysis of compliant deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalque, Florence; Rochus, Pierre; Brüls, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their motion results from the elastic deformation of structural components and the absence of actuators or external energy sources. The mechanical behaviour of a tape spring is intrinsically complex and nonlinear involving buckling, hysteresis and self-locking phenomena. In the majority of the previous works, dynamic simulations were performed without any physical representation of the structural damping. These simulations could be successfully achieved because of the presence of numerical damping in the transient solver. However, in this case, the dynamic response turns out to be quite sensitive to the amount of numerical dissipation, so that the predictive capabilities of the model are questionable. In this work based on numerical case studies, we show that the dynamic simulation of a tape spring can be made less sensitive to numerical parameters when the structural dissipation is taken into account.

  4. Analysis of slot cutting methods for the Yucca Mountain heated block test using a compliant-joint model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.P.; Costin, L.S.

    1991-12-31

    Pretest analysis of a heated block test, proposed for the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was conducted in this investigation. Specifically, the study focuses on the evaluation of the various designs to drill holes and cut slots for the block. The thermal/mechanical analysis was based on the finite element method and a compliant-joint rock-mass constitutive model. Based on the calculated results, relative merits of the various test designs are discussed.

  5. Particle mobility size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Wiedensohler; W. Birmili; A. Nowak; A. Sonntag; K. Weinhold; M. Merkel; B. Wehner; T. Tuch; S. Pfeifer; M. Fiebig; A. M. Fjäraa; E. Asmi; K. Sellegri; R. Depuy; H. Venzac

    2010-01-01

    Particle mobility size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers) or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers) have found a wide application in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. This article results from several instrument intercomp...

  6. Photonic generation of FCC-compliant UWB pulses based on modified Gaussian quadruplet and incoherent wavelength-to-time conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hongqian; Wang, Muguang; Tang, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Jian, Shuisheng

    2018-03-01

    A novel scheme for the generation of FCC-compliant UWB pulse is proposed based on modified Gaussian quadruplet and incoherent wavelength-to-time conversion. The modified Gaussian quadruplet is synthesized based on linear sum of a broad Gaussian pulse and two narrow Gaussian pulses with the same pulse-width and amplitude peak. Within specific parameter range, FCC-compliant UWB with spectral power efficiency of higher than 39.9% can be achieved. In order to realize the designed waveform, a UWB generator based on spectral shaping and incoherent wavelength-to-time mapping is proposed. The spectral shaper is composed of a Gaussian filter and a programmable filter. Single-mode fiber functions as both dispersion device and transmission medium. Balanced photodetection is employed to combine linearly the broad Gaussian pulse and two narrow Gaussian pulses, and at same time to suppress pulse pedestals that result in low-frequency components. The proposed UWB generator can be reconfigured for UWB doublet by operating the programmable filter as a single-band Gaussian filter. The feasibility of proposed UWB generator is demonstrated experimentally. Measured UWB pulses match well with simulation results. FCC-compliant quadruplet with 10-dB bandwidth of 6.88-GHz, fractional bandwidth of 106.8% and power efficiency of 51% is achieved.

  7. Risk and Return under Shari’a Framework: An Attempt to Develop Shari’a Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanif

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A speedy emerging area of finance is the Shari’a compliant financial system. In first decade of 21st century Islamic financing has shown tremendous increase and global volume has reached to US $ 1,041 billion by the end of 2009. Being financial intermediaries Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs have shown commendable progress in deposit collection under profit and loss sharing schemes however investment avenues are limited in comparison of conventional banks. Although a large number of financing modes are available to IFIs, yet maintenance of required liquidity is serious issue because money market and capital market is dominated by interest based instruments and conventional practices (some are clearly prohibited by Shari’a. Recently Al-meezan Investment Management Ltd. (AIML has started screening of Shari’a compliant stocks on KSE, and provided an avenue for Shari’a Compliant Investors/IFIs to invest in equities. This study is conducted to understand conventional asset pricing models, document any mismatching with Shari’a financial system, and suggest amendments if required. Findings suggest existing models of equity pricing (CAPM, APT/MFM are very much practicable under Shari’a framework with slight modification of risk free return because under Shari’a frame work risk free returns do not exist.

  8. Defining the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup: The Hanford site tri-party agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.; Wisness, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, commonly called the Tri-Party Agreement, was signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in May of 1989. It was the first three-party agreement of its magnitude in the country and was touted as a landmark agreement. It was one of the most significant actions that has been taken to define the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup actions at the Hanford Site. Accomplishments thus far represent a lot of planning, permitting, and development activities either required by regulation or necessary to ensure an adequate infrastructure to support cleanup activities. Actual cleanup work and construction of new facilities are beginning to accelerate as the Hanford Site moves out of study and development phases into actual cleanup activities. Significant changes to the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement were negotiated between May 1993 and January 1994. These negotiations were precipitated by the completion of a 15-month rebaselining study of the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System. The revised agreement is based on comments and values the three agencies heard from people of the region during the negotiation process. The recent renegotiation reflected an ability of the agencies and the agreement to change commensurate with technical, economic, and political realities of today. Hanford has moved into a new era of public participation which will continue to watch and guide cleanup efforts in manners satisfactory to regional concerns and values

  9. A physics based approach to the pulse wave velocity prediction in compliant arterial segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberson, Alexander S; Lillie, Jeffrey S; Day, Steven W; Borkholder, David A

    2016-10-03

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) quantification commonly serves as a highly robust prognostic parameter being used in a preventative cardiovascular therapy. Being dependent on arterial elastance, it can serve as a marker of cardiovascular risk. Since it is influenced by a blood pressure (BP), the pertaining theory can lay the foundation in developing a technique for noninvasive blood pressure measurement. Previous studies have reported application of PWV, measured noninvasively, for both the estimation of arterial compliance and blood pressure, based on simplified physical or statistical models. A new theoretical model for pulse wave propagation in a compliant arterial segment is presented within the framework of pseudo-elastic deformation of biological tissue undergoing finite deformation. An essential ingredient is the dependence of results on nonlinear aspects of the model: convective fluid phenomena, hyperelastic constitutive relation, large deformation and a longitudinal pre-stress load. An exact analytical solution for PWV is presented as a function of pressure, flow and pseudo-elastic orthotropic parameters. Results from our model are compared with published in-vivo PWV measurements under diverse physiological conditions. Contributions of each of the nonlinearities are analyzed. It was found that the totally nonlinear model achieves the best match with the experimental data. To retrieve individual vascular information of a patient, the inverse problem of hemodynamics is presented, calculating local orthotropic hyperelastic properties of the arterial wall. The proposed technique can be used for non-invasive assessment of arterial elastance, and blood pressure using direct measurement of PWV, with account of hyperelastic orthotropic properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TU-AB-201-07: Image Guided Endorectal HDR Brachytherapy Using a Compliant Balloon Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, G; Goodman, K [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: High dose rate endorectal brachytherapy is an option to deliver a focal, high-dose radiotherapy to rectal tumors for patients undergoing non-operative management. We investigate a new multichannel, MR compatible applicator with a novel balloon-based design to provide improved treatment geometry. We report on the initial clinical experience using this applicator. Methods: Patients were enrolled on an IRB-approved, dose-escalation protocol evaluating the use of the anorectal (AR-1) applicator (Ancer Medical, Hialeah, FL), a multichannel applicator with two concentric balloons. The inner balloon supports 8 source lumens; the compliant outer balloon expands to separate the normal rectal wall and the source lumens, yet deforms around a firm, exophytic rectal mass, leading to dose escalation to tumor while sparing normal rectum. Under general anesthesia, gold fiducial markers were inserted above and below the tumor, and the AR applicator was placed in the rectum. MRI-based treatment plans were prepared to deliver 15 Gy in 3 weekly fractions to the target volume while sparing healthy rectal tissue, bladder, bowel and anal muscles. Prior to each treatment, CBCT/Fluoroscopy were used to place the applicator in the treatment position and confirm the treatment geometry using rigid registration of the CBCT and planning MRI. After registration of the applicator images, positioning was evaluated based on the match of the gold markers. Results: Highly conformal treatment plans were achieved. MR compatibility of the applicator enabled good tumor visualization. In spite of the non-rigid nature of the applicators and the fact that a new applicator was used at each treatment session, treatment geometry was reproducible to within 2.5 mm. Conclusions: This is the first report on using the AR applicator in patients. Highly conformal plans, confidence in MRI target delineation, in combination with reproducible treatment geometry provide encouraging feedback for continuation with

  11. Development of a fully automated and GMP compliant [11C]-radiosynthesis module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochon-Danguy, H.K.; Poniger, S.S.; Ackermann, U.; Sachinidis, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The automation of routinely produced and GMP compliant [ 11 C]radiotracers is an important process for any PET centre. Automation allows for highly reproducible synthesis with large amount of radioactivity while minimising exposure to the radiochemist. GMP compliance is required to meet the upcoming regulations for PET radio-pharmaceutical production. Based on these requirements, we have designed at the ARMC PET Centre, a reliable and versatile chemistry module for the production of [ 11 C]-radiotracers. This aim has been achieved by using disposable manifolds and tubing in conjunction with newly prepared reaction vessels. Cross-contamination by subsequent productions of different radiophammaceuticals is then fully prevented. Automation of the synthesis sequences is performed by a PLC Siemens (CPU216), and the programs allows for the production of different radiotracers according to their specific reaction parameters such as temperature and reaction time. Relevant digital and analog parameters are measured throughout the synthesis and fed back to the PLC to allow clear monitoring of the process by the user. Our new radiosynthesis module is based on the conventional production of [ 11 C]-methyliodide, followed by its reaction with the relevant precursor at room temperature using the l oop technique . The crude labelled product is then automatically injected into the HPLC column. After collection of the pure product, the mobile phase is discarded, and the final product eluted with ethanol and formulated with a physiological solution using the 'SepPak technique'. The synthesis time is about 30 minutes including purification and formulation of the product. The [ 11 C]-radiosynthesis prototype module is currently under evaluation. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. A New XYZ Compliant Parallel Mechanism for Micro-/Nano-Manipulation: Design and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the constraint and position identification (CPI approach for synthesizing XYZ compliant parallel mechanisms (CPMs and configuration modifications, this paper proposes a new fully-symmetrical XYZ CPM with desired motion characteristics such as reduced cross-axis coupling, minimized lost motion, and relatively small parasitic motion. The good motion characteristics arise from not only its symmetric configuration, but also the rigid linkages between non-adjacent rigid stages. Comprehensive kinematic analysis is carried out based on a series of finite element simulations over a motion range per axis less than ±5% of the beam length, which reveals that the maximum cross-axis coupling rate is less than 0.86%, the maximum lost motion rate is less than 1.20%, the parasitic rotations of the motion stage (MS are in the order of 10−5 rad, and the parasitic translations of the three actuated stages (ASs are in the order of 10−4 of the beam length (less than 0.3% of the motion range, where the beam slenderness ratio is larger than 20. Furthermore, the nonlinear analytical models of the primary translations of the XYZ CPM, including the primary translations of the MS and the ASs, are derived and validated to provide a quick design synthesis. Moreover, two practical design schemes of the proposed XYZ CPM are discussed with consideration of the manufacturability. The practical designs enable the XYZ CPM to be employed in many applications such as micro-/nano-positioning, micro-/nano-manufacturing and micro-/nano-assembly. Finally, a spatial high-precision translational system is presented based on the practical design schemes, taking the actuator and sensor integration into account.

  13. Controlled buckling behavior of patterned oxide structures on compliant substrates for flexible optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejitual, T.S.; Morris, N.J.; Cairns, D.R.; Sierros, K.A., E-mail: kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu

    2013-12-31

    There is currently a great interest to design and fabricate novel flexible devices for solar cell, solid-state lighting, biomedical and energy harvesting applications. Such devices require the use of electrode components. Desired electrodes must exhibit structural integrity, low electrical resistivity and, in most cases, high optical transparency in the visible range. Despite growing efforts to replace them, transparent conducting oxide layers deposited on polymer substrates are still enjoying a dominant role as the electrode component. This is because of their excellent combination of electrical and optical properties. However, their performance when they are subjected to externally-applied mechanical stresses is limited. Such performance has been extensively investigated for the case of continuous brittle oxide films on polymer substrates. However, there is relatively little work reported to date on the mechanical behavior of patterned conducting layers on compliant substrates. In this study we report on the mechanical behavior of various patterned indium tin oxide shapes and sizes on polyethylene terephthalate. Micron-sized shapes include squares, circles, and zigzag-based structures. Controlled buckling experiments are performed in-situ using an optical microscope in order to monitor critical strains and potential failure mechanisms. In addition, ITO electrical resistance changes are continuously monitored during deformation. Furthermore, ex-situ characterization of the tested surfaces using scanning electron microscopy is conducted. Higher crack onset values are observed for the smaller size patterns. Also, square-shaped patterns are found to exhibit the lowest crack onset values. SEM observations suggest cracking-driven and buckling-driven delamination during ITO tensile and compressive buckling mode respectively. In both cases, failure is observed to initiate from the pattern edges. - Highlights: • In-situ experimental analysis of various patterned shapes

  14. ISO/OSI compliant network-on-chip implementation for CNN applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Suleyman; Hansson, Andreas; Spaanenburg, Lambert; Akesson, Benny

    2005-06-01

    The paper investigates the potential for a packet switching network for real-time image processing by a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA). The implementation of a CNN requires several parameter restrictions with respect to the universal concept. For instance, the number representation and the cloning template are often confined to respectively 8 bits and a neighborhood of 1. It has been shown that optimal (i.e. minimal level) CNN architectures as derived from a morphological specification of the desired operation lead to arbitrarily large templates. A subsequent transformation step can turn this into a sequence of smaller templates for a specified hardware platform. The existence of a generic platform that can already handle the universal CNN architecture for prototyping and verification eliminates this need for technology-driven performance degradation. The proposed packet switcher consists of a physical layer where the CNN nodal function is performed, a data-link layer where the nodal data are maintained, a network layer with the packet receiver and sender and the actual switch as element of the transport layer. This ISO/OSI compliant level-wise structure monitors the network parameters and autonomously adjusts for the size of the neighborhood. It separates the broadcast of the network variables from the actual computation, allowing each to be executed at its own speed. The concept is tested on a re-design of the ILVA architecture and has been shown to handle arbitrary neighborhoods and precision at a comparable size and speed (1 node per BlockRAM / multiplier module @220 MHz clock).

