WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard challenge strain

  1. Challenges to 5G standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Interoperable, ubiquitous and dynamic are key objectives for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and applications. These characteristics are also at the core of the main challenges that researchers, manufacturers, regulators and standardization bodies face when designing targeted strategies...

  2. Five challenges in modelling interacting strain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Wikramaratna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Population epidemiological models where hosts can be infected sequentially by different strains have the potential to help us understand many important diseases. Researchers have in recent years started to develop and use such models, but the extra layer of complexity from multiple strains brings with it many technical challenges. It is therefore hard to build models which have realistic assumptions yet are tractable. Here we outline some of the main challenges in this area. First we begin with the fundamental question of how to translate from complex small-scale dynamics within a host to useful population models. Next we consider the nature of so-called “strain space”. We describe two key types of host heterogeneities, and explain how models could help generate a better understanding of their effects. Finally, for diseases with many strains, we consider the challenge of modelling how immunity accumulates over multiple exposures.

  3. Standardization or Stigmatization? Challenges Confronting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The article investigates the effects of the underutilization of the abundant vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa, which results from a one-sided standardization approach owing to the disregard and stigmatization of most dialects. Sesotho sa Leboa has several dialects differing greatly concerning terminology ...

  4. Standardization or Stigmatization? Challenges Confronting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    of Sesotho sa Leboa, which results from a one-sided standardization approach owing to the dis- .... activity. These missionaries started developing orthographies in Sepedi and Seko- pa, and translating the Bible and many religious publications into these dia- lects. ..... size of the lexicon of Sesotho sa Leboa extensively.

  5. Diversification and Challenges of Software Engineering Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1994-01-01

    The author poses certain questions in this paper: 'In the future, should there be just one software engineering standards set? If so, how can we work towards that goal? What are the challenges of internationalizing standards?' Based on the author's personal view, the statement of his position is as follows: 'There should NOT be just one set of software engineering standards in the future. At the same time, there should NOT be the proliferation of standards, and the number of sets of standards should be kept to a minimum.It is important to understand the diversification of the areas which are spanned by the software engineering standards.' The author goes on to describe the diversification of processes, the diversification in the national and international character of standards organizations, the diversification of the professional organizations producing standards, the diversification of the types of businesses and industries, and the challenges of internationalizing standards.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes: Strain Heterogeneity, Methods, and Challenges of Subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond B; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne bacterial pathogen that is associated with 20% to 30% case fatality rate. L. monocytogenes is a genetically heterogeneous species, with a small fraction of strains (serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 4b) implicated in human listeriosis. Monitoring and source tracking of L. monocytogenes involve the use of subtyping methods, with the performance of genetic-based methods found to be superior to phenotypic-based ones. Various methods have been used to subtype L. monocytogenes isolates, with the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) being the gold standard. Although PFGE has had a massive impact on food safety through the establishment of the PulseNet, there is no doubt that whole genome sequence (WGS) typing is accurate, has a discriminatory power superior to any known method, and allows genome-wide differences between strains to be quantified through the comparison of nucleotide sequences. This review focuses on the different techniques that have been used to type L. monocytogenes strains, their performance challenges, and the tremendous impact WGS typing could have on the food safety landscape. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Challenges of implementing Iranian national laboratory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadel, N; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; Rahnamaye Farzami, M; Samiee, S Mirab; Amini, R; Farsi, Sh; Mahdavi, S; Khodaverdian, K; Rashed Marandi, F

    2013-01-01

    After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders.

  8. Standard guide for installing bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1993-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidelines for installing bonded resistance strain gages. It is not intended to be used for bulk or diffused semiconductor gages. This document pertains only to adhesively bonded strain gages. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. [Standard algorithm of molecular typing of Yersinia pestis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroshenko, G A; Odinokov, G N; Kukleva, L M; Pavlova, A I; Krasnov, Ia M; Shavina, N Iu; Guseva, N P; Vinogradova, N A; Kutyrev, V V

    2012-01-01

    Development of the standard algorithm of molecular typing of Yersinia pestis that ensures establishing of subspecies, biovar and focus membership of the studied isolate. Determination of the characteristic strain genotypes of plague infectious agent of main and nonmain subspecies from various natural foci of plague of the Russian Federation and the near abroad. Genotyping of 192 natural Y. pestis strains of main and nonmain subspecies was performed by using PCR methods, multilocus sequencing and multilocus analysis of variable tandem repeat number. A standard algorithm of molecular typing of plague infectious agent including several stages of Yersinia pestis differentiation by membership: in main and nonmain subspecies, various biovars of the main subspecies, specific subspecies; natural foci and geographic territories was developed. The algorithm is based on 3 typing methods--PCR, multilocus sequence typing and multilocus analysis of variable tandem repeat number using standard DNA targets--life support genes (terC, ilvN, inv, glpD, napA, rhaS and araC) and 7 loci of variable tandem repeats (ms01, ms04, ms06, ms07, ms46, ms62, ms70). The effectiveness of the developed algorithm is shown on the large number of natural Y. pestis strains. Characteristic sequence types of Y. pestis strains of various subspecies and biovars as well as MLVA7 genotypes of strains from natural foci of plague of the Russian Federation and the near abroad were established. The application of the developed algorithm will increase the effectiveness of epidemiologic monitoring of plague infectious agent, and analysis of epidemics and outbreaks of plague with establishing the source of origin of the strain and routes of introduction of the infection.

  10. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  11. Standard setting in medical education: fundamental concepts and emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz Hejri, Sara; Jalili, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining the minimum pass level to separate the competent students from those who do not perform well enough is called standard setting. A large number of methods are widely used to set cut-scores for both written and clinical examinations. There are some challenging issues pertaining to any standard setting procedure. Ignoring these concerns would result in a large dispute regarding the credibility and defensibility of the method. The goal of this review is to provide a basic understanding of the key concepts and challenges in standard setting and to suggest some recommendations to overcome the challenging issues for educators and policymakers who are dealing with decision-making in this field.

  12. Heat strain in protective clothing - challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kiekens, P.; Jayaraman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  13. Usability standards meet scenario-based design: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher J; Blandford, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on the challenges and opportunities presented by developing scenarios of use for interactive medical devices. Scenarios are integral to the international standard for usability engineering of medical devices (IEC 62366:2007), and are also applied to the development of health software (draft standard IEC 82304-1). The 62366 standard lays out a process for mitigating risk during normal use (i.e. use as per the instructions, or accepted medical practice). However, this begs the question of whether "real use" (that which occurs in practice) matches "normal use". In this paper, we present an overview of the product lifecycle and how it impacts on the type of scenario that can be practically applied. We report on the development and testing of a set of scenarios intended to inform the design of infusion pumps based on "real use". The scenarios were validated by researchers and practitioners experienced in clinical practice, and their utility was assessed by developers and practitioners representing different stages of the product lifecycle. These evaluations highlighted previously unreported challenges and opportunities for the use of scenarios in this context. Challenges include: integrating scenario-based design with usability engineering practice; covering the breadth of uses of infusion devices; and managing contradictory evidence. Opportunities included scenario use beyond design to guide marketing, to inform purchasing and as resources for training staff. This study exemplifies one empirically grounded approach to communicating and negotiating the realities of practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visible light communication: Applications, architecture, standardization and research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Ullah Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Radio Frequency (RF communication suffers from interference and high latency issues. Along with this, RF communication requires a separate setup for transmission and reception of RF waves. Overcoming the above limitations, Visible Light Communication (VLC is a preferred communication technique because of its high bandwidth and immunity to interference from electromagnetic sources. The revolution in the field of solid state lighting leads to the replacement of florescent lamps by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs which further motivates the usage of VLC. This paper presents a survey of the potential applications, architecture, modulation techniques, standardization and research challenges in VLC.

  15. Challenges to the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis provides a unique probe of the early evolution of the Universe and a crucial test of the consistency of the standard hot Big Bang cosmological model. Although the primordial abundances of 2 H, 3 He, 4 He, and 7 Li inferred from current observational data are in agreement with those predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recent analysis has severely restricted the consistent range for the nucleon-to-photon ratio: 3.7 ≤ η 10 ≤ 4.0. Increased accuracy in the estimate of primordial 4 he and observations of Be and B in Pop II stars are offering new challenges to the standard model and suggest that no new light particles may be allowed (N ν BBN ≤ 3.0, where N ν is the number of equivalent light neutrinos). 23 refs

  16. Protection to respiratory challenge of Brucella abortus strain 2308 in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Naveen; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Tenpenny, Nancy; Walker, Michelle; Zimmerman, Kurt; Werre, Stephen; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2013-08-28

    Brucella is amongst the top 5 causes of zoonotic disease worldwide. Infection is through ingestion, inhalation or contact exposure. Brucella is characterized as a class B pathogen by Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Currently, there are no efficacious vaccines available in people. Currently available USDA approved vaccines for animals include B. abortus strain RB51 and B. melitensis Rev1. Protection is mediated by a strong innate and CD4 Th1, CD8 Tc1 immune response. If protective vaccines can be developed, disease in people and animals can be controlled. While strain RB51 protects in cattle, and against intraperitoneal challenge in mice, it does not protect against respiratory challenge. Therefore, we assessed the efficacy of strain RB51 combined with different TLR agonists, and O-side chain from LPS, to enhance protection against respiratory challenge with strain 2308. We hypothesized that TLR agonists and O-side chain would enhance protection. Strains RB51 with TLR2 agonist, RB51 with TLR4 agonist and strain 19 provided significant protection in the lung. Protection using strain RB51 with TLR agonists was associated with increased IgG2a and IgG1 in the (bronchoalveolar lavage) BAL and serum, and increased IgA (serum). Splenocytes from strain RB51 with TLR2 vaccinated mice up-regulated antigen specific interferon-gamma and TNF-alpha production. Vaccination and challenge resulted in significant increases in activated dendritic cells (DCs), and increased CD4 and CD8 cells in the BAL. Overall, this study demonstrates the ability of TLR agonists 2 and 4 to up-regulate strain RB51 mediated protection in the lung to respiratory challenge against strain 2308. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Characterization of lesion formation in marmosets following inhalational challenge with different strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle; Nunez, Alejandro; Ngugi, Sarah A; Sinclair, Adam; Atkins, Timothy P

    2015-12-01

    The marmoset model of melioidosis was used to explore whether there was any difference in the disease presentation and/or the lesion formation following inhalational challenge with one of four strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei (K96243, 1026b, HBPUB10303a and HBPUB10134a). Marmosets were challenged with a range of bacterial doses and bacterial load, histological and physiological features were determined temporally following lethal disease. Melioidosis presented as an acute, febrile disease with bacteraemia, bacterial dissemination, necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis and pneumonia which was independent of the challenge strain. Generally, there were no major differences in the manifestation of melioidosis following challenge by the different strains of B. pseudomallei; however, there were some differences in the time to death and the severity of the pathological features. The pathological features observed in the liver and spleen of animals challenged with B. pseudomallei strain 1026b were statistically less severe (P < 0.05) and less frequent. However, more severe foci of disease were evident in the lungs of animals challenged with strain 1026b. In all cases, the lesions developed from small areas of bacteria-infected macrophages surrounded by non-infected neutrophils into large lesions with both immune cell types infected. The marmoset model was a useful tool enabling the distinction of subtle difference in the pathological response to B. pseudomallei. © 2016 Crown copyright. International Journal of Experimental Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Company of the International Journal of Experimental Pathology (CIJEP).

  18. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in the three standard laboratory mouse strains: developmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiaderkiewicz, Jan; Głowacka, Marta; Grabowska, Marta; Jarosław-Jerzy, Barski

    2013-01-01

    Mice, similarly to some other rodent species, communicate with specialized sounds in the ultrasonic range called ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). Evaluation of this behavioral activity enables estimation of the social interactions in animal models of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Because transgenic mouse models are generated, in most cases, on the mixed 129SV/C57BL6 genetic background, we were interested if parameters that characterize USV differ between these two mouse strains. In addition, we wanted to compare these strains with the BALB/c line. In order to analyze USV, we applied the standard isolation test to newborn animals and compared standard parameters. Obtained results indicate clear differences between the 129SV and C57BL6 strains in respect to all analyzed USV parameters. Both strains behave also differently when compared with the BALB/c strain. For this reason in experiments utilizing transgenic animals, contribution of various genetic backgrounds has to be carefully considered.

  19. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic sonoelastography, and strain ratio evaluation of lymph nodes with histology as gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Hansen, Tine Plato

    2012-01-01

    . Endoscopic sonoelastography (ESE) assesses the elasticity of lymph nodes and has been used to differentiate lymph nodes with promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS, EUS - FNA, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio using histology as the gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients...... - FNM technique enabled the identification of a specific lymph node and thereby the use of histology as gold standard. ESE and ESE-strain ratio were no better than standard EUS in differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes in patients with resectable upper gastrointestinal cancer....

  20. Antibacterial activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. extract against standard bacteria and isolated strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Omidpanah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have been trying to develop new broad-spectrum antibiotics against the infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites for many decades. Prolonged usage of the antibiotics has led to the emergence of drug resistance among bacteria; therefore, there is a tremendous need for novel antimicrobial agents from different sources such as plants which are used in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial effect of Achillea tenuifolia. The plant material was extracted by maceration method using methanol three times at room temperature. The extract was concentrated after removing the solvent by rotary evaporator and then lyophilized using freeze dryer. Inhibitory effect of the extract was examined against four standard bacteria strains and two isolated strains from diseased hen using disk diffusion method and microdilution method to evaluate their inhibition zone diameter (IZD and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, respectively. The results showed that the extract of the plant was active against standard strains including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis with IZDs of 10.3±0.5, 14±0.0, 12±0.0 and 11.6±0.5, respectively. However, growths of isolated strains were not inhibited in the presence of the extract. Although, the growths of isolated strains were not inhibited by the plant extract, the standard strains were moderately susceptible to the extract; among those P. aeroginosa was more sensible than other tested strains

  1. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S; Warren, Richard L; Gelhaus, H Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA "Animal Rule" 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well-characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified six strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  2. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher E. Van Zandt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs, the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA Animal Rule 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified 6 strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  3. The Next Generation Science Standards: The Features and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January of 2010, the Carnegie Corporation of New York funded a two-step process to develop a new set of state developed science standards intended to prepare students for college and career readiness in science. These new internationally benchmarked science standards, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were completed in…

  4. National Education Standards: The Complex Challenge for Educational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faidley, Ray; Musser, Steven

    1991-01-01

    National standards for education are important elements in the excellence process, but standards imposed by a central authority simply do not work in the Information Era. It would be wise to increase teachers' decision-making role in establishing and implementing local level excellence standards and train teachers to employ the Japanese "kaizen"…

  5. Protective effects of indigenous Escherichia coli against a pathogenic E. coli challenge strain in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahjen, W; Cuisiniere, T; Zentek, J

    2017-10-13

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of indigenous enterobacteria on pathogenic Escherichia coli, a challenge trial with postweaning pigs was conducted. A pathogenic E. coli strain was administered to all animals and their health was closely monitored thereafter. Faecal samples were taken from three healthy and three diarrhoeic animals. Samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar and isolates were subcultured. A soft agar overlay assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of the isolates. A total of 1,173 enterobacterial isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the E. coli challenge strain. Colony forming units of enterobacteria on MacConkey agar were not different between healthy and diarrhoeic animals in the original samples. Furthermore, numbers of isolates per animal were also not significantly different between healthy (482 isolates) and diarrhoeic animals (691 isolates). A total of 43 isolates (3.7%) with inhibitory activity against the pathogenic E. coli challenge strain were detected. All inhibitory isolates were identified as E. coli via MALDI-TOF. The isolates belonged to the phylotypes A, C and E. Many isolates (67.4%) were commensal E. coli without relevant porcine pathogenic factors, but toxin- and fimbrial genes (stx2e, fae, estIb, elt1a, fas, fan) were detected in 14 inhibitory isolates. Healthy animals showed significantly (P=0.003) more inhibitory isolates (36 of 482 isolates; 7.5%) than diseased animals (7 of 691 isolates; 1.0%). There were no significant correlations regarding phylotype or pathogenic factors between healthy and diseased animals. This study has shown that a small proportion of indigenous E. coli is able to inhibit in vitro growth of a pathogenic E. coli strain in pigs. Furthermore, healthy animals possess significantly more inhibitory E. coli strains than diarrhoeic animals. The inhibition of pathogenic E. coli by specific indigenous E. coli strains may be an underlying principle for the containment of pathogenic

  6. Genetic and Antigenic Analysis of Adenovirus Type 3 Strains Showing Intermediate Behavior in Standard Seroneutralization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia TB Moraes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available During an epidemiological survey of acute respiratory infection in Rio de Janeiro, among 208 adenovirus isolates, we found two strains that we were not able, by a standard neutralization procedure, to distinguish between type 3 or 7. However, DNA restriction pattern for the two strains with different enzymes were analyzed and showed a typical Ad3h profile. Using a cross-neutralization test in which both Ad3p and Ad7p antisera were used in different concentration against 100 TCID50 of each adenovirus standard and both isolates, we were able to confirm that the two isolates belong to serotype 3. An hemagglutination inhibition test also corroborated the identification of both strains as adenovirus type 3. Comparing Ad3h and Ad3p genome, we observed 16 different restriction enzyme sites, three of which were located in genomic regions encoding polypeptides involved in neutralization sites

  7. Standardization of health informatics--results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, G O

    2002-01-01

    This review article aims to highlight the importance of standards for effective communication and provides an overview of international standardization activities. This article is based on the experience of the author of European standardization in CEN, which he leads, and the global work of ISO, where he is leading the security working group, and an overview of the work of DICOM, IEEE and HL7, partly using their web presentations. Health communication is highly dependent of the general development of information technology with standards coming from ISO/IEC JTCI, ITU and several other organizations e.g. IETF, the World Wide Web consortium and Open group. A number of standardization initiatives have been in progress for more than ten years with the aim to facilitate different aspects of the exchange of health information. Electronic record architecture, Message structures, Concept representation, Device communication including imaging and Security are the main areas. Important results have been achieved, and in some fields and parts of the world, standards are widely used today. Unfortunately, we are still facing the fact that most healthcare information systems cannot exchange information with all systems for which this would be desired. Either the existing standards are not sufficiently implemented, or the required standards and necessary national implementation guidelines do not yet exist. This causes unacceptable risks to patients, inefficient use of healthcare resources, and sub-optimal development of medical knowledge. Fortunately, the different bodies are now largely co-operating to achieve global consensus.

  8. Challenges for emerging new electronics standards for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    A unique effort is underway between industry and the international physics community to extend the Telecom industry's Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA and MicroTCA) to meet future needs of the physics machine controls, instrumentation and detector communities. New standard extensions for physics are described which have been designed to deliver unprecedented performance and high subsystem availability for accelerator controls, instrumentation and data acquisition. Key technical features include an out-of-band imbedded standard Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) system to manage hot-swap module replacement and hardware-software fail-over. New software standards or guidelines are in development which will extend the reach of platform independent software standards to simplify design of low level drivers. Efforts to make the new standards broadly available in the marketplace through lab-industry collaboration are discussed. (author)

  9. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch strain differences in disease resistance and non-specific immunity, following immersion challenges with Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfry, Shannon K.; Maule, Alec G.; Iwama, George K.

    2001-01-01

    Two strains of freshwater-reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were compared for differences in the activity of selected non-specific immune factors before and after lethal and non-lethal immersion challenges with the marine bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum (Vang). Two disease challenge experiments were performed. The first experimental challenge resulted in no mortality; however, significant strain and challenge treatment effects were detected at Day 16 post-challenge. Strain differences in plasma lysozyme activity were found in pre-challenge samples. The second challenge experiment compared the same strains of coho salmon following immersion challenges in different doses of Vang. The fish were sampled at Days 0, 2, 7, and 18 post-challenge and mortality, plasma lysozyme, and anterior kidney phagocyte respiratory burst activity were compared. There were significant strain differences in mortality in the high dose group. The more disease-resistant strain was found to have higher levels of plasma lysozyme and anterior kidney phagocyte respiratory burst activity. These strain differences were detected at various times in the lethal (high dose) and non-lethal challenge groups. There was a clear relationship between the enhanced survival of the more disease-resistant strain and a more sustained, elevated non-specific immune response following the experimental disease challenges. The results of this study suggest that the basis for strain differences in innate disease resistance is related to the ability of the fish to respond quickly to the initial infection and to maintain the response until the infection is quelled.

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic sonoelastography, and strain ratio evaluation of lymph nodes with histology as gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Hansen, Tine Plato

    2012-01-01

    . Endoscopic sonoelastography (ESE) assesses the elasticity of lymph nodes and has been used to differentiate lymph nodes with promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS, EUS - FNA, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio using histology as the gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients......, EUS - FNA and EUS - FNM were performed. The marked lymph node was isolated during surgery for histological examination. RESULTS: The marked lymph node was isolated for separate histological examination in 56 patients, of whom 22 (39 %) had malignant lymph nodes and 34 (61 %) had benign lymph nodes...... - FNM technique enabled the identification of a specific lymph node and thereby the use of histology as gold standard. ESE and ESE-strain ratio were no better than standard EUS in differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes in patients with resectable upper gastrointestinal cancer....

  11. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day...... to be invasive in orally challenged chickens as well as in three different human epithelial cell lines.......-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown...... to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  12. Challenging the Standard Model with the muon g− 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The discrepancy between experiment and the Standard Model prediction of the muon −2 is reviewed. The possibility to bridge it by hypothetical increases in the hadronic cross-section used to determine the leading hadronic contribution to the latter is analysed.

  13. Challenging the Standard Model with the muon g − 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the muon g−2 is reviewed. The possibility to bridge it by hypothetical increases in the hadronic cross-section used to determine the leading hadronic contribution to the latter is analysed. Keywords. Muon anomalous magnetic moment; Standard Model Higgs boson. PACS Nos 13.40.Em; 14.60.Ef; 12.15.Lk; 14.80.Bn. 1.

  14. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  15. ERS technical standard on bronchial challenge testing : General considerations and performance of methacholine challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Allan L.; Wanger, Jack; Cockcroft, Donald W.; Culver, Bruce H.; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Diamant, Zuzana; Gauvreau, Gail; Hall, Graham L.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Horvath, Ildiko; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Joos, Guy; Kaminsky, David A.; Laube, Beth L.; Leuppi, Joerg D.; Sterk, Peter J.

    This international task force report updates general considerations for bronchial challenge testing and the performance of the methacholine challenge test. There are notable changes from prior recommendations in order to accommodate newer delivery devices. Rather than basing the test result upon a

  16. ERS technical standard on bronchial challenge testing: general considerations and performance of methacholine challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Allan L.; Wanger, Jack; Cockcroft, Donald W.; Culver, Bruce H.; Diamant, Zuzana; Gauvreau, Gail; Hall, Graham L.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Horvath, Ildiko; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Joos, Guy; Kaminsky, David A.; Laube, Beth L.; Leuppi, Joerg D.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    This international task force report updates general considerations for bronchial challenge testing and the performance of the methacholine challenge test. There are notable changes from prior recommendations in order to accommodate newer delivery devices. Rather than basing the test result upon a

  17. Standard test method for plastic strain ratio r for sheet metal

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers special tension testing for the measurement of the plastic strain ratio, r, of sheet metal intended for deep-drawing applications. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Key challenges for nanotechnology: Standardization of ecotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Mendoza, Gemma

    2017-04-03

    Nanotechnology is expected to contribute to the protection of the environment, but many uncertainties exist regarding the environmental and human implications of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). Contradictory results have been reported for their ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms, which constitute one of the most important pathways for their entrance and transfer throughout the food web. The present review is focused on the international strategies that are laying the foundations of the ecotoxicological assessment of MNMs. Specific advice is provided on the preparation of MNM dispersions in the culture media of the organisms, which is considered a key factor to overcome the limitations in the standardization of the test methodologies.

  19. The challenges of measuring in vivo knee collateral ligament strains using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Laura C; Slane, Josh A; D'hooge, Jan; Scheys, Lennart

    2017-08-16

    Ultrasound-based methods have shown promise in their ability to characterize non-uniform deformations in large energy-storing tendons such as the Achilles and patellar tendons, yet applications to other areas of the body have been largely unexplored. The noninvasive quantification of collateral ligament strain could provide an important clinical metric of knee frontal plane stability, which is relevant in ligament injury and for measuring outcomes following total knee arthroplasty. In this pilot cadaveric experiment, we investigated the possibility of measuring collateral ligament strain with our previously validated speckle-tracking approach, but encountered a number of challenges during both data acquisition and processing. Given the clinical interest in this type of tool, and the fact that this is a developing area of research, the goal of this article is to transparently describe this pilot study, both in terms of methods and results, while also identifying specific challenges to this work and areas for future study. Some challenges faced relate generally to speckle-tracking of soft tissues (e.g. the limitations of using a 2D imaging modality to characterize 3D motion), while others are specific to this application (e.g. the small size and complex anatomy of the collateral ligaments). This work illustrates a clear need for additional studies, particularly relating to the collection of ground-truth data and more thorough validation work. These steps will be critical prior to the translation of ultrasound-based measures of collateral ligament strains into the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat Shock-Enhanced Conjugation Efficiency in Standard Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ximin; Ardeshna, Devarshi; Lin, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. It has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. In this study, the effect of heat shock on C. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the underlying mechanisms were examined. With a modified Escherichia coli donor strain, different C. jejuni recipient strains displayed significant variation in conjugation efficiency ranging from 6.2 × 10(-8) to 6.0 × 10(-3) CFU per recipient cell. Despite reduced viability, heat shock of standard C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains (e.g., 48 to 54°C for 30 to 60 min) could dramatically enhance C. jejuni conjugation efficiency up to 1,000-fold. The phenotype of the heat shock-enhanced conjugation in C. jejuni recipient cells could be sustained for at least 9 h. Filtered supernatant from the heat shock-treated C. jejuni cells could not enhance conjugation efficiency, which suggests that the enhanced conjugation efficiency is independent of secreted substances. Mutagenesis analysis indicated that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats system and the selected restriction-modification systems (Cj0030/Cj0031, Cj0139/Cj0140, Cj0690c, and HsdR) were dispensable for heat shock-enhanced conjugation in C. jejuni. Taking all results together, this study demonstrated a heat shock-enhanced conjugation efficiency in standard C. jejuni strains, leading to an optimized conjugation protocol for molecular manipulation of this organism. The findings from this study also represent a significant step toward elucidation of the molecular mechanism of conjugative gene transfer in C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. [Monitoring of metastatic renal cell carcinoma--standards and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapies has led to a novel situation regarding monitoring of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC): patients treated with these new drugs have a significantly longer life expectancy than just a few years ago. In order to maximize the treatment benefit, new demands have come up on the assessment of tumor progression: timing and interpretation of imaging studies are crucial for optimal therapeutic management. Detailed knowledge of the new compounds' mode of action is important as it is different from that of classic cytotoxic drugs. The RECIST criteria constitute the standard for evaluation. Following recommendations made by the German Cancer Society's (DKG) interdisciplinary task force, targeted therapies should strive for a sufficient treatment duration in each line of therapy in order to achieve the best therapeutic outcome. Treatment is continued until clinical progression occurs. Assessing therapeutic efficacy with adequate imaging techniques 6-9 weeks after the beginning of therapy is recommended. Subsequent follow-up examinations should be repeated using identical imaging modalities every 2-3 months. For cyclically applied drugs such as Sunitinib, examinations should be carried out at identical time points within the treatment cycle. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs from three strains of Marburg virus challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Danher; Hevey, Michael; Juompan, Laure Y.; Trubey, Charles M.; Raja, Nicholas U.; Deitz, Stephen B.; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Luo Min; Yu Hong; Swain, Benjamin M.; Moore, Kevin M.; Dong, John Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Marburg virus (MARV), an African filovirus closely related to the Ebola virus, causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% mortality. Currently, treatment of disease is only supportive, and no vaccines are available to prevent spread of MARV infections. In order to address this need, we have developed and characterized a novel recombinant vaccine that utilizes a single complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine (cAdVax) to overexpress a MARV glycoprotein (GP) fusion protein derived from the Musoke and Ci67 strains of MARV. Vaccination with the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine led to efficient production of MARV-specific antibodies in both mice and guinea pigs. Significantly, guinea pigs vaccinated with at least 5 x 10 7 pfu of cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine were 100% protected against lethal challenges by the Musoke, Ci67 and Ravn strains of MARV, making it a vaccine with trivalent protective efficacy. Therefore, the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine serves as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent and contain multi-strain infections by MARV

  3. Intraspecies diversity of Lactobacillus sakei response to oxidative stress and variability of strain performance in mixed strains challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Morgan; Zagorec, Monique; Chaillou, Stéphane; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a meat-borne lactic acid bacterium species exhibiting a wide genomic diversity. We have investigated the diversity of response to various oxidative compounds, between L. sakei strains, among a collection representing the genomic diversity. We observed various responses to the different compounds as well as a diversity of response depending on the aeration conditions used for cell growth. A principal component analysis revealed two main phenotypic groups, partially correlating with previously described genomic clusters. We designed strains mixes composed of three different strains, in order to examine the behavior of each strain, when cultured alone or in the presence of other strains. The strains composing the mixtures were chosen as diverse as possible, i.e. exhibiting diverse responses to oxidative stress and belonging to different genomic clusters. Growth and survival rates of each strain were monitored under various aeration conditions, with or without heme supplementation. The results obtained suggest that some strains may act as "helper" or "burden" strains depending on the oxidative conditions encountered during incubation. This study confirms that resistance to oxidative stress is extremely variable within the L. sakei species and that this property should be considered when investigating starter performance in the complex meat bacterial ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness KIc of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the Annexes. Note 1—Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of thinner materials that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1). There is no standard test method for such thin materials. 1.2 This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for KIc testing. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional a...

  5. Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness KIc of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2013-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the Annexes. Note 1—Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of thinner materials that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1). There is no standard test method for such thin materials. 1.2 This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for KIc testing. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional a...

  6. Standard YPD, even supplemented with extra nutrients, does not always compensate growth defects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae auxotrophic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacho, Isaac; Teixidó, Francisco; Velázquez, Rocío; Hernández, Luis M; Olivero, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    Conventional complex media are routinely used to grow auxotrophic strains under the assumption that they can compensate the latter's nutritional deficiencies. We here demonstrate that this is not always true. This study compares the growth parameters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S288C) and its derived auxotrophic strains FY1679-14C and BY4741 in synthetic minimal medium (SD), standard YPD medium from two of the most commonly used suppliers, or modified YPD medium. Maximum specific growth rates of auxotrophic strains were slightly lower than the prototrophic case in all growth conditions tested. Also, the biomass production of auxotrophic strains in synthetic medium was slightly less than the prototrophic case. However in both of the two standard YPD media used, the biomass production of both auxotrophic strains was markedly lower than that of the prototrophic one. The extent of the differences depended on the medium used. Indeed in one of the two YPD media, the lower biomass production of auxotrophic strains was evident even at the diauxic shift. Uracil seems to be the main limiting growth factor for both auxotrophic strains growing in the two standard YPD medium tested. No YPD media or specific supplement was able to compensate for the effect of the auxotrophic mutations in the multiple auxotrophic marker strain BY4741. The fact that auxotrophic strains grew poorly on YPD when compared to their prototrophic counterpart indicates that standard YPD medium is not sufficient to overcome the effect of auxotrophic mutations.

  7. 34 CFR 200.1 - State responsibilities for developing challenging academic standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... academic standards. 200.1 Section 200.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC... Assessments § 200.1 State responsibilities for developing challenging academic standards. (a) Academic...

  8. Vaccination with a BCG strain overexpressing Ag85B protects cattle against Mycobacterium bovis challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rizzi

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle but also infects other animals, including humans. Previous studies in cattle have demonstrated that the protection induced by BCG is not complete. In order to improve the protection efficacy of BCG, in this study we overexpressed Ag85B in a BCG Pasteur strain, by using an expression system based on the use of an auxotrophic strain for the leucine amino acid, and complementation with leuD. We found that vaccination of cattle with BCG overexpressing Ag85B induced higher production of IL-17 and IL-4 mRNA upon purified protein derivative (PPDB stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs than vaccination with BCG. Moreover, the IL-17 mRNA expression after vaccination negatively correlated with disease severity resulting from a subsequent challenge with M. bovis, suggesting that this cytokine is a potential biomarker of cattle protection against bovine tuberculosis. Importantly, vaccination with the recombinant BCG vaccine protected cattle better than the wild-type BCG Pasteur.

  9. Efficacy of Dart or Booster Vaccination with Strain RB51 in Protecting Bison against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, S. C.; Johnson, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (hand RB51), by single pneumatic dart delivery (dart RB51), or as two vaccinations approximately 13 months apart (booster RB51) in comparison to control bison. All bison were challenged intraconjunctivally in midgestation with 107 CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 (S2308). Bison were necropsied and sampled within 72 h of abortion or delivery of a live calf....

  10. Challenges of Agro-Food Standards Conformity: Lessons from East Africa and Policy Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Standards are used to govern an increasing share of global food trade, and have been interpreted by academics both as market access barriers and opportunities for low-income country producers, exporters and workers. Donors have mostly chosen to treat them as opportunities and today finance...... a variety of programmes and projects aimed at supporting standards development and conformity. This article contributes to the critical literature discussing the challenges and potentials of standards conformity and supplies policy recommendations for future interventions. It reports the results...... of a research programme on standards conformity in East Africa. These demonstrate that most interventions underestimate the nature of the challenges faced and that significant impacts are achieved only under rather restricted conditions. The solutions lay not only in more selective support to standard...

  11. International Life Sciences Institute North America Listeria monocytogenes strain collection: development of standard Listeria monocytogenes strain sets for research and validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugett, Eric; Fortes, Esther; Nnoka, Catherine; Wiedmann, Martin

    2006-12-01

    Research and development efforts on bacterial foodborne pathogens, including the development of novel detection and subtyping methods, as well as validation studies for intervention strategies can greatly be enhanced through the availability and use of standardized strain collections. These types of strain collections are available for some foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. We have developed a standard Listeria monocytogenes strain collection that has not been previously available. The strain collection includes (i) a diversity set of 25 isolates chosen to represent a genetically diverse set of L. monocytogenes isolates as well as a single hemolytic Listeria innocua strain and (ii) an outbreak set, which includes 21 human and food isolates from nine major human listeriosis outbreaks that occurred between 1981 and 2002. The diversity set represents all three genetic L. monocytogenes lineages (I, n = 9; II, n = 9; and III, n = 6) as well as nine different serotypes. Molecular subtyping by EcoRI automated ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with AscI and ApaI separated the 25 isolates in the diversity set into 23 ribotypes and 25 PFGE types, confirming that this isolate set represents considerable genetic diversity. Molecular subtyping of isolates in the outbreak set confirmed that human and food isolates were identical by ribotype and PFGE, except for human and food isolates for two outbreaks, which displayed related but distinct PFGE patterns. Subtype and source data for all isolates in this strain collection are available on the Internet and are linked to the PathogenTracker database (www.pathogentracker.com), which allows the addition of new, relevant information on these isolates, including links to publications that have used isolates from this collection. We have thus developed a core L. monocytogenes strain collection, which will provide a resource for L. monocytogenes research and development efforts with

  12. Building an Online Course Based on the E-Learning Standards: Guidelines, Issues, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permanand Mohan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for building an online course based on the e-learning standards. It discusses the steps that should be followed to build a digital repository that facilitates the storage, retrieval, and reuse of the learning resources that comprise an online course in a standard way. The paper also examines various shortcomings associated with adopting the e-learning standards that threaten the viability of widespread reuse of learning resources. Finally, the paper highlights research challenges that must be surmounted in order to gain the benefits of reusable digital learning resources.

  13. [The challenges of standardization in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-04-01

    The generalized data concerning the conditions of application of regulations of national standards in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations is presented. The primary information was provided by 14 regions of 6 federal administrative okrugs of Russia. The causes of challenges of application of requirements of standards are presented. They are mostly related with insufficient financial support, lacking of manpower, difficulties with reagents supply, inadequate technical maintenance of devices and absence of support of administration of medical organizations. The recommendations are formulated concerning the necessity of publishing the document of Minzdrav of Russia to determine the need in application of standards in laboratory practice.

  14. Implementation of a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) for Food Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberloff, Tander; Parambi, Ron; Bartnikas, Lisa M; Broyles, Ana Dioun; Hamel, Victoria; Timmons, Karol G; Miller, D Marlowe; Graham, Dionne A; Schneider, Lynda C; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    Oral food challenges (OFCs) are routinely used to confirm ongoing food allergy. Serum-specific IgE (sIgE) and skin prick testing (SPT) are imperfect predictors of which patients will pass OFCs. The objective of this study was to describe the design and implementation of a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) to study and iteratively improve sIgE and SPT thresholds to determine when and where to conduct OFCs for patients. Allergists consulted recommended sIgE and SPT thresholds when ordering challenges although diversions were permitted. Criteria were iteratively improved after periodic analyses of challenge outcome and diversions. Over 3 years, allergists ordered 2368 food challenges for 1580 patients with histories of IgE-mediated reactions to food: 1386 in an outpatient clinic and 945 in a higher resource infusion center. Reactions to challenge were observed in 13% of clinic and 23% of infusion center challenges. Six patients challenged in clinic required treatment with epinephrine compared with 22 in the infusion center. The need for epinephrine was more common in patients with asthma-5% of asthmatic patients required epinephrine compared with 1% of nonasthmatic patients (P challenges ordered in the higher resource location. By setting and continually refining sIgE and SPT recommendations using the SCAMP method, allergists can better determine the risk of severe reaction and triage patients to the appropriate setting for an OFC. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Photodynamic action of LED-light on standard and clinical strains of Staphylococci processed by Brilliant Green and Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-03-01

    We assume that the effectiveness of phototherapy against microorganisms may be increased if together with the photosensitizer a photocatalyst will be used. It was found that the combination of TiO2-nanoparticles and Brilliant Green at two-wavelength irradiation with blue (405 nm) and red (625 nm) light provides a strong antimicrobial effect on standard and clinical strains of Staphylococci.

  16. Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Helic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

  17. Vaccination with Attenuated Neisseria meningitidis Strains Protects against Challenge with Live Meningococci

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanwen; Sun, Yao-hui; Ison, Cathy; Levine, Myron M.; Tang, Christoph M.

    2004-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent infection with serogroup B N. meningitidis strains, the leading cause of meningococcal meningitis in Europe and North America. Here we describe the construction and characterization of two attenuated serogroup B N. meningitidis strains, YH102 (MC58Δsia ΔrfaF) and YH103 (MC58Δsia ΔmetH). Both strains are markedly attenuated in their capacity to cause bacteremia in...

  18. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Satureja Khuzestanica J. Essential Oil against Standard and Isolated Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Akbari-Shahabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica against Listeria monocytogenes (PTCC1295 and strains isolated from breast milk show that. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, Essence of leave’s plant was extracted and identified its compounds and then carvacrol was isolated. Antibacterial activities were examined by agar dilution method against L. monocytogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC were carried out by micro dilution method. Then bacterial suspension injected the BALB/c mice. Forty-eight h after seeing the listeriosis disease signs were started the treatment. Ampicillin (10 μg/disc and trimethoprim (5 g were used as controls. Results: The results showed that the inhibitory zone diameter standard and essential oils for strains isolated species were respectively 59 and 50 mm. This amount was determined by carvacrol, respectively, 60 and 48 mm. Inhibition zone diameter measurements for standard strains of ampicillin and trimethoprim tedious strains, respectively, 21, 40, 18 and 33 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils, carvacrol and ampicillin than standard strains, respectively 1.56, 1.56 and 155×10˗8 μg/mL and MBC 3.125, 3.125 and 125×10-7 μg/mL was determined by the ratio of the strain 3.125, 3.125 and 0.0062 μg/mL and MBC was 6.25, 6.25 and 0.025 μg/mL. Conclusion: This study showed that bacterial cleansing properties of essential oil of this plant have a strong and effective combination that is carvacrol.

