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Sample records for standard cell placement

  1. A parallel row-based algorithm for standard cell placement with integrated error control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jeff S.; Banerjee, Prith

    1989-01-01

    A new row-based parallel algorithm for standard-cell placement targeted for execution on a hypercube multiprocessor is presented. Key features of this implementation include a dynamic simulated-annealing schedule, row-partitioning of the VLSI chip image, and two novel approaches to control error in parallel cell-placement algorithms: (1) Heuristic Cell-Coloring; (2) Adaptive Sequence Length Control.

  2. A parallel simulated annealing algorithm for standard cell placement on a hypercube computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark Howard

    1987-01-01

    A parallel version of a simulated annealing algorithm is presented which is targeted to run on a hypercube computer. A strategy for mapping the cells in a two dimensional area of a chip onto processors in an n-dimensional hypercube is proposed such that both small and large distance moves can be applied. Two types of moves are allowed: cell exchanges and cell displacements. The computation of the cost function in parallel among all the processors in the hypercube is described along with a distributed data structure that needs to be stored in the hypercube to support parallel cost evaluation. A novel tree broadcasting strategy is used extensively in the algorithm for updating cell locations in the parallel environment. Studies on the performance of the algorithm on example industrial circuits show that it is faster and gives better final placement results than the uniprocessor simulated annealing algorithms. An improved uniprocessor algorithm is proposed which is based on the improved results obtained from parallelization of the simulated annealing algorithm.

  3. VLSI Cells Placement Using the Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, Hacene; Zouaoui, Lamri; Mokhnache, Salah

    2008-01-01

    The artificial neural networks have been studied for several years. Their effectiveness makes it possible to expect high performances. The privileged fields of these techniques remain the recognition and classification. Various applications of optimization are also studied under the angle of the artificial neural networks. They make it possible to apply distributed heuristic algorithms. In this article, a solution to placement problem of the various cells at the time of the realization of an integrated circuit is proposed by using the KOHONEN network

  4. Parallel simulated annealing algorithms for cell placement on hypercube multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Prithviraj; Jones, Mark Howard; Sargent, Jeff S.

    1990-01-01

    Two parallel algorithms for standard cell placement using simulated annealing are developed to run on distributed-memory message-passing hypercube multiprocessors. The cells can be mapped in a two-dimensional area of a chip onto processors in an n-dimensional hypercube in two ways, such that both small and large cell exchange and displacement moves can be applied. The computation of the cost function in parallel among all the processors in the hypercube is described, along with a distributed data structure that needs to be stored in the hypercube to support the parallel cost evaluation. A novel tree broadcasting strategy is used extensively for updating cell locations in the parallel environment. A dynamic parallel annealing schedule estimates the errors due to interacting parallel moves and adapts the rate of synchronization automatically. Two novel approaches in controlling error in parallel algorithms are described: heuristic cell coloring and adaptive sequence control.

  5. Relative logic cell placement for mitigation of charge sharing-induced transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddie, Bradley T.; Robinson, William H.

    2016-10-01

    Design of modern integrated circuits increasingly requires consideration of radiation effects, especially in space and other high-risk environments. With fabrication technologies scaling down both feature sizes and critical charge, a radiation strike in sub-100 nm technologies may affect multiple, physically adjacent nodes. With increasing clock speeds, transient errors in the processing datapath also increase in risk. Modeling single-event multiple-transients (SEMT) for pre-fabrication reliability characterization has become a more common design step, and this work adds to the state-of-the-art by providing a fast and physically-informed characterization flow that captures the effects of single-event multiple-node charge collection through experimentally observed transport mechanisms. Beyond characterization, the study of SEMT vulnerabilities reveals the electronic design automation (EDA) step of standard logic cell placement as a design space for hardening against SEMT-induced errors. This work: (1) analyzes the vulnerability of benchmark circuits against SEMT errors, (2) evaluates the impact of logic on transient propagation, (3) explores EDA placement techniques, and (4) builds an automated design flow for relative placement of cells to mask transient errors, while maintaining compatibility with other radiation hardening techniques. Zero cost to area and marginal impact on timing enable this new cell placement algorithm that masks 30% of SEMT-induced errors.

  6. Fast fuzzy force-directed/stimulated evolution metaheuristic for multiobjective VLSI cell placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Junaid A.; Sait, Sadiq M.

    2007-01-01

    VLSI standard cell placement is the process of arranging circuit components (modules) on a silicon layout. The cell placement problem is a proven NP hard combinatorial optimization problem. The complexity of this problem increases when multiple optimization objectives are considered simultaneously. In this paper a novel technique is presented to address this hard problem, while optimizing multiple objectives. A major difficulty with such multi-objective combinatorial optimization problems is the existence of a very large solution search space, within which the desired optimal solution is. Simulated evolution (SE) a general iterative heuristic is used to traverse the large search space, while fuzzy logic is resorted to assist in multi-criteria decision making and overcome the imprecise nature of the design information at placement stage. New fuzzy aggregation functions are proposed. SE is hybridized with force directed algorithm to speed-up the search. The proposed schemes are compared with previously presented SE based heuristics. The implementations exhibit considerable improvement in terms of both solution quality and runtime. (author)

  7. Placement of molecules in (not out of) the cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauter, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    The importance of presenting macromolecular structures in unified, standard ways is discussed. To uniquely describe a crystal structure, it is sufficient to specify the crystal unit cell and symmetry, and describe the unique structural motif which is repeated by the space-group symmetry throughout the whole crystal. It is somewhat arbitrary how such a unique motif can be defined and positioned with respect to the unit-cell origin. As a result of such freedom, some isomorphous structures are presented in the Protein Data Bank in different locations and appear as if they have different atomic coordinates, despite being completely equivalent structurally. This may easily confuse those users of the PDB who are less familiar with crystallographic symmetry transformations. It would therefore be beneficial for the community of PDB users to introduce standard rules for locating crystal structures of macromolecules in the unit cells of various space groups

  8. An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

  9. Automated saturated standard cell intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B.E.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.)

    1987-10-05

    A cost effective, highly efficient, and automatic method of intercomparing standard cells has been sought after and implemented, utilizing computer control and a commercially available scanner. This system reduces intercomparison time from 4 hours to 30 minutes using the standard National Bureau of Standard (NBS) 4 x 4 design. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Stereotaxic implantation of dispersed cell suspensions into brain. A systematic appraisal of cell placement and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plunkett, R.J.; Weber, R.J.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The application of several recent advances in cell biology, brain implantation, and cell-mediated tumor immunotherapy requires successful and reproducible placement of viable cell suspensions into brain. Stereotaxic implantation is being used to inject cytotoxic lymphocytes into gliomas and to replace dopaminergic cells in parkinsonian models. Systematic assessment of the factors that influence success in implantation of cell suspensions into solid tissues is needed. A model was developed for investigation of stereotaxic implantation using radiolabeled rat lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Anesthetized rats received microliter injections of cell suspension into the right caudate nucleus. The injection volume, cell concentration, infusion rate, and needle size were varied systematically. The animals were sacrificed 1 hour after injection; the brain was removed and sectioned, and the radioactivity was counted. Three aliquots of the suspension were injected into counting tubes for control analysis. Recovery of radioactivity was expressed as the percent of mean counts per minute (cpm) in the right frontal lobe/mean cpm in the three control tubes. To assess the viability of implanted cells, the right frontal region was mechanically dissociated in media and centrifuged, and the pellet and supernatant were counted. By using small needles and slow infusion of volumes of 10 microliters or less, 85% to 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in the caudate nucleus. At least half of the implanted cells were viable. Consistent, accurate implantation of dispersed cells into brain over a range of volumes, cell concentrations, infusion rates, and needle sizes was achieved

  11. Banning standard cell engineering notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A family of standardized thick-oxide P-MOS building blocks (standard cells) is described. The information is presented in a form useful for systems designs, logic design, and the preparation of inputs to both sets of Design Automation programs for array design and analysis. A data sheet is provided for each cell and gives the cell name, the cell number, its logic symbol, Boolean equation, truth table, circuit schematic circuit composite, input-output capacitances, and revision date. The circuit type file, also given for each cell, together with the logic drawing contained on the data sheet provides all the information required to prepare input data files for the Design Automation Systems. A detailed description of the electrical design procedure is included.

  12. To what extent should dental implant placement be adopted as a standard for diabetic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Ahmed S.; Abed, Hassan H.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered one of the major chronic diseases in the world. Long-term hyperglycemia considerably affects the body tissues, and consequently, can lead to morbidity and mortality. Moreover, many oral complications have been observed with DM but little consideration in relation to the placement of dental implants has been investigated. Dental research has analyzed the relation of dental implants and bone osseointegration in diabetic patients. Theoretically, an impaired immune system and delayed wound healing of these patients might decrease the success rate of implant placement; however, with noticeable advances in evidence-based dentistry and statistically significant results, successful implant treatment could be achieved significantly in well-controlled diabetic patients. PMID:27761554

  13. Funnel for localizing biological cell placement and arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soscia, David; Benett, William J.; Mukerjee, Erik V.

    2018-03-06

    The present disclosure relates to a funnel apparatus for channeling cells onto a plurality of distinct, closely spaced regions of a seeding surface. The funnel apparatus has a body portion having an upper surface and a lower surface. The body portion forms a plurality of flow paths, at least one of which is shaped to have a decreasing cross-sectional area from the upper surface to the lower surface. The flow paths are formed at the lower surface to enable cells deposited into the flow paths at the upper surface of the funnel apparatus to be channeled into a plurality of distinct, closely spaced regions on the seeding surface positioned adjacent the lower surface.

  14. Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Christopher N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC, but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM. Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1 ESM + SC, 2 ESM + WC and 3 endoscopically placed WC (EGD + WC using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51 ± 2 years, 71% female were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26 ± 4 mm vs 39 ± 4 mm VAS, respectively, p = 0.012 but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p = 0.71. Per patient costs ($Canadian were $1475 for EGD + WC, $1014 for ESM + WC, and $906 for ESM + SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM + WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM + WC to $991. The ESM + SC and ESM + WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01364610

  15. Placement of Combined Heat, Power and Hydrogen Production Fuel Cell Power Plants in a Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Bahmanifirouzi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new Fuzzy Adaptive Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (FAMPSO for the placement of Fuel Cell Power Plants (FCPPs in distribution systems. FCPPs, as Distributed Generation (DG units, can be considered as Combined sources of Heat, Power, and Hydrogen (CHPH. CHPH operation of FCPPs can improve overall system efficiency, as well as produce hydrogen which can be stored for the future use of FCPPs or can be sold for profit. The objective functions investigated are minimizing the operating costs of electrical energy generation of distribution substations and FCPPs, minimizing the voltage deviation and minimizing the total emission. In this regard, this paper just considers the placement of CHPH FCPPs while investment cost of devices is not considered. Considering the fact that the objectives are different, non-commensurable and nonlinear, it is difficult to solve the problem using conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. Moreover, the placement of FCPPs in distribution systems is a mixed integer problem. Therefore, this paper uses the FAMPSO algorithm to overcome these problems. For solving the proposed multi-objective problem, this paper utilizes the Pareto Optimality idea to obtain a set of solution in the multi-objective problem instead of only one. Also, a fuzzy system is used to tune parameters of FAMPSO algorithm such as inertia weight. The efficacy of the proposed approach is validated on a 69-bus distribution system.

  16. A Density-Driven Method for the Placement of Biological Cells Over Two-Dimensional Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Nicolas P.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a graphical method originating from the computer graphics domain that is used for the arbitrary placement of cells over a two-dimensional manifold. Using a bitmap image whose luminance provides cell density, this method guarantees a discrete distribution of the positions of the cells respecting the local density. This method scales to any number of cells, allows one to specify arbitrary enclosing shapes and provides a scalable and versatile alternative to the more classical assumption of a uniform spatial distribution. The method is illustrated on a discrete homogeneous neural field, on the distribution of cones and rods in the retina and on the neural density of a flattened piece of cortex.

  17. A Density-Driven Method for the Placement of Biological Cells Over Two-Dimensional Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas P. Rougier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a graphical method originating from the computer graphics domain that is used for the arbitrary placement of cells over a two-dimensional manifold. Using a bitmap image whose luminance provides cell density, this method guarantees a discrete distribution of the positions of the cells respecting the local density. This method scales to any number of cells, allows one to specify arbitrary enclosing shapes and provides a scalable and versatile alternative to the more classical assumption of a uniform spatial distribution. The method is illustrated on a discrete homogeneous neural field, on the distribution of cones and rods in the retina and on the neural density of a flattened piece of cortex.

  18. How Two Small Pharmacy Schools' Competency Standards Compare with an International Competency Framework and How Well These Schools Prepare Students for International Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawboldt, John; Nash, Rose; FitzPatrick, Beverly

    2017-03-06

    International standards of pharmacy curricula are necessary to ensure student readiness for international placements. This paper explores whether curricula from two pharmacy programs, in Australia and Canada, are congruent with international standards and if students feel prepared for international placements. Nationally prescribed educational standards for the two schools were compared to each other and then against the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Global Competency Framework. Written student reflections complemented this analysis. Mapping results suggested substantial agreement between the FIP framework and Australia and Canada, with two gaps being identified. Moreover, the students felt their programs prepared them for their international placements. Despite differences in countries, pharmacy programs, and health-systems all students acclimatized to their new practice sites. Implications are that if pharmacy programs align well with FIP, pharmacists should be able to integrate and practise in other jurisdictions that also align with the FIP. This has implications for the mobility of pharmacy practitioners to countries not of their origin of training.

  19. A Standardized Method for 4D Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Blockade and Catheter Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Clendenen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a standardized method for using four-dimensional ultrasound (4D US guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. 4D US allows for needle tracking in multiple planes simultaneously and accurate measurement of the local anesthetic volume surrounding the nerve following injection. Additionally, the morphology and proximity of local anesthetic spread around the target nerve is clearly seen with the described technique. This method provides additional spatial information in real time compared to standard two-dimensional ultrasound.

  20. Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma due to Long-term Placement of Ocular Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ayato; Komoto, Masakazu; Matsumura, Takashi; Horiguchi, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Rica; Arakawa, Atsushi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from an anophthalmic socket is quite rare, with few reports in the English literature. A 59-year-old man who had used an ocular prosthesis for 40 years had not removed the ocular prosthesis at all during the last 5 years. He had developed a mass on his entire right upper eyelid, and biopsy revealed a moderately differentiated SCC. Orbital exenteration including the upper and lower eyelid skin was performed. The defect was reconstructed with a free forearm flap followed by the placement of a facial epithesis. The pathology revealed an intraepithelial carcinoma on the upper palpebral conjunctiva, which seemed to infiltrate exclusively from that site to the upper eyelid and into the orbit. Other risk factors were not detected; therefore, chronic irritation or microtrauma of the upper conjunctiva from the prosthesis due to persistent prosthesis placement could have been the main trigger for the development of SCC. In cases where the ocular prosthesis is not fitted properly or removed appropriately, clinicians should be aware of this possible long-term consequence.

  1. Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma due to Long-term Placement of Ocular Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayato Hayashi, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising from an anophthalmic socket is quite rare, with few reports in the English literature. A 59-year-old man who had used an ocular prosthesis for 40 years had not removed the ocular prosthesis at all during the last 5 years. He had developed a mass on his entire right upper eyelid, and biopsy revealed a moderately differentiated SCC. Orbital exenteration including the upper and lower eyelid skin was performed. The defect was reconstructed with a free forearm flap followed by the placement of a facial epithesis. The pathology revealed an intraepithelial carcinoma on the upper palpebral conjunctiva, which seemed to infiltrate exclusively from that site to the upper eyelid and into the orbit. Other risk factors were not detected; therefore, chronic irritation or microtrauma of the upper conjunctiva from the prosthesis due to persistent prosthesis placement could have been the main trigger for the development of SCC. In cases where the ocular prosthesis is not fitted properly or removed appropriately, clinicians should be aware of this possible long-term consequence.

  2. An Investigation of the Use of TOEFL® Junior™ Standard Scores for ESL Placement Decisions in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spiros; Cho, Yeonsuk

    2014-01-01

    A common use of language tests is to support decisions about examinees such as placement into appropriate classes. Research on placement testing has focused on English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in higher education contexts. However, there is little research exploring the use of language tests to place students in English as a Second Language…

  3. 'Standard' versus 'nose reference' electrode placement for measuring oVEMPs with air-conducted sound: Test-retest reliability and preliminary patient results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyssens, Laura; Heinze, Barbara; Vinck, Bart; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Vanspauwen, Robby; Wuyts, Floris L; Maes, Leen K

    2017-02-01

    This study compared two electrode placements ('standard' versus 'nose reference' placement) for measuring oVEMPs, elicited by air-conducted 500Hz tone bursts. The test-retest reliability of both positions was evaluated and additionally both electrode placements were applied on a group of vestibular patients. Eighteen healthy volunteers (range of 20-25years) participated in the first part and were retested after one week for evaluation of the test-retest reliability. Eleven patients (range of 41-74years) with a variety of vestibular pathologies were tested once. In the normal group, the nose reference electrode placement resulted in significantly larger peak-to-peak amplitudes (ptest-retest reliability was observed with the nose reference configuration, as shown by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the coefficient of variation of the method error (CV ME ) and the minimal detectable differences (MDD). In the patient group, the same significant amplitude difference was found. Moreover, three patients presented with absent oVEMPs when recorded with the standard placement, whereas the nose reference placement could evoke a detectable oVEMP response. This study demonstrated that a nose reference electrode position results in larger oVEMP amplitudes and achieves a better reliability for the most important clinical parameters (amplitude and IOR). Our patient data substantiate the possible clinical benefit of this position, but further systematic patient verification is required. The nose reference electrode position facilitates the detection of generally very small oVEMP responses and shows a high test-retest reliability, showing promising potential for future use in the vestibular clinic. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. LocZ is a new cell division protein involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holečková, Nela; Doubravová, Linda; Massidda, Orietta; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-13 ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/1568; GA ČR GAP302/12/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell division * septum placement * Streptococcus pneumoniae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.975, year: 2015

  5. A parallel row-based algorithm with error control for standard-cell replacement on a hypercube multiprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jeff Scott

    1988-01-01

    A new row-based parallel algorithm for standard-cell placement targeted for execution on a hypercube multiprocessor is presented. Key features of this implementation include a dynamic simulated-annealing schedule, row-partitioning of the VLSI chip image, and two novel new approaches to controlling error in parallel cell-placement algorithms; Heuristic Cell-Coloring and Adaptive (Parallel Move) Sequence Control. Heuristic Cell-Coloring identifies sets of noninteracting cells that can be moved repeatedly, and in parallel, with no buildup of error in the placement cost. Adaptive Sequence Control allows multiple parallel cell moves to take place between global cell-position updates. This feedback mechanism is based on an error bound derived analytically from the traditional annealing move-acceptance profile. Placement results are presented for real industry circuits and the performance is summarized of an implementation on the Intel iPSC/2 Hypercube. The runtime of this algorithm is 5 to 16 times faster than a previous program developed for the Hypercube, while producing equivalent quality placement. An integrated place and route program for the Intel iPSC/2 Hypercube is currently being developed.

  6. A comparative analysis of teacher-authored websites in high school honors and Advanced Placement physics for Web-design and NSES content and process standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persin, Ronald C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statistically significant differences existed between high school Honors Physics websites and those of Advanced Placement (AP) Physics in terms of Web-design, National Science Education Standards (NSES) Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. The procedure began with the selection of 152 sites comprising two groups with equal sample sizes of 76 for Honors Physics and for Advanced Placement Physics. The websites used in the study were accumulated using the Google(TM) search engine. To find Honors Physics websites, the search words "honors physics high school" were entered as the query into the search engine. To find sites for Advanced Placement Physics, the query, "advanced placement physics high school," was entered into the search engine. The evaluation of each website was performed using an instrument developed by the researcher based on three attributes: Web-design, NSES Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. A "1" was scored if the website was found to have each attribute, otherwise a "0" was given. This process continued until all 76 websites were evaluated for each of the two types of physics websites, Honors and Advanced Placement. Subsequently the data were processed using Excel functions and the SPSS statistical software program. The mean and standard deviation were computed individually for the three attributes under consideration. Three, 2-tailed, independent samples t tests were performed to compare the two groups of physics websites separately on the basis of Web Design, Physics Content, and Science Process. The results of the study indicated that there was only one statistically significant difference between high school Honors Physics websites and those of AP Physics. The only difference detected was in terms of National Science Education Standards Physics content. It was found that Advanced Placement Physics websites contained more NSES physics content than Honors

  7. Outcome of urethral stent placement for management of urethral obstruction secondary to transitional cell carcinoma in dogs: 19 cases (2007-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Sarah K; Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Bonney, Patty L; Adams, Larry G

    2012-12-15

    To determine the outcome in dogs undergoing urethral stent placement for management of urethral obstruction secondary to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Retrospective case series. 19 dogs with histopathologically confirmed TCC. Information regarding urethral stent placement and follow-up treatment was obtained from review of medical records. Quality of life assessment was performed with an owner questionnaire. Self-expanding nitinol stents were successfully placed in 17 of 19 dogs; stent placement was not possible in one dog, and another dog was euthanatized 2 days after stent placement, but before discharge from the hospital. Median survival time in 17 dogs following successful long-term stent placement was 78 days (range, 2 to 366 days). Complications following stent placement in 18 dogs included incontinence (n = 7), reobstruction from continued growth of urethral TCC (3), acute reobstruction shortly after the procedure (1), and stent migration (2). Of the 17 owners surveyed, 16 were satisfied with the outcome and would recommend urethral stent placement. The placement of self-expanding nitinol urethral stents was successful in alleviating TCC-induced urethral obstruction and providing good quality of life for most dogs.

  8. Accessible bioprinting: adaptation of a low-cost 3D-printer for precise cell placement and stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, John A; Mollica, Peter A; Johnson, Garett D; Ogle, Roy C; Bruno, Robert D; Sachs, Patrick C

    2016-06-07

    The precision and repeatability offered by computer-aided design and computer-numerically controlled techniques in biofabrication processes is quickly becoming an industry standard. However, many hurdles still exist before these techniques can be used in research laboratories for cellular and molecular biology applications. Extrusion-based bioprinting systems have been characterized by high development costs, injector clogging, difficulty achieving small cell number deposits, decreased cell viability, and altered cell function post-printing. To circumvent the high-price barrier to entry of conventional bioprinters, we designed and 3D printed components for the adaptation of an inexpensive 'off-the-shelf' commercially available 3D printer. We also demonstrate via goal based computer simulations that the needle geometries of conventional commercially standardized, 'luer-lock' syringe-needle systems cause many of the issues plaguing conventional bioprinters. To address these performance limitations we optimized flow within several microneedle geometries, which revealed a short tapered injector design with minimal cylindrical needle length was ideal to minimize cell strain and accretion. We then experimentally quantified these geometries using pulled glass microcapillary pipettes and our modified, low-cost 3D printer. This systems performance validated our models exhibiting: reduced clogging, single cell print resolution, and maintenance of cell viability without the use of a sacrificial vehicle. Using this system we show the successful printing of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into Geltrex and note their retention of a pluripotent state 7 d post printing. We also show embryoid body differentiation of hiPSC by injection into differentiation conducive environments, wherein we observed continuous growth, emergence of various evaginations, and post-printing gene expression indicative of the presence of all three germ layers. These data demonstrate an

  9. Fine Control of Local Whitespace in Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod A. Roy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern design methodologies, a large fraction of chip area during placement is left unused by standard cells and allocated as “whitespace.” This is done for a variety of reasons including the need for subsequent buffer insertion, as a means to ensure routability, signal integrity, and low coupling capacitance between wires, and to improve yield through DFM optimizations. To this end, layout constraints often require a certain minimum fraction of whitespace in each region of the chip. Our work introduces several techniques for allocation of whitespace in global, detail, and incremental placement. Our experiments show how to efficiently improve wirelength by reallocating whitespace in legal placements at the large scale. Additionally, for the first time in the literature, we empirically demonstrate high-precision control of whitespace in designs with macros and obstacles. Our techniques consistently improve the quality of whitespace allocation of top-down as well as analytical placement methods and achieve low penalties on designs from the ISPD 2006 placement contest with minimal interconnect increase.

  10. STUDENT PLACEMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    students express lack of interest in the field they are placed, it ... be highly motivated to learn than students placed in a department ... the following research questions. Research Questions. •. Did the criteria used by Mekelle. University for placement of students into different departments affect the academic performance of ...

  11. Ballroom dancing with stem cells: placement and displacement in the intestinal crypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-03-06

    Intestinal homeostasis is dependent upon stem cells that reside in the intestinal crypt, although the identity and dynamics of this population are unclear. Ritsma et al. (2014) recently reported temporal live imaging of mouse intestinal stem cells and their progeny, providing insights into spatial dynamics underlying stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using the Many-Facet Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard-Setting Judgments: Setting Performance Standards for Advanced Placement® Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, Pamela; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna; Plake, Barbara; Reshetar, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The Many-Facet Rasch (MFR) Model is traditionally used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR Model by examining the quality of ratings obtained from a…

  13. A Sea-of-Gates Style FPGA Placement Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalapi Roy

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs have a pre-defined chip boundary with fixed cell locations and routing resources. Placement objectives for flexible architectures (e.g., the standard cell design style such as minimization of chip area do not reflect the primary placement goals for FPGAs. For FPGAs, the layout tools must seek 100% routability within the architectural constraints. Routability and congestion estimates must be made directly based on the demand and availability of routing resources for detailed routing of the particular FPGA. We. present a hierarchical placement approach consisting of two phases: a global placement phase followed by a detailed placement phase. The global placement phase minimizes congestion estimates of the global routing regions and satisfies all constraints at a coarser level. The detailed placer seeks to maximize the routability of the FPGA by considering factors which cause congestion at the detailed routing level and to precisely satisfy all of the constraints. Despite having limited knowledge about the gate level architectural details, we have achieved a 90%reduction in the number of unrouted nets in comparison to an industrial tool (the only other tool developed specifically for this architecture.

  14. Structure and Mutagenesis of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Domains Evidence for Flexibility in the Placement of Polysialic Acid Attachment Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Deirdre A.; Swartzentruber, Kristin G.; Lavie, Arnon; Colley, Karen J. (UICM)

    2010-11-09

    The addition of {alpha}2,8-polysialic acid to the N-glycans of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is critical for brain development and plays roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, neuronal regeneration, and the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells. Our previous work indicates that the polysialylation of two N-glycans located on the fifth immunoglobulin domain (Ig5) of NCAM requires the presence of specific sequences in the adjacent fibronectin type III repeat (FN1). To understand the relationship of these two domains, we have solved the crystal structure of the NCAM Ig5-FN1 tandem. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals that the sites of Ig5 polysialylation are on the opposite face from the FN1 residues previously found to be critical for N-glycan polysialylation, suggesting that the Ig5-FN1 domain relationship may be flexible and/or that there is flexibility in the placement of Ig5 glycosylation sites for polysialylation. To test the latter possibility, new Ig5 glycosylation sites were engineered and their polysialylation tested. We observed some flexibility in glycosylation site location for polysialylation and demonstrate that the lack of polysialylation of a glycan attached to Asn-423 may be in part related to a lack of terminal processing. The data also suggest that, although the polysialyltransferases do not require the Ig5 domain for NCAM recognition, their ability to engage with this domain is necessary for polysialylation to occur on Ig5 N-glycans.

  15. [Effects of Two Placement Ways for Storage of Blood Bag on Biochemical Indexes of Leukodepleted Red Blood Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Duan, Bing-Zheng; Ju, Chun-Mei; Sui, Su-Qin; Bai, Yan; Cao, Huan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of 2 different ways of storage bag placement on some biochemical indexes of leukodepleted red blood cells (LD-RBC) to as to ensure the efficacy and safety of clinical blood transfusion. The whole blood samples of 20 donors (400 ml/donor) were selected for preparating the LP-RBC, which were divided evenly into 10 bags. The 10 bags were randomly divided into 2 groups; the bags in 1 group were placed uprightly, while the bags in another group were placed horizontally. The bags of 2 groups were stored in the same conditions. One storage bag from each group was taken randomly on day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 respectively, and then the biochemical indexes of samples were detected and analyzed. The values of K(+) and LAC on day 14, the value of LDH on day 28 in the uprightly placed group were higher than those in the horizontally placed group (P value of Na(+) on day 28, and the value of Glu on day 35 in the uprightly placed group were lower than those in horizontally placed group (P 0.05). The storage bags placed by different ways during the storage show different influence on some biochemical indexes of LD-RBC in the storage period.

  16. Private placements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeaud, G. J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The principles underlying private placements in Alberta, and the nature of the processes employed by the Alberta Securities Commission in handling such transactions were discussed. The Alberta Securities Commission's mode of operation was demonstrated by the inclusion of various documents issued by the Commission concerning (1) special warrant transactions prior to listing, (2) a decision by the Executive Director refusing to issue a receipt for the final prospectus for a distribution of securities of a company and the reasons for the refusal, (3) the Commission's decision to interfere with the Executive Director's decision not to issue a receipt for the final prospectus, with full citation of the Commission's reasons for its decision, (4) and a series of proposed rules and companion policy statements regarding trades and distributions outside and in Alberta. Text of a sample 'short form prospectus' was also included

  17. Sediment Placement Areas 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Dredge material placement sites (DMPS), including active, inactive, proposed and historical placement sites. Dataset covers US Army Corps of Engineers San Francisco...

  18. Spectral properties of iodine cells for laser standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du Burck, Frédéric; Chiodo, Nicola; Chea, Erick; Holá, Miroslava; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this work is oriented towards preparation and spectral properties evaluation of optical frequency references for laser standards - molecular iodine cells. These references represent the crucial part of setups for practical realization of the meter unit - highly stable laser standards. Furthermore, not only in the most precise laboratory instruments, but also in less demanding interferometric measuring setups the frequency stabilization of the lasers throught the absorption in suitable media ensure the direct traceability to the fundamental standard of length. A set of absorption cells filled with different amounts of molecular iodine (different saturation pressure point of absorption media) was prepared and an agreement between expected and resulting spectral properties of these cells was observed and evaluated. The usage of borosilicate glass instead of common fused silica as a material for cells bodies represents an approach to simplify the manufacturing technology process and also reduces the overall cell costs. A great care must be taken to control/avoid the risk of absorption media contamination by impurities releasing from the cell walls. We introduce an iodine purity and spectral properties evaluation method based on measurement of linewidth of the hyperfine transitions. The proposed method was used for verification of great iodine purity of manufactured cells by comparison of spectral properties with cells traditionally made of fused silica glass with well known iodine purity. The results confirmed a great potential of proposed approaches.

  19. IR-drop analysis for validating power grids and standard cell architectures in sub-10nm node designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yongchan; Wang, Chenchen; Zeng, Jia; Kye, Jongwook

    2017-03-01

    Since chip performance and power are highly dependent on the operating voltage, the robust power distribution network (PDN) is of utmost importance in designs to provide with the reliable voltage without voltage (IR)-drop. However, rapid increase of parasitic resistance and capacitance (RC) in interconnects makes IR-drop much worse with technology scaling. This paper shows various IR-drop analyses in sub 10nm designs. The major objectives are to validate standard cell architectures, where different sizes of power/ground and metal tracks are validated, and to validate PDN architecture, where types of power hook-up approaches are evaluated with IR-drop calculation. To estimate IR-drops in 10nm and below technologies, we first prepare physically routed designs given standard cell libraries, where we use open RISC RTL, synthesize the CPU, and apply placement & routing with process-design kits (PDK). Then, static and dynamic IR-drop flows are set up with commercial tools. Using the IR-drop flow, we compare standard cell architectures, and analysis impacts on performance, power, and area (PPA) with the previous technology-node designs. With this IR-drop flow, we can optimize the best PDN structure against IR-drops as well as types of standard cell library.

  20. Boat boarding ladder placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Presented in three volumes; 'Boat Boarding Ladder Placement,' which explores safety considerations including potential for human contact with a rotating propeller; 'Boat Handhold Placement,' which explores essential principles and methods of fall con...

  1. A Placement Advisory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The primary method of placement at Portland CC (PCC) is the Compass Placement test. For the most part, students are placed correctly, but there are cases when students feel that they have been placed too low. In such cases we use our newly created Placement Advisory Test (PAT) to help us place them appropriately. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Posterosuperior Placement of a Standard-Sized Cup at the True Acetabulum in Acetabular Reconstruction of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip With High Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawei; Xu, Chen; Mao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jincheng; Li, Huiwu; Zhu, Zhenan

    2016-06-01

    We sought to evaluate posterosuperior placement of the acetabular component at the true acetabulum during acetabular reconstruction in patients with Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip. Using pelvic computed tomography and image processing, we developed a two-dimensional mapping technique to demonstrate the distribution of preoperative three-dimensional cup coverage at the true acetabulum, determined the postoperative location of the acetabular cup, and calculated postoperative three-dimensional coverage for 16 Crowe type-IV dysplastic hips in 14 patients with a mean age of 52 years (33-78 years) who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Mean follow-up was 6.3 years (5.5-7.3 years). On preoperative mapping, the maximum three-dimensional coverage using a 44-mm cup was 87.31% (77.36%-98.14%). Mapping enabled the successful replacement of 16 hips using a mean cup size of 44.13 mm (42-46 mm) with posterosuperior placement of the cup. Early weight-bearing and no prosthesis revision or loosening during follow-up were achieved in all patients. The postoperative two-dimensional coverage on anteroposterior radiographs and three-dimensional coverage were 96.15% (89.49%-100%) and 83.42% (71.81%-98.50%), respectively. This technique may improve long-term implant survival in patients with Crowe-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip undergoing total hip arthroplasty by allowing the use of durable bearings, increasing host bone coverage, ensuring initial stability, and restoring the normal hip center. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optomechatronic load cell validation according to the American standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Serrano, Francisco Javier; Camacho P., Alma A.

    2009-09-01

    Productive activities require measuring systems as a key tool for manufacturing quality goods. Metal mechanical industries develop their processes based on the control of a high precision fit between two pieces of a pressureassembled product. Therefore, engineering materials are constantly subjected to resistance tests. Balance test equipment and mechanical vibrations work under the principle of force measurements. The most precise stress measurement methods are done with electromechanical devices known as load cells. They basically consist of a tiny electric resistor that is adhered to a mechanical element that may be under stress. Cyclic stresses also directly affect the performance of the measuring element including the resistance itself, which changes as the cyclic fatigue progresses (the measuring element is a very thin coil with limited strength). In this research, we developed an optomechatronic load cell1 whose operating principle is based on measuring the stress load applied to a mechanical element. The deformation causes a reduction in the distance between the emitter and the receptor producing an electrical signal. It must be established that the distribution of the light intensity varies between the emitter and the receptor due to the generated displacement. An infrared emitter was adapted to the load cell whose signal was received by the receptor at the other end. The second stage included a demonstration that the optoelectronic system is capable of measuring external stresses on a mechanical element by using an indirect method of measuring stresses. Here we present the results from those experiments, which include some adaptations on the mechanical element. We implemented a prototype sensitive to the deformation produced by the mechanical element (load cell). As a result of the two stages, we plan to test the system in academic and industrial applications. The third step in the research is to validate the optomechatronic load cell under the E74

  5. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenoghena, C O; Emagbetere, J O; 1 Minna (Nigeria))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Telecommunications Engineering, Federal University of Techn.1 Minna (Nigeria))" >Aibinu, A M

    2013-01-01

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out

  6. Using the Many-Faceted Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard Setting Judgments: An Illustration with the Advanced Placement Environmental Science Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, Pamela K.; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Reshetar, Rosemary A.

    2013-01-01

    The many-faceted Rasch (MFR) model has been used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR model for examining the quality of ratings obtained from a standard…

  7. Standard guide for hot cell specialized support equipment and tools

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 This guide presents practices and guidelines for the design and implementation of equipment and tools to assist assembly, disassembly, alignment, fastening, maintenance, or general handling of equipment in a hot cell. Operating in a remote hot cell environment significantly increases the difficulty and time required to perform a task compared to completing a similar task directly by hand. Successful specialized support equipment and tools minimize the required effort, reduce risks, and increase operating efficiencies. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide may apply to the design of specialized support equipment and tools anywhere it is remotely operated, maintained, and viewed through shielding windows or by other remote viewing systems. 1.2.2 Consideration should be given to the need for specialized support equipment and tools early in the design process. 1.2.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conv...

  8. Parallel algorithms for placement and routing in VLSI design. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Randall Jay

    1991-01-01

    The computational requirements for high quality synthesis, analysis, and verification of very large scale integration (VLSI) designs have rapidly increased with the fast growing complexity of these designs. Research in the past has focused on the development of heuristic algorithms, special purpose hardware accelerators, or parallel algorithms for the numerous design tasks to decrease the time required for solution. Two new parallel algorithms are proposed for two VLSI synthesis tasks, standard cell placement and global routing. The first algorithm, a parallel algorithm for global routing, uses hierarchical techniques to decompose the routing problem into independent routing subproblems that are solved in parallel. Results are then presented which compare the routing quality to the results of other published global routers and which evaluate the speedups attained. The second algorithm, a parallel algorithm for cell placement and global routing, hierarchically integrates a quadrisection placement algorithm, a bisection placement algorithm, and the previous global routing algorithm. Unique partitioning techniques are used to decompose the various stages of the algorithm into independent tasks which can be evaluated in parallel. Finally, results are presented which evaluate the various algorithm alternatives and compare the algorithm performance to other placement programs. Measurements are presented on the parallel speedups available.

  9. LocZ Is a New Cell Division Protein Involved in Proper Septum Placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holečková, Nela; Doubravová, Linda; Massida, O.; Molle, V.; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015) ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/0256; GA ČR GAP207/12/1568 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Z-RING FORMATION * ESCHERICHIA-COLI-CELLS * CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.975, year: 2015

  10. ESL Placement and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn. PMID:20617111

  11. Tissue response and wound healing after placement of two types of bioengineered grafts containing vital cells in submucosal maxillary pouches: an experimental pilot study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Reichart, Peter A; Buser, Daniel; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the wound healing and tissue response after placement of two different skin substitutes in subgingival mucosal pouches in rabbits. Four rabbits were selected to receive a commercially available skin substitute consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts and an epithelial layer (test membrane 1) and a prototype device consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts only (test membrane 2). In each rabbit, two horizontal incisions were made in the buccal alveolar mucosa of the maxilla bilaterally to create submucosal pouches. Three pouches in each animal were filled with either the test 1 or test 2 membranes, and one pouch was left without a membrane (sham-operated control). All rabbits were sacrificed after a healing period of 4 weeks, and histologic samples were prepared and examined. After a healing period of 1 month, both tested membranes were still visible in the sections. Test membrane 1 was still bilayered, contained inflammatory cells in its center, and was encapsulated by a thick fibrous tissue. Numerous ectopic calcifications were evident in the collagenous part of the membrane and in association with some basal epithelial cells. Test membrane 2 was also encapsulated in fibrous tissue, with inflammatory cells present only between the fibrous encapsulation and the remnants of the membrane. For test membrane 2, no calcifications were visible. Test membrane 1 seemed to be more resistant to degradation, but there was also a more pronounced inflammatory reaction in comparison to test membrane 2, especially in the vicinity of the keratinocytes. The significance of the ectopic calcifications, along with that of the resorption or degradation processes of both tested membranes, must be evaluated in future experimental studies, with different time points after implantation examined.

  12. [Monitoring of metastatic renal cell carcinoma--standards and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapies has led to a novel situation regarding monitoring of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC): patients treated with these new drugs have a significantly longer life expectancy than just a few years ago. In order to maximize the treatment benefit, new demands have come up on the assessment of tumor progression: timing and interpretation of imaging studies are crucial for optimal therapeutic management. Detailed knowledge of the new compounds' mode of action is important as it is different from that of classic cytotoxic drugs. The RECIST criteria constitute the standard for evaluation. Following recommendations made by the German Cancer Society's (DKG) interdisciplinary task force, targeted therapies should strive for a sufficient treatment duration in each line of therapy in order to achieve the best therapeutic outcome. Treatment is continued until clinical progression occurs. Assessing therapeutic efficacy with adequate imaging techniques 6-9 weeks after the beginning of therapy is recommended. Subsequent follow-up examinations should be repeated using identical imaging modalities every 2-3 months. For cyclically applied drugs such as Sunitinib, examinations should be carried out at identical time points within the treatment cycle. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, C.

    2009-01-01

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  14. Product Placement in Cartoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Oroz Štancl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.

  15. Standard-Cell, Open-Architecture Power Conversion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boroyevich, D; Wang, F; Lee, F. C; Odendaal, W. G; Edwards, S

    2005-01-01

    ...). This project was purposefully aimed to develop a standardized hierarchical design and analysis methodology for modular power electronics conversion systems using as basis the ISO/OSI seven-layer reference model...

  16. A Standard Nomenclature for Referencing and Authentication of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Andreas; Seltmann, Stefanie; Bairoch, Amos; Bittner, Marie-Sophie; Bruce, Kevin; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Clarke, Laura; Crook, Jeremy M; Daheron, Laurence; Dewender, Johannes; Faulconbridge, Adam; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Gutteridge, Alexander; Hei, Derek J; Kim, Yong-Ou; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kokocinski, Anja Kolb-; Lekschas, Fritz; Lomax, Geoffrey P; Loring, Jeanne F; Ludwig, Tenneille; Mah, Nancy; Matsui, Tohru; Müller, Robert; Parkinson, Helen; Sheldon, Michael; Smith, Kelly; Stachelscheid, Harald; Stacey, Glyn; Streeter, Ian; Veiga, Anna; Xu, Ren-He

    2018-01-09

    Unambiguous cell line authentication is essential to avoid loss of association between data and cells. The risk for loss of references increases with the rapidity that new human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines are generated, exchanged, and implemented. Ideally, a single name should be used as a generally applied reference for each cell line to access and unify cell-related information across publications, cell banks, cell registries, and databases and to ensure scientific reproducibility. We discuss the needs and requirements for such a unique identifier and implement a standard nomenclature for hPSCs, which can be automatically generated and registered by the human pluripotent stem cell registry (hPSCreg). To avoid ambiguities in PSC-line referencing, we strongly urge publishers to demand registration and use of the standard name when publishing research based on hPSC lines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Standard Nomenclature for Referencing and Authentication of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kurtz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unambiguous cell line authentication is essential to avoid loss of association between data and cells. The risk for loss of references increases with the rapidity that new human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC lines are generated, exchanged, and implemented. Ideally, a single name should be used as a generally applied reference for each cell line to access and unify cell-related information across publications, cell banks, cell registries, and databases and to ensure scientific reproducibility. We discuss the needs and requirements for such a unique identifier and implement a standard nomenclature for hPSCs, which can be automatically generated and registered by the human pluripotent stem cell registry (hPSCreg. To avoid ambiguities in PSC-line referencing, we strongly urge publishers to demand registration and use of the standard name when publishing research based on hPSC lines.