  15. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn

    2016-02-01

    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.

  16. ENSURING THERMAL REGIME FOR THE SUPPLY DISTRIBUTED DEVICES IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE SHIP'S SECONDARY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS ON THE BASE OF THE STANDARDIZED UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article deals with the problem of constructing the power supply devices in the composition of the ship's secondary power systems based on standardized blocks and securing their thermal regime.Methods. It is stated that with the advent of modern power electronics multifunctional components the secondary power supply developers got possibilities to improve the quality of secondary power supply and to upgrade the existing systems.Results. The advantages of unified power units, having a function of parallel operation are revealed. Heat transfer processes in a vertical channel with free convection, and the calculation of the minimum width of the channel, which provides efficient heat removal have been analyzed.Conclusion.A model is proposed for determining the minimum distance between the blocks without deterioration of heat transfer in the channel formed by the walls of adjacent blocks.

  17. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  18. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

    2013-03-31

    high-fidelity kinetics simulation, while maintaining the spatial information derived from the geometrically faithful CFD model. The reduced-order models are generated in such a way that they can be easily imported into a process flowsheet simulator, using the CAPE-OPEN architecture for unit operations. The ENERGICO/CHEMKIN-PRO software produces an ERN-definition file that is read by a dynamically linked library (DLL) that can be easily linked to any CAPE-OPEN compliant software. The plug-in unitoperation module has been successfully demonstrated for complex ERNs of coal gasifiers, using both Aspen Plus and COFE process flowsheet simulators through this published CAPE-OPEN interface.

  19. Distribution of motor unit potential velocities in short static and prolonged dynamic contractions at low forces: use of the within-subject's skewness and standard deviation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver-Król, E G; Henriquez, N R; Oosterloo, S J; Klaver, P; Bos, J M; Zwarts, M J

    2007-11-01

    Behaviour of motor unit potential (MUP) velocities in relation to (low) force and duration was investigated in biceps brachii muscle using a surface electrode array. Short static tests of 3.8 s (41 subjects) and prolonged dynamic tests (prolonged tests) of 4 min (30 subjects) were performed as position tasks, applying forces up to 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Four variables, derived from the inter-peak latency technique, were used to describe changes in the surface electromyography signal: the mean muscle fibre conduction velocity (CV), the proportion between slow and fast MUPs expressed as the within-subject skewness of MUP velocities, the within-subject standard deviation of MUP velocities [SD-peak velocity (PV)], and the amount of MUPs per second (peak frequency=PF). In short static tests and the initial phase of prolonged tests, larger forces induced an increase of the CV and PF, accompanied with the shift of MUP velocities towards higher values, whereas the SD-PV did not change. During the first 1.5-2 min of the prolonged lower force levels tests (unloaded, and loaded 5 and 10% MVC) the CV and SD-PV slightly decreased and the MUP velocities shifted towards lower values; then the three variables stabilized. The PF values did not change in these tests. However, during the prolonged higher force (20% MVC) test, the CV decreased and MUP velocities shifted towards lower values without stabilization, while the SD-PV broadened and the PF decreased progressively. It is argued that these combined results reflect changes in both neural regulatory strategies and muscle membrane state.

  20. Distribution of motor unit potential velocities in short static and prolonged dynamic contractions at low forces: use of the within-subject’s skewness and standard deviation variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, N. R.; Oosterloo, S. J.; Klaver, P.; Bos, J. M.; Zwarts, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Behaviour of motor unit potential (MUP) velocities in relation to (low) force and duration was investigated in biceps brachii muscle using a surface electrode array. Short static tests of 3.8 s (41 subjects) and prolonged dynamic tests (prolonged tests) of 4 min (30 subjects) were performed as position tasks, applying forces up to 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Four variables, derived from the inter-peak latency technique, were used to describe changes in the surface electromyography signal: the mean muscle fibre conduction velocity (CV), the proportion between slow and fast MUPs expressed as the within-subject skewness of MUP velocities, the within-subject standard deviation of MUP velocities [SD-peak velocity (PV)], and the amount of MUPs per second (peak frequency = PF). In short static tests and the initial phase of prolonged tests, larger forces induced an increase of the CV and PF, accompanied with the shift of MUP velocities towards higher values, whereas the SD-PV did not change. During the first 1.5–2 min of the prolonged lower force levels tests (unloaded, and loaded 5 and 10% MVC) the CV and SD-PV slightly decreased and the MUP velocities shifted towards lower values; then the three variables stabilized. The PF values did not change in these tests. However, during the prolonged higher force (20% MVC) test, the CV decreased and MUP velocities shifted towards lower values without stabilization, while the SD-PV broadened and the PF decreased progressively. It is argued that these combined results reflect changes in both neural regulatory strategies and muscle membrane state. PMID:17874124

  1. Design and development of a novel monolithic compliant XY stage with centimeter travel range and high payload capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a novel monolithic compliant spatial parallel XY stage (SPXYS. An important feature of the SPXYS lies in that it can deliver centimeter travel range and sustain large out-of-plane payload while possessing a compact structure, which makes the SPXYS suitable for some special applications such as Ultra-Violet Nanoimprint Lithography and soft-contact lithography. Different from conventional compliant positioning stages, the proposed SPXYS consists of a monolithic spatial parallel linear compliant mechanism (SPLCM driven by four matching designed voice coil motors (VCMs. The moving platform of the stage is connected to the base by four spatial prismatic-prismatic (PP joints, which are enveloped from planar PP joint based on the position space reconfiguration (PSR method to realize desired travel range, payload capacity and compact size. The mechatronic model of the SPXYS is established by integrated using matrix structural analysis (MSA and the method of images. The design flow chart of the SPXYS is given based on the key parameter sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, a reified SPXYS is designed and manufactured. The analytical design of the stage is confirmed by experiments. The reified stage has a travel range of 20.4  ×  20.6 mm2, a compact structure with area ratio 1.87 %, and the resonant frequencies of the two working modes at 22.98 and 21.31 Hz. It can track a circular trajectory with the radius of 4.5 mm. The root mean squares (RMS tracking error is 2 µm. The positioning resolution is 100 nm. The payload capacity test shows that the reified stage can bear 20 kg out-of-plane payload.

  2. The Longhorn Array Database (LAD): an open-source, MIAME compliant implementation of the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Patrick J; Sherlock, Gavin; Iyer, Vishwanath R

    2003-08-20

    The power of microarray analysis can be realized only if data is systematically archived and linked to biological annotations as well as analysis algorithms. The Longhorn Array Database (LAD) is a MIAME compliant microarray database that operates on PostgreSQL and Linux. It is a fully open source version of the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD), one of the largest microarray databases. LAD is available at http://www.longhornarraydatabase.org Our development of LAD provides a simple, free, open, reliable and proven solution for storage and analysis of two-color microarray data.

  3. The Longhorn Array Database (LAD: An Open-Source, MIAME compliant implementation of the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Vishwanath R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The power of microarray analysis can be realized only if data is systematically archived and linked to biological annotations as well as analysis algorithms. Description The Longhorn Array Database (LAD is a MIAME compliant microarray database that operates on PostgreSQL and Linux. It is a fully open source version of the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD, one of the largest microarray databases. LAD is available at http://www.longhornarraydatabase.org Conclusions Our development of LAD provides a simple, free, open, reliable and proven solution for storage and analysis of two-color microarray data.

  4. An OCP Compliant Network Adapter for GALS-based SoC Design Using the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Mahadevan, Shankar; Olsen, Rasmus Grøndahl

    2005-01-01

    The demand for IP reuse and system level scalability in System-on-Chip (SoC) designs is growing. Network-onchip (NoC) constitutes a viable solution space to emerging SoC design challenges. In this paper we describe an OCP compliant network adapter (NA) architecture for the MANGO NoC. The NA...... decouples communication and computation, providing memory-mapped OCP transactions based on primitive message-passing services of the network. Also, it facilitates GALS-type systems, by adapting to the clockless network. This helps leverage a modular SoC design flow. We evaluate performance and cost of 0...

  5. Moving Toward SCORM Compliant Content Production at Educational Software Company: Technical and Administrative Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultur, Can; Oytun, Erden; Cagiltay, Kursat; Ozden, M. Yasar; Kucuk, Mehmet Emin

    2004-01-01

    The Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) aims to standardize electronic course content, its packaging and delivery. Instructional designers and e-learning material producer organizations accept SCORM?s significant impact on instructional design/delivery process, however not much known about how such standards will be implemented to…

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT PROCESS MODELING COMPONENTS IN MICROSOFT .NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CAPE-OPEN middleware standards were created to allow process modeling components (PMCs) developed by third parties to be used in any process modeling environment (PME) utilizing these standards. The CAPE-OPEN middleware specifications were based upon both Microsoft's Compone...

  7. Distributed creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly...... used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science......, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews...

  8. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  9. EMMA 2 – A MAGE-compliant system for the collaborative analysis and integration of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens Dominik

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding transcriptional regulation by genome-wide microarray studies can contribute to unravel complex relationships between genes. Attempts to standardize the annotation of microarray data include the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME recommendations, the MAGE-ML format for data interchange, and the use of controlled vocabularies or ontologies. The existing software systems for microarray data analysis implement the mentioned standards only partially and are often hard to use and extend. Integration of genomic annotation data and other sources of external knowledge using open standards is therefore a key requirement for future integrated analysis systems. Results The EMMA 2 software has been designed to resolve shortcomings with respect to full MAGE-ML and ontology support and makes use of modern data integration techniques. We present a software system that features comprehensive data analysis functions for spotted arrays, and for the most common synthesized oligo arrays such as Agilent, Affymetrix and NimbleGen. The system is based on the full MAGE object model. Analysis functionality is based on R and Bioconductor packages and can make use of a compute cluster for distributed services. Conclusion Our model-driven approach for automatically implementing a full MAGE object model provides high flexibility and compatibility. Data integration via SOAP-based web-services is advantageous in a distributed client-server environment as the collaborative analysis of microarray data is gaining more and more relevance in international research consortia. The adequacy of the EMMA 2 software design and implementation has been proven by its application in many distributed functional genomics projects. Its scalability makes the current architecture suited for extensions towards future transcriptomics methods based on high-throughput sequencing approaches which have much higher computational requirements than

  10. Distributed intelligence in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A simple extension of the CAMAC standard is described which allows distributed intelligence at the crate level. By distributed intelligence is meant that there is more than one source of control in a system. This standard is just now emerging from the NIM Dataway Working Group and its European counterpart. 1 figure

  11. Distributed intelligence in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    The CAMAC digital interface standard has served us well since 1969. During this time there have been enormous advances in digital electronics. In particular, low cost microprocessors now make it feasible to consider use of distributed intelligence even in simple data acquisition systems. This paper describes a simple extension of the CAMAC standard which allows distributed intelligence at the crate level

  12. Malachi’s concept of a Torah-compliant community (Ml 3:22 [MT] and its associated implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing O. Boloje

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Malachi’s distinctive claims that guarantee a well-ordered community, namely the validity and feasibility of a Torah-compliant community. Since Torah compliance is a fundamental core of Israel’s life, in the book of Malachi, Yahweh’s Torah functions as the reliable and invariable authority for the community well-being as a whole. Community well-being as pictured by Malachi is created not only by Yahweh but also as the consequent contemplation and action of community. Malachi notes clearly that it is the sins of the community as a whole that renders it inconceivable that Yahweh’s blessings should attend to them as they are now, and Malachi demands certain definite and substantial actions as preconditions to the manifestation of the desired expectations. To him the secret of creating and maintaining a healthy, viable community and living as people in covenant relationship with Yahweh, is by ‘remembering’ (upholding and practicing Yahweh’s Torah. Accordingly, Malachi enjoined his audience to remember the Torah of Moses, which constitutes the fundamental dimensions of their relationship with Yahweh. This article is thus an attempt to understand Malachi’s concept of a Torah-compliant community and its associated blessings of happiness and shalom.