  19. Effect of challenge of pigs previously immunised with inactivated vaccines containing homologous and heterologous Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarreal Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Although vaccination is an important control tool, the results observed under field conditions are variable. This may be due to antigenic differences between the strains circulating in pig herds and the vaccine strain. This study compared the protective efficacy of four bacterins against challenge infection with a highly virulent field strain of M. hyopneumoniae. Seventy eight, one-week old piglets were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, 14 piglets each, and a negative control group (F consisting of 8 piglets. All pigs were injected at 1 (D7 and 4 weeks of age (D28, with 2 ml of either a placebo or a bacterin based on selected M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely A (F7.2C, B (F20.1L, C (B2V1W20 1A-F, D (J strain, E (placebo; positive control, F (placebo; negative control. At D56, all pigs except those of group F were challenged intratracheally with 7 ml culture medium containing 107 CCU/ml of M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C. All pigs were euthanized and necropsied at D84. The severity of coughing and pneumonia lesions were the main parameters. Immunofluorescence (IF testing, nested PCR testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and serology for M. hyopneumoniae were also performed. Results The different bacterins only slightly improved clinical symptoms (average 0.38 in vaccinated groups vs. 0.45 in group E and histopathological lung lesions (average 3.20 in vaccinated groups vs. 3.45 in group E, but did not improve macroscopic lung lesions (score 4.30 vs. 4.03 in group E. None of the vaccines was significantly and/or consistently better or worse than the other ones. All bacterins evoked a serological response in the vaccinated animals. All pigs, except those from group F, were positive with nPCR in BAL fluid at D84. Conclusion The bacterins did not induce a clear overall protection against challenge infection, and there were no

  20. Effect of challenge of pigs previously immunised with inactivated vaccines containing homologous and heterologous Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Iris; Vranckx, Katleen; Calus, Dries; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2012-01-06

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Although vaccination is an important control tool, the results observed under field conditions are variable. This may be due to antigenic differences between the strains circulating in pig herds and the vaccine strain. This study compared the protective efficacy of four bacterins against challenge infection with a highly virulent field strain of M. hyopneumoniae. Seventy eight, one-week old piglets were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E), 14 piglets each, and a negative control group (F) consisting of 8 piglets. All pigs were injected at 1 (D7) and 4 weeks of age (D28), with 2 ml of either a placebo or a bacterin based on selected M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely A (F7.2C), B (F20.1L), C (B2V1W20 1A-F), D (J strain), E (placebo; positive control), F (placebo; negative control). At D56, all pigs except those of group F were challenged intratracheally with 7 ml culture medium containing 107 CCU/ml of M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C. All pigs were euthanized and necropsied at D84. The severity of coughing and pneumonia lesions were the main parameters. Immunofluorescence (IF) testing, nested PCR testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serology for M. hyopneumoniae were also performed. The different bacterins only slightly improved clinical symptoms (average 0.38 in vaccinated groups vs. 0.45 in group E) and histopathological lung lesions (average 3.20 in vaccinated groups vs. 3.45 in group E), but did not improve macroscopic lung lesions (score 4.30 vs. 4.03 in group E). None of the vaccines was significantly and/or consistently better or worse than the other ones. All bacterins evoked a serological response in the vaccinated animals. All pigs, except those from group F, were positive with nPCR in BAL fluid at D84. The bacterins did not induce a clear overall protection against challenge infection, and there were no significant differences in protective

  1. Development of fowl cholera vaccine: I. Protection of Pasteurella multocida local isolate vaccine against challenge of homologous and heterologous strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida locally isolated from chicken and ducks (BCC 299, BCC 2331, DY1, DY2, 12TG, 15TG andimported strains (BCC 1359, 1362; HEDDLESTON group 1 and 6 respectively had been tested for its pathogenicity in theprevious study. The aims of this experiment were to study the preparation of local isolate pasteurellosis vaccines and to determine the protective effect of that vaccines in chicken against the highly pathogenic local isolates of P. multocida. Killed monovalent, bivalent and polyvalent pasteurellosis vaccines were prepared and each was adjunvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel at a final concentration of 1.5% and the cell concentration was equal to the No 10 of MacFarland tube standard. Each of the vaccine prepared was used to vaccinated on a group of six week old of layer chicken (8 per group. Each chicken was subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml of vaccine, four weeks later each was boostered with similar vaccine with the same dose. Two weeks after giving the boostered vaccine each group of chicken were challenged, half with life bacterium of P. Multocida BCC 2331 and other with DY2. Any chick which survive after challenge was designated as protected by vaccination. Before vaccination 1 ml of blood was drawn from each of chicken and then two weeks apart up to challenge. Serum from each sample was separated and kept in deep freeze until tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Chicken vaccinated with killed whole cell P. multocida vaccines of monovalent (BCC 2331 or DY2 and bivalent (BCC 2331 + DY2 were protected against challenge with live bacterium of either BCC 2331 or DY2 at rate 67-100%. There was no protection in chicken vaccinated with either BCC 299, DY1, 12TG, 15TG, BCC 1359, or 1362 killed vaccine. Similarly no protection of chicken vaccinated with either DY1 + BCC299, 12TG + 15TG or BCC 1359 + BCC 1362 bivalent vaccines. The protection rate of the polyvalent local isolate vaccine was at average 50-75%. All

  2. Data Friction Meets Social Friction: Challenges for standardization in emerging fields of geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darch, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    Many interdisciplinary endeavors in the geosciences occur in emergent scientific fields. These fields are often characterized by heterogeneity of methods for production and collection of data, and by data scarcity. This paper presents findings about processes of methods standardization from a long-term case study of an emergent, data-scarce field, the deep subseafloor biosphere. Researchers come from many physical and life science backgrounds to study interactions between microbial life in the seafloor and the physical environment they inhabit. Standardization of methods for collecting data promises multiple benefits to this field, including: Addressing data scarcity through enabling greater data reuse and promoting better interoperability with large scale infrastructures; Fostering stronger collaborative links between researchers distributed across institutions and backgrounds. Ongoing standardization efforts in the field do not only involve scientific judgments about which among a range of methods is most efficient, least biased, or most reliable. Instead, these efforts also encounter multiple difficult social challenges, including: Lack of agreed upon criteria about how to judge competing methods: should efficiency, bias, or reliability take priority?; Lack of resources to carry out the work necessary to determine standards, particularly acute in emergent fields; Concerns that standardization is premature in such a new field, foreclosing the possibility of better methods being developed in the future; Concerns that standardization could prematurely shut down important scientific debates; Concerns among some researchers that their own work may become obsolete should the methods chosen as standard be different from their own. The success of these standardization efforts will depend on addressing both scientific and social dimensions, to ensure widespread acceptance among researchers in the field.

  3. Methyltransferase-defective avian metapneumovirus vaccines provide complete protection against challenge with the homologous Colorado strain and the heterologous Minnesota strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Rauf, Abdul; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shilo, Konstantin; Yu, Qingzhong; Saif, Y M; Lu, Xingmeng; Yu, Lian; Li, Jianrong

    2014-11-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. Since its discovery in the 1970s, aMPV has been recognized as an economically important pathogen in the poultry industry worldwide. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2'-O positions. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant aMPV (raMPV) Colorado strains carrying mutations in the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding site in the CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2'-O, but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) young turkeys. Importantly, turkeys vaccinated with these MTase-defective raMPVs triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody and were completely protected from challenge with homologous aMPV Colorado strain and heterologous aMPV Minnesota strain. Collectively, our results indicate (i) that aMPV lacking 2'-O methylation is highly attenuated in vitro and in vivo and (ii) that inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for aMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses. Paramyxoviruses include many economically and agriculturally important viruses such as avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human parainfluenza virus type 3, and measles virus, and highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus. For many of them, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral drug. These viruses share common strategies for viral gene

  4. Angler apps as a source of recreational fisheries data: opportunities, challenges and proposed standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturelli, Paul A.; Hyder, Kieran; Skov, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Recreational fisheries surveys are limited in time and place in many countries. This lack of data limits scientific understanding and sustainable management. Smartphone applications (apps) allow anglers to record the details of their fishing trips and catches. In this study, we describe...... the opportunities and challenges associated with angler apps as a source of recreational fisheries data, and propose minimum standards for data collection via angler apps. Angler apps are a potentially valuable source of conventional and novel data that are both frequent and extensive, and an opportunity to engage...... be supported through consultation and research. Angler apps have the potential to fundamentally change how anglers interact with the resource and with management...

  5. PFGE standard operating procedures for Listeria monocytogenes: harmonizing the typing of food and clinical strains in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelon, Damien; Félix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noemie; Mariet, Jean-François; Larsson, Jonas T; Møller-Nielsen, Eva; Roussel, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for a severe disease known as listeriosis. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) coordinates a network of national public health laboratories (NPHLs) in charge of typing clinical strains. In food, it is the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes (EURL Lm), which manages a network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) standard operating procedure (EURL SOP) has been used routinely at the EURL Lm since 2007. The EURL Lm has recommended that NRLs use the EURL SOP, whereas the Statens Serum Institut (SSI), under contract for ECDC, requested that NPHLs use Halpins' SOP (HSOP) published in 2010 for the PulseNet USA network. An update of Halpins' SOP (uHSOP) was published in 2013. To facilitate the exchange of profiles among human and food European reference laboratories, it is crucial to ensure that the PFGE profiles obtained with these different SOPs are comparable. The aim here was to compare the EURL SOP with HSOP and uHSOP. The panel comprised 114 well-characterized SSI/EURL strains. All were characterized at the EURL using both the EURL SOP and uHSOP. Seventy of the 114 strains were also characterized at the SSI using HSOP. The EURL SOP and uHSOP produced indistinguishable combined (ApaI/AscI) profiles for the 114 strains tested. The EURL SOP and HSOP produced indistinguishable combined profiles for 69 of the 70 strains tested. One strain displayed for the AscI profile an additional low-intensity band at 184 kbp with HSOP. For this strain, SSI and EUR Lm had already observed the same profile from NPHLs and NRLs. However, this deviation is minor as it accounted for about 1% of all the 114 combined profiles. This study should facilitate the exchange of reproducible PFGE profiles among human and food reference laboratories.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  7. Global value chains and agrifood standards: Challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonkoo; Gereffi, Gary; Beauvais, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains. PMID:21149723

  8. Global value chains and agrifood standards: challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonkoo; Gereffi, Gary; Beauvais, Janet

    2012-07-31

    The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains.

  9. Earth & Space Science in the Next Generation Science Standards: Promise, Challenge, and Future Actions. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims

  10. Fundamental challenging problems for developing new nuclear safety standard computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.; Wong, A.E.; Wong, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the claims of the US Basic patents number 5,084,232; 5,848,377 and 6,430,516 that can be obtained from typing the Patent Numbers into the Box of the Web site http://164.195.100.11/netahtml/srchnum.htm and their associated published technical papers having been presented and published at International Conferences in the last three years and that all these had been sent into US-NRC by E-mail on March 26, 2003 at 2:46 PM., three fundamental challenging problems for developing new nuclear safety standard computer codes had been presented at the US-NRC RIC2003 Session W4. 2:15-3:15 PM. at the Washington D.C. Capital Hilton Hotel, Presidential Ballroom on April 16, 2003 in front of more than 800 nuclear professionals from many countries worldwide. The objective and scope of this paper is to invite all nuclear professionals to examine and evaluate all the current computer codes being used in their own countries by means of comparison of numerical data from these three specific openly challenging fundamental problems in order to set up a global safety standard for all nuclear power plants in the world. (authors)

  11. Standard Test Method for Autogenous Strain of Cement Paste and Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lura, Pietro; Goodwin, Fred

    This test method measures the bulk strain of a sealed cement paste or mortar specimen, including those containing admixtures, various supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), and other fine materials, at constant temperature and not subjected to external forces, from the time of final setting ...

  12. An In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Disinfectants on Standard and Clinical Microbial Strains on Heat Cure Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawashe, Karuna Gajanan; Tewary, Shivsagar; Sanyal, Pronob Kumar; Nilesh, Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Oral cavity is colonised by numerous micro-organisms that form a biofilm on the acrylic resin. Hence, routine hygiene is essential to prevent oral mucosal inflammation and lesions. Knowledge of appropriate disinfecting agents for acrylic resins is crucial in this context. To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four commercially available disinfectants on heat cure acrylic resin specimens contaminated with standard and clinical strains of two micro-organisms commonly inhabiting the oral microflora. Two hundred acrylic resin specimens (n=200), 10 in each group were contaminated in vitro with 1x10 6 cells/ml suspensions of standard and clinical strains of micro-organisms (Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans) and were immersed in four disinfectants (1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% glutaraldehyde and 3.8% sodium perborate) for 10 minutes. The control group was not subjected to any disinfection process. For collection of clinical strains, oral swab was passed over the buccal mucosa and grown on blood agar culture media. Organism confirmation was done by growing them on selective culture media. Final counts of micro-organisms per ml were performed by plating method for evaluation of microbial level reduction. Results obtained were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test. Standard strains of Candida albicans (C) and Streptoccocus mutans (S) subjected to various disinfectants showed varied mean Colony Forming Units per ml (CFU/ml) from disinfectants showed varied mean CFU/ml from 10 5 ). All intergroup comparisons were highly significant (p0.05; NS). Almost 1% sodium hypochlorite was found to be the most effective disinfectant for both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans . The least effective disinfectant being: 3.8% sodium perborate.

  13. An In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Disinfectants on Standard and Clinical Microbial Strains on Heat Cure Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, Shivsagar; Sanyal, Pronob Kumar; Nilesh, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral cavity is colonised by numerous micro-organisms that form a biofilm on the acrylic resin. Hence, routine hygiene is essential to prevent oral mucosal inflammation and lesions. Knowledge of appropriate disinfecting agents for acrylic resins is crucial in this context. Aim To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four commercially available disinfectants on heat cure acrylic resin specimens contaminated with standard and clinical strains of two micro-organisms commonly inhabiting the oral microflora. Materials and Methods Two hundred acrylic resin specimens (n=200), 10 in each group were contaminated in vitro with 1x106 cells/ml suspensions of standard and clinical strains of micro-organisms (Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans) and were immersed in four disinfectants (1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% glutaraldehyde and 3.8% sodium perborate) for 10 minutes. The control group was not subjected to any disinfection process. For collection of clinical strains, oral swab was passed over the buccal mucosa and grown on blood agar culture media. Organism confirmation was done by growing them on selective culture media. Final counts of micro-organisms per ml were performed by plating method for evaluation of microbial level reduction. Results obtained were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results Standard strains of Candida albicans (C) and Streptoccocus mutans (S) subjected to various disinfectants showed varied mean Colony Forming Units per ml (CFU/ml) from disinfectants showed varied mean CFU/ml from 105). All intergroup comparisons were highly significant (p0.05; NS). Conclusion Almost 1% sodium hypochlorite was found to be the most effective disinfectant for both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The least effective disinfectant being: 3.8% sodium perborate. PMID:28658908

  14. Development and implementation of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs in China: Progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    relatively simple techno-economic analyses used to determine its efficiency standards levels rather than the specific sets of analyses and tools used internationally. Based on international experiences, inclusion of more detailed energy consumption surveys in the Chinese national census surveys and statistical reporting systems could help provide the necessary data for more comprehensive standard-setting analyses. In terms of stakeholder participation in the standards development process, stakeholder participation in China is limited to membership on technical committees responsible for developing or revising standards and generally do not include environmental groups, consumer associations, utilities and other NGOs. Increasing stakeholder involvement to broader interest groups could help garner more support and feedback in the S&L implementation process. China has emerged as a leader in a national verification testing scheme with complementary pilot checktesting projects, but it still faces challenges with insufficient funding, low local awareness amongst some regulatory agencies and resistance to check-testing by some manufacturers, limited product sampling scope, and testing inconsistency and incomparability of results. Thus, further financial and staff resources and capacity building will be needed to overcome these remaining challenges and to expand impacts evaluations to assess the actual effectiveness of implementation and enforcement.

  15. Heat Shock-Enhanced Conjugation Efficiency in Standard Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Ximin; Ardeshna, Devarshi; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. It has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. In this study, the effect of heat shock on C. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the ...

  16. Gumboro disease: evaluation of serological and anatomopathological responses in vaccinated broiler chickens challenged with very virulent virus strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolis DA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effects of a strong type of vaccine - Moulthrop G603 º and an intermediate-plus type of vaccine - 228E º in meat-type chickens challenged with a very virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV. Blood samples and bursa of Fabricius were taken weekly up to 42 days of age. It was concluded that bursa of Fabricius weight, bursa weight:body weight ratio, body weight and antibody titer evaluated before and after challenge with vvIBDV were not enough to consistently and conclusively differentiate or estimate the protection given by vaccination. Quantitative evaluation of injury intensity and the number of altered lymphoid follicles revealed that Moulthrop G603 caused moderate microscopic lesions in one out of seven birds vaccinated at 14 days of age, while 228E vaccine did not induce IBD-typical microscopic lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Good protection against bursal microscopic lesions was obtained when a strong type of vaccine was used before challenging with vvIBDV. It was concluded that quantitative evaluation of microscopic lesions might be useful to measure the injury induced by vaccinal IBDV, as well as the level of protection and/or immunosuppression induced by IBDV challenge in vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens.

  17. Challenges of Incorporating Earth and Space Sciences into Curricula Aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards present a great opportunity for the increased exposure of contemporary geosciences into the K-12 curricula of most of the countries school. However, the manner by which the NGSS are being adopted by different schools and districts poses several challenges. So far, 13 states and Washington, D.C., have adopted the NGSS in full, accounting for about 30% of the nation's students. In addition, four states (Massachusetts, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and West Virginia), accounting for another 5% of U.S. students, have adopted new state science standards that are adapted from the NGSS, each in different ways. For West Virginia, language concerning climate change has been tempered. For Oklahoma and South Dakota, language concerning climate change has been nearly entirely removed. In addition, there are a large number of independent school districts, accounting for at least and additional 35% of the nation's students, that are in the process of designing curriculum aligned to some degree with the NGSS. These are in states that have either not yet adopted the NGSS or likely will never adopt the NGSS (at a state-wide level). This presents a challenge to the geosciences, because the level of geoscience content will greatly vary, state-to-state and district-to-district. The NGSS present the geosciences with a heavy emphasis on Earth Systems Science, particular as it relates to climate systems and human impacts on systems, but most K-12 teachers have not had exposure to the geosciences in these contexts, and will require significant professional development. In addition, the inclusion of a full year of geoscience content in high school (in addition to a year for middle school), presents another curricular challenge, as most schools have never taught this amount of geoscience to all of its students (the NGSS are designed to have all of its standards taught to all students). The NGSS also emphasizes learning through a set of 8 different practices

  18. Challenges of implementing a standardized process for discharge summaries (5 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad Almidani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discharge summaries are essential documents to provide a long-lasting record of a patient's visit to a hospital. It provides an effective method of communication between various hospital services and primary care providers.We conducted a study recently in KFSH&RC recommending that every admitted patient to the Pediatric Department must have a discharge summary initiated as soon as possible within the first five days of hospitalization and to be updated periodically until its completion on the patient's discharge day. Results of this study showed that most of the patients received their discharge summaries within the time limit as recommended by the JCIA standard. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to present our department's experience in regard to the difficulties, challenges, and outcomes of the adopted work flow for discharge summaries over a period of five years. Methods: The residents have been instructed to initiate the discharge summaries as soon as possible within the first five days of hospitalization for every patient admitted under the Department of Pediatrics regardless of the expected discharge date. Afterward, it will be the responsibility of the attending junior and senior residents to update the summaries on regular basis as long as the patient under their care. They should transfer the updated summary to the coming resident that will take over the medical care until the discharge day when the most recent update will be forwarded to the attending consultant for final review and signature. Results: Between 2011 and 2016, a significant drop in the number of delinquent records was noted. From 1131 delinquent records at the end of the fourth quarter of 2011, the number has fallen to 15 in the fourth quarter of 2016. Furthermore, compliance to JCIA documentation standards showed sustained improvement since the initiation of the project. The department used to score around 50% in the discharge documentation compliance

  19. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Johnson, C S

    2012-06-01

    This study characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (hand RB51), by single pneumatic dart delivery (dart RB51), or as two vaccinations approximately 13 months apart (booster RB51) in comparison to control bison. All bison were challenged intraconjunctivally in midgestation with 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 (S2308). Bison were necropsied and sampled within 72 h of abortion or delivery of a live calf. Compared to nonvaccinated bison, bison in the booster RB51 treatment had a reduced (P RB51 and dart RB51) did not differ (P > 0.05) from the control group in the incidence of abortion or recovery of S2308 from uterine, mammary, fetal, or maternal tissues at necropsy. Compared to nonvaccinated animals, all RB51 vaccination groups had reduced (P RB51 group having reduced (P RB51 enhances protective immunity against Brucella challenge compared to single vaccination with RB51 by hand or by pneumatic dart. Our study also suggests that an initial vaccination of calves followed by booster vaccination as yearlings should be an effective strategy for brucellosis control in bison.

  20. Vaccination with a live multi-gene deletion strain protects horses against virulent challenge with Streptococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carl; Heather, Zoe; Slater, Josh; Potts, Nicola; Steward, Karen F; Maskell, Duncan J; Fontaine, Michael C; Lee, Jeong-Jin; Smith, Ken; Waller, Andrew S

    2015-02-25

    Strangles, caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is one of the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses and there remains a significant need to develop new preventative vaccines. We generated a live vaccine strain of S. equi containing deletions in six genes: sagA, hasA, aroB, pyrC, seM and recA, which was administered to nine Welsh mountain ponies via the intramuscular route. Four vaccinated ponies developed adverse reactions following the first vaccination from which the live vaccine strain was isolated. Two of these ponies were withdrawn from the study and seven ponies received a second vaccination, one of which then developed an adverse reaction. Nine control ponies injected with culture media alone developed no adverse reactions. Following challenge with a virulent strain of S. equi, none of the seven vaccinated ponies had developed clinical signs of strangles eleven days post-challenge, compared to six of nine control ponies over the same period (P=0.0114). A lymph node abscess was identified in one of the seven vaccinated ponies at post-mortem examination, whilst all nine control ponies had at least one lymph node abscess (P=0.0009). Three of the six vaccinated ponies that were protected from strangles had not developed an adverse reaction following vaccination, suggesting that a better understanding of the pro-inflammatory responses to S. equi could lead to the development of a live attenuated vaccine against strangles that is safe for administration via intramuscular injection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap.

  2. Physiological Employment Standards III: physiological challenges and consequences encountered during international military deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Castellani, John W; Warr, Bradley J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Henning, Paul C; Spiering, Barry A; Scofield, Dennis E

    2013-11-01

    Modern international military deployments in austere environments (i.e., Iraq and Afghanistan) place considerable physiological demands on soldiers. Significant physiological challenges exist: maintenance of physical fitness and body composition, rigors of external load carriage, environmental extremes (heat, cold, and altitude), medical illnesses, musculoskeletal injuries, traumatic brain injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder, and environmental exposure hazards (i.e., burn pits, vehicle exhaust, etc.). To date there is very little published research and no comprehensive reviews on the physiological effects of deployments. The purpose of this paper is to overview what is currently known from the literature related mainly to current military conflicts with regard to the challenges and consequences from deployments. Summary findings include: (1) aerobic capacity declines while muscle strength, power and muscular endurance appear to be maintained, (2) load carriage continues to tax the physical capacities of the Soldier, (3) musculoskeletal injuries comprise the highest proportion of all injury categories, (4) environmental insults occur from both terrestrial extremes and pollutant exposure, and (5) post-deployment concerns linger for traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. A full understanding of these responses will assist in identifying the most effective risk mitigation strategies to ensure deployment readiness and to assist in establishment of military employment standards.

  3. Oliveria decumbens essential oil: Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity against the growth of some clinical and standard strains causing infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Vasiee, Alireza; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Oliveria decumbens as a valuable medicinal plant is extensively used in traditional medicine. clinical and standard strains causing infection resistance to antimicrobial agents, is one of the important problems in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Oliveria decumbens essential oil on the growth of some clinical and standard strains causing infection (Pseudomonas aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Oliveria decumbens essential oil composition was identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Phytochemical analysis (alkaloids, saponins, flavone and phenolic) essential oil of the Oliveria decumbens were appraised based on qualitative methods. Several methods (disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)) were used to appraise the antibacterial activity of the Oliveria decumbens essential oil. Thymol (28.45%) was the major compound of Oliveria decumbens essential oil. The total phenolics content (TPC) of the essential oil positively correlated with antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA of Oliveria decumbens essential oil was equal to 92.45 ± 0.70 μg GAE/mg and 164.45 ± 1.20 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC of Oliveria decumbens essential oil ranged from 1 to 8 mg/ml depending on the type of bacteria (clinical and standard strains). The MBC of Oliveria decumbens essential oil varied from 1 mg/ml to 16 mg/ml. The smallest inhibition zone diameter (IZD) on different Oliveria decumbens essential oil concentrations on P. aeruginosa. Results indicate that Oliveria decumbens essential oil can prove to be an important source of AA and antibacterial and may be used for the treatment of infection diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Standard test method for plane-strain (Chevron-Notch) fracture toughness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plane-strain (chevron-notch) fracture toughnesses, KIv or KIvM, of metallic materials. Fracture toughness by this method is relative to a slowly advancing steady state crack initiated at a chevron-shaped notch, and propagating in a chevron-shaped ligament (Fig. 1). Some metallic materials, when tested by this method, exhibit a sporadic crack growth in which the crack front remains nearly stationary until a critical load is reached. The crack then becomes unstable and suddenly advances at high speed to the next arrest point. For these materials, this test method covers the determination of the plane-strain fracture toughness, KIvj or KIvM, relative to the crack at the points of instability. Note 1—One difference between this test method and Test Method E 399 (which measures KIc) is that Test Method E 399 centers attention on the start of crack extension from a fatigue precrack. This test method makes use of either a steady state slowly propagating crack, or a...

  5. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P; Kuijer, Joost P A; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M; van de Ven, Peter M; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin

    2017-12-01

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. • Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.

  6. Global panel of HIV-1 Env reference strains for standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCamp, Allan; Hraber, Peter; Bailer, Robert T; Seaman, Michael S; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John; Gottardo, Raphael; Edlefsen, Paul; Self, Steve; Tang, Haili; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Daniell, Xiaoju; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; LaBranche, Celia C; Mascola, John R; Korber, Bette T; Montefiori, David C

    2014-03-01

    Standardized assessments of HIV-1 vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses are complicated by the genetic and antigenic variability of the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs). To address these issues, suitable reference strains are needed that are representative of the global epidemic. Several panels have been recommended previously, but no clear answers have been available on how many and which strains are best suited for this purpose. We used a statistical model selection method to identify a global panel of reference Env clones from among 219 Env-pseudotyped viruses assayed in TZM-bl cells with sera from 205 HIV-1-infected individuals. The Envs and sera were sampled globally from diverse geographic locations and represented all major genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms of the virus. Assays with a panel size of only nine viruses adequately represented the spectrum of HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity seen with the larger panel of 219 viruses. An optimal panel of nine viruses was selected and augmented with three additional viruses for greater genetic and antigenic coverage. The spectrum of HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity seen with the final 12-virus panel closely approximated the activity seen with subtype-matched viruses. Moreover, the final panel was highly sensitive for detection of many of the known broadly neutralizing antibodies. For broader assay applications, all 12 Env clones were converted to infectious molecular clones using a proviral backbone carrying a Renilla luciferase reporter gene (Env.IMC.LucR viruses). This global panel should facilitate highly standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies across multiple HIV-1 vaccine platforms in different parts of the world. An effective HIV-1 vaccine will need to overcome the extraordinary genetic variability of the virus, where most variation occurs in the viral envelope glycoproteins that are the sole targets for neutralizing antibodies. Efforts to elicit

  7. Application of Enzymatic Extracts from a CALB Standard Strain as Biocatalyst within the Context of Conventional Biodiesel Production Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of biocatalysts in the transesterification process of triglycerides (TG allows integrating the glycerol in the form of monoglyceride (MG, sharply increasing the yield and the environmental sustainability of the conventional biodiesel production process. This is known as Ecodiesel. To overcome the inconvenient of the high cost of the currently employed highly purified commercial enzymes, the use of scarcely purified extracts obtained from standard strains of the same species of commercial lipases currently applied in this process is being investigated. Thus, Candida antarctica type B (CALB was chosen to determine the optimal conditions of culture of this yeast. The standard strain was obtained from the Spanish Type Microbial Cultures Collection (CECT and has been used to carry out several studies to elucidate its optimum growth conditions. Through a process of lyophilization with prior dialysis of the liquid cultures, the enzymatic extracts were obtained. The different obtained cultures have been applied as biocatalysts in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol to obtain Ecodiesel (FAEE + MG. Selectivity and reaction yields were obtained by gas chromatography. Acceptable yields are obtained during the reaction time as well as in successive reactions, demonstrating the feasibility of using these CALB enzymatic extracts as biocatalysts.

  8. Panels of HIV-1 Subtype C Env Reference Strains for Standardized Neutralization Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraber, Peter; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Williamson, Carolyn; Seaman, Michael S; Gottardo, Raphael; Tang, Haili; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; LaBranche, Celia; Mascola, John R; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David C; Korber, Bette

    2017-10-01

    In the search for effective immunologic interventions to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection, standardized reference reagents are a cost-effective way to maintain robustness and reproducibility among immunological assays. To support planned and ongoing studies where clade C predominates, here we describe three virus panels, chosen from 200 well-characterized clade C envelope (Env)-pseudotyped viruses from early infection. All 200 Envs were expressed as a single round of replication pseudoviruses and were tested to quantify neutralization titers by 16 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and sera from 30 subjects with chronic clade C infections. We selected large panels of 50 and 100 Envs either to characterize cross-reactive breadth for sera identified as having potent neutralization activity based on initial screening or to evaluate neutralization magnitude-breadth distributions of newly isolated antibodies. We identified these panels by downselection after hierarchical clustering of bnAb neutralization titers. The resulting panels represent the diversity of neutralization profiles throughout the range of virus sensitivities identified in the original panel of 200 viruses. A small 12-Env panel was chosen to screen sera from vaccine trials or natural-infection studies for neutralization responses. We considered panels selected by previously described methods but favored a computationally informed method that enabled selection of viruses representing diverse neutralization sensitivity patterns, given that we do not a priori know what the neutralization-response profile of vaccine sera will be relative to that of sera from infected individuals. The resulting 12-Env panel complements existing panels. Use of standardized panels enables direct comparisons of data from different trials and study sites testing HIV-1 clade C-specific products. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 group M includes nine clades and many recombinants. Clade C is the most common lineage, responsible for roughly

  9. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Nijveldt, Robin [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, and Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ven, Peter M. van de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meine, Mathias [University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, INSA, CNRS UMR 5520, INSERM U1206, CREATIS, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2017-12-15

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. (orig.)

  10. Security challenges in integration of a PHR-S into a standards based national EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser Pförtner, Franz; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Health related data provided by patients themselves is expected to play a major role in future healthcare. Data from personal health devices, vaccination records, health diaries or observations of daily living, for instance, is stored in personal health records (PHR) which are maintained by personal health record systems (PHR-S). Combining this information with medical records provided by healthcare providers in electronic health records (EHR) is one of the next steps towards "personal care". Austria currently sets up a nationwide EHR system that incorporates all healthcare providers and is technically based on international standards (IHE, HL7, OASIS, ...). Looking at the expected potential of merging PHR and EHR data it is worth to analyse integration approaches. Although knowing that an integration requires the coordination of processes, information models and technical architectures, this paper specifically focuses on security issues by evaluating general security requirements for a PHR-S (based on HL7 PHR-S FM), comparing them with the information security specifications for the Austrian's national EHR (based on ISO/IES 27000 series) and identifying the main challenges as well as possible approaches.

  11. Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine immunogenicity test: Evaluation of three mice (BALB/c, Swiss and CD-1) and two challenge strains (544 and 2308).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Pauletti, Rebeca Barbosa; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of different mouse strains (BALB/c, Swiss and CD-1) and different challenge strains (Brucella abortus 544 and 2308) in the study of B. abortus vaccine (S19 and RB51) immunogenicity test in the murine model. No significant difference in B. abortus vaccine potency assay was found with the use of B. abortus 544 or B. abortus 2308 as challenge strain. Results of variance analysis showed an interaction between treatment and mouse strain; therefore these parameters could not be compared separately. When CD-1 groups were compared, those vaccinated showed significantly lower counts than non-vaccinated ones (PRB51). Similar results were observed on BALB/c groups. However, in Swiss mouse groups, S19 was more protective than RB51 (PRB51 vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaccination with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Vectored Chimeric Hemagglutinins Protects Mice against Divergent Influenza Virus Challenge Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alex B; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Buonocore, Linda; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian; Rose, John K

    2015-12-16

    Seasonal influenza virus infections continue to cause significant disease each year, and there is a constant threat of the emergence of reassortant influenza strains causing a new pandemic. Available influenza vaccines are variably effective each season, are of limited scope at protecting against viruses that have undergone significant antigenic drift, and offer low protection against newly emergent pandemic strains. "Universal" influenza vaccine strategies that focus on the development of humoral immunity directed against the stalk domains of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) show promise for protecting against diverse influenza viruses. Here, we describe such a strategy that utilizes vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a vector for chimeric hemagglutinin (cHA) antigens. This vaccination strategy is effective at generating HA stalk-specific, broadly cross-reactive serum antibodies by both intramuscular and intranasal routes of vaccination. We show that prime-boost vaccination strategies provide protection against both lethal homologous and heterosubtypic influenza challenge and that protection is significantly improved with intranasal vaccine administration. Additionally, we show that vaccination with VSV-cHAs generates greater stalk-specific and cross-reactive serum antibodies than does vaccination with VSV-vectored full-length HAs, confirming that cHA-based vaccination strategies are superior at generating stalk-specific humoral immunity. VSV-vectored influenza vaccines that express chimeric hemagglutinin antigens offer a novel means for protecting against widely diverging influenza viruses. Universal influenza vaccination strategies should be capable of protecting against a wide array of influenza viruses, and we have developed such an approach utilizing a single viral vector system. The potent antibody responses that these vaccines generate are shown to protect mice against lethal influenza challenges with highly divergent viruses. Notably, intranasal vaccination

  13. Outcome of EPIZONE Extension ON VER/VNN: Pathogenicity study of 10 betanodavirus strains with an in vivo challenge in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.; Cappellozza, E.

    2012-01-01

    be detected in wild fish as well as other aquatic organisms (artemia, rotifers, molluscs and crustaceans) in addition to farmed fish. The RGNNV genotype is the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, nevertheless some strains, characterized by containing genetic material belonging to both the RGNNV...... to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of circulating viruses, ten selected VER/VNN strains differing for origin and/or genotype were tested “in vivo” by challenging sea bass juveniles in infection trials. The infection was performed under controlled conditions and all the infected groups were...... monitored for 68 days after infection. The results clearly confirmed the pathogenicity, to different degrees, of all the selected strains, including one strain belonging to SJNNV genotype and four reassortant strains from SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes and underlined the potential risk represented by sea bream...

  14. Wine yeast phenomics: A standardized fermentation method for assessing quantitative traits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in enological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Margaux; Trujillo, Marine; Prodhomme, Duyên; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Gibon, Yves; Marullo, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats. The vessel used also offers the possibility to assay 32 volatiles compounds using a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The vessel shaking applied strongly impacted most of the phenotypes investigated due to oxygen transfer occuring in the first hours of the alcoholic fermentation. The impact of grape must and micro-oxygenation was investigated illustrating some relevant genetic x environmental interactions. By phenotyping a wide panel of commercial wine starters in five grape juices, broad phenotypic correlations between kinetics and metabolic end products were evidentiated. Moreover, a multivariate analysis illustrates that some grape musts are more able than others to discriminate commercial strains since some are less robust to environmental changes. PMID:29351285

  15. Wine yeast phenomics: A standardized fermentation method for assessing quantitative traits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in enological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Emilien; Bernard, Margaux; Trujillo, Marine; Prodhomme, Duyên; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Gibon, Yves; Marullo, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats. The vessel used also offers the possibility to assay 32 volatiles compounds using a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The vessel shaking applied strongly impacted most of the phenotypes investigated due to oxygen transfer occuring in the first hours of the alcoholic fermentation. The impact of grape must and micro-oxygenation was investigated illustrating some relevant genetic x environmental interactions. By phenotyping a wide panel of commercial wine starters in five grape juices, broad phenotypic correlations between kinetics and metabolic end products were evidentiated. Moreover, a multivariate analysis illustrates that some grape musts are more able than others to discriminate commercial strains since some are less robust to environmental changes.

  16. Immunization of African Indigenous Pigs with Attenuated Genotype I African Swine Fever Virus OURT88/3 Induces Protection Against Challenge with Virulent Strains of Genotype I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba-Mfumu, L K; Goatley, L C; Saegerman, C; Takamatsu, H-H; Dixon, L K

    2016-10-01

    The attenuated African swine fever virus genotype I strain OURT88/3 has previously been shown to induce protection of European breeds of domestic pigs against challenge with virulent isolates. To determine whether protective immune responses could also be induced in indigenous breeds of pigs from the Kinshassa region in Democratic Republic of Congo, we immunized a group of eight pigs with OURT88/3 strain and challenged the pigs 3 weeks later with virulent genotype I strain OURT88/1. Four of the pigs were protected against challenge. Three of the eight pigs died from African swine fever virus and a fourth from an unknown cause. The remaining four pigs all survived challenge with a recent virulent genotype I strain from the Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC 085/10. Control groups of non-immune pigs challenged with OURT88/1 or DRC 085/10 developed signs of acute ASFV as expected and had high levels of virus genome in blood. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Nanoparticles and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid on Growth Inhibition of Standard Strain of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Haghighi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, the incidence of opportunistic fungi has shown a marked increase. Infection caused by common pathogenic fungi is a significant health problem in immune compromised hosts. The present study evaluated antifungal activity of Titanum dioxide nanoparticles and Ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetic Acid against Candida albicans as self-cleaning agent by standard micro dilution test. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at the Medical University of Tarbiyat Modares in 2009. TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained through the hydrolysis of TiCl4 (Titanium tetrachloride. Size and type of these nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-Ray-Diffraction (XRD. Afterwards, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Fungicide Concentration (MFC test for TiO2 and EDTA were performed. Results: Concentration of synthesised TiO2 was 7.03 mg/ml and 5.63 5.63 ×1020 particles/ml. Evaluation of morphology and diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles with SEM showed that nanoparticles were spherical with diameter between 40-65 nm. MIC50 of 2.2, 1.24 and 0.125 µg/ml respectively. MIC90 and MFC of TiO2, EDTA and fluconazole were 3.51, 2.48 , 0.5 µg/ml and 4.06, 3.1 ,1 µg/ml respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, using of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles with chemical method showed a suitable activity against Candida in comparison with Fluconazole. Thus it might represent a good candidates in elimination of Candida in medical from medical devices. Key Words:

  18. Challenge of pigs with classical swine fever viruses after C-strain vaccination reveals remarkably rapid protection and insights into early immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon P; Everett, Helen E; Haines, Felicity J; Johns, Helen L; Sosan, Olubukola A; Salguero, Francisco J; Clifford, Derek J; Steinbach, Falko; Drew, Trevor W; Crooke, Helen R

    2012-01-01

    Pre-emptive culling is becoming increasingly questioned as a means of controlling animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF). This has prompted discussions on the use of emergency vaccination to control future CSF outbreaks in domestic pigs. Despite a long history of safe use in endemic areas, there is a paucity of data on aspects important to emergency strategies, such as how rapidly CSFV vaccines would protect against transmission, and if this protection is equivalent for all viral genotypes, including highly divergent genotype 3 strains. To evaluate these questions, pigs were vaccinated with the Riemser® C-strain vaccine at 1, 3 and 5 days prior to challenge with genotype 2.1 and 3.3 challenge strains. The vaccine provided equivalent protection against clinical disease caused by for the two challenge strains and, as expected, protection was complete at 5 days post-vaccination. Substantial protection was achieved after 3 days, which was sufficient to prevent transmission of the 3.3 strain to animals in direct contact. Even by one day post-vaccination approximately half the animals were partially protected, and were able to control the infection, indicating that a reduction of the infectious potential is achieved very rapidly after vaccination. There was a close temporal correlation between T cell IFN-γ responses and protection. Interestingly, compared to responses of animals challenged 5 days after vaccination, challenge of animals 3 or 1 days post-vaccination resulted in impaired vaccine-induced T cell responses. This, together with the failure to detect a T cell IFN-γ response in unprotected and unvaccinated animals, indicates that virulent CSFV can inhibit the potent antiviral host defences primed by C-strain in the early period post vaccination.

  19. Challenge of pigs with classical swine fever viruses after C-strain vaccination reveals remarkably rapid protection and insights into early immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Graham

    Full Text Available Pre-emptive culling is becoming increasingly questioned as a means of controlling animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF. This has prompted discussions on the use of emergency vaccination to control future CSF outbreaks in domestic pigs. Despite a long history of safe use in endemic areas, there is a paucity of data on aspects important to emergency strategies, such as how rapidly CSFV vaccines would protect against transmission, and if this protection is equivalent for all viral genotypes, including highly divergent genotype 3 strains. To evaluate these questions, pigs were vaccinated with the Riemser® C-strain vaccine at 1, 3 and 5 days prior to challenge with genotype 2.1 and 3.3 challenge strains. The vaccine provided equivalent protection against clinical disease caused by for the two challenge strains and, as expected, protection was complete at 5 days post-vaccination. Substantial protection was achieved after 3 days, which was sufficient to prevent transmission of the 3.3 strain to animals in direct contact. Even by one day post-vaccination approximately half the animals were partially protected, and were able to control the infection, indicating that a reduction of the infectious potential is achieved very rapidly after vaccination. There was a close temporal correlation between T cell IFN-γ responses and protection. Interestingly, compared to responses of animals challenged 5 days after vaccination, challenge of animals 3 or 1 days post-vaccination resulted in impaired vaccine-induced T cell responses. This, together with the failure to detect a T cell IFN-γ response in unprotected and unvaccinated animals, indicates that virulent CSFV can inhibit the potent antiviral host defences primed by C-strain in the early period post vaccination.