  18. Standard guide for general design considerations for hot cell equipment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this guide is to provide general design and operating considerations for the safe and dependable operation of remotely operated hot cell equipment. Hot cell equipment is hardware used to handle, process, or analyze nuclear or radioactive material in a shielded room. The equipment is placed behind radiation shield walls and cannot be directly accessed by the operators or by maintenance personnel because of the radiation exposure hazards. Therefore, the equipment is operated remotely, either with or without the aid of viewing. 1.1.2 This guide may apply to equipment in other radioactive remotely operated facilities such as suited entry repair areas, canyons or caves, but does not apply to equipment used in commercial power reactors. 1.1.3 This guide does not apply to equipment used in gloveboxes. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide is intended for persons who are tasked with the planning, design, procurement, fabrication, installation, or testing of equipment used in rem...

  19. Physical Principles of Development of the State Standard of Biological Cell Polarizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, G. V.; Generalov, K. V.; Generalov, V. M.; Kruchinina, M. V.; Koptev, E. S.; Minin, O. V.; Minin, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    A new state standard of biological cell polarizability based on micron-size latex particles has been developed. As a standard material, it is suggested to use polystyrene. Values of the polarizability calculated for erythrocytes and values of the polarizability of micron-size spherical latex particles measured with measuring-computing complexes agree within the limits of satisfactory relative error. The Standard allows one the unit of polarizability measurements [m3] to be assigned to cells and erythrocytes for the needs of medicine.

  20. A reliable parameter to standardize the scoring of stem cell spheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhou

    Full Text Available Sphere formation assay is widely used in selection and enrichment of normal stem cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs, also known as tumor initiating cells (TICs, based on their ability to grow in serum-free suspension culture for clonal proliferation. However, there is no standardized parameter to accurately score the spheres, which should be reflected by both the number and size of the spheres. Here we define a novel parameter, designated as Standardized Sphere Score (SSS, which is expressed by the total volume of selected spheres divided by the number of cells initially plated. SSS was validated in quantification of both tumor spheres from cancer cell lines and embryonic bodies (EB from mouse embryonic stem cells with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  1. Optimal placement of capacito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gnanasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimal size and location of shunt capacitors in the distribution system plays a significant role in minimizing the energy loss and the cost of reactive power compensation. This paper presents a new efficient technique to find optimal size and location of shunt capacitors with the objective of minimizing cost due to energy loss and reactive power compensation of distribution system. A new Shark Smell Optimization (SSO algorithm is proposed to solve the optimal capacitor placement problem satisfying the operating constraints. The SSO algorithm is a recently developed metaheuristic optimization algorithm conceptualized using the shark’s hunting ability. It uses a momentum incorporated gradient search and a rotational movement based local search for optimization. To demonstrate the applicability of proposed method, it is tested on IEEE 34-bus and 118-bus radial distribution systems. The simulation results obtained are compared with previous methods reported in the literature and found to be encouraging.

  2. Microenvironments and different nanoparticle dynamics in living cells revealed by a standard nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Chan Gi; Song, Mi Ryoung; Tae, Eunju Lee; Hiroshima, Michio; Byun, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jun Sung; Sako, Yasushi

    2012-11-10

    For quantitative analysis of nanoparticle diffusions and submicro-environments in living cells, use of newly synthesized silica-based fluorescent nanoparticle (Si-FNP) as a standard nanoprobe is successfully demonstrated. The appropriate characteristics of a standard probe were fully analyzed in vitro by single molecule detection, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Using fluorescence correlation analysis in single living cells, we quantitatively compared the diffusional properties of the standard Si-FNP with a diameter of 50 nm, peptide coated Si-FNP, streptavidin coated Qdot, and GFP molecule which have different sizes and surface properties. The result demonstrates that the standard Si-FNP without coat is minimally trapped in the vesicles in the process of cellular endocytosis. Interestingly, a large proportion of Si-FNP introduced into the cells by electroporation diffuses freely in the cells during a cell cycle suggesting free diffusing NPs are hardly trapped in the vesicles. The simple but highly sensitive method will provide insight into strategies to understanding the hydrodynamic process of nanoparticle delivery into living cells as well as the cellular microenvironment in the view of submicro-size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long life 80Ah standard IPV NiH2 battery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armantrout, Jon D.; Waller, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    A standard Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) battery cell is needed to meet future low cost, high performance mission requirements for NASA, military, and civil space programs. A common or standard cell design has evolved from the heritage of HST, Milstar, and other Air Force Mantech cell designs with substantial flight experience, while incorporating some of the historical COMSAT cell design features described in a previous NASA publication. Key features include slurry process nickel electrodes having high strength, long life and high yield (lower cost), and dual layer zircar separators for improved KOH retention, uniformality, and longer life. The cell design will have a zirconium oxide wall wick inside the pressure vessel to redistribute electrolyte and extend life. The slurry electrode will be 35 mils thick to take advantage of qualified cell mechanical configurations and proven assembly and activation techniques developed by Eagle Picher Industries (EPI) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) RNH-90-3 and 'Generic HST' RNH-90-5 cell designs with back-to-back nickel electrodes produced by the dry sinter process. The 80Ah common cell design can be scaled to meet capacity requirements from 60Ah to 100Ah. Producibility, commonality, and long life performance will be enhanced with the robust cell design described herein.

  4. Comparison between the neutron parameters for CANDU-6 standard and SEU-43 fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaceanu, V.; Constantin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the efforts in nuclear energy industry are focused on the growing of the fuel cycles' efficiency, the decreasing of the spent fuel volumes simultaneously with a decreasing of the production costs. In INR Pitesti the project for a new fuel bundle named SEU-43 (Slightly Enriched Uranium, bundle with 43 elements) was started in the late of '80s (Horhoianu et al., 2001), like an alternative for the CANDU-6 standard bundle (Natural Uranium, bundle with 37 elements). This paper presents a comparison between the SEU-43 fuel and CANDU-6 Standard fuel with the a special regard to the neutron cell parameters (k-inf, multigroup fluxes, pin powers). SEU-43 CANDU cell consists of a single cluster (43-fuel elements bundle, 2 fuel type element sizes). The other elements of the cell are the same as those of the Standard cell. The enrichment in 235 U (nearly 1%) is present. The WIMS-5B library was used (Halsall and Taubman, 1986) for cross-sections generation and CP 2 D, a two-dimensional transport the first collision probability code for detailed fuel assembly hyperfine flux distribution calculation (Constantin, 1999) was used for the computing of the neutron local parameters. A comparison between the SEU-43 and CANDU-6 Standard fuel cell parameters are performed. The analysis shows the SEU-43 fuel can be used successfully in CANDU-6 reactor, its local neutron performances being similar with those of the CANDU-6 Standard fuel. The major advantage of the SEU-43 fuel bundle is that it can reach a maximum burnup of 25000 MWd/tU compared to the Standard 37-fuel bundle where the maximum burnup is about of 13000 MWd/TU (reached only for some fuel bundles of the core). (authors)

  5. Ultrasonography for confirmation of gastric tube placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiraku; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Nakata, Yukihiko; Akazawa, Mai; Kataoka, Yuki

    2017-04-17

    Gastric tubes are commonly used for the administration of drugs and tube feeding for people who are unable to swallow. Feeding via a tube misplaced in the trachea can result in severe pneumonia. Therefore, the confirmation of tube placement in the stomach after tube insertion is important. Recent studies have reported that ultrasonography provides good diagnostic accuracy estimates in the confirmation of appropriate tube placement. Hence, ultrasound could provide a promising alternative to X-rays in the confirmation of tube placement, especially in settings where X-ray facilities are unavailable or difficult to access. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for gastric tube placement confirmation. We searched the Cochrane Library (2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (to March 2016), Embase (to March 2016), National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) PROSPERO Register (to May 2016), Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility Databases (to May 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (to May 2016), ISRCTN registry (May 2016), World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to May 2016) and reference lists of articles, and contacted study authors. We included studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of naso- and orogastric tube placement confirmed by ultrasound visualization using X-ray visualization as the reference standard. We included cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies. We excluded case series or case reports. Studies were excluded if X-ray visualization was not the reference standard or if the tube being placed was a gastrostomy or enteric tube. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from each of the included studies. We contacted authors of the included studies to obtain missing data. We identified 10 studies (545 participants and 560 tube insertions) which met our inclusion criteria.No study was assigned low risk of bias or low concern in every QUADAS-2 domain. We judged only three (30

  6. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless

  7. Optimal caliper placement: manual vs automated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, B; Zanker, P; Wanger, P; Sonek, J; Pintoffl, K; Hoopmann, M; Kagan, K O

    2014-02-01

    To examine the inter- and intra-operator repeatability of manual placement of callipers in the assessment of basic biometric measurements and to compare the results to an automated calliper placement system. Stored ultrasound images of 95 normal fetuses between 19 and 25 weeks' gestation were used. Five operators (two experts, one resident and two students) were asked to measure the BPD, OFD and FL two times manually and automatically. For each operator, intra-operator repeatability of the manual and automated measurements was assessed by within operator standard deviation. For the assessment of the interoperator repeatability, the mean of the four manual measurements by the two experts was used as the gold standard.The relative bias of the manual measurement of the three non-expert operators and the operator-independent automated measurement were compared with the gold standard measurement by means and 95% confidence interval. In 88.4% of the 95 cases, the automated measurement algorithm was able to obtain appropriate measurements of the BPD, OFD, AC and FL. Within operator standard deviations of the manual measurements ranged between 0.15 and 1.56, irrespective of the experience of the operator.Using the automated biometric measurement system, there was no difference between the measurements of each operator. As far as the inter-operator repeatability is concerned, the difference between the manual measurements of the two students, the resident, and the gold standard was between -0.10 and 2.53 mm. The automated measurements tended to be closer to the gold standard but did not reach statistical significance. In about 90% of the cases, it was possible to obtain basic biometric measurements with an automated system. The use of automated measurements resulted in a significant improvement of the intra-operator but not of the inter-operator repeatability, but measurements were not significantly closer to the gold standard of expert examiners. This article is protected

  8. Designing media for animal cell culture: CHO cells, the industrial standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    The success of culturing CHO cells solely depends on functionality of the used media. Cell culture technology is more than 50 years old, and the knowledge of cell requirements increased steadily. In the beginning, animal-sourced components were the key to growth. Nowadays state-of-the-art media do not contain any animal or naturally sourced components. The compositions are based on scientific awareness of the needs of the cells. The result is high lot-to-lot consistency and high performance.In this book section, a method for the development of a synthetic, animal component-free medium is described. The composition is based on public available formulations and information based on the work of many scientists printed in numerous papers and manuscripts. The method shall help beginners to design their own medium, although some knowledge of biochemistry and animal cells is still required.

  9. Viwithan, a StandardizedWithania somniferaRoot Extract Induces Apoptosis in Murine Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, H V; Gouthamchandra, K; Venkatesh, B J; Prasad, K Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal herb known for the multipotential ability to cure various therapeutic ailments as described in the ayurvedic system of medicine. In the present study, we have evaluated the antiproliferative activity of a standardized W. somnifera root extract (Viwithan) against different human and murine cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity of Viwithan was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay and crystal violet staining. The apoptotic changes in B16F1 cells following treatment with Viwithan were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The binding affinity of withanolides in Viwithan with antiapoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) were studied using in silico approach. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Viwithan against liver hepatocellular carcinoma, Henrietta Lacks cervical carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma cell line, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were 1830, 968, 2715, and 633 μg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, Viwithan was highly effective against B16F1 cells with an IC50 value of 220 μg/ml after 24 h treatment. The morphological alterations of apoptotic cell death were clearly observed in the AO/EB-stained cells after treatment with Viwithan. Viwithan induced late apoptotic changes in treated B16F1 cells as evident by the ladder formation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. The findings of molecular docking showed that withanolides present in Viwithan have a more binding affinity with the antiapoptotic proteins, particularly MCL-1. We have reported for the first time that Viwithan with 5% withanolides has a potent cytotoxic effect, particularly against B16F1 murine melanoma cells among the different cancer cell lines tested. The present study reports for the first time that Viwithan, a standardized 5% Withania somnifera root extract, has potent

  10. Prediction of Instability for Miscible Displacements in a Hele-Shaw Cell Prévision de l'instabilité pour des déplacements miscibles dans une cellule Hele-Shaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskuner G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A universal dimensionless scaling group and its critical value at the onset of instability for a miscible displacement in a Hele-Shaw cell is derived. The derivation is based on a variational technique and it is capable of considering, for the first time, the effect of the length of a Hele-Shaw cell on the criterion for the onset of instability. The theory is verified by comparing it with forty-four Hele-Shaw cell experiments. On calcule un groupe universel sans dimension de mise à l'échelle et sa valeur critique au départ de l'instabilité dans un déplacement miscible dans une cellule Hele-Shaw. Ce calcul est basé sur une technique variationnelle et permet, pour la première fois, de prendre en compte l'effet de la longueur d'une cellule Hele-Shaw sur le critère d'apparition d'instabilité. La théorie est vérifiée en la comparant avec des expériences réalisées avec quarante-quatre cellules Hele-Shaw.

  11. Standardization and performance evaluation of mononuclear cell cytokine secretion assays in a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grindle Kristine

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been used to preserve and standardize immunologic measurements for multicenter studies, however, effects of cryopreservation on cytokine responses are incompletely understood. In designing immunologic studies for a new multicenter birth cohort study of childhood asthma, we performed a series of experiments to determine the effects of two different methods of cryopreservation on the cytokine responses of cord and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results Paired samples of PBMC were processed freshly, or after cryopreservation in a Nalgene container (NC or a controlled-rate freezer (CRF. Although there were some differences between the methods, cryopreservation inhibited PHA-induced IL-10 secretion and Der f 1-induced IL-2 secretion, and augmented PHA-induced IL-2 secretion and spontaneous secretion of TNF-α. In separate experiments, NC cryopreservation inhibited secretion of several cytokines (IL-13, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α by PHA-stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells. With the exception of PHA-induced IL-13, results from fresh and cryopreserved cord blood samples were not significantly correlated. Finally, in reproducibility studies involving processing of identical cell samples in up to 4 separate laboratories, variances in cytokine responses of fresh cells stimulated at separate sites did not exceed those in cryopreserved cells stimulated at a central site. Conclusion Collectively, these studies indicate that cryopreservation can affect mononuclear cell cytokine response profiles, and that IL-10 secretion and antigen-induced responses may be especially vulnerable. These studies also demonstrate that mononuclear cell responses can be standardized for performance in a small number of laboratories for multicenter studies, and underscore the importance of measuring reproducibility and of testing whether cryopreservation techniques alter specific immunologic outcomes.

  12. A Three-Dimensional Model of the Gas-Cell Atomic Frequency Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-25

    Clock Model Calculations ......................................................... 8 11. Exponents for Power-Law Formulas: oy -P a, S -P B, and PY...iz not substantiated oy the three-dimensional model. Considering Fig. 4 and Table IIi, it is more accurate tu state that the clock’s frequency offset...1985). [71 H. E. Williams, T. M. Kwon and T. McClelland, "Compact rectangular cavity for rubidium vapor cell frequency standards," Proceeding of the

  13. Neuritogenic effect of standardized extract of Centella asiatica ECa233 on human neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to gain insight into neuroprotective effects of ECa 233, a standardized extract of Centella asiatica, previously demonstrated in animal models of memory impairment induced by transient global ischemia or intracerebroventricular injection of β-amyloid, the effect of ECa 233 on neurite outgrowth of human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cell line was investigated. Methods Cells were seeded and incubated with various concentrations of ECa 233. Morphometric analysis was carried out by a measurement of the longest neurite growth of cells at 24 and 48 h. Contributing signaling pathways possibly involved were subsequently elucidated by western blot analysis. Results While ECa 233 had only limited effects on cell viability, it significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth of IMR-32 cells at the concentrations of 1–100 μg/ml. Western blot analysis revealed that ECa 233 significantly upregulated the level of activated ERK1/2 and Akt of the treated cells suggesting their involvement in the neuritogenic effect observed, which was subsequently verified by the finding that an addition of their respective inhibitors could reverse the effect of ECa 233 on these cells. Conclusions The present study clearly demonstrated neurite outgrowth promoting activity of ECa 233. ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways seemed to account for the neurotrophic effect observed. In conjunction with in vivo neuroprotective effect of ECa 233 previously reported, the results obtained support further development of ECa 233 for clinical use in neuronal injury or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23915016

  14. Minimum Information about T Regulatory Cells: A Step toward Reproducibility and Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Anke; Gliwiński, Mateusz; Grageda, Nathali; Spiering, Rachel; Abbas, Abul K; Appel, Silke; Bacchetta, Rosa; Battaglia, Manuela; Berglund, David; Blazar, Bruce; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ten Brinke, Anja; Brusko, Todd M; Cools, Nathalie; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Geissler, Edward; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gołab, Karolina; Hafler, David A; van Ham, S Marieke; Hester, Joanna; Hippen, Keli; Di Ianni, Mauro; Ilic, Natasa; Isaacs, John; Issa, Fadi; Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Dorota; Jaeckel, Elmar; Joosten, Irma; Klatzmann, David; Koenen, Hans; van Kooten, Cees; Korsgren, Olle; Kretschmer, Karsten; Levings, Megan; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia Maria; Martinez-Llordella, Marc; Miljkovic, Djordje; Mills, Kingston H G; Miranda, Joana P; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A; Putnam, Amy L; Ritter, Thomas; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Sawitzki, Birgit; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Sykes, Megan; Tang, Qizhi; Vives-Pi, Marta; Waldmann, Herman; Witkowski, Piotr; Wood, Kathryn J; Gregori, Silvia; Hilkens, Catharien M U; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lord, Phillip; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Cellular therapies with CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) hold promise of efficacious treatment for the variety of autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as posttransplant complications. Nevertheless, current manufacturing of Tregs as a cellular medicinal product varies between different laboratories, which in turn hampers precise comparisons of the results between the studies performed. While the number of clinical trials testing Tregs is already substantial, it seems to be crucial to provide some standardized characteristics of Treg products in order to minimize the problem. We have previously developed reporting guidelines called minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, which allows the comparison between different preparations of tolerance-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Having this experience, here we describe another minimum information about Tregs (MITREG). It is important to note that MITREG does not dictate how investigators should generate or characterize Tregs, but it does require investigators to report their Treg data in a consistent and transparent manner. We hope this will, therefore, be a useful tool facilitating standardized reporting on the manufacturing of Tregs, either for research purposes or for clinical application. This way MITREG might also be an important step toward more standardized and reproducible testing of the Tregs preparations in clinical applications.

  15. Minimum Information about T Regulatory Cells: A Step toward Reproducibility and Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Fuchs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapies with CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs hold promise of efficacious treatment for the variety of autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as posttransplant complications. Nevertheless, current manufacturing of Tregs as a cellular medicinal product varies between different laboratories, which in turn hampers precise comparisons of the results between the studies performed. While the number of clinical trials testing Tregs is already substantial, it seems to be crucial to provide some standardized characteristics of Treg products in order to minimize the problem. We have previously developed reporting guidelines called minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, which allows the comparison between different preparations of tolerance-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Having this experience, here we describe another minimum information about Tregs (MITREG. It is important to note that MITREG does not dictate how investigators should generate or characterize Tregs, but it does require investigators to report their Treg data in a consistent and transparent manner. We hope this will, therefore, be a useful tool facilitating standardized reporting on the manufacturing of Tregs, either for research purposes or for clinical application. This way MITREG might also be an important step toward more standardized and reproducible testing of the Tregs preparations in clinical applications.

  16. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  17. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  18. An efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation for optimized standard cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samboju, Nagaraj C.; Choi, Soo-Han; Arikati, Srini; Cilingir, Erdem

    2015-03-01

    As the technology continues to shrink below 14nm, triple patterning lithography (TPT) is a worthwhile lithography methodology for printing dense layers such as Metal1. However, this increases the complexity of standard cell design, as it is very difficult to develop a TPT compliant layout without compromising on the area. Hence, this emphasizes the importance to have an accurate stitch generation methodology to meet the standard cell area requirement as defined by the technology shrink factor. In this paper, we present an efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation technique for optimized standard cell design. The basic idea here is to first identify the conflicting polygons based on the Fix Guidance [1] solution developed by Synopsys. Fix Guidance is a reduced sub-graph containing minimum set of edges along with the connecting polygons; by eliminating these edges in a design 3-color conflicts can be resolved. Once the conflicting polygons are identified using this method, they are categorized into four types [2] - (Type 1 to 4). The categorization is based on number of interactions a polygon has with the coloring links and the triangle loops of fix guidance. For each type a certain criteria for keep-out region is defined, based on which the final stitch guidance locations are generated. This technique provides various possible stitch locations to the user and helps the user to select the best stitch location considering both design flexibility (max. pin access/small area) and process-preferences. Based on this technique, a standard cell library for place and route (P and R) can be developed with colorless data and a stitch marker defined by designer using our proposed method. After P and R, the full chip (block) would contain the colorless data and standard cell stitch markers only. These stitch markers are considered as "must be stitch" candidates. Hence during full chip decomposition it is not required to generate and select the stitch markers again for the

  19. Optimal PMU Placement By Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Liu, Leo; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved method of binary particle swarm optimization (IBPSO) technique for optimal phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement in a power network for complete system observability. Various effective improvements have been proposed to enhance the efficiency and convergence rate...... of conventional particle swarm optimization method. The proposed method of IBPSO ensures optimal PMU placement with and without consideration of zero injection measurements. The proposed method has been applied to standard test systems like 17 bus, IEEE 24-bus, IEEE 30-bus, New England 39-bus, IEEE 57-bus system...

  20. Experimental design and reporting standards for metabolomics studies of mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Sarah; Maker, Garth L; Mullaney, Ian; Trengove, Robert D

    2017-12-01

    Metabolomics is an analytical technique that investigates the small biochemical molecules present within a biological sample isolated from a plant, animal, or cultured cells. It can be an extremely powerful tool in elucidating the specific metabolic changes within a biological system in response to an environmental challenge such as disease, infection, drugs, or toxins. A historically difficult step in the metabolomics pipeline is in data interpretation to a meaningful biological context, for such high-variability biological samples and in untargeted metabolomics studies that are hypothesis-generating by design. One way to achieve stronger biological context of metabolomic data is via the use of cultured cell models, particularly for mammalian biological systems. The benefits of in vitro metabolomics include a much greater control of external variables and no ethical concerns. The current concerns are with inconsistencies in experimental procedures and level of reporting standards between different studies. This review discusses some of these discrepancies between recent studies, such as metabolite extraction and data normalisation. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of a standardised experimental approach to any cultured cell metabolomics study and suggests an example procedure fully inclusive of information that should be disclosed in regard to the cell type/s used and their culture conditions. Metabolomics of cultured cells has the potential to uncover previously unknown information about cell biology, functions and response mechanisms, and so the accurate biological interpretation of the data produced and its ability to be compared to other studies should be considered vitally important.

  1. A novel placement technique for nasogastric and nasoesophageal tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Early enteral nutrition in dogs and cats can have significant benefit in the therapeutic management of critical illness. Blind placement of nasogastric or nasoesophageal feeding tubes to accomplish this goal has become standard practice. However, complications from tube misdirection into the tracheobronchial tree can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. Safe and consistent alternatives are desirable to minimize these risks. A modified method for placement of nasoenteric tubes is described. The main variation from standard procedure involves a second tube measurement, with the distal tip of the tube positioned at the thoracic inlet and measured to the nostril. The tube is advanced to this level and tested for negative pressure using a 12 mL syringe attached to the end of the feeding tube. This improves confidence in esophageal positioning before complete advancement of the tube to its distal endpoint. This procedural adaptation to feeding tube placement has the potential to reduce bronchopulmonary trauma from intratracheal misdirection by providing an early safety check to identify malpositioning. Prospective validation studies are needed to support its advantages over standard tube placement techniques. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  2. Metrology of image placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikov, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Metrology of registration, overlay and alignment offset in microlithography are discussed. Requirements and limitations are traced to the device ground rules and the definitions of edge, linewidth and centerline. Precision, accuracy, system performance and metrology in applications are discussed. The impact of image acquisition and data handling on performance is elucidated. Much attention is given to the manufacturing environment and effects of processing. General new methods of metrology error diagnostics and technology characterization are introduced and illustrated. Applications of these diagnostics to tests of tool performance, error diagnostics and culling, as well as to process integration in manufacturing are described. Realistic overlay reference materials and results of accuracy evaluations are discussed. Requirements in primary standards and alternative metrology are explained. The role and capability of SEM based overlay metrology is described, along with applications to device overlay metrology

  3. Familial placement of Wightia (Lamiales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qing-Mei; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Liu, Guo-Li

    2014-01-01

    The familial placement of Wightia has long been a problem. Here, we present a comprehensive phylogenetic inspection of Wightia based on noncoding chloroplast loci (the rps16 intron and the trnL–F region) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, and on chemical analysis. A total of 70 sa...

  4. Regeneration of rat corpora cavernosa tissue by transplantation of CD133+ cells derived from human bone marrow and placement of biodegradable gel sponge sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop an easier technique for regenerating corpora cavernosa tissue through transplantation of human bone marrow-derived CD133 + cells into a rat corpora cavernosa defect model. We excised 2 mm × 2 mm squares of the right corpora cavernosa of twenty-three 8-week-old male nude rats. Alginate gel sponge sheets supplemented with 1 × 10 4 CD133 + cells were then placed over the excised area of nine rats. Functional and histological evaluations were carried out 8 weeks later. The mean intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio for the nine rats (0.34258 ± 0.0831 was significantly higher than that for eight rats with only the excision (0.0580 ± 0.0831, P = 0.0238 and similar to that for five rats for which the penis was exposed, and there was no excision (0.37228 ± 0.1051, P = 0.8266. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the nine fully treated rats had venous sinus-like structures and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of extracts from their alginate gel sponge sheets revealed that the amounts of mRNA encoding the nerve growth factor (NGF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were significantly higher than those for rats treated with alginate gel sheets without cell supplementation (NGF: P = 0.0309; VEGF: P < 0.0001. These findings show that transplantation of CD133 + cells accelerates functional and histological recovery in the corpora cavernosa defect model.

  5. Automated Fiber Placement of Advanced Materials (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, Vernon M; Arnold, Jonahira

    2006-01-01

    .... ATK has been working with the Air Force Research Laboratory to foster improvements in the BMI materials and in the fiber placement processing techniques to achieve rates comparable to Epoxy placement rates...

  6. Analyzing block placement errors in SADP patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Okada, Soichiro; Shimura, Satoru; Nafus, Kathleen; Fonseca, Carlos; Demand, Marc; Biesemans, Serge; Versluijs, Janko; Ercken, Monique; Foubert, Philippe; Miyazaki, Shinobu

    2016-03-01

    We discuss edge placement errors (EPE) for multi-patterning of Mx critical layers using ArF lithography. Specific focus is placed on the block formation part of the process. While plenty of literature characterization data exist on spacer formation, only limited published data is available on block processes. We analyze the accuracy of placing blocks relative to narrow spacers. Many publications calculate EPE assuming Gaussian distributions for key process variations contributing to EPE. For practical reasons, each contributor is measured on dedicated test structures. In this work, we complement such analysis and directly measure the EPE in product. We perform high density sampling of blocks using CDSEM images and analyze all feature edges of interest. We find that block placement errors can be very different depending on their local design context. Specifically we report on 2 block populations (further called block A and B) which have a 4x different standard deviation. We attribute this to differences in local topography (spacer shape) and interaction with the plasma-etch process design. Block A (on top of the `core space' S1) has excellent EPE uniformity of ~1 nm while block B (on top of `gap space' S2) has degraded EPE control of ~4 nm. Finally, we suggest that the SOC etch process is at the origin on positioning blocks accurately on slim spacers, helping the manufacturability of spacer-based patterning techniques, and helping its extension toward the 5nm node.

  7. A standard photomap of ovarian nurse cell chromosomes and inversion polymorphism in Anopheles beklemishevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, Gleb N; Gordeev, Mikhail I; Kokhanenko, Alina A; Moskaev, Anton V; Velichevskaya, Alena I; Stegniy, Vladimir N; Sharakhov, Igor V; Sharakhova, Maria V

    2018-03-27

    Anopheles beklemishevi is a member of the Maculipennis group of malaria mosquitoes that has the most northern distribution among other members of the group. Although a cytogenetic map for the larval salivary gland chromosomes of this species has been developed, a high-quality standard cytogenetic photomap that enables genomics and population genetics studies of this mosquito at the adult stage is still lacking. In this study, a cytogenetic map for the polytene chromosomes of An. beklemishevi from ovarian nurse cells was developed using high-resolution digital imaging from field collected mosquitoes. PCR-amplified DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were designed based on the genome of An. atroparvus. The DNA probe obtained by microdissection procedures from the breakpoint region was labelled in a DOP-PCR reaction. Population analysis was performed on 371 specimens collected in 18 locations. We report the development of a high-quality standard photomap for the polytene chromosomes from ovarian nurse cells of An. beklemishevi. To confirm the suitability of the map for physical mapping, several PCR-amplified probes were mapped to the chromosomes of An. beklemishevi using FISH. In addition, we identified and mapped DNA probes to flanking regions of the breakpoints of two inversions on chromosome X of this species. Inversion polymorphism was determined in 13 geographically distant populations of An. beklemishevi. Four polymorphic inversions were detected. The positions of common chromosomal inversions were indicated on the map. The study constructed a standard photomap for ovarian nurse cell chromosomes of An. beklemishevi and tested its suitability for physical genome mapping and population studies. Cytogenetic analysis determined inversion polymorphism in natural populations of An. beklemishevi related to this species' adaptation.

  8. Microfluidics and numerical simulation as methods for standardization of zebrafish sperm cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas; Knapp, Gerald L; Guitreau, Amy; Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Tiersch, Terrence; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy; Monroe, W Todd

    2015-01-01

    Sperm cell activation plays a critical role in a range of biological and engineering processes, from fertilization to cryopreservation protocol evaluation. Across a range of species, ionic and osmotic effects have been discovered that lead to activation. Sperm cells of zebrafish (Danio rerio) initiate motility in a hypoosmotic environment. In this study, we employ a microfluidic mixer for the purpose of rapidly diluting the extracellular medium to initiate the onset of cell motility. The use of a microchannel offers a rapid and reproducible mixing profile throughout the device. This greatly reduces variability from trial to trial relative to the current methods of analysis. Coupling these experiments with numerical simulations, we were able to investigate the dynamics of intracellular osmolality as each cell moves along its path through the micromixer. Our results suggest that intracellular osmolality, and hence intracellular ion concentration, only slightly decreases, contrary to the common thought that larger changes in these parameters are required for activation. Utilizing this framework, microfluidics for controlled extracellular environments and associated numerical modeling, has practical applicability in standardizing high-throughput aquatic sperm activation, and more fundamentally, investigations of the intracellular environment leading to motility.

  9. Comparison of clinical grade type 1 polarized and standard matured dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Donia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    induction of type 1 effector T cells. Standard matured clinical grade DCs “sDCs” were compared with DCs matured with either of two type 1 polarizing maturation cocktails; the alpha-type-1 DCs “αDC1s” (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IFN-α, Poly(I:C)) and “mDCs” (monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), IFN-γ) or a mixed cocktail....... αDC1s and mDCs were functionally superior to sDCs as they polarized naïve CD4+ T cells most efficiently into T helper type 1 effector cells and primed more functional MART-1 specific CD8+ T cells although with variation between donors. αDC1s and mDCs were transiently less capable of CCL21-directed......DCs and strikingly had the highest expression of the inhibitory molecules PD-L1 and CD25. Thus, further studies with type 1 polarized DCs are warranted for use in immunotherapy, but when combined with PGE2 as in mpDCs, they seems to be less optimal for maturation of DCs....

  10. Importance of methodological standardization for the ektacytometric measures of red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Parrow, Nermi; Faes, Camille; Joly, Philippe; Hardeman, Max; Tisdale, John; Levine, Mark; Garnier, Nathalie; Bertrand, Yves; Kebaili, Kamila; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Cannas, Giovanna; Martin, Cyril; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability is severely decreased in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), which plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, investigation of RBC deformability from SCA patients demands careful methodological considerations. We assessed RBC deformability by ektacytometry (LORRCA MaxSis, Mechatronics, The Netherlands) in 6 healthy individuals and 49 SCA patients and tested the effects of different heights of the RBC diffraction patterns, obtained by altering the camera gain of the LORRCA, on the result of RBC deformability measurements, expressed as Elongation Index (EI). Results indicate that the pattern of RBCs from control subjects adopts an elliptical shape under shear stress, whereas the pattern of RBCs from individuals with SCA adopts a diamond shape arising from the superposition of elliptical and circular patterns. The latter represent rigid RBCs. While the EI measures did not change with the variations of the RBC diffraction pattern heights in the control subjects, we observed a decrease of EI when the RBC diffraction pattern height is increased in the SCA group. The differences in SCA EI values measured at 5 Pa between the different diffraction pattern heights correlated with the percent of hemoglobin S and the percent of sickled RBC observed by microscopy. Our study confirms that the camera gain or aperture of the ektacytometer should be used to standardize the size of the RBC diffraction pattern height when measuring RBC deformability in sickle cell patients and underscores the potential clinical utility of this technique.

  11. ADVANCED DENTAL IMPLANT PLACEMENT TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. GREENBERG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of in office Cone Beam CT (CBCT scanners, dental implant planning software, CAD CAM milling, and rapid printing technologies allow for the precise placement of dental implants and immediate prosthetic temporization. These technologies allow for flapless implant placement, or open flap bone reduction for “All on 4” techniques with improved preoperative planning and intraoperative performance. CBCT permits practitioners in an office setting with powerful diagnostic capabilities for the evaluation of bone quality and quantity, as well as dental and osseous pathology essential for better informed dental implant treatment. CBCT provides the convenience of in office imaging and decreased radiation exposure. Rapid printing technologies provide decreased time and high accuracy for bone model and surgical guide fabrication.

  12. placements des gouverneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    Transit. Tout endroit qui n'est pas considéré comme la destination où l'on se rend par affaires. Voyageur. Désigne un gouverneur dans le contexte du présent règlement. 5. Rôles et responsabilités. 5.1. Personnes participant au processus lié aux déplacements des gouverneurs. Toutes les personnes, dont les gouverneurs, ...

  13. Humanitarian engineering placements in our own communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.

  14. Neuroendoscopic stent placement for cerebrospinal fluid pathway obstructions in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K; El Refaee, Ehab; Manwaring, Jotham; Vorbau, Christina; Fritsch, Michael J; Gaab, Michael R; Schroeder, Henry W S; Baldauf, Joerg

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Since its revival in the early 1990s, neuroendoscopy has become an integral component of modern neurosurgery. Endoscopic stent placement for treatment of CSF pathway obstruction is a rarely used and underestimated procedure. The authors present the first series of neuroendoscopic intracranial stenting for CSF pathway obstruction in adults with associated results and complications spanning a long-term follow-up of 20 years. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained clinical database for endoscopic stent placement performed in adults between 1993 and 2013. RESULTS Of 526 endoscopic intraventricular procedures, stents were placed for treatment of CSF disorders in 25 cases (4.8%). The technique was used in the management of arachnoid cysts (ACs; n = 8), tumor-related CSF disorders (n = 13), and hydrocephalus due to stenosis of the foramen of Monro (n = 2) or aqueduct (n = 2). The mean follow-up was 87.1 months. No deaths or infections occurred that were related to endoscopic placement of intracranial stents. Late stent dislocation or migration was observed in 3 patients (12%). CONCLUSIONS Endoscopic intracranial stent placement in adults is rarely required but is a safe and helpful technique in select cases. It is indicated when reliable and long-lasting restoration of CSF pathway obstructions cannot be achieved with standard endoscopic techniques. In the treatment of tumor-related hydrocephalus, it is a good option to avoid reclosure of the restored CSF pathway by tumor growth. Currently, routine stent placement after endoscopic fenestration of ACs is not recommended. Stent placement for treatment of CSF disorders due to tumor is a good option for avoiding CSF shunting. To avoid stent migration and dislocation, and to allow for easy removal if needed, the device should be fixed to a bur hole reservoir.

  15. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. Published by

  16. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery.

  17. The development of standard samples with a defined number of antigen-specific T cells to harmonize T cell assays: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satwinder Kaur; Tummers, Bart; Schumacher, Ton N; Gomez, Raquel; Franken, Kees L M C; Verdegaal, Els M; Laske, Karoline; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Ottensmeier, Christian; Welters, Marij J P; Britten, Cedrik M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2013-03-01

    The validation of assays that quantify antigen-specific T cell responses is critically dependent on cell samples that contain clearly defined measurable numbers of antigen-specific T cells. An important requirement is that such cell samples are handled and analyzed in a comparable fashion to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We performed a proof-of-principle study to show that retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked at defined numbers in autologous PBMC can be used as standard samples for HLA/peptide multimer staining. NY-ESO-1157-165-specific, TCR-transduced CD8+ T cell batches were successfully generated from PBMC of several HLA-A*0201 healthy donors, purified by magnetic cell sorting on the basis of HLA tetramer (TM) staining and expanded with specific antigen in vitro. When subsequently spiked into autologous PBMC, the detection of these CD3+CD8+TM+ T cells was highly accurate with a mean accuracy of 91.6 %. The standard cells can be preserved for a substantial period of time in liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, TM staining of fresh and cryopreserved standard samples diluted at decreasing concentrations into autologous cryopreserved unspiked PBMC revealed that the spiked CD3+CD8+TM+ T cells could be accurately detected at all dilutions in a linear fashion with a goodness-of-fit of over 0.99 at a frequency of at least 0.02 % among the CD3+CD8+ T cell population. Notably, the CD3+CD8+TM+ cells of the standard samples were located exactly within the gates used to analyze patient samples and displayed a similar scatter pattern. The performance of the cryopreserved standard samples in the hands of 5 external investigators was good with an inter-laboratory variation of 32.9 % and the doubtless identification of one outlier.

  18. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  19. Microspectrophotometric studies of Romanowsky stained blood cells. I. Subtraction analysis of a standardized procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, W; Marshall, P N; Bacus, J W

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes a microspectrophotometric study of blood smears stained by a simple, standardized Romanowsky technique, using only the dyes azure B and cosin. Absorbance spectra are presented for twenty-two classes of cellular object, and for the two dyes in solution, together with tabulations of spectral maxima, and suitable wavelengths for use in automated image processing. The colours of objects stained with azure B/eosin are discussed in terms of absorbance spectra. By a spectral subtraction technique, it is shown that the differential colouration of various cell structures may be explained satisfactorily in terms of the varying proportions of only four dye components. These are the monomers and dimers of azure B and eosin. Polymerization was found to occur both in solution and on binding to biopolymers. A similar analysis of a conventional Romanowsky stain would present much greater difficulties, due to the greater number of dye components, which, however, contribute little to the colours observed.

  20. Standard guide for mechanical drive systems for remote operation in hot cell facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this standard is to provide general guidelines for the design, selection, quality assurance, installation, operation, and maintenance of mechanical drive systems used in remote hot cell environments. The term mechanical drive systems used herein, encompasses all individual components used for imparting motion to equipment systems, subsystems, assemblies, and other components. It also includes complete positioning systems and individual units that provide motive power and any position indicators necessary to monitor the motion. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This standard is intended to be applicable to equipment used under one or more of the following conditions: 1.2.1.1 The materials handled or processed constitute a significant radiation hazard to man or to the environment. 1.2.1.2 The equipment will generally be used over a long-term life cycle (for example, in excess of two years), but equipment intended for use over a shorter life cycle is not excluded. 1.2.1.3 The ...

  1. Bone-anchored hearing device placement with translabyrinthine tumor removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRackan, Theodore R; Goddard, John C; Wilkinson, Eric P; Slattery, William H; Brackmann, Derald E

    2015-02-01

    Translabyrinthine resection of intracranial tumors results in single-sided deafness, which can be treated by surgical and nonsurgical means. Here we describe the first series examining complication and device usage rates among patients receiving a surgically implanted bone-anchored hearing device (BAHD) at the time of translabyrinthine tumor removal. Case series with chart review. Private tertiary neurotologic referral center. Patients (N = 154) undergoing concurrent BAHD placement and translabyrinthine tumor resection. Concurrent BAHD placement and translabyrinthine tumor removal. Postoperative complication rates and BAHD usage. Of the 154 patients, 121 (78.6%) had no device-related complications. The most common device-related complications were skin overgrowth (8.4%), acute infection (5.2%), and chronic infection (3.2%). The overall and specific complication rates did not differ from published BAHD complication rates. One patient (0.6%) developed a cerebrospinal leak through the surgical site for the device. At the time of last follow-up (mean, 39.8 months), 151 patients (95.0%) were still using their devices. Patients undergoing concurrent translabyrinthine tumor removal and BAHD placement exhibit similar device-related complication profiles as patients undergoing standard device placement. Based on these outcomes and the high long-term usage rates, BAHD insertion at the time of translabyrinthine intracranial surgery can be considered a safe and useful procedure. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  2. Assessing accuracy of sustentaculum screw placement during calcaneal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitajn, I Leah; Toussaint, Rull James; Kwon, John Y

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the Harris heel view to confirm placement of the sustentacular screw during calcaneal fixation. A 4.0 cancellous screw was placed in a cadaveric specimen, from lateral to medial in 5 configurations: (1) within the sustentaculum, (2) misdirected inferiorly to sustentaculum, (3) misdirected superiorly to sustentaculum, (4) misdirected anteriorly to sustentaculum, and (5) misdirected posteriorly to sustentaculum. Harris heel views were obtained at 5 angulations and were analyzed to determine screw placement. A screw placed anatomically was radiographically confirmed by the Harris heel view to be within the sustentaculum in all views. An inferiorly misdirected screw appeared radiographically within the sustentaculum at 30, 40 and 50 degrees but was confirmed misplaced on the 10- and 20-degree views. A posteriorly misdirected screw was confirmed misplaced on all 5 views. An anteriorly misdirected screw appeared radiographically within the sustentaculum on the 10-degree view but was confirmed misplaced on all other views. A superiorly misdirected screw was confirmed misplaced on all views. Clinicians should be aware that several specific axial heel views are required to verify placement of the sustentacular screw. An inferiorly misdirected screw will appear to be within the sustentaculum with the standard Harris heel view. Heel views should be obtained from a range of 10 to 50 degrees to confirm accurate placement of the sustentacular screw.

  3. Product placement of computer games in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng-Li; Wang, Cheng-Shu

    2008-08-01

    Computer games are considered an emerging media and are even regarded as an advertising channel. By a three-phase experiment, this study investigated the advertising effectiveness of computer games for different product placement forms, product types, and their combinations. As the statistical results revealed, computer games are appropriate for placement advertising. Additionally, different product types and placement forms produced different advertising effectiveness. Optimum combinations of product types and placement forms existed. An advertisement design model is proposed for use in game design environments. Some suggestions are given for advertisers and game companies respectively.

  4. Cellular Cultivation: Growing HeLa Cells Using Standard High School Laboratory Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschak, Gayle; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes experiments to culture cells in a laboratory that provide students with hands-on experience in manipulating cells and a chance to observe cell growth characteristics first hand. Exposes students to sterile technique, cell culture, cell growth concepts, and eukaryotic cell structure. (JRH)

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound coil placement of gastric varices: Emerging modality for recurrent bleeding gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Harwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric varices are the probable source of bleeding in 10-36% of patients, with acute variceal bleeding and carry high mortality and rebleeding rates. Till date, cyanoacrylate glue injection is considered as the standard of care but has high complication rate. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS guided coil placement is a new emerging technique of management of gastric varices. In this case report, we detail the EUS guided coil placement for management of gastric varices after failed glue injections.