  13. New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissman, James; Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Edgerton, Alex; Levi, Benjamin M; Karakas, Zeynep N; Kujawski, Mark; Philipps, Alyssa; Papavizas, Nicholas; Fallon, Danielle; Bruck, Hugh A; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω με −1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was −5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle. (paper)

  14. New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, James; Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Edgerton, Alex; Levi, Benjamin M.; Karakas, Zeynep N.; Kujawski, Mark; Philipps, Alyssa; Papavizas, Nicholas; Fallon, Danielle; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω μɛ-1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was -5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle.

  15. Interaction Between Aerothermally Compliant Structures and Boundary-Layer Transition in Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Zachary Bryce

    The use of thin-gauge, light-weight structures in combination with the severe aero-thermodynamic loading makes reusable hypersonic cruise vehicles prone to fluid-thermal-structural interactions. These interactions result in surface perturbations in the form of temperature changes and deformations that alter the stability and eventual transition of the boundary layer. The state of the boundary layer has a significant effect on the aerothermodynamic loads acting on a hypersonic vehicle. The inherent relationship between boundary-layer stability, aerothermodynamic loading, and surface conditions make the interaction between the structural response and boundary-layer transition an important area of study in high-speed flows. The goal of this dissertation is to examine the interaction between boundary layer transition and the response of aerothermally compliant structures. This is carried out by first examining the uncoupled problems of: (1) structural deformation and temperature changes altering boundary-layer stability and (2) the boundary layer state affecting structural response. For the former, the stability of boundary layers developing over geometries that typify the response of surface panels subject to combined aerodynamic and thermal loading is numerically assessed using linear stability theory and the linear parabolized stability equations. Numerous parameters are examined including: deformation direction, deformation location, multiple deformations in series, structural boundary condition, surface temperature, the combined effect of Mach number and altitude, and deformation mode shape. The deformation-induced pressure gradient alters the boundary-layer thickness, which changes the frequency of the most-unstable disturbance. In regions of small boundary-layer growth, the disturbance frequency modulation resulting from a single or multiple panels deformed into the flowfield is found to improve boundary-layer stability and potentially delay transition. For the

  16. GAIA Service and Standard Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks.......A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks....

  17. Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimiak, William J.; Williams, Rodney C.

    1991-07-01

    There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

  18. GMP-compliant automated synthesis of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 (Florbetapir F 18) for imaging {beta}-amyloid plaques in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, C.-H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.-J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Weng, C.-C. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I.-T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ting, Y.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Jan, T.-R. [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Skovronsky, Daniel [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, M.-P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wey, S.-P., E-mail: spwey@mail.cgu.edu.t [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-15

    We report herein the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant automated synthesis of {sup 18}F-labeled styrylpyridine, AV-45 (Florbetapir), a novel tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) plaques in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. [{sup 18}F]AV-45 was prepared in 105 min using a tosylate precursor with Sumitomo modules for radiosynthesis under GMP-compliant conditions. The overall yield was 25.4{+-}7.7% with a final radiochemical purity of 95.3{+-}2.2% (n=19). The specific activity of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 reached as high as 470{+-}135 TBq/mmol (n=19). The present studies show that [{sup 18}F]AV-45 can be manufactured under GMP-compliant conditions and could be widely available for routine clinical use.

  19. GMP-compliant automated synthesis of [18F]AV-45 (Florbetapir F 18) for imaging β-amyloid plaques in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.-H.; Lin, K.-J.; Weng, C.-C.; Hsiao, I.-T.; Ting, Y.-S.; Yen, T.-C.; Jan, T.-R.; Skovronsky, Daniel; Kung, M.-P.; Wey, S.-P.

    2010-01-01

    We report herein the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant automated synthesis of 18 F-labeled styrylpyridine, AV-45 (Florbetapir), a novel tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. [ 18 F]AV-45 was prepared in 105 min using a tosylate precursor with Sumitomo modules for radiosynthesis under GMP-compliant conditions. The overall yield was 25.4±7.7% with a final radiochemical purity of 95.3±2.2% (n=19). The specific activity of [ 18 F]AV-45 reached as high as 470±135 TBq/mmol (n=19). The present studies show that [ 18 F]AV-45 can be manufactured under GMP-compliant conditions and could be widely available for routine clinical use.

  20. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  1. Influenza and other respiratory viruses: standardizing disease severity in surveillance and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Barbara; Conrad, Tim; Myles, Puja; Alchikh, Maren; Ma, Xiaolin; Hoppe, Christian; Tief, Franziska; Chen, Xi; Obermeier, Patrick; Kisler, Bron; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2017-06-01

    Influenza-Like Illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. Disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. Areas covered: We present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and WHO-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. The 22-item ViVI Disease Severity Score showed a normal distribution in a pediatric cohort of 6073 children aged 0-18 years (mean age 3.13; S.D. 3.89; range: 0 to 18.79). Expert commentary: The ViVI Score was correlated with risk of antibiotic use as well as need for hospitalization and intensive care. The ViVI Score was used to track children with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus, and adenovirus infections and is fully compliant with regulatory data standards. The ViVI Disease Severity Score mobile application allows physicians to measure disease severity at the point-of care thereby taking clinical trials to the next level.

  2. Object Management Group object transaction service based on an X/Open and International Organization for Standardization open systems interconnection transaction processing kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Sédillot, S.; Traverson, B.

    1997-09-01

    This paper addresses federation of a transactional object standard - Object Management Group (OMG) object transaction service (OTS) - with the X/Open distributed transaction processing (DTP) model and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) open systems interconnection (OSI) transaction processing (TP) communication protocol. The two-phase commit propagation rules within a distributed transaction tree are similar in the X/Open, ISO and OMG models. Building an OTS on an OSI TP protocol machine is possible because the two specifications are somewhat complementary. OTS defines a set of external interfaces without specific internal protocol machine, while OSI TP specifies an internal protocol machine without any application programming interface. Given these observations, and having already implemented an X/Open two-phase commit transaction toolkit based on an OSI TP protocol machine, we analyse the feasibility of using this implementation as a transaction service provider for OMG interfaces. Based on the favourable result of this feasibility study, we are implementing an OTS compliant system, which, by initiating the extensibility and openness strengths of OSI TP, is able to provide interoperability between X/Open DTP and OMG OTS models.

  3. No difference between mechanical perturbation training with compliant surface and manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after ACL rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya; Logerstedt, David; Failla, Mathew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-27

    Manual perturbation training improves dynamic knee stability and functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL-rupture). However, it is limited to static standing position and does not allow time-specific perturbations at different phase of functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administering mechanical perturbation training including compliant surface provides effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional measures after an acute ACL-rupture. Sixteen level I/II athletes with ACL-ruptures participated in this preliminary study. Eight patients received mechanical (Mechanical) and eight subjects received manual perturbation training (Manual). All patients completed a functional testing (isometric quadriceps strength, single-legged hop tests) and patient-reported measures (Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), Global Rating Score (GRS), International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 (IKDC 2000) at pre- and post-training. 2 × 2 ANOVA was used for data analysis. No significant group-by-time interactions were found for all measures (p > 0.18). Main effects of time were found for single hop (Pre-testing: 85.14% ± 21.07; Post-testing: 92.49% ± 17.55), triple hop (Pre-testing: 84.64% ± 14.17; Post-testing: 96.64% ± 11.14), KOS-ADLS (Pre-testing: 81.13% ± 11.12; Post-testing: 88.63% ± 12.63), GRS (Pre-testing: 68.63% ± 15.73; Post-testing: 78.81% ± 13.85), and IKDC 2000 (Pre-testing: 66.66% ± 9.85; Post-testing: 76.05% ± 14.62) (p training using compliant surfaces induce effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after acute ACL-rupture. The clinical significance is both modes of training improve patients' functional-performance and limb-to-limb movement symmetry, and enhancing the patients' self-reported of knee functional measures after ACL rupture. Mechanical

  4. Wireless installation standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hwang Bin

    2007-12-01

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  5. Knowledge Base for Automatic Generation of Online IMS LD Compliant Course Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacurar, Ecaterina Giacomini; Trigano, Philippe; Alupoaie, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    Our article presents a pedagogical scenarios-based web application that allows the automatic generation and development of pedagogical websites. These pedagogical scenarios are represented in the IMS Learning Design standard. Our application is a web portal helping teachers to dynamically generate web course structures, to edit pedagogical content…

  6. A soft and conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymer as a compliant electrode for dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    -methyl pyrrolidinone) with 1 wt% of surfactant (Triton X-100). The dispersion of MWCNTs in PDMS-PEG systemis shown in figure 2 where MWCNTs (dark areas) are well-distributed in the system indicating an acceptable dispersional though some big clusters appear in the optical microscope image. The conductivity of 4 phr...

  7. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  8. The Biological Connection Markup Language: a SBGN-compliant format for visualization, filtering and analysis of biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Luca; Calura, Enrica; Popovici, Razvan R; Rizzetto, Lisa; Guedez, Damariz Rivero; Donato, Michele; Romualdi, Chiara; Draghici, Sorin; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2011-08-01

    Many models and analysis of signaling pathways have been proposed. However, neither of them takes into account that a biological pathway is not a fixed system, but instead it depends on the organism, tissue and cell type as well as on physiological, pathological and experimental conditions. The Biological Connection Markup Language (BCML) is a format to describe, annotate and visualize pathways. BCML is able to store multiple information, permitting a selective view of the pathway as it exists and/or behave in specific organisms, tissues and cells. Furthermore, BCML can be automatically converted into data formats suitable for analysis and into a fully SBGN-compliant graphical representation, making it an important tool that can be used by both computational biologists and 'wet lab' scientists. The XML schema and the BCML software suite are freely available under the LGPL for download at http://bcml.dc-atlas.net. They are implemented in Java and supported on MS Windows, Linux and OS X.

  9. Fabrication of a compliant phantom of the human aortic arch for use in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hütter Larissa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Compliant phantoms of the human aortic arch can mimic patient specific cardiovascular dysfunctions in vitro. Hence, phantoms may enable elucidation of haemodynamic disturbances caused by aortic dysfunction. This paper describes the fabrication of a thin-walled silicone phantom of the human ascending aorta and brachiocephalic artery. The model geometry was determined via a meta-analysis and modelled in SolidWorks before 3D printing. The solid model surface was smoothed and scanned with a 3D scanner. An offset outer mould was milled from Ebalta S-Model board. The final phantom indicated that ABS was a suitable material for the internal model, the Ebalta S-Model board yielded a rough external surface. Co-location of the moulds during silicone pour was insufficient to enable consistent wall thickness. The resulting phantom was free of air bubbles but did not have the desired wall thickness consistency.

  10. A Compliant Control Method Based on Force Sensors on Robot End-effectors for Live-working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanbing GAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a force control method for the live-working robot. Some live- working task requires larger stiffness such as pushing and butting when replacing cross arm or insulator. Two arms are attached on the live-working robot to meet this requirement and other need for cooperation by two arms. The different kinematic structure of this two arms brings many difficulties to get the dynamic model of the total system. This problem is solved by the proposed control scheme, the main idea of which is two arms could be considered as one arm. The force control method for the exact force control is based on the compliant relationship of the dual arms and the environment. The developed control scheme is experimentally tested on the live-working robot, and the experimental investigation concerns it has short computation time and can successfully tracking force.

  11. Determining the Optimum Portfolio of Sharia Stocks Using an Approach of Shariah Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Husein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Shariah Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM is a modification of the model Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM. This research is quantitative descriptive study of theories of optimal portfolio analysis applied to trading stocks, especially in stocks Jakarta Islamic Index. Sampling technique used was purposive sampling and obtained 26 shares. The analysis tool used is MatLab R2010a. The results of this study are not prove theMarkowitz portfolio theory. This is explained by the amount of Beta market (β_m a value beta below 1 indicates that the fluctuation of stocks returns do not follow the movement of market fluctuations. Investors are likely to want a high profit, the investors are advised to choose a second portfolio groups, with rate of 0.176722% and investors are likely to enjoy a substantial risk in the investment portfolio are advised to choose the first group with a great risk of 0.8501%.

  12. CRUX: a Compliant Robotic Upper-Extremity eXosuit for Lightweight, Portable, Multi-DoF Muscular Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Steven; Pansodtee, Pattawong; Robbins, Ash; Baltaxe-Admony, Leya Breanna; Teodorescu, Mircea; Kurniawan,Sri; Agogino, Adrian; Kurniawan, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Wearable robots can potentially offer their users enhanced stability and strength. These augmentations are ideally designed to actuate harmoniously with the users movements and provide extra force as needed. The creation of such robots, however, is particularly challenging due to the complexity of the underlying human body. In this paper, we present a compliant, robotic exosuit for upper-extremities called CRUX. This exosuit, inspired by tensegrity models of the human arm, features a lightweight (1.3 kg), flexible design for portability. We also show how CRUX maintains full flexibility of the upper-extremities for its users while providing multi- DoF augmentative strength to the major muscles of the arm, as evident by tracking the heart rate of an individual exercising said arm. Exosuits such as CRUX may be useful in physical therapy and in extreme environments where users are expected to exert their bodies to the fullest extent.