  20. STEM Is Elementary: Challenges Faced by Elementary Teachers in the Era of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.

    2017-01-01

    For students to achieve the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) by Grade 12, thinking and acting like scientists and engineers must begin in the elementary grades. However, elementary teachers may find this challenging -because language arts and mathematics still dominate many classrooms--often at the expense of science. This…

  1. PBL in the Era of Reform Standards: Challenges and Benefits Perceived by Teachers in One Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariman, Nahid; Chrispeels, Janet

    2016-01-01

    We explore teachers' efforts to implement problem-based learning (PBL) in an elementary school serving predominantly English learners. Teachers had an opportunity to implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using PBL in a summer school setting with no test-pressures. To understand the challenges and benefits of PBL implementation, a…

  2. The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Debra J.; Sansanelli, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical…

  3. Characterization of a standardized glucagon challenge test as a pharmacodynamic tool in pharmacological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, M. G. J.; Geerts, B. F.; Bhanot, S.; Morgan, E. S.; de Kam, M. L.; Moerland, M.; Romijn, J. A.; Cohen, A. F.; Burggraaf, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a glucagon challenge test as a tool in diabetes research by assessing the inter- and intra-individual variability, and investigating the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during the challenge, as this might have an indirect impact on glucose

  4. Deletion of ssnA Attenuates the Pathogenicity of Streptococcus suis and Confers Protection against Serovar 2 Strain Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Li

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is a major porcine and human pathogen which causes arthritis, meningitis, and septicemia. Streptococcus suis nuclease A (SsnA is a recently discovered deoxyribonuclease (DNase, which has been demonstrated to contribute to escape killing in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. To further determine the effects of ssnA on virulence, the ssnA deletion mutant (ΔssnA and its complemented strain (C-ΔssnA were constructed. The ability of ΔssnA mutant to interact with human laryngeal epithelial cell (Hep-2 was evaluated and it exhibited dramatically decreased ability to adhere to and invade Hep-2 cells. This mutation was found to exhibit significant attenuation of virulence when evaluated in CD1 mice, suggesting ssnA plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SS2. Finally, we found that immunization with the ΔssnA mutant triggered both antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity, and conferred 80% protection against virulent SS2 challenge in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that ΔssnA represents an attractive candidate for designing an attenuated live vaccine against SS2.

  5. Comparison of the reversibility of loci pet23 and lys2 after UV irradiation in the standard and UV-sensitive strains of Saccharomyces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, V.; Kovacova, V.

    1984-01-01

    Reversibility of the respiration-deficient locus pet23 and auxotrophic locus lys2 was followed in the standard (RAD1) and UV sensitive (rad1 to 2) strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both after identical doses of UV radiation and at identical survival. By comparison of reversibility after treatment with identical doses of UV radiation a much higher reversibility of both loci in strain rad1 to 2 could be detected. A comparison of reversibility of the loci at identical survival of both strains showed that the reversibility of the pet23 locus is much higher in strain rad1 to 2, whereas reversibility of the lys2 locus is roughly identical in the two strains. Thus, the function of gene RAD1 in repair processes is apparently associated with ''error-free'' repair, both at low and high doses of ultraviolet radiation. (author)

  6. Protection of pigs against challenge with virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains by a muramidase-released protein and extracellular factor vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Vecht, U.; Stockhofe Zurwieden, N.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) vaccine in preventing infection and disease in pigs challenged either with a homologous or a heterologous Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain (MRP EF ) was compared with the efficacy of a vaccine containing

  7. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  8. Barriers & challenges to the adoption of E-Health standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebesin, F

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available on a study of ehealth standards development and the level of African countries’ participation in the development process. We explored the factors that restrict the adoption of e-health standards by African countries and provide ways of overcoming...

  9. Review of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for Automated Vehicles : Identifying Potential Barriers and Challenges for the Certification of Automated Vehicles Using Existing FMVSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The purpose of this work is to identify instances where the existing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards may pose challenges to the introduction of automated vehicles. It identifies standards requiring further review - both to ensure that existing...

  10. Entericidin is required for a probiotic treatment (Enterobacter sp. strain C6-6) to protect trout from cold-water disease challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubiger, Carla B; Orfe, Lisa H; Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S; Cain, Kenneth D; Shah, Devendra H; Call, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes bacterial cold-water disease in multiple fish species, including salmonids. An autochthonous Enterobacter strain (C6-6) inhibits the in vitro growth of F. psychrophilum, and when ingested as a putative probiotic, it provides protection against injection challenge with F. psychrophilum in rainbow trout. In this study, low-molecular-mass (≤3 kDa) fractions from both Enterobacter C6-6 and Escherichia coli K-12 culture supernatants inhibited the growth of F. psychrophilum. The ≤3-kDa fraction from Enterobacter C6-6 was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and subsequent tandem mass spectroscopy identified EcnB, which is a small membrane lipoprotein that is a putative pore-forming toxin. Agar plate diffusion assays demonstrated that ecnAB knockout strains of both Enterobacter C6-6 and E. coli K-12 no longer inhibited F. psychrophilum (P ) and the wild-type strain (C6-6) were added to the fish diet every day for 38 days. On day 11, the fish were challenged by injection with a virulent strain of F. psychrophilum (CSF 259-93). Fish that were fed C6-6 had significantly longer survival than fish fed the ecnAB knockout strain (P Enterobacter C6-6, and it may present new opportunities for therapeutic and prophylactic treatments against similarly susceptible pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Standardization and quality assurance in fluorescence measurements I state-of-the art and future challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Resch-Genger, Ute

    2008-01-01

    The validation and standardization of fluorescence methods is still in its infancy as compared to other prominent analytical and bioanalytical methods. Appropriate quality assurance standards are however a prerequisite for applications in highly regulated fields such as medical diagnostics, drug development, or food analysis. For the first time, a team of recognized international experts has documented the present status of quality assurance in fluorescence measurements, and outlines concepts for establishing standards in this field. This first of two volumes covers basic aspects and various techniques such as steady-state and time-resolved fluorometry, polarization techniques, and fluorescent chemical sensors

  12. Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccart, Kristine; Verbeke, Joren; De Visscher, Anneleen; Piepers, Sofie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2016-05-12

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a persistent intramammary infection (S. chromogenes IM) and a S. chromogenes strain isolated from a heifer's teat apex (S. chromogenes TA). Each heifer was inoculated in the mammary gland with 1.0 × 10(6) colony forming units of each bacterial strain (one strain per udder quarter), whereas the remaining quarter was infused with phosphate-buffered saline. Overall, the CNS evoked a mild local host response. The somatic cell count increased in all S. fleurettii-inoculated quarters, although the strain was eliminated within 12 h. The two S. chromogenes strains were shed in larger numbers for a longer period. Bacterial and somatic cell counts, as well as neutrophil responses, were higher after inoculation with S. chromogenes IM than with S. chromogenes TA. In conclusion, these results suggest that S. chromogenes might be better adapted to the mammary gland than S. fleurettii. Furthermore, not all S. chromogenes strains induce the same local host response.

  13. Immune Responses and Protection against Experimental Challenge after Vaccination of Bison with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 or RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, S. C.; Boyle, S. M.; Schurig, G. G.; Sriranganathan, N. N.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) or a recombinant RB51 strain overexpressing superoxide dismutase (sodC) and glycosyltransferase (wboA) genes (RB51+sodC,wboA). Bison were vaccinated with saline only or with 4.6 × 101...

  14. Immune responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Boyle, S M; Schurig, G G; Sriranganathan, N N

    2009-04-01

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) or a recombinant RB51 strain overexpressing superoxide dismutase (sodC) and glycosyltransferase (wboA) genes (RB51+sodC,wboA). Bison were vaccinated with saline only or with 4.6 x 10(10) CFU of RB51 or 7.4 x 10(10) CFU of RB51+sodC,wboA (n = eight animals/treatment). Bison vaccinated with RB51 or RB51+sodC,wboA had greater (P RB51 after vaccination than did nonvaccinates. However, bison vaccinated with RB51+sodC,wboA cleared the vaccine strain from draining lymph nodes faster than bison vaccinated with the parental RB51 strain. Immunologic responses of bison vaccinated with RB51+sodC,wboA were similar to responses of bison vaccinated with RB51. Pregnant bison were intraconjunctivally challenged in midgestation with 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. Bison vaccinated with RB51, but not RB51+sodC,wboA vaccinates, had greater protection from abortion, fetal/uterine, mammary, or maternal infection than nonvaccinates. Our data suggest that the RB51+sodC,wboA strain is less efficacious as a calfhood vaccine for bison than the parental RB51 strain. Our data also suggest that the RB51 vaccine is a currently available management tool that could be utilized to help reduce brucellosis in free-ranging bison.

  15. Assessment of immigrant certified nursing assistants' communication when responding to standardized care challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Meredith; Roter, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) provide 80% of the hands-on care in US nursing homes; a significant portion of this work is performed by immigrants with limited English fluency. This study is designed to assess immigrant CNA's communication behavior in response to a series of virtual simulated care challenges. A convenience sample of 31 immigrant CNAs verbally responded to 9 care challenges embedded in an interactive computer platform. The responses were coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS), CNA instructors rated response quality and spoken English was rated. CNA communication behaviors varied across care challenges and a broad repertoire of communication was used; 69% of response content was characterized as psychosocial. Communication elements (both instrumental and psychosocial) were significant predictors of response quality for 5 of 9 scenarios. Overall these variables explained between 13% and 36% of the adjusted variance in quality ratings. Immigrant CNAs responded to common care challenges using a variety of communication strategies despite fluency deficits. Virtual simulation-based observation is a feasible, acceptable and low cost method of communication assessment with implications for supervision, training and evaluation of a para-professional workforce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bronchial histamine challenge. A combined interrupter-dosimeter method compared with a standard method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1985-01-01

    We compared the provocative concentration (PC) values obtained by two different methods of performing bronchial histamine challenge. One test was done on an APTA, an apparatus which allows simultaneous provocation with histamine and measurement of airway resistance (Rtot) by the interrupter metho...

  17. Challenges of Agro-Food Standards Conformity: Lessons from East Africa and Policy Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Standards are used to govern an increasing share of global food trade, and have been interpreted by academics both as market access barriers and opportunities for low-income country producers, exporters and workers. Donors have mostly chosen to treat them as opportunities and today finance a vari...

  18. Modern "Challenges" in the System of Personnel Training: Standardization and Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia; Dzhandzhugazova, Elena; Bondarchuk, Natalya; Zhukova, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study of the problems hindering improvement of the system of training through standardization of qualification requirements is relevant because, in a globalized system of teaching staff and high rates of migration, not only national but also international requirements for employees should be considered. This increases the…

  19. The Introduction of Standardized External Testing in Ukraine: Challenges and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Serhiy; Koroliuk, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Standardized external testing (SET) began to be implemented in Ukraine in 2008 as an instrument for combating corruption in higher education and ensuring fair university admission. This article examines the conditions and processes that led to the introduction of SET, overviews its implementation over three years (2008-10), analyzes SET and…

  20. Quality and safety standards in the food industry, developments and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Zuurbier, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Consumer concerns related to food safety scandals and globalization of food production have resulted in a global and interconnected system for the production and distribution of food. In the last decade many public and private standards on food safety and quality have been developed as a result of

  1. The challenge of defining standards of prevention in HIV prevention trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philpott, Sean; Heise, Lori; McGrory, Elizabeth; Paxton, Lynn; Hankins, Catherine; Alexander, Lorraine; Apuuli, David Kihumuro; Baeten, Jared; Birx, Deborah; de Bruyn, Guy; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Burns, David; Calazans, Gabriela; Campbell, James; Caswell, Georgina; Coutinho, Alex; Dawson, Liza; Dhai, Amaboo; Dube, Samukeliso; Ecuru, Julius; Essack, Zaynab; Farley, Timothy; Gafos, Mitzy; Irungu, Pauline; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kamali, Anatoli; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Kublin, James; Lohse, Nicolai; Lutalo, Tom; Macklin, Ruth; Mâsse, Benôıt; Mauney, Chris; McCormack, Sheena; Miller, Lori; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Misra, Rajender; Muganwa, Margaret; Ndase, Patrick; Nel, Annalene; Nielsen, Leslie; Nkala, Busisiwe; O'Reilly, Kevin; Okware, Sam; Paicheler, Geneviève; Rees, Helen; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Ridzon, Renee; Rosenberg, Zeda; Singh, Jerome; Sugarman, Jeremy; Taylor, Douglas; Tusubira, Evans; Ukpong, Morenike; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Warren, Mitchell; Slevin, Katherine West; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2011-01-01

    As new HIV prevention tools are developed, researchers face a number of ethical and logistic questions about how and when to include novel HIV prevention strategies and tools in the standard prevention package of ongoing and future HIV prevention trials. Current Joint United Nations Programme on

  2. Current practices and challenges in the standardization and harmonization of clinical laboratory tests123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Hubert W; Myers, Gary L; Miller, W Greg

    2016-01-01

    Effective patient care, clinical research, and public health efforts require comparability of laboratory results independent of time, place, and measurement procedure. Comparability is achieved by establishing metrological traceability, which ensures that measurement procedures measure the same quantity and that the calibration of measurement procedures is traceable to a common reference system consisting of reference methods and materials. Whereas standardization ensures traceability to the International System of Units, harmonization ensures traceability to a reference system agreed on by convention. This article provides an overview of standardization and harmonization with an emphasis on commutability as an important variable that affects testing accuracy. Commutability of reference materials is required to ensure that traceability is established appropriately and that laboratory results are comparable. The use of noncommutable reference materials leads to inaccurate results. Whereas procedures and protocols for standardizing measurements are established and have been successfully applied in efforts such as the Hormones Standardization Program of the CDC, harmonization activities require new, more complex procedures and approaches. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, together with its domestic and international partners, formed the International Consortium for Harmonization of Clinical Laboratory Results to coordinate harmonization efforts. Reference systems, as well as procedures and protocols to establish traceability of clinical laboratory tests, have been established and continue to be developed by national and international groups and organizations. Serum tests of thyroid function, including those for the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, are among the clinical procedures for which standardization efforts are well under way. Approaches to the harmonization of measurement procedures for serum concentrations of thyroid

  3. Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new and upgrades of existing high energy particle accelerators is reviewed in light of the current knowledge of the standard model determined from existing and past machines and funding factors. Current financing of science will delay determining unknowns, such as CP violation, proton decay, neutrino properties, and dark matter. Three options are given: (1) obtain more funding, (2) downsize scientific personnel as are private enterprises or (3) develop new technology which will reduce the high cost of building current designs of high energy accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Over-expression of homologous antigens in a leucine auxotroph of Brucella abortus strain RB51 protects mice against a virulent B. suis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Surendran, Naveen; Seleem, Mohamed N; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Boyle, Stephen M

    2011-04-12

    Infection by members of the Gram-negative bacterial genus Brucella causes brucellosis in a variety of mammals. Brucellosis in swine remains a challenge, as there is no vaccine in the USA approved for use in swine against brucellosis. Here, we developed an improved recombinant Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 that could afford protection against Brucella suis infection by over-expressing genes encoding homologous proteins: L7/L12 ribosomal protein, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase [SOD] and glycosyl-transferase [WboA]. Using strain RB51leuB as a platform and an antibiotic-resistance marker free plasmid, strains RB51leuB/SOD, RB51leuB/SOD/L7/L12 and RB51leuB/SOD/WboA were constructed to over-express the antigens: SOD alone, SOD and ribosomal protein L7/L12 or SOD and glycosyl-transferase, respectively. The ability of these vaccine candidates to protect against a virulent B. suis challenge were evaluated in a mouse model. All vaccine groups protected mice significantly (PBrucella antigens can be over-expressed in strain RB51leuB and elicit protective immune responses against brucellosis. Since the plasmid over-expressing homologous antigens does not carry an antibiotic resistance gene, it complies with federal regulations and therefore could be used to develop safer multi-species vaccines for prevention of brucellosis caused by other species of Brucella. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterisation of non-toxigenic Clostridium spp. strains, to use as surrogates for non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum in chilled food challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M D; Barrett, P I; Shepherd, J; Price, L J; Bull, S D

    2015-01-01

    Under many of the conditions studied, a two-strain cocktail of non-toxigenic Clostridium spp. was found to be suitable as a surrogate for non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum, and has the potential for use in chilled food challenge tests measuring growth. Non-toxigenic surrogates could also be used in thermal process screening studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bronchial histamine challenge. A combined interrupter-dosimeter method compared with a standard method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1985-01-01

    We compared the provocative concentration (PC) values obtained by two different methods of performing bronchial histamine challenge. One test was done on an APTA, an apparatus which allows simultaneous provocation with histamine and measurement of airway resistance (Rtot) by the interrupter method....... The second test was a conventional tidal breathing method, with measurement of the FEV1. There was a high correlation between the PC20-FEV1 and the PC30-, PC40- and PC50-Rtot values. The correlation coefficients were 0.85, 0.71 and 0.70 (P less than 0.05) respectively. We further tested the reproducibility...

  7. DBKM Issues, Approaches and Challenges for new build: Harmonization, standardization, certification, peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, A.

    2013-01-01

    Among issues when discussing DBKM: ⇒ What to preserve throughout plant lifetime? ⇒ Who manages (Design Authority)? ⇒ How best it is managed? ⇒ What are the threats of degradation? ⇒ What are the practical adverse effects on safety by inappropriate DBKM? ⇒ What about the future of licensing, harmonization, standardization, certification, peer review? … to be discussed in the context of new builds including those in new entrants

  8. The genomic scrapheap challenge; extracting relevant data from unmapped whole genome sequencing reads, including strain specific genomic segments, in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Weide, Robin H.; Simonis, Marieke; Hermsen, Roel; Toonen, Pim; Cuppen, Edwin; de Ligt, Joep

    2016-01-01

    Unmapped next-generation sequencing reads are typically ignored while they contain biologically relevant information. We systematically analyzed unmapped reads from whole genome sequencing of 33 inbred rat strains. High quality reads were selected and enriched for biologically relevant sequences;

  9. Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Piccart , Kristine; Verbeke , Joren; De Visscher , Anneleen; Piepers , Sofie; Haesebrouck , Freddy; De Vliegher , Sarne

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractCoagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococc...

  10. A foot-and-mouth disease SAT2 vaccine protects swine against experimental challenge with a homologous virus strain, irrespective of mild pathogenicity in this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Laure; Dekker, Aldo; Bleijenberg, Meindert; Blanchet, Michel; Coco-Martin, Jose; Hudelet, Pascal; Goutebroze, Sylvain

    2018-04-05

    FMDV serotype SAT2 is most frequently associated with outbreaks in ruminants. However, the risk of it spreading from cattle to pigs cannot be excluded. To assess the efficacy of an SAT2-type FMD inactivated vaccine against homologous challenge in pigs, a suitable challenge strain adapted to pigs was produced. After two passages in two pigs each, a FMDV stock of SAT2 challenge strain was produced. This material was used to infect two groups of five pigs. The first group being vaccinated 28 days before challenge and the other one left as an unvaccinated control. Clinical signs were recorded, virus shedding was assessed on mouth swabs, and neutralising antibody titres were determined. At least 80% of the vaccinated pigs were protected against clinical disease. Furthermore, no virus shedding was observed in any of the vaccinated pigs. This study shows that experimentally inoculated pigs can become infected with a SAT2 serotype. Furthermore, vaccination offers protection against generalisation and viral excretion, confirming the potential of vaccination as an important tool in the control of FMD in pigs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Individual variation in aggression of feral rodent strains : A standard for the genetics of aggression and violence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; van der Vegt, B.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    This article summarizes the broad individual differences in aggressiveness and its relationship with several other behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological characteristics that exist in an outbred laboratory strain of male feral rats. Based on the observations that the individual level of

  12. Standardization in clinical enzymology: a challenge for the theory of metrological traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infusino, Ilenia; Schumann, Gerhard; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-03-01

    The goal of standardization for measurement of the catalytic concentration of enzymes is to achieve comparable results in human samples, independent of the reagent kits, instruments, and laboratory where the assay is performed. To pursue this objective, the IFCC has established reference systems for the most important clinical enzymes. These systems are based on the following requirements: a) reference methods, well described and evaluated extensively; b) suitable reference materials; and c) reference laboratories operating in a highly controlled manner. When these reference systems are used appropriately, the diagnostic industry can assign traceable values to commercial calibrators. Clinical laboratories that use procedures with validated calibrators to measure human specimens can now obtain values that are traceable to higher-order reference procedures. These reference systems constitute the structure of the traceability chain to which the routine methods can be linked via an appropriate calibration process, provided that they have a comparable specificity (i.e., they are measuring the same catalytic quantity).

  13. Calibration standards for major greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide: status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Christoph; Mohn, Joachim; Wyss, Simon A.; Brewer, Paul; Mace, Tatiana; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Pearce-Hill, Ruth; Tarhan, Tanil; Walden, Jari; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    Human influence on increasing greenhouse gas mole fractions in the atmosphere and effects on positive radiative forcing as well as observed global warming and sea level rise are well accepted [1]. For interpretation of global or continental scale greenhouse gas data, obtained from different laboratories, measurement results have to coincide within compatibility goals set by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) [2]. Despite significant advances in measurement techniques [3], WMO compatibility goals are regularly missed, shown by round-robin experiments of standard gases and comparisons of field samples or parallel measurements. Therefore, precise and accurate calibration using standards with good long-term stability is needed to reduce uncertainties of atmospheric measurements. This is addressed by the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Programme (GAW), where Central Calibration Laboratories (CCLs) maintain calibration scales to ensure consistency of measurements within the network to primary reference materials. Furthermore, participating GAW laboratories are supported by World Calibration Centres (WCCs) performing audits and organizing round-robin comparisons. The CCL participates regularly in comparisons with independent primary scales to assure traceability of established primary reference materials to fundamental quantities (SI) [e.g. 4]. Within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project "Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases" (HIGHGAS), static and dynamic primary reference gas mixtures for ambient levels of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air were prepared by different National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). In order to progress beyond the state of the art, research focused on improving passivation chemistry, quantification of target impurities in the air matrix, and determining the isotopic composition. These primary reference gas mixtures were compared in a round robin experiment against standards calibrated against reference gases currently

  14. Communicative Lighting Preserving Creative Expression by Challenging Standards and Diversifying Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihara, Satoshi

    The scope and significance of light on the culture and development of human societies throughout history is nothing short of astounding. From ancient times, light has provided essential substance for life and spirituality, spawning cultural diversity and artistic inspiration around the globe. Indeed, from the rudiments of civilization to the Enlightenment, throughout the Industrial Revolution to contemporary societies, the lighting technology that humankind has brought into this world has enhanced civilizations, driving advances in productivity and ever higher standards of living. And yet, we presently stand at an important crossroads, where evolutionary factors are taking us in new directions, and a choice must be made about the course and meaning of lighting in our lives. Paramount to this issue is the growing significance of LED as a source of light and the behavioral change it is causing within our industry. The technological innovation driven by LED has drastically changed the systems of manufacturing and distribution and, thus, is transforming the economy. Perhaps, equally significant, this influence has begun to alter the philosophy and culture of our industry. The direction of this evolutionary process is not automatic, however. We lighting designers, lighting equipment manufacturers, and astute judges of life quality through lighting, have a choice to lead or be led by recognizing the constraints of industry standards and reactionary views of technology, and what can be done to remain flexible and artistically expressive. In this effort, my belief is that we must remain sensitive to the delicate connection between light and people, as a means to an important new priority that I call Communicative Lighting.

  15. Strain- and Dose-Dependent Reduction of Toxoplasma gondii Burden in Pigs Is Associated with Interferon-Gamma Production by CD8+ Lymphocytes in a Heterologous Challenge Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Jennes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite of humans and animals. The global infection burden exceeds yearly one million disability-adjusted life years (DALY's in infected individuals. Therefore, effective preventive measures should be taken to decrease the risk of infection in humans. Although human toxoplasmosis is predominantly foodborne by ingestion of tissue cysts in meat from domestic animals such as pigs, the incidence risk is difficult to estimate due to the lack of screening of animals for infection and insights in location and persistence of the parasite in the tissues. Hence, experimental infections in pigs can provide more information on the risk for zoonosis based on the parasite burden in meat products intended for human consumption and on the immune responses induced by infection. In the present study, homo- and heterologous infection experiments with two distinct T. gondii strains (IPB-LR and IPB-Gangji were performed. The humoral and cellular immune responses, the presence of viable parasites and the parasite load in edible meat samples were evaluated. In homologous infection experiments the parasite persistence was clearly strain-dependent and inversely correlated with the infection dose. The results strongly indicate a change in the amount of parasite DNA and viable cysts in porcine tissues over time. Heterologous challenge infections demonstrated that IPB-G strain could considerably reduce the parasite burden in the subsequent IPB-LR infection. A strong, however, not protective humoral response was observed against GRA7 and TLA antigens upon inoculation with both strains. The in vitro IFN-γ production by TLA-stimulated PBMCs was correlated with the infection dose and predominantly brought about by CD3+CD4−CD8αbright T-lymphocytes. The described adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses in pigs are in line with the induced or natural infections in mice and humans. Previous studies underscored the

  16. Changes in strain patterns after implantation of a short stem with metaphyseal anchorage compared to a standard stem: an experimental study in synthetic bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Gronewold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short stem hip arthroplasties with predominantly metaphyseal fixation, such as the METHA® stem (Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany, are recommended because they are presumed to allow a more physiologic load transfer and thus a reduction of stress-shielding. However, the hypothesized metaphyseal anchorage associated with the aforementioned benefits still needs to be verified. Therefore, the METHA short stem and the Bicontact® standard stem (Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany were tested biomechanically in synthetic femora while strain gauges monitored their corresponding strain patterns. For the METHA stem, the strains in all tested locations including the region of the calcar (87% of the non-implanted femur were similar to conditions of synthetic bone without implanted stem. The Bicontact stem showed approximately the level of strain of the non-implanted femur on the lateral and medial aspect in the proximal diaphysis of the femur. On the anterior and posterior aspect of the proximal metaphysis the strains reached averages of 78% and 87% of the non-implanted femur, respectively. This study revealed primary metaphyseal anchorage of the METHA short stem, as opposed to a metaphyseal-diaphyseal anchorage of the Bicontact stem.

  17. Challenging the standard of care in advanced melanoma: focus on pembrolizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Karim RM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Raghad M Abdul-Karim,1 C Lance Cowey2–4 1Baylor Sammons Cancer Center, 2Melanoma and Genitourinary Oncology Program, Baylor University Medical Center, Sammons Cancer Center Texas Oncology,3Baylor Skin Malignancy Research and Treatment Center, Baylor University Medical Center, 4Developmental Therapeutics Program, US Oncology Research, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: The last several years have seen a dramatic rise in the number of effective therapies that have been shown to improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. Among these treatments are the immune checkpoint inhibitors, a new class of immunotherapy, that have demonstrated the ability to improve both response rates and survival outcomes. Pembrolizumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor that blocks the negative regulatory PD-1 receptor on T-cell lymphocytes, has shown improved efficacy compared to standard therapies with an acceptable tolerability profile. Additionally, this agent is being evaluated in adjuvant and combination trial strategies that have great potential to further advance outcomes. This review focuses on the advances that pembrolizumab has made in melanoma and what studies are upcoming that could change the future of melanoma treatment yet again. Keywords: keytruda, MK-3475, immune checkpoint inhibitor, PD-1 inhibitor, adjuvant therapy, combination therapies, immunotherapy

  18. Challenges of traditional bioethical principles in the implementation of contemporary standards of medical law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on issues of development dimensions of Medical Law and its ongoing process of standardization and harmonization on one hand, versus the traditionally rooted and available principles of biomedical ethics, on the other. The collision of new legal institutes and the spread of human rights protections is evident. This paper follows the theory and practice of medical ethics and medical law. The theoretical aspect points out medical ethics as one of the sources of medical law. Legal theory makes a distinction between formal and autonomous sources of medical law. Even though ethics is morally much higher, law prevails because it has stronger sanctions and legal power. In its practical aspect, this paper gives examples of different situations of medical decision-making processes. Ethical rules are of the utmost relevance in the domain of confidentiality and options of medical treatment. But, in concrete medical procedures, where legal positions of patients are evidently very significant, law has a more distinct function. Therefore, explaining particular cases from medical malpractice, such as cases of penal, civil or professional liability have an ethical dimension as well. Members of medical professions in Serbia often find these cases unfair. Mostly this is the consequence of ignorance in this kind of medical law and ethics relations. A discussion about practical cases has in that sense a self-learning component, which could be developed to strengthen ethical reasoning and judgment.

  19. "Leaky" Rationality: How Research on Behavioral Decision Making Challenges Normative Standards of Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Daniel J; Schwartz, Barry

    2007-06-01

    For more than 30 years, decision-making research has documented that people often violate various principles of rationality, some of which are so fundamental that theorists of rationality rarely bother to state them. We take these characteristics of decision making as a given but argue that it is problematic to conclude that they typically represent departures from rationality. The very psychological processes that lead to "irrational" decisions (e.g., framing, mental accounting) continue to exert their influence when one experiences the results of the decisions. That is, psychological processes that affect decisions may be said also to "leak" into one's experience. The implication is that formal principles of rationality do not provide a good enough normative standard against which to assess decision making. Instead, what is needed is a substantive theory of rationality-one that takes subjective experience seriously, considers both direct and indirect consequences of particular decisions, considers how particular decisions fit into life as a whole, and considers the effects of decisions on others. Formal principles may play a role as approximations of the substantive theory that can be used by theorists and decision makers in cases in which the formal principles can capture most of the relevant considerations and leakage into experience is negligible. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  20. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is an effective tool for reducing the prevalence of brucellosis in natural hosts. In this study, we characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (Hand RB51), single pneumatic dart delivery (Dart ...

  1. Cardiac response to low-energy field pacing challenges the standard theory of defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Bryan J; Trew, Mark L; Pertsov, Arkady M

    2015-06-01

    The electric response of myocardial tissue to periodic field stimuli has attracted significant attention as the basis for low-energy antifibrillation pacing, potentially more effective than traditional single high-energy shocks. In conventional models, an electric field produces a highly nonuniform response of the myocardial wall, with discrete excitations, or hot spots (HS), occurring at cathodal tissue surfaces or large coronary vessels. We test this prediction using novel 3-dimensional tomographic optical imaging. Experiments were performed in isolated coronary perfused pig ventricular wall preparations stained with near-infrared voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DI-4-ANBDQBS. The 3-dimensional coordinates of HS were determined using alternating transillumination. To relate HS formation with myocardial structures, we used ultradeep confocal imaging (interrogation depths, >4 mm). The peak HS distribution is located deep inside the heart wall, and the depth is not significantly affected by field polarity. We did not observe the strong colocalization of HS with major coronary vessels anticipated from theory. Yet, we observed considerable lateral displacement of HS with field polarity reversal. Models that de-emphasized lateral intracellular coupling and accounted for resistive heterogeneity in the extracellular space showed similar HS distributions to the experimental observations. The HS distributions within the myocardial wall and the significant lateral displacements with field polarity reversal are inconsistent with standard theories of defibrillation. Extended theories based on enhanced descriptions of cellular scale electric mechanisms may be necessary. The considerable lateral displacement of HS with field polarity reversal supports the hypothesis of biphasic stimuli in low-energy antifibrillation pacing being advantageous. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis Spores to Broilers Challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Brazilian Strain UFPR1 on Performance, Immune Response, and Gut Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mitsuo Hayashi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a poultry industry and public health concern worldwide. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH has been reported in broilers in Brazil. The effect of feeding a blend of three strains of Bacillus subtilis (PRO was studied in broilers orally challenged (107 CFU/chick or not with a SH isolated in south of Brazil (UFPR1 strain. Twelve male Cobb 500 broilers per pen were randomly assigned to six treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment where PRO was added at 0, 250, or 500 g/ton of broiler feed and fed to either SH-challenged (SH Control, SH + PRO 250, and SH + PRO 500 or non-challenged birds (Control, PRO 250, and PRO 500. Broiler performance, histologic alterations in intestinal morphology, Salmonella quantification and immune cells counts in liver (macrophages, T CD4+ and T CD8+ were analyzed. Changes in the intestinal microbiota of broilers were also studied by metagenomics for Control, SH Control, SH + PRO 250, and SH + PRO 500 only. Feeding PRO at 250 or 500 g/ton reduced SH counts and incidence in liver and cecum at 21 days of age. It was observed that PRO groups increased the macrophage mobilization to the liver in SH-challenged birds (P < 0.05 but reduced these cells in the liver of non-challenged birds, showing an interesting immune cell dynamics effect. PRO at 250 g/ton did not affect gut histology, but improved animal performance (P < 0.05 while PRO at 500/ton did not affect animal performance but increased histologic alteration related to activation of the defense response in the ileum in SH challenged birds compared to control birds (P < 0.05. SH + PRO 500 group presented a more diverse cecal microbiota (Shannon–Wiener index; P < 0.05 compared to Control and SH Control groups; while SH + PRO 250 had greater ileal richness (JackkNife index compared to Control (P < 0.05. PRO was effective in reducing Salmonella colonization in liver and cecum when

  3. NON-STANDARD CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL RISKS FOR THE BUSINESS IN DONBAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dolia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper – the conflict, which began in 2014, in the political sphere of the state of Ukraine and which led to the violation of the country’s sovereignty, the occupation of the part of Donetsk and Luhansk regions adversely affected the state of the economy of the state. The region, in which the main production complexes of coal mining, the metallurgy of machine building were concentrated, because of military actions and political decisions, was deprived of the opportunity to legally carry out its social and economic activities. This article presents an attempt to systematize and show specifically tendencies of the organization of domestic business in conditions of military occupation. Methodology. The main research methods were: historical, statistical, a method of analysis, comparison. The historical method was used to recreate the picture of the industrial production capacities that existed before the conflict in the region began. The method of the comparison made it possible to track the use of “shadow” schemes in organizing a business for the sale of coal and electricity by enterprises located in the occupied territories of Donbas. Result. The method of analysis examined the negative consequences for the national economy of individual decisions of state policy, namely, the termination of the fiscal services of Ukraine to return value-added tax, for products exported, which led to a decline in production up to the shutdown of a number of metallurgical enterprises over the lack of working capital. Using the method of statistics and comparisons, the author analysed the dynamics of the decline in the level of production of the main sectors of the regional economic complex, and also illustrated the growth of social crises in the region and in the country: unemployment, reduction of social standards, wage arrears. Practical implication. On the example of a number of large industrial enterprises of Donbas, the author

  4. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  5. The value of right ventricular longitudinal strain in the evaluation of adult patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: a new tool for a contemporary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Morais, Luís; Pereira-da-Silva, Tiago; Branco, Luísa; Timóteo, Ana T; Agapito, Ana; de Sousa, Lídia; Oliveira, José A; Thomas, Boban; Jalles-Tavares, Nuno; Soares, Rui; Galrinho, Ana; Cruz-Ferreira, Rui

    2017-04-01

    The role of right ventricular longitudinal strain for assessing patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its relation with other structural and functional parameters in these patients. Patients followed-up in a grown-up CHD unit, assessed by transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac MRI, and treadmill exercise testing, were retrospectively evaluated. Right ventricular size and function and pulmonary regurgitation severity were assessed by echocardiography and MRI. Right ventricular longitudinal strain was evaluated in the four-chamber view using the standard semiautomatic method. In total, 42 patients were included (61% male, 32±8 years). The mean right ventricular longitudinal strain was -16.2±3.7%, and the right ventricular ejection fraction, measured by MRI, was 42.9±7.2%. Longitudinal strain showed linear correlation with tricuspid annular systolic excursion (r=-0.40) and right ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.45) (all ptetralogy of Fallot. It correlated with echocardiographic right ventricular function parameters and was independently associated with right ventricular ejection fraction derived by MRI.

  6. Challenge pools of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-6 prototype strains: replication fitness and pathogenicity in chimpanzees and human liver-chimeric mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Tellier, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1-6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional...... animals. The courses of first- and second-passage infections were similar, with early appearance of viremia, HCV RNA titers of >10(4.7) IU/mL, and development of acute hepatitis; the chronicity rate was 56%. The challenge pools had titers of 10(3)-10(5) chimpanzee infectious doses/mL. Human liver...

  7. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  9. Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV.

  10. Development of a standardized low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled challenge vehicle for the EuroPrevall project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cochrane, S.A.; Salt, L.J.; Wantling, E.; Rogers, A.; Coutts, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Fritsche, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Reig, I.; Knulst, A.; Le, T.M.; Asero, R.; Beyer, K.; Golding, M.; Crevel, R. van; Mills, E.N.; Mackie, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. Standardized materials and protocols are essential for comparing DBPCFC results for multicentre studies such as EuroPrevall. This required the development and piloting of a

  11. Immune responses and protection against experimental Brucella suis biovar 1 challenge in nonvaccinated or B. abortus strain RB51-vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Hennager, S G

    2010-12-01

    Twenty Hereford heifers approximately 9 months of age were vaccinated with saline (control) or 2 × 10(10) CFU of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine. Immunologic responses after inoculation demonstrated significantly greater (P RB51 antigens in cattle vaccinated with RB51 than in the controls. Pregnant cattle received a conjunctival challenge at approximately 6 months of gestation with 10(7) CFU of B. suis bv. 1 strains isolated from naturally infected cattle. The fluorescence polarization assay and the buffered acid plate agglutination test had the highest sensitivities in detecting B. suis-infected cattle between 2 and 12 weeks after experimental infection. Serologic responses and lymphocyte proliferative responses to B. suis antigens did not differ between control and RB51 vaccinees after experimental infection. No abortions occurred in cattle in either treatment group after challenge, although there appeared to be an increased incidence of retained placenta after parturition in both the control and the RB51 vaccination treatment groups. Our data suggest that the mammary gland is a preferred site for B. suis localization in cattle. Vaccination with RB51 did not reduce B. suis infection rates in maternal or fetal tissues. In conclusion, although B. suis is unlikely to cause abortions and fetal losses in cattle, our data suggest that RB51 vaccination will not protect cattle against B. suis infection after exposure.

  12. Sport psychiatry and psychotherapy. Mental strains and disorders in professional sports. Challenge and answer to societal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markser, Valentin Z

    2011-11-01

    Professional athletes are subject to massive somatic, social, and mental stress. Despite great public interest for athletic achievements, the emotional strains thereof are very poorly investigated and discussed. The main reason for this is the widespread assumption that only emotionally very strong athletes are able to compete at the highly professional level and therefore mental disorders do not exist in professional sports. But available research data about the prevalence of mental disorders in this area suggest that this hypothesis must be revised. With respect to depression and the overtraining syndrome, attempts have been made to demonstrate the difficulties with etiology, diagnostics, and treatment for sports psychiatry and psychotherapy. Scientifically, sport psychiatry and psychotherapy can be defined as a discipline, whose focus is the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the extreme and sports-specific emotional strains and disorders. In addition to sport psychology, which focuses mainly on performance enhancement, mental stress, and disorders can hereby be recognized, disorders be treated and the athletic performance sustained. With the foundation of the Task Force for Sports Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, scientific research, further education, prevention, and treatment for mental disorders in professional sports will be improved.

  13. Development of a Standard Methodology for the Quantitative Measurement of Steel Phase Transformation Kinetics and Dilation Strains Using Dilatometric Methods, QMST (TRP 0015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Manish Metha; Dr. Tom Oakwood

    2004-04-28

    The purpose of this collaborative project was to develop a standard practice for obtaining and archiving quantitative steel transformation kinetic data and thermal strain data. Two families of dilatometric equipment were employed to develop this standard practice for testing bar product steels. These include high-speed quenching and deformation dilatometers and Gleeble{reg_sign} thermomechanical simulation instruments. Standard measurement, data interpretation and data reporting methods were developed and defined by the cross-industry QMST Consortium members consisting of steel-manufacturers, forgers, heat-treaters, modelers, automotive and heavy vehicle OEMs along with team expert technologists from the National Labs and academia. The team designed phase transformation experiments on two selected steel grades to validate the standard practices--a medium carbon grade SAE 1050 and an alloy steel SAE 8620. A final standard practice document was developed based on the two dilatometry methods, and was submitted to and approved by ASTM (available as A1033-04). The standard practice specifies a method for measuring austenite transformation under no elastic stress or plastic deformation. These methods will be an enabler for the development and electronic archiving of a quantitative database for process modeling using computer simulation software, and will greatly assist endusers in developing accurate process and product simulations during the thermo-mechanical processing of bar and rod product steels.