  6. Understanding Successful Sandwich Placements: A Bourdieusian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn; Zukas, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich placements and other integrated work and study schemes are increasingly advocated as a key means by which universities can promote students' employability. However, there is little understanding of how successful placements work in terms of facilitating learning and development. Drawing on three longitudinal case studies of students who…

  7. Percutaneous Placement of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The percutaneous placement of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters using conscious sedation with ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance is underutilised and hasseveral advantages over the open surgical and laparoscopic placement methods, especially in the resource-limited developing world. Objectives: To ...

  8. Clitoral Pain Following Retropubic Midurethral Sling Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Christofferson, DO

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Clitoral pain symptoms following placement of a retropubic midurethral sling should be evaluated and promptly addressed, given the potential negative impact on the patient's sexual function. Christofferson M, Barnard J, and Montoya TI. Clitoral pain following retropubic midurethral sling placement. Sex Med 2015;3:346–348.

  9. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  10. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will be reassigned in accordance with § 1656.12. (c) In making job interview referrals and in making... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing...

  11. Genetic Algorithm Approaches for Actuator Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, William A.

    2000-01-01

    This research investigated genetic algorithm approaches for smart actuator placement to provide aircraft maneuverability without requiring hinged flaps or other control surfaces. The effort supported goals of the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization focus efforts in NASA's Aircraft au program. This work helped to properly identify various aspects of the genetic algorithm operators and parameters that allow for placement of discrete control actuators/effectors. An improved problem definition, including better definition of the objective function and constraints, resulted from this research effort. The work conducted for this research used a geometrically simple wing model; however, an increasing number of potential actuator placement locations were incorporated to illustrate the ability of the GA to determine promising actuator placement arrangements. This effort's major result is a useful genetic algorithm-based approach to assist in the discrete actuator/effector placement problem.

  12. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  13. Hydroxycarbamine: from an Old Drug Used in Malignant Hemopathies to a Current Standard in Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, Giovanna; Poutrel, Solène; Thomas, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    While hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea, HU) has less and fewer indications in malignant hemopathies, it represents the only widely used drug which modifies sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Clinical experience with HU for patients with sickle cell disease has been accumulated over the past 25 years in Western countries. The review of the literature provides increasing support for safety and efficacy in both children and adults for reducing acute vaso-occlusive events including pain episodes and acute chest syndrome. No increased incidence of leukemia and teratogenicity was demonstrated. HU has become the standard-of-care for sickle cell anemia but remains underused. Barriers to its use should be identified and overcome. PMID:28293403

  14. HYDROXYCARBAMINE: FROM AN OLD DRUG USED IN MALIGNANT HEMOPATHIES TO A CURRENT STANDARD IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cannas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While hydroxycarbamine (hydroxyurea, HU has less and less indications in malignant hemopathies, it represents the only widely used drug which modifies sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Clinical experience with HU for patients with sickle cell disease has been accumulated over the past 25 years in Western countries. The review of the literature provides increasing support of safety and efficacy in both children and adults for reducing acute vaso-occlusive events including pain episodes and acute chest syndrome. HU has become the standard-of-care for sickle cell anemia, but remains underused. Barriers to its use should be identified and overcome.

  15. A simple suture-retrieval device for the placement of u-stitches during laparoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Peter

    2009-02-01

    During minimally invasive operations, it is sometimes necessary to retrieve the end of a suture or a suture needle and bring it out through the abdominal wall. Using a standard needle and a length of suture, we have developed a simple device that allows the retrieval of a suture end during minimally invasive operations that require the placement of U-or stay stitches. The author has used the device described during more than 100 laparoscopic gastrostomy placement procedures and other operations involving the placement of U- or stay stitches with excellent results and no complications. Using a beveled hollow-bore needle and a loop of polypropylene suture, one can construct a simple device that allows the retrieval of a suture from within a body cavity during minimally invasive surgery, making the placement of U- and stay stitches easier and more precise.

  16. Staging in Patients with Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma; PET-CT versus Standard Staging Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yalçın

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most important factor for accurate treatment of patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC is accuracy of the initial staging. The aim of this study was to determine how often patients, staged as local or local-advanced disease by standard staging procedures (SSPs, would be staged to have a metastatic disease based on the findings of the positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT scan. Methods: Patients with SCLC who were staged as I, II, or III disease by SSPs (according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging, 7th edition formed the study population. SSPs included computed tomography of chest, abdomen, brain (or magnetic resonance imaging of brain, and bone scintigraphy. These patients were re-staged with 18F-FDG PET-CT scan. Results: Between 2013 and 2015, 27 patients were prospectively studied. Of these patients, 92.5% were male and the median age was 61. Among 27 patients, distant metastasis was detected by PET-CT in 7 (25.9% patients. Two of 7 patients were determined as stage IIIA by SSPs and 5 of 17 patients that were determined as stage IIIB by SSPs were upstaged to metastatic disease by PET-CT. All of the 7 patients had bone metastasis by PET-CT. But bone metastasis could not be detected with bone scintigraphy. Conclusion: PET-CT detected distant metastasis in one quarter of SCLC stage III patients by SSPs. Patients who staged local-advanced SCLC with CT of the chest have to be assessed by PET-CT for extracranial distant metastasis.

  17. A Risk-Based Sensor Placement Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ronald W [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL

    2006-08-01

    A sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors or detectors to protect population against the exposure to and effects of known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as wind speed and direction pairs with the percentage of occurrence of the pairs over the historical period. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate population at risk against standard exposure levels. Sensor locations are determined via a dynamic programming algorithm where threats captured or detected by sensors placed in prior stages are removed from consideration in subsequent stages. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor or detector. Thus, the criterion for halting the iterative process can be the number of detectors available, a threshold marginal utility value, or the cumulative detection of a minimum factor of the total risk value represented by all threats.

  18. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Secondary Reference Cells

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers calibration and characterization of secondary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. 1.2 Secondary reference cells are calibrated indoors using simulated sunlight or outdoors in natural sunlight by reference to a primary reference cell previously calibrated to the same desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 Secondary reference cells calibrated according to this test method will have the same radiometric traceability as the of the primary reference cell used for the calibration. Therefore, if the primary reference cell is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR, see Test Method E816), the resulting secondary reference cell will also be traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method appli...

  19. Investigation of bacteremia after separator placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Preet Kaur Dua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simple orthodontic procedure such as separator placement can be associated with the occurrence of transient bacteraemia. Use of clorhexidine before separator placement has been recommended as a measure to decrease the bacteraemia. Aim: The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of transient bacteremia after separator placement following use of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. Methodology: The study group consisted of 27 adult patients who reported for orthodontic treatment (18 males and 9 females. The patients were asked to rinse their mouth for 60 sec with 15 mL of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash before the separator placement. An aseptic technique was used to draw out 5 ml of blood was from either the left or right antecubital fossa immediately before orthodontic separator placement (as control group, and the second 5 ml sample was taken 1–2 min after the placement of separators mesial and distal to all the first molars. All the blood samples were inoculated into culture bottles containing Brain Heart Infusion and incubated aerobically for 7 days. Media used for bacterial growth is chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Results: From a total of 27 patients and 54 samples, none of the sample was found positive for bacteremia. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there is no bacteremia after the placement of separators following the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  20. Determine equilibrium dissociation constant of drug-membrane receptor affinity using the cell membrane chromatography relative standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina; Yang, Liu; Lv, Yanni; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Langchong

    2017-06-23

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K D ) of drug-membrane receptor affinity is the basic parameter that reflects the strength of interaction. The cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method is an effective technique to study the characteristics of drug-membrane receptor affinity. In this study, the K D value of CMC relative standard method for the determination of drug-membrane receptor affinity was established to analyze the relative K D values of drugs binding to the membrane receptors (Epidermal growth factor receptor and angiotensin II receptor). The K D values obtained by the CMC relative standard method had a strong correlation with those obtained by the frontal analysis method. Additionally, the K D values obtained by CMC relative standard method correlated with pharmacological activity of the drug being evaluated. The CMC relative standard method is a convenient and effective method to evaluate drug-membrane receptor affinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Geiss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells. H-1PV was found to enter osteosarcoma cells and to induce viral DNA replication, transcription of viral genes, and translation to viral proteins. After H-1PV infection, release of infectious viral particles from osteosarcoma cells into the supernatant indicated successful viral assembly and egress. Crystal violet staining revealed progressive cytomorphological changes in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infection of osteosarcoma cell lines with the standard H-1PV caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and these lines had a limited capacity for standard H-1PV virus replication. The cytotoxicity of wild-type H-1PV virus towards osteosarcoma cells was compared in vitro with that of two variants, Del H-1PV and DM H-1PV, previously described as fitness variants displaying higher infectivity and spreading in human transformed cell lines of different origins. Surprisingly, wild-type H-1PV displayed the strongest cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in this analysis and thus seems the most promising for the next preclinical validation steps in vivo.

  2. Are success and survival rates of early implant placement higher than immediate implant placement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, S S; Cubuk, S; Oguz, Y; Uckan, S

    2013-04-01

    Immediate placement refers to the placement of an implant into a tooth socket at the time of extraction; early placement refers to the placement of an implant after substantial gingival healing, but before any clinically significant bone fill occurs within the socket. This study evaluated the success and survival rates of implants following immediate and early placement. 50 implants were placed in 36 patients. 26 immediate (group I) and 24 early placements (group II) were performed. Pain or tenderness with function, mobility, radiographic bone loss from initial surgery and exudate history were evaluated. Mean vertical bone loss in the immediate placement group was 0.55 mm and 0.80 mm in the early placement group. The survival rate for the immediate placement group was 96.16% with 51.6 months follow-up and in the early placement group was 100% with 61.9 months follow-up. The results of this study suggest that although the success and survival rates of early placed implants were a little higher and the follow up period was longer than immediately placed implants, the difference was not remarkable. In conclusion, both implant insertion techniques are safe and reliable procedures with considerably high survival rates. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ensuring safety of fuel cell applications and hydrogen refuelling. Legislation and standards; Polttokennosovellusten ja vetytankkauksen turvallisuuden varmistaminen. Saeaedoeksiae ja standardeja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.; Sarsama, J.

    2013-09-15

    Fuel cell technology is considered a promising alternative in terms of viable energy systems. The advantages of fuel cell systems include a good efficiency rate and the lack of harmful environmental emissions. Factors which may slow down the commercialisation of fuel cell technology, e.g. fuel cell vehicles, include the high price of hydrogen and the insufficiency of the infrastructure required for the distribution of hydrogen. A large proportion of major car manufacturers are committed to introducing fuel cell cars to the market by 2014-2016. In order to ensure a successful market introduction of fuel cell vehicles, this has to be aligned with the development of the necessary hydrogen infrastructure. In the early commercialisation stages of a new technology, it is important to give the public correct, justified and understandable information on the safety of the fuel cell applications, and also on the measures taken to ensure the safety of applications. A lack of necessary information, inaccurate perceptions and prejudices can have an adverse effect on the public acceptance of fuel cell applications. Hazards and potential accidents related to fuel cell systems are mainly associated with the flammable substances (e.g. hydrogen, methane) used as fuel, the high pressure of hydrogen, electrical hazards, and dangers concerning technical systems in general. The fuel cell applications reviewed in this publication are transport applications and stationary applications and the refuelling system of gaseous hydrogen. The publication concentrates on fuel cells using hydrogen as fuel. The publication gives an overview of how EU-legislation (mainly various directives) and Finnish legislation applies to fuel cell systems and applications, and what kind of safety requirements the legislation sets. In addition, a brief overview of safety standards concerning fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling is presented. (orig.)

  4. Intrauterine device placement at 3 versus 6 weeks postpartum: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maureen K; Edelman, Alison B; Lim, Jeong Y; Nichols, Mark D; Bednarek, Paula H; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    To investigate whether early placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) at 3 weeks after delivery, compared to placement at 6 weeks, is associated with greater use at 3 months postpartum. This prospective randomized, controlled trial enrolled inpatient postpartum women intending to use intrauterine contraception. Participants were assigned to an early (3 week) or standard (6 week) postpartum visit with IUD placement and were followed for 6 months. We used transvaginal ultrasonography to confirm placement and measure uterine dimensions. We measured pain with IUD insertion and satisfaction with IUD timing using 100-mm visual analog scales. Data were analyzed based on randomization and actual timing of insertion (18-24 vs. 39-45 days). Between February 2012 and December 2013, 201 subjects were enrolled (early=101; standard=100). Most participants returned for IUD placement as scheduled; 70.1% (53/75) in the early group, 74.3% (58/78) in the standard group (p=.06). IUD use did not differ between groups at 3 months (73/100, 73.0% and 73/97, 75.3%, respectively, p=.72) or 6 months (80.3% and 82.8%, p=.71) amongst those women for whom follow-up was available. Women randomized to 6-week insertion were more likely to have resumed intercourse prior to the IUD appointment (15/64, 23.4% vs. 5/68, 7.3%, p=.01). Pain with insertion (19.9 vs. 25.1, respectively, p=.21) and satisfaction (89.6 vs. 93.4, respectively, p=.23) did not vary based on actual timing of insertion. Offering IUD placement at 3 weeks postpartum compared to standard scheduling at 6 weeks does not result in increased use at 3 months. However, early IUD placement is acceptable to women and without increased pain. This study demonstrates that IUD placement as early as 3 weeks postpartum is feasible. Larger studies are needed to evaluate risks and benefits of IUD placement at this early interval. While earlier timing does not result in increased IUD uptake, early placement should be explored as an option since many

  5. Precordial electrode placement in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, P W; Colaco, R; Stevens, K; Reay, P; Beckett, C; Aitchison, T

    2003-03-01

    Precordial ECG electrode positioning was standardised in the early 1940s. However, it has been customary for the V 3 to V 6 electrodes to be placed under the left breast in women rather than in the correct anatomical positions relating to the 4th and 5th interspaces. For this reason, a comparison between the two approaches to chest electrode positioning in women was undertaken. In total 84 women were recruited and ECGs recorded with electrodes in the correct anatomical position and also in the more commonly used positions under the breast. As a separate study, 299 healthy women were recruited to study normal limits of leads V 3 to V 6 recorded with electrodes in the correct anatomical positions and compare them with published normal limits with electrodes in the more commonly used locations. It was shown that there was less variability with electrodes in the correct anatomical positions and that there were significant differences between the new limits of normality compared with the old established limits. Expansion of the database and further analysis of the data is required to make a definitive recommendation with respect to precordial electrode placement in women.

  6. Sensor Placement Optimization using Chama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology and Engineering Dept.; Nicholson, Bethany L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Discrete Math and Optimization Dept.; Laird, Carl Damon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Discrete Math and Optimization Dept.

    2017-10-01

    Continuous or regularly scheduled monitoring has the potential to quickly identify changes in the environment. However, even with low - cost sensors, only a limited number of sensors can be deployed. The physical placement of these sensors, along with the sensor technology and operating conditions, can have a large impact on the performance of a monitoring strategy. Chama is an open source Python package which includes mixed - integer, stochastic programming formulations to determine sensor locations and technology that maximize monitoring effectiveness. The methods in Chama are general and can be applied to a wide range of applications. Chama is currently being used to design sensor networks to monitor airborne pollutants and to monitor water quality in water distribution systems. The following documentation includes installation instructions and examples, description of software features, and software license. The software is intended to be used by regulatory agencies, industry, and the research community. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the Python Programming Language. References are included for addit ional background on software components. Online documentation, hosted at http://chama.readthedocs.io/, will be updated as new features are added. The online version includes API documentation .

  7. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregeau, C.J.; Elliott, J.C.; Fourney, R.M. [RCMP Central Forensic Laboratory, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-07-20

    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines-GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)-to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. 82 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Brachytherapy for the prevention of neointimal hyperplasia in the canine inferior vena cava after stent placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isota, Masayuki; Kaminou, Toshio; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nakamura, Kenji; Yamada, Ryusaku [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of brachytherapy for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in the inferior vena cava (IVC) after stent placement. Sixteen beagles underwent Z-stent placement in the IVC and the aorta. For 8 of 16 beagles, irradiation (15 Gy) was delivered endoluminally to the stented segments of each vessel immediately after stent placement using the {sup 192}Ir. All animals were sacrificed after 6 weeks for morphometric and histopathologic examination. Morphometrically, neointimal thickness in the IVC of the radiation group was significantly decreased compared with the control group as well as that in the aorta (p<0.05). Histopathologic findings showed the neointima in the IVC of the control group contained markedly organization of thrombus and neovascularization though that in the IVC of the radiation group consisted mainly of smooth muscle cells without organization of thrombus and neovascularization. From these data intravenous irradiation may prevent clinical restenosis after stent placement. (author)

  9. Graduate Student Placement: An Examination of Experience and Career Barriers in a Student Affairs Professional Preparation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative descriptive study examined the job placement success and challenges of graduate students in a higher education and student affairs professional preparation program at a mid-size public institution in the U.S. Specifically, this study investigated the impact of curricular standards in the form of supervised practice (i.e., internships and graduate assistantships on the job placement rate of recent alumni. In addition, perceived barriers in the job search process were investigated and examined comparatively by gender. Findings suggest that current curricular standards may not be sufficient for successful placement and that men and women do not differ significantly with respect to perceived barriers in their job search process. Implications for practice include a re-evaluation of curricular standards for student affairs professional preparation programs and a greater understanding of what factors and barriers contribute to successful graduate student placement.

  10. Bifacial solar cell measurements under standard test conditions and the impact on cell-to-module loss analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jai Prakash; Chai, Jing; Hsian Saw, Min; Khoo, Yong Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Bifacial cells are conventionally measured using gold-plated chuck, which is conductive and reflective. This measurement setup does not portray the actual operating conditions of the bifacial cells in a module. The reflective chuck causes an overestimation of the current due to the cell transmittance for the infrared light. The conductive chuck creates a shorter current flow path in the rear side of the cell and causes an over inflation of the fill factor measurement. In this study, we characterize and quantitatively analyze the difference between the bifacial cell measurements on different mounting chucks and calculate the cell-to-module (CTM) loss. To characterize the optical behavior of the bifacial cell and module, we perform external quantum efficiency, reflectance and transmittance measurements. The electrical behavior of the bifacial cell is studied using in-house developed software Griddler. Using Griddler, we calculate the difference in the fill factor of the bifacial cell due to the measurement using a conductive and non-conductive chuck, and estimate the corresponding CTM resistive losses.

  11. Selective Placement Program Coordinator (SPPC) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — List of the Selective Placement Program Coordinators (SPPC) in Federal agencies, updated as needed. Users can filter the list by choosing a state and/or agency name.

  12. Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Specific Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Dupre, Olivier

    2018-01-05

    Multijunction cells may offer a cost-effective route to boost the efficiency of industrial photovoltaics. For any technology to be deployed in the field, its performance under actual operating conditions is extremely important. In this perspective, we evaluate the impact of spectrum, light intensity, and module temperature variations on the efficiency of tandem devices with crystalline silicon bottom cells with a particular focus on perovskite top cells. We consider devices with different efficiencies and calculate their energy yields using field data from Denver. We find that annual losses due to differences between operating conditions and standard test conditions are similar for single-junction and four-terminal tandem devices. The additional loss for the two-terminal tandem configuration caused by current mismatch reduces its performance ratio by only 1.7% when an optimal top cell bandgap is used. Additionally, the unusual bandgap temperature dependence of perovskites is shown to have a positive, compensating effect on current mismatch.

  13. Importance of methodological standardization for the ektacytometric measures of red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renoux, Céline; Parrow, Nermi; Faes, Camille; Joly, Philippe; Hardeman, Max; Tisdale, John; Levine, Mark; Garnier, Nathalie; Bertrand, Yves; Kebaili, Kamila; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Cannas, Giovanna; Martin, Cyril; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability is severely decreased in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), which plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, investigation of RBC deformability from SCA patients demands careful methodological considerations. We assessed RBC deformability by

  14. Disclosing brand placement to young children

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, Pieter; Hudders, Liselot; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Kuysscher, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This article examines whether a television brand placement warning cue can alter young children’s susceptibility for advertising effects (i.e., brand attitude) through activating their advertising literacy. The proposed model also puts forward an important moderating role for children’s skeptical attitude toward the brand placement format. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected among 63 children between 7 and 9 years old (Mage = 8.49; 51% girls) through a single...

  15. Pregnancy Outcomes After Myomectomy With Polytetrafluoroethylene Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Jennifer L.; Milad, Magdy P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to report preliminary data on pregnancy outcomes after myomectomy with placement of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene adhesion barrier membrane. Methods: In this retrospective case series, 68 women who underwent myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2009, were identified. Of these women, 15 subsequently had documented pregnancies and were included in the final dataset...

  16. Règlement institutionnel Déplacements

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Julie Pépin

    placements et toutes les réservations connexes conformément au présent règlement. Toutes les personnes qui voyagent pour le Centre doivent avoir recours aux services de cette agence pour l'obtention de conseils, de réservations et de titres de transport aux fins de tous les déplacements payés par le CRDI (transport ...

  17. Multiple immediate implants placement with immediate loading

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Sumit; Narang, Anu; Jain, Kapil; Bhatia, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    The replacement of missing teeth with implant-borne restorations has become a treatment modality accepted by the scientific community for fully and partially edentulous patients. Recent reports have demonstrated the successful placement of dental implants into the fresh extraction socket in the anterior as well as in molar regions, which is made possible due to modification in implant surface. The present case report highlights the placement of three bicortical screw (BCS) implants into the f...

  18. Immediate Implant Placement: Report of Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of immediate postextraction implant placement. Immediate placement of dental implants have been claimed of the potential advantages such as reductions in the number of surgical interventions, a shorter treatment time, an ideal 3-dimensional implant positioning, the presumptive preservation of alveolar bone at the site of the tooth extraction and soft tissue aesthetics.

  19. Standard house with integrated solar cell system. Technical final report; Typehus med integreret solcelleanlaeg. Faglig slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The interest in solar cell technology among Danish house owners is increasing, but there are many considerations to be made before the house owner choose to install solar cells on the house. Major barriers are the solar cell systems' price and appearance. This interdisciplinary development project will show that both aesthetic and economic advantages can be derived from integrating solar cells already when the first sketches of the house are being made. In order to promote utilization of solar cells in Denmark the solutions must be attractive, both economically and aesthetically. Therefore the solar cell solutions in this project are developed in preparation for marketing both as an aesthetic expression and a high-technological, green and prestigious element. (BA)

  20. The Placement History Chart: A Tool for Understanding the Longitudinal Pattern of Foster Children's Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-08-01

    Despite growing concerns about foster placement instability, little information is available regarding the longitudinal patterns of placement histories among foster children. The purpose of the present study was to develop a charting system using child welfare records to facilitate a better understanding of longitudinal patterns of placement history for 117 foster children. The resulting Placement History Chart included all placements that occurred during the observed time period and accounted for various dimensions: number, length, type, and sequence of placements; timing of transitions; and total time in out-of-home care. The Placement History Chart is an effective tool for placing foster care experiences within a broader developmental context. As such, the Placement History Chart can be a valuable research tool for understanding various dimensions and variations of placement transitions among foster children by capturing sequences and cumulative risks over time. Furthermore, this chart can facilitate the development of intervention programs that are developmentally sensitive and effectively address particularly vulnerable subpopulations of foster children.

  1. Cell phone use and acoustic neuroma: the need for standardized questionnaires and access to industry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Kano, Hideyuki; Davis, Devra L; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade

    2009-09-01

    The capacity of radiofrequency from cell phones to be absorbed into the brain has prompted concerns that regular cell phone use may increase the risk of acoustic neuroma (AN) and other brain tumors. This article critically evaluates current literature on cell phone use and AN risks and proposes additional studies to clarify any possible linkage. Through a PubMed search, we identified and reviewed 10 case-control studies and 1 cohort study of AN risks associated with cell phone use and a meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and its association with AN and other brain tumors. Most studies did not find association between the development of AN and cell phone use, but some studies that followed cases for 10 years or more did show an association. Among 10 case-control studies, odds ratios for AN associated with regular cell phone use ranged from 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.0) to 4.2 (95% CI, 1.8-10). Cell phone use was not associated with increased risk for AN in the Danish cohort study, which excluded business users from their study. The meta-analysis, which included 3 case-control studies, found that subjects who used cell phones for at least 10 years had a 2.4-fold greater risk of developing ipsilateral AN. In general, retrospective studies are limited in the ability to assess cell phone exposure because of recall bias and misclassification. The evaluation of AN risk factors is challenging due to its long latency. Some studies of longer term cell phone use have found an increased risk of ipsilateral AN. Adopting a prospective approach to acquire data on cell phone use, obtaining retrospective billing records that provide independent evaluations of exposures, and incorporating information on other key potential risk factors from questionnaires could markedly advance the capacity of studies to evaluate the impact of cell phones on AN.

  2. Making short-term international medical volunteer placements work: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnawawy, Omnia; Lee, Andrew C K; Pohl, Gerda

    2014-06-01

    International medical volunteering has grown in recent decades. It has the potential to benefit and harm the volunteer and host countries; but there is a paucity of literature on the impacts of international medical volunteering and a need to find ways to optimise the benefits of such placements. In this study, one example of international medical volunteering was examined involving British GPs on short-term placements in Nepal. The intention was to explore the expectations and experiences of the local health workers, volunteers, and host organisation to try and understand what makes volunteer placements work. Qualitative study of key informant interviews. Stakeholders of a short-term international medical volunteer (IMV) placement programme in Nepal. Key informant interviews were carried out via face-to-face or telephone/internet interviews with five previous volunteers, three representatives from a non-governmental organisation providing placements, and five local health workers in Nepal who had had contact with the IMVs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using standard thematic framework approaches. All the stakeholders had their own specific motives for participating in the IMV programme. The relationship between volunteers and the Nepalese health workers was complex and characterised by discrepant and occasionally unrealistic expectations. Managing these different expectations was challenging. Contextual issues and cultural differences are important considerations in medical volunteer programmes, and this study highlights the importance of robust preparation pre-placement for the volunteer and host to ensure positive outcomes. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  3. Setting global standards for stem cell research and clinical translation : The 2016 ISSCR guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daley, George Q.; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F.; Barker, Roger A.; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L.; Breuer, Christopher K.; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E.; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T.; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E.; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M.; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of

  4. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Electrical Performance and Spectral Response of Nonconcentrator Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells and Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide special techniques needed to determine the electrical performance and spectral response of two-terminal, multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices, both cell and modules. 1.2 These test methods are modifications and extensions of the procedures for single-junction devices defined by Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.3 These test methods do not include temperature and irradiance corrections for spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Procedures for such corrections are available in Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.4 These test methods may be applied to cells and modules intended for concentrator applications. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and ...

  5. Validation of Foot Placement Locations from Ankle Data of a Kinect v2 Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerse, Daphne; Coolen, Bert; Kolijn, Detmar; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2017-10-10

    The Kinect v2 sensor may be a cheap and easy to use sensor to quantify gait in clinical settings, especially when applied in set-ups integrating multiple Kinect sensors to increase the measurement volume. Reliable estimates of foot placement locations are required to quantify spatial gait parameters. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of distance from the sensor, side and step length on estimates of foot placement locations based on Kinect's ankle body points. Subjects (n = 12) performed stepping trials at imposed foot placement locations distanced 2 m or 3 m from the Kinect sensor (distance), for left and right foot placement locations (side), and for five imposed step lengths. Body points' time series of the lower extremities were recorded with a Kinect v2 sensor, placed frontoparallelly on the left side, and a gold-standard motion-registration system. Foot placement locations, step lengths, and stepping accuracies were compared between systems using repeated-measures ANOVAs, agreement statistics and two one-sided t -tests to test equivalence. For the right side at the 2 m distance from the sensor we found significant between-systems differences in foot placement locations and step lengths, and evidence for nonequivalence. This distance by side effect was likely caused by differences in body orientation relative to the Kinect sensor. It can be reduced by using Kinect's higher-dimensional depth data to estimate foot placement locations directly from the foot's point cloud and/or by using smaller inter-sensor distances in the case of a multi-Kinect v2 set-up to estimate foot placement locations at greater distances from the sensor.

  6. Analyses of 123 Peripheral Human Immune Cell Subsets: Defining Differences with Age and between Healthy Donors and Cancer Patients Not Detected in Analysis of Standard Immune Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Lepone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in human immunology have led to the identification of novel immune cell subsets and the biological function of many of these subsets has now been identified. The recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of several immunotherapeutics for the treatment of a variety of cancer types and the results of ongoing immunotherapy clinical studies requires a more thorough interrogation of the immune system. We report here the use of flow cytometry-based analyses to identify 123 immune cell subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The use of these panels defines multiple differences in younger (< 40 years vs. older (≥ 40 years individuals and between aged-matched apparently healthy individuals and metastatic cancer patients, aspects not seen in the analysis of the following standard immune cell types: CD8, CD4, natural killer, natural killer-T, regulatory T, myeloid derived suppressor cells, conventional dendritic cells (DCs, plasmacytoid DCs and B cells. The use of these panels identifying 123 immune cell subsets may aid in the identification of patients who may benefit from immunotherapy, either prior to therapy or early in the immunotherapeutic regimen, for the treatment of cancer or other chronic or infectious diseases.

  7. COX-2 expression and effects of celecoxib in addition to standard chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, Miklos; Mattsson, Johanna Sofia Margareta; Lindgren, Andrea; Ek, Lars; Lamberg Lundström, Kristina; Behndig, Annelie; Holmberg, Erik; Micke, Patrick; Bergman, Bengt

    2018-02-01

    Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is proposed as a treatment option in several cancer types. However, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), phase III trials have failed to demonstrate a benefit of adding COX-2 inhibitors to standard chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells as predictive biomarker for COX-2 inhibition. In a multicenter phase III trial, 316 patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive celecoxib (400 mg b.i.d.) or placebo up to one year in addition to a two-drug platinum-based chemotherapy combination. In a subset of 122 patients, archived tumor tissue was available for immunohistochemical analysis of COX-2 expression in tumor and stromal cells. For each compartment, COX-2 expression was graded as high or low, based on a product score of extension and intensity of positively stained cells. An updated analysis of all 316 patients included in the original trial, and of the 122 patients with available tumor tissue, showed no survival differences between the celecoxib and placebo arms (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.81-1.27 and HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.78-1.61, respectively). High COX-2 scores in tumor (n = 71) or stromal cells (n = 55) was not associated with a superior survival outcome with celecoxib vs. placebo (HR =0.96, 95% CI 0.60-1.54; and HR =1.51; 95% CI 0.86-2.66), and no significant interaction effect between COX-2 score in tumor or stromal cells and celecoxib effect on survival was detected (p = .48 and .25, respectively). In this subgroup analysis of patients with advanced NSCLC treated within the context of a randomized trial, we could not detect any interaction effect of COX-2 expression in tumor or stromal cells and the outcome of celecoxib treatment in addition to standard chemotherapy.

  8. Pre-placement screening in international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Gary W; Senecky, Yehuda; Schurr, Daniel; Zuckerman, Jay; Inbar, Dov; Eidelman, Arthur; Cohen, Herbert J

    2003-11-01

    The number of child adoptions from abroad is increasing, but the adverse living conditions of these children prior to the adoption raise questions on their medical and neurodevelopmental status, particularly since there are no guidelines for pre- or post-adoption medical evaluation. To describe the condition of a cohort of young children who were candidates for adoption in East European orphanages and foster homes, and to determine those attributes associated with a family's decision to adopt or refuse a particular child. Eighty-two young children, median age 11 months, were evaluated by Israeli pediatricians in Eastern Europe between 3 weeks and 6 months prior to their adoption. The evaluation consisted of comprehensive medical and neurodevelopmental testing on site using a battery of standardized assessment tools, and observation of free play and social interactive behaviors recorded on videotape. Laboratory tests included complete blood count, chemistries, serology screening, and metabolic and genetic testing. The children were growth-retarded. Medical problems were classified as resolved (pneumonia and diarrhea) in 32.8%; or ongoing, such as hepatitis B and C, failure to thrive, organomegaly, and visual and hearing disorders, in 14.8%. Neuromotor status was grossly abnormal in 13.4%. Twenty-two percent of the children were rejected for adoption by families in Israel. Factors associated with the adoption decision were performance skills on developmental testing (P = 0.0001), present medical status (P = 0.002), and weight (P = 0.016). Pre-placement comprehensive screening of children eligible for foreign adoption, which includes developmental screening, helps to identify a wide variety of strengths and impairments in a child's background before the adoption procedure is finalized. A family's decision to adopt or not was associated with the child's performance on Bayley Scales, weight, and current medical status, but not with language delays, serious past medical

  9. A question of ethics: selling autologous stem cell therapies flaunts professional standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsie, Megan; Hyun, Insoo

    2014-11-01

    The idea that the body's own stem cells could act as a repair kit for many conditions, including cardiac repair, underpins regenerative medicine. While progress is being made, with hundreds of clinical trials underway to evaluate possible autologous cell-based therapies, some patients and physicians are not prepared to wait and are pursuing treatments without evidence that the proposed treatments are effective, or even safe. This article explores the inherent tension between patients, practitioners and the need to regulate the development and commercialization of new cellular therapies--even when the cells come from the patient. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A question of ethics: Selling autologous stem cell therapies flaunts professional standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Munsie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that the body's own stem cells could act as a repair kit for many conditions, including cardiac repair, underpins regenerative medicine. While progress is being made, with hundreds of clinical trials underway to evaluate possible autologous cell-based therapies, some patients and physicians are not prepared to wait and are pursuing treatments without evidence that the proposed treatments are effective, or even safe. This article explores the inherent tension between patients, practitioners and the need to regulate the development and commercialization of new cellular therapies — even when the cells come from the patient.

  11. Post graduate clinical placements: evaluating benefits and challenges with a mixed methods cross sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiend, Jenny; Tracy, Derek K; Sreenan, Brian; Cardi, Valentina; Foulkes, Tina; Koutsantoni, Katerina; Kravariti, Eugenia; Tchanturia, Kate; Willmott, Lucy; Shergill, Sukhi; Reedy, Gabriel

    2016-02-16

    Systematic evaluations of clinical placements are rare, especially when offered alongside academic postgraduate courses. An evidence-based approach is important to allow pedagogically-driven provision, rather than that solely governed by opinion or market demand. Our evaluation assessed a voluntary clinical placement scheme allied to a mental health course. Data were collected over academic years 2010/11- 2013/14, from participating students (n = 20 to 58) and clinician supervisors (n = 10-12), using a mixed-methods cross-sectional design. Quantitative evaluation captured information on uptake, dropout, resource use, attitudes and experience, using standardized (the Placement Evaluation Questionnaire; the Scale To Assess the Therapeutic Relationship - Clinical version and the University of Toronto Placement Supervisor Evaluation) and bespoke questionnaires and audit data. Qualitative evaluation comprised two focus groups (5 clinicians, 5 students), to investigate attitudes, experience, perceived benefits, disadvantages and desired future developments. Data were analysed using framework analysis to identify a priori and emergent themes. High uptake (around 70 placements per annum), low dropout (2-3 students per annum; 5 %) and positive focus group comments suggested placements successfully provided added value and catered sufficiently to student demand. Students' responses confirmed that placements met expectations and the perception of benefit remained after completion with 70 % (n = 14) reporting an overall positive experience, 75 % (n = 15) reporting a pleasant learning experience, 60 % (n = 12) feeling that their clinical skills were enhanced and 85 % (n = 17) believing that it would benefit other students. Placements contributed the equivalent of seven full time unskilled posts per annum to local health care services. While qualitative data revealed perceived 'mutual benefit' for both students and clinicians, this was qualified by

  12. Minimum Information about T Regulatory Cells: A Step toward Reproducibility and Standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, Anke; Gliwiński, Mateusz; Grageda, Nathali; Spiering, Rachel; Abbas, Abul K.; Appel, Silke; Bacchetta, Rosa; Battaglia, Manuela; Berglund, David; Blazar, Bruce; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Bornhäuser, Martin; ten Brinke, Anja; Brusko, Todd M.; Cools, Nathalie; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Geissler, Edward; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gołab, Karolina; Hafler, David A.; van Ham, S. Marieke; Hester, Joanna; Hippen, Keli; Di Ianni, Mauro; Ilic, Natasa; Isaacs, John; Issa, Fadi; Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Dorota; Jaeckel, Elmar; Joosten, Irma; Klatzmann, David; Koenen, Hans; van Kooten, Cees; Korsgren, Olle; Kretschmer, Karsten; Levings, Megan; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia Maria; Martinez-Llordella, Marc; Miljkovic, Djordje; Mills, Kingston H. G.; Miranda, Joana P.; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A.; Putnam, Amy L.; Ritter, Thomas; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Sawitzki, Birgit; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Sykes, Megan; Tang, Qizhi; Vives-Pi, Marta; Waldmann, Herman; Witkowski, Piotr; Wood, Kathryn J.; Gregori, Silvia; Hilkens, Catharien M. U.; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lord, Phillip; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M.; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Cellular therapies with CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) hold promise of efficacious treatment for the variety of autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as posttransplant complications. Nevertheless, current manufacturing of Tregs as a cellular medicinal product varies between different

  13. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, George Q; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F; Barker, Roger A; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Breuer, Christopher K; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-06-14

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q. Daley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  15. Standardized Sophora pachycarpa Root Extract Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation in Adipose-derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Samaneh; Neshati, Vajiheh; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Mojarrad, Majid; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-05-01

    Bone defect is an important topic in public health. Novel therapies are based on osteogenic induction by natural antiosteoporotic compounds including plant-derived estrogens. In the current study, the osteogenic potential of Sophora pachycarpa root extract (SPRE) was explored on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Herein, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were osteoinducted in the presence of increased concentrations of the extract for 21 days. Then, cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, and the differentiated cells were stained by Alizarin Red S for calcium deposition and subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay for enzymatic activity. To assess the expression of bone-related genes, treated cells were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MTT test demonstrated that SPRE had no toxic effects on the cell viability. Treating the cells with SPRE noticeably promoted ALP activity, mineralization, and mRNA expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1). Additionally, cells subjected to 0.1 μg/mL SPRE showed the highest osteogenic effects. According to high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of SPRE, the osteoprotective effects of SPRE is probably due to presence of phytochemicals with estrogen-like activity in the extract. Thus, SPRE might be a suitable therapeutic agent for bone defects therapy in the future research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI): Conditions for medical students’ learning in hospital and community placements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dornan, Tim; Muijtjens, Arno; Graham, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Albert; Boshuizen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Dornan, T., Muijtjens, A., Graham, J., Scherpbier, A., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012). Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI): Conditions for medical students’ learning in hospital and community placements. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 17, 703-716. doi:10.1007/s10459-10011-19344-x

  17. [Determinants of urgency of nursing home placement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kensaku; Tanizaki, Shizuko

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify factors affecting the urgency of nursing home placement after introduction of public long-term care insurance. The subjects were families including at least one disabled elderly person and one another family member in two cities in Chugoku Prefecture. The measure of the urgency of placement was 0 if the family did not submit any application for placement, 1 if the care managers judged that the elderly person should enter in the future when she/he really needs placement, 2 if the care managers judged that she/he might be able to wait for a short while, and 3 if the care managers judged that she/he should enter as early as possible. Our estimation method was by ordered logit model. The dependent variable was the measure of the urgency and the independent variables were several attributes of the families. In the estimation, we considered the possibility that the coefficients depend on categories of dependent variable. We obtained data for 146 waiting families and 494 others (total 640). There were differences in the urgency of placement among waiting elderly as follows "she/he should enter as early as possible" (28.8%); "she/he can wait for a while" (32.2%), "she/he should enter in the future when she/he really needs placement" (39.0%). The results of multivariate analyses showed that the urgency of placement correlated significantly with the severity of the elderly persons disabilities, the number of primary caregivers' self-symptoms, the family members' negative attitude toward caregiving, residing in city A, not having one's own house and limited use of short-stay facilities due to the circumstances of the providers. When judging the urgency of placement, we should consider not only whether the applicant has submitted a request for a nursing home or not, but also differences among the waiting families. The urgency of placement correlates significantly with severity of disability of the elderly person, the number of primary

  18. Page placement policies for NUMA multiprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRowe, R.P. Jr.; Ellis, C.S. (Dept. of Computer Science, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (US))

    1991-02-01

    In many parallel applications, the size of the program's data exceeds even the very large amount of main memory available on large-scale multiprocessors. Virtual memory, in the sense of a transparent management of the main/secondary memory hierarchy, is a natural solution. The replacement, fetch, and placement policies used in uniprocessor paging systems need to be reexamined in light of the differences in the behavior of parallel computations and in the memory architectures of multiprocessors. In this paper the authors investigate the impact of page placement in nonuniform memory access time (NUMA) shared memory MIMD machines. The authors experimentally evaluate several paging algorithms that incorporate different approaches to the placement issue. Under certain workload assumptions, the results show that placement algorithms that are strongly biased toward local frame allocations but are able to borrow remote frames can reduce the number of page faults over strictly local allocation. The increased cost of memory operations due to the extra remote accesses is more than compensated for by the savings resulting from the reduction in demand fetches, effectively reducing the computation completion time for these programs without having adverse effects on the performance of typical NUMA programs. The authors also discuss some early results obtained from an actual kernel implementation of one of the page placement algorithms.

  19. Effect of electromagnetic navigated ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement on failure rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nayoung; Kim, Dongwon

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of electromagnetic (EM) navigation system on ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure rate through comparing the result of standard shunt placement. All patients undergoing VP shunt from October 2007 to September 2010 were included in this retrospective study. The first group received shunt surgery using EM navigation. The second group had catheters inserted using manual method with anatomical landmark. The relationship between proximal catheter position and shunt revision rate was evaluated using postoperative computed tomography by a 3-point scale. 1) Grade I; optimal position free-floating in cerebrospinal fluid, 2) Grade II; touching choroid or ventricular wall, 3) Grade III; tip within parenchyma. A total of 72 patients were participated, 27 with EM navigated shunts and 45 with standard shunts. Grade I was found in 25 patients from group 1 and 32 patients from group 2. Only 2 patients without use of navigation belonged to grade III. Proximal obstruction took place 7% in grade I, 15% in grade II and 100% in grade III. Shunt revision occurred in 11% of group 1 and 31% of group 2. Compared in terms of proximal catheter position, there was growing trend of revision rate according to increase of grade on each group. Although infection rate was similar between both groups, the result had no statistical meaning (p=0.905, chi-square test). The use of EM navigation in routine shunt surgery can eliminate poor shunt placement resulting in a dramatic reduction in failure rates.