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of A High Precision 3D-Printed Ti6Al4V Compliant Parallel Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Tuan; Teo, Tat Joo; Huat Yeo, Song; Wang, Pan; Nai, Mui Ling Sharon

    2017-12-01

    A novel 3D printed compliant parallel manipulator (CPM) with θX - θX - Z motions is presented in this paper. This CPM is synthesized using the beam-based method, a new structural optimization approach, to achieve optimized stiffness properties with targeted dynamic behavior. The CPM performs high non-actuating stiffness based on the predicted stiffness ratios of about 3600 for translations and 570 for rotations, while the dynamic response is fast with the targeted first resonant mode of 100Hz. A prototype of the synthesized CPM is fabricated using the electron beam melting (EBM) technology with Ti6Al4V material. Driven by three voice-coil (VC) motors, the CPM demonstrated a positioning resolution of 50nm along the Z axis and an angular resolution of ~0.3 “about the X and Y axes, the positioning accuracy is also good with the measured values of ±25.2nm and ±0.17” for the translation and rotations respectively. Experimental investigation also shows that this large workspace CPM has a first resonant mode of 98Hz and the stiffness behavior matches the prediction with the highest deviation of 11.2%. Most importantly, the full workspace of 10° × 10° × 7mm of the proposed CPM can be achieved, that demonstrates 3D printed compliant mechanisms can perform large elastic deformation. The obtained results show that CPMs printed by EBM technology have predictable mechanical characteristics and are applicable in precise positioning systems.

  14. Real-time on a standard UNIX workstation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanzman, T.

    1992-09-01

    This is a report of an ongoing R ampersand D project which is investigating the use of standard UNIX workstations for the real-time data acquisition from a major new experimental initiative, the SLAC B Factory (PEP II). For this work an IBM RS/6000 workstation running the AIX operating system is used. Real-time extensions to the UNIX operating system are explored and performance measured. These extensions comprise a set of AIX-specific and POSIX-compliant system services. Benchmark comparisons are made with embedded processor technologies. Results are presented for a simple prototype on-line system for laboratory-testing of a new prototype drift chamber

  15. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  16. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  17. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  18. Wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C.M.

    1996-06-12

    US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently formulated a national standard for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. Fingerprints are scanned at a spatial resolution of 500 dots per inch, with 8 bits of gray-scale resolution. The compression algorithm for the resulting digital images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition (wavelet/scalar quantization method). The FBI standard produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. The compression standard specifies a class of potential encoders and a universal decoder with sufficient generality to reconstruct compressed images produced by any compliant encoder, allowing flexibility for future improvements in encoder technology. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations.

  19. Enhancements to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Prototype Building Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya; Athalye, Rahul A.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Philip R.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-04-16

    This report focuses on enhancements to prototype building models used to determine the energy impact of various versions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Since the last publication of the prototype building models, PNNL has made numerous enhancements to the original prototype models compliant with the 2004, 2007, and 2010 editions of Standard 90.1. Those enhancements are described here and were made for several reasons: (1) to change or improve prototype design assumptions; (2) to improve the simulation accuracy; (3) to improve the simulation infrastructure; and (4) to add additional detail to the models needed to capture certain energy impacts from Standard 90.1 improvements. These enhancements impact simulated prototype energy use, and consequently impact the savings estimated from edition to edition of Standard 90.1.

  20. Standardized precipitation index based on pearson type III distribution Índice padronizado de precipitação baseado na distribuição pearson tipo III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial step in calculating the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI is to determine a probability density function (pdf that describes the precipitation series under analysis. Once this pdf is determined, the cumulative probability of an observed precipitation amount is computed. The inverse normal function is then applied to the cumulative probability. The result is the SPI. This article assessed the changes in SPI final values, when computed based on Gamma 2-parameters (Gam and Pearson Type III (PE3 distributions (SPIGam and SPIPE3, respectively. Monthly rainfall series, available from five weather stations of the State of São Paulo, were chosen for this study. Considering quantitative and qualitative assessments of goodness-of-fit (evaluated at 1-, 3-, and 6-months precipitation totals, the PE3 distribution seems to be a better choice than the Gam distribution, in describing the long-term rainfall series of the State of São Paulo. In addition, it was observed that the number of SPI time series that could be seen as normally distributed was higher when this drought index was computed from the PE3 distribution. Thus, the use of the Pearson type III distribution within the calculation algorithm of the SPI is recommended in the State of São Paulo.O cálculo do Índice Padronizado de Precipitação (IPP inicia-se com a adoção de uma distribuição paramétrica (dp utilizada para a estimativa das probabilidades de ocorrência associadas a uma série de precipitação pluvial. Após essa escolha, a probabilidade acumulada de ocorrência de um determinado valor de precipitação é calculada. O IPP é obtido após a aplicação da função normal inversa a essa probabilidade acumulada. O artigo avaliou as alterações nos valores finais do IPP, quando calculado com base nas distribuições Gama com dois parâmetros (Gam e Pearson tipo III (PE3; IPPGam e IPPPE3, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se dados de precipitação pluvial de cinco

  1. Ultra-Compliant Transverse lntrafascicular Electrode Arrays for Electro-Pharmaceutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    concentration areas in the transition region. The metal interconnect in the needle experiences some stress concentration , which is evenly distributed and...are shown in Figure 21. The comparison of measurements before and after Ar+ ion milling verifies the increase of the impedance of the platinum...and measuring the voltage amplitude. The maximum current that can be applied without generating voltages at the electrode exceeding the water window is

  2. CIM compliant multiplatform approach for cyber-physical energy system assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh Tri; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Tran, Quoc Tuan; Besanger, Yvon; Braconnier, Thierry; Labonne, Antoine; Buttin, Herve

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed renewable energy resources along with sophisticated automation and information technology, cyber-physical energy systems (CPES, i.e. Smart Grids here) requires a holistic approach to evaluate the integration at a system level, addressing all relevant domains. Hybrid cloud SCADA (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition), allowing laboratories to be linked in a consistent infrastructure can provide the support for such multi-platform experiments. This pape...

  3. PCI compliance understand and implement effective PCI data security standard compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Branden R

    2012-01-01

    The credit card industry established the PCI Data Security Standards to provide a minimum standard for how vendors should protect data to ensure it is not stolen by fraudsters. PCI Compliance, 3e, provides the information readers need to understand the current PCI Data Security standards, which have recently been updated to version 2.0, and how to effectively implement security within your company to be compliant with the credit card industry guidelines and protect sensitive and personally identifiable information. Security breaches continue to occur on a regular basis, affecting millions of

  4. Methods of organization of SCORM-compliant teaching materials in electronic format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of organizing electronic teaching materials based on their role in the teaching process rather than their technical structure. Our method allows SCORM materials stored as e-learning courses („electronic books” to be subdivided and structured so that content can be used in multiple contexts. As a standard, SCORM defines rules for organizing content, but not how to divide and structure it. Our method uses UCTS nomenclature to divide content, define relationships between content entities, and aggregate those entities into courses. This allows content to be shared in different implementations of SCORM while guaranteeing that usability and consistency are maintained.

  5. Mechanics of brazed joints and compliant layers in high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, G.; Moret, F.; Chaumat, G.; Cailletaud, G.; Pilvin, P.

    1994-01-01

    The chamber of carbon fibre composite (CFC) refractory tiles: (A05, N11, N112)/Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal/OFHC or TZM substrate assemblies is recorded during the whole brazing thermal cycle and subsequent thermal fatigue cycles using a special vertical dilatometer. An inverse method based on Finite Element modelling of the samples is used to determine the joint constitutive law. Then, by comparing experiments and FEM calculations, the effects of distributed damage of the CFC and of the strain hardening and thermal softening of OFHC on the in-service stress/strain state of the component are observed. (R.P.) 5 refs., 7 figs

  6. The Emirates Space Data Center, a PDS4-Compliant Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, A. W.; Al Hammadi, O.; Amiri, S.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the UAE's Emirates Mars Mission (EMM), we are constructing a data archive to preserve and distribute science data from this and future missions. The archive will be publicly accessible and will provide access to Level 2 and 3 science data products from EMM, as well as ancillary data such as SPICE kernels and mission event timelines. As a member of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), the UAE has committed to making its archive PDS4-compatible, and maintaining the archive beyond the end of the mission. EMM is scheduled to begin collecting science data in spring 2021, and the archive is expected to begin releasing data in September 2021.

  7. PRESENT AND FUTURE OF NATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS COMPLIANT WITH EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina, LUȚĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial statements are the basic form to submit accounting information and they envisage the provision of information on an enterprise's financial status, performance and cash flow. The quality of financial reporting arises from accounting norms that impose a joint terminology ensuring accounting information's comparability, communication and understanding. In the European Union, the standards adopted by the Council of European Communities aim at harmonizing accounting systems, preparing and submitting annual financial statements. To apply them, member states must first incorporate them into their own legislations resorting over time to various implementation solutions, which involves certain difficulties due to economic, social and political peculiarities. In this respect, the European Parliament has adopted Directive 2013/34/EU regarding annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements and associated reports of various types of enterprises. The present paper envisages a comparative study of old directives (Fourth Directive and Seventh Directive and the new Directive.

  8. Argumentative SOX Compliant and Quality Decision Support Intelligent Expert System over the Suppliers Selection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Angel Fernandez Canelas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define a decision support system over SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley Act compatibility and quality of the Suppliers Selection Process based on Artificial Intelligence and Argumentation Theory knowledge and techniques. The present SOX Law, in effect nowadays, was created to improve financial government control over US companies. This law is a factor standard out United States due to several factors like present globalization, expansion of US companies, or key influence of US stock exchange markets worldwide. This paper constitutes a novel approach to this kind of problems due to following elements: (1 it has an optimized structure to look for the solution, (2 it has a dynamic learning method to handle court and control gonvernment bodies decisions, (3 it uses fuzzy knowledge to improve its performance, and (4 it uses its past accumulated experience to let the system evolve far beyond its initial state.

  9. Evaluation of RPL-compliant routing solutions in real-life WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariadis Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN applications continue to expand and already cover almost all our daily activities improving from security and environmental efficiency to gaming experience. The diverse applications running on top of WSNs have led to the design of an immense number of routing protocols. Few years ago, the IETF standardized the IPv6 routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL which is based on routing metrics to build communication paths between a source and the destination node. While significant efforts have focused on the design of routing metrics that satisfy the various applications, limited work has been reported on validating their performance using real-life motes. In this paper, we focus on validating the simulation results (obtained through the JSim simulator using TelosB motes for a set of routing metrics that have been proposed in our previous articles.

  10. Onabotulinumtoxin A for treating overactive/poor compliant bladders in children and adolescents with neurogenic bladder secondary to myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, Antonio

    2012-12-28

    This retrospective study was performed to verify the efficacy and safety of Onabotulinumtoxin A (BTX-A) in treating children with neurogenic bladder (NB) secondary to myelomeningocele (MMC) with detrusor overactivity/low compliance. From January 2002 to June 2011, 47 patients out of 68 with neuropathic bladder were selected (22 females, 25 males, age range 5-17 years; mean age 10.7 years at first injection). They presented overactive/poor compliant neurogenic bladders on clean intermittent catheterization, and were resistant or non compliant to pharmacological therapy. Ten patients presented second to fourth grade concomitant monolateral/bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). All patients were incontinent despite catheterization. In the majority of patients Botulinum-A toxin was administered under general/local anesthesia by the injection of 200 IU of toxin, without exceeding the dosage of 12 IU/kg body weight, diluted in 20 cc of saline solution in 20 sites, except in the periureteral areas. Follow-up included clinical and ultrasound examination, urodynamics performed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and annually thereafter. Seven patients remained stable, 21 patients required a second injection after 6-9 months and 19 a third injection. VUR was corrected, when necessary, in the same session after the BT-A injection, by 1-3 cc of subureteral Deflux®. Urodynamic parameters considered were leak point pressure (LPP), leak point volume (LPV) and specific volume at 20 cm H(2)O pressure. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. All patients experienced a significant 66.45% average increase of LPV (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 7169 × 10(-10)) and a significant 118.57% average increase of SC 20 (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 2.466 × 10(-12)). The difference between preoperative and postoperative LPP resulted not significant (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 0.8858) No patient presented severe systemic complications; 38/47 patients presented slight hematuria for 2-3 days. Two

  11. Onabotulinumtoxin A for Treating Overactive/Poor Compliant Bladders in Children and Adolescents with Neurogenic Bladder Secondary to Myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was performed to verify the efficacy and safety of Onabotulinumtoxin A (BTX-A in treating children with neurogenic bladder (NB secondary to myelomeningocele (MMC with detrusor overactivity/low compliance. From January 2002 to June 2011, 47 patients out of 68 with neuropathic bladder were selected (22 females, 25 males, age range 5–17 years; mean age 10.7 years at first injection. They presented overactive/poor compliant neurogenic bladders on clean intermittent catheterization, and were resistant or non compliant to pharmacological therapy. Ten patients presented second to fourth grade concomitant monolateral/bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. All patients were incontinent despite catheterization. In the majority of patients Botulinum-A toxin was administered under general/local anesthesia by the injection of 200 IU of toxin, without exceeding the dosage of 12IU/kg body weight, diluted in 20 cc of saline solution in 20 sites, except in the periureteral areas. Follow-up included clinical and ultrasound examination, urodynamics performed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and annually thereafter. Seven patients remained stable, 21 patients required a second injection after 6–9 months and 19 a third injection. VUR was corrected, when necessary, in the same session after the BT-A injection, by 1–3 cc of subureteral Deflux®. Urodynamic parameters considered were leak point pressure (LPP, leak point volume (LPV and specific volume at 20 cm H2O pressure. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. All patients experienced a significant 66.45% average increase of LPV (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 7169 × 10 −10 and a significant 118.57% average increase of SC 20 (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 2.466 × 10 −12. The difference between preoperative and postoperative LPP resulted not significant (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 0.8858 No patient presented severe systemic complications; 38/47 patients presented slight hematuria for

  12. Control of grid user payment. Antitrust legal standards of control for the examination of grid user payments of the german operators of electricity distribution networks in the system of the negotiated grid access; Netznutzungsentgeltkontrolle. Kartellrechtliche Kontrollmassstaebe fuer die Ueberpruefung von Netznutzungsentgelten der deutschen Elektrizitaetsverteilungsnetzbetreiber im System des verhandelten Netzzungangs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappert, H.