  14. Metabolite Transporter PEG344 Is Required for Full Virulence of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain hvKP1 after Pulmonary but Not Subcutaneous Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Ulrike; Olson, Ruth; Beanan, Janet; Russo, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) is an emerging pathotype that is capable of causing tissue-invasive and organ- and life-threatening infections in healthy individuals from the community. Knowledge on the virulence factors specific to hvKP is limited. In this report, we describe a new factor (PEG344) that increases the virulence of hvKP strain hvKP1. peg-344 is present on the hvKP1 virulence plasmid, is broadly prevalent among hvKP strains, and has increased RNA abundance when grown in human ascites. An isogenic derivative of hvKP1 (hvKP1Δ peg-344 ) was constructed and compared with its wild-type parent strain in in vitro , ex vivo , and infection model studies. Both survival and competition experiments with outbred CD1 mice demonstrated that PEG344 was required for full virulence after pulmonary challenge but, interestingly, not after subcutaneous challenge. In silico analysis suggested that PEG344 serves as an inner membrane transporter. Compared to hvKP1, a small but significant decrease in the growth/survival of hvKP1Δ peg-344 was observed in human ascites, but resistance to the bactericidal activity of complement was similar. These data suggested that PEG344 may transport an unidentified growth factor present in ascites. The data presented are important since they expand our limited knowledge base on virulence factors unique to hvKP, which is needed to lay the groundwork for translational approaches to prevent or treat these devastating infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Analog performance of standard and uniaxial strained triple-gate SOI FinFETs under x-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordallo, C. C. M.; Teixeira, F. F.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Martino, J. A.; Agopian, P. G. D.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of x-ray irradiation on the main digital and analog parameters of triple gate silicon-on-insulator FinFETs is investigated for unstrained and uniaxially strained devices. Comparing the p- and n-MuGFET response to radiation, x-rays can be more harmful for nMuGFETs than for the p-type counterparts due to the back-interface leakage current, which is generated by the positive charges trapped in the buried oxide. However, in pMuGFETs, the radiation tends to suppress the parasitic back-conduction, resulting in an improvement of the device performance.

  16. Standard test method for determining plane-strain crack-arrest fracture toughness, kIa, of ferritic steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method employs a side-grooved, crack-line-wedge-loaded specimen to obtain a rapid run-arrest segment of flat-tensile separation with a nearly straight crack front. This test method provides a static analysis determination of the stress intensity factor at a short time after crack arrest. The estimate is denoted Ka. When certain size requirements are met, the test result provides an estimate, termed KIa, of the plane-strain crack-arrest toughness of the material. 1.2 The specimen size requirements, discussed later, provide for in-plane dimensions large enough to allow the specimen to be modeled by linear elastic analysis. For conditions of plane-strain, a minimum specimen thickness is also required. Both requirements depend upon the crack arrest toughness and the yield strength of the material. A range of specimen sizes may therefore be needed, as specified in this test method. 1.3 If the specimen does not exhibit rapid crack propagation and arrest, Ka cannot be determined. 1.4 The values stat...

  17. Vaccination of adult and newborn mice of a resistant strain (C57BL/6J) against challenge with leukemias induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. Then, the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths were calculated for immunized and control mice. The logarithm of their ratio quantified the degree of protection provided by immunization. For adult C57BL/6J mice, a single immunization with MuLV-induced leukemia cells was not effective; either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or Corynebacterium parvum, or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not by immunization with isogenic carcinogen-induced tumors or with an isogenic spontaneous leukemia. For newborn mice, a single injection of irradiated leukemia cells provided 1.3 to 1.5 logs of protection, and admixture of B. Calmette-Guerin or C. parvum increased this protection to 2.4 to 2.7 logs. Since irradiated and frozen-thawed MuLV-induced leukemia cells contained viable MuLV, leukemia cells treated with 0.5 or 1.0% formalin were tested as an alternative. A single injection of formalin-treated isogenic leukemia cells admixed with C. parvum provided between 1.7 and 2.8 logs of protection. These results demonstrate that a single vaccination of newborn animals against a highly antigenic virally induced leukemia produces strong protection against a subsequent challenge with viable leukemia cells

  18. Evaluation of In Vivo Probiotic Efficiency of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in Labeo rohita Challenged by Pathogenic Strain of Aeromonas hydrophila MTCC 1739.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ankita; Banerjee, Goutam; Dan, Suhas Kumar; Ghosh, Koushik; Ray, Arun Kumar

    2017-07-25

    Diseases in aquatic organisms, including fish, are a major concern in aquaculture production. In this present investigation, we have evaluated the beneficial effects of dietary Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CCF7 (GenBank Acc. No. KP256501) supplementation in rohu (Labeo rohita) challenged by a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas hydrophila MTCC 1739. Four experimental diets were formulated: control diet (no probiotics) and three experimental diets (different concentrations of probiotic candidate B. amyloliquefaciens CCF7 at 10 5 (T1), 10 7 (T2), 10 9 (T3) CFU/g). Further, we have divided the feeding trial into pre-challenge (70 days) and post-challenge (28 days) periods and various immune parameters (serum protein, globulin, albumin, lysozyme, and IgM), and stress parameters (malondialdehyde, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) were examined during both the periods. Throughout the entire experiment, control group was fed with probiotic free basal diet, while the treatment groups received probiotic supplemented diets (PSD). After challenge test, serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT) activity, and liver malondialdehyde level have increased significantly in control groups; however, level of these parameters were considerably lower in fish fed with PSD. In contrast, liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and serum globulin concentration was significantly higher in the group fed with T3 diet followed by T2. Furthermore, an elevated level of serum IgM and higher activity of serum lysozyme was also recorded in PSD fed groups, especially for T3 group which confirmed the probiotic efficiency of the bacterium B. amyloliquefaciens CCF7. We strongly believe that B. amyloliquefaciens CCF7 will be a good probiotic candidate in aquaculture industries.

  19. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  20. Chemical analysis, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm eradication potential of Euphorbia hirta L. against clinical isolates and standard strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Shanmugapriya; Mahmud, Roziahanim

    2013-12-09

    The frequent occurrences of antibiotic-resistant biofilm forming pathogens have become global issue since various measures that had been taken to curb the situation led to failure. Euphorbia hirta, is a well-known ethnomedicinal plant of Malaysia with diverse biological activities. This plant has been used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and respiratory ailments caused by infectious agents. In the present study, chemical compositions of methanol extract of E. hirta L. aerial part was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A relevant in vitro model was developed to assess the potency of the E. hirta extract to inhibit the bacterial biofilm formation as well as to eradicate the established biofilms. Besides biofilm, E. hirta extract was also evaluated for the inhibition efficacy on planktonic cells using tetrazolium microplate assay. For these purposes, a panel of clinically resistant pathogens and American type culture collection (ATCC) strains were used. The methanolic extract of aerial part of E. hirta was predominantly composed of terpenoid (60.5%) which is often regarded as an active entity accountable for the membrane destruction and biofilm cell detachment. The highest antibacterial effect of crude E. hirta extract was observed in the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.062 mg/ml. The extract also displayed potent biofilm inhibition and eradication activity against P. aeruginosa with minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (MBIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of 0.25 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. The crude methanol extract of E. hirta has proven to have interesting and potential anti-biofilm properties. The findings from this study will also help to establish a very promising anti-infective phytotherapeutical to be exploited in the pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains Danish and Pasteur in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M V; Thacker, T C; Waters, W R

    2009-06-01

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock and the cause for many faltering bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes. One approach in dealing with wildlife reservoirs of disease is to interrupt inter-species and intraspecies transmission through vaccination of deer or cattle. To evaluate the efficacy of BCG vaccination in white-tailed deer, 35 deer were assigned to one of three groups; one s.c. dose of 10(7) CFU of M. bovis BCG Pasteur (n = 12); 1 s.c. dose of 10(7) CFU of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 11); or unvaccinated deer (n = 12). After vaccination, deer were inoculated intratonsilarly with virulent M. bovis. Lesion severity scores of the medial retropharyngeal lymph node, as well as all lymph nodes combined, were reduced in vaccinated deer compared to unvaccinated deer. BCG Danish vaccinated deer had no late stage granulomas characterized by coalescent caseonecrotic granulomas containing numerous acid-fast bacilli compared to BCG Pasteur vaccinated or unvaccinated deer where such lesions were present. Both BCG strains were isolated as late as 250 days after vaccination from deer that were vaccinated but not challenged. In white-tailed deer, BCG provides protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. Issues related to vaccine persistence, safety and shedding remain to be further investigated.

  2. Humoral immune response of C57Bl/6j and BALB/c mice immunized with irradiated tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain and oral challenge with ME-49 strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Galisteo Junior, Andres [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia; E-mail: galisteo@usp.br; Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia; Alves, Janaina Baptista; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi [instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a prevalent widespread infection in man and animals, is mainly transmitted by oral route, through ingestion of oocysts from water and food contaminated with cat feces or infected animal tissue cysts in undercooked meat. Vaccine development implies in effective intestinal immunity, the first site of parasite entry. Radiation (255 Gy/{sup 60}Co) sterilized T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites (RST) induced significant protection when parentally administered, similar to chronically infected and acute disease protected animal. We study the humoral immune response in C57Bl/6j and BALB/c mice immunized with 10{sup 7} RST, by oral (with aluminium hydroxide 3%) or parenteral 3 biweekly administrations. T. gondii antigens specific ELISA for IgG, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b detection was performed in weekly blood samples during immunization. Also we evaluate of the intestinal epithelial of immunized mice the integrity of the radiated parasites by electronic microscopy. After 2 weeks, immunized and control animals were challenged with 10 cysts of ME-49 strain p.o. Protection was determined at the 30th day by brain cyst counting. As it was possible to observe in the intestinal mucosal, the aluminium hydroxide seems to maintain unchanged the parasite morphology and its mechanisms of invasion, probably due to keeping it safe from extreme pH condition of stomach. All immunized groups presented significant protection when challenged with ME-49; however, BALB/c mice showed better protection levels, with only one positive animal on brain microscopic analysis. IgG production in the serum of the animals was higher in groups immunized by i.p route, however, IgA and IgG1 levels were higher in BALB/c mice immunized by oral route. This higher protection found in BALB/c group could probably also be related to the Th2 response, demonstrated by higher IgG1 levels. All these data provide insights in oral immunization schedules for toxoplasmosis prevention, suggesting that oral

  3. Humoral immune response of C57Bl/6j and BALB/c mice immunized with irradiated tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain and oral challenge with ME-49 strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Galisteo Junior, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a prevalent widespread infection in man and animals, is mainly transmitted by oral route, through ingestion of oocysts from water and food contaminated with cat feces or infected animal tissue cysts in undercooked meat. Vaccine development implies in effective intestinal immunity, the first site of parasite entry. Radiation (255 Gy/ 60 Co) sterilized T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites (RST) induced significant protection when parentally administered, similar to chronically infected and acute disease protected animal. We study the humoral immune response in C57Bl/6j and BALB/c mice immunized with 10 7 RST, by oral (with aluminium hydroxide 3%) or parenteral 3 biweekly administrations. T. gondii antigens specific ELISA for IgG, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b detection was performed in weekly blood samples during immunization. Also we evaluate of the intestinal epithelial of immunized mice the integrity of the radiated parasites by electronic microscopy. After 2 weeks, immunized and control animals were challenged with 10 cysts of ME-49 strain p.o. Protection was determined at the 30th day by brain cyst counting. As it was possible to observe in the intestinal mucosal, the aluminium hydroxide seems to maintain unchanged the parasite morphology and its mechanisms of invasion, probably due to keeping it safe from extreme pH condition of stomach. All immunized groups presented significant protection when challenged with ME-49; however, BALB/c mice showed better protection levels, with only one positive animal on brain microscopic analysis. IgG production in the serum of the animals was higher in groups immunized by i.p route, however, IgA and IgG1 levels were higher in BALB/c mice immunized by oral route. This higher protection found in BALB/c group could probably also be related to the Th2 response, demonstrated by higher IgG1 levels. All these data provide insights in oral immunization schedules for toxoplasmosis prevention, suggesting that oral vaccines could

  4. Patterns of Cellular Immunity Associated with Experimental Infection with rDEN2Δ30 (Tonga/74) Support Its Suitability as a Human Dengue Virus Challenge Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Alba; Angelo, Michael; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; de Silva, Aruna D; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Diehl, Sean A; Botten, Jason; Boyson, Jonathan; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P; Sette, Alessandro; Weiskopf, Daniela

    2017-04-15

    A deletion variant of the dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 (DENV2) Tonga/74 strain lacking 30 nucleotides from its 3' untranslated region (rDEN2Δ30) has previously been established for use in a controlled human DENV challenge model. To evaluate if this model is appropriate for the derivation of correlates of protection for DENV vaccines on the basis of cellular immunity, we wanted to compare the cellular immune response to this challenge strain to the response induced by natural infection. To achieve this, we predicted HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides from rDEN2Δ30 and used them in a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay to interrogate CD8 + and CD4 + T cell responses in healthy volunteers infected with rDEN2Δ30. At the level of CD8 responses, vigorous ex vivo responses were detected in approximately 80% of donors. These responses were similar in terms of the magnitude and the numbers of epitopes recognized to the responses previously observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors from regions where DENV is hyperendemic. The similarity extended to the immunodominance hierarchy of the DENV nonstructural proteins, with NS3, NS5, and NS1 being dominant in both donor cohorts. At the CD4 level, the responses to rDEN2Δ30 vaccination were less vigorous than those to natural DENV infection and were more focused on nonstructural proteins. The epitopes recognized following rDEN2Δ30 infection and natural infection were largely overlapping for both the CD8 (100%) and CD4 (85%) responses. Finally, rDEN2Δ30 induced stronger CD8 responses than other, more attenuated DENV isolates. IMPORTANCE The lack of a known correlate of protection and the failure of a neutralizing antibody to correlate with protection against dengue virus have highlighted the need for a human DENV challenge model to better evaluate the candidate live attenuated dengue vaccines. In this study, we sought to characterize the immune profiles of rDEN2Δ30-infected

  5. Challenges in understanding strain localization and deformation at different spatiotemporal scales - examples from the north-central Tien Shan and northern Pamir, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Metzger, S.; Codilean, A.; Korup, O.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2016-12-01

    Strain accumulation and deformation in tectonically active mountain belts are generally well documented over decadal times and on time-scales averaging millions of years. Across timescale data sets, however, are still rare. The intracontinental mountain belts of Central Asia offer a very good possibility to overcome this dilemma because of a relatively long geodetic measurement period, good historical seismic records and a high preservation potential of deformed landscape markers. Observations across instrumental and geologic scales may challenge our concepts of strain localization and accumulation. Shortening across the central Tien Shan, for instance, is homogenous across the entire width of the belt, as seen from geodesy and from averaged Quaternary fault-slip rates showing little variation in deformation rate among slowly-slipping single faults. Preliminary results from basin-wide denudation rates that might be indicative of intermediate-term deformation of the respective ranges show also little variation. Indeed, such a pattern is expected for thick-skinned orogens, like the Tien Shan, where basement-cored uplifts are spatiotemporally disparate and a clear deformation front (as common for thin-skinned provinces) is missing. Contrasting to distributed deformation, the northern rim of the Kyrgyz and Kazakh Tien Shan has experienced a remarkable series of major earthquakes between 1885 and 1938, with a cumulative seismic moment adding to a magnitude of approximately 9. Moderate seismicity still coincides with this well-defined zone; a pattern resembling a deformation front on decadal to perhaps centennial times. Present internal deformation of the Pamir indenter, in turn, seems concentrated along the northern and (north)western margins, virtually irrespective of neighboring thin-skinned and thick-skinned provinces. We will highlight these complexities and discuss how paleoseismic records help to unravel the deformation history over millenial time scales.

  6. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated intradermally with deleted Aujeszky's disease vaccine and challenged with virulent strain of Herpesvirus suis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulska-Skupień, E; Szweda, W; Procajło, Z

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of intradermal (ID) versus intramuscular (IM) routes of pig vaccination with deleted Aujeszky's disease (AD) vaccine on the formation of specific postvaccinal and postchallenge humoral immune response was performed. The studies were carried out on 21 eight week-old piglets, divided into three groups--two experimental and one control of 7 piglets each. Animals of first two groups were vaccinated twice in 12 and 16 week of age with deleted, live attenuated AD vaccine Porcilis Begonia (Intervet). Group I was vaccinated with a dose of 2.0 ml (10(6.0) TCID50)) intramuscularly (IM) into neck muscles, and group II received 0.2 ml (10(5.0) TCID50) intradermally (ID) in neck area using needleless apparatus SERENA model SD 1-2 (Emplast, Italy). In group K (control) 2.0 ml PBS IM was used. Seventy days after the first vaccination all pigs were intranasally infected with a dose of 10(5.5) TCID50 of virulent Northern Ireland Aujeszky-3 (NIA-3) strain of Herpesvirus suis type 1 (SHV-1) by instilling 0.5 ml of virus suspension into each nostril. Specific humoral immune response was evaluated using seroneutralization (SN) test and gE-ELISA-Pseudorabies virus gpI Antibody Test Kit (Herd Chek Anti-PRV gpI), IDEXX Lab Inc (USA). It was found that challenge caused anamnestic reaction in both groups of vaccinated pigs, but postchallenge immune response was stronger in ID-vaccinated group--on 14 day post infection (dpi) SN antibody level was considerably higher than in IM-vaccinated group. The obtained results suggest that secondary immunological response after challenge is decidedly more effective in the range of evaluated parameters in animals vaccinated by ID route, which can be linked to, perhaps underestimated yet and seldom utilized, skin immunity mechanisms in specific prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Advantages and disadvantages of SN test and ELISA are also discussed.

  7. The prognostic value of right ventricular long axis strain in non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathies using standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenja, Nisha [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kantonsspital Olten, Department of Cardiology, Solothurner Spitaeler AG, Olten (Switzerland); Riffel, Johannes H.; Halder, Manuel; Djiokou, Charly N.; Fritz, Thomas; Andre, Florian; Siepen, Fabian aus dem; Zelniker, Thomas; Meder, Benjamin; Kayvanpour, Elham; Korosoglou, Grigorios [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Buss, Sebastian J. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg (Germany); Das Radiologische Zentrum - Radiology Center, Sinsheim-Eberbach-Erbach-Walldorf-Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the association of right ventricular long axis strain (RV-LAS), a parameter of longitudinal function, with outcome in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). In 441 patients with NIDCM, RV-LAS was analysed retrospectively by measuring the length between the epicardial border of the left ventricular apex and the middle of a line connecting the origins of the tricuspidal valve leaflets in end-diastole and end-systole on non-contrast standard cine sequences. The primary endpoint (cardiac death or heart transplantation) occurred in 41 patients, whereas 95 reached the combined endpoint (including cardiac decompensation and sustained ventricular arrhythmias) during a median follow-up of 4.2 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a poor outcome in patients with RV-LAS values below -10% (log-rank, p < 0.0001). In a risk stratification model RV-LAS improved prediction of outcome in addition to RV ejection fraction (RVEF) and presence of late gadolinium enhancement. Assessment of RV-LAS offered incremental information compared to clinical symptoms, biomarkers and RVEF. Even in the subgroup with normal RVEF (>45%, n = 213) reduced RV-LAS was still associated with poor outcome. Assessment of RV-LAS is an independent indicator of outcome in patients with NIDCM and offers incremental information beyond clinical and cardiac MR parameters. (orig.)

  8. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Thakur, Pallavi; Chowdhry, Ayush; Jaiswal, Sarita; Sharma, Anamika; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Jyoti; Priyadarshi, Smruti Sagar; Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Rajesh

    2013-07-04

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner.

  9. Immune response elicited by two rBCG strains devoid of genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism affect protection versus challenge with M. tuberculosis strains of different virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Cerda, Cristian Alfredo; Aceves-Sánchez, Michel de Jesús; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Mata-Espinoza, Dulce; Barrios-Payán, Jorge; Vega-Domínguez, Perla Jazmín; Pedroza-Roldán, César; Bravo-Madrigal, Jorge; Vallejo-Cardona, Alba Adriana; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto

    2018-04-12

    Pellicles, a type of biofilm, have gathered a renewed interest in the field of tuberculosis as a structure that mimics some characteristics occurring during M. tuberculosis infection, such as antibiotic recalcitrance and chronicity of infection, and as a source of antigens for humoral response in infected guinea pigs. In other bacteria, it has been well documented that the second messenger c-di-GMP modulates the transition from planktonic cells to biofilm formation. In this work, we used the live vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG to determine whether deletion of genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism would affect interaction with macrophages, capacity to induce immune response in a murine cell line and mice, and how the protein profile was modified when grown as surface pellicles. We found that deletion of the BCG1419c (Delta c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, ΔPDE) gene, or deletion of the BCG1416c (Delta c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclase, ΔDGC) gene, altered production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, in murine macrophages, and resulted in attenuation in intra-macrophage replication. Moreover, in addition to the improved immunogenicity of the BCGΔBCG1419c mutant already reported, deletion of the BCG1416c gene leads to increased T CD4 + and T CD8 + activation. This correlated with protection versus lethality in mice infected with the highly virulent M. tuberculosis 5186 afforded by vaccination with all the tested BCG strains, and controlled the growth of the mildly virulent M. tuberculosis H37Rv in lungs by vaccination with BCGΔBCG1419c during chronic late infection from 4 to 6 months after challenge. Furthermore, when grown as surface pellicles, a condition used to manufacture BCG vaccine, in comparison to BCG wild type, both rBCGs changed expression of antigenic proteins such as DnaK, HbhA, PstS2, 35KDa antigen, GroEL2, as well as AcpM, a protein involved in synthesis of mycolic acids, molecules relevant to modulate inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Vaccination-challenge studies with a Port Chalmers/73 (H3N2)-based swine influenza virus vaccine: Reflections on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Qiu, Yu; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2015-05-11

    The human A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) influenza virus strain, the supposed ancestor of European H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs), was used in most commercial SIV vaccines in Europe until recently. If manufacturers want to update vaccine strains, they have to perform laborious intratracheal (IT) challenge experiments and demonstrate reduced virus titres in the lungs of vaccinated pigs. We aimed to examine (a) the ability of a Port Chalmers/73-based commercial vaccine to induce cross-protection against a contemporary European H3N2 SIV and serologic cross-reaction against H3N2 SIVs from Europe and North America and (b) the validity of intranasal (IN) challenge and virus titrations of nasal swabs as alternatives for IT challenge and titrations of lung tissue in vaccine potency tests. Pigs were vaccinated with Suvaxyn Flu(®) and challenged by the IT or IN route with sw/Gent/172/08. Post-vaccination sera were examined in haemagglutination-inhibition assays against vaccine and challenge strains and additional H3N2 SIVs from Europe and North America, including an H3N2 variant virus. Tissues of the respiratory tract and nasal swabs were collected 3 days post challenge (DPCh) and from 0-7 DPCh, respectively, and examined by virus titration. Two vaccinations consistently induced cross-reactive antibodies against European H3N2 SIVs from 1998-2012, but minimal or undetectable antibody titres against North American viruses. Challenge virus titres in the lungs, trachea and nasal mucosa of the vaccinated pigs were significantly reduced after both IT and IN challenge. Yet the reduction of virus titres and nasal shedding was greater after IT challenge. The Port Chalmers/73-based vaccine still offered protection against a European H3N2 SIV isolated 35 years later and with only 86.9% amino acid homology in its HA1, but it is unlikely to protect against H3N2 SIVs that are endemic in North America. We use our data to reflect on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test

  11. Determination of efficacious vaccine seed strains for use against Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses through antigenic cartography and in vivo challenge studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2006, there have been reported outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in vaccinated chickens in Africa and Asia. This study provides experimental data for selection of efficacious H5N1 vaccine seed strains against recently circulating strains of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Egypt....

  12. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the

  13. Challenges of equipment qualification using today`s standards with emphasis on a class 1E motor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, K.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes qualification of new equipment for safety related service in the nuclear power industry in accordance with current industry standards. This topic is presented from the perspective of an original equipment manufacturer J(OEM). Equipment qualification is first discussed in a general way then an example is provided of an electric motor qualification. A review of alternative qualification methods including commercial dedication is included. Potential difficulties with alternative/expedited qualification methods are also discussed.

  14. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES- A NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Pascu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the global economic crisis, small and medium enterprises are most affected. That is why the problem that arises more frequently is the harmonization of national legislation with the European legislation. The necessity to implement specific standards for SMEs appeared in order to provide them a beneficial framework for better economic and financial market positioning. In this respect, the International Accounting Standards Board issued in 2009 IFRS for SMEs, a referential aiming to the simplification of accounting procedures, reconciliation and increase of confidence of potential investors (stakeholders. The question of compatibility of these standards with the European Accounting Directives appears in situations where they may choose to use IFRS for SMEs. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the incompatibilities between IFRS for SMEs and the European Accounting Directives and to analyze the results concerning the implementation of the IFRS for SMEs in Europe. Through this article we want to contribute to the SME accounting area of knowledge.

  15. Standardizing assessment practices of undergraduate medical competencies across medical schools: challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from a consortium of medical schools in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended.

  16. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweerink, A.; Allaart, C.P.; Kuijer, J.P.A.; Wu, L.; Beek, A.M.; Ven, P.M. van de; Meine, M.; Croisille, P.; Clarysse, P.; Rossum, A.C. van; Nijveldt, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive

  17. An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H; Homer, Nils

    2014-01-01

    and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing......Background : There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation......, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions : The CLARITY Challenge...

  18. Challenging the standard model by high-precision comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, S; Mooser, A; Nagahama, H; Sellner, S; Smorra, C

    2018-03-28

    The BASE collaboration investigates the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons, such as charge-to-mass ratios and magnetic moments, using advanced cryogenic Penning trap systems. In recent years, we performed the most precise measurement of the magnetic moments of both the proton and the antiproton, and conducted the most precise comparison of the proton-to-antiproton charge-to-mass ratio. In addition, we have set the most stringent constraint on directly measured antiproton lifetime, based on a unique reservoir trap technique. Our matter/antimatter comparison experiments provide stringent tests of the fundamental charge-parity-time invariance, which is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This article reviews the recent achievements of BASE and gives an outlook to our physics programme in the ELENA era.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Tuberculosis detection and the challenges of integrated care in rural China: A cross-sectional standardized patient study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sylvia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent reductions in prevalence, China still faces a substantial tuberculosis (TB burden, with future progress dependent on the ability of rural providers to appropriately detect and refer TB patients for further care. This study (a provides a baseline assessment of the ability of rural providers to correctly manage presumptive TB cases; (b measures the gap between provider knowledge and practice and; (c evaluates how ongoing reforms of China's health system-characterized by a movement toward "integrated care" and promotion of initial contact with grassroots providers-will affect the care of TB patients.Unannounced standardized patients (SPs presenting with classic pulmonary TB symptoms were deployed in 3 provinces of China in July 2015. The SPs successfully completed 274 interactions across all 3 tiers of China's rural health system, interacting with providers in 46 village clinics, 207 township health centers, and 21 county hospitals. Interactions between providers and standardized patients were assessed against international and national standards of TB care. Using a lenient definition of correct management as at least a referral, chest X-ray or sputum test, 41% (111 of 274 SPs were correctly managed. Although there were no cases of empirical anti-TB treatment, antibiotics unrelated to the treatment of TB were prescribed in 168 of 274 interactions or 61.3% (95% CI: 55%-67%. Correct management proportions significantly higher at county hospitals compared to township health centers (OR 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.25, p < 0.001 and village clinics (OR 0.02, 95% CI: 0.0-0.17, p < 0.001. Correct management in tests of knowledge administered to the same 274 physicians for the same case was 45 percentage points (95% CI: 37%-53% higher with 24 percentage points (95% CI: -33% to -15% fewer antibiotic prescriptions. Relative to the current system, where patients can choose to bypass any level of care, simulations suggest that a system of managed

  20. Facing the challenge of predicting the standard formation enthalpies of n-butyl-phosphate species with ab initio methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad; Réal, Florent; Šulka, Martin; Cantrel, Laurent; Virot, François; Vallet, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    Tributyl-phosphate (TBP), a ligand used in the PUREX liquid-liquid separation process of spent nuclear fuel, can form an explosive mixture in contact with nitric acid that might lead to a violent explosive thermal runaway. In the context of safety of a nuclear reprocessing plant facility, it is crucial to predict the stability of TBP at elevated temperatures. So far, only the enthalpies of formation of TBP are available in the literature with rather large uncertainties, while those of its degradation products, di-(HDBP) and mono-(H2MBP), are unknown. In this goal, we have used state-of-the art quantum chemical methods to compute the formation enthalpies and entropies of TBP and its degradation products di-(HDBP) and mono-(H2MBP) in gas and liquid phases. Comparisons of levels of quantum chemical theory revealed that there are significant effects of correlation on their electronic structures, pushing for the need of not only high level of electronic correlation treatment, namely, local coupled cluster with single and double excitation operators and perturbative treatment of triple excitations, but also extrapolations to the complete basis to produce reliable and accurate thermodynamics data. Solvation enthalpies were computed with the conductor-like screening model for real solvents [COSMO-RS], for which we observe errors not exceeding 22 kJ mol-1. We thus propose with final uncertainty of about 20 kJ mol-1 standard enthalpies of formation of TBP, HDBP, and H2MBP which amounts to -1281.7 ± 24.4, -1229.4 ± 19.6, and -1176.7 ± 14.8 kJ mol-1, respectively, in the gas phase. In the liquid phase, the predicted values are -1367.3 ± 24.4, -1348.7 ± 19.6, and -1323.8± 14.8 kJ mol-1, to which we may add about -22 kJ mol-1 error from the COSMO-RS solvent model. From these data, the complete hydrolysis of TBP is predicted as an exothermic phenomena but showing a slightly endergonic process.

  1. Challenges of SA 8000 standard implantation: social responsibility at PETROBRAS LUBNOR; Os desafios da implantacao da Norma SA 8000: responsabilidade social na PETROBRAS LUBNOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Monica Cavalcanti Sa de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao, Atuaria e Contabilidade. Dept. de Administracao de Empresas; Leal Neto, Antenor Gomes de Barros [PETROBRAS S.A., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lubrificantes e Derivados de Petroleo do Nordeste (LUBNOR)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the developing steps during the establishment of Social Accountability SA 8000 standards in LUBNOR - a PETROBRAS refining plant at Ceara. The SA 8000 standards have been incorporated to Quality, Environmental, Health and Safety Integrated Management System in accordance with ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001. In order to implement the social accountability, the company established a work group task with a mission of communicating, maintaining and promoting some actions with all employees of the Refinery. The biggest challenge of implementing this standard is concerned with the compromise of the supply chain (consisting of suppliers and sub suppliers of products and services), the supervision of the labor task and the adequacy of the management system with the embodying of SA 8000 requisites. New demands were generated, for example: the election of the employee's representative; the celebration of a term of compromise with suppliers; the development of a follow up plan to figure out the supplier's performance; and, the monitoring of extra time worked. The establishment of SA 8000 is a way to stand out the effort at LUBNOR in order to improve the working environment conditions and to consolidate an administration committed with sustainable development and human being improvement. (author)

  2. The U.S. Forest Service's analysis of cumulative effects to wildlife: A study of legal standards, current practice, and ongoing challenges on a National Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Courtney A.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) allows natural resource managers to understand the status of resources in historical context, learn from past management actions, and adapt future activities accordingly. U.S. federal agencies are required to complete CEA as part of environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Past research on CEA as part of NEPA has identified significant deficiencies in CEA practice, suggested methodologies for handling difficult aspects of CEA, and analyzed the rise in litigation over CEA in U.S. courts. This article provides a review of the literature and legal standards related to CEA as it is done under NEPA and then examines current practice on a U.S. National Forest, utilizing qualitative methods in order to provide a detailed understanding of current approaches to CEA. Research objectives were to understand current practice, investigate ongoing challenges, and identify impediments to improvement. Methods included a systematic review of a set of NEPA documents and semi-structured interviews with practitioners, scientists, and members of the public. Findings indicate that the primary challenges associated with CEA include: issues of both geographic and temporal scale of analysis, confusion over the purpose of the requirement, the lack of monitoring data, and problems coordinating and disseminating data. Improved monitoring strategies and programmatic analyses could support improved CEA practice.

  3. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, George M.; Hoover, Mark D.; Williams, Ronald; Benedict, Kristen; Harper, Martin; Soo, Jhy-Charm; Jarabek, Annie M.; Stewart, Michael J.; Brown, James S.; Hulla, Janis E.; Caudill, Motria; Clements, Andrea L.; Kaufman, Amanda; Parker, Alison J.; Keating, Martha; Balshaw, David; Garrahan, Kevin; Burton, Laureen; Batka, Sheila; Limaye, Vijay S.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.; Thompson, Bob

    2017-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes) readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days) associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM), ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG) was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement. PMID:29093969

  4. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Woodall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM, ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement.

  5. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  6. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk.

  7. Immune responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strains RB51 or RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and Glycosyltransferase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus stra...

  8. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  9. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  10. Primary extramammary invasive Paget’s vulvar disease: what is the standard, what are the challenges and what is the future for radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolia, Maria; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Sofoudis, Chrisostomos; Giaginis, Constantinos; Spyropoulou, Despoina; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Kouloulias, Vasileios; Kyrgias, George

    2016-01-01

    Primary invasive Extramammary Paget’s vulvar disease is a rare tumor that is challenging to control. Wide surgical excision represents the standard treatment approach for Primary invasive Extramammary Paget’s vulvar disease. The goal of the current study was to analyze the appropriate indications of radiotherapy in Primary invasive Extramammary Paget's vulvar disease because they are still controversial. We searched the Cochrane Gynecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE database up to September 2015. Radiotherapy was delivered as a treatment in various settings: i) Radical in 28 cases (range: 60–63 Gy), ii) Adjuvant in 25 cases (range: 39–60 Gy), iii) Salvage in recurrence of 3 patients (63 Gy) and iv) Neoadjuvant in one patient (43.3 Gy). A radiotherapy field that covered the gross tumor site with a 2–5 cm margin for the microscopic disease has been used. Radiotherapy of the inguinal, pelvic or para-aortic lymph node should be considered only for the cases with lymph node metastases within these areas. Radiotherapy alone is an alternative therapeutic approach for patients with extensive inoperable disease or medical contraindications. Definitive radiotherapy can be used in elderly patients and/or with medical contraindications. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered in presence of risk factors associated with local recurrence as dermal invasion, lymph node metastasis, close or positive surgical margins, perineal, large tumor diameter, multifocal lesions, extensive disease, coexisting histology of adenocarcinoma or vulvar carcinoma, high Ki-67 expression, adnexal involvement and probably in overexpression of HER-2/neu. Salvage radiotherapy can be given in inoperable loco-regional recurrence and to those who refused additional surgery

  11. HCV Drug Resistance Challenges in Japan: The Role of Pre-Existing Variants and Emerging Resistant Strains in Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Chayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustained virological response (SVR rates have increased dramatically following the approval of direct acting antiviral (DAA therapies. While individual DAAs have a low barrier to resistance, most patients can be successfully treated using DAA combination therapy. However, DAAs are vulnerable to drug resistance, and resistance-associated variants (RAVs may occur naturally prior to DAA therapy or may emerge following drug exposure. While most RAVs are quickly lost in the absence of DAAs, compensatory mutations may reinforce fitness. However, the presence of RAVs does not necessarily preclude successful treatment. Although developments in hepatitis C virus (HCV therapy in Asia have largely paralleled those in the United States, Japan’s July 2014 approval of asunaprevir plus daclatasvir combination therapy as the first all-oral interferon-free therapy was not repeated in the United States. Instead, two different combination therapies were approved: sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir/dasabuvir. This divergence in treatment approaches may lead to differences in resistance challenges faced by Japan and the US. However, the recent approval of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in Japan and the recent submissions of petitions for approval of paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ombitasvir suggest a trend towards a new consensus on emerging DAA regimens.

  12. Novel Clostridium difficile Anti-Toxin (TcdA and TcdB Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies Demonstrate In Vitro Neutralization across a Broad Spectrum of Clinical Strains and In Vivo Potency in a Hamster Spore Challenge Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Qiu

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infection (CDI is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated colitis and increased incidence of community-associated diarrhea in industrialized countries. At present, the primary treatment of CDI is antibiotic administration, which is effective but often associated with recurrence, especially in the elderly. Pathogenic strains produce enterotoxin, toxin A (TcdA, and cytotoxin, toxin B (TcdB, which are necessary for C. difficile induced diarrhea and gut pathological changes. Administration of anti-toxin antibodies provides an alternative approach to treat CDI, and has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In the current study, several humanized anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB monoclonal antibodies were generated and their protective potency was characterized in a hamster infection model. The humanized anti-TcdA (CANmAbA4 and anti-TcdB (CANmAbB4 and CANmAbB1 antibodies showed broad spectrum in vitro neutralization of toxins from clinical strains and neutralization in a mouse toxin challenge model. Moreover, co-administration of humanized antibodies (CANmAbA4 and CANmAbB4 cocktail provided a high level of protection in a dose dependent manner (85% versus 57% survival at day 22 for 50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively in a hamster gastrointestinal infection (GI model. This study describes the protective effects conferred by novel neutralizing anti-toxin monoclonal antibodies against C. difficile toxins and their potential as therapeutic agents in treating CDI.

  13. Reconstruction of axisymmetric strain distributions via neutron strain tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Brian; Zhang, Shu Yan; Vorster, Wim; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the behaviour of structural components under a particular set of loading conditions requires knowledge of the residual elastic strain distribution throughout the bulk of these components. Characterising the 3D strain state at any particular point involves the measurement of six independent components which make up the second order strain tensor. Mapping the complete strain distribution throughout large volumes thus presents significant practical challenges. One possible solution to this problem is to reconstruct the 3D variation of strain components using tomographic techniques. The basic principle underpinning this idea is that the multi-component strain tensor can be reconstructed from a redundant set of lower order projection data. Here we demonstrate this fundamental concept for two samples: a shrink fit 'ring-and-plug' sample, and a spray-quenched circular cylinder, both possessing axially symmetric internal strain distribution. We present and contrast different approaches to the strain tomography problem. The methods described here can also be readily applied to high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements and represent an important step toward developing the tomographic reconstruction framework for strain tensor distributions of arbitrary complexity. The major benefit of neutron strain tomography is that the incident beam flux is utilised more fully, greatly reducing the data collection times. Using micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detectors, a spatial resolution of the order of 0.1 mm can be achieved [1].

  14. Postattachment neutralization of a primary strain of HIV type 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is mediated by CD4-specific antibodies but not by a glycoprotein 120-specific antibody that gives potent standard neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, T L; Dimmock, N J

    2001-11-20

    De novo infecting HIV-1 or virus released from an infected cell in vivo attaches relatively quickly to a target cell, but the rate of fusion-entry of such virus is slow, with 50% entry taking > or =2 hr. It is thus desirable that antibodies stimulated by any vaccine or given in immunotherapy are able to neutralize not only free virus, but also virus attached to the target cell. Here we investigated postattachment neutralization (PAN) of a primary HIV-1 strain (JRCSF) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and of a T cell line-adapted strain (IIIB) in C8166 T lymphoblastoid cells, using the highly potent gp120-specific human monoclonal b12 monoclonal IgG, and monoclonal antibodies specific for the CD4 primary cell receptor. In addition, we improved the experimental protocols of related studies by using a pulse of antibody, thus avoiding the complication of neutralizing progeny virus. We found that b12 IgG PAN was inefficient, with PAN of IIIB needing a 1000-fold greater concentration of antibody than was required for standard neutralization, and PAN of JRCSF being detected erratically only at 4 degrees C and unphysiologically high concentrations (300 microg/ml). Nonetheless, under identical conditions a 10-microg/ml pulse of the CD4-specific MAb Q4120 gave up to 99% PAN of JRCSF, and more than 95% even when added 3 hr after infection at 37 degrees C. Possible mechanisms by which PAN by CD4- specific antibodies is mediated are discussed. We suggest that such anti-CD4 antibodies should be considered as a component of HIV-1 immunotherapy.

  15. Multi-parameter comparison of a standardized mixed meal tolerance test in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects: the PhenFlex challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, S.; Stroeve, J.H.M.; Stafleu, A.; Bakker, G.C.M.; Burggraaf, J.; Erk, M.J. van; Pellis, L.; Boessen, R.; Kardinaal, A.A.F.; Ommen, B. van

    2017-01-01

    Background: A key feature of metabolic health is the ability to adapt upon dietary perturbations. Recently, it was shown that metabolic challenge tests in combination with the new generation biomarkers allow the simultaneous quantification of major metabolic health processes. Currently, applied

  16. BRAZILIAN AND INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS APPLIED TO THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND THE CHALLENGE OF CONVERGENCE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - IPSAS AND NBCTSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Ribeiro Filho (in memoriam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to analyze the current stage of conceptual convergence between Brazilian accounting standards applied to the public sector (NBCTSP and the International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS. The complexity and range of transactions between public or private sector entities, as a result of market internationalization, demand continuous and dynamic assessment of the events that promote quantitative or qualitative equity changes. For this evaluation process, observing accounting principles and standards is important to guarantee, among other information characteristics, understandability and comparability, thus reducing costs for investors and users in general, in view of the barriers raised by diverse languages, cultures, tax and economic policies. For convergence analysis, the standards’ contents were subject to a comparative study, based on a descriptive analysis, with a view to verifying the existing adherence between Brazilian and international standards applied to the public sector. The results found highlight that different aspects still have to be discussed with a view to an actual convergence with the international standards; the current convergence is partial. The high-quality conceptual exposure of the NBCPSPs is observed though, while the contents of the IPSAS are more focused on operating procedures

  17. Brazilian and International Accounting Standards Applied to the Public Sector and the Challenge of Convergence: a Comparative Analysis - IPSAS and NBCTSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodrigues Fragoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to analyze the current stage of conceptual convergence between Brazilian accounting standardsapplied to the public sector (NBCTSP and the International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS.The complexity and range of transactions between public or private sector entities, as a result of market internationalization,demand continuous and dynamic assessment of the events that promote quantitative or qualitative equitychanges. For this evaluation process, observing accounting principles and standards is important to guarantee, amongother information characteristics, understandability and comparability, thus reducing costs for investors and users in general, in view of the barriers raised by diverse languages, cultures, tax and economic policies. For convergenceanalysis, the standards’ contents were subject to a comparative study, based on a descriptive analysis, with a viewto verifying the existing adherence between Brazilian and international standards applied to the public sector. Theresults found highlight that different aspects still have to be discussed with a view to an actual convergence with theinternational standards; the current convergence is partial. The high-quality conceptual exposure of the NBCPSPsis observed though, while the contents of the IPSAS are more focused on operating procedures.