  20. The Impact of Participation in the Advanced Placement Program on Students' College Admissions Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; Larsen, Ross; Anderson, Braydon; Odasso, Alyce J.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program is an educational program that permits high school students to take introductory college-level courses and receive college credit by passing a standardized end-of-course exam. Data were obtained from a statewide database of 2 high school graduating cohorts (N = 90,044). We used a series of propensity score…

  1. What Does a Student Know Who Earns a Top Score on the Advanced Placement Chemistry Exam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Daubenmire, Paul L.; Scalise, Kathleen M.; Balicki, Scott; Gochyyev, Perman; Stacy, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of students at a high-performing U.S. public school (n = 64) on the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam to their performance on the ChemQuery assessment system. The AP chemistry exam was chosen because, as the National Research Council acknowledges, it is the "perceived standard of excellence and school…

  2. Advancing pluripotent stem cell culture: it is a matter of setting the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartipy, Peter

    2013-04-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), defined by their ability to proliferate indefinitely and the capacity to differentiate into all tissue cell types of the adult, represent a platform for the realization of breakthrough technologies for industrial and regenerative medicine applications. We have witnessed tremendous developments over the last decade related to methods for establishment, maintenance, differentiation, and applications of hPSCs and their derivatives. Despite all progress made in the hPSC field, there are still fundamental issues yet to be resolved. For example, our understanding of the pluripotent state remains limited, which in turn may have substantial consequences on how we interpret and communicate scientific data concerning hPSCs. This brief commentary aims to highlight recent important findings that demonstrate additional levels of complexity to the current assessment of pluripotent stem cell cultures. In addition, these data may help to provide some explanations for the challenges in reproducing hPSC differentiation protocols across laboratories.

  3. Splenomegaly unresponsive to standard and salvage chemotherapy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case of extramedullary hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ellen C; Ellwein, Marcine; Neglia, Joseph P

    2012-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of dendritic cells which has evaded efforts to clearly define pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic response markers. Strides have been made at classification with the recent development of a quantified score of disease severity. Splenic involvement is an indicator of poor prognosis, with spleen size its surrogate marker in evaluation and scoring. We describe a case of pediatric LCH with progressive splenomegaly despite treatment, which when examined at splenectomy revealed no LCH involvement but extramedullary hematopoiesis. These findings thus challenge our understanding of splenomegaly as a marker of disease. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Petiveria alliacea standardized fraction induces breast adenocarcinoma cell death by modulating glycolytic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, John Fredy; Urueña, Claudia Patricia; Cifuentes, Maria Claudia; Sandoval, Tito Alejandro; Pombo, Luis Miguel; Castañeda, Diana; Asea, Alexzander; Fiorentino, Susana

    2014-05-14

    Folk medicine uses aqueous and alcoholic extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) in leukemia and breast cancer treatment in the Caribbean, Central and South America. Herein, we validated the biological activity of a Petiveria alliacea fraction using a metastatic breast adenocarcinoma model (4T1). Petiveria alliacea fraction biological activity was determined estimating cell proliferation, cell colony growth capacity and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential) in 4T1 cells. Petiveria alliacea was used at IC₅₀ concentration (29 µg/mL) and 2 dilutions below, doxorubicin at 0.27 µg/mL (positive control) and dibenzyl disulfide at 2.93 µg/mL (IC50 fraction marker compound). Proteomic estimations were analyzed by LC-MS-MS. Protein level expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. Glucose and lactate levels were measured by enzymatic assays. LD50 was established in BALB/c mice and antitumoral activity evaluated in mice transplanted with GFP-tagged 4T1 cells. Mice were treated with Petiveria alliacea fraction via I.P (182 mg/kg corresponding to 1/8 of LD₅₀ and 2 dilutions below). Petiveria alliacea fraction in vitro induces 4T1 cells apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation without mitochondria membrane depolarization, and decreases cell colony growth capacity. Also, changes in glycolytic enzymes expression cause a decrease in glucose uptake and lactate production. Fraction also promotes breast primary tumor regression in BALB/c mice transplanted with GFP-tagged 4T1 cells. A fraction of Petiveria alliacea leaves and stems induces in vitro cell death and in vivo tumor regression in a murine breast cancer model. Our results validate in partly, the traditional use of Petiveria alliacea in breast cancer treatment, revealing a new way of envisioning Petiveria alliacea biological activity. The fraction effect on the glycolytic pathway enzymes contributes to explain the antiproliferative and antitumor activities

  5. Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the estimation of the electrical corrosion potential of uncoated reinforcing steel in field and laboratory concrete, for the purpose of determining the corrosion activity of the reinforcing steel. 1.2 This test method is limited by electrical circuitry. Concrete surface in building interiors and desert environments lose sufficient moisture so that the concrete resistivity becomes so high that special testing techniques not covered in this test method may be required (see 5.1.4.1). Concrete surfaces that are coated or treated with sealers may not provide an acceptable electrical circuit. The basic configuration of the electrical circuit is shown in Fig. 1. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It ...

  6. Fluoroscopic placement of jejunal feeding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, F.; Mandell, V.S.; Sandler, R.H.; Leichner, A.; Kaplan, L.C.; Haynie, M.

    1992-01-01

    Over a two-and-one-half year period, 50 children underwent placements of jejunal tubes through a nasal route (NJ, n=47) or through an existing gastrostomy site (GJ, n=119). There were four attempted placements (98% success rate). The NJ tubes remained in place an average of 13 days, and the GJ tubes remained in place an average of 37 days. Fluoroscopic time for placement of an NJ tube an averaged 6 min (29 cases) and for a GJ tube 8 minutes (91 cases). In spite of the limited retention time, fluoroscopic time, and availability of alternative methods, fluoroscopically placed jejunal feedings tubes are still playing an active role in this institution. (orig.)

  7. German causative events with placement verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Knop Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.

  8. Multiple immediate implants placement with immediate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Sumit; Narang, Anu; Jain, Kapil; Bhatia, Vineet

    2014-09-01

    The replacement of missing teeth with implant-borne restorations has become a treatment modality accepted by the scientific community for fully and partially edentulous patients. Recent reports have demonstrated the successful placement of dental implants into the fresh extraction socket in the anterior as well as in molar regions, which is made possible due to modification in implant surface. The present case report highlights the placement of three bicortical screw (BCS) implants into the fresh extraction sockets and one KOS implant in edentulous area with flapless technique. All the implants were immediately loaded and followed up for a period of 6 months.

  9. Multiple immediate implants placement with immediate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of missing teeth with implant-borne restorations has become a treatment modality accepted by the scientific community for fully and partially edentulous patients. Recent reports have demonstrated the successful placement of dental implants into the fresh extraction socket in the anterior as well as in molar regions, which is made possible due to modification in implant surface. The present case report highlights the placement of three bicortical screw (BCS implants into the fresh extraction sockets and one  KOS implant in edentulous area with flapless technique. All the implants were immediately loaded and followed up for a period of 6 months.

  10. Automated evaluation of autoantibodies on human epithelial-2 cells as an approach to standardize cell-based immunofluorescence tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Karl; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Hiemann, Rico; Weyer, Max-Georg; Büttner, Thomas; Radau, Boris; Krause, Rosemarie; Lehmann, Barbara; Feist, Eugen; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of autoantibodies (AAB) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is a basic tool for the serological diagnosis of systemic rheumatic disorders. Automation of autoantibody IIF reading including pattern recognition may improve intra- and inter-laboratory variability and meet the demand for cost-effective assessment of large numbers of samples. Comparing automated and visual interpretation, the usefulness for routine laboratory diagnostics was investigated. Autoantibody detection by IIF on human epithelial-2 (HEp-2) cells was conducted in a total of 1222 consecutive sera of patients with suspected systemic rheumatic diseases from a university routine laboratory (n = 924) and a private referral laboratory (n = 298). IIF results from routine diagnostics were compared with a novel automated interpretation system. Both diagnostic procedures showed a very good agreement in detecting AAB (kappa = 0.828) and differentiating respective immunofluorescence patterns. Only 98 (8.0%) of 1222 sera demonstrated discrepant results in the differentiation of positive from negative samples. The contingency coefficients of chi-square statistics were 0.646 for the university laboratory cohort with an agreement of 93.0% and 0.695 for the private laboratory cohort with an agreement of 90.6%, P Automated assessment of AAB by IIF on HEp-2 cells using an automated interpretation system is a reliable and robust method for positive/negative differentiation. Employing novel mathematical algorithms, automated interpretation provides reproducible detection of specific immunofluorescence patterns on HEp-2 cells. Automated interpretation can reduce drawbacks of IIF for AAB detection in routine diagnostics providing more reliable data for clinicians.

  11. MIMO wireless networks channels, techniques and standards for multi-antenna, multi-user and multi-cell systems

    CERN Document Server

    Clerckx, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This book is unique in presenting channels, techniques and standards for the next generation of MIMO wireless networks. Through a unified framework, it emphasizes how propagation mechanisms impact the system performance under realistic power constraints. Combining a solid mathematical analysis with a physical and intuitive approach to space-time signal processing, the book progressively derives innovative designs for space-time coding and precoding as well as multi-user and multi-cell techniques, taking into consideration that MIMO channels are often far from ideal. Reflecting developments

  12. Predicting success on the Advanced Placement Biology Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lesa Hanlin

    Four hundred sixty students in four public high schools were used as subjects to determine which of eleven academic and demographic factors studied were significant predictors of success for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination. Factors studied were attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the examination, grade point average, level of prerequisite biology course, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, proposed major in college, race, and SAT mathematics, verbal, and combined score. Significant relationships were found to exist between the Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, grade point average, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, race, and SAT scores. Significant relationships were not found to exist between Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and level prerequisite biology course and Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and proposed major in college. A multiple regression showed the best combination of predictors to be attendance, SAT verbal score, and SAT mathematics score. Discriminant analysis showed the variables in this study to be good predictors of whether the student would pass the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 3, 4, or 5) or fail the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 1 or 2). These results demonstrated that significant predictors for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination do exist and can be used to assist in the prediction of scores, prediction of passing or failing, the identification of

  13. Standardized cell and source frame geometries for conveyor type industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Jain Reji; Kohli, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology is involved in propagating the use of radiation processing of food and sterilization of medical products using Cobalt 60. In this respect, a large number of Radiation Processing Plants are proposed to be set up in the private sector with the technical assistance from BRIT. To streamline the facilitation of providing information to the entrepreneurs desirous of setting up such plants, it is important to standardize certain designs of components/sub-assemblies etc. which can straightaway be provided. Source frame is one such design. Two source frame geometries, one for high dose irradiation and another one for low dose irradiation and their shielding requirements are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Comparison of alpha-Type-1 polarizing and standard dendritic cell cytokine cocktail for maturation of therapeutic monocyte-derived dendritic cell preparations from cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan

    2008-01-01

    The current "gold standard" for generation of dendritic cell (DC) used in DC-based cancer vaccine studies is maturation of monocyte-derived DCs with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)/IL-1beta/IL-6 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Recently, a protocol for producing so-called alpha-Type-1...... generation and to be superior to the standard DC (sDC) cocktail as it induced fully mature DCs with potent IL-12p70 secretion together with CCR7 expression which is necessary for priming of a TH1 response and for migration to the draining lymph node, respectively. In this study, we tested the adaptation...

  15. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  16. Endoscopic stent placement throughout the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we focussed our research on stent placement throughout the GI tract. In search for ideal stents for treatment of malignant oesophageal stenosis and gastric outlet obstruction we evaluated new stent designs in prospective cohort studies. Smaller research projects mainly aimed to

  17. Simple, quick, and efficient implant placement jig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Narayan Pai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implants have become an inherent part of everyday orthodontic practice, but unlike prosthodontic implants, their placement and insertion into narrow interradicular spaces for orthodontic purposes remain a tricky and challenging part to most clinicians. An innovative and clinically useful method has been described here for safe and easy insertion of mini-implants.

  18. Weld Strength Assessment for Tape Placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Kok, J.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    A mandrel peel set-up is developed to assess the peel fracture toughness of fibre reinforced thermoplastic tapes welded on a woven laminate using a laser-assisted tape placement robot. A comprehensive experimental programme was designed to investigate the influence of nip point temperature and

  19. Suboccipital neuropathy after bone conduction device placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, H.T.; Ru, J.A. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of a 70-year-old female with occipital neuropathy following bone conduction device surgery. DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old woman underwent bone conduction device placement surgery on the left temporal bone. Postoperatively she progressively developed

  20. Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Advanced Placement Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigna, James

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a new addition to the Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry curriculum. This article explains the rationale for its inclusion, an overview of how the PES instrument records data, how the data can be analyzed, and how to include PES data in the course. Sample assessment items and analysis are included, as well as…

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHIC GUIDE FOR ADVANCED PLACEMENT, LATIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, ROBERT; ROSELLE, LEONE

    LITERARY AND CRITICAL WORKS, REFERENCE BOOKS, PERIODICALS, RECORDS, FILMS, AND FILMSTRIPS DEALING WITH ROMAN LITERATURE, HISTORY, CIVILIZATION, MYTHOLOGY, AND LANGUAGE ARE INCLUDED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECOMMENDED READING IN ENGLISH FOR ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAMS IN LATIN. THE LIST IS DIVIDED INTO TWO $500 GROUPS, SO THAT FOR CONVENIENCE IN…

  2. 34 CFR 300.116 - Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... educational placement of a child with a disability, including a preschool child with a disability, each public... with a disability requires some other arrangement, the child is educated in the school that he or she... modifications in the general education curriculum. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under...

  3. Realistic Approach for Phasor Measurement Unit Placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a realistic cost-effectivemodel for optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for complete observability of a power system considering practical cost implications. The proposed model considers hidden or otherwise unaccounted practical costs involved in PMU installat...

  4. Literary Archetypes. Advanced Placement English Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Providing students with the opportunity to earn college credit while still in high school, the Advanced Placement English course described in this guide is designed to help students (1) want to choose from a wide range of literature for independent reading; (2) develop a critical awareness about literature; (3) recognize connections among works of…

  5. 5 CFR 359.702 - Placement rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Placement rights. 359.702 Section 359.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR... rights. (a) An appointee covered by this subpart is entitled to be placed in a vacant civil service...

  6. Flapless single-tooth immediate implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Breno Carnevalli Franco; de Carvalho, Elaine Manso Oliveira Franco; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2013-01-01

    This 15-year prospective study evaluated the success rate and preservation of the gingival margin of single implants placed in a flapless procedure loaded immediately after extraction or after a healing period. Immediate flapless implant placement was performed in patients who fulfilled specified inclusion criteria. Implants were either immediately restored with a provisional crown or left unloaded (received healing abutment only). Implant success and gingival margin levels were evaluated after implant placement and after 1 to 15 years. A total of 305 healthy nonsmoking subjects (90 men, 215 women) were treated with 430 immediate implants during a 15-year period (December 1994 to December 2009) and monitored for 1 to 15 years. Two hundred seventy-five implants received an immediate provisional crown, and 155 received a healing abutment. The implant survival rate was 93.03% (± 3.74%). The immediate provisional helped to maintain the original gingival margin, although the implant survival rate was higher for implants that were not immediately restored (96.78%) than for the implants that were immediately restored with a provisional (90.9%). This 15-year prospective study showed a favorable implant success rate related to the flapless immediate implant placement protocol with healing abutment placement or an immediate provisional crown to replace a single missing tooth.

  7. Optimization of portal placement for endoscopic calcaneoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; Groot, Minke; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Spennacchio, Pietro A.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine an anatomic landmark to help locate portals in endoscopic calcaneoplasty. The device for optimal portal placement (DOPP) was developed to measure the distance from the distal fibula tip to the calcaneus (DFC) in 28 volunteers to determine the location of the

  8. Delayed bracket placement in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Wigati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beside bracket position, the timing of bracket placement is one of the most essential in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Even it seems simple the timing of bracket placement can be crucial and significantly influence the result of orthodontic treatment. However it is often found brackets are placed without complete understanding of its purpose and effects, which could be useless and even detrimental for the case. Purpose: The aim of this case report is to show that the timing of bracket placement could be different depending on the cases. Case: Five different cases are presented here with different timing of bracket placement. Case management: On these cases, brackets were placed on the upper arch first, on the lower arch first, or even only on some teeth first. Good and efficient orthodontic treatment results were achieved. Conclusion: For every orthodontic case, from the very beginning of treatment, bracket should be placed with the end result in mind. If brackets are correctly placed at a correct time, better treatment result could be achieved without unnecessary round tripping tooth movement.

  9. Cognitive functioning, cognitive reserve, and residential care placement in patients with Alzheimer's and related dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Helena; Dujela, Carren; Beattie, B Lynn; Chappell, Neena

    2018-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that patients with mild to moderate dementia with higher initial cognitive reserve (higher education levels exhibit faster cognitive decline at later stages of disease progression as they approach residential care (RC) placement. Two provincial administrative databases were used. One contained individuals' scores of cognitive functioning (assessed at 6- to 12-month intervals using the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination, SMMSE, 2007-2014) and education level; the second (BC Ministry of Health Home and Community Care database, 2001-2014) contained individuals' RC placement; N = 10531. During 2.5-0.5 years prior to placement, SMMSE scores of patients with 0-8 years of education dropped slightly (M D 20.6 to 20.0), while patients with 9-12 years and 13+ years of education started higher (M D 21.8 and 21.4), but decreased faster and ended up lower (M D 19.5 and 18.8). Six-months prior to placement, SMMSE scores of all groups dropped almost 2 points. Once cognitive reserve of more highly educated dementia patients is depleted and they approach RC placement, their cognitive functioning deteriorates faster. Finding effective interventions that maintain or enhance cognitive reserve may increase the time in the community for dementia patients.

  10. Microspectrophotometric studies of Romanowsky stained blood cells. II. Comparison of the performance of two standardized stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Galbraith, W; Navarro, E F; Bacus, J W

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance of two standardized Romanowsky blood stains, namely those of Marshall et al. and Wittekind et al., both containing azure B and eosin alone. Stain performance is assessed objectively by the use of three complementary techniques, all based on the visible absorbance spectra of stained cellular substrates. The first of these techniques is a simple comparison of the shapes and heights of the absorbance spectra. The second technique uses the CIE Colorimetric System, and thus permits the quantitation of colour in a manner that agrees with human observation. CIE co-ordinates (chromaticity points, luminance) are calculated directly from absorbance spectra. The third technique is that of spectral subtraction, which yields a set of factors which describe the quantities of component dyes which are bound by the object. This technique, unlike the other two, requires a priori knowledge of the dyes used in the stains, and their spectra when bound to cellular substrates. Although the differences between the two methods are subtle, and hard for the subjective observer to define, the objective methods described here do show statistically significant differences. Wittekind's stain produces less intense staining, except for lymphocyte and monocyte cytoplasms. To the human eye, the differential coloration of these two substrates is more pronounced, but the difference between all nuclei and cytoplasm is less marked. The major difference in the uptake of dye components is in the small quantities of eosin dimer that are bound in this technique.

  11. Immediate placement of endosseous implants into the extraction sockets

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Ebenezer; K Balakrishnan; R Vigil Dev Asir; Banu Sragunar

    2015-01-01

    Implant by definition ?means any object or material, such as an alloplastic substance or other tissue, which is partial or completely inserted into the body for therapeutic, diagnostic, prosthetic, or experimental purpose.? The placement of a dental implant in an extraction socket at the time of extraction or explantation is known as immediate implant placement whereas delayed placement of implant signifies the implant placement in edentulous areas where healing has completed with new bone fo...

  12. Determining the brand awareness of product placement in video games

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focusses on the determination of the brand awareness of product placement in video games. The theoretical part includes information about marketing, product placement and video games. The practical part consists of evaluation of the market research about product placements in video games. Conclusion suggests the most important factors influencing the level brand awareness.

  13. Brand Placement and Consumer Choice: An in-Store Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.…

  14. Optimal capacitor sizing and placement based on real time analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, optimal capacitor sizing and placement method was used to improve energy efficiency. It involves the placement of capacitors in a specific location with suitable sizing based on the current load of the electrical system. The optimization is done in real time scenario where the sizing and placement of the ...

  15. 20 CFR 638.409 - Placement and job development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Placement and job development. 638.409 Section 638.409 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS... Placements in the Job Corps § 638.409 Placement and job development. The overall objective of all Job Corps...

  16. Planned and unplanned terminations of foster care placements in the Netherlands: Relationships with characteristics of foster children and foster placements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.; Maaskant, A.; Weijers, I.; Weijers, D.; Hermanns, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of placement and child characteristics in the unplanned termination of foster placements. Data were used from 169 foster children aged 0 to 20. Results showed that 35% of all foster placement terminations were unplanned. Outcomes of logistic regression analyses

  17. Guidelines for defining and implementing standard episode of care for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation within the context of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhail, Navneet S; Giralt, Sergio; Bonagura, Anthony; Crawford, Stephen; Farnia, Stephanie; Omel, James L; Pasquini, Marcelo; Saber, Wael; LeMaistre, Charles F

    2015-04-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires that health care insurers cover routine patient costs associated with participating in clinical trials for cancer and other life-threatening diseases. There is a need to better define routine costs within the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) clinical trials. This white paper presents guidance on behalf of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation for defining a standard HSCT episode and delineates components that may be considered as routine patient costs versus research costs. The guidelines will assist investigators, trial sponsors, and transplantation centers in planning for clinical trials that are conducted as a part of the HSCT episode and will inform payers who provide coverage for transplantation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  19. Placement Strategies of World's Top Business Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Varun Shenoy; Aithal P. S .

    2017-01-01

    Institutional Ranking in higher education space has become a very important practice and management institutions across the world are greatly profited by the published global rankings based on various criterions. The ranking is usually publicized depending upon Institutional infrastructure, their employment &placements, teaching pedagogy, research output, faculty-student ratio, international linkage, application of technology in teaching –learning process etc. In this study, we have chosen to...

  20. A Placement Model for Flight Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    simulator basing strategies. Captains David R. VanDenburg and Jon D. Veith developed a mathematical model to assist in the placement analysis of A-7...Institute for Defense Analysis, Arlington VA, August 1977. AD A049979. 23. Sugarman , Robert C., Steven L. Johnson, and William F. H. Ring. "B-I Systems...USAF Cost and Plan- nin& Factors. AFR 173-13. Washington: Govern- ment Printing Office, I February 1982. * 30. Van Denburg, Captain David R., USAF

  1. Standardization method for measurement of hydroxyurea by Ultra High Efficiency Liquid Chromatography in plasma of patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia (SCA is a recessively inherited disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, chronic inflammation, and acute episodes of hemolysis. Hydroxyurea (HU is widely used to increase the levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF. The objective of this study was to standardize and validate a method for the quantification of HU in human plasma by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC in order to determine the plasma HU levels in adult patients with SCA who had been treated with HU. We used an analytical reverse phase column (Nucleosil C18 with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water (16.7/83.3. The retention times of HU, urea, and methylurea were 6.7, 7.7, and 11.4 min, respectively. All parameters of the validation process were defined. To determine the precision and accuracy of quality controls, HU in plasma was used at concentrations of 100, 740, and 1600 µM, with methylurea as the internal standard. Linearity was assessed in the range of 50-1600 µM HU in plasma, obtaining a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The method was accurate and precise and can be used for the quantitative determination of HU for therapeutic monitoring of patients with SCA treated with HU.

  2. Smelling Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections using a whole-cell biosensor - An alternative for the gold-standard culturing assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviatkovski, Igor; Shushan, Sagit; Oron, Yahav; Frumin, Idan; Amir, Daniel; Secundo, Lavi; Livne, Eitan; Weissbrod, Aharon; Sobel, Noam; Helman, Yael

    2018-02-10

    Improved easy-to-use diagnostic tools for infections are in strong demand worldwide. Yet, despite dramatic advances in diagnostic technologies, the gold-standard remains culturing. Here we offer an alternative tool demonstrating that a bacterial biosensor can efficiently detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients suffering from otitis externa. Detection was based on specific binding between the biosensor and 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA), a volatile produced by P. aeruginosa in high amounts. We collected pus samples from ears of 26 subjects exhibiting symptoms of otitis externa. Detection of P. aeruginosa using the biosensor was compared to detection using gold-standard culturing assay and to gas-chromatograph-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of 2-AA. The biosensor strain test matched the culture assay in 24 samples (92%) and the GC-MS analyses in 25 samples (96%). With this result in hand, we designed a device containing a whole-cell luminescent biosensor combined with a photo-multiplier tube. This device allowed detection of 2-AA at levels as low as 2 nmol, on par with detection level of GC-MS. The results of the described study demonstrate that the volatile 2-AA serves as an effective biomarker for P. aeruginosa in ear infections, and that activation of the biosensor strain by 2-AA provides a unique opportunity to design an easy-to-use device that can specifically detect P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Standard protocol of ALK fusion gene assessment by fluorescent in situ hybridization in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Zheng, Shan; Xie, Yong-qiang

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the standard protocol for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene assessment by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tissue specimens of NSCLC cases were retrospectively collected from Jan. 2011 to July 2012. ALK fusion gene was examined by FISH using break-apart ALK gene probes (Vysis company). The identification of ALK fusion gene was determined by fluorescent signals under a fluorescence microscope. One hundred and forty-six eligible NSCLC tumor specimens were tested for ALK fusion gene by FISH. The specimens included 110 cases (75.4%) of surgically-removed tissues, 11 cases (7.5%) of biopsy, 19 cases (13.0%) of lymph node and 6 cases (4.1%) of other metastatic tissues. The positivity of ALK fusion gene was 8.9% (13/146). The assessment of ALK fusing gene by FISH using standard protocol for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is feasible. The protocol can used to test in surgically-removed tissues, biopsies, metastatic lymph nodes and other metastastic specimens.

  4. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Experiences of Supervision at Practice Placement Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Diack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whilst placement supervision and clinical education programmes are of significant value in shaping the behaviours of undergraduate healthcare students, appropriate provisions which are efficacious to the learner are somewhat lacking, particularly for students studying on UK MPharm programmes. Objectives. To explore and explain the value of placement supervision to the personal development and employability of undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods. Students participated in a week long community pharmacy pilot programme, a result of a collaborative effort between the School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences and a small consortium of community pharmacies. Students and stakeholders were asked to evaluate their experiences via separate questionnaires which had been developed to elicit views and attitudes. Key Findings. Feedback from students and stakeholders towards the experience was overwhelmingly positive with multiple benefits being reported. Of particular prominence was the emphasis in student feedback on the value of placement supervision to their professional and personal development. Findings were indicative of a development in clinical practice proficiencies, core skills, and improvement in decision-making practice. Conclusions. The benefits of clinical supervision to the professional and personal development of MPharm students are well documented, although attracting professional pharmacy supervisors is proving a problematic task for educational providers in the UK.

  6. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  7. Paving the Way for Implant Placement for an Auricular Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti S Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ideal placement of bone integrated implants to retain a prosthesis is critical for a successful final prosthetic restoration. Several sources have described the importance and use of surgical templates for the optimal placement of extraoral implants. The literature is replete with information explaining the use of surgic al templates for intraoral implant placement. Indeed, correct placement of implants facilitates creating a prosthesis that functions well and looks natural. To ensure proper implant placement, considerable effort should go into pre-surgical planning. It is clear that extraoral surgical templates aid in proper implant placement, yet the literature describing fabrication is limited. This article describes different methods for fabrication of surgical template for placement of implants for an auricular prosthesis.

  8. Endotracheal tube placement by EMT-Basics in a rural EMS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jeffrey C; Hirshberg, Alan J

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an intubation-training module and special-waiver project in which Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics were trained to perform endotracheal intubations in a rural community. This was a prospective observational study over a four-year period (July 1998 through May 2002) of all intubation attempts by EMT-Basics in the field. The authors observed intubation data, training methods, and quality-assurance methods of a special-waiver project agreed to by the State Department of Public Health to train and allow EMT-Basics to intubate patients. Data were from documentation unique to the project. Project documentation evaluated the placement and complication(s) of endotracheal tube (ETT) placement after arrival to the emergency department. An intubation attempt was defined as direct laryngoscopy. A successful attempt was defined as an appropriately sized ETT placed and secured in the trachea below the vocal cords and above the carina. Confirmation of placement in the field included accepted clinical methods and the use of qualitative colorimetric end-tidal carbon dioxide detectors. The EMT-Basics were trained using a paramedic curriculum, including operating room intubations on live adult patients. All patients were in either cardiopulmonary or respiratory arrest. Thirty-two intubations were performed by EMT-Basics. Thirty attempts were successful and two were unsuccessful (94%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 80-98%). Unsuccessful ETT placements were managed with accepted basic life support airway standards. There were no unrecognized esophageal ETT placements (0%; 95% CI 0-11%). This study demonstrated that with an intensive training program using selected highly motivated providers and close monitoring, a program of EMT-Basic ETT placement in a rural setting can achieve acceptable success rates in patients in cardiac or respiratory arrest.

  9. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhirong; Chen Yan; Labinskyy, Nazar; Hsieh Tzechen; Ungvari, Zoltan; Wu, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that low to moderate consumption of red wine is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease; the protection is in part attributed to grape-derived polyphenols, notably trans-resveratrol, present in red wine. It is not clear whether the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol can be reproduced by standardized grape extracts (SGE). In the present studies, we determined, using cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), growth and specific gene responses to resveratrol and SGE provided by the California Table Grape Commission. Suppression of HASMC proliferation by resveratrol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 and heat shock protein HSP27. Using resveratrol affinity chromatography and biochemical fractionation procedures, we showed by immunoblot analysis that treatment of HASMC with resveratrol increased the expression of quinone reductase I and II, and also altered their subcellular distribution. Growth of HASMC was significantly inhibited by 70% ethanolic SGE; however, gene expression patterns in various cellular compartments elicited in response to SGE were substantially different from those observed in resveratrol-treated cells. Further, SGE also differed from resveratrol in not being able to induce relaxation of rat carotid arterial rings. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HASMC growth and gene expression by SGE and resveratrol

  10. Antibiotic use at dental implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Keenan, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Groups Trial Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE via OVID and EMBASE via OVID. Databases were searched with no language or date restrictions. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and the abstracts for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. If needed, a third author was consulted. Included were randomised clinical trials with a follow-up of at least three months which evaluated the use of prophylactic antibiotic compared to no antibiotic or a placebo and examined different antibiotics of different doses and durations in patients undergoing dental implant placement. The outcomes were implant failure (considered as implant mobility, removal of implant due to bone loss or infection) and prosthesis failure (prosthesis could not be placed). Standard Cochrane methodology procedures were followed. Risk of bias was completed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) using a random-effects model for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The statistical unit was the participant and not the prosthesis or implant. Heterogeneity including both clinical and methodological factors was investigated. Six randomised clinical trials with 1162 participants were identified for the review. Three trials compared 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (927 participants). One trial compared 3 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (55 participants). Another trial compared 1 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 500 mg four times a day for two days versus no antibiotic (80 participants). An additional trial compared four groups: (1) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin; (2) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 1 g twice a day for seven days; (3) 1 g of postoperative amoxicillin twice a day for seven days and (4) no antibiotics (100 participants). The overall body of the evidence was considered moderate.The meta-analysis of the

  11. Randomized trial of intensive housing placement and community transition services for episodic and recidivist homeless families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Aaron J; Mitchell, Kristen; Pareti, Lauren; DeGenova, Joe; Heller, Anne; Hannigan, Anthony; Gholston, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    We compared Home to Stay, a pilot of intensive housing placement and community transition services for episodic and recidivist homeless families, with a standard services approach. Using intention-to-treat analyses, we conducted a modified randomized trial of 138 Home to Stay client families and a control group of 192 client families receiving standard shelter services. Home to Stay clients exited shelter more quickly than clients in the control group (Cox regression, P homeless families. Standard shelter services may be able to narrow this performance gap by incentivizing work with all episodic and recidivist homeless families.

  12. FROM BRAND PLACEMENT TO TOURISM PRODUCT PLACEMENT. FICTION SERIES AS PROMOTIONAL SUPPORT OF SPANISH TOURISM DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Araújo-Vila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every day more consumers spend much of their free time to the consumption of audiovisual series, which is reflected in the notable increase in downloads and audiences. Therefore, many sectors have decided to use audiovisual series as advertising (brand placement, being one of them the tourism sector (tourism product placement. There are many worldwide destinations that have decided to set in a fiction series, thus being viewed by thousands of spectators, which has resulted in increases in visitors. In the Spanish case is not so clear the use of this strategy, as it is analysed in this article.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of maxillary interradicular bone with cone-beam computed tomography for bicortical placement of orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Feifei; Cao, Meng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xi; Chen, Xuepeng; Yang, Le; Gao, Weiran; Petrone, Joseph F; Ding, Yin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a protocol for safe bicortical placement of mini-implants by measuring the interradicular spaces of the maxillary teeth and the bone quality. Cone-beam computed tomography data were obtained from 50 adults. Three-dimensional reconstructions and measurements were made with SimplantPro software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). For each interradicular site, the bone thicknesses and interradicular distances at the planes 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 mm above the cementoenamel junction were measured. Standard bone units were defined to evaluate the influences of bone density and the different placement patterns on the stability of the mini-implants. The safe interradicular sites in the maxilla for bicortical placement of 1.5-mm-diameter mini-implants were in all planes between the first and second premolars, and between the second premolar and the first molar. The safe palatal sites were between the first and second molars, and the safe labial sites of the 9-mm plane were between the central incisors, and between the lateral incisor and the canine. The safe buccal sites of the 6- and 9-mm planes were between the first and second molars, and the safe buccal sites of the 3-, 6-, and 9-mm planes were between the canine and the first premolar. Most bone thicknesses were from 8 to 12 mm. The optimal placement angle between the second premolar and the first molar was 58°. Bicortical placement could have more standard bone units than unicortical placement in the maxilla. Bicortical placement would be more stable in the maxilla. For the site between the molars, special care should be taken at a plane higher than 6 mm to prevent maxillary sinus penetration. The most favorable interradicular area in the maxilla was between the second premolar and the first molar. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Suprarenal inferior vena cava filter placement prior to transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of a renal cell carcinoma with large renal vein tumor thrombus: Prevention of pulmonary tumor emboli after TAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shinnichi; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Koshino, Tukasa; Sako, Masao; Kono, Michio

    1997-01-01

    To prevent embolization of necrotic renal vein tumor after transcatheter embolization of a left renal cell carcinoma, we placed a suprarenal Bird's nest inferior vena cava filter. The patient tolerated the procedure well and had extensive tumor infarction including the tumor thrombus on 6-month follow-up computed tomography

  15. Gastrostomy Tube Placement Without Nasogastric Tube: A Retrospective Evaluation in 85 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberlein, Wolf E., E-mail: weheberlein@uams.edu; Goodwin, Whitney J.; Wood, Clint E.; Yousaf, Muhammad; Culp, William C. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Our study evaluated techniques for percutaneous gastrostomy (G)-tube placement without the use of a nasogastric (NG) tube. Instead, direct puncture of a physiologic air bubble or effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention was performed in patients with upper digestive tract obstruction (UDTO) or psychological objections to NG tubes. Materials and Methods: A total of 886 patients underwent G-tube placement in our department during a period of 7 years. We present our series of 85 (9.6%) consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous G-tube placement without use of an NG tube. Results: Of these 85 patients, fluoroscopic guided access was attempted by direct puncture of a physiologically present gastric air bubble in 24 (28%) cases. Puncture of an effervescent-induced large gastric air bubble was performed in 61 (72%) patients. Altogether, 82 (97%) of 85 G tubes were successfully placed in this fashion. The three failures comprised refusal of effervescent, vomiting of effervescent, and one initial tube misplacement when a deviation from our standard technique occurred. Conclusion: The described techniques compare favorably with published large series on G-tube placement with an NG tube in place. The techniques are especially suited for patients with UDTO due to head, neck, or esophageal malignancies, but they should be considered as an alternative in all patients. Direct puncture of effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention is a safe, patient-friendly and effective technique.

  16. Protocol for Bone Augmentation with Simultaneous Early Implant Placement: A Retrospective Multicenter Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fairbairn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present a novel protocol for alveolar bone regeneration in parallel to early implant placement. Methods. 497 patients in need of extraction and early implant placement with simultaneous bone augmentation were treated in a period of 10 years. In all patients the same specific method was followed and grafting was performed utilizing in situ hardening fully resorbable alloplastic grafting materials consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate. The protocol involved atraumatic extraction, implant placement after 4 weeks with simultaneous bone augmentation, and loading of the implant 12 weeks after placement and grafting. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean of 4 years. Results. A total of 601 postextraction sites were rehabilitated in 497 patients utilizing the novel protocol. Three implants failed before loading and three implants failed one year after loading, leaving an overall survival rate of 99.0%. Conclusions. This standardized protocol allows successful long-term functional results regarding alveolar bone regeneration and implant rehabilitation. The concept of placing the implant 4 weeks after extraction, augmenting the bone around the implant utilizing fully resorbable, biomechanically stable, alloplastic materials, and loading the implant at 12 weeks seems to offer advantages when compared with traditional treatment modalities.

  17. Effective conflict resolution strategies for SRAF placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjugunte, Shashidhara K.; Strecker, Norbert; Jayaram, Srividya; LaCour, Pat; Torunoglu, Ilhami

    2015-07-01

    Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) have emerged as a key technology to enable semiconductor manufacturing for advanced technology nodes. SRAF placement is required to adhere to manufacturability constraints (MRC). MRC specifications are distance and size constraints specified by the user to ensure SRAFs are not detrimental to the final target shapes being printed. Conceptually, SRAF placement can be divided into two steps - SRAF candidate generation and SRAF candidate cleanup or conflict resolution. SRAFs generated as candidates may not adhere to MRC constraints. It is during the cleanup/conflict resolution process that the MRC constraints are enforced. In this paper we focus on the latter phase - cleanup. The goal of the cleanup phase is to retain as much of the initial candidates as possible, and, if necessary, transform them to adhere to MRC conditions. An SRAF is said to be in conflict with another shape if it violates the distance MRC constraint. One can model these conflicts using a conflict graph G=(V,E), whose vertices V correspond to geometric shapes involved in a conflict and an edge is present in E, between two vertices if the corresponding shapes are involved in a conflict. A weight is associated with each vertex that could, for example, correspond to area of the corresponding shape. The goal of conflict resolution then, is to find a transformation of the vertices so that the resulting graph is conflict free while maximizing the weight of vertices retained. This can be viewed as a generalization of the computationally hard problem of finding the largest independent set of candidates, albeit allowing for transformation. The transformations we allow include deletion, splitting, resizing, merge, and bounded translation. In this paper, we describe an approach which classifies the conflicts and apply appropriate transformations to achieve effective SRAF placement. Further, we demonstrate that such a strategy reduces the number of rules to be specified by

  18. Post-placement temperature reduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    With technology scaled to deep submicron era, temperature and temperature gradient have emerged as important design criteria. We propose two post-placement techniques to reduce peak temperature by intelligently allocating whitespace in the hotspots. Both methods are fully compliant with commercial...... technologies, and can be easily integrated with state-of-the-art thermal-aware design flow. Experiments in a set of tests on circuits implemented in STM 65nm technologies show that our methods achieve better peak temperature reduction than directly increasing circuit's area....

  19. New strategy for optimizing wavelength converter placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Y. C.; Chien, S. F.; Low, Andy L. Y.; Teo, C. F.; Lee, Youngseok

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new strategic alternate-path routing to be combined with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to better solve the wavelength converters placement problem. The strategic search heuristic is designed to provide network connectivity topologies for the converters to be placed more effectively. The new strategy is applied to the 14-node NSFNET to examine its efficiency in reducing the blocking probability in sparse wavelength conversion network. Computed results show that, when applied to the identical optimization framework, our search method outperforms both the equal-cost multipath routing and traffic-engineering-aware shortest-path routing.

  20. Preoperative short hookwire placement for small pulmonary lesions: evaluation of technical success and risk factors for initial placement failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Matsui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Gobara, Hideo; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2018-05-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the technical success of computed tomography fluoroscopy-guided short hookwire placement before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and to identify the risk factors for initial placement failure. In total, 401 short hookwire placements for 401 lesions (mean diameter 9.3 mm) were reviewed. Technical success was defined as correct positioning of the hookwire. Possible risk factors for initial placement failure (i.e., requirement for placement of an additional hookwire or to abort the attempt) were evaluated using logistic regression analysis for all procedures, and for procedures performed via the conventional route separately. Of the 401 initial placements, 383 were successful and 18 failed. Short hookwires were finally placed for 399 of 401 lesions (99.5%). Univariate logistic regression analyses revealed that in all 401 procedures only the transfissural approach was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure (odds ratio, OR, 15.326; 95% confidence interval, CI, 5.429-43.267; p failure (OR 0.793, 95% CI 0.631-0.996; p = 0.046). The technical success of preoperative short hookwire placement was extremely high. The transfissural approach was a predictor initial placement failure for all procedures and small lesion size was a predictor of initial placement failure for procedures performed via the conventional route. • Technical success of preoperative short hookwire placement was extremely high. • The transfissural approach was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure for all procedures. • Small lesion size was a significant independent predictor of initial placement failure for procedures performed via the conventional route.

  1. Alternative electrode placement in (automatic) sleep scoring (Fpz-Cz/Pz-Oz versus C4-A1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sweden, B; Kemp, B; Kamphuisen, H A; Van der Velde, E A

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the international standard electrode placement (C4-A1) can be replaced by an alternative placement (Fpz-Cz/Pz-Oz) in an automatic sleep monitoring system without losing Rechtschaffen and Kales (R-K) balances. Single night-sleep polygraphic recordings of 10 patients, screened in a clinical sleep disorder setting, were recorded simultaneously with both placements, and visual sleep classification was performed separately by two independent observers. Interobserver and interplacement agreement were evaluated by way of average (dis)agreement matrices and kappa values computed for overall and individual stage scoring. Interobserver agreement for both the test and the standard electrode placements and interplacement agreement for both observers were assessed as fair to good or excellent. Scoring differences were evaluated by the rank sign test applied to clinical and theoretical difference scores. It appears that the interplacement differences are about equal to the interobserver differences, except for a slight tendency for sleep to be scored in a deeper stage with the proposed alternative placement. The data are presented and discussed in relation to current literature concepts.

  2. Immediate placement of endosseous implants into the extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant by definition "means any object or material, such as an alloplastic substance or other tissue, which is partial or completely inserted into the body for therapeutic, diagnostic, prosthetic, or experimental purpose." The placement of a dental implant in an extraction socket at the time of extraction or explantation is known as immediate implant placement whereas delayed placement of implant signifies the implant placement in edentulous areas where healing has completed with new bone formation after the loss of tooth/teeth. Recent idea goes by "why late when it can be done immediately." There are several advantages of immediate placement of implants, and lots of studies have been done. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of immediate versus delayed placement of implants have been reviewed.

  3. Immediate placement of endosseous implants into the extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, Vijay; Balakrishnan, K; Asir, R Vigil Dev; Sragunar, Banu

    2015-04-01

    Implant by definition "means any object or material, such as an alloplastic substance or other tissue, which is partial or completely inserted into the body for therapeutic, diagnostic, prosthetic, or experimental purpose." The placement of a dental implant in an extraction socket at the time of extraction or explantation is known as immediate implant placement whereas delayed placement of implant signifies the implant placement in edentulous areas where healing has completed with new bone formation after the loss of tooth/teeth. Recent idea goes by "why late when it can be done immediately." There are several advantages of immediate placement of implants, and lots of studies have been done. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of immediate versus delayed placement of implants have been reviewed.