    2007-07-01

    For years their exists a controversy concerning to the permissible height of payments for the use of distribution networks in the electricity supply in the system of the negotiated grid access. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on antitrust legal standards of control for the examination of grid user payments of the German operators of electricity distribution networks. The main aspects are: test standard; relation to energy law; market demarcation; position of the norm receiver; control methods; spatial comparison of interior prices; control of costs.

  13. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  14. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  15. Prototyping an online wetland ecosystem services model using open model sharing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M.; Liu, S.; Euliss, N.H.; Young, Caitlin; Mushet, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Great interest currently exists for developing ecosystem models to forecast how ecosystem services may change under alternative land use and climate futures. Ecosystem services are diverse and include supporting services or functions (e.g., primary production, nutrient cycling), provisioning services (e.g., wildlife, groundwater), regulating services (e.g., water purification, floodwater retention), and even cultural services (e.g., ecotourism, cultural heritage). Hence, the knowledge base necessary to quantify ecosystem services is broad and derived from many diverse scientific disciplines. Building the required interdisciplinary models is especially challenging as modelers from different locations and times may develop the disciplinary models needed for ecosystem simulations, and these models must be identified and made accessible to the interdisciplinary simulation. Additional difficulties include inconsistent data structures, formats, and metadata required by geospatial models as well as limitations on computing, storage, and connectivity. Traditional standalone and closed network systems cannot fully support sharing and integrating interdisciplinary geospatial models from variant sources. To address this need, we developed an approach to openly share and access geospatial computational models using distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and open geospatial standards. We included a means to share computational models compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services (WPS) standard to ensure modelers have an efficient and simplified means to publish new models. To demonstrate our approach, we developed five disciplinary models that can be integrated and shared to simulate a few of the ecosystem services (e.g., water storage, waterfowl breeding) that are provided by wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America.

  16. Minimal Information for Neural Electromagnetic Ontologies (MINEMO): A standards-compliant method for analysis and integration of event-related potentials (ERP) data

    OpenAIRE

    Frishkoff, G.A.; Sydes, J.; Mueller, K.; Frank, R.; Curran, T.; Connolly, J.; Kilborn, K.; Molfese, D.; Perfetti, C.A.; Malony, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present MINEMO (Minimal Information for Neural ElectroMagnetic Ontologies), a checklist for the description of event-related potentials (ERP) studies. MINEMO extends MINI (Minimal Information for Neuroscience Investigations) to the ERP domain. Checklist terms are explicated in NEMO, a formal ontology that is designed to support ERP data sharing and integration. MINEMO is also linked to an ERP database and web application (the NEMO portal). Users upload their data and enter MINEMO informati...

  17. Minimal Information for Neural Electromagnetic Ontologies (MINEMO): A standards-compliant method for analysis and integration of event-related potentials (ERP) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen; Sydes, Jason; Mueller, Kurt; Frank, Robert; Curran, Tim; Connolly, John; Kilborn, Kerry; Molfese, Dennis; Perfetti, Charles; Malony, Allen

    2011-11-30

    We present MINEMO (Minimal Information for Neural ElectroMagnetic Ontologies), a checklist for the description of event-related potentials (ERP) studies. MINEMO extends MINI (Minimal Information for Neuroscience Investigations)to the ERP domain. Checklist terms are explicated in NEMO, a formal ontology that is designed to support ERP data sharing and integration. MINEMO is also linked to an ERP database and web application (the NEMO portal). Users upload their data and enter MINEMO information through the portal. The database then stores these entries in RDF (Resource Description Framework), along with summary metrics, i.e., spatial and temporal metadata. Together these spatial, temporal, and functional metadata provide a complete description of ERP data and the context in which these data were acquired. The RDF files then serve as inputs to ontology-based labeling and meta-analysis. Our ultimate goal is to represent ERPs using a rich semantic structure, so results can be queried at multiple levels, to stimulate novel hypotheses and to promote a high-level, integrative account of ERP results across diverse study methods and paradigms.

  18. Minimal Information for Neural Electromagnetic Ontologies (MINEMO): A standards-compliant method for analysis and integration of event-related potentials (ERP) data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frishkoff, G.A.; Sydes, J.; Mueller, K.; Frank, R.; Curran, T.; Connolly, J.; Kilborn, K.; Molfese, D.; Perfetti, C.A.; Malony, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present MINEMO (Minimal Information for Neural ElectroMagnetic Ontologies), a checklist for the description of event-related potentials (ERP) studies. MINEMO extends MINI (Minimal Information for Neuroscience Investigations) to the ERP domain. Checklist terms are explicated in NEMO, a formal

  19. Mixed wastes management at Fernald: Making it happen quickly, economically and compliantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzeman, J.T.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of calender year 1992, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) had approximately 12,500 drums of mixed low-level waste in storage and the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) had just begun to develop an aggressive project based program to treat and dispose of this mixed waste. By 1996 the FERMCO mixed waste management program had reduced the aforementioned 12,500 drums of waste once in inventory to approximately 5800 drums. Projects are currently in progress to completely eliminate the FEMP inventory of mixed waste. As a result of these initiatives and aggressive project management, the FEMP has become a model for mixed waste handling, treatment and disposal for DOE facilities. Mixed waste management has traditionally been viewed as a singular and complex environmental problem. FERMCO has adopted the viewpoint that treatment and disposal of mixed waste is an engineering project, to be executed in a disciplined fashion with timely and economic results. This approach allows the larger mixed waste management problem to be divided into manageable fractions and managed by project. Each project is managed by problem solving experts, project managers, in lieu of environmental experts. In the project approach, environmental regulations become project requirements for individual resolution, as opposed to what had formerly been viewed as technically unachievable environmental standards

  20. Morphological adaptations in breast cancer cells as a function of prolonged passaging on compliant substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Syed

    Full Text Available Standard tissue culture practices involve propagating cells on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP dishes, which are flat, 2-dimensional (2D and orders of magnitude stiffer than most tissues in the body. Such simplified conditions lead to phenotypical cell changes and altered cell behaviors. Hence, much research has been focused on developing novel biomaterials and culture conditions that more closely emulate in vivo cell microenvironments. In particular, biomaterial stiffness has emerged as a key property that greatly affects cell behaviors such as adhesion, morphology, proliferation and motility among others. Here we ask whether cells that have been conditioned to TCP, would still show significant dependence on substrate stiffness if they are first pre-adapted to a more physiologically relevant environment. We used two commonly utilized breast cancer cell lines, namely MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and examined the effect of prolonged cell culturing on polyacrylamide substrates of varying compliance. We followed changes in cell adhesion, proliferation, shape factor, spreading area and spreading rate. After pre-adaptation, we noted diminished differences in cell behaviors when comparing between soft (1 kPa and stiff (103 kPa gels as well as rigid TCP control. Prolonged culturing of cells on complaint substrates further influenced responses of pre-adapted cells when transferred back to TCP. Our results have implications for the study of stiffness-dependent cell behaviors and indicate that cell pre-adaptation to the substrate needs consideration.

  1. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Calcified Carotid Plaque: A Strobe-Compliant Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ami; Choi, Yun-Seok; Choi, Yong-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Park, Chul-Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Lee, Man-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-04-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification. Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study. No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016 [1410] vs 3210 [1802] pg/mL, P osteoprotegerin concentrations did not indicate a significant difference between NCP Group or NP Group. This study had proved that patient group accompanied with carotid calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis.

  2. Design and Control of Compliant Tensegrity Robots Through Simulation and Hardware Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwaerts, Ken; Despraz, Jeremie; Iscen, Atil; Sabelhaus, Andrew P.; Bruce, Jonathan; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Sunspiral, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of tensegrity structures in biological systems and their application to robotics, the Dynamic Tensegrity Robotics Lab at NASA Ames Research Center has developed and validated two different software environments for the analysis, simulation, and design of tensegrity robots. These tools, along with new control methodologies and the modular hardware components developed to validate them, are presented as a system for the design of actuated tensegrity structures. As evidenced from their appearance in many biological systems, tensegrity ("tensile-integrity") structures have unique physical properties which make them ideal for interaction with uncertain environments. Yet these characteristics, such as variable structural compliance, and global multi-path load distribution through the tension network, make design and control of bio-inspired tensegrity robots extremely challenging. This work presents the progress in using these two tools in tackling the design and control challenges. The results of this analysis includes multiple novel control approaches for mobility and terrain interaction of spherical tensegrity structures. The current hardware prototype of a six-bar tensegrity, code-named ReCTeR, is presented in the context of this validation.

  3. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  4. Chapter 1: Standard Model processes

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter documents the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discusses new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  5. High-precision robotic microcontact printing (R-μCP) utilizing a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Jason D; Klann, Tyler; Sha, Jin; Salick, Max; Knight, Gavin T; Turng, Lih-Sheng; Ashton, Randolph S

    2014-06-07

    Increased realization of the spatial heterogeneity found within in vivo tissue microenvironments has prompted the desire to engineer similar complexities into in vitro culture substrates. Microcontact printing (μCP) is a versatile technique for engineering such complexities onto cell culture substrates because it permits microscale control of the relative positioning of molecules and cells over large surface areas. However, challenges associated with precisely aligning and superimposing multiple μCP steps severely limits the extent of substrate modification that can be achieved using this method. Thus, we investigated the feasibility of using a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm (SCARA) for μCP applications. SCARAs are routinely used to perform high precision, repetitive tasks in manufacturing, and even low-end models are capable of achieving microscale precision. Here, we present customization of a SCARA to execute robotic-μCP (R-μCP) onto gold-coated microscope coverslips. The system not only possesses the ability to align multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps but also has the capability to do so even after the substrates have been removed, reacted to graft polymer brushes, and replaced back into the system. Plus, non-biased computerized analysis shows that the system performs such sequential patterning with <10 μm precision and accuracy, which is equivalent to the repeatability specifications of the employed SCARA model. R-μCP should facilitate the engineering of complex in vivo-like complexities onto culture substrates and their integration with microfluidic devices.

  6. BabelFish-Tools for IEEE C37.118.2-compliant real-time synchrophasor data mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, M. S.; Vanfretti, L.; Baudette, M.

    BabelFish (BF) is a real-time data mediator for development and fast prototyping of synchrophasor applications. BF is compliant with the synchrophasor data transmission IEEE Std C37.118.2-2011. BF establishes a TCP/IP connection with any Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) stream and parses the IEEE Std C37.118.2-2011 frames in real-time to provide access to raw numerical data in the LabVIEW environment. Furthermore, BF allows the user to select "data-of-interest" and transmit it to either a local or remote application using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) in order to support both unicast and multicast communication. In the power systems Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control (WAMPAC) domain, BF provides the first Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) for the purpose of giving the users tools for fast prototyping of new applications processing PMU measurements in their chosen environment, thus liberating them of time consuming synchrophasor data handling and allowing them to develop applications in a modular fashion, without a need of a large and monolithic synchrophasor software environment.

  7. Design and experimental evaluation of a lightweight, high-torque and compliant actuator for an active ankle foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltedo, Marta; Bacek, Tomislav; Langlois, Kevin; Junius, Karen; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    The human ankle joint plays a crucial role during walking. At the push-off phase the ankle plantarflexors generate the highest torque among the lower limb joints during this activity. The potential of the ankle plantarflexors is affected by numerous pathologies and injuries, which cause a decrease in the ability of the subject to achieve a natural gait pattern. Active orthoses have shown to have potential in assisting these subjects. The design of such robots is very challenging due to the contrasting design requirements of wearability (light weight and compact) and high torques capacity. This paper presents the development of a high-torque ankle actuator to assist the ankle joint in both dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The compliant actuator is a spindle-driven MACCEPA (Mechanically Adjustable Compliance and Controllable Equilibrium Position Actuator). The design of the actuator was made to keep its weight as low as possible, while being able to provide high torques. As a result of this novel design, the actuator weighs 1.18kg. Some static characterization tests were perfomed on the actuator and their results are shown in the paper.