  18. Mi-STAR Unit Challenges serve as a model for integrating earth science and systems thinking in a Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aligned curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, E. E.; Tubman, S.; Matthys, T.; Bluth, G.; Oppliger, D.; Danhoff, B.; Huntoon, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Michigan Science Teaching and Assessment Reform (Mi-STAR) is developing an NGSS-aligned middle school curriculum and associated teacher professional learning program in which science is taught and learned as an integrated body of knowledge that can be applied to address societal issues. With the generous support of the Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow Foundation, Mi-STAR has released several pilot-tested units through the Mi-STAR curriculum portal at mi-star.mtu.edu. Each of these units focuses on an ongoing `Unit Challenge' investigation that integrates STEM content across disciplinary boundaries, stimulates interest, and engages students in using scientific practices to address 21st century challenges. Each Mi-STAR unit is connected to a Unifying NGSS Crosscutting Concept (CCC) that allows students to recognize the concepts that are related to the phenomena or problems under investigation. In the 6th grade, students begin with an exploration of the CCC Systems and System Models. Through repeated applications across units, students refine their understanding of what a system is and how to model a complex Earth system. An example 6th grade unit entitled "Water on the Move: The Water Cycle," provides an example of how Mi-STAR approaches the use of Unifying CCCs and Unit Challenges to enhance middle school students' understanding of the interconnections of Earth system processes and human activities. Throughout the unit, students use a series of hands-on explorations and simulations to explore the hydrologic cycle and how human activity can alter Earth systems. Students develop new knowledge through repeated interactions with the Unit Challenge, which requires development of system models and construction of evidence-based arguments related to flooding problems in a local community. Students have the opportunity to make predictions about how proposed land-use management practices (e.g. development of a skate-park, rain garden, soccer field, etc.) can alter the earth

  19. Solving the interoperability challenge of a distributed complex patient guidance system: a data integrator based on HL7's Virtual Medical Record standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Carlos; González-Ferrer, Arturo; Peleg, Mor; Cavero, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    We show how the HL7 Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standard can be used to design and implement a data integrator (DI) component that collects patient information from heterogeneous sources and stores it into a personal health record, from which it can then retrieve data. Our working hypothesis is that the HL7 vMR standard in its release 1 version can properly capture the semantics needed to drive evidence-based clinical decision support systems. To achieve seamless communication between the personal health record and heterogeneous data consumers, we used a three-pronged approach. First, the choice of the HL7 vMR as a message model for all components accompanied by the use of medical vocabularies eases their semantic interoperability. Second, the DI follows a service-oriented approach to provide access to system components. Third, an XML database provides the data layer.Results The DI supports requirements of a guideline-based clinical decision support system implemented in two clinical domains and settings, ensuring reliable and secure access, high performance, and simplicity of integration, while complying with standards for the storage and processing of patient information needed for decision support and analytics. This was tested within the framework of a multinational project (www.mobiguide-project.eu) aimed at developing a ubiquitous patient guidance system (PGS). The vMR model with its extension mechanism is demonstrated to be effective for data integration and communication within a distributed PGS implemented for two clinical domains across different healthcare settings in two nations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Ten Challenges for Decision Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Huettel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced, employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one or more variables from psychological or economic models, manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this neuroeconomic approach, researchers have described brain systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables, most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of the mechanisms of decision making – from the sources of variability in decision making to the very computations supported by decision-related regions – remain incompletely understood. Here, I outline ten outstanding challenges for future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be readily addressed using current methods, others will require new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience.

  1. The challenge of regional accents for aviation English language proficiency standards: a study of difficulties in understanding in air traffic control-pilot communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R

    2010-02-01

    Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.

  2. A review of the global pesticide legislation and the scale of challenge in reaching the global harmonization of food safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Caroline E; Elliott, Christopher T; Campbell, Katrina

    2015-10-01

    Pesticide use is important in agriculture to protect crops and improve productivity. However, pesticides have the potential to cause adverse human health or environmental effects, depending on exposure levels. This review examines existing pesticide legislation worldwide, focusing on the level of harmonization and impacts of differing legislation on food safety and trade. Pesticide legislation varies greatly worldwide, because countries have different requirements, guidelines, and legal limits for plant protection. Developed nations have more stringent regulations than developing countries, which lack the resources and expertise to adequately implement and enforce legislation. Global differences in pesticide legislation act as a technical barrier to trade. International parties such as the European Union (EU), Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have attempted to harmonize pesticide legislation by providing maximum residue limits (MRLs), but globally these limits remain variable. Globally harmonized pesticide standards would serve to increase productivity, profits, and trade and also enhance the ability to protect public health and the environment. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Nutritional status among primary school children in rural Sri Lanka; a public health challenge for a country with high child health standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naotunna, N P G C R; Dayarathna, M; Maheshi, H; Amarasinghe, G S; Kithmini, V S; Rathnayaka, M; Premachandra, L; Premarathna, N; Rajasinghe, P C; Wijewardana, G; Agampodi, T C; Agampodi, S B

    2017-01-10

    Nutritional status of pre adolescent children is not widely studied in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status among pre-adolescent school children in a rural province of Sri Lanka. A school based cross sectional study was carried out in North Central Province in 100 rural schools, selected using multi stage cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size. Children in grade one to five were enrolled with a maximum cluster size of fifty. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained data collectors and venesection was done at site by trained nurses. WHO AnthoPlus was used to calculate the BMI, height for age and weight for age Z scores. Survey design adjusted prevalence estimates with linearized standard errors were generated using svy function of STATA. Mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was calculated using methaeamoglobin method. Screening for iron deficiency and thalassemia trait was done using peripheral blood films. Height and weight measurements were done for 4469 of children and the Hb data was available for 4398 children. Based on the survey design adjusted estimates, prevalence of severe thinness, thinness, overweight and obesity in this population was 8.60% (SE 0.94), 2.91%(SE 0.74), 2.95%(0.26) and 2.43%(SE 0.92) respectively. Similarly, survey design adjusted prevalence of underweight and stunting were, 25.93% (95% CI 24.07-27.89%) and 43.92%(95% CI 40.55-47.56%). Adjusted mean estimates for hemoglobin was 12.20 (95% CI 12.16-12.24) g/dL. Prevalence of anemia was 17.3% (n = 749). Prevalence of mild and moderate anemia was 9.4 and 7.6% respectively. This study confirms that malnutrition is still a major problem in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.

  4. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  5. Snowball: Strain aware gene assembly of Metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Gregor; A. Schönhuth (Alexander); A.C. McHardy (Alice)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractGene assembly is an important step in functional analysis of shotgun metagenomic data. Nonetheless, strain aware assembly remains a challenging task, as current assembly tools often fail to distinguish among strain variants or require closely related reference genomes of the studied

  6. Snowball: strain aware gene assembly of metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Gregor; A. Schönhuth (Alexander); A.C. McHardy (Alice)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMotivation: Gene assembly is an important step in functional analysis of shotgun metagenomic data. Nonetheless, strain aware assembly remains a challenging task, as current assembly tools often fail to distinguish among strain variants or require closely related reference genomes of the

  7. A cell strain system for small homogeneous strain applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, M; Simnacher, M; Schmitt, H; Brand, R A; Claes, L

    1997-11-01

    A cell culture system has been developed that enables application of well characterized, homogeneously distributed cyclic strains to monolayer cell cultures. Optically clear silicone culture dishes atop Plexiglas base plates are deformed by four-point bending of flexible silicone culture wells driven in user specified strain cycle patterns using computer controlled electromagnetic linear actuators. Cyclic mechano-transduction can be induced in amplitudes of 0 to 3000 mustrain, in frequencies of 0 to 30 Hz and in any specified strain cycle pattern. The cell culture system, which contains six simultaneously driven culture wells, has been mechanically characterized by holographic interferometry, laser displacement sensor recordings of the dish surfaces, strain gauge monitoring of the base plates, and finite element modeling of the dishes on the base plates. The standard deviation of the strain amplitudes among the six simultaneously stimulated culture wells is less than 5%. The cell culture system allows accurate generation of small magnitudes of well characterized, homogeneous strain, easy handling of the culture wells, flexible setting of cyclic strain pattern parameters, simultaneous stimulation of 6 culture wells, and light microscopic observation of the cell cultures.

  8. Ratchetting strain prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noban, Mohammad; Jahed, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    A time-efficient method for predicting ratchetting strain is proposed. The ratchetting strain at any cycle is determined by finding the ratchetting rate at only a few cycles. This determination is done by first defining the trajectory of the origin of stress in the deviatoric stress space and then incorporating this moving origin into a cyclic plasticity model. It is shown that at the beginning of the loading, the starting point of this trajectory coincides with the initial stress origin and approaches the mean stress, displaying a power-law relationship with the number of loading cycles. The method of obtaining this trajectory from a standard uniaxial asymmetric cyclic loading is presented. Ratchetting rates are calculated with the help of this trajectory and through the use of a constitutive cyclic plasticity model which incorporates deviatoric stresses and back stresses that are measured with respect to this moving frame. The proposed model is used to predict the ratchetting strain of two types of steels under single- and multi-step loadings. Results obtained agree well with the available experimental measurements

  9. Optimization of a Human Bacille Calmette-Guérin Challenge Model: A Tool to Evaluate Antimycobacterial Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhinnick, Alice; Harris, Stephanie; Wilkie, Morven; Peter, Jonathan; Stockdale, Lisa; Manjaly-Thomas, Zita-Rose; Vermaak, Samantha; Satti, Iman; Moss, Paul; McShane, Helen

    2016-03-01

    There is an urgent need for an improved tuberculosis vaccine. The lack of a validated correlate of protection slows progress in achieving this goal. A human mycobacterial challenge model, using bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a surrogate for a Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge, would facilitate vaccine selection for field efficacy testing. Optimization of this model is required. Healthy BCG-naive adults were assigned to receive intradermal standard-dose BCG SSI (group A), standard-dose BCG TICE (group B), high-dose BCG SSI (group C), and high-dose BCG TICE (group D). Two weeks after BCG challenge, skin biopsy of the challenge site was performed. BCG mycobacterial load was quantified by solid culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. BCG was well tolerated, and reactogenicity was similar between groups, regardless of strain and dose. There was significantly greater recovery of BCG from the high-dose challenge groups, compared with standard-dose challenge. BCG strain did not significantly affect BCG recovery. BCG challenge dose affects sensitivity of this model. We have selected high-dose BCG SSI to take forward in future challenge studies. Assessment of candidate tuberculosis vaccine effectiveness with this optimized model could contribute to vaccine selection for efficacy trials. NCT02088892. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual dysfunction ...

  11. Effect of dietary addition of nitrate on growth, salivary and gastric function, immune response, and excretion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, in weaning pigs challenged with this microbe strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazzoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dietary additions of nitrate (15 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg, supplied by potassium salt were tested in a total 96 weaning pigs challenged or not with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (ST. The oral challenge was done on d 5 and pigs were sacrificed on d 7 or d 25. The effect of challenge never interacted significantly with the dietary treatment. Feed intake, growth, body temperature, salivary excretion, and faecal excretion of ST and gastric function were not affected by the nitrate supplementation. With nitrate additions, total IgA in blood serum tended to be higher before and after the challenge (P<0.10. Nitrite in saliva – but not nitrate – increased with the increasing supplementation at d 5, but not at d 19. The nitrate additions did not negatively affect the weaning performance, but also did not contrast the effect of ST infection.

  12. Waterfront Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    An overall view on the waterfront transformation and the planning challenges related to this process. It contributes to the specific challenges and potentials related to Aalborg Waterfront.......An overall view on the waterfront transformation and the planning challenges related to this process. It contributes to the specific challenges and potentials related to Aalborg Waterfront....

  13. A brief overview of our energy challenge(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    I provide an overview of the current world-wide energy generation and use, and discuss the challenge of meeting the expectations of rising standards of living in the developing world, as well as the challenge posed by ongoing climate change. I focus in particular on the possible evolution of energy systems in response to these challenges.

  14. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in the neonatal intensive care unit: an infection prevention and patient safety challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, P J; Boyle, M G; Hogan, P G; Johnson, A J; Wallace, M A; Elward, A M; Warner, B B; Burnham, C-A D; Fritz, S A

    2016-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We characterized the clinical and molecular epidemiology of MRSA strains colonizing NICU patients. Nasal MRSA isolates (n = 250, from 96 NICU patients) recovered through active surveillance from 2009 to 2014 were characterized with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and detection of mupA (marker of high-level mupirocin resistance) and qacA/B (marker associated with chlorhexidine resistance). Factors associated with community-associated (CA-) or healthcare-associated (HA-) MRSA were evaluated. The overall prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization was 3.9%. Of 96 neonates in our retrospective cohort, 60 (63%) were colonized with CA-MRSA strains and 35 (36%) were colonized with HA-MRSA strains. Patients colonized with HA-MRSA were more likely to develop MRSA infections than patients colonized with CA-MRSA (13/35, 37% versus 8/60, 13%; p 0.007), although the interval from colonization to infection was shorter in CA-MRSA-colonized infants (median 0 days, range -1 to 4 versus HA-MRSA-colonized infants, 7 days, -1 to 43; p 0.005). Maternal peripartum antibiotics were associated with CA-MRSA colonization (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.7; 95% CI 1.7-45.0); intubation and surgical procedures were associated with HA-MRSA colonization (aOR 7.8; 95% CI 1.3-47.6 and aOR 6.0; 95% CI 1.4-24.4, respectively). Mupirocin- and chlorhexidine-resistant MRSA was isolated from four and eight patients, respectively; carriage of a mupirocin-resistant strain precluded decolonization. CA-MRSA strains are prominent in the NICU and associated with distinct risk factors. Given community reservoirs for MRSA acquisition and transmission, novel infection prevention strategies are needed. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  16. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ...

  17. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list of benefits for ... getting started. Hear how moms overcame common nursing challenges and stayed committed to breastfeeding. Common questions about ...

  18. Material approaches to stretchable strain sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyoon; You, Insang; Shin, Sangbaie; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-04-27

    With the recent progress made in wearable electronics, devices now require high flexibility and stretchability up to large strain levels (typically larger than 30 % strain). Wearable strain sensors or deformable strain sensors have been gaining increasing research interest because of the rapid development of electronic skins and robotics and because of their biomedical applications. Conventional brittle strain sensors made of metals and piezoresistors are not applicable for such stretchable sensors. This Review summarizes recent advances in stretchable sensors and focuses on material aspects for high stretchability and sensitivity. It begins with a brief introduction to the Wheatstone bridge circuit of conventional resistive strain sensors. Then, studies on the manipulation of materials are reviewed, including waved structural approaches for making metals and semiconductors stretchable, the use of liquid metals, and conductive filler/elastomer composites by using percolation among the fillers. For capacitive strain sensors, the constant conductivity of the electrode is a key factor in obtaining reliable sensors. Possible approaches to developing capacitive strain sensors are presented. This Review concludes with a discussion on the major challenges and perspectives related to stretchable strain sensors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Community analysis of pigment patterns from 37 microalgae strains reveals new carotenoids and porphyrins characteristic of distinct strains and taxonomic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Serive

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton, with an estimated 30 000 to 1 000 000 species clustered in 12 phyla, presents a high taxonomic and ecophysiological diversity, reflected by the complex distribution of pigments among the different algal classes. High performance liquid chromatography is the gold standard method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton pigments in seawater and culture samples, but only a few pigments can be used as robust chemotaxonomic markers. A major challenge is thus to identify new ones, characteristic of a strain, species, class or taxon that cannot be currently identified on the basis of its pigment signature. Using an optimized extraction process coupled to a HPLC de-replication strategy, we examined the pigment composition of 37 microalgae strains, representative of the broad taxonomic diversity of marine and freshwater species (excluding cyanobacteria. For each species, the major pigments already described were unambiguously identified. We also observed the presence of several minor unidentified pigments in each chromatogram. The global analysis of pigment compositions revealed a total of 124 pigments, including 98 pigments or derivatives unidentified using the standards. Absorption spectra indicated that 35 corresponded to chlorophyll/porphyrin derivatives, 57 to carotenoids and six to derivatives having both spectral signatures. Sixty-one of these unidentified or new carotenoids and porphyrin derivatives were characteristic of particular strains or species, indicating their possible use as highly specific chemotaxonomic markers capable of identifying one strain out of the 37 selected. We developed a graphical analysis using Gephi software to give a clear representation of pigment communities among the various phytoplankton strains, and to reveal strain-characteristic and shared pigments. This made it possible to reconstruct the taxonomic evolution of microalgae classes, on the basis of the conservation, loss, and

  20. The challenging issues of testing and standardization in education: modern references for restructuring the philosophy of thinking and integration of Ukraine into the system of international rating PISA-2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Megega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The European vector in the foreign policy of our state brought up a number of serious challenges for the system of domestic education. They include not only the reorganization of the philosophy of thinking, but also the conscious, objective study of the essence of our system’s entering into the so-called European standards. It would be a mistake to think that the transfer of principles, approaches, forms and methods of work from the educational systems of different countries of the world will immediately produce a positive effect. Each system has its pros and cons. Practical experience of the use of different testing and standardization methods in different countries has already revealed a number of negative trends. Despite the fact that the testing industry is on the rise, the problems of the education quality still remain unsolved. In addition, politicians and officials are constantly tempted to give education assessments based on the results of rating and monitoring studies. Consequently, the objective picture of the essence and depth of the transformations, so necessary for the modern school, has disappeared from the analysis. Moreover, the competent evaluation of the activity of the main figure of the educational process – i.e. the teacher – has not been done. Testing, in a number of cases, turns a school into a training ground for testing tools, and it makes socialization, creativity, artwork and the formation of competencies to be a secondary task. Therefore, the critical view of the experience, which has been presented in the study, will tell practitioners how to enter the system of international standards and how to evaluate without repeating other people’s mistakes. The expediency of such analysis becomes especially urgent on the eve of Ukraine’s participation in 2018 PISA testing. At the same time, one cannot help paying attention to the undeniable conclusions about the direct connection between the results of testing the

  1. Nasal and ocular challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Amber N; Ledford, Dennis K

    2018-03-06

    Nasal and ocular challenges facilitate the evaluation of subjective and objective responses to defined allergen or irritant exposure. Nasal and ocular allergen challenges are the gold standard to diagnose allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, respectively, and aid in the evaluation of novel therapies in clinical trials. Additionally, nasal and ocular allergen challenges might help identify medically relevant allergens in clinical practice. Nonspecific or irritant challenges evaluate mucosal hyperreactivity. Direct mucosal challenges, which can be performed in an office or research setting, expose the participant to higher allergen doses than common in the natural environment. Park studies and environmental chambers, which are most practical in clinical trials, more closely simulate natural allergen exposure. International consensus guidelines for nasal and ocular challenges do not exist. Therefore the positivity criteria, methodologies, and extract or allergen preparations used in challenges vary in the literature. Regardless of these limitations, nasal and ocular challenges are helpful clinical and research tools for nasal and ocular diseases. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  3. Obturator internus muscle strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  4. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  5. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  6. Standards in Power Electronics:Insight on handling current standards

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Power electronics is a rapidly growing field, with an accelerating pace of technological change. This combination presents a challenge for industry professionals to stay up to date on the regulatory and standards requirements and the standards bodies (such as the IEEE) to ensure that the published standards are met. Standards are vitally important for confirming that products conform to the latest levels of functional interoperability, performance, safety, and reliability. This is essential a...

  7. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    and LF 59,60 . These complexes are then taken up by a clatherin dependent mechanism where changes in pH cause pore formation and entry of EF and LF...in Ac-DEX nano/ mico -particles (particles). Mice were inoculated at 20 µg lysate /mouse. Mice were challenged day 21, 26 and 33 i.p with 232-402...due to the complex immune response that is necessary to protect against highly virulent strains94. Furthermore, in the development of a rapid response

  8. Potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages: Further investigations on their probiotic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennacchia, C.; Vaughan, E.E.; Villani, F.

    2006-01-01

    A rational selection of probiotic microorganisms is an important challenge and requires the definition of fundamental information about the physiology and genetics of candidate strains. In this study, selected Lactobacillus (Lact.) strains already characterized in a previous study for their

  9. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  10. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  11. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  12. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  13. Fully integrated carbon nanotube composite thin film strain sensors on flexible substrates for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. R.; Lynch, J. P.; Kurata, M.; Law, K. H.

    2017-09-01

    Multifunctional thin film materials have opened many opportunities for novel sensing strategies for structural health monitoring. While past work has established methods of optimizing multifunctional materials to exhibit sensing properties, comparatively less work has focused on their integration into fully functional sensing systems capable of being deployed in the field. This study focuses on the advancement of a scalable fabrication process for the integration of multifunctional thin films into a fully integrated sensing system. This is achieved through the development of an optimized fabrication process that can create a broad range of sensing systems using multifunctional materials. A layer-by-layer deposited multifunctional composite consisting of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in a polyvinyl alcohol and polysodium-4-styrene sulfonate matrix are incorporated with a lithography process to produce a fully integrated sensing system deposited on a flexible substrate. To illustrate the process, a strain sensing platform consisting of a patterned SWNT-composite thin film as a strain-sensitive element within an amplified Wheatstone bridge sensing circuit is presented. Strain sensing is selected because it presents many of the design and processing challenges that are core to patterning multifunctional thin film materials into sensing systems. Strain sensors fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate are experimentally tested under cyclic loading using standard four-point bending coupons and a partial-scale steel frame assembly under lateral loading. The study reveals the material process is highly repeatable to produce fully integrated strain sensors with linearity and sensitivity exceeding 0.99 and 5 {{V}}/{ε }, respectively. The thin film strain sensors are robust and are capable of high strain measurements beyond 3000 μ {ε }.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain WG5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imamovic, Lejla; Misiakou, Maria-Anna; van der Helm, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain WG5 is a widely used host for phage detection, including somatic coliphages employed as standard ISO method 10705-1 (2000). Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a commercial E. coli WG5 strain.......Escherichia coli strain WG5 is a widely used host for phage detection, including somatic coliphages employed as standard ISO method 10705-1 (2000). Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a commercial E. coli WG5 strain....

  15. Whole genome sequence analyses of Xylella fastidiosa PD strains from different geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome sequences were determined for two Pierce’s disease (PD) causing Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strains, one from Florida and one from Taiwan. The Florida strain was ATCC 35879, the type of strain used as a standard reference for related taxonomy research. By contrast, the Taiwan strain used was only...

  16. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social......, cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  17. Strain-engineered MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, CK

    2012-01-01

    Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale. This book focuses on recent developments in st

  18. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  19. Rat Strain Ontology: structured controlled vocabulary designed to facilitate access to strain data at RGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Rajni; Munzenmaier, Diane H; Worthey, Elizabeth A; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary; Jacob, Howard J

    2013-11-22

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar introgressed regions. This

  20. Immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide favors reinfection with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva L.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effect of immunosuppression by cyclophosphamide (Cy on susceptibility of BALB/c mice subjected to challenge with recombinant strains of Toxoplasma gondii. Animals were prime infected with the D8 (recombinant I/III or the ME49 (type II non-virulent strains, weekly immunosuppressed with Cy and challenged with the CH3 or EGS virulent strains (I/III. Parasites recovered from surviving mice were submitted to PCR-RFLP analysis to confirm co-infection. Prime-infection with the D8 strain conferred more protection against challenge with the CH3 and EGS strains when compared with ME49 prime infection. Cy treatment caused significant leukopenia in the infected mice, what probably favors reinfection after challenge. Reinfection was associated with increased levels of IgA. Otherwise, Cy-treated mice presented significantly lower IgA levels after challenge, suggesting involvement of this immunoglobulin on protection against reinfection. In conclusion, BALB/c mice susceptibility to reinfection by T. gondii is related to genetic differences among the strains used for primary and challenge infections. Alteration of the host’s immune integrity by Cy probably compromises the protection previously established by primary infection.

  1. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  2. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  3. Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella.

  4. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  5. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  6. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notion...... depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social......, cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  7. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  8. Strain-controlled electrocatalysis on multimetallic nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingchuan; Guo, Shaojun

    2017-11-01

    Electrocatalysis is crucial for the development of clean and renewable energy technologies, which may reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. Multimetallic nanomaterials serve as state-of-the-art electrocatalysts as a consequence of their unique physico-chemical properties. One method of enhancing the electrocatalytic performance of multimetallic nanomaterials is to tune or control the surface strain of the nanomaterials, and tremendous progress has been made in this area in the past decade. In this Review, we summarize advances in the introduction, tuning and quantification of strain in multimetallic nanocrystals to achieve more efficient energy conversion by electrocatalysis. First, we introduce the concept of strain and its correlation with other key physico-chemical properties. Then, using the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen as a model reaction, we discuss the underlying mechanisms behind the strain-adsorption-reactivity relationship based on combined classical theories and models. We describe how this knowledge can be harnessed to design multimetallic nanocrystals with optimized strain to increase the efficiency of oxygen reduction. In particular, we highlight the unexpectedly beneficial (and previously overlooked) role of tensile strain from multimetallic nanocrystals in improving electrocatalysis. We conclude by outlining the challenges and offering our perspectives on the research directions in this burgeoning field.

  9. Autophagy is highly targeted among host comparative proteomes during infection with different virulent RABV strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Hualei; Cao, Zengguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yongkun; Zheng, Xuexing; Hou, Pengfei; Li, Nan; Chi, Hang; Huang, Pei; Jiao, Cuicui; Li, Qian; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Gao, Yuwei; Tu, Changchun; Hu, Guixue; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-03-28

    Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that causes serious disease in humans and animals worldwide. It has been reported that different RABV strains can result in divergent prognoses in animal model. To identify host factors that affect different infection processes, a kinetic analysis of host proteome alterations in mouse brains infected with different virulent RABV strains was performed using isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics approach, and this analysis identified 147 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between the pathogenic challenge virus standard (CVS)-11 strain and the attenuated SRV9 strain. Bioinformatics analyses of these DEPs revealed that autophagy and several pathways associated with autophagy, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, p70S6K signaling, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative stress and superoxide radical degradation, were dysregulated. Validation of the proteomic data showed that attenuated SRV9 induced more autophagosome accumulation than CVS-11 in an in vitro model. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RABV and encourage further studies on this topic.

  10. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  11. IMPLEMENTING A RISK MANAGEMENT STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After risk management “conquered” more and more project managers’ minds and showed its benefits for business and programs, the need to have a global risk management standard has become a crucial issue in the world of risk management. But having a global risk management standard has been a big challenge, starting from the decision of developing the standard (March-June 2005, to the moment of publishing it, November 2009. So, developing the ISO 31000:2009 standard has been more or less like a bumpy ride. Apparently, the people involved in developing the global risk management standard understood from the very beginning that no challenges are too big, nor any tasks too small and that the task of having a new, comprehensive global risk management standard should be completed with excellence: defining the principles and the framework guiding the risk management process applicable for all type of organizations and for a wide range of activities. Coming up with a global standard should always be based on the real organizations’ needs and should fulfill real risk management requirements. The article is trying to present the pros and cons of risk management standard implementation, challenging the implementation process itself and the added value of implementing the standard due to the lack of implementation enablers, like risk culture, a real problem especially in an international environment.

  12. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for nanoscale strain characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Alvarado; Hayazawa, Norihiko; Kawata, Satoshi

    2009-08-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), which utilizes the strong localized optical field generated at the apex of a metallic tip when illuminated, has been shown to successfully probe the vibrational spectrum of today's and tomorrow's state-of-the-art silicon and next-generation semiconductor devices, such as quantum dots. Collecting and analyzing the vibrational spectrum not only aids in material identification but also provides insight into strain distributions in semiconductors. Here, the potential of TERS for nanoscale characterization of strain in silicon devices is reviewed. Emphasis will be placed on the key challenges of obtaining spectroscopic images of strain in actual strained silicon devices.

  13. Institutional Strain and Precarious Values in Meeting Future Nuclear Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Matthews; Todd R. LaPorte

    1998-11-01

    This paper explores the implications of moderately expanding plutonium "pit" production capability within the strongly R&D culture of Los Alamos National Laboratory, especially in terms of the lab's current capacity or "fitness for the future" in which institutional stewardship of the nation's nuclear deterrent capability becomes a primary objective. The institutional properties needed to assure "future fitness" includes the organizational requisites highly reliable operations and sustained institutional constancy in a manner that evokes deep public trust and confidence. Estimates are made of the degree to which the key Division and most relevant Program office in this evolution already exhibits them.

  14. Emotional distress and strain in relatives of patients with severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of emotional distress and strain were examined in two groups of relatives of psychiatric patients using standard instruments. The dementia group had more GHQ - 30 cases than the schizophrenic group. Even though the schizophrenic relatives had higher distress and strain scores than the dementia relatives, ...

  15. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  16. Strain variation in Dermatophilus congolensis demonstrated by cross-protection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, T M; Sutherland, S S; Davies, G

    1991-08-30

    Cross-protection studies were conducted with vaccines prepared from two isolates of Dermatophilus congolensis (designated strain 1 and strain 2). The vaccines were prepared as either heat-inactivated, washed, formalized filamentous phase bacterium, mixed with alum as an adjuvant, and inoculated intramuscularly (type A vaccine) or sedimented live filaments inoculated intradermally (type B vaccine). The vaccinated sheep were challenged with D. congolensis zoospores of one or other strain. Challenge sites were observed for the presence and severity of lesions. Serum antibody levels to D. congolensis were monitored after vaccination and challenge. Type A and B vaccines from both strains produced some reduction in the severity of lesions when sheep were challenged with strain 1 but not with strain 2. Unvaccinated control sheep developed more severe and persistent lesions when challenged with strain 2 than controls challenged with strain 1. Serum antibody levels to the type B vaccine prepared from strain 1 were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than antibody levels to type B vaccine from strain 2. These findings showed there was significant variation in virulence and antigenicity between these two isolates of D. congolensis.

  17. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  18. Comparison between immune responses and resistance induced in BALB/c mice vaccinated with RB51 and Rev. 1 vaccines and challenged with Brucella melitensis bv. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, M E R; El-Gibaly, S M; Montasser, A M

    2002-08-02

    BALB/c mice were immunized with live rough Brucella abortus RB51 or smooth Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccines and challenged with a B. melitensis field strain. Protection was assessed by a variety of serological tests and recovery of vaccinal and challenge strains by culture. Mice vaccinated with RB51 gave negative results in the conventional serological tests prior to challenge, namely; standard tube agglutination test (SAT), Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPAT), and mercaptoethanol test (MET). Sero-conversion took place to a whole-cell bacterial buffered RB51 antigen after vaccination and persisted for 7 weeks post-vaccination. Mice challenged with B. melitensis were assessed for bacterial load and immune response for 12 weeks after challenge. Protection units were showed that Rev. 1 vaccine was superior to RB51 vaccine in protection of mice against B. melitensis. However, RB51 vaccine has the advantage that it would not elicit antibodies to standard serological tests based on the LPS O antigen. RB51 vaccine could therefore be used for control of B. melitensis infection and avoid confusion in the use of standard sero-diagnostic tests.

  19. Photothermal strain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changhoon; Ahn, Joongho; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-07-01

    Vulnerable plaques are the major cause of cardiovascular disease, but they are difficult to detect with conventional intravascular imaging techniques. Techniques are needed to identify plaque vulnerability based on the presence of lipids in plaque. Thermal strain imaging (TSI) is an imaging technique based on ultrasound (US) wave propagation speed, which varies with the medium temperature. In TSI, the strain that occurs during tissue temperature change can be used for lipid detection because it has a different tendency depending on the type of tissue. Here, we demonstrate photothermal strain imaging (pTSI) using an intravascular ultrasound catheter. pTSI is performed by slightly and selectively heating lipid using a relatively inexpensive continuous laser source. We applied a speckle-tracking algorithm to US B-mode images for strain calculations. As a result, the strain produced in porcine fat was different from the strain produced in water-bearing gelatin phantom, which made it possible to distinguish the two. This suggests that pTSI could potentially be a way of differentiating lipids in coronary artery.

  20. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  1. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  2. Strain: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-04-01

    2017 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of John Ramsay's well known textbook "Folding and Fracturing of Rocks" - ... and the 30th anniversary of the rejection of a rather less well known paper entitled "Strain: Fact or Fiction?" submitted by Renée Panozzo to the Journal of Structural Geology. The gist of the paper was simple and straight forward: it was argued that not every fabric that can be observed in deformed rocks is necessarily a measure of the amount of strain the rock incurred. A distinction was made between a general "fabric", i.e., the traceable geometry of grain boundaries, for example, and a so-called "strain fabric", i.e., the model geometry that would result from homogeneously straining an initially isotropic fabric and that would exhibit at least orthorhombic symmetry. To verify if a given fabric was indeed a strain fabric it was therefore suggested to use the SURFOR method (published by Panozzo) and to carry out a so-called strain test, i.e., a check of symmetry, before interpreting the results of a fabric analysis in terms of strain. The problem with the paper was that it was very obviously written out of frustration. The frustration came form having reviewed a number of manuscripts which tried to use the then novel SURFOR method for strain analysis without first checking if the the fabric was a indeed a "strain fabric" or not, and then blaming the SURFOR method for producing ambiguous results. As a result, the paper was not exactly well balanced and carefully thought out. It was considered "interesting but not scholarly" by one of the reviewers and down-right offensive by the second. To tell the truth, however, the paper was not formally rejected. The editor Sue Treagus strongly encouraged Panozzo to revise the paper, ... and 30 years later, I will follow her advise and offer a revised paper as a tribute to John Ramsay. To quote from the original manuscript: "We should be a little more impressed that strain works so well, and less

  3. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  4. Systems strategies for developing industrial microbial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    Industrial strain development requires system-wide engineering and optimization of cellular metabolism while considering industrially relevant fermentation and recovery processes. It can be conceptualized as several strategies, which may be implemented in an iterative fashion and in different...... performance under industrial fermentation conditions. These challenges can be overcome by taking systems approaches through the use of state-of-the-art tools of systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering in the context of industrial bioprocess. Major systems metabolic engineering...

  5. Haemophilus influenzae Strains in Tunisian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mzilem Sabrine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemophilus influenzae, a major pathogen causing respiratory tract infections and meningitis, is becoming increasingly resistant to narrow spectrum penicillin. Investigating the reasons for this resistance is challenging. Methods: The sequences of the ftsI gene, encoding the transpeptidase domain of penicillin binding protein (PBP3, were determined for 44 strains of Haemophilus influenzae with reduced susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics. Strains, isolated from children, were analyzed for genetic relationship by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results: Sequence analysis of the ftsI gene revealed different mutations. We used this polymorphism to classify the different strains into three groups: (I (n=3, II (n=36, including H. influenzae ATCC 49247, this group was divided into four subgroups and III (n=5. In each group various substitutions were observed. Conclusion: The increasing number of Haemophilus influenzae strains with reduced susceptibility to β-lactam due to mutations in the ftsI gene, is becoming a serious health issue in Tunisia. The resistance to β-lactam was observed in both strains that produce β-lactamase and those that do not. The level of resistance is remarkably high in our country.

  6. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  7. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  8. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  9. 2D myocardial strain assessment in the mouse: a comparison between a synthetic lateral phase approach and block-matching using computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Florence; Choi, Hon Fai; Claus, Piet; D'hooge, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Estimating myocardial strain in the mouse with clinical equipment remains difficult due to the high heart rate and the small size of the mouse heart. Measuring the strain component perpendicular to the ultrasound beam is especially challenging because of the lack of phase information in that direction and the large speckle width compared to the wall thickness. In this study, the performance of a Synthetic Lateral Phase (SLP) approach was contrasted to a standard and a regularized 2D Speckle Tracking (2D ST) algorithm using simulated data sets. SLP yielded higher rms errors for the lateral strain estimates than the regularized 2D ST (Lateral rms error: 0.087±0.012 vs. 0.052±0.010; p<0.05). No significant difference was found between the standard 2D ST and SLP. For the axial strain estimates, SLP produced higher rms errors than the standard 2D ST (Axial rms error: 0.063±0.012 vs. 0.040±0.008; p<0.05). 2D ST combined with geometric regularization showed thus to be the most accurate method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Strain superlattices in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Kim, Youngseok; Lyding, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Mason, Nadya

    Superlattices have been widely explored to tailor the electronic properties of two-dimensional electron systems. Previous approaches to create superlattices have been limited to periodic potential modulations, either in the form of electrostatic gating or moiré heterostructures. Here we present a new strategy to generate superlattices in 2D materials. We deposit these 2D membranes on a periodic array of dielectric nanospheres, and achieve superlattices with periodic strain modulations. We studied the electronic and magneto-transport properties of strained graphene superlattices, and observed salient features of Dirac point cloning and Hofstadter's butterfly. Furthermore, we were able to tune the transport properties by changing the magnitude of strain in the graphene superlattice. This new degree of freedom provides a novel platform both for fundamental studies of 2D electron correlations and for prospective applications in 2D electronic devices. Y.Z. and N.M. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ENG-1434147.

  11. Elucidation of the Metabolic Network of Helicobacter pylori J99 and Malaysian Clinical Strains by Phenotype Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woon Ching; Goh, Khean Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes almost half of the human population worldwide. H. pylori strains are genetically diverse, and the specific genotypes are associated with various clinical manifestations including gastric adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). However, our current knowledge of the H. pylori metabolism is limited. To understand the metabolic differences among H. pylori strains, we investigated four Malaysian H. pylori clinical strains, which had been previously sequenced, and a standard strain, H. pylori J99, at the phenotypic level. The phenotypes of the H. pylori strains were profiled using the Biolog Phenotype Microarray system to corroborate genomic data. We initiated the analyses by predicting carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathways from the H. pylori genomic data from the KEGG database. Biolog PM aided the validation of the prediction and provided a more intensive analysis of the H. pylori phenomes. We have identified a core set of metabolic nutrient sources that was utilized by all strains tested and another set that was differentially utilized by only the local strains. Pentose sugars are the preferred carbon nutrients utilized by H. pylori. The amino acids l-aspartic acid, d-alanine, and l-asparagine serve as both carbon and nitrogen sources in the metabolism of the bacterium. The phenotypic profile based on this study provides a better understanding on the survival of H. pylori in its natural host. Our data serve as a foundation for future challenges in correlating interstrain metabolic differences in H. pylori. © 2016 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Microbial strain-level population structure and genetic diversity from metagenomes

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Duy Tin; Tett, Adrian; Pasolli, Edoardo; Huttenhower, Curtis; Segata, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Among the human health conditions linked to microbial communities, phenotypes are often associated with only a subset of strains within causal microbial groups. Although it has been critical for decades in microbial physiology to characterize individual strains, this has been challenging when using culture-independent high-throughput metagenomics. We introduce StrainPhlAn, a novel metagenomic strain identification approach, and apply it to characterize the genetic structure of thousands of st...

  13. Strain and temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of non-invasively measuring strain and temperature of an object, substantially simultaneously, using neutrons of selected energy levels is described. A pulsed neutron source is made to emit thermal and epithermal neutrons in a collimated beam directed at the object. Temperature is monitored by observing the thermal Doppler broadening of resonances in the neutron transmission characteristic for the epithermal neutrons and strain is measured from observations made of changes to the thermal neutron diffraction pattern. The object may be a gas turbine blade or a thrust bearing. (author)

  14. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  15. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept

  16. High strain-rate compressive behavior and constitutive modeling of selected polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10−3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five parameters for the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation are determined by fitting to the experimental compressive stress-strain data using a least-squares fit. The compressive stress-strain curves at three different strain rates derived from the modified Ramberg-Osgood models are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the compressive stress-strain behavior during loading process can be successfully predicted by the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation.