  4. [Developing and standardizing experimental protocols using human iPS-derived cells to predict adverse drug reactions in pre-clinical safety studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Yuko; Sato, Kaoru; Kanda, Yasunari; Ishida, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have standardized experimental protocols to evaluate the possibility of using cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in the pre-clinical studies for the drug approval processes. Cells differentiated from hiPSC, especially cardiomyocytes, neurons and hepatocytes, are expected to be used as new pharmacological and toxicological assay tools. Current preclinical test methods have limitations for predicting clinical adverse drug reactions. This is because of the so-called 'problem of species difference'. Drug-induced arrhythmia, cognitive impairment and hepatotoxicity which can't be predicted in pre-clinical studies are major causes of the high rate attrition of new-drug candidates in clinical studies and of withdrawal of products from the market. The development of new pre-clinical test methods using cells differentiated from hiPSCs would resolve these problems, in addition to solving the issue of "the replacement, refinement and reduction (3Rs)" of animal experiments. From 2010 to 2011, we surveyed companies belonging to the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA) and academic researchers about the usage of differentiated cells in their laboratories. We found that studies were performed using differentiated cells from different cell lines of hiPSC with laboratory-specific differentiation methods. The cells were cultured in various conditions and their activities were measured using different methods. This resulted in a variety of pharmacological responses of the cells. It is therefore impossible to compare reproducibility and ensure reliability of experiments using these cells. To utilize the cells in the drug approval processes, we need robust, standardized test methods to accurately reproduce these methods in all laboratories. We will then be able to compare and analyze the obtained results. Based on the survey, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare funded our study. In our study, we standardize

  5. The Re-Placement Test: Using TOEFL for Purposes of Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider using TOEFL scores for purposes of placement and advising for international graduate students at a northern California research university. As the number of international students is on the rise and the funds for the graduate ESL program are diminishing, the way in which the university is handling the influx of…

  6. Placement suitability criteria of composite tape for mould surface in automated tape placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Automated tape placement is an important automated process used for fabrication of large composite structures in aeronautical industry. The carbon fiber composite parts realized with this process tend to replace the aluminum parts produced by high-speed machining. It is difficult to determine the appropriate width of the composite tape in automated tape placement. Wrinkling will appear in the tape if it does not suit for the mould surface. Thus, this paper deals with establishing placement suitability criteria of the composite tape for the mould surface. With the assumptions for ideal mapping and by applying some principles and theorems of differential geometry, the centerline trajectory of the composite tape is identified to follow the geodesic. The placement suitability of the composite tape is examined on three different types of non-developable mould surfaces and four criteria are derived. The developed criteria have been used to test the deposition process over several mould surfaces and the appropriate width for each mould surface is obtained by referring to these criteria.

  7. Placement Design of Changeable Message Signs on Curved Roadways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongren Wang, Ph.D. P.E. T.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a fundamental framework for Changeable Message Sign (CMS placement design along roadways with horizontal curves. This analytical framework determines the available distance for motorists to read and react to CMS messages based on CMS character height, driver's cone of vision, CMS pixel's cone of legibility, roadway horizontal curve radius, and CMS lateral and vertical placement. Sample design charts were developed to illustrate how the analytical framework may facilitate CMS placement design.

  8. Strategic Placement of Treatments (SPOTS): Maximizing the Effectiveness of Fuel and Vegetation Treatments on Problem Fire Behavior and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Gercke; Susan A. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, eight U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management interdisciplinary teams participated in a test of strategic placement of treatments (SPOTS) techniques to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing problem fire behavior, adverse fire effects, and suppression costs. This interagency approach to standardizing the assessment of risks and...

  9. How Best to Assess Students Taking Work Placements? An Empirical Investigation from Australian Urban and Regional Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John; Jones, Martyn; Steele, Wendy; Coiacetto, Eddo

    2017-01-01

    Work placements (including internships) are common in urban and regional planning education but the relevant literature has largely overlooked their assessment and academic standards. To address this gap, the paper presents a study of this topic undertaken within the Australian context. The research involved systematically scoping the status of…

  10. Advancement of a Job- and Personal- Characteristics Placement Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frink, Dwight

    2001-01-01

    Research toward validation of a comprehensive model mapping personal characteristics onto differentiated job characteristics for effective placement, development, and retention of Navy personnel is described...

  11. Difference in prognostic significance of maximum standardized uptake value on [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Misumi, Keizo; Ikeda, Takuhiro; Mimura, Takeshi; Hihara, Jun; Okada, Morihito

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the prognostic significance of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings according to histological subtypes in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer. We examined 176 consecutive patients who had undergone preoperative [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and curative surgical resection for adenocarcinoma (n=132) or squamous cell carcinoma (n=44). Maximum standardized uptake values for the primary lesions in all patients were calculated as the [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake and the surgical results were analyzed. The median values of maximum standardized uptake value for the primary tumors were 2.60 in patients with adenocarcinoma and 6.95 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (P 6.95 (P=0.83) among patients with squamous cell carcinoma, 2-year disease-free survival rates were 93.9% for maximum standardized uptake value ≤3.7 and 52.4% for maximum standardized uptake value >3.7 (P<0.0001) among those with adenocarcinoma, and notably, 100 and 57.2%, respectively, in patients with Stage I adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001). On the basis of the multivariate Cox analyses of patients with adenocarcinoma, maximum standardized uptake value (P=0.008) was a significantly independent factor for disease-free survival as well as nodal metastasis (P=0.001). Maximum standardized uptake value of the primary tumor was a powerful prognostic determinant for patients with adenocarcinoma, but not with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. (author)

  12. Faculty staff and rural placement supervisors' pre- and post-placement perceptions of a clinical rural placement programme in NSW Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G; Blinkhorn, A

    2013-02-01

    Staff views on a rural clinical placement involving 4th year dental undergraduates from the University of Sydney (Australia) were collected in order to monitor whether the programme was feasible and acceptable to the academic Faculty Staff and the rural clinical supervisors. An evaluation of the rural placement programme was undertaken in 2009 at three rural sites in New South Wales (Australia). Semi-structured pre- and post-placement in person interviews recorded the views of three University Faculty Staff whilst similar data were collected by telephone interviews for three supervising clinicians at the rural clinical sites. Interviews gathered opinions on the organisation, implementation and outcomes of the rural placement programme. Eight qualitative analysis identified themes were specified and included communication, programme duration, effect on students and staff, benefits of the programme, rural intentions, programme sustainability and the success of the programme. Positive pre-placement aspects were potentially good clinical experience, new environment, sharing of knowledge and interaction with a rural community. Negative issues were anxieties about students' clinical ability to offer a service, missing lectures and maintaining clinical training quotas. The post-placement themes were generally positive; staff reported that the students enjoyed the rural community experience, their communication and clinical skills improved. According to the staff, the placement programme was feasible and provided acceptable positive clinical and personal development for the students. This research will help educators planning to incorporate a rural clinical programme into a University curriculum. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Magnetic Resonance-Guided Nasogastric Feeding Tube Placement for Neonates: A Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Barret; Ireland, Christopher; Kraus, Steven; Racadio, John; Hilvert, Nicole; Dunn, Richard; Dumoulin, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Establishing postnatal nutrition delivery is challenging in neonates with immature sucking and swallowing ability. Enteral feeding is the gold standard for such patients, but their small size and fragility present challenges in nasogastric (NG) feeding tube placement. Feeding tubes are typically placed with x-ray guidance, which provides minimal soft tissue contrast and exposes the baby to ionizing radiation. This research investigates magnetic resonance (MR) guidance of NG feeding tube placement in neonates to provide improved soft tissue visualization without ionizing radiation. A novel feeding tube incorporating 3 solenoid coils for real-time tracking and guidance in the MR environment was developed. The feeding tube was placed 5 times in a rabbit with conventional x-ray guidance to assess mechanical stability and function. After x-ray procedures, the rabbit was transferred to a neonatal MR system, and the tube was placed 5 more times. In procedures guided by x-ray and MR, the feeding tube provided sufficient mechanical strength and functionality to access the esophagus and stomach of the rabbit. MR imaging provided significantly improved soft tissue contrast versus x-ray, which aided in proper tube guidance. Moreover, MR guidance allowed for real-time placement of the tube without the use of ionizing radiation. The feasibility and benefits offered by an MR-guided approach to NG feeding tube placement were demonstrated. The ability to acquire high-quality MR images of soft tissue without ionizing radiation and a contrast agent, coupled with accurate 3-dimensional device tracking, promises to have a powerful impact on future neonatal feeding tube placements.

  14. Treatment planning for prostate focal laser ablation in the face of needle placement uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepek, Jeremy, E-mail: jcepek@robarts.ca; Fenster, Aaron [Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John [Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Urology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Davidson, Sean R. H. [Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7 (Canada); Ghai, Sangeet [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To study the effect of needle placement uncertainty on the expected probability of achieving complete focal target destruction in focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer. Methods: Using a simplified model of prostate cancer focal target, and focal laser ablation region shapes, Monte Carlo simulations of needle placement error were performed to estimate the probability of completely ablating a region of target tissue. Results: Graphs of the probability of complete focal target ablation are presented over clinically relevant ranges of focal target sizes and shapes, ablation region sizes, and levels of needle placement uncertainty. In addition, a table is provided for estimating the maximum target size that is treatable. The results predict that targets whose length is at least 5 mm smaller than the diameter of each ablation region can be confidently ablated using, at most, four laser fibers if the standard deviation in each component of needle placement error is less than 3 mm. However, targets larger than this (i.e., near to or exceeding the diameter of each ablation region) require more careful planning. This process is facilitated by using the table provided. Conclusions: The probability of completely ablating a focal target using FLA is sensitive to the level of needle placement uncertainty, especially as the target length approaches and becomes greater than the diameter of ablated tissue that each individual laser fiber can achieve. The results of this work can be used to help determine individual patient eligibility for prostate FLA, to guide the planning of prostate FLA, and to quantify the clinical benefit of using advanced systems for accurate needle delivery for this treatment modality.

  15. An alternative method for flapless implant placement and an immediate provisional crown: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Suarez, Jose Carlos

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this case report is to present a description of bone mapping as an alternative method to determine the dimensions of bone prior to placement of a flapless implant and an immediate provisional crown. The use of a temporary removable partial denture (RPD) or "flipper" during healing following an extraction is not acceptable for some highly demanding patients. As a result, flapless implant placement is gaining popularity because it offers some advantages such as less bleeding, less swelling, and the protection of soft tissue contours. A 65-year-old woman missing a maxillary left lateral incisor was treated using flapless implant placement and an immediate provisional acrylic crown. Under local anesthesia, the bone anatomy was mapped by inserting a standard periodontal probe in the gingiva. By using the recorded measurements, the thickness of soft tissue was removed from the cast. A surgical guide based on this adjusted model was fabricated prior to surgery. The guide was seated on the teeth when actual surgery was performed to facilitate bone drilling and then the implant was placed. Utilizing the previously fabricated acrylic tooth index, the temporary acrylic crown was fabricated on the adjusted temporary metal abutment and delivered to the patient the same day. In this case report the missing maxillary left lateral tooth was restored using flapless implant placement and an immediate provisional single crown. The dimension of the bone at the implant recipient area was determined by an alternative bone mapping method. This case report suggests the use of flapless implant placement using the bone mapping method and immediate provisional crowns for single crowns when esthetics are a high priority and preserving ideal soft tissue contours and papillary heights are critical.

  16. Ultrasound-guided placement of ventricular catheters in first-time pediatric VP shunt surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Marcel; Khachatryan, Marina; Schuhmann, Martin Ulrich

    2018-03-01

    Ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunts are effective for treatment of hydrocephalus in all age groups; however, they are associated with complications, a common one being ventricular catheter (VC) obstruction. VC position is likely to influence VC survival; however, most VCs are positioned freehand without guidance. This paper describes the accuracy of ultrasound guidance for VC placement and the impact of tip location on VC occlusion rate. This is a retrospective cohort study of hydrocephalic children with first-time VP shunt and ultrasound-guided VC placement. Data recorded were age, sex, cause of hydrocephalus, side (left or right) and location (frontal or occipital) of VC, and exact postoperative position within the ventricle on first postoperative imaging: middle of ventricle (optimal position), near or touching the medial or lateral ventricle wall, within the third ventricle, and at the contralateral side. Of the 128 screened patients, 85 had a first postoperative imaging that clearly defined the VC position and were included. The follow-up was at least 12 months. Seventy-three percent of VCs were placed on the right and 71% via a frontal burhole. Eighty-three of 85 VC tips (95%) were in the intended ventricle, 61% at optimal position. Nine of 85 VCs (10%) obstructed within the first 12 months. Seven of nine (78%) obstructed VCs were located in a nonoptimal position (p = 0.016). Two of nine (22%) obstructed VCs entered through a frontal and seven of nine (78%) through an occipital burrhole (p = 0.016). Ultrasound-guided VC placement is as precise as frameless navigated placement. The optimal VC position was associated to a significant lower VC obstruction rate. The frontal position was superior to the occipital. Intraoperative US guidance is fast with almost no extra time and no extra cost. US-guided VC placement should become standard of care in VP shunt surgery.

  17. The Placement History Chart: A Tool for Understanding the Longitudinal Pattern of Foster Children’s Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about foster placement instability, little information is available regarding the longitudinal patterns of placement histories among foster children. The purpose of the present study was to develop a charting system using child welfare records to facilitate a better understanding of longitudinal patterns of placement history for 117 foster children. The resulting Placement History Chart included all placements that occurred during the observed time period and accounted for various dimensions: number, length, type, and sequence of placements; timing of transitions; and total time in out-of-home care. The Placement History Chart is an effective tool for placing foster care experiences within a broader developmental context. As such, the Placement History Chart can be a valuable research tool for understanding various dimensions and variations of placement transitions among foster children by capturing sequences and cumulative risks over time. Furthermore, this chart can facilitate the development of intervention programs that are developmentally sensitive and effectively address particularly vulnerable subpopulations of foster children. PMID:22754080

  18. Ureteric angioplasty balloon placement to increase localised dosage of BCG for renal pelvis TCC.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Forde, J C

    2012-03-01

    Endoscopic percutaneous resection of a renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a viable treatment option in those who would be rendered dialysis dependent following a nephroureterectomy. We report endoscopic percutaneous resection of an upper tract TCC recurrence in a single functioning kidney followed by antegrade renal pelvis BCG instillation with novel placement of inflated angioplasty balloon in the ureter to help localise its effect.

  19. Revelation of Different Nanoparticle-Uptake Behavior in Two Standard Cell Lines NIH/3T3 and A549 by Flow Cytometry and Time-Lapse Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jochums

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of nanomaterials into different cell types is a central pharmacological issue for the determination of nanotoxicity as well as for the development of drug delivery strategies. Most responses of the cells depend on their intracellular interactions with nanoparticles (NPs. Uptake behavior can be precisely investigated in vitro, with sensitive high throughput methods such as flow cytometry. In this study, we investigated two different standard cell lines, human lung carcinoma (A549 and mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cells, regarding their uptake behavior of titanium dioxide NPs. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs and samples were taken at certain time points to compare the uptake kinetics of both cell lines. Samples were analyzed with the help of flow cytometry by studying changes in the side and forward scattering signal. To additionally enable a detection via fluorescence, NPs were labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and propidium iodide (PI. We found that NIH/3T3 cells take up the studied NPs more efficiently than A549 cells. These findings were supported by time-lapse microscopic imaging of the cells incubated with TiO2 NPs. Our results confirm that the uptake behavior of individual cell types has to be considered before interpreting any results of nanomaterial studies.

  20. Development and operation of a quality assurance system for deviations from standard operating procedures in a clinical cell therapy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D; Kadidlo, D; Sumstad, D; McCullough, J

    2003-01-01

    Errors and accidents, or deviations from standard operating procedures, other policy, or regulations must be documented and reviewed, with corrective actions taken to assure quality performance in a cellular therapy laboratory. Though expectations and guidance for deviation management exist, a description of the framework for the development of such a program is lacking in the literature. Here we describe our deviation management program, which uses a Microsoft Access database and Microsoft Excel to analyze deviations and notable events, facilitating quality assurance (QA) functions and ongoing process improvement. Data is stored in a Microsoft Access database with an assignment to one of six deviation type categories. Deviation events are evaluated for potential impact on patient and product, and impact scores for each are determined using a 0- 4 grading scale. An immediate investigation occurs, and corrective actions are taken to prevent future similar events from taking place. Additionally, deviation data is collectively analyzed on a quarterly basis using Microsoft Excel, to identify recurring events or developing trends. Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 over 2500 products were processed at our laboratory. During this time period, 335 deviations and notable events occurred, affecting 385 products and/or patients. Deviations within the 'technical error' category were most common (37%). Thirteen percent of deviations had a patient and/or a product impact score > or = 2, a score indicating, at a minimum, potentially affected patient outcome or moderate effect upon product quality. Real-time analysis and quarterly review of deviations using our deviation management program allows for identification and correction of deviations. Monitoring of deviation trends allows for process improvement and overall successful functioning of the QA program in the cell therapy laboratory. Our deviation management program could serve as a model for other laboratories in

  1. Accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy (AHRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer: can we leave standard fractionation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, N Rodríguez; Sanz, X; Foro, P; Membrive, I; Reig, A; Ortiz, A; Jiménez, R; Algara, M

    2017-04-01

    To report interim results from a single-institution study conducted to assess accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy (AHRT) delivered with 3D conformal radiotherapy in two groups of patients with non-small cell lung cancer: (1) patients with early stage disease unable to tolerate surgery and ineligible for stereotactic body radiation therapy, and (2) patients with locally advanced disease unsuitable for concurrent chemoradiotherapy. A total of 83 patients (51 stage I-II, 32 stage III) were included. Radiotherapy targets included the primary tumor and positive mediastinal areas identified on the pre-treatment PET-CT. Mean age was 77.8 ± 7.8 years. ECOG performance status (PS) was ≥2 in 50.6 % of cases. Radiotherapy was delivered in daily fractions of 2.75 Gy to a total dose of 66 Gy (BED 10 84 Gy). Acute and late toxicities were evaluated according to NCI CTC criteria. At a median follow-up of 42 months, median overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were 23 and 36 months, respectively. On the multivariate analysis, PS [HR 4.14, p = 0.0001)], stage [HR 2.51, p = 0.005)], and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) [HR 1.04, p = 0.04)] were independent risk factors for OS. PS [HR 5.2, p = 0.0001)] and stage [HR 6.3, p = 0.0001)] were also associated with CSS. No cases of severe acute or late treatment-related toxicities were observed. OS and CSS rates in patients treated with AHRT for stage I-II and stage III NSCLC were good. Treatment was well tolerated with no grade three or higher treatment-related toxicity. PS, stage, and SUV max were predictive for OS and CSS.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Music Use During Epidural Catheter Placement on Laboring Parturient Anxiety, Pain, and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymalski, Dan M; Tsen, Lawrence C; Palanisamy, Arvind; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Kodali, Bhavani S

    2017-02-01

    Although music is frequently used to promote a relaxing environment during labor and delivery, the effect of its use during the placement of neuraxial techniques is unknown. Our study sought to determine the effects of music use on laboring parturients during epidural catheter placement, with the hypothesis that music use would result in lower anxiety, lower pain, and greater patient satisfaction. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of laboring parturients undergoing epidural catheter placement with or without music. The music group listened to the patient's preferred music on a Pandora® station broadcast through an external amplified speaker; the control group listened to no music. All women received a standardized epidural technique and local anesthetic dose. The primary outcomes were 3 measures of anxiety. Secondary outcomes included pain, patient satisfaction, hemodynamic parameters, obstetric parameters, neonatal outcomes, and anesthesia provider anxiety. Intention-to-treat analysis with Bonferroni correction was used for the primary outcomes. For secondary outcomes, a P value of music group, the duration of music use was 31.1 ± 7.7 minutes (mean ± SD). The music group experienced higher anxiety as measured by Numeric Rating Scale scores immediately after epidural catheter placement (2.9 ± 3.3 vs 1.4 ± 1.7, mean difference 1.5 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.2-2.7], P = .02), and as measured by fewer parturients being "very much relaxed" 1 hour after epidural catheter placement (51% vs 78%, odds ratio {OR} 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.9], P = .02). No differences in mean pain scores immediately after placement or patient satisfaction with the overall epidural placement experience were observed; however, the desire for music use with future epidural catheter placements was higher in the music group (84% vs 45%, OR 6.4 [95% CI 2.5-16.5], P Music use during epidural catheter placement in laboring parturients is associated with higher postprocedure

  3. Increasing cDNA yields from single-cell quantities of mRNA in standard laboratory reverse transcriptase reactions using acoustic microstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Wah Chin; Petkovic-Duran, Karolina; Zhu, Yonggang; Manasseh, Richard; Horne, Malcolm K; Aumann, Tim D

    2011-07-11

    Correlating gene expression with cell behavior is ideally done at the single-cell level. However, this is not easily achieved because the small amount of labile mRNA present in a single cell (1-5% of 1-50 pg total RNA, or 0.01-2.5 pg mRNA, per cell) mostly degrades before it can be reverse transcribed into a stable cDNA copy. For example, using standard laboratory reagents and hardware, only a small number of genes can be qualitatively assessed per cell. One way to increase the efficiency of standard laboratory reverse transcriptase (RT) reactions (i.e. standard reagents in microliter volumes) comprising single-cell amounts of mRNA would be to more rapidly mix the reagents so the mRNA can be converted to cDNA before it degrades. However this is not trivial because at microliter scales liquid flow is laminar, i.e. currently available methods of mixing (i.e. shaking, vortexing and trituration) fail to produce sufficient chaotic motion to effectively mix reagents. To solve this problem, micro-scale mixing techniques have to be used. A number of microfluidic-based mixing technologies have been developed which successfully increase RT reaction yields. However, microfluidics technologies require specialized hardware that is relatively expensive and not yet widely available. A cheaper, more convenient solution is desirable. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate how application of a novel "micromixing" technique to standard laboratory RT reactions comprising single-cell quantities of mRNA significantly increases their cDNA yields. We find cDNA yields increase by approximately 10-100-fold, which enables: greater numbers of genes to be analyzed per cell; more quantitative analysis of gene expression; and better detection of low-abundance genes in single cells. The micromixing is based on acoustic microstreaming, a phenomenon where sound waves propagating around a small obstacle create a mean flow near the obstacle. We have developed an acoustic microstreaming

  4. Sensor Placement for Modal Parameter Subset Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ). It is shown that the widely used Effective Independence (EI) method, which uses the modal amplitudes as surrogates for the parameters of interest, provides sensor configurations yielding theoretical lower bound variances whose maxima are up to 30 % larger than those obtained by use of the max-min approach.......The present paper proposes an approach for deciding on sensor placements in the context of modal parameter estimation from vibration measurements. The approach is based on placing sensors, of which the amount is determined a priori, such that the minimum Fisher information that the frequency...... responses carry on the selected modal parameter subset is, in some sense, maximized. The approach is validated in the context of a simple 10-DOF mass-spring-damper system by computing the variance of a set of identified modal parameters in a Monte Carlo setting for a set of sensor configurations, whose...

  5. Brocade: Optimal flow placement in SDN networks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Today' network poses several challanges to network providers. These challanges fall in to a variety of areas ranging from determining efficient utilization of network bandwidth to finding out which user applications consume majority of network resources. Also, how to protect a given network from volumetric and botnet attacks. Optimal placement of flows deal with identifying network issues and addressing them in a real-time. The overall solution helps in building new services where a network is more secure and more efficient. Benefits derived as a result are increased network efficiency due to better capacity and resource planning, better security with real-time threat mitigation, and improved user experience as a result of increased service velocity.

  6. Suboccipital neuropathy after bone conduction device placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, H T; de Ru, J A

    2013-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of a 70-year-old female with occipital neuropathy following bone conduction device surgery. A 65-year-old woman underwent bone conduction device placement surgery on the left temporal bone. Postoperatively she progressively developed chronic pain at the implantation site. The pain led to minimal neck movement, which resulted in complaints of the shoulder and arm on the left side. She was treated by an orthopaedic surgeon for a frozen shoulder. Pain medication and occipital nerve blocking had no sustained effect on the pain. Occipital neuropathy is a syndrome with continuous aching involving the occipital and parietal scalp caused by trauma or peripheral compression of the occipital nerves. The most common causes of occipital neuropathy are probably direct trauma to the nerve and hypertrophic fibrosis of subcutaneous tissue surrounding the nerve. Scar formation after surgery may therefore cause entrapment of the nerve. We describe a case of occipital neuropathy as a complication of BAHA surgery.

  7. Optimal PMU placement using Iterated Local Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, M.; Maun, J.-C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    An essential tool for power system monitoring is state estimation. Using PMUs can greatly improve the state estimation process. However, for state estimation, the PMUs should be placed appropriately in the network. The problem of optimal PMU placement for full observability is analysed in this paper. The objective of the paper is to minimise the size of the PMU configuration while allowing full observability of the network. The method proposed initially suggests a PMU distribution which makes the network observable. The Iterated Local Search (ILS) metaheuristic is then used to minimise the size of the PMU configuration needed to observe the network. The algorithm is tested on IEEE test networks with 14, 57 and 118 nodes and compared to the results obtained in previous publications. (author)

  8. Critical Factors in the Placement of Community College Mathematics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn H.; Kubala, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study undertaken to increase the effectiveness of student-placement systems in community colleges. Found that the use of student characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, prior exposure to course work, and enrollment in a study-skills course, was more useful than the SAT, ACT, and College Placement Test in predicting student…

  9. Rationales provided for placement decisions by Dutch professionals and students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Cora; Knorth, Erik J.; Koopmans, A. Carien; López López, Mónica; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Ten Berge, Ingrid J.; Van Yperen, Tom A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives - Out-of-home placement is a major occurrence in a child’s life. It can have both positive and negative effects on a child’s development and should therefore always be based on careful decision making. Repeatedly, researchers show that professionals make different placement decisions.

  10. Nasogastric and feeding tubes. The importance of proper placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, A M; Stern, E J; Sherbin, V L; Rohrmann, C A

    1996-05-01

    The authors' experience in a radiology department suggested to them that there is a wide range of beliefs among practitioners regarding proper placement of nasogastric and feeding tubes. Improper positioning can cause serious problems, as they explain. Indications for different tube positions, complications of incorrect tube placement, and directions for proper positioning are discussed and illustrated.

  11. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  12. Experiences of health science students during clinical placements at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical placement is an essential component of training in health sciences because it is where theory and practice interface. Objective: To explore experiences of health sciences students during clinical placement in terms of supervision, challenges and coping strategies. Design: It was a cross sectional survey ...

  13. Student Transcript-Enhanced Placement Study (STEPS). Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that using high school transcripts may improve English and math placement accuracy at colleges. Between 2012 and 2013, the Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group) conducted the Student Transcript Enhanced Placement Study (STEPS) in partnership with the California Community Colleges…

  14. Dental hygiene student experiences in external placements in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane A; Hayes, Melanie J; Wallace, Linda

    2012-05-01

    While placements in external locations are being increasingly used in dental education globally, few studies have explored the student learning experience at such placements. The purpose of this study was to investigate student experiences while on external placement in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to final-year dental hygiene students (n=77) at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in 2010. The questionnaire included questions regarding the type of placement, experiences offered, supervision, resources available, and lasting impressions. Responding students were generally positive about their external placement experience and indicated that the majority of facilities provided them with the opportunity to provide direct patient care and perform clinical tasks typical of a practicing hygienist. However, there was a statistically significant difference in their opinions about discipline-focused and community placements. Students indicated that their external placement experience provided opportunities to learn more about time and patient management, including hands-on experience with specific clinical tasks. Ongoing evaluations are necessary to ensure that external placements meet both student needs and intended learning outcomes within dental hygiene programs.

  15. 12 CFR 339.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 339.7... GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If... not covered by flood insurance or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the amount...

  16. 12 CFR 614.4945 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 614.4945... OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4945 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a System... not covered by flood insurance or are covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the amount...

  17. 38 CFR 36.4706 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forced placement of flood... (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4706 Forced placement of flood insurance. If the Secretary, or a servicer acting on behalf of the Secretary, determines at...

  18. 12 CFR 572.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 572.7... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a savings association, or a... not covered by flood insurance or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the amount...

  19. 12 CFR 22.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 22.7... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a bank, or a servicer acting... or mobile home and any personal property securing the designated loan is not covered by flood...

  20. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  1. Compositional Syntactic Placement and Simple Concept Learning in Female Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Russ A.

    A media attribute approach was used in a study which hypothesized that compositional syntactic placement may bridge the processing link between the learner's cognitive capacity and the demands of a simple concept attainment task. Compositional syntactic placement refers to the relative horizontal position of the primary symbol or object within a…

  2. Community placement and reintegration of service users from long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To ascertain community placement and reintegration of service users from long-term mental health care facilities. Method: This study reviewed the progress during 2003 with the alternative placement of a selected candidate group of 27 service users in some of Lifecare's long-term mental health care facilities in ...

  3. Distinguishing implicit from explicit brand attitudes in brand placement research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wennekers, A.M.; Vandeberg, L.; Zoon, K.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Brand placement is a popular topic, both in business and academia. Brands are placed in a wide-ranging array of media, including television programs, movies, radio shows, magazines, games, music videos, and websites. Expenditures on brand placement are still growing (PQ Media, 2013), as well as the

  4. Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly quoted firms in the Nigerian Capital Market. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Abstract. Private placements are gradually becoming means of raising long-term funds in the Nigerian capital market by publicly quoted companies.

  5. 28 CFR 541.49 - Review of control unit placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of control unit placement. 541.49... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.49 Review of control unit placement. (a) Unit staff shall evaluate informally and daily an inmate's adjustment within the control unit...

  6. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement. 183.566...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is a...

  7. Computer-Assisted Placement: Effective Aid or Paper Albatross?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P.

    1978-01-01

    A short time ago, the computer was a concept of the future which scared many and amazed even more. Now a reality, the computer has become as common on the placement front as the interview. The computer's value to placement is discussed. (Author)

  8. Work Placements at 14-15 Years and Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, David

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In the UK, concern frequently has been voiced that young people lack appropriate employability skills. One way to address this is to provide work based placements. In general, previous research findings have indicated that young people find such placements useful because of help with career choice and relevant skills. However, most…

  9. Adverbial Placement in Ewe: A Role and Reference Grammar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article looks at adverbial placement and interpretation in Ewe. It takes from English adverbial placement in which several positions are possible. Implicitly, it looks at what is the same compared to English and what is different when we look at adverbials in Ewe. The study looks at Ewe adverbials from a Role and ...

  10. Structural challenges of holiday placement programmes for children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural challenges of holiday placement programmes for children in SOS's Children Village, Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Social Work ... Response to child protection crisis has essentially seen the placement of orphans and other vulnerable children in residential care institutions, particularly children' homes modelled ...

  11. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and...

  12. Ambulatory estimation of foot placement during walking using inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Baten, Christian T.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    This study proposes a method to assess foot placement during walking using an ambulatory measurement system consisting of orthopaedic sandals equipped with force/moment sensors and inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes). Two parameters, lateral foot placement (LFP) and stride length (SL),

  13. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…

  14. 45 CFR 605.35 - Evaluation and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.35 Evaluation and placement. (a) Preplacement evaluation. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program or activity shall... evaluation data and in making placement decisions, a recipient shall (1) draw upon information from a variety...

  15. 34 CFR 104.35 - Evaluation and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.35 Evaluation and placement. (a) Preplacement evaluation. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program or activity shall... evaluation data and in making placement decisions, a recipient shall (1) draw upon information from a variety...

  16. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Tai, Robert; Klopfenstein, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was created to enhance the experience of gifted students as they transition from high school to college. "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," edited by Philip M. Sadler, Gerhard Sonnert, Robert Tai, and Kirstin Klopfenstein (2010, Harvard Education Press), questions the…

  17. Network placement optimization for large-scale distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Liu, Fangfang; Fu, Yunxia; Zhou, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    The network geometry strongly influences the performance of the distributed system, i.e., the coverage capability, measurement accuracy and overall cost. Therefore the network placement optimization represents an urgent issue in the distributed measurement, even in large-scale metrology. This paper presents an effective computer-assisted network placement optimization procedure for the large-scale distributed system and illustrates it with the example of the multi-tracker system. To get an optimal placement, the coverage capability and the coordinate uncertainty of the network are quantified. Then a placement optimization objective function is developed in terms of coverage capabilities, measurement accuracy and overall cost. And a novel grid-based encoding approach for Genetic algorithm is proposed. So the network placement is optimized by a global rough search and a local detailed search. Its obvious advantage is that there is no need for a specific initial placement. At last, a specific application illustrates this placement optimization procedure can simulate the measurement results of a specific network and design the optimal placement efficiently.

  18. Comparison of esophageal placement of Bravo capsule system under direct endoscopic guidance with conventional placement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A Sofi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aijaz A Sofi, Charles Filipiak, Thomas Sodeman, Usman Ahmad, Ali Nawras, Isam DaboulDepartment of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio, USABackground: Conventional placement of a wireless esophageal pH monitoring device in the esophagus requires initial endoscopy to determine the distance to the gastroesophageal junction. Blind placement of the capsule by the Bravo delivery system is followed by repeat endoscopy to confirm placement. Alternatively, the capsule can be placed under direct vision during endoscopy. Currently there are no published data comparing the efficiency of one method over the other. The objective of this study was to compare the method of Bravo wireless pH deviceplacement under direct visualization with the conventional method.Methods: A retrospective study involving 58 patients (29 patients with indirect and 29 patients with direct visualization who had Bravo capsule placement. The physician endoscopy procedure notes, nurse’s notes, postprocedure notes, recovery notes, and pH monitoring results were reviewed. The safety of the procedures, length of the procedures, and patient tolerability were evaluated.Results: None of the 58 patients had early detachment of the device and had no immediate procedure-related complications. The overall incidence of complications in both the groups was similar. No failures due to the technique were noted in either group. Average amount of time taken for the procedure was similar in both groups.Conclusion: The technique of placing a Bravo pH device under direct visualization is as safe and effective as the conventional method. In addition, there is an added advantage of avoiding a second endoscopic intubation in the direct visualization technique.Keywords: Bravo capsule, technique, esophageal pH monitoring

  19. Measurements of Epidural Space Depth Using Preexisting CT Scans Correlate with Loss of Resistance Depth during Thoracic Epidural Catheter Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel H. Greene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thoracic epidural catheters provide the best quality postoperative pain relief for major abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures, but placement is one of the most challenging procedures in the repertoire of an anesthesiologist. Most patients presenting for a procedure that would benefit from a thoracic epidural catheter have already had high resolution imaging that may be useful to assist placement of a catheter. Methods. This retrospective study used data from 168 patients to examine the association and predictive power of epidural-skin distance (ESD on computed tomography (CT to determine loss of resistance depth acquired during epidural placement. Additionally, the ability of anesthesiologists to measure this distance was compared to a radiologist, who specializes in spine imaging. Results. There was a strong association between CT measurement and loss of resistance depth (P35 changed this relationship (P=0.007. The ability of anesthesiologists to make CT measurements was similar to a gold standard radiologist (all individual ICCs>0.9. Conclusions. Overall, this study supports the examination of a recent CT scan to aid in the placement of a thoracic epidural catheter. Making use of these scans may lead to faster epidural placements, fewer accidental dural punctures, and better epidural blockade.

  20. The utility of transthoracic echocardiography to confirm central line placement: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Ramiro; Nurmohamed, Aliya; Rumman, Amir; Day, Andrew G; Milne, Brian; Phelan, Rachel; Tanzola, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound visualization of neck vessels is the standard method used to assist with internal jugular vein (IJV) central line placement. Nevertheless, this practice has not eliminated the risk of carotid puncture and/or inadvertent arterial cannulation. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) effectively verifies wire placement within the heart but is invasive and not always available. We examined the feasibility and potential utility of using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to verify the distal wire in the right atrium (RA) before dilation and cannulation of the IJV. Following institutional Research Ethics Board approval and signed consent, 100 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were recruited. As per standard practice at our institution, all patients were to have a central line inserted under general anesthesia with TEE visualization of the guidewire. Transesophageal echocardiography (apical or subcostal four-chamber images) was performed by one of four operators while another anesthesiologist performed central line placement. Following IJV puncture, blood was rapidly aspirated and reinjected to produce microbubbles. Subsequently, a 0.035-inch j-tipped flexible guidewire was inserted and visualized with TEE. The wire was then reinserted into the RA under TTE visualization. Overall, the RA was viewed 94% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87 to 98) of the time with TTE, and both the microbubbles and guidewire were detected 91% (95% CI 84 to 96) of the time. The subjects in whom the guidewire could not be well visualized had a higher mean body mass index (33.6 vs 28.8; P = 0.01). Transthoracic echocardiography [corrected] is a feasible, noninvasive, and potentially useful method to confirm appropriate placement of the guidewire before dilation and cannulation of the IJV.

  1. Placement History of Foster Children : A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment

  2. Placement History of Foster Children: A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment disorders, severity of behavioral problems, and…

  3. Placement Disruption and Negative Placement Outcomes among Adolescents in Long-Term Foster Care: The Role of Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Sonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined risk of placement disruption and negative placement outcomes (e.g., residential treatment and incarceration) among adolescents placed in traditional family foster care for a year or longer. A foster parent's report of externalizing behavior problems was expected to be a stronger predictor of disruption and negative…

  4. Do Work Placements Improve Final Year Academic Performance or Do High-Calibre Students Choose to Do Work Placements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. M.; Green, J. P.; Higson, H. E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether the completion of an optional sandwich work placement enhances student performance in final year examinations. Using Propensity Score Matching, our analysis departs from the literature by controlling for self-selection. Previous studies may have overestimated the impact of sandwich work placements on performance…

  5. Research on the Academic Benefits of the Advanced Placement Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell T. Warne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With more than 3 million participants per year, the Advanced Placement (AP program is one of the most popular programs in the United States for exposing high-achieving high school students to advanced academic content. Sponsored by the College Board, the AP program provides a framework in which high school teachers can teach introductory college-level courses to high school students. These students then take one of 34 standardized tests at the end of the year, and students who score well on their course’s AP test can receive college credit from their university in which they later enroll. Despite the popularity of the AP program, remarkably little independent research has been conducted on the academic benefits of AP. In this article, I summarize the state of knowledge about the academic benefits of AP. Previous research and descriptive data indicate that AP students outperform non-AP students on a variety of academic measures, but many other aspects of the program are poorly understood, partially due to variability across AP subjects. These aspects include the causal impact of AP, which components of the program are most effective in boosting academic achievement, and how students engage with the AP program. I also conclude by making suggestions for researchers to use new methodologies to investigate new scientific and policy questions and new student populations to improve the educational scholars’ and practitioners’ understanding of the AP program.

  6. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  7. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  8. The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetcharat, L; Wongsuphasawat, K; Winther, K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a rose hip powder (Hyben Vital(®)) made from seeds and shells on cell senescence, skin wrinkling, and aging. A total of 34 healthy subjects, aged 35-65 years, with wrinkles on the face (crow's-feet) were subjected to a randomized and double-blinded clinical study of the effects of the rose hip powder, as compared to astaxanthin, a well-known remedy against wrinkles. During the 8-week study, half of the participants ingested the standardized rose hip product, while the other half ingested astaxanthin. Objective measurements of facial wrinkles, skin moisture, and elasticity were made by using Visioscan, Corneometer, and Cutometer at the beginning of the study, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Evaluation of participant satisfaction of both supplements was assessed using questionnaires. In addition, the effect of the rose hip preparation on cell longevity was measured in terms of leakage of hemoglobin through red cell membranes (hemolytic index) in blood samples kept in a blood bank for 5 weeks. Significance of all values was attained with P≤0.05. In the double-blinded study, the rose hip group showed statistically significant improvements in crow's-feet wrinkles (Prose hip powder further resulted in increased cell longevity of erythrocyte cells during storage for 5 weeks in a blood bank. Results suggest that intake of the standardized rose hip powder (Hyben Vital(®)) improves aging-induced skin conditions. The apparent stabilizing effects of the rose hip product on cell membranes of stored erythrocyte cells observed in this study may contribute to improve the cell longevity and obstructing skin aging.

  9. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Primary Non-Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells Using a Tabular Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method is intended to be used for calibration and characterization of primary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution, such as Tables G173. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices. 1.2 Primary photovoltaic reference cells are calibrated in natural sunlight using the relative spectral response of the cell, the relative spectral distribution of the sunlight, and a tabulated reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is calibrated according to Test Method E816, which requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). Therefore, reference cells calibrated according to this test method are traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method is a technique that may be used ...

  10. Advanced non-small cell lung cancer in elderly patients: The standard every 3-weeks versus weekly paclitaxel with carboplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mohamed El-Shenshawy

    2012-10-01

    Conclusions: Efficacy was similar between the weekly regimen and the standard regimen of carboplatin and paclitaxel for elderly patients with advanced NSCLC and may be advantageous based on its favorable tolerability profile.

  11. A Comparison of a Standard Genetic Algorithm with a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Applied to Cell Formation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Javaid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though there are a number of benefits associated with cellular manufacturing systems, its implementation (identification of part families and corresponding machine groups for real life problems is still a challenging task. To handle the complexity of optimizing multiple objectives and larger size of the problem, most of the researchers in the past two decades or so have focused on developing genetic algorithm (GA based techniques. Recently this trend has shifted from standard GA to hybrid GA (HGA based approaches in the quest for greater effectiveness as far as convergence on to the optimum solution is concerned. In order to prove the point, that HGAs possess better convergence abilities than standard GAs, a methodology, initially based on standard GA and later on hybridized with a local search heuristic (LSH, has been developed during this research. Computational experience shows that HGA maintains its accuracy level with increase in problem size, whereas standard GA looses its effectiveness as the problem size grows.

  12. Effect of psoralen and near UV on vertebrate cells in culture: comparison of laser with standard lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.P.; Berns, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    4'-Aminoethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, a DNA photoreagent, was used in conjunction with near UV light to modify cell growth and morphology. Since near UV radiation is needed to trigger the photoreactions, various doses of classical and laser near UV light were exposed to cells growing in media containing psoralen. It was found that near UV light caused a reduction in cell viability as indicated by complete inhibition of growth. The specificity of psoralens for nucleic acids was also investigated by using a tritium labeled psoralen derivative and tracing its appearance in different fractions of DNA from treated and untreated cells. (author)

  13. The Prospective Collection, Storage and Reporting of Data on Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Utilizing a Standard Preparative Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Hodgkin's Disease; Multiple Myeloma; Germ Cell Neoplasms; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Immunodeficiency Diseases

  14. Transracial adoption and foster care placement: worker perception and attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Black, Jan

    2002-01-01

    This study explores black child welfare workers' perceptions of transracial adoption (TRA) and foster care placement (FCP). Informants were asked to discuss their attitudes toward the placement of black children with white families, as well as their perception of the Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 and the supplemental Interethnic Adoption Provision of 1996. This study expands existing research regarding the viability of TRA and FCP by incorporating the previously ignored perceptions of social service professionals who are charged with the responsibility of providing child and family services. Findings illuminate the significant role that prioritization of client need plays in the perceptions of workers.

  15. Characterization and comparison of "Standard" and "Young" tumor infiltrating lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy at a Danish Translational Research Institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Junker, Niels; Ellebaek, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with ex vivo expanded tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in combination with IL-2 is an effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. Modified protocols of cell expansion may allow treatment of most enrolled patients and improve the efficacy of adoptive...