  8. Convective and global stability analysis of a Mach 5.8 boundary layer grazing a compliant surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenrieder, Fabian; Bodony, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Boundary layer transition on high-speed vehicles is expected to be affected by unsteady surface compliance. The stability properties of a Mach 5.8 zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer grazing a nominally-flat thermo-mechanically compliant panel is considered. The linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations describe small amplitude disturbances in the fluid while the panel deformations are described by the Kirchhoff-Love plate equation and its thermal state by the transient heat equation. Compatibility conditions that couple disturbances in the fluid to those in the solid yield simple algebraic and robin boundary conditions for the velocity and thermal states, respectively. A local convective stability analysis shows that the panel can modify both the first and second Mack modes when, for metallic-like panels, the panel thickness exceeds the lengthscale δ99 Rex- 0 . 5 . A global stability analysis, which permits finite panel lengths with clamped-clamped boundary conditions, shows a rich eigenvalue spectrum with several branches. Unstable modes are found with streamwise-growing panel deformations leading to Mach wave-type radiation. Stable global modes are also found and have distinctly different panel modes but similar radiation patterns. Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  9. Systematic Design Method and Experimental Validation of a 2-DOF Compliant Parallel Mechanism with Excellent Input and Output Decoupling Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The output and input coupling characteristics of the compliant parallel mechanism (CPM bring difficulty in the motion control and challenge its high performance and operational safety. This paper presents a systematic design method for a 2-degrees-of-freedom (DOFs CPM with excellent decoupling performance. A symmetric kinematic structure can guarantee a CPM with a complete output decoupling characteristic; input coupling is reduced by resorting to a flexure-based decoupler. This work discusses the stiffness design requirement of the decoupler and proposes a compound flexure hinge as its basic structure. Analytical methods have been derived to assess the mechanical performances of the CPM in terms of input and output stiffness, motion stroke, input coupling degree, and natural frequency. The CPM’s geometric parameters were optimized to minimize the input coupling while ensuring key performance indicators at the same time. The optimized CPM’s performances were then evaluated by using a finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was constructed and experimental validations were carried out to test the performance of the CPM and verify the effectiveness of the design method. The design procedure proposed in this paper is systematic and can be extended to design the CPMs with other types of motion.

  10. Developing a 3-DOF Compliant Perching Arm for a Free-Flying Robot on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Won; Smith, Marion F.; Sanchez, Hugo S.; Wong, Sze Wun; Piacenza, Pedro; Ciocarlie, Matei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control of the 3-DOF compliant perching arm for the free-flying Astrobee robots that will operate inside the International Space Station (ISS). The robots are intended to serve as a flexible platform for future guest scientists to use for zero-gravity robotics research - thus, the arm is designed to support manipulation research. It provides a 1-DOF underactuated tendon-driven gripper capable of enveloping a range of objects of different shapes and sizes. Co-located RGB camera and LIDAR sensors provide perception. The Astrobee robots will be capable of grasping each other in flight, to simulate orbital capture scenarios. The arm's end-effector module is swappable on-orbit, allowing guest scientists to add upgraded grippers, or even additional arm degrees of freedom. The design of the arm balances research capabilities with Astrobee's operational need to perch on ISS handrails to reduce power consumption. Basic arm functioning and grip strength were evaluated using an integrated Astrobee prototype riding on a low-friction air bearing.

  11. HEMCO v1.0: A Versatile, ESMF-Compliant Component for Calculating Emissions in Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C. A.; Long, M. S.; Yantosca, R. M.; Da Silva, A. M.; Pawson, S.; Jacob, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the Harvard-NASA Emission Component version 1.0 (HEMCO), a stand-alone software component for computing emissions in global atmospheric models. HEMCO determines emissions from different sources, regions, and species on a user-defined grid and can combine, overlay, and update a set of data inventories and scale factors, as specified by the user through the HEMCO configuration file. New emission inventories at any spatial and temporal resolution are readily added to HEMCO and can be accessed by the user without any preprocessing of the data files or modification of the source code. Emissions that depend on dynamic source types and local environmental variables such as wind speed or surface temperature are calculated in separate HEMCO extensions. HEMCO is fully compliant with the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) environment. It is highly portable and can be deployed in a new model environment with only few adjustments at the top-level interface. So far, we have implemented HEMCO in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Earth system model (ESM) and in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). By providing a widely applicable framework for specifying constituent emissions, HEMCO is designed to ease sensitivity studies and model comparisons, as well as inverse modeling in which emissions are adjusted iteratively. The HEMCO code, extensions, and the full set of emissions data files used in GEOS-Chem are available at http: //wiki.geos-chem.org/HEMCO.

  12. Polymer-coated compliant receivers for intact laser-induced forward transfer of thin films: experimental results and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinaeugle, Matthias; Horak, Peter; Sones, Collin L.; Lippert, Thomas; Eason, Rob W.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigate both experimentally and numerically laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of thin films to determine the role of a thin polymer layer coating the receiver with the aim of modifying the rate of deceleration and reduction of material stress preventing intact material transfer. A numerical model of the impact phase during LIFT shows that such a layer reduces the modelled stress. The evolution of stress within the transferred deposit and the substrate as a function of the thickness of the polymer layer, the transfer velocity and the elastic properties of the polymer are evaluated. The functionality of the polymer layer is verified experimentally by LIFT printing intact 1- m-thick bismuth telluride films and polymeric light-emitting diode pads onto a layer of 12-m-thick polydimethylsiloxane and 50-nm-thick poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) blended with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated experimentally that the introduction of such a compliant layer improves adhesion between the deposit and its substrate.

  13. Non-leaky modes and bandgaps of surface acoustic waves in wrinkled stiff-film/compliant-substrate bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Yang; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Yang; Cao, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have found a wide variety of technical applications, including SAW filters, SAW resonators, microfluidic actuators, biosensors, flow measurement devices, and seismic wave shields. Stretchable/flexible electronic devices, such as sensory skins for robotics, structural health monitors, and wearable communication devices, have received considerable attention across different disciplines. Flexible SAW devices are essential building blocks for these applications, wherein piezoelectric films may need to be integrated with the compliant substrates. When piezoelectric films are much stiffer than soft substrates, SAWs are usually leaky and the devices incorporating them suffer from acoustic losses. In this study, the propagation of SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system is investigated, and our analysis shows that non-leaky modes can be achieved by engineering stress patterns through surface wrinkles in the system. Our analysis also uncovers intriguing bandgaps (BGs) related to the SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system; these are caused by periodic deformation patterns, which indicate that diverse wrinkling patterns could be used as metasurfaces for controlling the propagation of SAWs.

  14. Design response spectra-compliant real and synthetic GMS for seismic analysis of seismically isolated nuclear reactor containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmer [ENVICO Consultants Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abu-Hayah, Nadin; Kim, Doo Kie [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Gook [Innose Tech Co., Ltd., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Due to the severe impacts of recent earthquakes, the use of seismic isolation is paramount for the safety of nuclear structures. The diversity observed in seismic events demands ongoing research to analyze the devastating attributes involved, and hence to enhance the sustainability of base-isolated nuclear power plants. This study reports the seismic performance of a seismically-isolated nuclear reactor containment building (NRCB) under strong short-period ground motions (SPGMs) and long-period ground motions (LPGMs). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission-based design response spectrum for the seismic design of nuclear power plants is stipulated as the reference spectrum for ground motion selection. Within the period range(s) of interest, the spectral matching of selected records with the target spectrum is ensured using the spectral-compatibility approach. NRC-compliant SPGMs and LPGMs from the mega-thrust Tohoku earthquake are used to obtain the structural response of the base-isolated NRCB. To account for the lack of earthquakes in low-to-moderate seismicity zones and the gap in the artificial synthesis of long-period records, wavelet-decomposition based autoregressive moving average modeling for artificial generation of real ground motions is performed. Based on analysis results from real and simulated SPGMs versus LPGMs, the performance of NRCBs is discussed with suggestions for future research and seismic provisions.

  15. Locked plating as an external fixator in treating tibial fractures: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peng; Xu, Ding; Wu, Jia; Chen, Yi-Heng

    2017-12-01

    This article is a systematic review of the published literature about the biomechanics, functional outcomes, and complications of a locked plate as an external fixator in treating tibial fractures. We searched the PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases to retrieve the relevant studies. Studies published in English and Chinese which assessed adult patients and more than 4 cases who had sustained any type of fresh tibial fracture treated with the external locking plate, provided that they reported functional outcomes, range of motion (ROM), union or complication rates, and the biomechanical studies of external locked plating are also included. The electronic search strategy revealed 248 studies, and 2 studies were identified as relevant through manual search of references. Finally, 12 studies were included in this systematic review. These consist of 3 pure biomechanical studies, 8 case series, and 1 study including both of biomechanics and case series. Due to the heterogeneity of biomechanical studies, we can only conclude that external locked plate shows inferior structural stiffness than internal locked plate. The clinical studies reported that external locked plating gave a satisfactory ROM of the knee and ankle, functional outcomes, union rate, and low complication rate. We can only conclude that external locked plate shows inferior structural stiffness than internal locked plate because of the heterogeneity of biomechanical studies. The clinical studies showed locked plating as an external fixator in treating tibial fractures can be considered as a safe and successful procedure. However, as yet, there is unconvincing evidence that it is superior to standard techniques with regards to clinical and functional outcomes. More and well-designed studies about this technique should be carried out.

  16. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rong, Yi, E-mail: yrong@ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142.

  17. Food Quality in Romania. Compliant or Not with Food Quality in Western Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of food sold on the Romanian market represents a topical issue, of maximum interest for the health of the population. Information regarding the existence of double production standards for food products destined to East and West European markets has become a viral issue, with a wide public debate at media level, profile faculties and research institutes, governmental and non-governmental bodies. The article proposed a comparative analysis of the media information and the CEE official�s reaction, correlated with the official results of the analysis carried out by the profile governmental bodies for the assessment of the quality of food products from the Romanian market. The results of the researches carried out have highlighted the lack of technical expertise of the national authorities, a late and improper reaction to sensitive issues at European level in the field of food products quality, linked also to discrepancies existing between G15 and the rest of the European Union, the inability of certain decisions focused on the cause of the problem analysed. The measures taken by the Romanian authorities were either late and the costs incurred for carrying out certain food analysis were useless. The lack of certain specialists� decision-makers in the food sector, the prevalence of political decisions, based on obscure interests will still lead to discrepancies in the sector of food products marketed in Romanian stores, will increase the dependence of the domestic import market and will destroy the few companies with Romanian capital which are still active in the food sector.

  18. Concurrent validity of accelerations measured using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Cole

    Full Text Available Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending; and ii use of orientation information (quaternions from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12 using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences <0.16 m.s(-2. Detrending produced slightly better agreement between the inertial measurement unit and Vicon system on firm surfaces (delta range: -0.05 to 0.06 vs. 0.00 to 0.14 m.s(-2, whereas the quaternion method performed better when walking on compliant and uneven walkways (delta range: -0.16 to -0.02 vs. -0.07 to 0.07 m.s(-2. The technique used to compensate for gravitational accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments.

  19. An implementation of a security infrastructure compliant with the Italian Personal Data Protection Code in a web-based cooperative work system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccher, Claudio; Eccher, Lorenzo; Izzo, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In this poster we describe the security solutions implemented in a web-based cooperative work frame-work for managing heart failure patients among different health care professionals involved in the care process. The solution, developed in close collaboration with the Law Department of the University of Trento, is compliant with the new Italian Personal Data Protection Code, issued in 2003, that regulates also the storing and processing of health data.

  20. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. Release 1.02.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, C. Steve; Mortensen, Dale J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Briones, Janette C.; Nappier, Jennifer M.; Downey, Joseph A.; Lux, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This document contains the NASA architecture standard for software defined radios used in space- and ground-based platforms to enable commonality among radio developments to enhance capability and services while reducing mission and programmatic risk. Transceivers (or transponders) with functionality primarily defined in software (e.g., firmware) have the ability to change their functional behavior through software alone. This radio architecture standard offers value by employing common waveform software interfaces, method of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. These common interfaces within the architecture abstract application software from the underlying hardware to enable technology insertion independently at either the software or hardware layer.

  1. Sunscreen compliance with regional clinical practice guidelines and product labeling standards in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Matthias E; Mathy, Joanna E; Kenealy, John; Mathy, Jon A

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION For general practitioners, practice nurses and community pharmacists in New Zealand, a core duty is to educate patients about sun protection. We aimed to evaluate compliance of locally available sunscreens with regional clinical practice guidelines and sunscreen labelling standards, to assist clinicians in advising consumers on sunscreen selection. METHODS We audited all sunscreens available at two Auckland stores for three New Zealand sunscreen retailers. We then assessed compliance with accepted regional clinical practice guidelines for sun protection from the New Zealand Guidelines Group. We further assessed compliance with regional Australia/New Zealand consumer standards for sunscreen labelling. RESULTS All sunscreens satisfied clinical guidelines for broad-spectrum protection, and 99% of sunscreens met or exceeded clinical guidelines for minimal Sun Protection Factor. Compliance with regional standardized labelling guidelines is voluntary in New Zealand and 27% of audited sunscreens were not fully compliant with SPF labelling standards. DISCUSSION Sunscreens were generally compliant with clinical guidelines for minimal sun protection. However there was substantial noncompliance with regional recommendations for standardized sunscreen labelling. Primary health care clinicians should be aware that this labelling noncompliance may mislead patients into thinking some sunscreens offer more sun protection than they do. Mandatory compliance with the latest regional labelling standards would simplify sunscreen selection by New Zealand consumers. KEYWORDS Sunscreen; Sun Protection Factor; SPF; Skin Neoplasms; Melanoma; Skin Cancer Prevention.