  17. Efficient characterization of inhomogeneity in contraction strain pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Christina M; Mulligan, Lawrence J; Criscione, John C

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony often accompanies patients with heart failure (HF) and can lead to an increase in mortality rate. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to provide substantial benefits to the HF population with ventricular dyssynchrony; however, there still exists a group of patients who do not respond to this treatment. In order to better understand patient response to CRT, it is necessary to quantitatively characterize both electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony. The quantification of mechanical dyssynchrony via characterization of contraction strain field inhomogeneity is the focus of this modeling investigation. Raw data from a 3D finite element (FE) model were received from Roy Kerckhoffs et al. and analyzed in MATLAB. The FE model consisted of canine left and right ventricles coupled to a closed circulation with the effects of the pericardium acting as a pressure on the epicardial surface. For each of three simulations (normal synchronous, SYNC, right ventricular apical pacing, RVA, and left ventricular free wall pacing, LVFW) the Gauss point locations and values were used to generate lookup tables (LUTs) with each entry representing a location in the heart. In essence, we employed piecewise cubic interpolation to generate a fine point cloud (LUTs) from a course point cloud (Gauss points). Strain was calculated in the fiber direction and was then displayed in multiple ways to better characterize strain inhomogeneity. By plotting average strain and standard deviation over time, the point of maximum contraction and the point of maximal inhomogeneity were found for each simulation. Strain values were organized into seven strain bins to show operative strain ranges and extent of inhomogeneity throughout the heart wall. In order to visualize strain propagation, magnitude, and inhomogeneity over time, we created 2D area maps displaying strain over the entire cardiac cycle. To visualize spatial strain distribution at the time point of maximum

  18. Challenging the cost of clinical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Graham; Hallinan, Emma

    2016-01-05

    Healthcare professionals in South Africa (SA) are facing challenging times. As the clinical negligence claims environment in SA deteriorates, the impact is being felt by healthcare professionals, but also by the wider public owing to the strain that costs place on the public purse. The authors look at the current claims environment, and explain why a debate about reform is so important.

  19. Ultrasensitive, Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Fragmented Carbon Nanotube Papers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2017-01-17

    The development of strain sensors featuring both ultra high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a challenge. We demonstrate that strain sensors based on fragmented single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper embedded in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) can sustain their sensitivity even at very high strain levels (with a gauge factor of over 10(7) at 50% strain). This record sensitivity is ascribed to the low initial electrical resistance (5-28 Omega) of the SWCNT paper and the wide change in resistance (up to 10(6) Omega) governed by the percolated network of SWCNT in the cracked region. The sensor response remains nearly unchanged after 10 000 strain cycles at 20% proving the robustness of this technology. This fragmentation based sensing system brings opportunities to engineer highly sensitive stretchable sensors.

  20. On the origins of strain inhomogeneity in amorphous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Alexander J G; Chater, Philip; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2018-01-25

    Strain is a crucial measure of materials deformation for evaluating and predicting the mechanical response, strength, and fracture. The spatial resolution attainable by the modern real and reciprocal space techniques continues to improve, alongside the ability to carry out atomistic simulations. This is offering new insights into the very concept of strain. In crystalline materials, the presence of well-defined, stable atomic planes allows defining strain as the relative change in the interplanar spacing. However, the presence of disorder, e.g. locally around defects such as dislocation cores, and particularly the pervasive atomic disorder in amorphous materials challenge existing paradigms: disorder prevents a reference configuration being defined, and allows strain to be accommodated in a different manner to crystalline materials. As an illustration, using experimental pair distribution function analysis in combination with Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations, we highlight the importance of bond angle change vs bond stretching for strain accommodation in amorphous systems.

  1. Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Turan, Mehmet; Clementson, Cameron P; Sitti, Metin

    2016-03-02

    There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11,344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics.

  2. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Using JSpecies Tool Establishes Clonal Relationships between Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Epidemiologically Unrelated Listeriosis Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel S Burall

    Full Text Available In an effort to build a comprehensive genomic approach to food safety challenges, the FDA has implemented a whole genome sequencing effort, GenomeTrakr, which involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes of foodborne pathogens. As a part of this effort, we routinely sequence whole genomes of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm isolates associated with human listeriosis outbreaks, as well as those isolated through other sources. To rapidly establish genetic relatedness of these genomes, we evaluated tetranucleotide frequency analysis via the JSpecies program to provide a cursory analysis of strain relatedness. The JSpecies tetranucleotide (tetra analysis plots standardized (z-score tetramer word frequencies of two strains against each other and uses linear regression analysis to determine similarity (r2. This tool was able to validate the close relationships between outbreak related strains from four different outbreaks. Included in this study was the analysis of Lm strains isolated during the recent caramel apple outbreak and stone fruit incident in 2014. We identified that many of the isolates from these two outbreaks shared a common 4b variant (4bV serotype, also designated as IVb-v1, using a qPCR protocol developed in our laboratory. The 4bV serotype is characterized by the presence of a 6.3 Kb DNA segment normally found in serotype 1/2a, 3a, 1/2c and 3c strains but not in serotype 4b or 1/2b strains. We decided to compare these strains at a genomic level using the JSpecies Tetra tool. Specifically, we compared several 4bV and 4b isolates and identified a high level of similarity between the stone fruit and apple 4bV strains, but not the 4b strains co-identified in the caramel apple outbreak or other 4b or 4bV strains in our collection. This finding was further substantiated by a SNP-based analysis. Additionally, we were able to identify close relatedness between isolates from clinical cases from 1993-1994 and a single case from 2011 as well as

  3. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Andrade Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC < 0.002; 0.38 µg/ml to penicillin G was found in 14.8% of the strains tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 µg/ml and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 µg/ml were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 µg/ml to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74% showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  4. lessons and challenges from software quality assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    We discussed these lessons and challenges across two measurable characteristics namely quality of design (life cycle ... KEYWORDS: Software, Software Quality ,Quality Standard, Characteristics, Assessment, Challanges, lessons. 1. ... F. Bakpo, Department of Computer Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria ...

  5. LAOS: The strain softening/strain hardening paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mermet-Guyennet, M.R.B.; de Castro, J.G.; Habibi, M.; Martzel, N.; Denn, M.M.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous materials, from biopolymers to filled rubbers, exhibit strain softening at high strain amplitudes during a strain sweep in oscillatory rheology: The modulus decreases with increasing deformation. On the other hand, if the nonlinear elastic response is analyzed within a single oscillation

  6. Full-range stress–strain behaviour of contemporary pipeline steels: Part II. Estimation of model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelé, Stijn; De Waele, Wim; Denys, Rudi; Verstraete, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary pipeline steels with a yield-to-tensile ratio above 0.80 often show two-stages of strain hardening, which cannot be simultaneously described by the standardized Ramberg–Osgood model. A companion paper (Part I) showed that the recently developed UGent model provides more accurate descriptions than the Ramberg–Osgood model, as it succeeds in describing both strain hardening stages. However, it may be challenging to obtain an optimal model fit in absence of full stress–strain data. This paper discusses on how to find suited parameter values for the UGent model, given a set of measurable tensile test characteristics. The proposed methodology shows good results for an extensive set of investigated experimental stress–strain curves. Next to some common tensile test characteristics, the 1.0% proof stress is needed. The authors therefore encourage the acquisition of this stress during tensile tests. - Highlights: ► An analytical procedure estimates UGent model parameters. ► The procedure requires a set of tensile test characteristics. ► The UGent model performs better than the Ramberg–Osgood model. ► Apart from common characteristics, the 1.0% proof stress is required. ► The authors encourage the acquisition of this 1.0% proof stress.

  7. Antibacterial effect of roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabadariffa), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alcántara, E J; Rangel-Vargas, E; Gómez-Aldapa, C A; Falfan-Cortes, R N; Rodríguez-Marín, M L; Godínez-Oviedo, A; Cortes-López, H; Castro-Rosas, J

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from saladette and red round type tomatoes, and an analysis done of the antibacterial activity of roselle calyx extracts against any of the identified strains. One hundred saladette tomato samples and 100 red round tomato samples were collected from public markets. Each sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. Salmonella was isolated from the samples by conventional culture procedure. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated Salmonella strains by standard test. The antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates was evaluated on contaminated tomatoes. Twenty-four Salmonella strains were isolated from 12% of each tomato type. Identified Salmonella serotypes were Typhimurium and Typhi. All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least three antibiotics and some to as many as 12. Over contaminated tomatoes, the roselle calyx extracts produced a greater reduction (2-2·6 log) in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strain concentration than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from raw tomatoes purchased in public markets in Mexico and challenged with roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. On tomatoes, the extracts caused a greater reduction in the concentration of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. Roselle calyx extracts are a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of raw tomatoes in the field, processing plants, restaurants and homes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  9. Comparison of three methods of calculating strain in the mouse ulna in exogenous loading studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephanie C; Wagner, David W; Beaupre, Gary S; Castillo, Alesha B

    2015-01-02

    Axial compression of mouse limbs is commonly used to induce bone formation in a controlled, non-invasive manner. Determination of peak strains caused by loading is central to interpreting results. Load-strain calibration is typically performed using uniaxial strain gauges attached to the diaphyseal, periosteal surface of a small number of sacrificed animals. Strain is measured as the limb is loaded to a range of physiological loads known to be anabolic to bone. The load-strain relationship determined by this subgroup is then extrapolated to a larger group of experimental mice. This method of strain calculation requires the challenging process of strain gauging very small bones which is subject to variability in placement of the strain gauge. We previously developed a method to estimate animal-specific periosteal strain during axial ulnar loading using an image-based computational approach that does not require strain gauges. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between load-induced bone formation rates and periosteal strain at ulnar midshaft using three different methods to estimate strain: (A) Nominal strain values based solely on load-strain calibration; (B) Strains calculated from load-strain calibration, but scaled for differences in mid-shaft cross-sectional geometry among animals; and (C) An alternative image-based computational method for calculating strains based on beam theory and animal-specific bone geometry. Our results show that the alternative method (C) provides comparable correlation between strain and bone formation rates in the mouse ulna relative to the strain gauge-dependent methods (A and B), while avoiding the need to use strain gauges. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  12. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Caporale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 250 000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150 000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51 has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19. The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  13. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Vincenzo; Bonfini, Barbara; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Provvido, Andrea; Forcella, Simona; Giovannini, Armando; Tittarelli, Manuela; Scacchia, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 250,000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150,000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19). The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT) and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  14. Development of a BCG challenge model for the testing of vaccine candidates against tuberculosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Berg, Stefan; Chamberlain, Laura; McShane, Helen; Hewinson, R Glyn; Clifford, Derek; Vordermeier, Martin

    2014-09-29

    Vaccination is being considered as part of a sustainable strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the UK. The live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been used experimentally to vaccinate cattle against BTB. However, BCG confers partial protection against BTB and therefore, there is a need to develop improved vaccines. BTB vaccine efficacy experiments require the use of biosafety level 3 facilities which are expensive to maintain, generally oversubscribed and represent a bottle neck for the testing of vaccine candidates. One indicator of the induction of protective responses would be the ability of the host's immune response to control/kill mycobacteria. In this work we have evaluated an intranodal BCG challenge for the selection of vaccine candidates at biosafety level 2 which are capable of inducing mycobactericidal responses. To our knowledge, this is the first such report. Whilst BCG only confers partial protection, it is still the standard against which other vaccines are judged. Therefore we tested the BCG intranodal challenge in BCG (Danish strain) vaccinated cattle and showed that vaccinated cattle had lower BCG cfu counts than naïve cattle at 14 and 21 days after intranodal challenge with BCG (Tokyo strain). This model could help prioritize competing TB vaccine candidates and exploration of primary and secondary immune responses to mycobacteria. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges for nuclear regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses issues that will present particular challenges to the nuclear industry, during the next decade, that should be addressed in order to achieve increased public acceptance of the industry. The issues of safety culture, peer review of safety, severe accidents, transport accidents and public communication are suggest as meriting special consideration. The need for nuclear regulatory agencies to establish credibility and for operating organisations to demonstrate accountability is emphasised, and the Australian experiences are reviewed. Increased collaboration by nuclear regulatory agencies in the Asian-pacific region is suggested, in order to encourage consistency of regulatory safety standards for the nuclear safety issues identified. Methods whereby this could be achieved within the framework of existing agreements and arrangements are suggested. 2 refs

  16. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Avery N; DiVerdi, Joseph A

    2018-01-01

    The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest.

  17. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery N Gilbert

    Full Text Available The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest.

  18. Efficacy of vaccination strategies against intranasal challenge with Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Naveen; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lawler, Heather; Boyle, Stephen M; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Heid, Bettina; Zimmerman, Kurt; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2011-03-24

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease affecting 500,000 people worldwide annually. Inhalation of aerosol containing a pathogen is one of the major routes of disease transmission in humans. Currently there are no licensed human vaccines available. Brucella abortus strain RB51 is a USDA approved live attenuated vaccine against cattle brucellosis. In a mouse model, strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase (SOD) administered intraperitoneally (IP) has been shown to be more protective than strain RB51 against an IP challenge with B. abortus pathogenic strain 2308. However, there is lack of information on the ability of these vaccine strains to protect against intranasal challenge. With the long-term goal of developing a protective vaccine for animals and people against respiratory challenge of Brucella spp., we tested a number of different vaccination strategies against intranasal infection with strain 2308. We employed strains RB51 and RB51SOD to assess the efficacy of route, dose, and prime-boost strategies against strain 2308 challenge. Despite using multiple protocols to enhance mucosal and systemic protection, neither rough RB51 vaccine strains provided respiratory protection against intranasal pathogenic Brucella infection. However, intranasal (IN) administration of B. abortus vaccine strain 19 induced significant (p≤0.05) pulmonary clearance of strain 2308 upon IN challenge infection compared to saline. Further studies are necessary to address host-pathogen interaction in the lung microenvironment and elucidate immune mechanisms to enhance protection against aerosol infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Ambivalence of Challenge Stressors: Time Pressure Associated with Both Negative and Positive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Pascale S.; Semmer, Norbert K.; Kalin, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L.

    2012-01-01

    According to the challenge-hindrance model, challenge stressors contain both stressful and challenging aspects, hindrance stressors only stressful aspects. Typically, negative outcomes of challenge stressors refer to well-being (strain), positive outcomes to so-called work outcomes (e.g., productivity, intention to quit). As both effects occur…

  20. Strain Analysis of the de Mattia Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The de Mattia test is a well-known, standardized and widely used method in the rubber industry for characterizing the fatigue behaviour of rubbers. Due to the visual observation and classification of the crack initiated, high data scatter were usually observed in these tests. To improve the quality of the de Mattia test and to support the applicability of the test method in modern design procedures, two novel experimental methods were proposed. Full-field strain analysis experiments using digital image correlation technique were performed and the local strains at the notch tip determined in the first. A global displacement vs. local strain calibration curves makes the design and conduction of strain based Wöhler curves possible. The crack initiation and crack growth is detected by an image analysis system and the crack growth rate was determined in the second method. To gain more insight into the fatigue behaviour of rubbers, these two novel methods were combined and can efficiently be used for characterizing the fatigue behaviour of rubbers.

  1. Practices for Enhancing Children's Social-Emotional Development and Preventing Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Many challenging behaviors can be prevented by designing environments that promote children's engagement and teaching children new social skills (Lawry, Danko, & Strain, 1999; Neilsen, Olive, Donovan, & McEvoy, 1999; Strain & Hemmeter, 1999). Fox, Dunlap, Hemmeter, Joseph, and Strain (2003) have described a framework for promoting children's…

  2. Integrated strain array for cellular mechanobiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C S; Sim, J Y; Baechtold, P; Chung, C; Borghi, N; Pruitt, B L; Gonzalez, A

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated strain array for cell culture enabling high-throughput mechano-transduction studies. Biocompatible cell culture chambers were integrated with an acrylic pneumatic compartment and microprocessor-based control system. Each element of the array consists of a deformable membrane supported by a cylindrical pillar within a well. For user-prescribed waveforms, the annular region of the deformable membrane is pulled into the well around the pillar under vacuum, causing the pillar-supported region with cultured cells to be stretched biaxially. The optically clear device and pillar-based mechanism of operation enables imaging on standard laboratory microscopes. Straightforward fabrication utilizes off-the-shelf components, soft lithography techniques in polydimethylsiloxane and laser ablation of acrylic sheets. Proof of compatibility with basic biological assays and standard imaging equipment were accomplished by straining C2C12 skeletal myoblasts on the device for 6 h. At higher strains, cells and actin stress fibers realign with a circumferential preference

  3. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.

  4. [Echinococcus and strain concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utük, Armağan Erdem; Simsek, Sami

    2008-01-01

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is one of the most important parasitic zoonoses and remains a public health and economic problem all over the world. Echinococcus granulosus includes a number of genetic variants and, up to date, analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences have identified ten distinct genetic types (genotypes G1-10). This categorization follows closely the pattern of strain variation emerging based on biological characteristics. The extensive variation in E. granulosus may influence life-cycle patterns, host specificity, development rate, antigenicity, transmission dynamics, sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, and pathology. In this review, the recent genetic characterizations of Echinococcus genus have been summarized.

  5. Risk factors assessment for nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and its methicillin resistant strains among pre-clinical medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shamshul; Gautam, Rajendra; Shrestha, Sony; Ansari, Safiur Rahman; Subedi, Shankar Nanda; Chhetri, Muni Raj

    2016-04-12

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a normal flora of nasal cavity, can cause minor to life threatening invasive diseases and nosocomial infections. Methicillin resistant strains of S. aureus are causing a great challenge for treatment options. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, its methicillin resistant strains and risk factors in medical students prior to clinical exposure. The bacterial growth of S. aureus from nasal swab culture was identified by using standard microbiological methods recommended by American Society for Microbiology. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing and methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks. D-zone test method was used to determine the inducible clindamycin resistance. Among 200 participants, nasal carriage of S. aureus was detected from 30 (15%) subjects. Upper respiratory tract infections significantly (P aureus and their methicillin resistant strains. All of the isolates were reported to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. S. aureus strains detected from 8 (4%) students were confirmed to be methicillin resistant. The result of our study demands for strict policy to screen all the students for nasal carriage of S. aureus and its MRSA strains to minimize the transmission of this organism from community to hospital settings.

  6. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  7. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.

  8. Virulence traits associated with Burkholderia cenocepacia ST856 epidemic strain isolated from cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Malešević

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia is considered one of the most problematic cystic fibrosis (CF pathogens. Colonization prevalence in the Serbian CF population is high and virtually exclusively limited to a single highly transmissible clone of B. cenocepacia ST856 which is positive for both the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker (BCESM and cable pilin, and is closely related to the epidemic strain CZ1 (ST32. Methods Biofilm formation for 182 isolates, and adhesion to components of the host extracellular matrix, proteolytic activity, mucoidy and motility of selected ST856 representatives, as well as B. cenocepacia ST858 and ST859, and B. stabilis ST857, novel STs isolated from Serbian CF patients, were investigated in this study. The presence of the cepI, cepR, fliG, llpE, wbiI, and bcscV genes was analyzed. Results Biofilm-formation ability of analyzed strains was poor under standard laboratory conditions, but changed in stress conditions (cold stress and conditions that mimic CF milieu (increased CO2. All strains expressed ability to bind to collagen and fibronectin albeit with different intensity. Representatives of ST856 exhibited gelatinase activity. ST858, ST859 and 9/11 of ST856 genotypes were positive for swimming and twitching motility whereas ST857 was non-motile. Mucoidy was demonstrated in all ST856 genotypes, ST857 was semi-mucoid, and ST858 and ST859 were non-mucoid. Molecular analysis for major virulence factors revealed that ST856 and ST857 carried the six analyzed genes, while ST858 and ST859 were negative for the llpE gene. Conclusion Variations in virulence phenotypes in different genotypes of epidemic B. cenocepacia ST856 clone, in vitro, could be a consequence of diversification driven by pathoadaptation. Diversity of epidemic clone genotypes virulence, could be challenging for accurate diagnosis and treatment, as well as for infection control.

  9. Comparative Genomic Characterization of the Highly Persistent and Potentially Virulent Cronobacter sakazakii ST83, CC65 Strain H322 and Other ST83 Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Chase

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter (C. sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen and has been associated with serious infections with high mortality rates predominantly in pre-term, low-birth weight and/or immune compromised neonates and infants. Infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of intrinsically and extrinsically contaminated lots of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, thus contamination of such products is a challenging task for the PIF producing industry. We present the draft genome of C. sakazakii H322, a highly persistent sequence type (ST 83, clonal complex (CC 65, serotype O:7 strain obtained from a batch of non-released contaminated PIF product. The presence of this strain in the production environment was traced back more than 4 years. Whole genome sequencing (WGS of this strain together with four more ST83 strains (PIF production environment-associated confirmed a high degree of sequence homology among four of the five strains. Phylogenetic analysis using microarray (MA and WGS data showed that the ST83 strains were highly phylogenetically related and MA showed that between 5 and 38 genes differed from one another in these strains. All strains possessed the pESA3-like virulence plasmid and one strain possessed a pESA2-like plasmid. In addition, a pCS1-like plasmid was also found. In order to assess the potential in vivo pathogenicity of the ST83 strains, each strain was subjected to infection studies using the recently developed zebrafish embryo model. Our results showed a high (90–100% zebrafish mortality rate for all of these strains, suggesting a high risk for infections and illness in neonates potentially exposed to PIF contaminated with ST83 C. sakazakii strains. In summary, virulent ST83, CC65, serotype CsakO:7 strains, though rarely found intrinsically in PIF, can persist within a PIF manufacturing facility for years and potentially pose significant quality assurance challenges to the PIF manufacturing industry.

  10. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  11. 1996 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The workshop theme is `The Strategic Standardization Initiative - A Technology Exchange and Global Competitiveness Challenge for DOE.` The workshop goal is to inform the DOE technical standards community of strategic standardization activities taking place in the Department, other Government agencies, standards developing organizations, and industry. Individuals working on technical standards will be challenged to improve cooperation and communications with the involved organizations in response to the initiative. Workshop sessions include presentations by representatives from various Government agencies that focus on coordination among and participation of Government personnel in the voluntary standards process; reports by standards organizations, industry, and DOE representatives on current technology exchange programs; and how the road ahead appears for `information superhighway` standardization. Another session highlights successful standardization case studies selected from several sites across the DOE complex. The workshop concludes with a panel discussion on the goals and objectives of the DOE Technical Standards Program as envisioned by senior DOE management. The annual workshop on technical standards has proven to be an effective medium for communicating information related to standards throughout the DOE community. Technical standards are used to transfer technology and standardize work processes to produce consistent, acceptable results. They provide a practical solution to the Department`s challenge to protect the environment and the health and safety of the public and workers during all facility operations. Through standards, the technologies of industries and governments worldwide are available to DOE. The DOE Technical Standards Program, a Department-wide effort that crosscuts all organizations and disciplines, links the Department to those technologies.

  12. PROPERTIES OF NEW STRAINS CHEMOLITHOTROPHIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM INDUSTRIAL SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was determination of strains Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans MFLv37 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans MFLad27, isolated from aboriginal consortium of coal beneficiation dumps and fly ash from coal combustion, resistance to heavy metals, forming part of these waste, as well as adaption ability of the strains to new substrates. New strains increased resistance to heavy metal ions as compared to A. ferrooxidans standard and collection strains is found; minimal inhibitory concentrations of heavy and toxic metals are determined; a number of metals that have negative impact on growth of isolated cultures are identified. It is shown that the minimal metals concentrations, at which strains growth still happens, are several times higher than their concentrations in technogenic waste. It has been established that isolated strains differed in their ability to adapt, as well as in growth rate and substrates oxidation. This is due to the specific conditions of microbiocenoses formation in making and further storage of rock dumps and fly ash, whereof the appropriate strains are isolated. The investigations indicate the necessity in directional selection of strains that are resistant to the toxic compounds and are able to oxidize various mineral substrates, as well as in their adaptation to new substrates for the extraction of heavy metals.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  14. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  15. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains.

  16. Challenging the Standard Model with the muon g − 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to evaluate the leading-order hadronic term (see [3,4] for recent reviews). If we assume that the g−2 experiment E821 is correct, this discrepancy indicates either contributions of physics beyond the SM, or an erroneous determination of the SM prediction. The first of these two options has been widely discussed in [2]; we will.

  17. Setting the Standard for Challenge: Teaching English in Dimen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Cynthia W.; Costigan, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Lindsey J.; Zeiser, Shelly R.; Camp-Bell, Jackson A.; Feliz, Michael C.; Iversen, Jennifer. M.; Kobayashi, Alison L.; Matej, Madelaine A.; Motoyasu, Colleen T.; Teague, Kathryn E.; Wong, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Travelling from Hong Kong to Dimen, China, requires a full day. Creating and implementing an original course to teach English as a foreign language in rural China offered to some of the university's most talented undergraduates the opportunity to integrate hands-on learning with scholarship, cross-cultural understanding, and community service. At…

  18. Cell Factory Stability and Genetic Circuits for Improved Strain Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter

    . However, all synthetic gene systems -­ including the target metabolic pathways themselves -­ represent a possible fitness burden to the cell and thus constitute a threat to strain stability. In this thesis, several studies served to develop genetic systems for optimizing cell factory development...... systems can challenge the stability of strain designs. A metabolite-­producing Escherichia coli strain was long-­term cultured to study production stability and the dynamic effects of mutations within the cell population. A genetic error landscape of pathway disruptions was identified including particular......, recurring error modes. Driven by a gain in fitness, these errors within 70 generations led to a transformation of the strain to a population of genetic non-­‐producer cells. Knowledge about these mechanisms and the applied simple mathematical model may likely serve to realizemore stable microbial cell...

  19. Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Erickson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

  20. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... http:// codex alimentarius.net/download/standards/400/CXS_243e.pdf. (accessed February 12, 2012). Balamatsia CC, Paleologos EK, Kontominas MG, Savvaidis IN (2006). Correlation between microbial flora, sensory changes and biogenic amines formation in fresh chicken meat stored aerobically or ...

  1. Titration of individual strains in trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine without neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinonthanawech, Naraporn; Surichan, Somchaiya; Namsai, Aphinya; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Auewarakul, Prasert; Kongchanagul, Alita

    2016-11-01

    Formulation and quality control of trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine requires titration of infectivity of individual strains in the trivalent mix. This is usually performed by selective neutralization of two of the three strains and titration of the un-neutralized strain in cell culture or embryonated eggs. This procedure requires standard sera with high neutralizing titer against each of the three strains. Obtaining standard sera, which can specifically neutralize only the corresponding strain of influenza viruses and is able to completely neutralize high concentration of virus in the vaccine samples, can be a problem for many vaccine manufacturers as vaccine stocks usually have very high viral titers and complete neutralization may not be obtained. Here an alternative approach for titration of individual strain in trivalent vaccine without the selective neutralization is presented. This was done by detecting individual strains with specific antibodies in an end-point titration of a trivalent vaccine in cell culture. Similar titers were observed in monovalent and trivalent vaccines for influenza A H3N2 and influenza B strains, whereas the influenza A H1N1 strain did not grow well in cell culture. Viral interference among the vaccine strains was not observed. Therefore, providing that vaccine strains grow well in cell culture, this assay can reliably determine the potency of individual strains in trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral food challenge outcomes in a pediatric tertiary care center

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Elissa M.; Becker, Allan B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral food challenges are the clinical standard for diagnosis of food allergy. Little data exist on predictors of oral challenge failure and reaction severity. Methods A retrospective chart review was done on all pediatric patients who had oral food challenges in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic from 2008 to 2010. Results 313 oral challenges were performed, of which the majority were to peanut (105), egg (71), milk (41) and tree nuts (29). There were 104 (33%) oral challenge...

  3. Modulation of virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains by Enterococcus faecium probiotic strain culture fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditu, Lia-Mara; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Voltsi, Chrysa; Bleotu, Coralia; Pelinescu, Diana; Mihaescu, Grigore; Lazar, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    The increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance drastically reduced the efficiency of conventional antibiotics and led to the reconsideration of the interspecies interactions in influencing bacterial virulence and response to therapy. The aim of the study was the investigation of the influence of the soluble and cellular fractions of Enterococcus (E.) faecium CMGB16 probiotic culture on the virulence and antibiotic resistance markers expression in clinical enteropathogenic Escherichia (E.) coli strains. The 7 clinical enteropathogenic E. coli strains, one standard E. coli ATCC 25,922 and one Bacillus (B.) cereus strains were cultivated in nutrient broth, aerobically at 37 °C, for 24 h. The E. faecium CMGB16 probiotic strain was cultivated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C in MRS (Man Rogosa Sharpe) broth, and co-cultivated with two pathogenic strains (B. cereus and E. coli O28) culture fractions (supernatant, washed sediment and heat-inactivated culture) for 6 h, at 37 °C. After co-cultivation, the soluble and cellular fractions of the probiotic strain cultivated in the presence of two pathogenic strains were separated by centrifugation (6000 rpm, 10 min), heat-inactivated (15 min, 100 °C) and co-cultivated with the clinical enteropathogenic E. coli strains in McConkey broth, for 24 h, at 37 °C, in order to investigate the influence of the probiotic fractions on the adherence capacity and antibiotic susceptibility. All tested probiotic combinations influenced the adherence pattern of E. coli tested strains. The enteropathogenic E. coli strains susceptibility to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and quinolones was increased by all probiotic combinations and decreased for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. This study demonstrates that the plurifactorial anti-infective action of probiotics is also due to the modulation of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility expression in E. coli pathogenic strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling in the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kai Chung

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of modeling and applications into the mathematics curriculum has proven to be a challenging task over the last fifty years. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) has made mathematical modeling both one of its Standards for Mathematical Practice and one of its Conceptual Categories. This article discusses the need for mathematical…

  5. A novel and rapid method for obtaining high titre intact prion strains from mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Wenborn, Adam; Terry, Cassandra; Gros, Nathalie; Joiner, Susan; D?Castro, Laura; Panico, Silvia; Sells, Jessica; Cronier, Sabrina; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Brandner, Sebastian; Saibil, Helen R.; Collinge, John; Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions exist as multiple strains which produce characteristic and highly reproducible phenotypes in defined hosts. How this strain diversity is encoded by a protein-only agent remains one of the most interesting and challenging questions in biology with wide relevance to understanding other diseases involving the aggregation or polymerisation of misfolded host proteins. Progress in understanding mammalian prion strains has however been severely limited by the complexity and variabil...

  6. Global Strain in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jordi S; Videbæk, Lars; Poulsen, Mikael K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) is often reduced in aortic stenosis despite normal ejection fraction. The importance of reduced preoperative GLS on long-term outcome after aortic valve replacement (AVR) is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: -A total of 125 patients with severe...... quartile 49% (n=15), p=0.04. Patients with increased age, left ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial dilatation were at increased risk. In Cox regression analysis after correcting for standard risk factors and ejection fraction, GLS was found to be significantly associated with cardiac morbidity...

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  8. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  9. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  10. Processos de eliminação de contaminantes microbianos durante o isolamento e a manutenção de linhagens fúngicas de referência Proceedings to avoid contaminants during isolation and storage of standard fungal strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Yoko Hirooka

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens fúngicas destinadas a pesquisa científica são provenientes de material orgânico, onde ocorre intensa interação entre os mais variados grupos taxonômicos de microrganismos. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia capaz de remover totalmente esses contaminantes indesejáveis é fundamental para garantir a característica original da linhagem em estudo. Empregando-se isolados de Fusarium spp., obtidos de milho e rações animais, analisou-se a interferência de bactérias resistentes a antibióticos e leveduras na manutenção de linhagens fúngicas. O ensaio demonstrou contaminação freqüente de microrganismos resistentes a tetraciclina, estreptomicina e cloranfenicol na microbiota natural de milho e de rações animais. O melhor controle dos interferentes foi obtido com tetraciclina, segundo avaliação por replica-plate e crescimento em meio líquido. Na análise de 168 linhagens de Fusarium spp. mantidos por seis meses a 4ºC, 36 cepas apresentaram contaminantes. A técnica de esgotamento em BDA mais antibiótico repurificou 21 cepas. As 15 cepas restantes só foram repurificadas pela técnica de diluição/plaqueamento, desenvolvida neste trabalho e recomendada para ser utilizada como último recurso na recuperação de linhagens de referências contaminadasThe fungal strains for scientific purposes are isolated from environments, where interaction of extensive taxonomical groups is a common phenomenon, requiring development of a method that assures elimination of microbial interference and preserves original characteristic of strains. In this study, using Fusarium strains isolated from corn and animal food, the interference of antibiotic resistant bacteria and yeast contamination in the fungal strains storage was evaluated. Although frequent contamination by tetracycline, streptomycine and chloramphenicol resistant microorganisms was detected in both corn and animal food, tetracycline showed the best antibacterial effect

  11. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  12. Determination of Tensile Properties of Polymers at High Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Z.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of high rate testing of polymers the measured properties are highly dependent on the applied methodology. Hence, the test setup as whole but in particular also the geometrical type of specimen plays a decisive role. The widely used standard for the determination of tensile properties of polymers (ISO527-2 was extended by a novel standard (ISO18872:2007, which is targeted on the determination of tensile properties at high strain rates. In this standard also a novel specimen shape is proposed. Hand in hand with the introduction of new specimen geometry the question of comparability arises. To point out the differences in stress-strain response of the ISO18872 specimen and the ISO527-2 multipurpose specimen tensile tests over a wide loading rate range were conducted in this paper. A digital image correlation system in combination with a high speed camera was used to characterize the local material behaviour. Different parameters like nominal stress, true stress, nominal strain, true strain as well as volumetric strain were determined and used to compare the two specimen geometries.

  13. Dual-phase cardiac diffusion tensor imaging with strain correction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T Stoeck

    Full Text Available In this work we present a dual-phase diffusion tensor imaging (DTI technique that incorporates a correction scheme for the cardiac material strain, based on 3D myocardial tagging.In vivo dual-phase cardiac DTI with a stimulated echo approach and 3D tagging was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. The time course of material strain was estimated from the tagging data and used to correct for strain effects in the diffusion weighted acquisition. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, helix, transverse and sheet angles were calculated and compared between systole and diastole, with and without strain correction. Data acquired at the systolic sweet spot, where the effects of strain are eliminated, served as a reference.The impact of strain correction on helix angle was small. However, large differences were observed in the transverse and sheet angle values, with and without strain correction. The standard deviation of systolic transverse angles was significantly reduced from 35.9±3.9° to 27.8°±3.5° (p<0.001 upon strain-correction indicating more coherent fiber tracks after correction. Myocyte aggregate structure was aligned more longitudinally in systole compared to diastole as reflected by an increased transmural range of helix angles (71.8°±3.9° systole vs. 55.6°±5.6°, p<0.001 diastole. While diastolic sheet angle histograms had dominant counts at high sheet angle values, systolic histograms showed lower sheet angle values indicating a reorientation of myocyte sheets during contraction.An approach for dual-phase cardiac DTI with correction for material strain has been successfully implemented. This technique allows assessing dynamic changes in myofiber architecture between systole and diastole, and emphasizes the need for strain correction when sheet architecture in the heart is imaged with a stimulated echo approach.

  14. Nine challenges for deterministic epidemic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mick G; Andreasen, Viggo; Lloyd, Alun

    2015-01-01

    Deterministic models have a long history of being applied to the study of infectious disease epidemiology. We highlight and discuss nine challenges in this area. The first two concern the endemic equilibrium and its stability. We indicate the need for models that describe multi-strain infections......, infections with time-varying infectivity, and those where superinfection is possible. We then consider the need for advances in spatial epidemic models, and draw attention to the lack of models that explore the relationship between communicable and non-communicable diseases. The final two challenges concern...

  15. Decommissioning - The worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, John

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Whatever the future may hold for nuclear power, there are closed or ageing nuclear facilities in many countries around the world. While these may be in safe care and maintenance at present, a sustainable long term solution is required. Facilities need to be decommissioned, contaminated land remediated, and wastes conditioned for safe storage or disposal. Practical nuclear site restoration has been demonstrated internationally. This experience has revealed generic challenges in dealing with old, often experimental, facilities. These include: Facilities not designed for ease of decommissioning; Records of plant construction and operation, and of the materials utilised and wastes produced, not to modern standards; Fuels and wastes stored for long periods in less than optimal conditions, leading to deterioration and handling problems; The historic use of experimental fuels and materials, giving rise to unique waste streams requiring unique waste management solutions; The application of modern safety and environmental standards to plant which dates from the 1940s, 50s and 60s, requiring investment before decommissioning can even commence. These problems can be tackled, as examples from UKAEA's own programme will illustrate. But two fundamental issues must be recognised and considered. First, the costs of decommissioning older facilities are very high, and may place a heavy burden on national budgets, despite using best efforts to control them. We can limit these costs by learning from one another's experience and sharing the development of new techniques and technologies. UKAEA has already initiated a programme of international collaboration, and hopes that other IAEA countries will be encouraged to follow suit. But whilst the costs of decommissioning may be high, the process normally meets with public acceptance. This is seldom the case for long term waste storage or disposal. Until waste management routes are available - either nationally or internationally

  16. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  17. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity......There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics...

  18. Nutritionally fastidious Ruminococct $ flovefociens : strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than those obtained in a medium containing rumen fluid. Growth of all strains was remarkably uniform. Where the same inoculum was used, differences in the qualitative com- position of the medium usually had little effect on growth. In contrast, the R. f/avefaciens strains were much more variable in their growth responses.

  19. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  20. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill K. Wright; Richard N. Wright; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2014-03-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves for Alloy 617 up to a temperature of 1000°C will be required to qualify the material for elevated temperature design in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Several potential methods for developing these curves are reviewed in this report. It is shown that in general power-law creep is the rate controlling deformation mechanism for a wide range of alloy heats, test temperatures and stresses. Measurement of the strain rate sensitivity of Alloy 617 indicates that the material is highly strain rate sensitive in the tensile deformation range above about 750°C. This suggests that the concept of a hot tensile curve as a bounding case on the isochronous stress-strain diagrams is problematic. The impact of strain rate on the hot tensile curves is examined and it is concluded that incorporating such a curve is only meaningful if a single tensile strain rate (typically the ASTM standard rate of 0.5%/min) is arbitrarily defined. Current experimentally determined creep data are compared to isochronous stress-strain curves proposed previously by the German programs in the 1980s and by the 1990 draft ASME Code Case. Variability in how well the experimental data are represented by the proposed design curves that suggests further analysis is necessary prior to completing a new draft Code Case.

  1. Strain gradients in epitaxial ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, G.; Noheda, B.; McAneney, J.; Sinnamon, L.J.; Gregg, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray analysis of ferroelectric thin layers of Ba 1/2 Sr 1/2 TiO 3 with different thicknesses reveals the presence of strain gradients across the films and allows us to propose a functional form for the internal strain profile. We use this to calculate the influence of strain gradient, through flexoelectric coupling, on the degradation of the ferroelectric properties of films with decreasing thickness, in excellent agreement with the observed behavior. This paper shows that strain relaxation can lead to smooth, continuous gradients across hundreds of nanometers, and it highlights the pressing need to avoid such strain gradients in order to obtain ferroelectric films with bulklike properties

  2. Double Standards in Global Health: Medicine, Human Rights Law and Multidrug-Resistant TB Treatment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Thomas; Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-06-01

    The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level.

  3. Human-System Dis -Integration: Management of Stress, Strain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of stress, strain and fatigue in a workplace can be compared with standards and norms, often in comparable occupations. 3. Show that components of risk can be identified and prioritised to support ergonomic interventions. 4. Give examples of interventions. 5. Discuss recovery from stressful work and ...

  4. Discrimination of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains using Mexican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... The standard technique of double sandwich (DAS-ELISA) was used in accordance with the protocol recommended by the kit diagnosis marketed by SANOFI Animal Health and INRA Knowledge. RESULTS. Pathogenic reactions caused by various strains on. Mexican lime/citrange troyer combinations.

  5. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas

    trout stock which had been vaccinated against both Y.r. bt 1 and 2 with a commercial “state of the art” immersion vaccine and boosted with a commercial ERM oral vaccine 4 month later. The newly isolated Y.r. bt2 strain has been used to develop a standardized challenge model which gives us...... of the vaccine for 30 seconds as recommended by the manufacturer. As a positive control groups of trout were bath vaccinated for 5 minutes. Two months later was all groups bath challenged with Y.r. bt 2 in duplicate. The challenge data obtained in the present study have indicated that neither a “state of the art......” commercial nor the experimental immersion ERM vaccine provided significant protective immunity against the virulent Y.r. bt2 infections. IP. injection of the experimental vaccine without adjuvant induced full protection. Significant mortality were seen in all immersion and bath vaccinated groups...

  6. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  7. Global analysis of multi-strains SIS, SIR and MSIR epidemic models

    OpenAIRE

    Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We consider SIS, SIR and MSIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maxim...

  8. Competitive exclusion principle for SIS and SIR models with n strains

    OpenAIRE

    Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    We consider SIS and SIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maximum of each individual basic re...