  16. Proactive PICC placement: evaluating the patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Karen; Martin, Annette; Scarlett, Clare

    to evaluate patient experience following the proactive placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). all patients with a PICC in situ who had attended the chemotherapy day unit over a period of 15 weeks were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Questions related to: information giving, the degree of pain on insertion and any complications experienced by the patient while the device was in situ. There was also space to allow for free-text comments after each question. the majority of patients felt they received enough information and that the procedure was fully explained. Pain on insertion was largely reported as being minimal, with the few patients who did report the procedure as painful also reporting there being difficulty with the insertion. Complication rates were low, the main complication reported was mechanical owing to difficulty with blood withdrawal. irrespective of how uncomfortable the patient found the procedure, the majority of patients would recommend proactive PICC insertion to other patients as 'it made the whole process much easier'.

  17. Reliability evaluation of high-performance, low-power FinFET standard cells based on mixed RBB/FBB technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Cui, Xiaoxin; Ni, Yewen; Liao, Kai; Liao, Nan; Yu, Dunshan; Cui, Xiaole

    2017-04-01

    With shrinking transistor feature size, the fin-type field-effect transistor (FinFET) has become the most promising option in low-power circuit design due to its superior capability to suppress leakage. To support the VLSI digital system flow based on logic synthesis, we have designed an optimized high-performance low-power FinFET standard cell library based on employing the mixed FBB/RBB technique in the existing stacked structure of each cell. This paper presents the reliability evaluation of the optimized cells under process and operating environment variations based on Monte Carlo analysis. The variations are modelled with Gaussian distribution of the device parameters and 10000 sweeps are conducted in the simulation to obtain the statistical properties of the worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage for each cell. For comparison, a set of non-optimal cells that adopt the same topology without employing the mixed biasing technique is also generated. Experimental results show that the optimized cells achieve standard deviation reduction of 39.1% and 30.7% at most in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage respectively while the normalized deviation shrinking in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage can be up to 98.37% and 24.13%, respectively, which demonstrates that our optimized cells are less sensitive to variability and exhibit more reliability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306040), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB057201), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152020), and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2015A030313147).

  18. Vena cava filter placement via the antecubital access: a report of 6 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Bo; Shi Weihao; He Qing; Wang Tieping; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the methods and skill of vena cava filter placement via the antecubital access. Methods: Six patients with DVT (4 males and 2 females, mean age of 62) underwent vena cava filter placement via the antecubital access in Huashan Hospital from Oct. 2004 to May. 2006. The right basilic vein was punctured with the use of micropuncture technique. SNF(Simon nitinol filter, Bard)was inserted through its carrier into the 90-cm-long sheath. The filter was then deployed with a standard fashion in the IVC, 5 cm inferior to the renal vein. Results: The filter was once placed successfully in all six patients within average time of 25 min without complications, but with good healing, exclusion of bleeding and no phlebitis. The position of filter was accurate without deviation and no occurrence of pulmonary embolism. Conclusions: vena cava filter placement via antecubital access is easy, minimal invasive, no need of lying in bed postoperatively. It is beneficial for DVT patients as an alternative for the contra-indication to femoral venous access. (authors)

  19. Placement Stability, Cumulative Time in Care, and Permanency: Using Administrative Data from CPS to Track Placement Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélie, Sonia; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Esposito, Tonino; Turcotte, Daniel

    2017-11-17

    Objectives : The Quebec Youth Protection Act was amended in 2007. The main goal of this reform was to improve placement stability for children who are removed from their home for their protection. Among several legal provisions introduced was the establishment of maximum age-specific durations of out-of-home care, after which a plan must be established to provide stability for children placed in substitute care by finding permanent homes for them. The purpose of this study is (1) to examine trends in placement use and placement stability since the reform and (2) to document the current frequency of each type of placement setting, the cumulative time in care before the exit to permanency, and the sustainability of the permanency outcome. Methods: The study relies on 3 entry cohorts of all children investigated who received protection measures in the province of Quebec during 3 specific time frames before and after the reform ( n = 9620, 8676, 8425). Cohorts were observed for a period varying from 3 to 4 years. Administrative data from all 16 child protection agencies were used to track placement trajectory indicators and to compare cohorts. Results : There has been a decrease in the proportion of children receiving protection measures who were placed in care since the reform, and placement in kinship care has become more frequent among children placed. Placement stability improved slightly after the reform. Overall, for infants, the most frequent type of permanency attained is adoption, while reunification is the option most often indicated for older children. Some children are at a greater risk of experiencing unstable placement trajectories: young children have a high rate of reunification breakdown, some wait a long time to be adopted, and adolescents are frequently removed from the substitute care setting where they were supposed to stay until the age of 18. Conclusions : The results suggest interesting avenues for policy makers and service providers to improve

  20. Placement Stability, Cumulative Time in Care, and Permanency: Using Administrative Data from CPS to Track Placement Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hélie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Quebec Youth Protection Act was amended in 2007. The main goal of this reform was to improve placement stability for children who are removed from their home for their protection. Among several legal provisions introduced was the establishment of maximum age-specific durations of out-of-home care, after which a plan must be established to provide stability for children placed in substitute care by finding permanent homes for them. The purpose of this study is (1 to examine trends in placement use and placement stability since the reform and (2 to document the current frequency of each type of placement setting, the cumulative time in care before the exit to permanency, and the sustainability of the permanency outcome. Methods: The study relies on 3 entry cohorts of all children investigated who received protection measures in the province of Quebec during 3 specific time frames before and after the reform (n = 9620, 8676, 8425. Cohorts were observed for a period varying from 3 to 4 years. Administrative data from all 16 child protection agencies were used to track placement trajectory indicators and to compare cohorts. Results: There has been a decrease in the proportion of children receiving protection measures who were placed in care since the reform, and placement in kinship care has become more frequent among children placed. Placement stability improved slightly after the reform. Overall, for infants, the most frequent type of permanency attained is adoption, while reunification is the option most often indicated for older children. Some children are at a greater risk of experiencing unstable placement trajectories: young children have a high rate of reunification breakdown, some wait a long time to be adopted, and adolescents are frequently removed from the substitute care setting where they were supposed to stay until the age of 18. Conclusions: The results suggest interesting avenues for policy makers and service

  1. Sonographic Identification of Tube Thoracostomy Study (SITTS: Confirmation of Intrathoracic Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A. Jenkins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thoracostomy tubes (TT are commonly placed in the management of surgical, emergency, and trauma patients and chest radiographs (CXR and computed tomography (CT are performed to confirm placement. Ultrasound (US has not previously been used as a means to confirm intrathoracic placement of chest tubes. This study involves a novel application of US to demonstrate chest tubes passing through the pleural line, thus confirming intrathoracic placement.Methods: This was an observational proof-of-concept study using a convenience sample of patients with TTs at a tertiary-care university hospital. Bedside US was performed by the primary investigatorusing first the low-frequency (5–1 MHz followed by the high-frequency (10–5 MHz transducers, in both 2-dimensional gray-scale and M-modes in a uniform manner. The TTs were identified in transverse and longitudinal views by starting at the skin entry point and scanning to where the TT passed the pleural line, entering the intrathoracic region. All US images were reviewed by US fellowship-trained emergency physicians. CXRs and CTs were used as the standard for confirmation ofTT placement.Results: Seventeen patients with a total of 21 TTs were enrolled. TTs were visualized entering the intrathoracic space in 100% of cases. They were subjectively best visualized with the high-frequency (10–5 MHz linear transducer. Sixteen TTs were evaluated using M-mode. TTs produced a distinct pattern on M-mode.Conclusion: Bedside US can visualize the TT and its entrance into the thoracic cavity and it can distinguish it from the pleural line by a characteristic M-mode pattern. This is best visualized with the high-frequency (10–5 MHz linear transducer. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(4:305–311.

  2. Unilateral brief-pulse electroconvulsive therapy and cognition: effects of electrode placement, stimulus dosage and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; Keane, Deborah; Babalola, Oyemi; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2011-06-01

    To clarify advantages of unilateral electrode placement as an optimisation technique for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression, aims were to meta-analyse unilateral ECT effects on cognitive performance relative to: (1) bitemporal electrode placement, (2) electrical dosage, and (3) time interval between final treatment and cognitive reassessment. Relevant electronic databases were systematically searched through May 2009, using the terms: "electroconvulsive therapy" and ["cogniti∗", "neuropsycholog∗", "memory", "attention", "executive", "spatial", or "intellectual"]. Inclusion criteria were: independent study of depressed patients receiving unilateral or bitemporal brief-pulse ECT; within-subjects design; use of objective cognitive assessments; available mean electrical dosage for unilateral samples. Standardized pre-post ECT weighted effect sizes were computed and pooled within 16 cognitive domains by a mixed-effects model. Thirty-nine studies (1415 patients) were meta-analysed. Up to three days after final treatment, unilateral ECT was associated with significantly smaller decreases in global cognition, delayed verbal memory retrieval, and autobiographical memory, compared to bitemporal ECT. Significant publication bias was found for autobiographical memory, favouring reporting of larger percentage loss. Higher unilateral ECT electrical dosage predicted larger decreases in verbal learning, delayed verbal memory retrieval, visual recognition, and semantic memory retrieval. When retested more than three days after completing ECT, no significant differences remained between the two electrode placements; for unilateral ECT, electrical dosage no longer predicted cognitive performance whereas increasing interval between final treatment and retesting predicted growing improvement in some variables. This interval is a more useful long-term predictor of cognitive function than electrode placement or electrical dosage following unilateral ECT. Copyright © 2010

  3. A comparative study of onlay and retrorectus mesh placement in incisional hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Kharde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Incisional hernia after abdominal surgery is a well-known complication and the incidence of incisional hernias continues to be 2-11% after laparotomy. The repair of incisional hernia has always been a challenge to the surgeon. Various operative techniques for the repair of incisional hernia are in practice; however, the management is not standardized. The retro-rectus mesh placement or the sub-lay technique, popularized by Rives and Stoppa in Europe, has been reported to be quite effective, with low recurrence rates (0-23% and minimal complications. Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional on-lay mesh and retro-rectus mesh placement in incisional hernia repairs in terms of time taken for surgery, early complications (wound infections, Mesh extrusion, and Delayed complications (Recurrence. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study which was conducted in the surgical department of our hospital. A total of 50 cases were included in this study. Of these cases, 25 cases were operated by the on-lay mesh method and 25 by retro-rectus mesh placement. Only the patients with midline hernias up to 10 cm in diameter were included in the study. Result: The operative time for retro-rectus mesh placement was insignificantly higher than that of on-lay mesh repair, whereas, complications like superficial Surgical site infection SSI were identical in both the study groups, but deep SSI leading to infection of mesh was higher in on-lay mesh repair. The recurrence rate was found to be 4% in on-lay mesh repair and 0% in retro-rectus mesh repair. Conclusion: The follow-up period in this study was 6months; hence, late recurrences were not taken into account. However, the low rate of local complications and the low recurrence rate indicate that retro-rectus mesh repair has an advantage over traditional on-lay repair.

  4. Unilateral brief-pulse electroconvulsive therapy and cognition: Effects of electrode placement, stimulus dosage and time.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2010-11-23

    To clarify advantages of unilateral electrode placement as an optimisation technique for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression, aims were to meta-analyse unilateral ECT effects on cognitive performance relative to: (1) bitemporal electrode placement, (2) electrical dosage, and (3) time interval between final treatment and cognitive reassessment. Relevant electronic databases were systematically searched through May 2009, using the terms: "electroconvulsive therapy" and ["cogniti∗", "neuropsycholog∗", "memory", "attention", "executive", "spatial", or "intellectual"]. Inclusion criteria were: independent study of depressed patients receiving unilateral or bitemporal brief-pulse ECT; within-subjects design; use of objective cognitive assessments; available mean electrical dosage for unilateral samples. Standardized pre-post ECT weighted effect sizes were computed and pooled within 16 cognitive domains by a mixed-effects model. Thirty-nine studies (1415 patients) were meta-analysed. Up to three days after final treatment, unilateral ECT was associated with significantly smaller decreases in global cognition, delayed verbal memory retrieval, and autobiographical memory, compared to bitemporal ECT. Significant publication bias was found for autobiographical memory, favouring reporting of larger percentage loss. Higher unilateral ECT electrical dosage predicted larger decreases in verbal learning, delayed verbal memory retrieval, visual recognition, and semantic memory retrieval. When retested more than three days after completing ECT, no significant differences remained between the two electrode placements; for unilateral ECT, electrical dosage no longer predicted cognitive performance whereas increasing interval between final treatment and retesting predicted growing improvement in some variables. This interval is a more useful long-term predictor of cognitive function than electrode placement or electrical dosage following unilateral ECT.

  5. Biomechanical comparison of sagittal-parallel versus non-parallel pedicle screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Mazda; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Bachmann, Elias; Snedeker, Jess G; Schmid, Samuel L

    2014-11-01

    While convergent placement of pedicle screws in the axial plane is known to be more advantageous biomechanically, surgeons intuitively aim toward a parallel placement of screws in the sagittal plane. It is however not clear whether parallel placement of screws in the sagittal plane is biomechanically superior to a non-parallel construct. The hypothesis of this study is that sagittal non-parallel pedicle screws do not have an inferior initial pull-out strength compared to parallel placed screws. The established lumbar calf spine model was used for determination of pull-out strength in parallel and non-parallel intersegmental pedicle screw constructs. Each of six lumbar calf spines (L1-L6) was divided into three levels: L1/L2, L3/L4 and L5/L6. Each segment was randomly instrumented with pedicle screws (6/45 mm) with either the standard technique of sagittal parallel or non-parallel screw placement, respectively, under fluoroscopic control. CT was used to verify the intrapedicular positioning of all screws. The maximum pull-out forces and type of failure were registered and compared between the groups. The pull-out forces were 5,394 N (range 4,221 N to 8,342 N) for the sagittal non-parallel screws and 5,263 N (range 3,589 N to 7,554 N) for the sagittal-parallel screws (p = 0.838). Interlevel comparisons also showed no statistically significant differences between the groups with no relevant difference in failure mode. Non-parallel pedicle screws in the sagittal plane have at least equal initial fixation strength compared to parallel pedicle screws in the setting of the here performed cadaveric calf spine experiments.

  6. UMTRA Project remedial action planning and disposal cell design to comply with the proposed EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] standards (40 CFR Part 192)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project involves stabilizing 24 inactive uranium mill tailings piles in 10 states. Remedial work must meet standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Remedial action must be designed and constructed to prevent dispersion of the tailings and other contaminated materials, and must prevent the inadvertent use of the tailings by man. This report is prepared primarily for distribution to parties involved in the UMTRA Project, including the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and states and tribes. It is intended to record the work done by the DOE since publication of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards, and to show how the DOE has attempted to respond and react in a positive way to the new requirements that result from the proposed standards. This report discusses the groundwater compliance strategies now being defined and implemented by the DOE, and details the changes in disposal cell designs that result from studies to evaluate ways to facilitate compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. This report also serves to record the technical advances, planning, and progress made on the UMTRA Project since the appearance of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. The report serves to establish, document, and disseminate technical approaches and engineering and groundwater information to people who may be interested or involved in similar or related projects. 24 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Lumbar pedicle screw placement: Using only AP plane imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Placement of pedicle screws under fluoroscopic guidance using AP plane imaging alone with tactile guidance is safe, fast, and reliable. However, a good understanding of the radiographic landmarks is a prerequisite.

  8. Rotation placements help students' understanding of intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lisa

    2011-07-01

    It is vital that children's nursing students are fit for practice when they qualify and are able to meet various essential skills as defined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). To gain the knowledge and skills required, students need placements in areas where high dependency and potentially intensive care are delivered. Efforts to maximise the number of students experiencing intensive care as a placement have led to the development of the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rotation, increasing placements on the PICU from 5 to 40 per cent of the student cohort per year. The lecturer practitioner organises the rotation, providing credible links between university and practice areas, while supporting students and staff in offering a high-quality placement experience. Students say the rotation offers a positive insight into PICU nursing, helping them develop knowledge and skills in a technical area and creating an interest in this specialty.

  9. Complications of nasogastric tube placement--don't blow it.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, S

    2012-04-01

    Preventable complications maybe associated with the placement of nasogastric tubes. Our report raises awareness of the potentially fatal complications that can occur. We also recommend an approach for clinicians which maybe used to avoid significant patient morbidity.

  10. Critical Path-Based Thread Placement for NUMA Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, C Y; Li, D; Nikolopoulos, D S; Grove, M; Cameron, K; de Supinski, B R

    2011-11-01

    Multicore multiprocessors use a Non Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) to improve their scalability. However, NUMA introduces performance penalties due to remote memory accesses. Without efficiently managing data layout and thread mapping to cores, scientific applications, even if they are optimized for NUMA, may suffer performance loss. In this paper, we present algorithms and a runtime system that optimize the execution of OpenMP applications on NUMA architectures. By collecting information from hardware counters, the runtime system directs thread placement and reduces performance penalties by minimizing the critical path of OpenMP parallel regions. The runtime system uses a scalable algorithm that derives placement decisions with negligible overhead. We evaluate our algorithms and runtime system with four NPB applications implemented in OpenMP. On average the algorithms achieve between 8.13% and 25.68% performance improvement compared to the default Linux thread placement scheme. The algorithms miss the optimal thread placement in only 8.9% of the cases.

  11. Clinical placements and nursing students' career planning: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; McCall, Louise; Wray, Natalie

    2010-04-01

    Many nursing students enter undergraduate programmes with preconceived ideas about their future nursing careers, and intend to practice in particular areas such as midwifery or paediatrics. Through clinical placements, students are exposed to different clinical areas and professional socialization is facilitated. However, little is known about the influence of clinical placements on students' career intentions. This paper reports nursing findings drawn from a large qualitative study conducted in Victoria, Australia that sought to explore the influence of health professional students' clinical placements on their future career intentions. Participants were invited to be involved in either face-to-face or focus group interviews depending upon their own preference. Thematic data analysis revealed three main themes: 're-affirming career choice', 'working in a particular area' and 'work location'. Findings from the study add to our understanding of factors influencing nursing students' planning for their future careers including the impact of clinical placements.

  12. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) 2017 Reinsurance Placement Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — We are sharing some of the January 2017 reinsurance placement information with the general public, because it is important for the nation to more clearly understand...

  13. MVMO-based approach for optimal placement and tuning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Variance Mapping Optimization (MVMO-S) to solve the multi-scenario formulation of the optimal placement and coordinated tuning of power system supplementary damping controllers (POCDCs). The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated ...

  14. ESL Placement and Schools: Effects on Immigrant Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn.

  15. Subarachnoid pneumocephalus: a rare complication of epidural catheter placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Robert; Jan, Rehana

    2002-11-01

    Several potential complications may occur during identification of the epidural space. We present a case of subarachnoid pneumocephalus as a rare complication of epidural catheter placement. Copyright 2002 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  16. Perceptions of UK medical students on rural clinical placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaville, Jenny A; Wynn-Jones, John; Hays, Richard B; Coventry, Peter J; McKinley, Robert K; Randall-Smith, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Rural clinical placements are now commonly used to both promote awareness of rural health careers and expand clinical placement networks in Australia, North America and elsewhere. However in the United Kingdom (UK) there is no clear workforce or health education policy that encourages rural background student recruitment, rural clinical placements, rural oriented curricula or rural health education infrastructure, because deprivation and poor health status are regarded as urban phenomena. The question for one new medical school in regional/rural UK is: can increasing the utilisation of rural primary care practices both resolve teaching capacity constraints and offer students valuable learning opportunities about rural health? This article reports an exploration of students' views on the value of rural clinical placements in a new curriculum designed to address regional deprivation and workforce needs. Medical students in Year 1 and Year 3 of a regional medical school were invited to attend focus group discussions that explored their understanding of rural health and life and the attractions of and barriers to expanding rural clinical placements. The Year 1 students were in the new curriculum and therefore more likely to be allocated a rural clinical placement in their more senior years. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Themes that emerged were: what is rural? how different is rural from urban?; differences in rural and urban learning, logistic issues, and choosing a rural placement. Student perceptions in both groups were rather negative about rural placements. Rural practices were thought to provide a narrow range of patient contact and learning opportunities, and rural life was thought to be unattractive, especially out of formal placement hours. Even relatively small distances from friends and social outlets were regarded as barriers. Year 1 students were more positive about the possibility of a rural placement

  17. New insights into eyespot placement and assembly in Chlamydomonas

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Joseph S; Mittelmeier, Telsa M; Dieckmann, Carol L

    2011-01-01

    Aspects of cellular architecture, such as cytoskeletal asymmetry cues, play critical roles in directing the placement of organelles and establishing the sites of their formation. In the model green alga Chlamydomonas, the photosensory eyespot occupies a defined position in relation to the flagella and microtubule cytoskeleton. Investigations into the cellular mechanisms of eyespot placement and assembly have aided our understanding of the interplay between cytoskeletal and plastid components ...

  18. Who disrupts from placement in foster and kinship care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe M; Reid, John B; Landsverk, John; Fisher, Phillip A; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2006-04-01

    To identify reliable, inexpensive predictors of foster care placement disruption that could be used to assess risk of placement failure. Using the Parent Daily Report Checklist (PDR), foster or kinship parents of 246 children (5-12 years old) in California were interviewed three times about whether or not their foster child engaged in any of the 30 problem behaviors during the previous 24 h. PDR was conducted during telephone contacts (5-10 min each) that occurred from 1 to 3 days apart at baseline. Disruptions were tracked for the subsequent 12 months. Other potential predictors of disruption were examined, including the child's age, gender, and ethnicity, the foster parent's ethnicity, the number of other children in the foster home, and the type of placement (kin or non-kin). Foster/kin parents reported an average of 5.77 child problems per day on the PDR checklist. The number of problem behaviors was linearly related to the child's risk of placement disruption during the subsequent year. The threshold for the number of problem behaviors per day that foster and kinship parents tolerated without increased risk of placement disruption for these latency-aged children was 6 or fewer. Children in non-kin placements were more likely to disrupt than those in kinship placements. There was a trend for increased risk of disruption as the number of children in the home increased. The PDR Checklist may be useful in predicting which placements are at most risk of future disruption, allowing for targeted services and supports.

  19. Product placement v českém filmu

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastná, Hana

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with product placement in Czech cinematographic work as a specific way of presentation branded product. From a few points of view consumer aesthetics, semiotics of cinema and marketing semiotics is explored four movies (Empties, Women in Temptation, Men in hope and Perfect Days). At selected scenes we show how branded products are presented in the movie, how the placements are integrated into the plot and the story. The paper uses classified in terms of efficiency. It is fol...

  20. Guidelines for supporting placement learning via video communications technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Teri

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Current drivers in higher education have led to the questioning of traditional placement support methods. Within many programmes, students undertaking practice-based learning experience structured, one-to-one support from an academic in the placement location. With the financial and environmental implications of this practice, the potential for using video-based communications as a replacement for face-to-face dialogue was explored. The paper aims to discuss the above issues. \\ud \\u...

  1. Chaplaincy placements will highlight role of patient spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-27

    UNIVERSITY OF Hull nursing students are undertaking placements with chaplains to find out more about the importance of patient spirituality. Lead chaplain for Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS Foundation Trust, the Rev Charles Thody, is working with chaplains at Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust to provide placements and run lectures and tutorials. 'Spiritual care is a huge element of palliative and end of life care,' he said.

  2. Speeding Up FPGA Placement via Partitioning and Multithreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Ababei

    2009-01-01

    placement subproblems are created by partitioning and then processed concurrently by multiple worker threads that are run on multiple cores of the same processor. Our main goal is to investigate the speedup that can be achieved with this simple approach compared to previous approaches that were based on distributed computing. The new hybrid parallel placement algorithm achieves an average speedup of 2.5× using four worker threads, while the total wire length and circuit delay after routing are minimally degraded.

  3. Soft-Tissue Grafting Techniques Associated With Immediate Implant Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Mark; Kurtzman, Gregori M; Khan, Waji; Choukroun, Joseph; Miron, Richard J

    2018-02-01

    Immediate implant placement often presents challenges in terms of predictably obtaining soft-tissue coverage over the implant site. While delayed implant placement offers the ability for soft tissues to grow and invade the extraction socket making their attachment around implants more predictable, immediate implant placement poses a significant risk of bacterial invasion towards the implant surface as a result of insignificant soft-tissue volume. Soft-tissue grafting techniques have often been proposed for use during immediate implant placement to augment soft-tissue deficiencies, including the use of either palatal connective tissue grafts (CTGs) or collagen-derived scaffolds. However, both of these approaches have significant drawbacks in that CTGs are harvested with high patient morbidity and collagen scaffolds remain avascular and acelluar posing a risk of infection/implant contamination. More recently, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been proposed as an economical and biological means to speed soft-tissue wound healing. In combination with immediate implant placement, PRF offers an easily procurable low-cost regenerative modality that offers an efficient way to improve soft-tissue attachment around implants. Furthermore, the supra-physiological concentration of defense-fighting leukocytes in PRF, combined with a dense fibrin meshwork, is known to prevent early bacterial contamination of implant surfaces, and the biological concentrations of autologous growth factors in PRF is known to increase tissue regeneration. This article discusses soft-tissue grafting techniques associated with immediate implant placement, presents several cases demonstrating the use of PRF in routine immediate implant placement, and further discusses the biological and economic advantages of PRF for the management of soft-tissue grafting during immediate implant placement.

  4. Immediate implant placement and provisionalisation in the aesthetic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nimwegen, W G; Goené, R J; Van Daelen, A C L; Stellingsma, K; Raghoebar, G M; Meijer, H J A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the outcome of immediate single-tooth implant placement and provisionalisation in the aesthetic zone regarding hard and soft peri-implant tissue parameters and patient-related outcome measures in a private practice. All consecutively treated patients with single-tooth immediate implant placement and provisionalisation between the period 1 January 2006 and 1 April 2013 in a referral practice in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, were included in the study. Fifty-one patients of a total of 64 could be examined at follow-up (Tfollow-up ). Radiographs were present from implant placement (Tplacement ), after definitive crown placement (Tdefinitive ), and new radiographs were taken at the follow-up appointment (Tfollow-up ). Next to this, soft tissue parameters, patients' satisfaction and professionals' aesthetic scores were measured at Tfollow-up . Implant survival was 96·9% after a mean follow-up period of 4 years following implant placement. At definitive crown placement, mean marginal bone-level loss was 0·25 mm (SD 0·19). Mean marginal bone-level loss following definitive crown placement was 0·06 mm (SD 0·10) (Tdefinitive to Tfollow-up ) after a mean follow-up period of 4 years. Plaque index, bleeding index and gingival index scores were low. Patients' satisfaction was rated very high: 9·0 (SD 0·7). Professionals aesthetic score was 16·49 (SD 1·86). From this study can be concluded that immediate placement of implants followed by immediate provisionalisation resulted in a high survival rate, minimum peri-implant bone loss, very good aesthetics and satisfied patients after a mean follow-up period of 4 years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Multi-objective PSO based optimal placement of solar power DG in radial distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing trend of electricity demand, fossil fuel depletion and environmental issues request the integration of renewable energy into the distribution system. The optimal planning of renewable distributed generation (DG is much essential for ensuring maximum benefits. Hence, this paper proposes the optimal placement of probabilistic based solar power DG into the distribution system. The two objective functions such as power loss reduction and voltage stability index improvement are optimized. The power balance and voltage limits are kept as constraints of the problem. The non-sorting pare to-front based multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO technique is proposed on standard IEEE 33 radial distribution test system.

  6. Intraventricular catheter placement by electromagnetic navigation safely applied in a paediatric major head injury patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenblatten, Christoph Alexander; Altermatt, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    In the management of severe head injuries, the use of intraventricular catheters for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and the option of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is gold standard. In children and adolescents, the insertion of a cannula in a compressed ventricle in case of elevated intracranial pressure is difficult; therefore, a pressure sensor is placed more often intraparenchymal as an alternative option. In cases of persistent elevated ICP despite maximal brain pressure management, the use of an intraventricular monitoring device with the possibility of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is favourable. We present the method of intracranial catheter placement by means of an electromagnetic navigation technique.

  7. Ambulance clinical placements – A pilot study of students' experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Bridget

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undergraduate paramedic students undertake clinical placements in a variety of locations. These placements are considered an essential element for paramedic pre-employment education. However, anecdotal evidence suggests some students have not had positive experiences on their emergency ambulance placements. The objective of this study was to identify the type of experiences had by students during ambulance clinical placements and to provide feedback to the ambulance services. Methods In this pilot study we employed a cross-sectional study methodology, using a convenience sample of undergraduate paramedic students available in semester one of 2007 to ascertain the students' views on their reception by on-road paramedics and their overall experience on emergency ambulance clinical placements. Ethics approval was granted. Results There were 77 students who participated in the survey, 64% were females, with 92% of students Conclusion This study demonstrates that for a small group of students, emergency ambulance clinical placements were not a positive experience clinically or educationally. Some qualified paramedics doubt if a number of female students can perform the physical role of a paramedic.

  8. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning

  9. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Rinsangata nenryo denchi no kasoku jumyo shiken hoho no hyojunka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As for fuel cells, which are expected as a new clean energy, the R and D are being proceeded with in various fields of the world, but the standardization has not been made both in Japan and abroad. In Japan, the situation is that the information on technical terms, indication method, performance test method, and environment/safety test methods of the phosphorous acid fuel cell power generation is publicly spread. In relation to the international promotion of fuel cells to be predicted, it is necessary to internationally standardize cells themselves which are a key component of fuel cell power generation facilities. Phosphorous acid fuel cells are expected of the earliest commercialization of all, but the common test method to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack has not been established yet. In the R and D, for the purpose of internationally standardizing test methods to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack, a study on the acceleration life test method of phosphoric acid fuel cells was conducted in terms of the technical trend, data, standard, etc. A plan was prepared on general rules of the method to test acceleration life at the cell reaction part of the small cell, and activities also were started for setting up a technical committee for the fuel cell power system in President`s Advisory Committee on Future Technology. 29 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Effect of the standardized Cimicifuga foetida extract on Hsp 27 expression in the MCF-7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza C Soler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifuga foetida, an Asian Cimicifuga species, has been employed as a cooling and detoxification agent in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. For this herb, two cycloartane triterpene glycosides isolated from the rhizomes have demonstrated cytotoxicity on rat tumor and human cancer cell lines. Since human Hsp27 is increased in various human cancers and exhibits cytoprotective activity that affects tumorigenesis and the susceptibility of tumours to cancer treatment, the purpose of this research was to study the expression of this protein in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. To accomplish this aim, MCF-7 cells were exposed to different concentrations of Cimicifuga foetida extract showing a reduction in cell number measured by the sulforhodamine assay. In addition, the expression of Hsp-27 mRNA detected by RT-PCR and Hsp-27 protein detected by immnofluorescence was present in all conditions, except when using the highest concentration of Cimicifuga foetida extract (2,000 jig /L. We conclude that Hsp 27 expression at 2,000 jig /L Cimicifuga foetida extract is diminished. This is the first report showing the Hsp-27 expression after exposure to Cimicifuga foetida extract in MCF-7 cells.

  11. Effect of the standardized Cimicifuga foetida extract on Hsp 27 expression in the MCF-7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maritza C; Molina, Jessica L; Díaz, Hugo A; Pinto, Vivian C; Barrios, Yasenka L; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Weinstein-Oppenheimer, Caroline R

    2011-01-01

    Cimicifuga foetida, an Asian Cimicifuga species, has been employed as a cooling and detoxification agent in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. For this herb, two cycloartane triterpene glycosides isolated from the rhizomes have demonstrated cytotoxicity on rat tumor and human cancer cell lines. Since human Hsp27 is increased in various human cancers and exhibits cytoprotective activity that affects tumorigenesis and the susceptibility of tumours to cancer treatment, the purpose of this research was to study the expression of this protein in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. To accomplish this aim, MCF-7 cells were exposed to different concentrations of Cimicifuga foetida extract showing a reduction in cell number measured by the sulforhodamine assay. In addition, the expression of Hsp-27 mRNA detected by RT-PCR and Hsp-27 protein detected by immnofluorescence was present in all conditions, except when using the highest concentration of Cimicifuga foetida extract (2,000 jig /L). We conclude that Hsp 27 expression at 2,000 jig /L Cimicifuga foetida extract is diminished. This is the first report showing the Hsp-27 expression after exposure to Cimicifuga foetida extract in MCF-7 cells.

  12. The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phetcharat L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available L Phetcharat,1,2 K Wongsuphasawat,1,2 K Winther31School of Antiaging and Regenerative Medicine, Mae Fah University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Anti-aging and Regenerative Medicine, Mae Fah University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Institute for Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, DenmarkObjective: To evaluate the effects of a rose hip powder (Hyben Vital® made from seeds and shells on cell senescence, skin wrinkling, and aging.Methods: A total of 34 healthy subjects, aged 35–65 years, with wrinkles on the face (crow’s-feet were subjected to a randomized and double-blinded clinical study of the effects of the rose hip powder, as compared to astaxanthin, a well-known remedy against wrinkles. During the 8-week study, half of the participants ingested the standardized rose hip product, while the other half ingested astaxanthin. Objective measurements of facial wrinkles, skin moisture, and elasticity were made by using Visioscan, Corneometer, and Cutometer at the beginning of the study, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Evaluation of participant satisfaction of both supplements was assessed using questionnaires. In addition, the effect of the rose hip preparation on cell longevity was measured in terms of leakage of hemoglobin through red cell membranes (hemolytic index in blood samples kept in a blood bank for 5 weeks. Significance of all values was attained with P≤0.05.Results: In the double-blinded study, the rose hip group showed statistically significant improvements in crow’s-feet wrinkles (P<0.05, skin moisture (P<0.05, and elasticity (P<0.05 after 8 weeks of treatment. A similar improvement was observed for astaxanthin, with P-values 0.05, 0.001, and 0.05. Likewise, both groups expressed equal satisfaction with the results obtained in their self-assessment. The rose hip powder further resulted in increased cell longevity of erythrocyte cells during storage for 5 weeks in a blood bank

  13. The in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities of a standardized quassinoids composition from Eurycoma longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kind Leng Tong

    Full Text Available Quassinoids are a group of diterpenoids found in plants from the Simaroubaceae family. They are also the major bioactive compounds found in Eurycoma longifolia which is commonly used as traditional medicine in South East Asia to treat various ailments including sexual dysfunction and infertility. These uses are attributed to its ability to improve testosterone level in men. Chronic consumption of E. longifolia extracts has been reported to increase testosterone level in men and animal model but its effect on prostate growth remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of a standardized total quassinoids composition (SQ40 containing 40% of the total quassinoids found in E. longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. SQ40 inhibited LNCaP cell growth at IC50 value of 5.97 μg/mL while the IC50 on RWPE-1 human prostate normal cells was 59.26 μg/mL. SQ40 also inhibited 5α-dihydrotestosterone-stimulated growth in LNCaP cells dose-dependently. The inhibitory effect of SQ40 in anchorage-independent growth of LNCaP cells was also demonstrated using soft agar assay. SQ40 suppressed LNCaP cell growth via G0/G1 phase arrest which was accompanied by the down-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin D3 and up-regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 protein levels. SQ40 at higher concentrations or longer treatment duration can cause G2M growth arrest leading to apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by the detection of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in LNCaP cells. Moreover, SQ40 also inhibited androgen receptor translocation to nucleus which is important for the transactivation of its target gene, prostate-specific antigen (PSA and resulted in a significant reduction of PSA secretion after the treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 10 mg/kg of SQ40 also significantly suppressed the LNCaP tumor growth on mouse xenograft model. Results from the present study suggest that the standardized total quassinoids

  14. 25 CFR 26.4 - Who administers the Job Placement and Training Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who administers the Job Placement and Training Program... PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.4 Who administers the Job Placement and Training Program? The Job Placement and Training Program is administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs or a...

  15. 25 CFR 26.11 - What type of Job Placement and Training assistance may be approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What type of Job Placement and Training assistance may be... JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.11 What type of Job Placement and... supplemental assistance that supports job placement or training activities (see subpart B of this part for Job...

  16. 25 CFR 26.3 - What is the purpose of the Job Placement and Training Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of the Job Placement and Training... PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.3 What is the purpose of the Job Placement and Training Program? The purpose of the Job Placement and Training Program is to assist eligible applicants to...

  17. Entry-Level Placement Scores for the 1996-97 Academic Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, Eduardo J.

    This memorandum reviews the implementation of new, state-mandated placement criteria at Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC). The first section focuses on placement criteria for degree-seeking students, indicating that MDCC uses scores on the Florida College Entry-Level Placement Test for making placement decisions in reading, writing,…

  18. Mixing advertising and editorial content in radio programmes: appreciation and recall of brand placements versus commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the literature on brand placement is rapidly evolving, no studies thus far have focused on radio brand placement or on the effects of the combination of brand placement and commercials. Therefore, the present experiment (N = 153) focused on the effects of radio brand placement on liking,

  19. Addition of interferon-alpha to a standard maturation cocktail induces CD38 up-regulation and increases dendritic cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan

    2009-01-01

    and PGE(2) used for generating standard DCs (sDC). Several studies indicate that IFN-alpha might also be important for DC differentiation and maturation. In this study, we tested the effect of IFN-alpha alone or as addition to the gold standard sDC cocktail. We observed that maturation by IFN-alpha......Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as adjuvant cells in cancer immunotherapy and have shown promising results. In order to obtain full functional capacity, these DCs need to be maturated, and the current "gold standard" for this process is maturation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6...... differs from sDC maturation: The major phenotypic change after IFN-alpha maturation was dose-dependent up-regulation of CD38 but not CD83, while sDCs expressed the opposite profile with low CD38 and high CD83 expression. Similarly, maturation by Poly I:C leads to CD38high, CD83low DCs indicating...

  20. Analysis of the antiproliferative effects of 3-deazaneoplanocin A in combination with standard anticancer agents in rhabdoid tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, Rebekka; Borchardt, Christiane; Clemens, Dagmar; Kool, Marcel; Dirksen, Uta; Frühwald, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are highly aggressive pediatric malignancies with a rather poor prognosis. New therapeutic approaches and optimization of already established treatment protocols are urgently needed. The histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is highly overexpressed in RTs and associated strongly with epigenetic silencing in cancer. EZH2 is involved in aggressive cell growth and stem cell maintenance. Thus, EZH2 is an attractive therapeutic target in RTs. The aim of the study presented here was to analyze the effects of a pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 alone and in combination with other anticancer drugs on RTs cells in vitro. The antitumor activity of the S-adenosyl-homocysteine-hydrolase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) alone and in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs (doxorubicin, etoposide) or epigenetic active compounds [5-Aza-CdR, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)] was assessed by MTT cell proliferation assays on three RT cell lines (A204, BT16, G401). Combinatorial treatment with DZNep synergistically and significantly enhanced the antiproliferative activity of etoposide, 5-Aza-CdR, and SAHA. In functional analyses, pretreatment with DZNep significantly increased the effects of 5-Aza-CdR and SAHA on apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and clonogenicity. Microarray analyses following sequential treatment with DZNep and 5-Aza-CdR or SAHA showed changes in global gene expression affecting apoptosis, neuronal development, and metabolic processes. In-vitro analyses presented here show that pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 synergistically affects the antitumor activity of the epigenetic active compounds 5-Aza-CdR and SAHA. Sequential treatment with these drugs combined with DZNep may represent a new therapeutic approach in RTs.

  1. Nasoduodenal tube placement: Are two views necessary to confirm position?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Anh-Vu; Done, Stephen; Otto, Randolph; Friedman, Seth; Stanescu, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Nasoduodenal tube (NDT) placement is typically performed at the bedside and two-view abdominal radiographs are usually used to confirm tube position. Anecdotally, in most instances the lateral view is unnecessary and utilizes more than twice the radiation than an anteroposterior (AP) view alone. We hypothesize that NDT location can be determined using only the AP view, with the NDT position determined on two views utilized as the gold standard. A search was performed for all two- or three-view abdominal radiographs from September 2012 to September 2013 with the phrase ''ND tube'' in the reason field of the requisition. These studies were independently reviewed by two radiologists and scored for anatomical tube position in three different scenarios: AP view alone, the lateral view alone, and both views together, with the latter serving as the gold standard. The anatomical scores were subsequently grouped to reflect clinically significant scenarios. Comparative analysis was performed with the original and clinically grouped scores. A total of 102 patients and 306 separate two-view exams were evaluated. Of the 102 patients, 55 had at least two separate exams. Across raters, concordances of AP and lateral scores relative to the gold standard assessment were 88% and 73% for anatomical scores, and 91.5% and 86.4% for clinically grouped data. Trend differences for fewer errors were found with the AP compared to the lateral view. There were statistically significant group differences with a greater number of false-negative errors in the lateral data set. No clear differences were found when comparing AP and lateral ratings for false-positive errors. Upon review of the common errors, we determined a few imaging findings on AP radiographs that can help assess the need for an additional lateral view. A single AP view is sufficient to determine the NDT position in most cases. Two views should be reserved for cases where the NDT position cannot be

  2. Nasoduodenal tube placement: Are two views necessary to confirm position?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Anh-Vu; Done, Stephen; Otto, Randolph; Friedman, Seth; Stanescu, A.L. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Nasoduodenal tube (NDT) placement is typically performed at the bedside and two-view abdominal radiographs are usually used to confirm tube position. Anecdotally, in most instances the lateral view is unnecessary and utilizes more than twice the radiation than an anteroposterior (AP) view alone. We hypothesize that NDT location can be determined using only the AP view, with the NDT position determined on two views utilized as the gold standard. A search was performed for all two- or three-view abdominal radiographs from September 2012 to September 2013 with the phrase ''ND tube'' in the reason field of the requisition. These studies were independently reviewed by two radiologists and scored for anatomical tube position in three different scenarios: AP view alone, the lateral view alone, and both views together, with the latter serving as the gold standard. The anatomical scores were subsequently grouped to reflect clinically significant scenarios. Comparative analysis was performed with the original and clinically grouped scores. A total of 102 patients and 306 separate two-view exams were evaluated. Of the 102 patients, 55 had at least two separate exams. Across raters, concordances of AP and lateral scores relative to the gold standard assessment were 88% and 73% for anatomical scores, and 91.5% and 86.4% for clinically grouped data. Trend differences for fewer errors were found with the AP compared to the lateral view. There were statistically significant group differences with a greater number of false-negative errors in the lateral data set. No clear differences were found when comparing AP and lateral ratings for false-positive errors. Upon review of the common errors, we determined a few imaging findings on AP radiographs that can help assess the need for an additional lateral view. A single AP view is sufficient to determine the NDT position in most cases. Two views should be reserved for cases where the NDT position cannot be

  3. Small-Bowel Feeding Tube Placement at Bedside: Electronic Medical Device Placement and X-Ray Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michaelann; Roberts, Susan; Carson, Jo Ann

    2018-03-12

    The use of an electromagnetic placement device (EMPD) can allow trained clinicians to safely perform small-bowel feeding tube (SBFT) placement at the bedside. Before initiation of enteral nutrition, most facilities require a radiology confirmation of tube placement. Requirement of X-ray confirmation delays the start of nutrition and leads to increased costs and utilization of resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of agreement between clinician interpretation of SBFT placement using the EMPD images and X-ray confirmation on tip of SBFT placement. This single-center, retrospective, observational study used data completed by registered dietitians or registered nurses after SBFT placement and compared it with radiology reports in the electronic health record. All tube placements were performed using the EMPD and were determined to be in 1 of 4 locations: stomach, duodenum, at the ligament of Trietz, or not specified within the small bowel. A total of 280 tube placements were analyzed. When differentiating between stomach and small bowel, the rate of agreement using a κ statistic was substantial agreement (κ = 0.67) and when determining tip-of-tube location within the small bowel excluding not specified locations, there was almost perfect agreement with a κ = 0.93 and n = 84. These findings suggest that EMPD images provide substantial agreement with X-ray confirmation and almost perfect agreement when the tip of the tube is within the small bowel. This indicates that the EMPD could be used without X-ray confirmation. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Variation in Frequency of Intraoperative Arterial, Central Venous and Pulmonary Artery Catheter Placement During Kidney Transplantation: An Analysis of Invasive Monitoring Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrebetsky, Alexander; Dutton, Richard P; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D

    2018-03-02

    The rapidly increasing number of kidney transplantations warrants assessment of anesthesia care in this patient population. We explored the frequency of arterial catheter (AC), central venous catheter (CVC) and pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) placement during kidney transplantation in the USA using data from the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry (NACOR) and assessed the between-facility variation in the frequency of catheter placement. We defined cases of kidney transplantation using Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Clinical Classification Software. Placement of AC, CVC and PAC was defined by respective Current Procedural Terminology codes. The frequency of vascular catheter placement across facility types was compared using Pearson χ2 test. We identified 10,580 cases of kidney transplantation performed in 100 facilities from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Placement of an AC was reported in 1700 (16.1%), CVC in 2580 (24.4%) and PAC in 50 (0.5%) of cases. The frequency of placement of specific types of catheters was statistically different across facility types (p AC, CVC and PAC ranged from 0% to 86%, 0% to 90% and 0% to 3%, respectively. Considerable between-facility variation in the frequency of AC, CVC and PAC placement during kidney transplantation raises concerns about the need for better practice standardization. Excess invasive monitoring may represent a safety risk as well as unnecessary additional cost. If kidney transplantation can be safely performed without an AC, CVC or PAC in most patients, facilities with above-average catheter placement rates may have an opportunity for measurable reduction in catheter-related perioperative complications. Optimizing perioperative monitoring is an important component of ensuring high functioning, high-value medical systems.