  2. New IEEE standard enables data collection for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, R J; Wittenber, J

    1994-01-01

    The IEEE has gone to ballot on a "Standard for Medical Device Communications", IEEE P1073. The lower layer, hardware portions of the standard are expected to be approved by the IEEE Standards Board at their December 11-13, 1994 meeting. Other portions of the standard are in the initial stages of the IEEE ballot process. The intent of the standard is to allow hospitals and other users to interface medical electronic devices to host computer systems in a standard, interchangeable manner. The standard is optimized for acute care environments such as ICU's, operating rooms, and emergency rooms. [1] IEEE General Committee and Subcommittee work has been on-going since 1984. Significant amounts of work have been done to discover and meet the needs of the patient care setting. Surveys performed in 1989 identified the following four key user requirements for medical device communications: 1) Frequent reconfiguration of the network. 2) Allow "plug and play" operation by users. 3) Associate devices with a specific bed and patient. 4) Support a wide range of hospital computer system topologies. Additionally, the most critical difference in the acute care setting is patient safety, which has an overall effect on the standard. The standard that went to ballot meets these requirements. The standard is based on existing ISO standards. P1073 is compliant with the OSI seven layer model. P1073 specifies the entire communication stack, from object-oriented software to hospital unique connectors. The standard will be able to be put forward as a true international standard, much in the way that the IEEE 802.x family of standards (like Ethernet) were presented as draft ISO standards.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Many Infants and Young Children Are Not Compliant with Mexican and International Complementary Feeding Recommendations for Milk and Other Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam C. Afeiche

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0–5.9, 6–11.9, and 12–23.9 months and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012 was conducted (n = 949. Among 0–5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29.3% consumed breast milk and/or infant formula with water (mean = 58 g/day and/or other beverages (mean = 115 g/day, such as 100% fruit juice, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. For infants 6–11.9 months, appropriate beverages include breast milk, infant formula, and water; only 40.2% met these recommendations. Many 6–11.9 month olds consumed age-inappropriate beverages, including milk (31% and SSBs (35%. After 12 months of age, appropriate beverages include water, milk, and a limited amount of 100% fruit juice and SSBs; 32.4% complied fully, 18.3% consumed appropriate and inappropriate beverages, and 49.3% consumed only inappropriate beverages. Among 12–23.9 month olds, 58% consumed milk, 18% juice, and 42% water while 63% consumed SSBs. Many infants and young children are not compliant with Mexican and international breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines for beverages. Communication and guidance about age-appropriate beverages should be improved.

  4. Many Infants and Young Children Are Not Compliant with Mexican and International Complementary Feeding Recommendations for Milk and Other Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Villalpando-Carrión, Salvador; Reidy, Kathleen C; Fries, Lisa R; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-04-10

    Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0-5.9, 6-11.9, and 12-23.9 months) and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012) was conducted ( n = 949). Among 0-5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29.3% consumed breast milk and/or infant formula with water (mean = 58 g/day) and/or other beverages (mean = 115 g/day), such as 100% fruit juice, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). For infants 6-11.9 months, appropriate beverages include breast milk, infant formula, and water; only 40.2% met these recommendations. Many 6-11.9 month olds consumed age-inappropriate beverages, including milk (31%) and SSBs (35%). After 12 months of age, appropriate beverages include water, milk, and a limited amount of 100% fruit juice and SSBs; 32.4% complied fully, 18.3% consumed appropriate and inappropriate beverages, and 49.3% consumed only inappropriate beverages. Among 12-23.9 month olds, 58% consumed milk, 18% juice, and 42% water while 63% consumed SSBs. Many infants and young children are not compliant with Mexican and international breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines for beverages. Communication and guidance about age-appropriate beverages should be improved.

  5. Determinants of Maximal Force Transmission in a Motor-Clutch Model of Cell Traction in a Compliant Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Benjamin L.; Rosenfeld, Steven S.; Odde, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical stiffness of a cell’s environment exerts a strong, but variable, influence on cell behavior and fate. For example, different cell types cultured on compliant substrates have opposite trends of cell migration and traction as a function of substrate stiffness. Here, we describe how a motor-clutch model of cell traction, which exhibits a maximum in traction force with respect to substrate stiffness, may provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how cells are tuned to sense the stiffness of specific microenvironments. We find that the optimal stiffness is generally more sensitive to clutch parameters than to motor parameters, but that single parameter changes are generally only effective over a small range of values. By contrast, dual parameter changes, such as coordinately increasing the numbers of both motors and clutches offer a larger dynamic range for tuning the optimum. The model exhibits distinct regimes: at high substrate stiffness, clutches quickly build force and fail (so-called frictional slippage), whereas at low substrate stiffness, clutches fail spontaneously before the motors can load the substrate appreciably (a second regime of frictional slippage). Between the two extremes, we find the maximum traction force, which occurs when the substrate load-and-fail cycle time equals the expected time for all clutches to bind. At this stiffness, clutches are used to their fullest extent, and motors are therefore resisted to their fullest extent. The analysis suggests that coordinate parameter shifts, such as increasing the numbers of motors and clutches, could underlie tumor progression and collective cell migration. PMID:23931306

  6. Determinants of maximal force transmission in a motor-clutch model of cell traction in a compliant microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Benjamin L; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Odde, David J

    2013-08-06

    The mechanical stiffness of a cell's environment exerts a strong, but variable, influence on cell behavior and fate. For example, different cell types cultured on compliant substrates have opposite trends of cell migration and traction as a function of substrate stiffness. Here, we describe how a motor-clutch model of cell traction, which exhibits a maximum in traction force with respect to substrate stiffness, may provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how cells are tuned to sense the stiffness of specific microenvironments. We find that the optimal stiffness is generally more sensitive to clutch parameters than to motor parameters, but that single parameter changes are generally only effective over a small range of values. By contrast, dual parameter changes, such as coordinately increasing the numbers of both motors and clutches offer a larger dynamic range for tuning the optimum. The model exhibits distinct regimes: at high substrate stiffness, clutches quickly build force and fail (so-called frictional slippage), whereas at low substrate stiffness, clutches fail spontaneously before the motors can load the substrate appreciably (a second regime of frictional slippage). Between the two extremes, we find the maximum traction force, which occurs when the substrate load-and-fail cycle time equals the expected time for all clutches to bind. At this stiffness, clutches are used to their fullest extent, and motors are therefore resisted to their fullest extent. The analysis suggests that coordinate parameter shifts, such as increasing the numbers of motors and clutches, could underlie tumor progression and collective cell migration. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Standardization of hospital feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuel García, Ángel Manuel

    2015-05-07

    Normalization can be understood as the establishing measures against repetitive situations through the development, dissemination, and application of technical design documents called standards. In Andalusia there are 45 public hospitals with 14,606 beds, and in which 11,700 full pensions / day are served. The Working Group on Hospital Food Standardization of the Andalusian Society for Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, started in 2010, working on the certification of suppliers, product specifications, and meals technical card. - Develop a specific tool to help improving food safety through the certification of their suppliers. - Develop a standardized technical specifications of foodstuffs necessary for the development of menus established codes diets Andalusian hospitals document. - Develop a catalog of data sheets plates of hospital meals, to homogenize menus, respecting local and unifying criteria for qualitative and quantitative ingredients. - Providing documentation and studying of several public hospitals in Andalusia: • Product specifications and certification of suppliers. • International standards certification and distribution companies. • Legislation. • Data sheets for the menu items. • Specifications of different product procurement procedures. - Development of the draft standard HOSPIFOOD®, and approval of the version “0.0”. - Training course for auditors to this standard. - Development of a raw materials catalog as technical cards. - Meals Technical cards review and election of the ones which will be part of the document. After nearly three years of work, we have achieved the following products: - Standardized database of technical specifications for the production of food dietary codes for: fish, seafood, meat and meat products, meats and pates, ready meals, bread and pastries, preserves, milk and dairy products, oils, cereals, legumes , vegetables, fruits, fresh and frozen vegetables, condiments and spices. - Standardized database of

  8. GSKY: A scalable distributed geospatial data server on the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas Larraondo, Pablo; Pringle, Sean; Antony, Joseph; Evans, Ben

    2017-04-01

    an independent service. An indexing service crawls data collections either locally or remotely by extracting, storing and indexing all spatio-temporal metadata associated with each individual record. GSKY provides the user with the ability of specifying how ingested data should be aggregated, transformed and presented. It presents an OGC standards-compliant interface, allowing ready accessibility for users of the data via Web Map Services (WMS), Web Processing Services (WPS) or raw data arrays using Web Coverage Services (WCS). The presentation will show some cases where we have used this new capability to provide a significant improvement over previous approaches.

  9. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    This letter focuses on the problem of handling impacts by means of an aerial manipulator and proposes a solution that combines the control of the aerial manipulator's end-effector position with an innovative design approach of aerial manipulation systems, consisting of both active and passive...... joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...

  10. GMP-compliant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Roeland; Lavalaye, Jules; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of routine care patient examinations with 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals is still relatively limited, probably caused by the presumed need for large investments in hot cells, automated synthesis modules, laboratory equipment and validation efforts. Our aim was to set up

  11. Compliant Nanospring Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    polymeric nanofibers subjected to large deformations”, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems , 18, 2009, 1032-1046. [38] Kolluru PV and Chasiotis I...copper (Cu) film (e.g. a Cu heat sink), achieving thermal resistance as low as ~0.01 cm2C/W, which surpasses in performance solutions based on CNTs...seeded films, was measured in tension, compression and shear (bending) via Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based tools, as shown in Figure 1. The

  12. Transformation of an empirical distribution to normal distribution by the use of Johnson system of translation and symmetrical quantile method

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvík Friebel; Jana Friebelová

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with approximation of empirical distribution to standard normal distribution using Johnson transformation. This transformation enables us to approximate wide spectrum of continuous distributions with a normal distribution. The estimation of parameters of transformation formulas is based on percentiles of empirical distribution. There are derived theoretical probability distribution functions of random variable obtained on the base of backward transformation standard normal ...

  13. IrLaW an OGC compliant infrared thermography measurement system developed on mini PC with real time computing capabilities for long term monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.; Averty, R.

    2012-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project is to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, uncooled infrared camera is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its relative low cost on the market. Infrared thermography, when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey), requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The system studied and developed uses a fast Ethernet camera FLIR A320 [1] coupled with a VAISALA WXT520 [2] weather station and a light GPS unit [3] for positioning and dating. It can be used with other Ethernet infrared cameras (i.e. visible ones) but requires to be able to access measured data at raw level. In the present study, it has been made possible thanks to a specific agreement signed with FLIR Company. The prototype system studied and developed is implemented on low cost small computer that integrates a GPU card to allow real time parallel computing [4] of simplified radiometric [5] heat balance using information measured with the weather station. An HMI was developed under Linux using OpenSource and complementary pieces of software developed at IFSTTAR. This new HMI called "IrLaW" has various functionalities that let it compliant to be use in

  14. Modular modelling with Physiome standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, David P.; Nielsen, Poul M. F.; Hunter, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The complexity of computational models is increasing, supported by research in modelling tools and frameworks. But relatively little thought has gone into design principles for complex models.We propose a set of design principles for complex model construction with the Physiome standard modelling protocol CellML.By following the principles, models are generated that are extensible and are themselves suitable for reuse in larger models of increasing complexity.We illustrate these principles with examples including an architectural prototype linking, for the first time, electrophysiology, thermodynamically compliant metabolism, signal transduction, gene regulation and synthetic biology.The design principles complement other Physiome research projects, facilitating the application of virtual experiment protocols and model analysis techniques to assist the modelling community in creating libraries of composable, characterised and simulatable quantitative descriptions of physiology. Abstract The ability to produce and customise complex computational models has great potential to have a positive impact on human health. As the field develops towards whole‐cell models and linking such models in multi‐scale frameworks to encompass tissue, organ, or organism levels, reuse of previous modelling efforts will become increasingly necessary. Any modelling group wishing to reuse existing computational models as modules for their own work faces many challenges in the context of construction, storage, retrieval, documentation and analysis of such modules. Physiome standards, frameworks and tools seek to address several of these challenges, especially for models expressed in the modular protocol CellML. Aside from providing a general ability to produce modules, there has been relatively little research work on architectural principles of CellML models that will enable reuse at larger scales. To complement and support the existing tools and frameworks, we develop a set

  15. ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING - A TALE OF TWO STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS DEAC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of accounting harmonization in Europe has started in 1978 with the adoption of the Fourth Council Directive 78/660/EEC regarding the annual accounts of limited liability companies. The harmonization process continued with the regulation of the consolidated annual accounts with the enactment of the Seventh Council Directive 83/349/EEC. In 2002 the European Parliament has adopted the EC Regulation No. 1606/2002 requiring all listed group entities within EU to apply the International Accounting Standards for their consolidated financial statements starting from 2005. This has led to the use of a dual accounting standardization as listed entities are required to use IAS/IFRS while non-listed entities use the national GAAP harmonized with the 4th and 7th directives. The adoption of the new accounting directive 2013/34/EU does not solve this differentiation as it doesn't allow the option for national accounting regulators the use of IFRS for SMEs. Romania, as a member of the European Union, is no exception from this usage of a dual accounting standard. After the fall of the communist regime, Romania has modernized its accounting system by adopting a French inspired, EU 4th directive compliant national GAAP. Between 2001 and 2005 there was a strong interest towards the adoption of IAS/IFRS that went beyond the scope of EC Regulation No. 1606/2002. This has changed in 2005 when IAS/IFRSs were considered as an option of additional voluntary disclosure. From 2006, Romania has aligned its national legislation to the requirements of EC Regulation No. 1606/2002. The application of this dual standard accounting system has been cumbersome especially for the entities that were required to prepare two different annual accounts, one using IAS/IFRS and one using Romanian GAAP. This obstacle has been overcome in 2012 when certain entities were allowed to prepare their financial statements using only IFRS.