  9. Psychological strains and youth suicide in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wieczorek, William F; Conwell, Yeates; Tu, Xin Ming

    2011-06-01

    The strain theory of suicide postulates that suicide is usually preceded by psychological strains. A strain can be a consequence of any of four conflicts: differential values, aspiration and reality, relative deprivation, and lack of coping skills for a crisis. This study, with a blend of psychiatric and social predictors of suicide, identified correlates of suicide that are relevant to Chinese culture and tested the strain theory of suicide with Chinese data. We sampled 392 suicides and 416 living controls (both aged 15-34 years) from 16 rural counties in China in 2008 and interviewed two informants for each suicide and each control. We found that marriage and religion/religiosity did not distinguish the suicides from the living controls among Chinese rural young women. Religion/religiosity tended to be stronger for suicides than for controls. Psychological strains in the forms of relative deprivation, unrealized aspiration, and lack of coping skills were significantly associated with suicide, even after accounting for the role of mental illness. The strain theory of suicide forms a challenge to the psychiatric model popular in the West, at least in explaining the Chinese suicide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving Phylogeny Reconstruction at the Strain Level Using Peptidome Datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Blanco-Míguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical bacterial strain differentiation methods are often challenged by high genetic similarity between strains. To address this problem, we introduce a novel in silico peptide fingerprinting method based on conventional wet-lab protocols that enables the identification of potential strain-specific peptides. These can be further investigated using in vitro approaches, laying a foundation for the development of biomarker detection and application-specific methods. This novel method aims at reducing large amounts of comparative peptide data to binary matrices while maintaining a high phylogenetic resolution. The underlying case study concerns the Bacillus cereus group, namely the differentiation of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus strains. Results show that trees based on cytoplasmic and extracellular peptidomes are only marginally in conflict with those based on whole proteomes, as inferred by the established Genome-BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP method. Hence, these results indicate that the two approaches can most likely be used complementarily even in other organismal groups. The obtained results confirm previous reports about the misclassification of many strains within the B. cereus group. Moreover, our method was able to separate the B. anthracis strains with high resolution, similarly to the GBDP results as benchmarked via Bayesian inference and both Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony. In addition to the presented phylogenomic applications, whole-peptide fingerprinting might also become a valuable complementary technique to digital DNA-DNA hybridization, notably for bacterial classification at the species and subspecies level in the future.

  11. Improving Phylogeny Reconstruction at the Strain Level Using Peptidome Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Gutiérrez-Jácome, Alberto; Göker, Markus; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Sánchez, Borja; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-12-01

    Typical bacterial strain differentiation methods are often challenged by high genetic similarity between strains. To address this problem, we introduce a novel in silico peptide fingerprinting method based on conventional wet-lab protocols that enables the identification of potential strain-specific peptides. These can be further investigated using in vitro approaches, laying a foundation for the development of biomarker detection and application-specific methods. This novel method aims at reducing large amounts of comparative peptide data to binary matrices while maintaining a high phylogenetic resolution. The underlying case study concerns the Bacillus cereus group, namely the differentiation of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus strains. Results show that trees based on cytoplasmic and extracellular peptidomes are only marginally in conflict with those based on whole proteomes, as inferred by the established Genome-BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) method. Hence, these results indicate that the two approaches can most likely be used complementarily even in other organismal groups. The obtained results confirm previous reports about the misclassification of many strains within the B. cereus group. Moreover, our method was able to separate the B. anthracis strains with high resolution, similarly to the GBDP results as benchmarked via Bayesian inference and both Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony. In addition to the presented phylogenomic applications, whole-peptide fingerprinting might also become a valuable complementary technique to digital DNA-DNA hybridization, notably for bacterial classification at the species and subspecies level in the future.

  12. Determination of a tissue-level failure evaluation standard for rat femoral cortical bone utilizing a hybrid computational-experimental method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Liu, Jie; Jia, Zhengbin; Deng, Ying; Liu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Macro-level failure in bone structure could be diagnosed by pain or physical examination. However, diagnosing tissue-level failure in a timely manner is challenging due to the difficulty in observing the interior mechanical environment of bone tissue. Because most fractures begin with tissue-level failure in bone tissue caused by continually applied loading, people attempt to monitor the tissue-level failure of bone and provide corresponding measures to prevent fracture. Many tissue-level mechanical parameters of bone could be predicted or measured; however, the value of the parameter may vary among different specimens belonging to a kind of bone structure even at the same age and anatomical site. These variations cause difficulty in representing tissue-level bone failure. Therefore, determining an appropriate tissue-level failure evaluation standard is necessary to represent tissue-level bone failure. In this study, the yield and failure processes of rat femoral cortical bones were primarily simulated through a hybrid computational-experimental method. Subsequently, the tissue-level strains and the ratio between tissue-level failure and yield strains in cortical bones were predicted. The results indicated that certain differences existed in tissue-level strains; however, slight variations in the ratio were observed among different cortical bones. Therefore, the ratio between tissue-level failure and yield strains for a kind of bone structure could be determined. This ratio may then be regarded as an appropriate tissue-level failure evaluation standard to represent the mechanical status of bone tissue.

  13. Night Rover Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Night Rover Challenge was to foster innovations in energy storage technology. Specifically, this challenge asked competitors to create an energy...

  14. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  15. The Cosmonauts challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Blatchford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the experience of working with Russia’s cultural, industrial and political sectors, this paper investigates how the development of new contacts and partnerships has contributed not only to the loan of material of historic significance to the Science Museum’s exhibition, but more broadly changes perceptions about Russia and its space programme in the western world. Addressing the multiple challenges involved – legal, political and security, among others – it reveals the importance of many of the space objects themselves as well as demonstrating how the Science Museum has helped to maintain a dialogue with Russia even during the most testing times. In September 2015 the Science Museum opened the most ambitious special exhibition it had ever undertaken: Cosmonauts: birth of the space age. Whilst the creation of a ‘blockbuster’ exhibition might be the normal expectation of a great art museum, the fact that a science museum should undertake such an endeavour is equally worthy of comment, and this article seeks to illustrate the exceptional curatorial, museological, logistical, legal and political hurdles that this project had to overcome. Indeed, they would astonish even the grandest and most experienced of the international art museums. Art museums are delighted when they can display the acclaimed works of Monet, but even the most valuable paintings cannot be said to be have been official state secrets in the way that so much Russian space technology has been. The curatorial team kept its nerve because of a compelling sense that while the project delivery was high stress, the intellectual rewards would be considerable, and especially the opportunity to present a story of human endeavour in which cultural and scientific excellence are so intertwined. When the project team started out they could never have anticipated that they would be seeking to deliver an audacious exhibition set against a background of very serious strains

  16. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  17. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  18. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish (Clarias gariepinus strain introduced to Indonesia has not been extensively explored yet, especially the red strain. Previous studies suggested that at the same body length, body weight of the red strain was higher and it was more rotund than that of the normal (black ones. These differences need to be further investigated to find out which parts of the body mainly contributed to shape the differences. The present study was carried out to explore morphological differences of the red strain of Egyptian African catfish compared to the black strain through morphometric and meristic characterizations. Meristic and morphometric characterizations in the present study were carried out following standard method for morphological characterization of Clarias catfish. The fish samples consisted of each 35 red and black table-sized fish samples resulted from inbred and outbred spawnings. Results of the morphometric and meristic analysis in the present study revealed that the red strain of Egyptian African catfish resulted from inbred spawning of red strain brooders was morphologically different from that of either parental fishes or the black strains. At the same body length, head of the red strain was bigger (wider and longer than other strains, and its body was stumpy (more rotund and shorter than other strains, deviated from those normal characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish. Its meristic characters were also differed from those of other strains, assigned by reduced dorsal and anal fin rays number.

  20. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  1. Energy transition - economic challenge, climate challenge, industrial challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenu, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This document highlights and discusses the different economic, climate and industrial challenges, identifies and discusses the different objectives and main results for a successful energy transition respectively in its relationships with the energy mix (the result is to divide emissions by a factor 4), with governance (the result should be a balanced distribution of energy governance), with energy consumption

  2. Visual strain : a comparison of monitors and head-mounted displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.

    1997-01-01

    New methods to measure information uptake and eye strain have been developed. The speed of information uptake is measured with a reading task that demands quick and accurate eyemovements. Accommodative facility is shown to be a good measure for eye strain. A standard monitor and three types of HMDs

  3. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a ''standard model''. The ''standard model'' consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the ''standard model'' to determine if the requirements of ''non-standard'' architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the ''standard model'' are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature

  4. The gold standard: the challenge of evidence-based medicine and standardization in health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Marc; Timmermans, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    ... of this book were sown in October 1998, at the Society for Social Studies of Science conference in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Drinking hot chocolate on a patio filled with reminders of the Titanic's demise, we took stock of our research endeavors. We were both involved in a number of discrete projects that dealt with attempts at rendering medical ...

  5. Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination in elk. I. Efficacy of reduced dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Walter E; Williams, Elizabeth S; Thorne, E Tom; Kreeger, Terry J; Stout, Glen; Bardsley, Katie; Edwards, Hank; Schurig, Gerhardt; Colby, Lesley A; Enright, Fred; Elzer, Philip H

    2002-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. The fear that elk and/or bison may spread Brucella abortus to livestock has prompted efforts to reduce or eliminate the disease in wildlife. Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine has recently been approved for use in cattle. Unlike strain 19 vaccine, RB51 does not cause false positive reactions on standard brucellosis serologic tests. If effective, it may become the vaccine of choice for wildlife. In February 1995, 45 serologically negative female elk calves were trapped and taken to the Sybille Wildlife Research and Conservation Education Unit near Wheatland, Wyoming, USA. In May 1995, 16 of these elk calves were hand-vaccinated with 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) of RB51, 16 were vaccinated with 1 x 10(8) CFU RB51 by biobullet, and 13 were given a saline placebo. The elk were bred in fall of 1996 and they were challenged with 1 x 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 by intraconjunctival inoculation in March 1997. Thirteen (100%) control elk aborted, 14 (88%) hand-vaccinated elk aborted, and 12 (75%) biobullet vaccinated elk aborted or produced nonviable calves. These results suggest that a single dose of 1 x 10(8) to 1 x 10(9) CFU RB51 does not provide significant protection against B. abortus induced abortion in elk. However, the vaccine appears to be safe at this dose and additional study may reveal a more effective RB51 vaccine regimen for elk.

  6. Influence of fluctuating strain on exciton reflection spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1982-01-01

    , for example, between crossed polarizers or from ellipsometric measurements. Assuming the phase fluctuations to obey a Gaussian distribution, σ can be expressed in a simple way in terms of the degree of polarization or the depolarization of the reflected light. σ is then derived in terms of the standard......The influence of an internal distribution of strain on the exciton reflection spectra is investigated. The resulting fluctuating optical constants give rise to a fluctuating phase of reflectivity. The standard deviation σ of these phase fluctuations is the quantity which can be observed...... to derive the dependence of the phase of reflectivity on the direction of the fluctuating optical axis. The results obtained for σ are compared with the experimental depolarization spectra of ZnO. The only fitting parameter is the common standard deviation of the strain components. It is found...

  7. A strain-mediated corrosion model for bioabsorbable metallic stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, E; O'Brien, D; Cummins, C; Mac Donald, B J; Lally, C

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a strain-mediated phenomenological corrosion model, based on the discrete finite element modelling method which was developed for use with the ANSYS Implicit finite element code. The corrosion model was calibrated from experimental data and used to simulate the corrosion performance of a WE43 magnesium alloy stent. The model was found to be capable of predicting the experimentally observed plastic strain-mediated mass loss profile. The non-linear plastic strain model, extrapolated from the experimental data, was also found to adequately capture the corrosion-induced reduction in the radial stiffness of the stent over time. The model developed will help direct future design efforts towards the minimisation of plastic strain during device manufacture, deployment and in-service, in order to reduce corrosion rates and prolong the mechanical integrity of magnesium devices. The need for corrosion models that explore the interaction of strain with corrosion damage has been recognised as one of the current challenges in degradable material modelling (Gastaldi et al., 2011). A finite element based plastic strain-mediated phenomenological corrosion model was developed in this work and was calibrated based on the results of the corrosion experiments. It was found to be capable of predicting the experimentally observed plastic strain-mediated mass loss profile and the corrosion-induced reduction in the radial stiffness of the stent over time. To the author's knowledge, the results presented here represent the first experimental calibration of a plastic strain-mediated corrosion model of a corroding magnesium stent. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetics of parasite distribution after reinfection with genetically distinct strains of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Julia Gatti Ladeia; Tavares, Alice Thomáz; Silva, Daliane Regis Correa; Pinto, Lorena Velozo; Baraviera, Ramon Castro Araújo; Noviello, Maria Lourdes Meirelles; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2018-01-01

    Recent data shows that prior infection by Toxoplasma gondii does not protect the host from subsequent reinfection even after the development of immunological memory. Although animal models for T. gondii reinfection were proposed after cases of natural human reinfection were described, little is known about the events that occur immediately after challenge. To further understand these events, BALB/c mice were chronically infected with D8 non-virulent strain (genotype ToxoDB#8 BrIII) and challenged with two different virulent strains: EGS (genotype ToxoDB #229) or CH3 strain (genotype ToxoDB #19). Primary infection protected animals from lethal challenge and morbidity was reduced. Reinfection was confirmed by PCR-RFLP, showing differences in the way the parasites spread in challenged animals. Parasites reached the lungs during early infection and a parasitism delay in the intestine was observed in D8+CH3 group. Parasites from challenge strains were not detected in the brain of D8+CH3 and in the intestine and brain of D8+EGS group. Previous infection with D8 strain of T. gondii protected against lethal challenges, but it did not prevent parasite spread to some organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanometrology - challenges for health regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Carreteiro Damasceno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between metrology, nanotechnology and nanoscience and sanitary regulation is discussed from the point of view of its importance and the interrelationship between the themes for the development of products and services involving nanotech-nology. The discussion involves the main techniques for measuring dimensional, chemical and biological properties of materials, and presents some of the challenges for the future. Issues such as processes of standardization and regulation in Europe, U.S. and Brazil are also addressed, providing an overview of how these processes are related to sanitary regulation.

  10. Strain localisation in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Desrues , Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This study is devoted to strain localisation in Granular materials. Both experimental and theoretical results have been obtained.The first part of the thesis is a review of the methods and theories about rupture in sols mechanics and more generally, in solid mechanics. The classical framework of Shear Band analysis is presented, and the main results available for different classes of materials are discussed.The second part describes an experimental study of strain localisation in sand specime...

  11. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  12. What is "Standard" About the Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Newberger, Florence; Safer, Alan M.; Watson, Saleem

    2010-01-01

    The choice of the formula for standard deviation is explained in elementary statistics textbooks in various ways. We give an explanation for this formula by representing the data as a vector in $\\mathbb R^n$ and considering its distance from a central tendency vector. In this setting the "standard" formula represents a shortest distance in the standard metric. We also show that different metrics lead to different measures of central tendency.

  13. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  14. Engineering and preclinical evaluation of attenuated nontyphoidal Salmonella strains serving as live oral vaccines and as reagent strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Galen, James E; Simon, Raphael; Pasetti, Marcela F; Gat, Orit; Levine, Myron M

    2011-10-01

    While nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) has long been recognized as a cause of self-limited gastroenteritis, it is becoming increasingly evident that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains are also emerging as important causes of invasive bacteremia and focal infections, resulting in hospitalizations and deaths. We have constructed attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains that can serve as live oral vaccines and as "reagent strains" for subunit vaccine production in a safe and economical manner. Prototype attenuated vaccine strains CVD 1921 and CVD 1941, derived from the invasive wild-type strains S. Typhimurium I77 and S. Enteritidis R11, respectively, were constructed by deleting guaBA, encoding guanine biosynthesis, and clpP, encoding a master protease regulator. The clpP mutation resulted in a hyperflagellation phenotype. An additional deletion in fliD yielded reagent strains CVD 1923 and CVD 1943, respectively, which export flagellin monomers. Oral 50% lethal dose (LD₅₀) analyses showed that the NTS vaccine strains were all highly attenuated in mice. Oral immunization with CVD 1921 or CVD 1923 protected mice against lethal challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium I77. Immunization with CVD 1941 but not CVD 1943 protected mice against lethal infection with S. Enteritidis R11. Immune responses induced by these strains included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellum antibodies, with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. Since S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the most common NTS serovars associated with invasive disease, these findings can pave the way for development of a highly effective, broad-spectrum vaccine against invasive NTS.

  15. Effect of composite type and placement technique on cuspal strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsson, Vilhelm G; Ritter, André V; Swift, Edward J; Boushell, Lee W; Ko, Ching-Chang; Jackson, Gabrielle R; Ahmed, Sumitha N; Donovan, Terence E

    2018-01-01

    To compare the cuspal strain in Class II restorations made with bulk-fill and conventional composite resins. Fifty extracted maxillary premolars were mounted into phenolic rings and divided into five groups (n = 10). Specimens received standardized MOD preparations. A two-step self-etch adhesive was applied and the preparations were restored using a custom matrix as follows: Filtek Supreme Ultra in eight 2-mm increments (FSUI); Filtek Supreme Ultra in bulk (FSUB); SonicFill in bulk (SF); SureFil SDR flow in bulk, covered with a 2-mm occlusal layer of Filtek Supreme Ultra (SDR/FSU); Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill in bulk (TEBF). Strain gages bonded to the buccal and lingual cusps recorded cuspal strain during restorations. End strain values were determined and data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis testing, followed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey´s post hoc test. Combined strain values and standard deviations (in µɛ) were: FSUI: 723 ± 102.8, FSUB: 929.2 ± 571.9, SF: 519.1 ± 80.2, SDR-FSU: 497.4 ± 67.6 and TEBF: 604.5 ± 127.1. A significant difference was found between group FSUI and groups SF, SDR-FSU, and TEBF. Group FSUB showed significantly higher mean strain and greater standard deviation than all other groups due to cuspal fractures, and was thus excluded from the statistical analysis. The tested bulk-fill composite resins exerted less strain onto tooth structure than the incrementally placed conventional composite resin, although the magnitude of generated strain was product-dependent. Bulk-filling with conventional composite resins is contraindicated. Bulk-fill composite resins exerted less strain onto adjacent tooth structure than a traditional composite, even when that composite is was placed incrementally. Bulk-filling with traditional composite resins is unpredictable and contraindicated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in hamsters using a non-toxigenic strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate five non-toxigenic strains of Clostridium difficile (NTCD in vitro and to select one strain to prevent C. difficile (CDI infection in hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus . The NTCD strains were evaluated for spore production in vitro, antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. Approximately 107 spores of the selected strain (Z31 were administered by esophageal gavage in hamsters pretreated with 30mg kg-1 of clindamycin. The challenge with a toxigenic strain of C. difficile was conducted at 36 and 72h, and the animals were observed for 28 days. The NTCD strain of C. difficile (Z31 was able to prevent CDI in all animals that received it.

  17. Hydration and thermal strain during tennis in the heat

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Competitive tennis in the heat can prompt substantial sweat losses and extensive consequent body water and electrolyte deficits, as well as a level of thermal strain that considerably challenges a player's physiology, perception of effort, and on-court well-being and performance. Adequate hydration and optimal performance can be notably difficult to maintain when multiple same-day matches are played on successive days in hot weather. Despite the recognised effects of the heat, much more resea...

  18. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food ferment...

  19. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabenhenrich, L. B.; Reich, Andreas; Bellach, J.; Trendelenburg, V.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Roberts, G.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M. L.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Dubakiene, R.; Niggemann, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, R.; Schnadt, S.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Keil, T.; Beyer, K.

    Background: The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid

  20. Susceptibility of selected strains used for evaluation of biocidal efficiency of disinfectants and antibiotic-resistant strains to didecyldimethylammonium chloride in 2-propanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojecka, Agnieszka; Wiercińska, Olga; Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Kanclerski, Krzysztof; Jakimiak, Bożenna

    2015-01-01

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride is an active substance which is part of variety of formulations used for the disinfection and antisepsis, both in the medical area as well as in the food, industrial and institutional area. Because of the widespread use of this substance and the development of bacterial resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), the aim of this study was determination of the susceptibility of the standard strains used for the evaluation of the effectiveness of disinfectants and standard antibiotic-resistant strains to didecyldimethylammonium chloride in 2-propanol and its bactericidal activity. Susceptibility of standard strains used for the evaluation of the effectiveness of disinfectants (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-SA; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442-PA) and standard antibiotic-resistant strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300-MRSA; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 47085-PAO-LAC) to CMAP was determined by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCs). The bactericidal efficiency of CMAP against these strains was evaluated by using phenol coefficient (PC). Susceptibility of Gram-positive tested strains SA and MRSA to CMAP was similar (P>0,05). Significant difference in susceptibility of tested Gram-negative strains to CMAP was evaluated between PA and PAO-LAC strains (P<0,05). However,.higher resistance of PAO-LAC to CMAP was not significant when parameters such as concentration and contact time were applied in PC method. The correct determination and application of "in use" parameters (i.e. concentration, contact time, temperature and interfering substances) in disinfection process prevents the spread of resistant strains in.the environment.

  1. Standardization and the European Standards Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Orviska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardization is a relatively neglected aspect of the EU regulatory process and yet it is fundamental to that process and arguably has recently been the key vehicle in making the single market an economic reality. Yet the key standardization bodies in the EU, the ESOs, are scarcely known to the public and seldom discussed in the literature. In this article we redress this imbalance, arguing that standardization and integration are closely related concepts. We also argue that the ESOs have developed a degree of autonomy in expanding the boundaries of standardization and even in developing their own links with the rest of the world. Recent proposals put forward by the European Commission can be seen as an attempt to reduce that autonomy. These proposals emphasize the speed of, and stakeholder involvement in, standards production, which we further suggest are somewhat conflicting aims.

  2. Effect of cyclic plastic pre-strain on low cycle fatigue life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Satoshi; Nakane, Motoki; Yorikawa, Morio; Takagi, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate structural integrity of nuclear components subjected large seismic load which produce locally plastic strain, low cycle fatigue life was examined using cyclic plastic pre-strained materials of austenitic steel (SUS316, SUS316L, SUS304TP: JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards)) and ferritic steel (SFVQ1A, STS480, STPT410, SFVC2B, SS400: JIS). It was not found that cyclic plastic pre-strain up to range of 16%, 2.5 times affected on low cycle fatigue life. The validity of existing procedure of fatigue life estimation based on usage factor was confirmed when large seismic load brought nuclear materials cyclic plastic strain. (author)

  3. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  4. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a open-quotes standard modelclose quotes. The open-quotes standard modelclose quotes consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes to determine if the requirements of open-quotes non-standardclose quotes architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural features

  5. Software quality challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Ronan; Smith, Peter; O'Shea, Brendan

    2004-01-01

    This paper sets out a number of challenges facing the software quality community. These challenges relate to the broader view of quality and the consequences for software quality definitions. These definitions are related to eight perspectives of software quality in an end-to-end product life cycle. Research and study of software quality has traditionally focused on product quality for management information systems and this paper considers the challenge of defining additional quality factors...

  6. The New Architecture for Auditing Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin-Sandu Vînătoru; Sorinel Domnişoru; Daniela Giurescu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge the conceptual basis upon which the current auditing standards are based. The paper critically appraises the Auditors’ Code published by the Auditing Practices Board and containing the nine fundamental and enduring principles upon which current auditing standards are based. It is argued that the nine enduring principles should be replaced by seven enduring tensions – the fault lines of auditing - so as to rethink the conceptual basis of auditing stand...

  7. Comparative Genomics and Characterization of Hybrid Shigatoxigenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC/ETEC) Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Outi; Halkilahti, Jani; Wiklund, Gudrun; Okeke, Uche; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) cause serious foodborne infections in humans. These two pathogroups are defined based on the pathogroup-associated virulence genes: stx encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) for STEC and elt encoding heat-labile and/or est encoding heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) for ETEC. The study investigated the genomics of STEC/ETEC hybrid strains to determine their phylogenetic position among E. coli and to define the virulence genes they harbor. The whole genomes of three STEC/ETEC strains possessing both stx and est genes were sequenced using PacBio RS sequencer. Two of the strains were isolated from the patients, one with hemolytic uremic syndrome, and one with diarrhea. The third strain was of bovine origin. Core genome analysis of the shared chromosomal genes and comparison with E. coli and Shigella spp. reference genomes was performed to determine the phylogenetic position of the STEC/ETEC strains. In addition, a set of virulence genes and ETEC colonization factors were extracted from the genomes. The production of Stx and ST were studied. The human STEC/ETEC strains clustered with strains representing ETEC, STEC, enteroaggregative E. coli, and commensal and laboratory-adapted E. coli. However, the bovine STEC/ETEC strain formed a remote cluster with two STECs of bovine origin. All three STEC/ETEC strains harbored several other virulence genes, apart from stx and est, and lacked ETEC colonization factors. Two STEC/ETEC strains produced both toxins and one strain Stx only. This study shows that pathogroup-associated virulence genes of different E. coli can co-exist in strains originating from different phylogenetic lineages. The possibility of virulence genes to be associated with several E. coli pathogroups should be taken into account in strain typing and in epidemiological surveillance. Development of novel hybrid E. coli strains may cause a new public health risk, which challenges the traditional diagnostics

  8. Millennium Challenge Account

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnoff, Curt

    2008-01-01

    .... foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) provides assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas...

  9. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  10. Exergy. Concept, challenges and usages for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The increasing pressure on natural resources makes reduction of energy consumption a critical stake. The exergy concept offers a global, standard and rigorous framework to energy systems analysis, and as such, contributes to tackle the energy challenge. ENEA has released a publication that popularizes the exergy concept, explains its application within the energy efficiency field, and highlights its value for industrial actors

  11. A synthetic zero air standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  12. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  13. Strain Sensor of Carbon Nanotubes in Microscale: From Model to Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain sensor composed of carbon nanotubes with Raman spectroscopy can achieve measurement of the three in-plane strain components in microscale. Based on previous work on the mathematic model of carbon nanotube strain sensors, this paper presents a detailed study on the optimization, diversification, and standardization of a CNT strain sensor from the viewpoint of metrology. A new miniaccessory for polarization control is designed, and two different preparing methods for CNT films as sensing media are introduced to provide diversified choices for applications. Then, the standard procedure of creating CNT strain sensors is proposed. Application experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the above improvement, which is helpful in developing this method for convenient metrology.

  14. Strain Sensor of Carbon Nanotubes in Microscale: From Model to Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Li, Shi-Lei; Deng, Wei-lin; Gao, Di; Kang, Yi-Lan

    2014-01-01

    A strain sensor composed of carbon nanotubes with Raman spectroscopy can achieve measurement of the three in-plane strain components in microscale. Based on previous work on the mathematic model of carbon nanotube strain sensors, this paper presents a detailed study on the optimization, diversification, and standardization of a CNT strain sensor from the viewpoint of metrology. A new miniaccessory for polarization control is designed, and two different preparing methods for CNT films as sensing media are introduced to provide diversified choices for applications. Then, the standard procedure of creating CNT strain sensors is proposed. Application experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the above improvement, which is helpful in developing this method for convenient metrology. PMID:24683338

  15. Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strains using a monoclonal-based polystyrene agglutination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubreuil, J.D.; Letellier, A.; Stenbæk, Eva

    1996-01-01

    A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS......-PAGE and Western blotting, A total of 205 A. pleuropneumoniae, strains including all 12 serotype reference strains and 13 strains representing 8 common bacterial species associated with swine or related to A, pleuropneumoniae, were tested by mixing 25 mu L of polystyrene reagent with the same volume of a dense...... suspension of bacterial cells grown for 18 h. All A, pleuropneumoniae strains had been previously serotyped using standard procedures, The polystyrene agglutination test was rapid (less than 3 min) and easy to perform. Overall a very good correlation (97.3%) with the standard techniques was found...

  16. Physics of strained quantum well lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Loehr, John P

    1998-01-01

    When this publisher offered me the opportunity to \\\\Tite a book, some six years ago, I did not hesitate to say yes. I had just spent the last four years of graduate school struggling to understand the physics of strained quantum well lasers, and it seemed to me the whole experience was much more difficult that it should have been. For although many of the results I needed were easy to locate, the underlying physical premises and intervening steps were not. If only I had a book providing the derivations, I could have absorbed them and gone on my way. Such a book lies before you. It provides a unified and self-contained descrip­ tion of the essential physics of strained quantum well lasers, starting from first principles whenever feasible. The presentation I have chosen requires only the standard introductory background in quantum mechanics, solid state physics, and electromagnetics expected of entering graduate students in physics or elec­ trical engineering. A single undergraduate course in each of these su...

  17. Servohydraulic methods for mechanical testing in the Sub-Hopkinson rate regime up to strain rates of 500 1/s.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2005-10-01

    Tensile and compressive stress-strain experiments on metals at strain rates in the range of 1-1000 1/s are relevant to many applications such as gravity-dropped munitions and airplane accidents. While conventional test methods cover strain rates up to {approx}10 s{sup -1} and split-Hopkinson and other techniques cover strain rates in excess of {approx}1000 s{sup -1}, there are no well defined techniques for the intermediate or ''Sub-Hopkinson'' strain-rate regime. The current work outlines many of the challenges in testing in the Sub-Hopkinson regime, and establishes methods for addressing these challenges. The resulting technique for obtaining intermediate rate stress-strain data is demonstrated in tension on a high-strength, high-toughness steel alloy (Hytuf) that could be a candidate alloy for earth penetrating munitions and in compression on a Au-Cu braze alloy.

  18. WIPP startup: Overcoming unprecedented challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Arlen E.

    1992-01-01

    Since its authorization by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 96-164, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Program has achieved significant progress. Subsequent to a Record of Decision based on the October 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), the scientific and engineering challenge of constructing a 100-acre mined repository to demonstrate the safe and environmentally sound disposal of defense program generated transuranic waste became reality. Since initial conception, however, a complex program has evolved. Demonstration of compliance with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) disposal Standards defined in 10 CFR 191, Subpart B (yet to be repromulgated), became prerequisites to a disposal decision. On June 13, 1990, based on a supplement to the 1980 FEIS, the decision was made to redefine the program to include a formal test phase. This decision required an addendum to the Final Safety Analysis Report to assure commitment to safety considerations, an intensive operational readiness review effort, and the need for a No-Migration Determination for the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to meeting the technical challenges, the need to satisfy a broad spectrum of oversight groups (some directly funded by the Department of Energy) was required. With the decision making process publicly displayed on the Secretary of Energy's Decision Plan, the unprecedented challenges of the WIPP Program were painstakingly met, one by one, in an accountable and visible manner. (author)

  19. Characterization of Recombinant B. abortus Strain RB51SOD Toward Understanding the Uncorrelated Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Induced by RB51SOD Compared to Its Parent Vaccine Strain RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jianguo; Larson, Charles B.; Ramaker, Megan Ann; Quandt, Kimberly; Wendte, Jered M.; Ku, Kimberly P.; Chen, Fang; Jourdian, George W.; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Schurig, Gerhardt G.; He, Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. ...

  20. Characterization of recombinant B. abortus strain RB51SOD towards understanding the uncorrelated innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RB51SOD compared to its parent vaccine strain RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Jianguo eZhu; Jianguo eZhu; Charles Bradford Larson; Megan Ann Ramaker; Kimberly eQuandt; Jered eWendte; Kimberly eKu; Fang eChen; George eJourdian; Ramesh eVemulapalli; Gerhardt G. Schurig; Yongqun Oliver eHe

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. ...

  1. Influence of mechanical strain on magnetic characteristics of spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Áč, V.; Anwarzai, B.; Luby, S.; Majkova, E.

    2008-03-01

    Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of Co and Fe-Co based e-beam evaporated spin valves with Cu and Au spacers was studied. The effect of strain on samples, which is detrimental in standard GMR sensors, was measured in a bending configuration. The different dependences of coercivity Hc and magnetic field Hip in the point of inflection of MR loops vs. strain were found. For sample with Co/Au/Co core, Hc, Hip increase with increasing compressive stress, whereas for sample with FeCo/Cu/Co core they increase with tensile stress. The highest relative change of MR ratio vs. bending in the strain interval ± 300 × 10-6 is 1-2 % of the basic magnetoresistance and, practically, it does not influence the SV output.

  2. Influence of mechanical strain on magnetic characteristics of spin valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ac, V; Anwarzai, B; Luby, S; Majkova, E

    2008-01-01

    Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of Co and Fe-Co based e-beam evaporated spin valves with Cu and Au spacers was studied. The effect of strain on samples, which is detrimental in standard GMR sensors, was measured in a bending configuration. The different dependences of coercivity H c and magnetic field H ip in the point of inflection of MR loops vs. strain were found. For sample with Co/Au/Co core, H c , H ip increase with increasing compressive stress, whereas for sample with FeCo/Cu/Co core they increase with tensile stress. The highest relative change of MR ratio vs. bending in the strain interval ± 300 x 10 -6 is 1-2 % of the basic magnetoresistance and, practically, it does not influence the SV output

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens induces strain-dependent and strain-independent host plant responses in defense networks, primary metabolism and photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan S [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of plants by nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains can confer enhanced defense capacity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Few studies, however, have linked defense pathway regulation to primary metabolism and physiology. In this study, physiological data, metabolites, and transcript profiles are integrated to elucidate how molecular networks initiated at the root-microbe interface influence shoot metabolism and whole-plant performance. Experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana were performed using the newly identified P. fluorescens GM30 or P. fluorescens Pf-5 strains. Co-expression networks indicated that Pf-5 and GM30 induced a subnetwork specific to roots enriched for genes participating in RNA regulation, protein degradation, and hormonal metabolism. In contrast, only GM30 induced a subnetwork enriched for calcium signaling, sugar and nutrient signaling, and auxin metabolism, suggesting strain dependence in network architecture. In addition, one subnetwork present in shoots was enriched for genes in secondary metabolism, photosynthetic light reactions, and hormone metabolism. Metabolite analysis indicated that this network initiated changes in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Consistent with this, we observed strain-specific responses in tryptophan and phenylalanine abundance. Both strains reduced host plant carbon gain and fitness, yet provided a clear fitness benefit when plants were challenged with the pathogen P. syringae DC3000.

  4. Challenges in fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young

    2013-11-01

    Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.

  5. Challenges in Fingertip Replantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young

    2013-01-01

    Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.

  6. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  7. Dewey's Challenge to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Stephen M.; McCarthy, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    Given the serious social problems confronting Americans and others worldwide, the authors propose that Dewey's 1932 challenge to teachers is worthy of reconsideration by educators at all levels. In times similar to our own, Dewey challenged teachers to cultivate students' capacities to identify their happiness with what they can do to improve the…

  8. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  9. Oral food challenge outcomes in a pediatric tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elissa M; Becker, Allan B

    2017-01-01

    Oral food challenges are the clinical standard for diagnosis of food allergy. Little data exist on predictors of oral challenge failure and reaction severity. A retrospective chart review was done on all pediatric patients who had oral food challenges in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic from 2008 to 2010. 313 oral challenges were performed, of which the majority were to peanut (105), egg (71), milk (41) and tree nuts (29). There were 104 (33%) oral challenge failures. Children were more likely to fail an oral challenge if they were older (P = .04), had asthma (P = .001) or had atopic dermatitis (P = .03). Risk of challenge failure was significantly different between food allergens, with more failures noted for peanut than for tree nuts, milk or egg (P = .001). Among challenge failures, 19% met criteria for anaphylaxis. Significantly more tree nut and peanut challenges met criteria for anaphylaxis than milk or egg (P Skin test size and specific IgE level were significantly higher in those who failed oral challenges (P < .001). The highest rate of challenge failure and severity of failure was to cashew, with 63% of cashew challenges reacting, of which 80% met clinical criteria for anaphylaxis. The risk of challenge failure differed with type of food studied, with peanut and tree nut having a higher risk of challenge failure and anaphylaxis. Cashew in particular carried a high risk and caution must be exercised when performing these types of oral challenges in children.

  10. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  11. Benchmarking two commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for heterologous vanillin-β-glucoside production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Magdenoska, Olivera; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    factories for production of specific compounds. To examine this possibility, we have reconstructed a de novo vanillin-β-glucoside pathway in an identical manner in S288c and CEN.PK strains. Characterization of the two resulting strains in two standard conditions revealed that the S288c background strain...... produced up to 10-fold higher amounts of vanillin-β-glucoside compared to CEN.PK. This study demonstrates that yeast strain background may play a major role in the outcome of newly developed cell factories for production of a given product.......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used eukaryotic model organism and a key cell factory for production of biofuels and wide range of chemicals. From the broad palette of available yeast strains, the most popular are those derived from laboratory strain S288c and the industrially...

  12. Employment challenges in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Roehr

    2011-01-01

    Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system......Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system...

  13. Colonial Challenge to the Ogoja Salt Industry, Eastern Nigeria | Ajor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It avers that in spite of the use of all instruments of coercion, and importation of salt from Europe to stifle the local salt industry, the latter not only was able to absorb the strain but also survived the challenges and thrived within the period of this study. The paper also highlights the degree of specialization among the various ...

  14. Maize gene banks helps farmers adapt to new challenges | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... Small-scale farmers in Oaxaca, Mexico, whose farming traditions are threatened, now have access to more native corn varieties from across the region, allowing them to breed local strains more adaptable to environmental challenges. This has been made possible by new tools and incentives provided ...

  15. Standards, Standards, Standards: The Unintended Consequences of Widening Participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Debate over widening access to higher education is narrowing to a focus on preservation of standards. Examination of the discourses of school policy, classroom environment, and peer culture shows how these competing cultures can work against efforts to increase participation. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  16. Bringing Seismology's Grand Challenges to the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M. H.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2011-12-01

    The "Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems," a community-written long-range science plan for the next decade, poses 10 questions to guide fundamental seismological research. Written in an approachable fashion suitable for policymakers, the broad questions and supporting discussion contained in this document offer an ideal framework for the development of undergraduate curricular materials. Leveraging this document, we have created a collection of inquiry-based classroom modules that utilize authentic data to modernize seismological instruction in 100 and 200 level undergraduate courses. The modules not only introduce undergraduates to the broad questions that the seismological community seeks to answer in the future but also showcase the numerous areas where modern seismological research is actively contributing to our understanding of fundamental Earth processes. To date 6 in-depth explorations that correspond to the Grand Challenges document have been developed. The specific topics for each exploration were selected to showcase modern seismological research while also covering topics commonly included in the curriculum of these introductory classes. Examples of activities that have been created and their corresponding Grand Challenge include: -A guided inquiry that introduces students to episodic tremor and slip and compares the GPS and seismic signatures of ETS with those produced from standard tectonic earthquakes (Grand Challenge "How do faults slip?"). - A laboratory exercise where students engage in b-value mapping of volcanic earthquakes to assess potential eruption hazards (How do magmas ascend and erupt?). - A module that introduce students to glacial earthquakes in Greenland and compares their frequency and spatial distribution to tectonic earthquakes (How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?). What is the relationship between stress and strain in the lithosphere? - An activity that

  17. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of Entamoeba histolytica strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Avalos, D.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Silva, E. F.; Orozco, E.; de Menezes, L. F.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of E. histolytica are studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. It is shown that the pathogenic strain presents a spectrum similar to that of iron sulfur proteins. The non-pathogenic strain does not show any relevant absorption at the studied wavelength range. The differences observed between the optical absorption spectra of both strains opens the possibility of using photoacoustic spectroscopy as a reliable and simple technique to identify different types of E. histolytica strains.

  18. Diverse Local Literacies and Standardizing Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomer, Randy; Maloch, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The authors challenge educators to speculate on how to address local issues in a world that is increasingly diverse and global. This Research and Policy section emphasizes the seemingly paradoxical importance of both local and global literacy, illuminating the tension between the preservation of local literacy and a global standardization of…

  19. Teaching Accessibility Standards to Generation Y Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzing, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 mandated that facilities and programs are accessible, so people with disabilities can be included in all aspects of community life including recreation (Dattilo, 2002). Understanding accessibility standards is not an easy task. Educators are faced with the challenge of teaching technical content,…

  20. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...