  5. The relationship of placement experience to school absenteeism and changing schools in young, school-aged children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorc, Catherine S; O'Reilly, Amanda Lr; Matone, Meredith; Long, Jin; Watts, Caroline L; Rubin, David

    2013-05-01

    Chronic school absenteeism and frequent school changes, particularly among younger children, may be antecedents for the high rates of school failure and subsequent dropout among youth in foster care. However, the relationship of foster care experience to absenteeism and school change has not been well studied. This study examined the association of placement experience with absenteeism and changing schools among 209 urban children in foster care enrolled in public elementary schools. A cohort of children aged 5 to 8 years who entered non-relative or kinship foster care from 2006-2008 were followed longitudinally for 2 years from entry into foster care. Children residing in foster care were categorized at the end of the study as early stable, late stable, or unstable, if they achieved a permanent placement prior to 45 days, between 45 days and 9 months, or failed to do so within 9 months, respectively. Children who reunified home were classified as a fourth category. Poisson regression, controlling for baseline factors, was used to compare days absent and number of schools attended across categories of placement experience. Among the 209 children, 51% were male, 79% were African American, and 55% were initially placed with kin. One third of children reunified home; among children who did not reunify, one half was early stable, and a third was unstable. Adjusted rates of school absenteeism increased in stepwise fashion as children's placements became more unstable; children with unstable placements were 37% more likely to be absent than those with early placement stability (p=0.029). Children who reunified during the study demonstrated the highest rates of absenteeism; however, there was no significant difference in absenteeism before or after reunification. Number of schools attended increased as stability worsened, with the standardized rate of schools attended reaching 3.6 schools (95% CI 3.1-4.1) over a two year period among children in unstable placements. The

  6. Integrated FDG-PET/CT vs. standard radiological examinations: Comparison of capability for assessment of postoperative recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Nogami, Munenobu; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively and directly compare diagnostic capabilities of whole-body integrated FDG-PET/CT and standard radiologic examination for assessment of recurrence in postoperative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: A total of 92 consecutive pathologically diagnosed NSCLC patients (65 males, 27 females; mean age, 71 years) underwent pathologically and surgically proven complete resection, followed by prospective whole-body FDG-PET/CT and standard radiological examinations. Final diagnosis of recurrence was based on the results of more than 1 year of follow-up and/or pathological examinations. On both methods, the probability of recurrence was assessed in each patient by using a five-point visual scoring system, and the each final diagnosis was made by consensus between two readers. Kappa analyses were performed to determine inter-observer agreement for both methods, and ROC analyses were used to compare capability of the two methods for assessment of postoperative recurrence on a per-patient basis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were also compared between PET/CT and standard radiological examination by means of McNemar's test. Results: All inter-observer agreements were almost perfect (integrated PET/CT: κ = 0.89; standard radiological examination: κ = 0.81). There were no statistically significant differences in area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between integrated FDG-PET/CT and standard radiologic examinations (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Integrated FDG-PET/CT can be used for assessment of postoperative recurrence in NSCLC patients with accuracy as good as that of standard radiological examinations.

  7. Laryngeal mask placement in a teaching institution: analysis of difficult placements [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia D Katsiampoura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laryngeal mask airway (LMA placement is now considered a common airway management practice. Although there are many studies which focus on various airway techniques, research regarding difficult LMA placement is limited, particularly for anesthesiologist trainees. In our retrospective analysis we tried to identify predictive factors of difficult LMA placement in an academic training program. Methods: This retrospective analysis was derived from a research airway database, where data were collected prospectively at the Memorial Hermann Hospital, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA, from 2008 to 2010. All non-obstetric adult patients presenting for elective surgery requiring general anesthesia, were enrolled in this study: anesthesiology residents primarily managed the airways. The level of difficulty, number of attempts, and type of the extraglottic device placement were retrieved. Results: Sixty-nine unique Laryngeal Mask Airways (uLMAs were utilized as a primary airway device. Two independent predictors for difficult LMA placement were identified: gender and neck circumference. The sensitivity for one factor is 87.5% with a specificity of 50%. However with two risk factors, the specificity increases to the level of 93% and the sensitivity is 63%. Conclusion: In a large academic training program, besides uLMA not been used routinely, two risk factors for LMA difficulty were identified, female gender and large neck circumference. Neck circumference is increasingly being recognized as a significant predictor across the spectrum of airway management difficulties while female gender has not been previously reported as a risk factor for difficult LMA placement.

  8. Randomized Phase III Trial of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Enoxaparin in Addition to Standard Treatment in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, L; Gezelius, E; Bergman, B

    2018-01-01

    Background: Coagulation activation and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are hallmarks of malignant disease and represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer. Coagulation inhibition with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) may improve survival specifically in small cell lung cancer (SCLC...

  9. Electromagnetic-Guided Bedside Placement of Nasoenteral Feeding Tubes by Nurses Is Non-Inferior to Endoscopic Placement by Gastroenterologists: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Arja; de Rooij, Thijs; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Busch, Olivier R.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Erkelens, G. Willemien; Klos, Mariël; Kruyt, Philip M.; Bac, Dirk Jan; Rosman, Camiel; Tan, Adriaan C.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Monkelbaan, Jan F.; Mathus-Vliegent, Elisabeth M.; Besselink, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM)-guided bedside placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes by nurses may improve efficiency and reduce patient discomfort and costs compared with endoscopic placement by gastroenterologists. However, evidence supporting this task shift from gastroenterologists to nurses is limited.

  10. Electromagnetic-Guided Bedside Placement of Nasoenteral Feeding Tubes by Nurses Is Non-Inferior to Endoscopic Placement by Gastroenterologists: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.; Rooij, T. de; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Busch, O.R.; Bergman, J.J.; Ubbink, D.T.; Duijvendijk, P. van; Erkelens, G.W.; Klos, M.; Kruyt, P.M.; Bac, D.J.; Rosman, C.; Tan, A.C.; Molenaar, I.Q.; Monkelbaan, J.F.; Mathus-Vliegent, E.M.; Besselink, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Electromagnetic (EM)-guided bedside placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes by nurses may improve efficiency and reduce patient discomfort and costs compared with endoscopic placement by gastroenterologists. However, evidence supporting this task shift from gastroenterologists to nurses

  11. Electromagnetic-guided bedside placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes by nurses is non-inferior to endoscopic placement by gastroenterologists : A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Arja; De Rooij, Thijs; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Busch, Olivier R.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Van Duijvendijk, Peter; Erkelens, G. Willemien; Klos, Mariël; Kruyt, Philip M.; Bac, Dirk Jan; Rosman, Camiel; Tan, Adriaan C.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Monkelbaan, Jan F.; Mathus-Vliegent, Elisabeth M.; Besselink, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Electromagnetic (EM)-guided bedside placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes by nurses may improve efficiency and reduce patient discomfort and costs compared with endoscopic placement by gastroenterologists. However, evidence supporting this task shift from gastroenterologists to nurses

  12. The second life of a product placement in movies: the DVD

    OpenAIRE

    Bressoud, Etienne; Lehu, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Product placement in movies seems to develop at the same pace than media fragmentation expands. Many studies have shown the potential of its impact according to the placement modalities. Rather than focusing on the way the placement is made, this exploratory research offers new insights about the second life of the placement through DVD. A sample of 3,532 DVD French viewers has been used to study the visibility of brand placements, when the film is watched on DVD

  13. This is Advertising! Effects of Disclosing Television Brand Placement on Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    van Reijmersdal, Eva A.; Boerman, Sophie C.; Buijzen, Moniek; Rozendaal, Esther

    2016-01-01

    As heavy media users, adolescents are frequently exposed to embedded advertising formats such as brand placements. Because this may lead to unwitting persuasion, regulations prescribe disclosure of brand placements. This study aimed to increase our understanding of the effects of disclosing television brand placements and disclosure duration on adolescents' persuasion knowledge (i.e., recognition of brand placement as being advertising, understanding that brand placement has a persuasive inte...

  14. Prospective randomised non-inferiority trial of pelvic drain placement vs no pelvic drain placement after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenam, Avinash; Yuh, Bertram; Zhumkhawala, Ali; Ruel, Nora; Chu, William; Lau, Clayton; Chan, Kevin; Wilson, Timothy; Yamzon, Jonathan

    2018-03-01

    To determine if eliminating the prophylactic placement of a pelvic drain (PD) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) affects the incidence of early (90-day) postoperative adverse events. In this parallel-group, blinded, non-inferiority trial, we randomised patients planning to undergo RARP to one of two arms: no drain placement (ND) or PD placement. Patients with demonstrable intraoperative leakage upon bladder irrigation were excluded. Randomisation sequence was determined a priori using a computer algorithm, and included a stratified design with respect to low vs intermediate/high D'Amico risk classifications. Surgeons remained blinded to the randomisation arm until final eligibility was verified at the end of the RARP. The primary endpoint was overall incidence of 90-day complications which, based on our standard treatment using PD retrospectively, was estimated at 13%. The non-inferiority margin was set at 10%, and the planned sample size was 312. An interim analysis was planned and conducted when one-third of the planned accrual and follow-up was completed, to rule out futility if the delta margin was in excess of 0.1389. From 2012 to 2016, 189 patients were accrued to the study, with 92 patients allocated to the ND group and 97 to the PD group. Due to lower than expected accrual rates, accrual to the study was halted by regulatory entities, and we did not reach the intended accrual goal. The ND and PD groups were comparable for median PSA level (6.2 vs 5.8 ng/mL, P = 0.5), clinical stage (P = 0.8), D'Amico risk classification (P = 0.4), median lymph nodes dissected (17 vs 18, P = 0.2), and proportion of patients receiving an extended pelvic lymph node dissection (70.7% vs 79.4%, P = 0.3). Incidence of 90-day overall and major (Clavien-Dindo grade >III) complications in the ND group (17.4% and 5.4%, respectively) was not inferior to the PD group (26.8% and 5.2%, respectively; P < 0.001 and P = 0.007 for difference of proportions <10%, respectively

  15. Learning retention of thoracic pedicle screw placement using a high-resolution augmented reality simulator with haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Cristian J; Banerjee, P Pat; Bellotte, Brad; Oh, G Michael; Lemole, Michael; Charbel, Fady T; Roitberg, Ben

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the use of a part-task simulator with 3D and haptic feedback as a training tool for a common neurosurgical procedure--placement of thoracic pedicle screws. To evaluate the learning retention of thoracic pedicle screw placement on a high-performance augmented reality and haptic technology workstation. Fifty-one fellows and residents performed thoracic pedicle screw placement on the simulator. The virtual screws were drilled into a virtual patient's thoracic spine derived from a computed tomography data set of a real patient. With a 12.5% failure rate, a 2-proportion z test yielded P = .08. For performance accuracy, an aggregate Euclidean distance deviation from entry landmark on the pedicle and a similar deviation from the target landmark in the vertebral body yielded P = .04 from a 2-sample t test in which the rejected null hypothesis assumes no improvement in performance accuracy from the practice to the test sessions, and the alternative hypothesis assumes an improvement. The performance accuracy on the simulator was comparable to the accuracy reported in literature on recent retrospective evaluation of such placements. The failure rates indicated a minor drop from practice to test sessions, and also indicated a trend (P = .08) toward learning retention resulting in improvement from practice to test sessions. The performance accuracy showed a 15% mean score improvement and more than a 50% reduction in standard deviation from practice to test. It showed evidence (P = .04) of performance accuracy improvement from practice to test session.

  16. A Simultaneous Biogeography based Optimal Placement of DG Units and Capacitor Banks in Distribution Systems with Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Ghaffarzadeh, Navid

    2016-09-01

    This paper uses a new algorithm namely biogeography based optimization (BBO) intended for the simultaneous placement of the distributed generation (DG) units and the capacitor banks in the distribution network. The procedure of optimization has been conducted in the presence of nonlinear loads (a cause of harmonic injection). The purpose of simultaneous optimal placement of the DG and the capacitor is the reduction of active and reactive losses. The difference in the values of loss reduction at different levels of the load have been included in the objective function and the considered objective function includes the constraints of voltage, size and the number of DG units and capacitor banks and the allowable range of the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the total voltage in accordance with the IEEE 519 standards. In this paper the placement has been performed on two load types ie constant and mixed power, moreover the effects of load models on the results and the effects of optimal placement on reduction of the THD levels have also been analyzed. The mentioned cases have been studied on a 33 bus radial distribution system.

  17. Report of the First International Consensus on Standardized Nomenclature of Antinuclear Antibody HEp-2 Cell Patterns (ICAP) 2014-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Edward K L; Damoiseaux, Jan; Carballo, Orlando Gabriel; Conrad, Karsten; de Melo Cruvinel, Wilson; Francescantonio, Paulo Luiz Carvalho; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Garcia-De La Torre, Ignacio; Herold, Manfred; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Satoh, Minoru; von Mühlen, Carlos A.; Andrade, Luis E C

    2015-01-01

    During the 12th International Workshop on Autoantibodies and Autoimmunity held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on August 28, 2014, a full day session was devoted to establishing a consensus on the nomenclature of staining patterns observed in the antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect immunofluorescence test on HEp-2 cells. The current report summarizes the collective agreements with input from the host Brazilian and international communities that represented research, clinical, and diagnostic service lab...

  18. Effect of the standardized Cimicifuga foetida extract on Hsp 27 expression in the MCF-7 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza C Soler; Jessica L Molina; Hugo A Díaz; Vivian C Pinto; Yasenka L Barrios; Kan He; Marc Roller; Caroline R Weinstein-Oppenheimer

    2011-01-01

    Cimicifuga foetida, an Asian Cimicifuga species, has been employed as a cooling and detoxification agent in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. For this herb, two cycloartane triterpene glycosides isolated from the rhizomes have demonstrated cytotoxicity on rat tumor and human cancer cell lines. Since human Hsp27 is increased in various human cancers and exhibits cytoprotective activity that affects tumorigenesis and the susceptibility of tumours to cancer treatment, the purpose...

  19. Study protocol: precision of a protocol for manual intramuscular needle placement checked by passive stretching and relaxing of the target muscle in the lower extremity during BTX-A treatment in children with spastic cerebral palsy, as verified by means of electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnink-Kavelaars, Jessica; Vermeulen, Roland Jeroen; Becher, Jules Guilhelmus

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type-A given by manual intramuscular needle placement in the lower extremity under general anaesthesia is an established treatment and standard of care in managing spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Optimal needle placement is

  20. Costs and clinical outcomes of implant placement during ablative surgery and postponed implant placement in curative oral oncology : A five-year retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Jan Willem G H; Meijer, Gert J.; Koole, Ron; Adang, Eddy M.; Merkx, Matthias A W; Speksnijder, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare costs and clinical outcomes of two protocols for implant placement in edentulous oral cancer patients: implant placement during ablative surgery and postponed implant placement. Material and methods: All edentulous patients who underwent curative

  1. An immune-modulating diet increases the regulatory T cells and reduces T helper 1 inflammatory response in Leishmaniosis affected dogs treated with standard therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Laura; Annunziatella, Mariangela; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Lanzilli, Sarah; Rubino, Valentina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Centenaro, Sara; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-03

    Clinical appearance and evolution of Canine Leishmaniosis (CL) are the consequence of complex interactions between the parasite and the genetic and immunological backgrounds. We investigated the effect of an immune-modulating diet in CL. Dogs were treated with anti- Leishmania pharmacological therapy combined with standard diet (SD Group) or with the immune-modulating diet (IMMD Group). CD3+ CD4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD3+ CD4+ IFN-γ + T helper 1 (Th1) were analyzed by flow cytometry. All sick dogs showed low platelet number at diagnosis (T0). A platelet increase was observed after six months (T6) SD Group, with still remaining in the normal range at twelve months (T12). IMMD Group showed an increase in platelet number becoming similar to healthy dogs at T6 and T12. An increase of CD4/CD8 ratio was revealed in SD Group after three months (T3), while at T6 and at T12 the values resembled to T0. The increase in CD4/CD8 ratio at T3 was maintained at T6 and T12 in IMMD Group. A reduction in the percentage of Treg of all sick dogs was observed at T0. A recovery of Treg percentage was observed only at T3 in SD Group, while this effect disappeared at T6 and T12. In contrast, Treg percentage became similar to healthy animals in IMDD Group at T3, T6 and T12. Sick dogs showed an increase of Th1 cells at T0 as compared with healthy dogs. We observed the occurrence of a decrease of Th1 cells from T3 to T12 in SD Group, although a trend of increase was observed at T6 and T12. At variance, IMMD Group dogs showed a progressive decrease of Th1 cells, whose levels became similar to healthy controls at T6 and T12. The immune-modulating diet appears to regulate the immune response in CL during the standard pharmacological treatment. The presence of nutraceuticals in the diet correlates with the decrease of Th1 cells and with the increase of Treg in sick dogs. Therefore, the administration of the specific dietary supplement improved the clinical response to the

  2. Grey relational clustering associated with CAPRI applied to FPGA placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jan-Ou; Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wang, San-Fu

    2016-04-01

    Grey relational clustering is used to minimise wire length during field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) placement and routing. The proposed Grey Relational Clustering Apply to Placement (GRAP) algorithm combines grey relational clustering and convex assigned placement for regular ICs method to construct a placement netlist, which was successfully used to solve the problem of minimising wire length in an FPGA placement. Upon calculating the grey relational grade, GRAP can rank the sequence and analyse the minimal distance in configuration logic blocks based on the grey relational sequence and combined connection-based approaches. The experimental results demonstrate that the GRAP effectively compares the Hibert, Z and Snake with bounding box (BB) cost function in the space-filling curve. The GRAP improved BB cost by 0.753%, 0.324% and 0.096% for the Hilbert, Z and Snake, respectively. This study also compares the critical path with the space-filling curve. The GRAP approach improved the critical path for Snake by 1.3% in the space-filling curve; however, the GRAP increased critical path wire by 1.38% and 0.03% over that of the Hilbert and Z of space-filling curve, respectively.

  3. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  4. An RTT-Aware Virtual Machine Placement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Quan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization is a key technology for mobile cloud computing (MCC and the virtual machine (VM is a core component of virtualization. VM provides a relatively independent running environment for different applications. Therefore, the VM placement problem focuses on how to place VMs on optimal physical machines, which ensures efficient use of resources and the quality of service, etc. Most previous work focuses on energy consumption, network traffic between VMs and so on and rarely consider the delay for end users’ requests. In contrast, the latency between requests and VMs is considered in this paper for the scenario of optimal VM placement in MCC. In order to minimize average RTT for all requests, the round-trip time (RTT is first used as the metric for the latency of requests. Based on our proposed RTT metric, an RTT-Aware VM placement algorithm is then proposed to minimize the average RTT. Furthermore, the case in which one of the core switches does not work is considered. A VM rescheduling algorithm is proposed to keep the average RTT lower and reduce the fluctuation of the average RTT. Finally, in the simulation study, our algorithm shows its advantage over existing methods, including random placement, the traffic-aware VM placement algorithm and the remaining utilization-aware algorithm.

  5. A virtual reality based simulator for learning nasogastric tube placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; He, Xuejian; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Deng, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is a common clinical procedure where a plastic tube is inserted into the stomach through the nostril for feeding or drainage. However, the placement is a blind process in which the tube may be mistakenly inserted into other locations, leading to unexpected complications or fatal incidents. The placement techniques are conventionally acquired by practising on unrealistic rubber mannequins or on humans. In this paper, a virtual reality based training simulation system is proposed to facilitate the training of NGT placement. It focuses on the simulation of tube insertion and the rendering of the feedback forces with a haptic device. A hybrid force model is developed to compute the forces analytically or numerically under different conditions, including the situations when the patient is swallowing or when the tube is buckled at the nostril. To ensure real-time interactive simulations, an offline simulation approach is adopted to obtain the relationship between the insertion depth and insertion force using a non-linear finite element method. The offline dataset is then used to generate real-time feedback forces by interpolation. The virtual training process is logged quantitatively with metrics that can be used for assessing objective performance and tracking progress. The system has been evaluated by nursing professionals. They found that the haptic feeling produced by the simulated forces is similar to their experience during real NGT insertion. The proposed system provides a new educational tool to enhance conventional training in NGT placement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human foot placement and balance in the sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Matthew; Wight, Derek; McPhee, John; Kubica, Eric; Wang, David

    2009-12-01

    Foot placement has long been recognized as the primary mechanism that humans use to restore balance. Many biomechanists have examined where humans place their feet during gait, perturbations, and athletic events. Roboticists have also used foot placement as a means of control but with limited success. Recently, Wight et al. (2008, "Introduction of the Foot Placement Estimator: A Dynamic Measure of Balance for Bipedal Robotics," ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 3, p. 011009) introduced a planar foot placement estimator (FPE) algorithm that will restore balance to a simplified biped that is falling. This study tested the FPE as a candidate function for sagittal plane human-foot-placement (HFP) by recording the kinematics of 14 healthy subjects while they performed ten walking trials at three speeds. The FPE was highly correlated with HFP (rho>or=0.997) and its accuracy varied linearly from 2.6 cm to -8.3 cm as walking speed increased. A sensitivity analysis revealed that assumption violations of the FPE cannot account for the velocity-dependent changes in FPE-HFP error suggesting that this behavior is volitional.

  7. Economic antecedents of prone infant sleep placement among black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A

    2008-09-01

    Black infants die from sudden infant death syndrome at twice the incidence observed among non-Hispanic white infants. Explanations for this disparity include a two-fold greater prevalence of prone (i.e., stomach) infant sleep placement among black caregivers. I test the hypothesis that the contraction of state economies may contribute to this disparity by increasing the risk of prone infant sleep placement among black mothers. I retrieved data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics employment series and 33,518 black mothers in 26 states participating in the 1996-2002 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. I use weighted multivariable analyses to control for individual characteristics and state and time trends. Black mothers exhibit an elevated risk of reporting prone placement one month following statewide declines in employment (adjusted odds ratio for a one percent decline = 1.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22). This risk remains elevated after control for individual variables. In contrast, I find no association between the economy and prone placement among white mothers. Statewide economic decline may reduce adherence to the recommended non-prone infant sleep position among black, but not white, mothers. Additional research among black caregivers should determine which mechanisms connect economic downturns to prone infant sleep placement.

  8. Radiologic placement of metallic esophageal stents: preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, S.; Asch, M.R.; Jaffer, N.; Casson, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of covered, self expanding metallic stents for alleviating stricture associated with malignant esophageal lesions. Patients and methods: Self-expanding metallic stents were placed in 10 patients with dysphagia related to stricture caused by malignant esophageal lesions. The stents were placed fluoroscopically with local anesthesia, and patency of the esophageal lumen was assessed by barium study after the procedure. The patients were then followed clinically. Results: In all 10 cases patency of the lumen was renewed after stent placement. After the procedure 9 of the patients could tolerate a normal or near-normal diet; in the other patient esophageal perforation occurred, and clinical deterioration prevented oral intake of food. In one patient, 2 stents were needed because of the length of the stricture. Two patients experienced reflux after placement of the stent across the gastro-esophageal junction. Another patient had asymptomatic aspiration after stent placement in the proximal esophagus. In 2 patients, symptoms associated with tracheoesophageal fistula were relieved after placement of the stents. Six of the 10 patients died; mean survival after the procedure was 12 (range 1 to 56) weeks. The other 4 patients were alive at the time of writing, having survived for a mean of 7.5 (range 2 to 13) weeks; all of these patients tolerated a near-normal diet. Conclusions: The placement of covered, self-expanding metallic stents is a quick, effective method of palliating dysphagia related to stricture caused by malignant esophageal lesions. (author)

  9. CD44 variant, but not standard CD44 isoforms, mediate disassembly of endothelial VE-cadherin junction on metastatic melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Fu, Changliang; Bai, Huiyuan; Song, Erqun; Dong, Cheng; Song, Yang

    2014-12-20

    Loss of endothelial adherens junctions is involved in tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that, in the metastatic Lu1205 melanoma cells, expression of the CD44 variant CD44v8-v10 induced junction disassembly and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation at Y658 and Y731. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated CD44 knockdown or sialic acid cleavage reversed these effects. Moreover, microspheres coated with recombinant CD44v8-v10 promoted endothelial junction disruption. Overexpression of CD44v8-v10 but not of standard CD44 (CD44s) promoted gap formation in the non-metastatic WM35 melanoma cells, whereas CD44 knockdown or neuraminidase treatment dramatically diminished melanoma transendothelial migration. Endothelial cells transfected with the phosphomimetic VE-cadherin mutant Y658E supported transmigration of CD44-silenced Lu1205 cells. Our findings imply that CD44 variant isoform (CD44v) but not CD44s regulates endothelial junction loss, promoting melanoma extravasation. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards the standardization of stem cell therapy studies for ischemic heart diseases: Bridging the gap between animal models and the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Fábio; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Ferreira-Martins, João; Ferreira, Rita; Falcão-Pires, Inês; Vitorino, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Today there is an increasing demand for heart transplantations for patients diagnosed with heart failure. Though, shortage of donors as well as the large number of ineligible patients hurdle such treatment option. This, in addition to the considerable number of transplant rejections, has driven the clinical research towards the field of regenerative medicine. Nonetheless, to date, several stem cell therapies tested in animal models fall by the wayside and when they meet the criteria to clinical trials, subjects often exhibit modest improvements. A main issue slowing down the admission of such therapies in the domain of human trials is the lack of protocol standardization between research groups, which hampers comparison between different approaches as well as the lack of thought regarding the clinical translation. In this sense, given the large amount of reports on stem cell therapy studies in animal models reported in the last 3years, we sought to evaluate their advantages and limitations towards the clinical setting and provide some suggestions for the forthcoming investigations. We expect, with this review, to start a new paradigm on regenerative medicine, by evoking the debate on how to plan novel stem cell therapy studies with animal models in order to achieve more consistent scientific production and accelerate the admission of stem cell therapies in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Pulse Width and Electrode Placement on the Efficacy and Cognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackeim, Harold A.; Prudic, Joan; Nobler, Mitchell S.; Fitzsimons, Linda; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Payne, Nancy; Berman, Robert M.; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Perera, Tarique; Devanand, D. P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression is effective, cognitive effects limit its use. Reducing the width of the electrical pulse and using the right unilateral electrode placement may decrease adverse cognitive effects, while preserving efficacy. METHODS In a double-masked study, we randomly assigned 90 depressed patients to right unilateral ECT at 6 times seizure threshold or bilateral ECT at 2.5 times seizure threshold, using either a traditional brief pulse (1.5 ms) or an ultrabrief pulse (0.3 ms). Depressive symptoms and cognition were assessed before, during, and immediately, two, and six months after therapy. Patients who responded were followed for a one-year period. RESULTS The final remission rate for ultrabrief bilateral ECT was 35 percent, compared with 73 percent for ultrabrief unilateral ECT, 65 percent for standard pulse width bilateral ECT, and 59 percent for standard pulse width unilateral ECT (all P’stherapy. Both the ultrabrief stimulus and right unilateral electrode placement produced less short- and long-term retrograde amnesia. Patients rated their memory deficits as less severe following ultrabrief right unilateral ECT compared to each of the other three conditions (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The use of an ultrabrief stimulus markedly reduces adverse cognitive effects, and when coupled with markedly suprathreshold right unilateral ECT, also preserves efficacy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00487500.) PMID:19756236

  12. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  13. Effects of a Foster Parent Training Intervention on Placement Changes of Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph M.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John; Reid, John; Leve, Leslie; Laurent, Heidemarie

    2008-01-01

    Placement disruptions undermine efforts of child welfare agencies to promote safety, permanency, and child well-being. Child behavior problems significantly contribute to placement changes. The aims of this investigation were to examine the impact of a foster parent training and support intervention (KEEP) on placement changes and to determine whether the intervention mitigates placement disruption risks associated with children's placement histories. The sample consisted of 700 families with children between ages 5 and 12 years, from a variety of ethnic backgrounds. Families were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The number of prior placements was predictive of negative exits from current foster placements. The intervention increased chances of positive exit (e.g., parent/child reunification) and mitigated the negative risk-enhancing effect of a history of multiple placements. Incorporating intervention approaches based on a parent management training model into child welfare services may improve placement outcomes for child in foster care. PMID:18174349

  14. Acute complications associated with bedside placement of feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, William N

    2006-02-01

    Several types of feeding tubes can be placed at a patient's bedside; examples include nasogastric, nasointestinal, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes. Nasoenteral tubes can be placed blindly at bedside or with the assistance of placement devices. Nasoenteric tubes can also be placed via fluoroscopy and endoscopy. Gastrostomy and jejunostomy tubes can be placed using endoscopic techniques. This paper will describe the indications and contraindications for different types of tubes that can be placed at the bedside and complications associated with tube placement. Complications associated with nasoenteral tubes include inadvertent malpositioning of the tube, epistaxis, sinusitis, inadvertent tube removal, tube clogging, tube-feeding-associated diarrhea, and aspiration pneumonia. Complications from percutaneous gastrostomy and jejunostomy tube placements include procedure-related mishaps, site infection, leakage, buried bumper syndrome, tube malfunction, and inadvertent removal. These complications will be reviewed, along with a discussion of incidence, cause, treatment, and prevention approaches.

  15. Isotropic Optical Mouse Placement for Mobile Robot Velocity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbok Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the isotropic placement of multiple optical mice for the velocity estimation of a mobile robot. It is assumed that there can be positional restriction on the installation of optical mice at the bottom of a mobile robot. First, the velocity kinematics of a mobile robot with an array of optical mice is obtained and the resulting Jacobian matrix is analysed symbolically. Second, the isotropic, anisotropic and singular optical mouse placements are identified, along with the corresponding characteristic lengths. Third, the least squares mobile robot velocity estimation from the noisy optical mouse velocity measurements is discussed. Finally, simulation results for several different placements of three optical mice are given.

  16. [Accuracy of computer-guided implant placement and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinmeng, Li; Guomin, Ou

    2017-02-01

    Digital technology is a new trend in implant dentistry and oral medical technology. Stereolithographic surgical guides, which are computer-guided implant placement, have been introduced gradually to the market. Surgeons are attracted to this approach because of it features visualized preoperative planning, simple surgical procedure, flapless implant, and immediate restoration. However, surgeons are concerned about the accuracy and complications of this approach. This review aims to introduce the classification of computer-guided implant placement. The advantages, disadvantages, and accuracy of this approach are also analyzed. Moreover, factors that may affect the outcomes of computer-guided implant placement are determined. Results will provide a reference to surgeons regarding the clinical application of this approach.

  17. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children....

  18. Optimal PMU Placement with Uncertainty Using Pareto Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ketabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs in state estimation considering uncertainty. State estimation has first been turned into an optimization exercise in which the objective function is selected to be the number of unobservable buses which is determined based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD. For the normal condition, Differential Evolution (DE algorithm is used to find the optimal placement of PMUs. By considering uncertainty, a multiobjective optimization exercise is hence formulated. To achieve this, DE algorithm based on Pareto optimum method has been proposed here. The suggested strategy is applied on the IEEE 30-bus test system in several case studies to evaluate the optimal PMUs placement.

  19. Immediate implant placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Joseph Yun Kwong; Rungcharassaeng, Kitchai; Deflorian, Matteo; Weinstein, Tommaso; Wang, Hom-Lay; Testori, Tiziano

    2018-02-25

    An inevitable loss of soft and hard tissue after tooth extraction often results in a compromised site for anterior implant esthetics in both vertical and horizontal dimensions. Immediate implant placement and provisionalization has been a viable option for replacing failing maxillary anterior teeth as it preserves the vertical existing osseous and gingival architecture. With the simultaneous addition of soft- and hard-tissue grafts, the peri-implant horizontal tissue topography can also be maintained. The esthetic success of immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures is influenced by a number of factors that can be identified as patient-dependent or clinician-dependent. This article describes in detail the process of patient selection, indications, contraindications, diagnosis, treatment planning and treatment execution required to achieve functional and esthetic success with immediate implant placement and provisionalization. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Commercial breaks vs. product placement: what works for young consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Mircea ŢIEREAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a quantitative marketing research conducted on young consumers from Braşov County regarding their perceptions about commercial breaks and product placement during the most important reality shows. The purpose of this research is to determine to what extent young consumers watch the evening shows and to what extent they remember the brands advertised during commercial breaks and product placement within the shows. For young consumers, the evening shows are time spent with family and friends. A large majority do not watch the commercial breaks and they mostly remember brands that also practice product placement during the shows. There is a direct corelation between numbers of shows watched and the percentage of consumers who remember the main sponsors for evening shows.

  1. Optimizing robot placement for visit-point tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K.; Watterberg, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    We present a manipulator placement algorithm for minimizing the length of the manipulator motion performing a visit-point task such as spot welding. Given a set of points for the tool of a manipulator to visit, our algorithm finds the shortest robot motion required to visit the points from each possible base configuration. The base configurations resulting in the shortest motion is selected as the optimal robot placement. The shortest robot motion required for visiting multiple points from a given base configuration is computed using a variant of the traveling salesman algorithm in the robot joint space and a point-to-point path planner that plans collision free robot paths between two configurations. Our robot placement algorithm is expected to reduce the robot cycle time during visit- point tasks, as well as speeding up the robot set-up process when building a manufacturing line.

  2. At the Roots of Product Placement: The Mere Exposure Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ruggieri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the effect of product placement on attitude change and takes into consideration psychological models of the mere exposure effect. A sample of high school students watched an excerpt from two widely-distributed movies in which several products were shown by using the technique known as product placement. The results indicate that students who saw the commercial brand liked the products more than those who didn’t see it. This effect, in line with the literature on the product placement effect, seems to be independent from the recognition of the brand in the movie excerpt. This study also shows that, in the high involvement condition, one exposure is enough to produce a positive attitude toward the brand.

  3. Fibreoptic Bronchoscope for Nasogastric Tube Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari Dhiraj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient of stage III squamous cell carcinoma of mandible with hemi-mandibulectomy, modified radical neck dissection and radiotherapy required Ryle’s Tube (RT insertion for feeding. This case report describes use of fibreoptic bronchoscope to place an endotracheal tube in oesophagus through nasal route which was then used as a conduit to pass a RT into stomach.

  4. An exploration of Operating Department Practice students' experiences of placement support during their first perioperative clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Jean

    2016-01-01

    National and International research shows student anxiety and stress levels are high during times of clinical practice, especially during initial placement allocations. Current literature stresses the importance of preparing students for clinical placements but it is not clear what information students require to adequately prepare them. This study explored Operating Department Practice students' experiences during their first placement. A focus group approach was used to explore the experiences of Operating Department Practice students immediately following their first clinical placements. Following pilot study work a small focus group study was conducted. Data were analysed thematically providing a large amount of in-depth rich data. Three main themes were identified; information, placement and learning experience. Students highlighted inconsistencies in their mentoring, exacerbated by inaccurate information provided by the university. Students felt confused as a result. It was found important for students to feel welcomed and supported by the mentoring processes in order to foster a sense of belonging. Information given by the university should be accurate and effective. This can only be achieved by closer collaboration between the university and practice providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fuel-cell technology for vehicular applications; L`introduzione delle pile a combustibile nel settore dei trasporti: proposte, standard e normative per sistemi di bordo ed impianti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Marmigi, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1998-12-31

    The fuel-cell technology applied to engines for vehicular applications grants broad margins of convenience over any known alternative engine for what concerns the compliance with any present and foreseeable environmental and energy saving regulations. On the other hand, the use of hydrogen produced on board from fuels or stored as a liquid or a gas, raises new problems from the point of view of safety regulations and standards both in the design and use of vehicles and in the fuel production and distribution. The present work is aimed at pointing out the above main safety problems, describes the technical-choices together with their technical grounds, in the framework of the italian and U E standards and regulations. The report is then made up of three parts. The initial section where the on board storage of the fuel from technical-economical point of view is discussed. with particular reference to the compressed hydrogen, the second describing the regulations and standards holding in the field of on board pressure equipment and reporting the ongoing ENEA`s activities in the field. The final part is devoted to the distribution and supply of the fuels to the fuel cell powered electric vehicles. [Italiano] La tecnologia delle celle a combustibile, impiegata nella realizzazione dei propulsori dei veicoli elettrici, conferisce ad essi ampi margini di vantaggio su ogni altro tipo di motorizzazione per quanto riguarda le attuali e prevedibili future normative ambientali e di risparmio energetico. Il presente rapporto si propone di evidenziare alcuni tra questi problemi ed esporre e motivare le soluzioni tecniche previste nell`ambito degli specifici programmi dell`ENEA, in un contesto normativo di riferimento nazionale e comunitario. Il rapporto si compone pertanto di tre parti: una parte iniziale dove e` affrontato dal punto di vista tecnico-economico il problema del trasporto del combustibile a bordo con particolare riferimento all`idrogeno compresso, una seconda in cui

  6. Pharmacognostical Analysis and Protective Effect of Standardized Extract and Rizonic Acid fromErythrina velutinaagainst 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline H; Fonseca, Francisco Noé; Pimenta, Antônia T A; Lima, MaryAnne S; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Viana, Glauce S B; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A M

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina velutina is a tree common in the northeast of Brazil extensively used by traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. To develop a standardized ethanol extract of E. velutina (EEEV) and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of the extract and rizonic acid (RA) from E. velutina on neuronal cells. The plant drug of E. velutina previously characterized was used for the production of EEEV. Three methods were evaluated in order to obtain an extract with higher content of phenols. The neuroprotective effect of standardized EEEV (HPLC-PDA) and RA was investigated on SH-SY5Y cell exposure to the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse and several quality control parameters were determined. EEEV produced by percolation gave the highest phenol content when related to others extractive methods, and its HPLC-PDA analysis allowed to identify four flavonoids and RA, some reported for the first time for the species. EEEV and RA reduced significantly the neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells determined by the MTT assay and the nitrite concentration. EEEV also showed a free radical scavenging activity. This is the first pharmacological study about E. velutina which used a controlled standardized extract since the preparation of the herbal drug. This extract and RA, acting as an antioxidant, presents a neuroprotective effect suggesting that they have potential for future development as a therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disease as Parkinson. The powder of Erythrina velutina was classified as moderately coarse and several quality-control parameters were determined.Ethanolic extract from E. velutina (EEEV) produced by percolation gave the highest phenol content when related to others extractive methods and its HPLC-PDA analysis of EEEV allowed to identify four flavonoids and rizonic acid (RA), some reported for the first time for the species.The EEEV and RA

  7. Mode of communication and classroom placement impact on speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Emily A; Rekart, Deborah; Buckley, Kristi; Geers, Ann E

    2004-05-01

    To examine the impact of classroom placement and mode of communication on speech intelligibility scores in children aged 8 to 9 years using multichannel cochlear implants. Classroom placement (special education, partial mainstream, and full mainstream) and mode of communication (total communication and auditory-oral) reported via parental rating scales before and 4 times after implantation were the independent variables. Speech intelligibility scores obtained at 8 to 9 years of age were the dependent variables. The study included 131 congenitally deafened children between the ages of 8 and 9 years who received a multichannel cochlear implant before the age of 5 years. Higher speech intelligibility scores at 8 to 9 years of age were significantly associated with enrollment in auditory-oral programs rather than enrollment in total communication programs, regardless of when the mode of communication was used (before or after implantation). Speech intelligibility at 8 to 9 years of age was not significantly influenced by classroom placement before implantation, regardless of mode of communication. After implantation, however, there were significant associations between classroom placement and speech intelligibility scores at 8 to 9 years of age. Higher speech intelligibility scores at 8 to 9 years of age were associated with classroom exposure to normal-hearing peers in full or partial mainstream placements than in self-contained, special education placements. Higher speech intelligibility scores in 8- to 9-year-old congenitally deafened cochlear implant recipients were associated with educational settings that emphasize oral communication development. Educational environments that incorporate exposure to normal-hearing peers were also associated with higher speech intelligibility scores at 8 to 9 years of age.

  8. Cost of placement and complications associated with osseointegrated bone-conducting hearing prostheses: a retrospective analysis of medicare billing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Seth E; Layton, Andrew; Tong, Kuo; Lustig, Lawrence R

    2014-03-01

    To report the cost of placement and complications related to osseointegrated bone-conducting hearing prostheses (OBHPs) in a Medicare population. We performed a retrospective analysis of nationwide Medicare claims data for operative and nonoperative complications associated with the placement of percutaneous OBHPs between the first quarter of 2007 and the second quarter of 2009 for which there were 6 subsequent quarters of follow-up. We used Medicare Standard Analytical Files (SAF), which contain a 5% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, excluding those that also were enrolled in a managed-care organization. We identified 118 patients who had OBHPs placed in the requisite period. Their complication billing data were analyzed for the six-quarters after initial placement. Seventy patients (59%) had no billing codes for complications or repeat procedures after receiving the implant, whereas 48 patients (41%) had such codes. The total adjusted mean cost with repeat/revision operations or complications was $7,812 per patient compared with $6,733 for those without these issues, an increase of $1,079 or 16%. We estimate that complications associated with the implantation of percutaneous OBHPs led to $417,616 in additional costs in the entire Medicare fee-for-service population during the study period and that the total cost of placement of these devices together with the cost of their complications totaled $6,789,248. In conclusion, the Medicare SAF database suggests that complications associated with OBHP increased the overall cost of placement by 16%. Like all surgical procedures, these complications and their associated costs should be taken into account when considering treatment options for patients who experience hearing loss.