  16. Aid conditionalities, international Good Manufacturing Practice standards and local production rights: a case study of local production in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brhlikova, Petra; Harper, Ian; Subedi, Madhusudan; Bhattarai, Samita; Rawal, Nabin; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-06-14

    Local pharmaceutical production has been endorsed by the WHO as a means of addressing health priorities of developing countries. However, local producers of essential medicines must comply with international pharmaceutical standards in order to be eligible to compete in donor tenders. These standards determine production rights for on-patent and off-patent medicines, and guide international procurement of medicines. We reviewed the literature on the impact of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) on local production; a gap analysis from the literature review indicated a need for further research. Over sixty interviews were conducted with people involved in the Nepali pharmaceutical production and distribution chain from 2006 to 2009 on the GMP areas of relevance: regulatory capacity, staffing, funding and training, resourcing of GMP, inspectors' interpretation of the rules and compliance. Although Nepal producers have increased their overall share of the domestic market, only the public manufacturer, Royal Drugs, focuses on medicines for public health programmes; private producers engage mainly in brand competition for private markets, not essential medicines. Nepali regulators and producers state that implementation of GMP standards is hindered by low regulatory capacity, insufficient training of staff in the industry, financial constraints and lack of investment for upgrading capital. The transition period to mandatory compliance with WHO GMP rules is lengthy. Less than half of private producers had WHO GMP in 2013. Producers are not directly affected by international harmonisation of standards as they do not export medicines and the Nepali regulator does not enforce the WHO standards strictly. Without an international GMP certificate they cannot tender for donor dependent health programmes. In Nepal, local private manufacturers focus mainly on brand competition for private consumption not essential medicines, the government preferentially procures essential

  17. Cired 2015 full paper: DISTRIBUTED AND COORDINATED DEMAND RESPONSE FOR THE SUPPLY OF FREQUENCY CONTAINMENT RESERVE (FCR)

    OpenAIRE

    LEBEL, Gaspard; KUYPERS, Karel; CAIRE, Raphaël; HADJSAID, Nouredine; BEDIOU, Stéphane; GLATIGNY, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The availability of frequency-controlled reserves is essential for any Utility to secure the power system in both interconnected and microgrid contexts. This paper presents a concept of coordinated Distributed Energy Resources (DER), load modulation willing to supply frequency-controlled reserves. These reserves, compliant with both Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR) and Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS) requirements, are provided through a structure of Virtual Power Plant (VPP). Physica...

  18. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  19. Distributional Inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, A.H.; van der Meulen, E.A.; Poortema, Klaas; Schaafsma, W.

    1995-01-01

    The making of statistical inferences in distributional form is conceptionally complicated because the epistemic 'probabilities' assigned are mixtures of fact and fiction. In this respect they are essentially different from 'physical' or 'frequency-theoretic' probabilities. The distributional form is

  20. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  1. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  2. A High-Order Theory for the Analysis of Circular Cylindrical Composite Sandwich Shells with Transversely Compliant Core Subjected to External Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Omid; Khalili, S.M.R.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2012-01-01

    A new model based on the high order sandwich panel theory is proposed to study the effect of external loads on the free vibration of circular cylindrical composite sandwich shells with transversely compliant core, including also the calculation of the buckling loads. In the present model, in cont......A new model based on the high order sandwich panel theory is proposed to study the effect of external loads on the free vibration of circular cylindrical composite sandwich shells with transversely compliant core, including also the calculation of the buckling loads. In the present model......, in contrast to most of the available sandwich plate and shell theories, no prior assumptions are made with respect to the displacement field in the core. Herein the displacement and the stress fields of the core material are determined through a 3D elasticity solution. The performance of the present theory...... is compared with that of other sandwich theories by the presentation of comparative results obtained for several examples encompassing different material properties and geometric parameters. It is shown that the present model produce results of very high accuracy, and it is suggested that the present model...

  3. PCI Compliance Understand and Implement Effective PCI Data Security Standard Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Chuvakin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Identity theft and other confidential information theft have now topped the charts as the #1 cybercrime. In particular, credit card data is preferred by cybercriminals. Is your payment processing secure and compliant?. Now in its second edition, PCI Compliance has been revised to follow the new PCI DSS standard 1.2.1. Also new to this edition: Each chapter has how-to guidance to walk you through implementing concepts, and real-world scenarios to help you relate to the information and better grasp how it impacts your data. This book provides the information that you need to understand the curre

  4. The Initial Release of the Core PDS4 Data Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Joyner, R.; Hardman, S.; Ramirez, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Core PDS4 Data Standards have has just been released for use with an operational registry, ingest and search services, and a search interface. The core data standards are product centric and define data products, collections of data products, and bundles of collections. An ontology modeling tool was used to rigorously and prescriptively define a set of product components that adhere to object-oriented principles and that are compliant to standard reference models for registries, archives, and data dictionaries. The flexibility needed to address the archive requirements of a diverse science community is provided through the use of object-oriented extensions and restrictions and by allowing the ad-hoc insertion of discipline and mission level metadata. A model driven approach allowed the data and systems engineering teams to develop in parallel with minimal team interaction and produce software that remains relatively stable as the data standards evolve. Finally the development of a single shared ontology promotes interoperability and data correlation and will help meet the expectations of modern planetary scientists for science discovery, access and use. This presentation will provide an overview of the PDS4 data standards, how they were developed and how they are being used, and present some of the major lessons learned from developing a commonality in a diverse scientific community.

  5. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  6. The exponentiated generalized Pareto distribution | Adeyemi | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Gupta et al. (1998) introduced the exponentiated exponential distribution as a generalization of the standard exponential distribution. In this paper, we introduce a three-parameter generalized Pareto distribution, the exponentiated generalized Pareto distribution (EGP). We present a comprehensive treatment of the ...

  7. Dyadic distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, B I

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of pointwise dyadic derivative dyadic distributions are introduced as continuous linear functionals on the linear space D d (R + ) of infinitely differentiable functions compactly supported by the positive half-axis R + together with all dyadic derivatives. The completeness of the space D' d (R + ) of dyadic distributions is established. It is shown that a locally integrable function on R + generates a dyadic distribution. In addition, the space S d (R + ) of infinitely dyadically differentiable functions on R + rapidly decreasing in the neighbourhood of +∞ is defined. The space S' d (R + ) of dyadic distributions of slow growth is introduced as the space of continuous linear functionals on S d (R + ). The completeness of the space S' d (R + ) is established; it is proved that each integrable function on R + with polynomial growth at +∞ generates a dyadic distribution of slow growth. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  8. The impact of compliant surfaces on in-hospital chest compressions: effects of common mattresses and a backboard.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordergraaf, G.J.; Paulussen, I.W.; Venema, A.; Berkom, P.F. van; Woerlee, P.H.; Scheffer, G.J.; Noordergraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate, in a hospital setting, the influence of different, common mattresses, with and without a backboard, on chest movement during CPR. DESIGN AND SETTING: Sixty CPR sessions (140s each, 30:2, C:R ratio 1:1) were performed using a manikin on standard hospital mattresses, with or

  9. Establishing a national 3D geo-data model for building data compliant to CityGML : Case of Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates Aydar, S.; Stoter, J.E.; Ledoux, H.; Demir Ozbek, E.; Yomraliogly, T

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the generation of the 3D national building geo-data model of Turkey, which is compatible with the international OGC CityGML Encoding Standard. We prepare an ADE named CityGML-TRKBIS.BI that is produced by extending existing thematic modules of CityGML according to TRKBIS

  10. SU-B-213-02: Development of CAMPEP Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckham, W.

    2015-01-01

    The North American medical physics community validates the education received by medical physicists and the clinical qualifications for medical physicists through accreditation of educational programs and certification of medical physicists. Medical physics educational programs (graduate education and residency education) are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP), whereas medical physicists are certified by several organizations, the most familiar of which is the American Board of Radiology (ABR). In order for an educational program to become accredited or a medical physicist to become certified, the applicant must meet certain specified standards set by the appropriate organization. In this Symposium, representatives from both CAMPEP and the ABR will describe the process by which standards are established as well as the process by which qualifications of candidates for accreditation or certification are shown to be compliant with these standards. The Symposium will conclude with a panel discussion. Learning Objectives: Recognize the difference between accreditation of an educational program and certification of an individual Identify the two organizations primarily responsible for these tasks Describe the development of educational standards Describe the process by which examination questions are developed GS is Executive Secretary of CAMPEP

  11. Horse-like walking, trotting, and galloping derived from kinematic Motion Primitives (kMPs) and their application to walk/trot transitions in a compliant quadruped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Federico L; Spröwitz, Alexander; Tuleu, Alexandre; Vespignani, Massimo; Tsagarakis, Nikos G; Ijspeert, Auke J; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2013-06-01

    This manuscript proposes a method to directly transfer the features of horse walking, trotting, and galloping to a quadruped robot, with the aim of creating a much more natural (horse-like) locomotion profile. A principal component analysis on horse joint trajectories shows that walk, trot, and gallop can be described by a set of four kinematic Motion Primitives (kMPs). These kMPs are used to generate valid, stable gaits that are tested on a compliant quadruped robot. Tests on the effects of gait frequency scaling as follows: results indicate a speed optimal walking frequency around 3.4 Hz, and an optimal trotting frequency around 4 Hz. Following, a criterion to synthesize gait transitions is proposed, and the walk/trot transitions are successfully tested on the robot. The performance of the robot when the transitions are scaled in frequency is evaluated by means of roll and pitch angle phase plots.

  12. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  13. Cyber security. Compliance to the new CSA 290.7 standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, M.; Doucet, R.; Echlin, M.; MacDonald, M.; Mihaylov, V.; Sijs, J.; Trask, D. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Since 2008, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), similar to regulators of other critical industries, has requested their licensees to implement cyber security programs and conduct self- assessments without the benefit of an industry specific cyber security standard that provides common metrics for coverage and effectiveness of their programs. However, for the nuclear industry, a new CSA standard 290.7 entitled 'Cyber security for nuclear power plants and small reactor facilities', released in December 2014, will have the CNSC looking to facility operators to be compliant to the new standard. This paper will discuss initiatives at Canadian Nuclear Laboratories to develop of a suite of tools, techniques, and best practices that can be used by the regulator and industry for assessing compliance and effectiveness of cyber security technology and implementations. (author)

  14. Bridging IMO e-Navigation Policy and Offshore Oil and Gas Operations through Geospatial Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Modesto Da Rocha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In offshore industry activities, the suitable onboard provision of assets location and geospatial marine information during operations is essential. Currently, most companies use its own data structures, resulting in incompatibility between processes. In order to promote the data exchange, oil and gas industry associations have pursued initiatives to standardize spatial information. In turn, the IMO - International Maritime Organization - started the implementation of e-Navigation policy, which is the standardization of technologies and protocols applied to maritime information and navigation. This paper shows relationship and integration points between maritime activities of oil and gas industry and e-Navigation technologies and processes, highlighting geospatial information. This paper also preludes out an initiative for a suitable product specification for the offshore oil and gas industry, compliant with e-Navigation and IHO S-100 international standards.

  15. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  16. A Method for Remote Control of EV Charging by Modifying IEC61851 Compliant EVSE Based PWM Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    The Electric Vehicle (EV) has properties that can not only load but can elevate its value as a resource to the power system. An EV represents a high-power, fast-responding flexible demand unit, with an attached energy storage (battery) and the potential for bi-directional capabilities (V2G......). These properties can be used in a number of power and energy services, which can support power system operation while lowering the cost of EV ownership. Such services depend on the support from the communications technologies and standards that connect controllers and logic in the EVs with those in the charging...... for smart charging - to gain this ability by simply adhering to the widely supported IEC61851 standard. This paper describes the solution, demonstrates the implementation and discusses the potential it has for unlocking EV power- and energy services....

  17. Momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    The content of the portion of the workshop concerned with momentum distributions in condensed matter is outlined and the neutron scattering approach to their measurement is briefly described. Results concerning helium systems are reviewed. Some theoretical aspects are briefly mentioned

  18. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  19. MAN-004 Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Timothy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  20. Standard of Living in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Stávková, Jana; Žufan, Pavel; Birčiaková, Naďa

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the measurement of standard of living and on the factors influencing its level. Specific attention is paid to the indicators of standard of living, and the frequent employment of GDP is discussed and compared with possible alternatives. Household income is also a factor of central importance in determining standard of living, and the chapter assesses this factor in terms of household income distribution, the setting of poverty limits, the measurement of income disparit...