  1. A framework for assessing the concordance of molecular typing methods and the true strain phylogeny of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli using draft genome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Mutschall, Steven; Tudor, Andrei; Clark, Clifford; Taboada, Eduardo N

    2012-01-01

    Tracking of sources of sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis remains challenging, as commonly used molecular typing methods have limited ability to unambiguously link genetically related strains. Genomics has become increasingly prominent in the public health response to enteric pathogens as methods enable characterization of pathogens at an unprecedented level of resolution. However, the cost of sequencing and expertise required for bioinformatic analyses remains prohibitive, and these comprehensive analyses are limited to a few priority strains. Although several molecular typing methods are currently widely used for epidemiological analysis of campylobacters, it is not clear how accurately these methods reflect true strain relationships. To address this, we have developed a framework and associated computational tools to rapidly analyze draft genome sequence data for the assessment of molecular typing methods against a "gold standard" based on the phylogenetic analysis of highly conserved core (HCC) genes with high sequence quality. We analyzed 104 publicly available whole genome sequences (WGS) of C. jejuni and C. coli. In addition to in silico determination of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), flaA, and porA type, as well as comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF) type, we inferred a "reference" phylogeny based on 389 HCC genes. Molecular typing data were compared to the reference phylogeny for concordance using the adjusted Wallace coefficient (AWC) with confidence intervals. Although MLST targets the sequence variability in core genes and CGF targets insertions/deletions of accessory genes, both methods are based on multi-locus analysis and provided better estimates of true phylogeny than methods based on single loci (porA, flaA). A more comprehensive WGS dataset including additional genetically related strains, both epidemiologically linked and unlinked, will be necessary to more comprehensively assess the performance of subtyping methods for outbreak

  2. Right ventricular strain in heart failure: Clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Cuspidi, Cesare; Morris, Daniel A; Burkhardt, Franziska; Baudisch, Ana; Haßfeld, Sabine; Tschöpe, Carsten; Pieske, Burket

    2017-10-01

    The number of studies demonstrating the importance of right ventricular remodelling in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases has increased in the past two decades. Speckle-tracking imaging provides new variables that give comprehensive information about right ventricular function and mechanics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of right ventricular mechanics in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and preserved ejection fraction. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid and Embase databases for studies published from January 2000 to December 2016 in the English language using the following keywords: "right ventricle"; "strain"; "speckle tracking"; "heart failure with reduced ejection fraction"; and "heart failure with preserved ejection fraction". Investigations showed that right ventricular dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients with heart failure, irrespective of ejection fraction. The number of studies investigating right ventricular strain in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is constantly increasing, whereas data on right ventricular mechanics in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are limited. Given the high feasibility, accuracy and clinical implications of right ventricular strain in the population with heart failure, it is of great importance to try to include the evaluation of right ventricular strain as a regular part of each echocardiographic examination in patients with heart failure. However, further investigations are necessary to establish right ventricular strain as a standard variable for decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A robust SNP barcode for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    Strain-specific genomic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is an important factor in pathogenesis that may affect virulence, transmissibility, host response and emergence of drug resistance. Several systems have been proposed to classify MTBC strains into distinct lineages and families. Here, we investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as robust (stable) markers of genetic variation for phylogenetic analysis. We identify ∼92k SNP across a global collection of 1,601 genomes. The SNP-based phylogeny is consistent with the gold-standard regions of difference (RD) classification system. Of the ∼7k strain-specific SNPs identified, 62 markers are proposed to discriminate known circulating strains. This SNP-based barcode is the first to cover all main lineages, and classifies a greater number of sublineages than current alternatives. It may be used to classify clinical isolates to evaluate tools to control the disease, including therapeutics and vaccines whose effectiveness may vary by strain type. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  4. Extension of TOUGH-FLAC to the finite strain framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Martín, Laura; Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2017-11-01

    The TOUGH-FLAC simulator for coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical processes modeling has been extended to the finite strain framework. In the approach selected, this extension has required modifications to the flow simulator (TOUGH2) and to the coupling scheme between the geomechanics and the flow sub-problems. In TOUGH2, the mass and energy balance equations have been extended to account for volume changes. Additionally, as large deformations are computed by FLAC3D, the geometry is updated in the flow sub-problem. The Voronoi partition needed in TOUGH2 is computed using an external open source library (Voro++) that uses the centroids of the deformed geomechanics mesh as generators of the Voronoi diagram. TOUGH-FLAC in infinitesimal and finite strain frameworks is verified against analytical solutions and other approaches to couple flow and geomechanics. Within the finite strain framework, TOUGH-FLAC is also successfully applied to a large-scale case. The extension of TOUGH-FLAC to the finite strain framework has little impact to the user as only one additional executable is needed (for Voro++), and the input files and the workflow of a simulation are the same as in standard TOUGH-FLAC. With this new provision for finite strains, TOUGH-FLAC can be used in the analysis of a wider range of engineering problems, and the areas of application of this simulator are therefore broadened.

  5. Benchmarking two commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for heterologous vanillin-β-glucoside production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Strucko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used eukaryotic model organism and a key cell factory for production of biofuels and wide range of chemicals. From the broad palette of available yeast strains, the most popular are those derived from laboratory strain S288c and the industrially relevant CEN.PK strain series. Importantly, in recent years these two strains have been subjected to comparative “-omics” analyzes pointing out significant genotypic and phenotypic differences. It is therefore possible that the two strains differ significantly with respect to their potential as cell factories for production of specific compounds. To examine this possibility, we have reconstructed a de novo vanillin-β-glucoside pathway in an identical manner in S288c and CEN.PK strains. Characterization of the two resulting strains in two standard conditions revealed that the S288c background strain produced up to 10-fold higher amounts of vanillin-β-glucoside compared to CEN.PK. This study demonstrates that yeast strain background may play a major role in the outcome of newly developed cell factories for production of a given product. Keywords: Yeast, Cell factory, Strain choice, Heterologous production, Vanillin-glucoside, Shikimate pathway

  6. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  7. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the

  8. BTS statistical standards manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  9. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  10. Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Cox

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years’ enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the agenda. When a variant H1N1 strain of swine origin emerged as a pandemic virus, it surprised many, as this subtype is well-known to man as a seasonal virus. This review will cover some difficult vaccine questions, such as the immunological challenges, the new production platforms, and the limited supply and global equity issues.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2 WATERBORNE CHALLENGE MODEL FOR FUTURE ERM VACCINE TESTING IN RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Aalbæk, Bent; Otani, Maki

    Yersinia ruckeri (Y.r.) O1 biotype (bt) 2 causes outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth disease (ERM) in vaccinated, farmed rainbow trout around the world. Y.r. O1 bt 1 has been known since first described from the Hagerman Valley in Idaho in the 1950’s and outbreaks have now been controlled by vaccinatio......1 bt 2 has made it possible to develop a standardized bath challenge model which is needed in order to test and develop new experimental vaccines which are expected to induce immunity against Y.r. O1 bt 2....... for more than 35 years. Recent years have shown ERM outbreaks caused by Y.r. O1 bt 2 reported from ERM vaccinated farmed rainbow trout stocks in both Europe and the USA. It has been suggested that Y.r. O1 bt 2 is more virulent than bt 1. In order to test this hypothesis we have collected Y.r. O1 isolates...... causing less than 50 % mortality, and a high virulence group causing more than 50 % mortality. Interestingly, all tested bt 1 isolates grouped in the low virulence group together with a few bt 2 isolates. The highly virulent strains were exclusively Y.r. O1 bt 2 strains. The most virulent strain...

  12. Protein synthesis in the human virulent Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaila, M.S.; Gopinathan, K.P.; Ramakrishnan, T.

    1975-01-01

    An efficient in vitro amino acid incorporating system from the human virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been standardized. The effects of various antitubercular drugs and 'known inhibitors' of protein synthesis on amino acid incorporation were studied. Antibiotics like chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycine were studied for their inhibitory action. 14 C-amino acids, 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolasate and 3 H-dihydrostreptomycine sesqui-sulphate were used in the studies. (M.G.B.)

  13. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  14. Detector and trigger challenge for supersymmetrical dark matter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Two supersymmetrical (SUSY) dark matter scenarios are discussed to illustrate how challenging it is to detect and trigger these events out of standard model background events at a future international linear collider (ILC).

  15. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, Giulia; Battaglia, Giovanni; Grossi, Roberto; Pisanti, Nadia; Marangoni, Roberto

    2013-03-20

    Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus-like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non-conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra-specific comparison are sharp markers of inter-specific evolution: indeed, many events of non-conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to infer MGEs also for low coverage genomes

  16. Challenges of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández-Manjón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although educational games have revealed to be a very effective focus in diverse situations, their use in education is still very limited. In this paper we analyse the main challenges concerning educational games that, from our perspective, have to be approached so that the use of this kind of games can be widespread. These challenges are classified in three main dimensions: socio-cultural, educational and technological. Once the challenges are identified, some possible measures are suggested to address or reduce these problems so that the use of educational games may be widespread.

  17. The challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Lheureux, Yves; Leroyer, Veronique; Rollinger, Francois; Gauthier, Florence; Depauw, Denis; Reynal, Nathalie; Fraysse, Thierry; Burger, Eric; Bertrand, Adrien; Vallat, Christophe; Bernet, Philippe; Eimer, Michel; Boutin, Dominique; Bietrix, Philippe; Richard, Francoise; Piketty, Laurence; Mouchet, Chantal; Charre, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations which address the contexts and challenges of dismantling (legal framework, safety and radiation protection challenges, waste processing industry), and propose illustrations of dismantling challenges (example of operations to prepare EURODIF dismantling and CLIGEET work-group on EURODIF dismantling, examples of dismantling of EDF installations and CLIs' opinion on the dismantling of EDF installations, Brennilis dismantling follow-up performed by the CLI, examples of dismantling of CEA installations and opinion of a CLI on the dismantling of CEA installations)

  18. Nuclear renaissance, the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, J.; Aycart, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Industry has been able to get prepared for the Renaissance by overcoming many different challenges. Most of them related to shortage in capabilities and resources. However, as new builds approach, new challenges appear in the horizon. Now, those are mostly related to the risk management embedded in huge projects like these. This Article provides a vision on how to face those new challenges, so that the industry will not be damaged in its credibility by lack of commitments or failed executions. (Author)

  19. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  20. Radiological Control Technician: Standardized technician Qualification Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Qualification Standard states and defines the knowledge and skill requirements necessary for successful completion of the Radiological Control Technician Training Program. The standard is divided into three phases: Phase I concerns RCT Academic training. There are 13 lessons associated with the core academics program and 19 lessons associated with the site academics program. The staff member should sign the appropriate blocks upon successful completion of the examination for that lesson or group of lessons. In addition, facility specific lesson plans may be added to meet the knowledge requirements in the Job Performance Measures (JPM) of the practical program. Phase II concerns RCT core/site practical (JPMs) training. There are thirteen generic tasks associated with the core practical program. Both the trainer/evaluator and student should sign the appropriate block upon successful completion of the JPM. In addition, facility specific tasks may be added or generic tasks deleted based on the results of the facility job evaluation. Phase III concerns the oral examination board successful completion of the oral examination board is documented by the signature of the chairperson of the board. Upon completion of all of the standardized technician qualification requirements, final qualification is verified by the student and the manager of the Radiological Control Department and acknowledged by signatures on the qualification standard. The completed Qualification Standard shall be maintained as an official training record

  1. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  2. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  3. [Ophthalmology and standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, R

    1989-01-01

    The standards are the references for quality and safety of materials, instruments and devices in ophtalmological use. The French standardisation association, "Association Française de Normalisation" (AFNOR), drafts his standards in connection with the concerned professionals. The ophthalmologists are concerned by standards of diagnostic and therapeutic instruments, intraocular and orbital implants, contact lenses, spectacle frames and glasses, and ocular protectors.

  4. Need Satisfaction at Work, Job Strain, and Performance: A Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Sara; Hofmans, Joeri; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-08-24

    We performed a daily diary study to examine the mediating role of autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction in the relationships between job characteristics (i.e., job resources, challenge and hindrance demands) and strain and performance. For 10 consecutive working days, 194 employees reported on their daily job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, task performance, strain level, and satisfaction of the needs for competence and autonomy. Multilevel path modeling demonstrated that the within-person relationships between job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, and strain are mediated by autonomy need satisfaction, but not by competence need satisfaction. However, the relationships between job resources and hindrance demands, and performance are mediated by both competence and autonomy need satisfaction. Our findings show that organizations may benefit from designing jobs that provide employees with the opportunity to satisfy their basic needs for competence and autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Design and Validation of a Cyclic Strain Bioreactor to Condition Spatially-Selective Scaffolds in Dual Strain Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matthew Goodhart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design and validate a unique bioreactor design for applying spatially selective, linear, cyclic strain to degradable and non-degradable polymeric fabric scaffolds. This system uses a novel three-clamp design to apply cyclic strain via a computer controlled linear actuator to a specified zone of a scaffold while isolating the remainder of the scaffold from strain. Image analysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET woven scaffolds subjected to a 3% mechanical stretch demonstrated that the stretched portion of the scaffold experienced 2.97% ± 0.13% strain (mean ± standard deviation while the unstretched portion experienced 0.02% ± 0.18% strain. NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells were cultured on the PET scaffolds and half of each scaffold was stretched 5% at 0.5 Hz for one hour per day for 14 days in the bioreactor. Cells were checked for viability and proliferation at the end of the 14 day period and levels of glycosaminoglycan (GAG and collagen (hydroxyproline were measured as indicators of extracellular matrix production. Scaffolds in the bioreactor showed a seven-fold increase in cell number over scaffolds cultured statically in tissue culture plastic petri dishes (control. Bioreactor scaffolds showed a lower concentration of GAG deposition per cell as compared to the control scaffolds largely due to the great increase in cell number. A 75% increase in hydroxyproline concentration per cell was seen in the bioreactor stretched scaffolds as compared to the control scaffolds. Surprisingly, little differences were experienced between the stretched and unstretched portions of the scaffolds for this study. This was largely attributed to the conditioned and shared media effect. Results indicate that the bioreactor system is capable of applying spatially-selective, linear, cyclic strain to cells growing on polymeric fabric scaffolds and evaluating the cellular and matrix responses to the applied strains.

  6. A NEW STRAIN OF TRANSMISSIBLE LEUCEMIA IN FOWLS (STRAIN H).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermann, V

    1921-03-31

    1. A new strain of fowl leucosis has been transmitted through twelve generations of fowls. 2. An increase in virulence was observed during its passage. This was shown in a shortening of the interval between inoculation and death. The increase in virulence does not affect the number of successful inoculations, which remains approximately constant in from 20 to 40 per cent of the birds employed. 3. As with former strains, the disease manifests itself in various forms; i.e., myeloid and intravascular lymphoid types. A single lymphatic case was observed. 4. In several intravascular cases a diminution in the hemolytic power of the serum was established. This phenomenon was absent in a number of myeloid cases. 5. Active immunization cannot be produced by means of the subcutaneous injection of virulent material. 6. The finding of previous experiments that the virus is filterable has been confirmed. 7. The inoculation of human leucemic material into fowls gave negative results.

  7. Integrating a logarithmic-strain based hyper-elastic formulation into a three-field mixed finite element formulation to deal with incompressibility in finite-strain elasto-plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dina Al Akhrass; Bruchon, Julien; Drapier, Sylvain; Fayolle, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the treatment of incompressibility in solid mechanics in finite-strain elasto-plasticity. A finite-strain model proposed by Miehe, Apel and Lambrecht, which is based on a logarithmic strain measure and its work-conjugate stress tensor is chosen. Its main interest is that it allows for the adoption of standard constitutive models established in a small-strain framework. This model is extended to take into account the plastic incompressibility constraint intrinsically. In that purpose, an extension of this model to a three-field mixed finite element formulation is proposed, involving displacements, a strain variable and pressure as nodal variables with respect to standard finite element. Numerical examples of finite-strain problems are presented to assess the performance of the formulation. To conclude, an industrial case for which the classical under-integrated elements fail is considered. (authors)

  8. Microbial strain-level population structure and genetic diversity from metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Duy Tin; Tett, Adrian; Pasolli, Edoardo; Huttenhower, Curtis; Segata, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Among the human health conditions linked to microbial communities, phenotypes are often associated with only a subset of strains within causal microbial groups. Although it has been critical for decades in microbial physiology to characterize individual strains, this has been challenging when using culture-independent high-throughput metagenomics. We introduce StrainPhlAn, a novel metagenomic strain identification approach, and apply it to characterize the genetic structure of thousands of strains from more than 125 species in more than 1500 gut metagenomes drawn from populations spanning North and South American, European, Asian, and African countries. The method relies on per-sample dominant sequence variant reconstruction within species-specific marker genes. It identified primarily subject-specific strain variants (70% of species). Microbial population structure was correlated in several distinct ways with the geographic structure of the host population. In some cases, discrete subspecies (e.g., for Eubacterium rectale and Prevotella copri ) or continuous microbial genetic variations (e.g., for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ) were associated with geographically distinct human populations, whereas few strains occurred in multiple unrelated cohorts. We further estimated the genetic variability of gut microbes, with Bacteroides species appearing remarkably consistent (0.45% median number of nucleotide variants between strains), whereas P. copri was among the most plastic gut colonizers. We thus characterize here the population genetics of previously inaccessible intestinal microbes, providing a comprehensive strain-level genetic overview of the gut microbial diversity. © 2017 Truong et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  10. Intraspecific competition between co-infecting parasite strains enhances host survival in African trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Oliver; Stearns, Stephen Curtis; Schötzau, Andreas; Brun, Reto

    2009-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that under natural conditions parasitic infections commonly consist of co-infections with multiple conspecific strains. Multiple-strain infections lead to intraspecific interactions and may have important ecological and evolutionary effects on both hosts and parasites. However, experimental evidence on intraspecific competition or facilitation in infections has been scarce because of the technical challenges of distinguishing and tracking individual co-infecting strains. To overcome this limitation, we engineered transgenic strains of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the causal agent of human African sleeping sickness. Different strains were transfected with fluorescence genes of different colors to make them visually distinguishable in order to investigate the effects of multiple-strain infections on parasite population dynamics and host fitness. We infected mice either with each strain alone or with mixes of two strains. Our results show a strong mutual competitive suppression of co-infecting T. brucei strains very early in infection. This mutual suppression changes within-host parasite dynamics and alleviates the effects of infection on the host. The strength of suppression depends on the density of the co-infecting strain, and differences in life-history traits between the strains determine the consequences of strain-strain competition for the host. Unexpectedly, co-infection with a less virulent strain significantly enhances host survival (+15%). Analysis of the strain dynamics reveals that this is due to the suppression of the density of the more virulent strain (-33%), whose degree of impact ultimately determines the physical condition of the host. The competitive suppression is likely caused by allelopathic interference or by apparent competition mediated by strain-specific immune responses. These findings highlight the importance of intraspecific variation for parasite-parasite and parasite-host interactions. To

  11. Plastic limit analysis with non linear kinematic strain hardening for metalworking processes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaaba, Ali; Aboussaleh, Mohamed; Bousshine, Lahbib; Boudaia, El Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Limit analysis approaches are widely used to deal with metalworking processes analysis; however, they are applied only for perfectly plastic materials and recently for isotropic hardening ones excluding any kind of kinematic hardening. In the present work, using Implicit Standard Materials concept, sequential limit analysis approach and the finite element method, our objective consists in extending the limit analysis application for including linear and non linear kinematic strain hardenings. Because this plastic flow rule is non associative, the Implicit Standard Materials concept is adopted as a framework of non standard plasticity modeling. The sequential limit analysis procedure which considers the plastic behavior with non linear kinematic strain hardening as a succession of perfectly plastic behavior with yielding surfaces updated after each sequence of limit analysis and geometry updating is applied. Standard kinematic finite element method together with a regularization approach is used for performing two large compression cases (cold forging) in plane strain and axisymmetric conditions

  12. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  13. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  14. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  15. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  16. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  17. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  18. Challenges in marine instrumentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Joseph, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Nayak, M.R.; Ranade, G.

    challenge for technology. Biosensors which can detect bioluminescence and other biological activities would play a major role. Autonomous instrumentation outfitted with different types of in-situ sensors would collect data without disturbing the system...

  19. TRI University Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Details about the TRI University Challenge, in which EPA is looking to academic institutions to help build a diverse portfolio of practical and replicable projects that benefit communities, the environment, academic institutions, and the TRI Program.

  20. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Technical Information Service NCHS The Challenge of Fetal Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS Data ... and ethnicity What is the impact of fetal mortality on U.S. families? In 2005, a total of ...

  1. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  2. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Nema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field.

  3. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized

  4. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried, E-mail: Selberherr@TUWien.ac.at

    2015-07-14

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized.

  5. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2015-07-01

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized.

  6. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  7. Overcoming Safeguards Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the 2010 IAEA International Safeguards Symposium was how best, from a technical perspective, to prepare for future verification challenges during this time of change. By bringing together the leading experts in the field from across the world, this symposium provided an opportunity for stakeholders to explore possible solutions in support of the IAEA's nuclear verification mission, and to identify areas where the different stakeholders in the safeguards business can help address these challenges

  8. Path Independent Polar Effective Plastic Strain (PEPS) Diagram for Sheet Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Whan; Stoughton, Thomas B.

    This paper reviews a pre-strain effect on necking limit of sheet metal, and discusses the importance of this phenomenon to industrial applications. The paper also discusses a solution to this challenge including adaption of the stress diagram. A new type of forming limit diagram, based on a Polar plot of the Effective Plastic Strain (PEPS) is proposed that appears to be an effective solution to the problem of nonlinear effects, with advantages of the familiar strain-based diagram for linear loading, and without the strain-hardening limitations of the stress diagram, or non-intuitive aspects of the alternate Cartesian diagrams based on effective plastic strain. The benefits and limitations of each method are discussed.

  9. The influence of the scale effect and high temperatures on the strength and strains of high performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsun Vladimyr Ivanovych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most effective way to reduce the structure mass, labor input and expenses for its construction is to use modern high-performance concrete of the classes С50/60… С90/105, which possess high physical and mathematic characteristics. One of the constraints for their implementation in mass construction in Ukraine is that in design standards there are no experimental data on the physical and mathematic properties of concrete of the classes more than С50/60. Also there are no exact statements on calculating reinforced concrete structures made of high-performance concretes.The authors present the results of experimental research of the scale effect and short-term and long-term heating up to +200 ° C influence on temperature and shrinkage strain, on strength and strain characteristics under compression and tensioning of high-strength modified concrete of class C70/85. The application of high performance concretes is challenging in the process of constructing buildings aimed at operating in high technological temperatures: smoke pipes, coolers, basins, nuclear power plants' protective shells, etc. Reducing cross-sections can lead to reducing temperature drops and thermal stresses in the structures.

  10. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a...

  11. Challenges in European higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. Orphanides

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance has been one of the most important components of the Bologna Process and the EHEA. Quality and innovation are sine qua non in achieving competitiveness in European higher education, especially when the focus is on its challenges in a global context. This principle certainly applies to the entire world as well. It is vital that all European countries and all European higher education institutions implement punctually and with distinction the 'Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area' concerning internal and external quality assurance, and quality assurance agencies, as well as the function and operation of the European Quality Assurance Register (EQAR. On the other hand, if diversity in higher education provision is to be considered an asset, a transparent, multidimensional classification system of instruments designed to benchmark higher education institutions on research and innovation, teaching and learning outcomes, services to society, etc., may help identify and make visible such diversity.

  12. Strain-specific protective effect of the immunity induced by live malarial sporozoites under chloroquine cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayalath, Wathsala; Cheesman, Sandra; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Carter, Richard; Pathirana, Sisira

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of a whole-sporozoite malaria vaccine would partly be determined by the strain-specificity of the protective responses against malarial sporozoites and liver-stage parasites. Evidence from previous reports were inconsistent, where some studies have shown that the protective immunity induced by irradiated or live sporozoites in rodents or humans were cross-protective and in others strain-specific. In the present work, we have studied the strain-specificity of live sporozoite-induced immunity using two genetically and immunologically different strains of Plasmodium cynomolgi, Pc746 and PcCeylon, in toque monkeys. Two groups of monkeys were immunized against live sporozoites of either the Pc746 (n = 5), or the PcCeylon (n = 4) strain, by the bites of 2-4 sporozoite-infected Anopheles tessellates mosquitoes per monkey under concurrent treatments with chloroquine and primaquine to abrogate detectable blood infections. Subsequently, a group of non-immunized monkeys (n = 4), and the two groups of immunized monkeys were challenged with a mixture of sporozoites of the two strains by the bites of 2-5 infective mosquitoes from each strain per monkey. In order to determine the strain-specificity of the protective immunity, the proportions of parasites of the two strains in the challenge infections were quantified using an allele quantification assay, Pyrosequencing™, based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the parasites' circumsporozoite protein gene. The Pyrosequencing™ data showed that a significant reduction of parasites of the immunizing strain in each group of strain-specifically immunized monkeys had occurred, indicating a stronger killing effect on parasites of the immunizing strain. Thus, the protective immunity developed following a single, live sporozoite/chloroquine immunization, acted specifically against the immunizing strain and was, therefore, strain-specific. As our experiment does not allow us to determine the parasite stage at

  13. Theory Challenges of the Accelerating Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-01-01

    The accelerating expansion of the universe presents an exciting, fundamental challenge to the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. I highlight some of the outstanding challenges in both developing theoretical models and interpreting without bias the observational results from precision cosmology experiments in the next decade that will return data to help reveal the nature of the new physics. Examples given focus on distinguishing a new component of energy from a new law of gravity, and the effect of early dark energy on baryon acoustic oscillations

  14. Characterization of two recent Japanese field isolates of canine distemper virus and examination of the avirulent strain utility as an attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Yoneda, Misako; Seki, Takahiro; Uema, Masashi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Nishi, Toshiya; Fujita, Kentaro; Miura, Ryuichi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2014-12-05

    Recently, several new strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) have been isolated in Japan. To investigate their pathogenesis in dogs, the Yanaka and Bunkyo-K strains were investigated by infecting dogs and determining clinical signs, amount of virus, and antibody responses. The Yanaka strain is avirulent and induced an antibody response. The Bunkyo-K strain induced typical CDV clinical signs in infected dogs and virulence was enhanced by brain passage. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of H genes demonstrated the Bunkyo-K strains were of a different lineage from Asia-1 group including the Yanaka strain and Asia-2 group that contain recent Japanese isolates, which were recently identified as major prevalent strains worldwide but distinct from old vaccine strains. Based on these data, we tested the ability of the Yanaka strain for vaccination. Inoculation with the Yanaka strain efficiently induced CDV neutralizing antibodies with no clinical signs, and the protection effects against challenge with either old virulent strain or Bunkyo-K strain were equal or greater when compared with vaccination by an original vaccine strain. Thus, the Yanaka strain is a potential vaccine candidate against recent prevalent CDV strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Beryllium strain under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkov Victor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some data (not much on dynamic characteristics of beryllium that are important, for example, when estimating construction performance at NPP emergencies. A number of data on stress-strain curves, spall strength, shear strength, fracture and structure responses of shock loaded beryllium have obtained in US and Russian laboratories. For today the model description of this complex metal behavior does not have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, thus a wider spectrum of experimental data is required. This work presents data on dynamic compression-test diagrams of Russian beryllium. Experiments are performed using Hopkinson bar method (SHPB. Strain rates were ε ∼ 103 s−1.

  16. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  17. Intraspecies prion transmission results in selection of sheep scrapie strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yokoyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheep scrapie is caused by multiple prion strains, which have been classified on the basis of their biological characteristics in inbred mice. The heterogeneity of natural scrapie prions in individual sheep and in sheep flocks has not been clearly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we intravenously injected 2 sheep (Suffolk and Corriedale with material from a natural case of sheep scrapie (Suffolk breed. These 3 sheep had identical prion protein (PrP genotypes. The protease-resistant core of PrP (PrPres in the experimental Suffolk sheep was similar to that in the original Suffolk sheep. In contrast, PrPres in the Corriedale sheep differed from the original PrPres but resembled the unusual scrapie isolate, CH1641. This unusual PrPres was not detected in the original sheep. The PrPres distributions in the brain and peripheral tissues differed between the 2 breeds of challenged sheep. A transmission study in wild-type and TgBoPrP mice, which overexpressing bovine PrP, led to the selection of different prion strains. The pathological features of prion diseases are thought to depend on the dominantly propagated strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that prion strain selection occurs after both inter- and intraspecies transmission. The unusual scrapie prion was a hidden or an unexpressed component in typical sheep scrapie.

  18. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  19. Genomotyping of Pseudomonas putida strains using P. putida KT2440-based high-density DNA microarrays: implications for transcriptomics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ballerstedt, Hendrik; Volkers, Rita J. M.; Mars, Astrid E.; Hallsworth, John E.; Santos, Vitor A. Martins dos; Puchalka, Ja?ek; van Duuren, Joost; Eggink, Gerrit; Timmis, Ken N.; de Bont, Jan A. M.; Wery, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is the only fully sequenced P. putida strain. Thus, for transcriptomics and proteomics studies with other P. putida strains, the P. putida KT2440 genomic database serves as standard reference. The utility of KT2440 whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide microarrays for transcriptomics studies of other Pseudomonas strains was investigated. To this end, microarray hybridizations were performed with genomic DNAs of subcultures of P. putida KT2440 (DSM6125), the type...

  20. An Evidenced-Based Scale of Disease Severity following Human Challenge with Enteroxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad K Porter

    Full Text Available Experimental human challenge models have played a major role in enhancing our understanding of infectious diseases. Primary outcomes have typically utilized overly simplistic outcomes that fail to entirely account for complex illness syndromes. We sought to characterize clinical outcomes associated with experimental infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC and to develop a disease score.Data were obtained from prior controlled human ETEC infection studies. Correlation and univariate regression across sign and symptom severity was performed. A multiple correspondence analysis was conducted. A 3-parameter disease score with construct validity was developed in an iterative fashion, compared to standard outcome definitions and applied to prior vaccine challenge trials.Data on 264 subjects receiving seven ETEC strains at doses from 1x105 to 1x1010 cfu were used to construct a standardized dataset. The strongest observed correlation was between vomiting and nausea (r = 0.65; however, stool output was poorly correlated with subjective activity-impacting outcomes. Multiple correspondence analyses showed covariability in multiple signs and symptoms, with severity being the strongest factor corresponding across outcomes. The developed disease score performed well compared to standard outcome definitions and differentiated disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects.Frequency and volumetric definitions of diarrhea severity poorly characterize ETEC disease. These data support a disease severity score accounting for stool output and other clinical signs and symptoms. Such a score could serve as the basis for better field trial outcomes and gives an additional outcome measure to help select future vaccines that warrant expanded testing in pivotal pre-licensure trials.

  1. 75 FR 47316 - Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ..., 2010. ADDRESSES: 2010 Strong Tether Challenge will be conducted at the 2010 Space Elevator Conference... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice is...

  2. Efficacy of strain RB51 vaccine in heifers against experimental brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poester, Fernando P; Gonçalves, Vítor S P; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L; Olsen, Steven C; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Lage, Andrey P

    2006-06-19

    With the goal of providing an additional tool for controlling bovine brucellosis in Brazil and evaluating the full calf dose in adult cattle, the efficacy of the rough Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine was tested in heifers. Thirty-three females of approximately 24 months of age were divided in two groups: one group (n=20) received the RB51 vaccine and the other group (n=13) were used as non-vaccinated control. Animals in the vaccinated group were split in two sub-groups. One sub-group (n=12) was vaccinated subcutaneously with 1.5x10(10) colony forming units (CFU) of RB51 at Day 0 of the experiment and the other sub-group (n=8) was vaccinated subcutaneously with 1.6x10(10) CFU of RB51 at 60 days of gestation (Day 260 of the experiment). All cattle were challenged between 6 and 7 months of pregnancy with 3x10(8) CFU of the virulent strain 2308 of B. abortus by the conjunctival route. Vaccination with RB51 vaccine did not result in the production of any antibodies against the O-side chain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as measured by conventional serological tests (rose bengal plate agglutination test (RBPAT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and 2-mercaptoethanol test (2ME)). A total of 25% cumulative incidence of abortions was found in the vaccinated group, whereas in the control group the cumulative incidence was 62%. B. abortus RB51 was not isolated from any sample, and no abortions were produced by RB51 vaccination of females at 60 days of pregnancy. The results indicate that vaccination with RB51 prevented 59.4% of abortions, 58.6% of cow infections, and 61.0% of fetal infections. The relative risk (RR) revealed that non-vaccinated animals have 2.462 (95% CI 1.029-5.889) times higher risk of aborting than RB51-vaccinated animals.

  3. Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, P; Fablet, C; Le Dimna, M; Mahé, S; Touzain, F; Blanchard, Y; Paboeuf, F; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2017-05-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethical challenges in neonatal intensive care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandås, Maria; Fredriksen, Sven-Tore D

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal nurses report a great deal of ethical challenges in their everyday work. Seemingly trivial everyday choices nurses make are no more value-neutral than life-and-death choices. Everyday ethical challenges should also be recognized as ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to investigate which types of ethical challenges neonatal nurses experience in their day-to-day care for critically ill newborns. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews. Phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis was applied to interpret the data. Six nurses from neonatal intensive care units at two Norwegian hospitals were interviewed on-site. The study is designed to comply with Ethical Guidelines for Nursing Research in the Nordic Countries and the Helsinki declaration. Findings suggest that nurses experience a diverse range of everyday ethical challenges related to challenging interactions with parents and colleagues, emotional strain, protecting the vulnerable infant, finding the balance between sensitivity and authority, ensuring continuity of treatment, and miscommunication and professional disagreement. A major finding in this study is how different agents involved in caring for the newborn experience their realities differently. When these realities collide, ethical challenges arise. Findings suggest that acting in the best interests of the child becomes more difficult in situations involving many agents with different perceptions of reality. The study presents new aspects which increases knowledge and understanding of the reality of nursing in a neonatal intensive care unit, while also demanding increased research in this field of care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1993-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is highly successful, although it is obviously not a complete or final theory. In this presentation the author argues that the structure of the standard model gives some quite concrete, compelling hints regarding what lies beyond. Essentially, this presentation is a record of the author's own judgement of what the central clues for physics beyond the standard model are, and also it is an attempt at some pedagogy. 14 refs., 6 figs

  6. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  7. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...... development in Scandinavia, the paper focuses on the unintended effects of the new international standards. The Bologna process was reframed and recontextualized in ways that undermined the very system it was set out to transform and govern....

  8. Genital immunization of heifers with a glycoprotein Edeleted, recombinant bovine herpesvirus 1 strain confers protection upon challenge with a virulent isolate Imunização genital de bezerras com uma cepa recombinante do herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 defectiva na glicoproteína E confere proteção frente a desafio com um isolado virulento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Venereal infection of seronegative heifers and cows with bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 (BoHV-1.2 frequently results in vulvovaginitis and transient infertility. Parenteral immunization with inactivated or modified live BoHV-1 vaccines often fails in conferring protection upon genital challenge. We herein report an evaluation of the immune response and protection conferred by genital vaccination of heifers with a glycoprotein E-deleted recombinant virus (SV265gE-. A group of six seronegative heifers was vaccinated with SV265gE- (0,2mL containing 10(6.9TCID50 in the vulva submucosa (group IV; four heifers were vaccinated intramuscularly (group IM, 1mL containing 10(7.6TCID50 and four heifers remained as non-vaccinated controls. Heifers vaccinated IV developed mild, transient local edema and hyperemia and shed low amounts of virus for a few days after vaccination, yet a sentinel heifer maintained in close contact did not seroconvert. Attempts to reactivate the vaccine virus in two IV vaccinated heifers by intravenous administration of dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg at day 70 pv failed since no virus shedding, recrudescence of genital signs or seroconversion were observed. At day 70 pv, all vaccinated and control heifers were challenged by genital inoculation of a highly virulent BoHV-1.2 isolate (SV56/90, 10(7.1TCID50/animal. After challenge, virus shedding was detected in genital secretions of control animals for 8.2 days (8-9; in the IM group for 6.2 days (4-8 days and during 5.2 days (5-6 days in the IV group. Control non-vaccinated heifers developed moderate (2/4 or severe (2/4 vulvovaginitis lasting 9 to 13 days (x: 10.7 days. The disease was characterized by vulvar edema, vulvo-vestibular congestion, vesicles progressing to coalescence and erosions, fibrino-necrotic plaques and fibrinopurulent exudate. IM vaccinated heifers developed mild (1/3 or moderate (3/4 genital lesions, lasting 10 to 12 days (x: 10.7 days; and IV vaccinated heifers developed

  9. Effect of vaccination of pigs against experimental infection with high and low virulence Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, I; Maes, D; Vranckx, K; Calus, D; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F

    2011-02-17

    This study investigated the infection pattern and lung lesion development in pigs caused by a low and highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain at 4 and 8 weeks (w) post infection (PI). It also determined the efficacy of a commercial inactivated whole-cell vaccine against infection with each one of these M. hyopneumoniae strains. Ninety piglets free of M. hyopneumoniae were selected, and 40 of them were randomly vaccinated during their first week of life. At weaning, all piglets were allocated to 10 different groups and housed in pens with absolute filters. At 4 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with either a highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain, a low virulent strain or with sterile culture medium. Half of all animals were euthanized at 4 w PI, while the remaining half was euthanized at 8 w PI. Coughing was assessed daily, and lung lesions, immunofluorescence (IF), bacteriological analysis and nested PCR were assessed after necropsy. It was demonstrated that contrary to the highly virulent strain, the low virulent strain required more than 4 weeks PI (commonly accepted as the standard infection model) to reach maximum clinical symptoms. Vaccination significantly reduced clinical symptoms, macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions in pigs infected with the highly virulent strain. This effect was more pronounced at 4 than at 8 weeks PI. Protective efficacy was also observed in pigs infected with the low virulent strain, but the effect was less pronounced than on the highly virulent strain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional modeling for deformation of austenitic NiTi shape memory alloys under high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Young, Marcus L.

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for phase transformation of shape memory alloys (SMAs) during high strain rate deformation is developed and is then calibrated based on experimental results from an austenitic NiTi SMA. Stress, strain, and martensitic volume fraction distribution during high strain rate deformation are simulated using finite element analysis software ABAQUS/standard. For the first time, this paper presents a theoretical study of the microscopic band structure during high strain rate compressive deformation. The microscopic transformation band is generated by the phase front and leads to minor fluctuations in sample deformation. The strain rate effect on phase transformation is studied using the model. Both the starting stress for transformation and the slope of the stress-strain curve during phase transformation increase with increasing strain rate.

  11. Using Project-Based Instruction to Meet Foreign Language Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, Erin; Miller, Paul Chamness

    2011-01-01

    A challenge that language teachers face is meeting state and national standards while implementing sound methods and techniques. The authors addressed this challenge in a qualitative study of an eighth-grade exploratory French class where students were engaged in a variety of projects to enhance the learning of francophone language and culture.…

  12. Protein design in systems metabolic engineering for industrial strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Accelerating the process of industrial bacterial host strain development, aimed at increasing productivity, generating new bio-products or utilizing alternative feedstocks, requires the integration of complementary approaches to manipulate cellular metabolism and regulatory networks. Systems metabolic engineering extends the concept of classical metabolic engineering to the systems level by incorporating the techniques used in systems biology and synthetic biology, and offers a framework for the development of the next generation of industrial strains. As one of the most useful tools of systems metabolic engineering, protein design allows us to design and optimize cellular metabolism at a molecular level. Here, we review the current strategies of protein design for engineering cellular synthetic pathways, metabolic control systems and signaling pathways, and highlight the challenges of this subfield within the context of systems metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Standard Model course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Suggested Readings: Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0001118. - The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0502010. - The Standard Model of Particle Physics/A Pich The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics will be described. A detailed discussion of the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory will be given, together with an overview of the most important experimental facts which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of particle interactions.

  14. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...

  15. Standardization: colorfull or dull?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2003-01-01

    After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

  16. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  17. Genomotyping of Pseudomonas putida strains using P. putida KT2440-based high-density DNA microarrays: Implications for transcriptomics studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballerstedt, H.; Volkers, R.J.M.; Mars, A.E.; Hallsworth, J.E.; Santos, V.A.M.D.; Puchalka, J.; Duuren, J. van; Eggink, G.; Timmis, K.N.; Bont, J.A.M. de; Wery, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is the only fully sequenced P. putida strain. Thus, for transcriptomics and proteomics studies with other P. putida strains, the P. putida KT2440 genomic database serves as standard reference. The utility of KT2440 whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide microarrays for

  18. Development of Industrial Yeast Platform Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Basti; Dato, Laura; Förster, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Most of the current metabolic engineering projects are carried out using laboratory strains as the starting host. Although such strains are easily manipulated genetically, their robustness does not always meet the requirements set by industrial fermentation conditions. In such conditions, the cel...... screening of the 36 industrial and laboratory yeast strains. In addition, progress in the development of molecular biology methods for generating the new strains will be presented....

  19. Direct sample positioning and alignment methodology for strain measurement by diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, N.; Hughes, D. J.; King, A.; Malard, B.; Chen, Z.; Busby, P.; Webster, P. J.

    2005-05-01

    An ISO (International Organization for Standardization) TTA (Technology Trends Assessment) was published in 2001 for the determination of residual stress using neutron diffraction which identifies sample alignment and positioning as a key source of strain measurement error. Although the measurement uncertainty by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction for an individual measurement of lattice strain is typically of the order of 10-100×10-6, specimens commonly exhibit strain gradients of 1000×10-6mm-1 or more, making sample location a potentially considerable source of error. An integrated approach to sample alignment and positioning is described which incorporates standard base-plates and sample holders, instrument alignment procedures, accurate digitization using a coordinate measuring machine and automatic generation of instrument control scripts. The methodology that has been developed is illustrated by the measurement of the transverse residual strain field in a welded steel T-joint using neutrons.

  20. Direct sample positioning and alignment methodology for strain measurement by diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratel, N.; Hughes, D.J.; King, A.; Malard, B.; Chen, Z.; Busby, P.; Webster, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    An ISO (International Organization for Standardization) TTA (Technology Trends Assessment) was published in 2001 for the determination of residual stress using neutron diffraction which identifies sample alignment and positioning as a key source of strain measurement error. Although the measurement uncertainty by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction for an individual measurement of lattice strain is typically of the order of 10-100x10 -6 , specimens commonly exhibit strain gradients of 1000x10 -6 mm -1 or more, making sample location a potentially considerable source of error. An integrated approach to sample alignment and positioning is described which incorporates standard base-plates and sample holders, instrument alignment procedures, accurate digitization using a coordinate measuring machine and automatic generation of instrument control scripts. The methodology that has been developed is illustrated by the measurement of the transverse residual strain field in a welded steel T-joint using neutrons