  9. Peri-implant bone changes following tooth extraction, immediate placement and loading of implants in the edentulous maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Lieven; Abeloos, Johan; De Clercq, Calix; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate peri-implant bone level changes after rehabilitation of a fully edentulous maxilla by placement of six implants in either fresh extraction sites or healed edentulous ridges up till 18 months after implant placement. Twenty patients with a terminal dentition in the maxillae (11 men, 9 women) received a total of 120 OsseoSpeed implants; 118 implants could be loaded immediately of which 59 were placed in extraction sockets and 59 were placed in healed sites. Within 24 h after surgery, all patients received a chairside-assembled, fibre-reinforced temporary fixed prosthetic reconstruction in occlusion. Six months post-surgery, final screw-retained CoCr (15) or Ti (5) computer numerical control-milled and acrylic-veneered frameworks were placed directly at implant level without interposing abutments. Intraoral radiographs were taken 6 and 18 months after implant placement. Implant survival rate was 100%. Mean marginal bone level was located on average -0.35 mm below the reference point (standard deviation 0.29, range -1.20 to +0.02 mm) 18 months after loading. Whether implants were placed in healed bone sites or fresh extraction sockets did not significantly affect the bone level changes. Furthermore, the use of either CoCr or Ti at the implant level did not significantly affect marginal bone loss. Within the limits of this prospective clinical trial, results seem to indicate that immediate placement and occlusal loading of five to six implants in the edentulous maxilla can be carried out successfully. Whether or not those implants are placed in fresh extraction sockets does not seem to alter the outcome. The present data show a successful 1-year outcome of a treatment protocol involving tooth extraction immediately combined with implant placement and loading.

  10. Maximum standardized uptake value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is a prognostic factor in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Haruhisa; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Atsumi; Okame, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Shiroyama, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Nogawa, Takayoshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi

    2014-09-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful for diagnosing malignant tumors. Intracellular FDG uptake is measured as the standardized uptake value (SUV), which differs depending on tumor characteristics. This study investigated differences in maximum SUV (SUVmax) according to histologic type in ovarian epithelial cancer and the relationship of SUVmax with prognosis. This study included 80 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer based on histopathologic findings at surgery and who had undergone PET/CT before treatment. Maximum SUV on PET/CT of primary lesions and histopathology were compared based on histologic type, and the prognosis associated with different SUVmax was evaluated. Clinical tumor stage was I in 35 patients, II in 8, III in 25, and IV in 12. Histologic type was serous adenocarcinoma (AC) in 33 patients, clear cell AC in 27, endometrioid AC in 15, and mucinous AC in 5. Median SUVmax was lower in mucinous AC (2.76) and clear cell AC (4.9) than in serous AC (11.4) or endometrioid AC (11.4). Overall, median SUVmax was lower in clinical stage I (5.37) than in clinical stage ≥II (10.3). However, in both clear cell AC and endometrioid AC, when histologic evaluation was possible, no difference was seen between stage I and stage ≥II. Moreover, in clear cell AC, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in the low-SUVmax group (100%) than in the high-SUVmax group (43.0%, P = 0.009). Maximum SUV on preoperative FDG-PET/CT in ovarian epithelial cancer differs according to histologic type. In clear cell AC, SUVmax may represent a prognostic factor.

  11. Kinematically optimal robot placement for minimum time coordinated motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for determining the optimal placement of a robotic manipulator within a workcell for minimum time coordinated motion. The algorithm uses a simple principle of coordinated motion to estimate the time of a joint interpolated motion. Specifically, the coordinated motion profile is limited by the slowest axis. Two and six degree of freedom (DOF) examples are presented. In experimental tests on a FANUC S-800 arm, the optimal placement of the robot can improve cycle time of a robotic operation by as much as 25%. In high volume processes where the robot motion is currently the limiting factor, this increased throughput can result in substantial cost savings.

  12. Esophageal lung resection and prosthesis placement in a preterm neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Parida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a successful outcome in a preterm baby with an esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula, who initially underwent a primary esophageal repair; but a persistent nonexpanding lung on the side of surgery led to further investigations. A further diagnosis of an esophageal lung resulted in pneumonectomy and prophylactic placement of an intra-thoracic prosthesis to prevent post-pneumonectomy syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prophylactic placement of an intra-thoracic prosthesis in a neonate with the condition of esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula and associated esophageal lung.

  13. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  14. Ridge Splitting Technique for Horizontal Augmentation and Immediate Implant Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanasiou Ioannis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient width of the alveolar ridge often prevents ideal implant placement. Guided bone regeneration, bone grafting, alveolar ridge splitting and combinations of these techniques are used for the lateral augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Ridge splitting is a minimally invasive technique indicated for alveolar ridges with adequate height, which enables immediate implant placement and eliminates morbidity and overall treatment time. The classical approach of the technique involves splitting the alveolar ridge into 2 parts with use of ostetomes and chisels. Modifications of this technique include the use of rotating instrument, screw spreaders, horizontal spreaders and ultrasonic device.

  15. Immediate placement of dental implants in the mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkar Haraswarupa Puttaraju; Paranjyothi Magadi Visveswariah

    2013-01-01

    This case describes extraction of teeth in the mandibular arch, i.e., 41 42 43 44 45 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 (grade two mobility), followed by immediate placement of four dental implants (3i biomet), two in the 45 55 region and two dental implants in 12 21 region. A prefabricated provisional mandibular denture was immediately placed. The purpose of immediate placement was to aid the patient resume his professional duties the next day itself along with esthetic and functional comfort, psycholo...

  16. Immediate placement of dental implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaraju, Gurkar Haraswarupa; Visveswariah, Paranjyothi Magadi

    2013-07-01

    This case describes extraction of teeth in the mandibular arch, i.e., 41 42 43 44 45 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 (grade two mobility), followed by immediate placement of four dental implants (3i biomet), two in the 45 55 region and two dental implants in 12 21 region. A prefabricated provisional mandibular denture was immediately placed. The purpose of immediate placement was to aid the patient resume his professional duties the next day itself along with esthetic and functional comfort, psychological well-being and most importantly preserving the remaining tissue in a healthy condition.

  17. Immediate placement of dental implants in the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkar Haraswarupa Puttaraju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case describes extraction of teeth in the mandibular arch, i.e., 41 42 43 44 45 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 (grade two mobility, followed by immediate placement of four dental implants (3i biomet, two in the 45 55 region and two dental implants in 12 21 region. A prefabricated provisional mandibular denture was immediately placed. The purpose of immediate placement was to aid the patient resume his professional duties the next day itself along with esthetic and functional comfort, psychological well-being and most importantly preserving the remaining tissue in a healthy condition.

  18. Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental implant placement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, James R; Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2015-06-01

    Electronic searches without time or language restrictions were performed in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Oral Health Group trials Register. A vast manual search was done in many dental implant-related journals. Reference lists were scanned for possible additional studies. Ongoing clinical trials were also searched. Titles and abstracts of the reports identified were read independently by the three authors. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Rejected studies were recorded with the reasons for exclusion. The inclusion criteria included clinical human studies, either randomised or not, comparing the implant failure/survival rates in any group of patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis versus not receiving antibiotics prior to implant placement. Case reports and non-human studies were excluded. Implant failure was considered as complete loss of the implant. Data were extracted by the authors. Study risk of bias was assessed. Implant failure and post-operative infection were the outcomes measured, both dichotomous outcomes. Results were expressed using fixed or a random effect model depending on the heterogeneity calculated using an I(2) statistical test. The estimate of relative effect was expressed in risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Number needed to treat (NNT) was calculated and sensitivity analysis was performed to detect differences among the studies considered to have high a risk of bias. Fourteen trials were included in the review and evaluated a total of 14,872 implants. Of the fourteen studies included in the review eight were randomised clinical trials, four were controlled clinical trials and two were retrospective studies. Seven studies had both patients and operators/outcome assessors blinded to the tested intervention. Nine studies had short follow-ups; six of them with a follow-up of four months, one of five months and two of six months.The antibiotic regimen was variable: seven studies did not use post-op antibiotics in

  19. BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT FOODS IN THE STANDARD SHEAR COMPRESSION CELL OF THE SHEAR PRESS AND THE EFFECT OF SAMPLE WEIGHT ON PEAK AREA AND MAXIMUM FORCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesniak, Alina S; Humbaugh, Philip R; Block, Harry W

    1970-07-01

    Twenty-four foods (encompassing fruits, vegetables, meat, bread, cheese and rice) were tested in the Allo Kramer Shear Press at various weight levels ranging from those needed to cover the bottom of the cell to those required for a complete fill. The relationship between maximum force values and sample weight was found to be different for different foods. Products could be grouped into three general categories: those exhibiting a constant force to weight ratio (e.g. white bread, sponge cake), those exhibiting a continuously decreasing force to weight ratio (e.g. raw apples, cooked white beans), and those exhibiting a constant force, independent of sample weight, beyond a certain cell fill level (e.g. canned beets, canned and frozen peas). Fitting the observed behavior into mathematical models allows to infer that extrusion, in addition to the previously recognized shear and compression, plays an important role in the behavior of foods in the standard cell of the Shear Press, and that most foods are subject to various combinations of these forces. The contribution of extrusion was confirmed by actual extrusion tests. Peak areas showed an exponential relationship to sample weight following the equation A = l0 a W b . Some evidence was obtained that exponents a and b are related to the amount and the general type of resistance offered by the food.

  20. [Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental health problems were initially discussed from the perspective of personal liberty. However, the autonomy of persons with mental health problems has been growing in importance as an issue of involuntary placement and treatment since the last part of the twentieth century, because the purpose of involuntary placement is not the deprivation of liberty but to provide adequate treatment under medical supervision. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) adds a new perspective from non-discrimination and equality. Article 14 of CRPD states that "the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty." This provision should be construed from a perspective of non-discrimination. Conventional types of involuntary placement mainly based on dangerousness (UN-MI Principle 16-1a) and incompetency (UN-MI Principle16-1b) are not allowed by Article 14. There is a discussion on the difference between "mental disability" and "mental illness". Some people argue that CRPD should apply not to persons with mental illness, but to those with mental disabilities. However, CRPD does not provide a definition of "disability". It states that its definition is developing. ICF also mentions that ICD-10 and ICF should complement each other. Thus, CRPD should apply to the involuntary placement and treatment of persons with mental illness as well. It is clear that Article 14 intends to change the situation whereby persons who have been described using various terms, such as madness, lunacy, insanity, mental illness, mental disability, mental health problems, and users, are involuntarily hospitalized/placed. The significance of Article 14 will be lost if it cannot be applied to psychiatric hospitalization. From the perspective of non-discrimination, we have to universalize involuntary placement and treatment or completely abolish them. We cannot tolerate a situation where a type of

  1. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  2. Endoscopy versus fluoroscopy for the placement of postpyloric nasoenteric tubes in critically ill patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Youfeng; Yin, Haiyan; Zhang, Rui; Ye, Xiaoling; Wei, Jianrui

    2016-06-01

    Early postpyloric nasoenteric nutrition is considered an accepted method of nutritional support in critically ill patients. Both endoscopy and fluoroscopy placement of postpyloric nasoenteric tubes (PNTs) have the highest percentages of placement success rate. We aimed to evaluate the differences in efficacy and safety between endoscopy and fluoroscopy methods for the placement of PNTs in critically ill patients. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and electronic databases of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included randomized controlled trials comparing endoscopy and fluoroscopy placement of PNTs in critically ill patients. Two reviewers assessed the quality of each study and collected data independently. We performed the meta-analysis with Cochrane Collaboration RevMan 5.3. Three randomized controlled trials involving 243 patients were included. There were no significant differences in the placement success rate (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.93, 1.06; z = 0.20, P = .84,) or procedure time (standardized mean difference, -0.08; 95% CI, -6.93, 6.77; z = 0.02, P = .98) between the 2 groups. No severe complications (digestive tract hemorrhage, perforation, respiratory problems, hemodynamic instability, or death) were noted in the three studies. There was a slight difference in the incidence of minor complications (RR, 8.12; 95% CI, 1.07, 61.53; z = 2.03, P = .04) between the 2 groups. Endoscopy and fluoroscopy placement of PNTs can be accurately and safely performed in critically ill patients. Endoscopy may be at least equally as safe as fluoroscopy for the placement of PNTs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of topical fluoride application before and after amalgam restoration placement on recurrent caries inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, K J; Stufflebeam, M; García-Godoy, F

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the in vitro caries inhibition effects of 1.23% APF foam topical fluoride treatment of cavity preparations, prior to restoration placement and after restoration placement. Sixty standardized Class V preparations were placed in molars. Randomly, 40 teeth received an amalgam restoration: Twenty other teeth had 1cc 1.23% APF foam applied to preparation surfaces for 1 minute, then an amalgam restoration was placed. The APF was not rinsed away prior to restoration, it was displaced by the pressure of the amalgam being condensed into the preparation. Twenty of the initial 40 amalgam restorations had 1 cc 1.23% APF foam applied to the external tooth/restoration margins for 4 minutes, the remaining 20 amalgam restorations acted as the controls. Acid-resistant varnish was placed, leaving 1 mm of tooth adjacent to restoration margins exposed. All specimens were subjected to an artificial caries challenge (pH 4.4) for 5 days. Sections of 100 microns were cut longitudinally through the restored margins, photographed under polarized light microscopy, then demineralized areas adjacent to restoration margins were quantitated. Results demonstrated the mean (+/- S.D.) area (microns 2) of demineralization 100 microns from the restoration margins to be: amalgam 10,221 +/- 524, amalgam with 1-minute APF over preparation 529 +/- 557, amalgam with 4-minute APF over external surface 736 +/- 359. ANOVA and Duncan's (P < 0.05) indicated both 1.23% APF foam topical fluoride treatment regimens exhibited significantly less demineralization at restoration margins than the non-treated amalgam control. There was no significant difference between the two fluoride placement regimens examined in this study.

  4. General practice: the DREEM attachment? Comparing the educational environment of hospital and general practice placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martina; Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun

    2012-01-01

    The clinical learning environment is changing. General practice placements are now a fundamental part of undergraduate medical education. There is growing recognition that changes in hospital work practices are altering the breadth of exposure available to students. Surprisingly little work has been done comparing the quality of clinical placements between the hospital and community using validated tools. Such comparisons inform curriculum planning and resource allocation. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of the educational environment experienced by junior medical students during hospital and general practice placements using a widely used tool. Following the introduction of a new integrated curriculum, all Year 3 students (n=108) completed a standardised evaluation instrument, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) at the end of each of their clinical attachments (two different hospital sites and one in general practice), giving a total of 324 questionnaires. All forms were analysed and input into Graphpad INSTAT version 3. Total DREEM scores as well as subscale scores were calculated for each site. These were compared across sites using a Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test. By comparison with international standards, clinical attachments in our new integrated curriculum were rated highly. In particular, attachments in general practice scored highly with a mean score of 156.6 and perform significantly better (P students' perceptions of atmosphere and students' social self-perceptions. Finally, significant differences also emerged in students' perceptions of teachers in general practice when compared to those in the hospital setting. These findings provide evidence of the high-quality educational environment afforded students in primary care. They challenge the traditional emphasis on hospital-based teaching and preempt the question - Is the community a better place for junior students to learn?

  5. Confirming nasogastric tube placement: Is the colorimeter as sensitive and specific as X-ray? A diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordiffi, Siti Zubaidah; Goh, Mien Li; Phua, Jason; Chan, Yiong-Huak

    2016-09-01

    The effect of delivering enteral nutrition or medications via a nasogastric tube that is inadvertently located in the tracheobronchial tract can cause respiratory complications. Although radiographic examination is accepted as the gold standard for confirming the position of patients' enteral tubes, it is costly, involves risks of radiation, and is not failsafe. Studies using carbon dioxide sensors to detect inadvertent nasogastric tube placements have been conducted in intensive care settings. However, none involved patients in general wards. The objective of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic measure of colorimeter, with radiographic examination as the reference standard, to confirm the location of nasogastric tubes in patients. A prospective observational study of a diagnostic test. This study was conducted in the general wards of an approximately 1100-bed acute care tertiary hospital of an Academic Medical Center in Singapore. Adult patients with nasogastric tubes admitted to the general wards were recruited into the study. The colorimeter was attached to the nasogastric tube to detect for the presence of carbon dioxide, suggestive of a tracheobronchial placement. The exact location of the nasogastric tube was subsequently confirmed by a radiographic examination. A total of 192 tests were undertaken. The colorimeter detected carbon dioxide in 29 tested nasogastric tubes, of which radiographic examination confirmed that four tubes were located in the tracheobronchial tract. The colorimeter failed to detect carbon dioxide in one nasogastric tube that was located in the tracheobronchial tract, thus, demonstrating a sensitivity of 0.80 [95% CI (0.376, 0.964)]. The colorimeter detected absence of carbon dioxide in 163 tested nasogastric tubes in which radiographic examination confirmed 160 gastrointestinal and one tracheobronchial placements, demonstrating a specificity of 0.865 [95% CI (0.808, 0.907)]. The colorimeter detected one tracheobronchial

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for detecting nasogastric tube (NGT) placement in adults: A systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tian; Gifford, Wendy; Lan, Yutao; Qin, Xiuqun; Liu, Xuelian; Wang, Juan; Yang, Biping; You, Tianhui; Chen, Ken

    2017-06-01

    To review the evidence on diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for detecting correct nasogastric tube (NGT) placement in adults compared to X-ray as the reference standard. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, searched in the literature between 1961 and 2015. We included studies which compared the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography detection for NGT placement with X-ray in adult patients who were undergoing NGT placement for any reason in any care setting. We searched published studies in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, WanFang Data, China Journal Net, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. Both English and non-English-language articles were retrieved. Risk of bias was assessed using a standard procedure according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) criteria. We included five studies involving a total of 420 adult patients undergoing nasogastric tube placement: three trials were undertaken in mechanically ventilated patients in prehospital settings and two involved participants with comma or severe trauma in emergency room or intensive care unit (ICU). Pooled results showed that ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.97), and specificity of 0.97 (95% CI 0. 23 to 1.00), suggesting that diagnostic performance of ultrasound is useful to confirm correct NGT placement, but not optimal to detect incorrect NGT position. This was confirmed through a summary receiver operator characteristics (SROC) curve that showed the area under the curve was 0.96 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.98). The main limitation of the review is the relatively moderate level of heterogeneity of included studies which may partially undermine the reliability and reproducibility of results. The insufficient studies included did not allow identification of possible sources of heterogeneity and exploration of reporting bias

  7. Predictors of professional placement outcome: cultural background, English speaking and international student status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Stacie; McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Placements provide opportunities for students to develop practice skills in professional settings. Learning in placements may be challenging for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students, international students, or those without sufficient English proficiency for professional practice. This study investigated whether these factors, which are hypothesized to influence acculturation, predict poor placement outcome. Placement outcome data were collected for 854 students who completed 2747 placements. Placement outcome was categorized into 'Pass' or 'At risk' categories. Multilevel binomial regression analysis was used to determine whether being CALD, an international student, speaking 'English as an additional language', or a 'Language other than English at home' predicted placement outcome. In multiple multilevel analysis speaking English as an additional language and being an international student were significant predictors of 'at risk' placements, but other variables tested were not. Effect sizes were small indicating untested factors also influenced placement outcome. These results suggest that students' English as an additional language or international student status influences success in placements. The extent of acculturation may explain the differences in placement outcome for the groups tested. This suggests that learning needs for placement may differ for students undertaking more acculturative adjustments. Further research is needed to understand this and to identify placement support strategies.

  8. The effects of the standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba on steroidogenesis pathways and aromatase activity in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were evaluated in the H295R cells by competitive enzyme-linked immunospecific assay after exposure to EGb761. Real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate effects on critical genes in steroid hormone production, specifically cytochrome P450 (CYP11/ 17/19/21) and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1/4). Finally, aromatase activities were measured with a tritiated water-release assay and by western blotting analysis. Results H295R cells exposed to EGb761 (10 and 100 μg/mL) showed a significant decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone, but no change in aldosterone or cortisol. Genes (CYP19 and 17β-HSD1) related to the estrogen steroidogenesis were significantly decreased by EGb761. EGb761 treatment of H295R cells resulted in a significant decrease of aromatase activity as measured by the direct and indirect assays. The coding sequence/ Exon PII of CYP19 gene transcript and protein level of CYP19 were significantly decreased by EGb761. Conclusions These results suggest that EGb761 could regulate steroidogenesis-related genes such as CYP19 and 17β-HSD1, and lead to a decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone. The present study provides good information on potential therapeutic effects of EGb761 on estrogen dependent breast cancer. PMID:27188280

  9. The effects of the standardized extracts of on steroidogenesis pathways and aromatase activity in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijie Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761 induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were evaluated in the H295R cells by competitive enzyme-linked immunospecific assay after exposure to EGb761. Real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate effects on critical genes in steroid hormone production, specifically cytochrome P450 (CYP11/ 17/19/21 and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1/4. Finally, aromatase activities were measured with a tritiated water-release assay and by western blotting analysis. Results H295R cells exposed to EGb761 (10 and 100 μg/mL showed a significant decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone, but no change in aldosterone or cortisol. Genes (CYP19 and 17β-HSD1 related to the estrogen steroidogenesis were significantly decreased by EGb761. EGb761 treatment of H295R cells resulted in a significant decrease of aromatase activity as measured by the direct and indirect assays. The coding sequence/ Exon PII of CYP19 gene transcript and protein level of CYP19 were significantly decreased by EGb761. Conclusions These results suggest that EGb761 could regulate steroidogenesis-related genes such as CYP19 and 17β-HSD1, and lead to a decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone. The present study provides good information on potential therapeutic effects of EGb761 on estrogen dependent breast cancer.

  10. Standardized Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Attenuates Steatohepatitis Induced by a Methionine-Choline Deficient Diet in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Sung Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SME on gene and protein expression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-related factors in activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSC, and in mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on an MCD or control diet for 8 weeks and SME (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg body weight was administered orally every other day for 4 or 6 weeks. HSCs from the LX-2 cell line were treated with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1 or TGF-β1 plus SME (0.1–10 μg/mL. To investigate the effect of SME on reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced condition, LX-2 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2 plus SME (0.1–100 μg/mL. MCD administration for 12 weeks increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, TGF-β1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, C-reactive protein (CRP, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9. TGF-β1-induced LX-2 cells exhibited similar gene expression patterns. SME treatment significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of NASH-related factors in the mouse model and HSCs. Histopathological liver analysis showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD activity and fibrosis score in SME-treated mice. The in vivo studies showed that SME had a significant effect at low doses. These results suggest that SME might be a potential therapeutic candidate for NAFLD treatment.

  11. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    area that are able to care for the more difficult long-term psychiatry patients, limits successful placement and increases the burden of hospital based ... Key words: Deinstitutionalisation; Social work; Mental health services; Hospitals, psychiatric; Long-term care; In-patients; Patient ..... Comorbid diabetes mellitus (less often).

  12. Report of Child Placement Study Committee, January, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island Council of Community Services, Inc., Providence.

    As a first step in determining the effectiveness of programs for children and families, the Rhode Island Council of Community Services made an overall study of the number and type of children in child placement services. The Council based its report on the characteristics of 420 randomly-selected children of which 211 were in foster home; 214 in…

  13. Accounting for L2 learners’ errors in word stress placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina Karjo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress placement in English words is governed by highly complicated rules. Thus, assigning stress correctly in English words has been a challenging task for L2 learners, especially Indonesian learners since their L1 does not recognize such stress system. This study explores the production of English word stress by 30 university students. The method used for this study is immediate repetition task. Participants are instructed to identify the stress placement of 80 English words which are auditorily presented as stimuli and immediately repeat the words with correct stress placement. The objectives of this study are to find out whether English word stress placement is problematic for L2 learners and to investigate the phonological factors which account for these problems. Research reveals that L2 learners have different ability in producing the stress, but three-syllable words are more problematic than two-syllable words. Moreover, misplacement of stress is caused by, among others, the influence of vowel lenght and vowel height.

  14. Voltage regulator placement in radial distribution system using plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The VR problem consists of two sub problems, that of optimal placement and optimal choice of tap setting. The proposed method deals with initial selection of voltage regulator buses by using power loss indices (PLI). The candidate node identification technique and Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) are used for ...

  15. Bond graph to digraph conversion: A sensor placement optimization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 39; Issue 5. Bond graph to digraph conversion: A sensor placement optimization for fault detection and isolation ... Author Affiliations. Alem Saïd1 Benazzouz Djamel1. Solid Mechanics and Systems Laboratory (LMSS), University M'Hamed Bougara Boumerdes, Boumerdes 35000, Algeria ...

  16. Placements & Salaries Survey 2009: Jobs and Pay Take a Hit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "It's a recession, baby!" was the common refrain among the Library and Information Science (LIS) graduates of the class of 2008. This was a record year for the number of graduates participating in "Library Journal"'s annual Placements & Salaries survey, and they had stories to tell, providing evidence of both hard times in the job market, and some…

  17. Compassion Fatigue among Social Work Students in Field Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Cynthia; Moore, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study, conducted with BSW and MSW field students at a public university in Southwestern United States, explored the psychological effect of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction on social work students in field placements. Results from the Professional Quality of Life Scale's compassion satisfaction and fatigue subscales…

  18. Component placement on flexible and/or strechable substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M.; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    According to one aspect, the invention provides a method of placement of a component on a stretchable substrate, comprising the steps of providing a base substrate having a stretchable substrate layer, providing a flexible foil comprising an integral arrangement (20) of a multiple of flexible foil

  19. A Regional Public Health Field Placement Program: making an IMPACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Lisa C; Hites, Lisle; Jenkins, Crystal; Chauvin, Sheila W; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    Beginning in 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, made provisions in its Public Health Training Center cooperative agreements for field placements. This article describes best practices and lessons learned establishing and managing the South Central Public Health Partnership's Interns and Mentors Program for ACTion (IMPACT) Field Placement Program, which was initially funded through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Centers for Public Health Preparedness Cooperative agreement in 2002. The IMPACT program is based on a six-step process that has been developed and refined over its 10-year history: (a) identifying field placement opportunities, (b) marketing field experience opportunities to students, (c) selecting students seeking field experience opportunities, (d) placing students with practice partners, students with practice partners, (e) evaluating student progress toward field experience objectives, and (f) evaluating the program. This article describes the program's structure and processes, delineates the roles of its academic and practice partners, discusses evidence of its effectiveness, and describes lessons learned from its decade-long history. Hopefully, this information will facilitate the establishment, management and evaluation of internship and field placement programs in other Public Health Training Centers and academic public health programs.

  20. Diagnosis Levels in Vocational Guidance and Placement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Trinidad; Figuera, Maria Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Career and employment counseling has been shown to be a key tool for assisting in processes of socio-professional placement. The objective of this article is to offer an innovative model of intervention that addresses the three vertices of labour market, social fabric and personal context, from which one can understand and globally analyze those…

  1. Process planning for a modular component placement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Harten, Aart

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a hierarchically structured process planning system for a printed circuit board assembly line. Basically, the assembly system consists of a series of independently operating placement modules, connected by a carrierless conveyor system. Both the modules and the

  2. Foot placement cues used by chameleons while walking and climbing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whenever vision was impaired, the animal utilized touch. Placement of the forelimb was the locator for the hind limb. Regardless of perch diameter, the hind foot was placed fully or partially overlapping the position that the ipsilateral forefoot had just occupied. (Journal of the Ghana Science Association: 2001 3(3): 22-29) ...

  3. Urethral catheterization facilitates preradiation fiducial marker placement in postprostatectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Costa, Joseph; Mandia, Stephen; Henderson, Randal; Marino, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy

    2012-05-01

    Surgical absence of the prostate can make placement of fiducial markers difficult, because anatomic landmarks are distorted and there is a paucity of substantial tissue to hold fast the markers. We describe a method for improving the accuracy of fiducial marker placement for the purpose of salvage or adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy. To assist with identification of the urethrovesical junction and to facilitate placement of the markers, a Foley catheter was placed and the balloon was inflated. Gentle traction on the catheter seated the balloon at the bladder neck to echographically define the anatomy of the urethrovesical junction. Next, a rectal ultrasound probe was inserted into the rectum, allowing visualization of the region of the urethrovesical junction. Fiducial markers were then placed bilaterally in the detrusor muscle at the bladder neck or in the periurethral tissue using the applicator needle. The treating radiation oncologist verified that marker placement was suitable for assisting with radiation therapy in all cases. Preradiation pelvic imaging verified that markers were not in the bladder or urethral lumen, and there were no patient complaints of voiding out the markers with urination.

  4. Cervical Pedicle Screw Placement Using Medial Funnel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Choi, Byung Kwan; Han, In Ho; Choi, Won Gyu; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Kim, Hwan Soo

    2017-09-01

    Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement is very challenging due to high risk of neurovascular complications. We devised a new technique (medial funnel technique) to improve the accuracy and feasibility of CPS placement. We reviewed 28 consecutive patients undergoing CPS instrumentation using the medial funnel technique. Their mean age was 51.4 years (range, 30-81 years). Preoperative diagnosis included degenerative disease (n=5), trauma (n=22), and infection (n=1). Screw perforations were graded with the following criteria: grade 0 having no perforation, grade 1 having 50% of screw diameter. Grades 0 and 1 were considered as correct position. The degree of perforation was determined by 2 junior neurosurgeons and 1 senior neurosurgeon. A total of 88 CPSs were inserted. The rate of correct placement was 94.3%; grade 0, 54 screws; grade 1, 29 screws; grade 2, 4 screws; and grade 3, 1 screw. No neurovascular complications or failure of instrumentation occurred. In perforated screws (34 screws), lateral perforations were 4 and medial perforations were 30. We performed CPS insertion using medial funnel technique and achieved 94.3% (83 of 88) of correct placement. And it can decrease lateral perforation.

  5. 12 CFR 760.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 760.7 Section 760.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... designated loan that the building or mobile home and any personal property securing the designated loan is...

  6. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Zhu, Feng; Xu, Leilei; Liu, Zhen; Sun, Xu; Qian, Bangping; Jiang, Qing; Zhu, Zezhang; Qiu, Yong

    2017-03-21

    There is no study concerning safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement in Marfan syndrome. The objective of this study is to investigate accuracy and safety of pedicle screw placement in scoliosis associated with Marfan syndrome. CT scanning was performed to analyze accuracy of pedicle screw placement. Pedicle perforations were classified as medial, lateral or anterior and categorized to four grades: ≤ 2 mm as Grade 1, 2.1-4.0 mm as Grade 2, 4.1-6.0 mm as Grade 3, ≥6.1 mm as Grade 4. Fully contained screws or with medial wall perforation ≤ 2 mm or with lateral wall perforation ≤ 6 mm and without injury of visceral organs were considered acceptable, otherwise were unacceptable. 976 pedicle screws were placed, 713 screws (73.1%) were fully contained within the cortical boundaries of the pedicle. 924 (94.7%) screws were considered as acceptable, and 52 (5.3%) as unacceptable. The perforation rate was higher using free-hand technique than O-arm navigation technique (30.8% VS. 11.4%, P Marfan syndrome is accuracy and safe. O-arm navigation was an effective modality to ensure the safety and accuracy of screw placement. Special attention should be paid when screws were placed at the lumber spine and the concave side of spine deformity to avoid the higher rate of complications.

  7. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long-term psychiatric in-patients from a specialist psychiatric hospital in South Africa. ... away; a low frequency of behavioural problems (especially of cannabis abuse, verbal or physical aggression, uncontrolled sexual activity), and agitation or restlessness.

  8. A Placement Web-Service for Lifelong Learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2009). A Placement Web-Service for Lifelong Learners. Presentation held at the 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies. September, 2-4, 2009, Graz, Austria. You can embed this presentation from here http://slideshare.net/mkalz

  9. Experiences of health science students during clinical placements at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate supervision and inappropriate behaviours by supervisors were some of the challenges faced. Almost 89% used stress-relieving strategies such as focusing on why they were doing the clinical placement and the importance of successful completion. Ninety-one per cent had never used cannabis/mbanje but 41% ...

  10. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

  11. Determining Student Competency in Field Placements: An Emerging Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Twyla L.; Johner, Randy; Luhanga, Florence

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative case study that explores how twenty-three field advisors, representing three human service professions including education, nursing, and social work, experience the process of assessment with students who are struggling to meet minimum competencies in field placements. Five themes emerged from the analysis of…

  12. Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units with New Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    of these factors is taken into account in the proposed PMU placement method in this paper, which is the number of adjacent branches to the PMU located buses. The concept of full topological observability is adopted and a version of binary particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is utilized. Results from...

  13. Inherent challenges of immediate implant placement in the aesthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement of missing teeth with implant borne prostheses has become generally become acceptable in the field of dentistry. The traditional “Branemark protocol” has advocated for a period of healing after extraction before placement of implants. This presents an aesthetic challenge and the ensuing bone resorption also ...

  14. Pragmatic Approach for Multistage Phasor Measurement Unit Placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thoegersen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Effective phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement is a key to the implementation of efficient and economically feasible wide area measurement systems in modern power systems. This paper proposes a pragmatic approach for cost-effective stage-wise deployment of PMUs while considering realistic...

  15. Bond graph to digraph conversion: A sensor placement optimization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    faults detection and isolation using a novel structural and qualitative approach. This approach is based on ... quantitative or incorrect values due to measurement errors, this last aspect being unavoidable in modelling physical ... method of solving the sensor placement problem for faults detection and isolation in the system.

  16. Transracial Adoption and Placement: A Critical Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John E.

    This critical review of the literature on transracial adoption and placement begins with a brief discussion of policy decisions and court rulings, and then provides information on characteristics of adoptees and transracial adopters, a discussion of racial prejudice, and an interpretation of the findings. It is concluded that given the small…

  17. Childhood Placement in Special Education and Adult Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesmore, Ashley A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between childhood placement in special education and adult well-being among 1,377 low-income, minority children participating in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Roughly 16% of the sample received special education services in Grades 1 to 8. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and early…

  18. Self-expanding metal stent placement for oesophageal cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article documents the technique and periprocedural experience. Patients and methods. All patients who had SEMS placement for ... Repeat stenting was for stent migration (n=15), tumour overgrowth (n=26) and a blocked stent and a stricture (n=1 each). Complications were recorded in six cases (1.3%): iatrogenic TOF ...

  19. Race and Teacher Evaluations as Predictors of Algebra Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Valerie N.; Stiff, Lee V.; Marshall, Patricia L.; Nietfeld, John; Crossland, Cathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a longitudinal look at the different mathematics placement profiles of Black students and White students from late elementary school through 8th grade. Results revealed that Black students had reduced odds of being placed in algebra by the time they entered 8th grade even after controlling for performance in mathematics. An important…

  20. Conceptualizing a Framework for Advanced Placement Statistics Teaching Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to sketch a conceptualization of a framework for Advanced Placement (AP) Statistics Teaching Knowledge. Recent research continues to problematize the lack of knowledge and preparation among secondary level statistics teachers. The College Board's AP Statistics course continues to grow and gain popularity, but is a…

  1. Advanced Placement and Rural Schools: Access, Success, and Exploring Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Completing Advanced Placement (AP) coursework is an important part of the selective college admissions process, and access to AP coursework can be viewed as a measure of equal opportunity. Relatively little research has fully examined how access to AP coursework is mediated by school characteristics. Rural schools are at a particular disadvantage…

  2. Teaching Melodic Dictation in Advanced Placement Music Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.; Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study approaches to teaching melodic dictation skills used by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers were examined. Twelve high school teachers from four states were interviewed. Four themes emerged from the interview transcripts: cognitive frameworks, processing strategies, rhythm, and course design. Participants generally…

  3. Do Graduate Student Teacher Training Courses Affect Placement Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, John; Balarezo, Christine; Miles, Tom

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the existence of a required graduate course on "Teaching in Political Science" is related to overall job placement rates reported by graduate political science programs. We examine this in light of evidence from 73 public PhD-granting political science departments across the country. We find that the existence of…

  4. Efficient placement of structural dynamics sensors on the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepanto, Janet A.; Shepard, G. Dudley

    1987-01-01

    System identification of the space station dynamic model will require flight data from a finite number of judiciously placed sensors on it. The placement of structural dynamics sensors on the space station is a particularly challenging problem because the station will not be deployed in a single mission. Given that the build-up sequence and the final configuration for the space station are currently undetermined, a procedure for sensor placement was developed using the assembly flights 1 to 7 of the rephased dual keel space station as an example. The procedure presented approaches the problem of placing the sensors from an engineering, as opposed to a mathematical, point of view. In addition to locating a finite number of sensors, the procedure addresses the issues of unobserved structural modes, dominant structural modes, and the trade-offs involved in sensor placement for space station. This procedure for sensor placement will be applied to revised, and potentially more detailed, finite element models of the space station configuration and assembly sequence.

  5. Online Preventative Non-Destructive Evaluation in Automated Fibre Placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, R.; Shroff, S.; Groves, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    The strict quality requirements for aerospace composite struc- tures give rise to costly quality control procedures. In automated bre placement (AFP) these procedures rely heavily on manual work and inspection. This research aims at performing preventative non-destructive evaluation of composite

  6. MVMO-based approach for optimal placement and tuning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... optimal placement and coordinated tuning of power system supplementary damping controllers (POCDCs). The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated based on the classical IEEE 39-bus (New England) test system. Numerical results include performance comparisons with other metaheuristic optimization techniques, ...

  7. Multiple function benefit - cost comparison of conservation buffer placement strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Qiu; M.G. Dosskey

    2012-01-01

    Conservation buffers are considered to be effective practices for repairing impaired streams and restoring multiple ecosystem functions in degraded agricultural watersheds. Six different planning strategies for targeting their placement within watersheds were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness for environmental improvement in the 144 km² Neshanic River...

  8. Advanced Placement Economics Improves Both Merit and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Sally; Morton, John

    2009-01-01

    In 1989, microeconomics and macroeconomics examinations debuted on the Advanced Placement (AP) scene. At that time, many professors of economics were skeptical that college freshmen had the skills and maturity to understand the concepts in principles of economics courses. They thought teaching these concepts to high school students was even more…

  9. Preventing Inadvertent Placement of Foley Catheter into Prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous suprapubic trocar cystostomy (SPC) is often needed to drain the bladder when urethral catheterization either fails or is not advisable.[1] It is ... vertical or slightly tilting its tip toward umbilicus during foley placement, prevents the inadvertent migration of catheter into prostatic urethra and further complications.

  10. Assessment and Placement: Supporting Student Success in College Gateway Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that the vast majority of students who are currently placed into prerequisite remedial education could be successful in gateway college-­level courses if they receive additional academic support as a corequisite. Recent research on college placement exams reveals that the exams are unreliable at predicting college success, and…

  11. Common Algorithms of Primary Stress Placement on Polysyllabic Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Turkish students tend to make considerable stress placement errors when pronouncing English polysyllabic words because of the interference of the traditional word stress patterns of their mother tongue. They usually misplace stresses in their utterance, both either as a result of their native pronunciation habits or their lack of stress-placing…

  12. Considered Evaluation of Clinical Placements in a New Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jerry; Collins, Sarah; Hammond, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that quality assessment in the UK has been largely set apart from learning and teaching and reports on a pilot project at the Hull York Medical School which attempted to integrate students' evaluation of their clinical placements into the curriculum. It outlines the operational demands of this integrated method and compares…

  13. Optimal capacitor placement in smart distribution systems to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An energy efficient power distribution network can provide cost-effective and collaborative platform for supporting present and future smart distribution system requirements. Energy efficiency in distribution systems is achieved through reconfiguration of distributed generation and optimal capacitor placement. Though several ...

  14. Optimal placement of distributed generation in distribution networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to find the optimal size and optimum location for the placement of DG in the radial distribution networks for active power compensation by reduction in real power losses and enhancement in voltage profile. In the first segment, the optimal ...

  15. Localizing and placement of network node functions in a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention enables placement and use of a network node function in a second network node instead of using the network node function in a first network node. The network node function is e.g. a server function or a router function. The second network node is typically located in or close to the

  16. Immediate implant placement and provisionalisation in the aesthetic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, W. G.; Goene, R. J.; Van Daelen, A. C. L.; Stellingsma, K.; Raghoebar, G. M.; Meijer, H. J. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the outcome of immediate single-tooth implant placement and provisionalisation in the aesthetic zone regarding hard and soft peri-implant tissue parameters and patient-related outcome measures in a private practice. All consecutively treated patients

  17. Usefulness of a Guiding Sheath for Fluoroscopic Colorectal Stent Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Deok Ho; Lee, Heuiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the technical feasibility, clinical usefulness, and safety of a guiding sheath in fluoroscopic stent placement for patients with malignant colorectal obstructions. Materials and Methods Between June 2007 and January 2011, fluoroscopic placement of a dual colorectal stent was attempted in a total of 97 patients with malignant colorectal obstructions. A polytetrafluoroethylene guiding sheath was used in patients in whom a stent delivery system failed to reach the obstruction. Usefulness of the sheath was evaluated depending on whether the sheath could successfully assist the stent delivery system reach its area of interest. Results The guiding sheath was needed in 22 patients (15 men, 7 women; age range, 33-77 years; mean age, 59 years). The overall success rate for passing the sheath to the area of interest was 100%. There were no procedure-related deaths or major complications. The majority of the patients reported mild discomfort. In 2 of 22 patients with successful passing of the sheath to the area of interest, stent placement failed because of failure in the negotiation of a guide wire through the obstruction. Conclusion Using a guiding sheath seems to be easy, safe and useful in fluoroscopic stent placement for patients with malignant colorectal obstructions. PMID:22563292

  18. Beginning an Advanced Placement Music Course. Edition Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, William; And Others

    The College Entrance Examination Board has prepared this publication to help secondary school teachers develop Advanced Placement (AP) courses in music. The discussion of strategy recommendations, reading materials, and record collections should be adapted to suit local preferences and individual skills. An opening section of general remarks…

  19. Effects of placement point of background music on shopping website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Jung; Chiang, Chia-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Consumer on-line behaviors are more important than ever due to highly growth of on-line shopping. The purposes of this study were to design placement methods of background music for shopping website and examine the effect on browsers' emotional and cognitive response. Three placement points of background music during the browsing, i.e. 2 min., 4 min., and 6 min. from the start of browsing were considered for entry points. Both browsing without music (no music) and browsing with constant music volume (full music) were treated as control groups. Participants' emotional state, approach-avoidance behavior intention, and action to adjust music volume were collected. Results showed that participants had a higher level of pleasure, arousal and approach behavior intention for the three placement points than for no music and full music. Most of the participants for full music (5/6) adjusted the background music. Only 16.7% (3/18) participants for other levels turn off the background music. The results indicate that playing background music after the start of browsing is benefit for on-line shopping atmosphere. It is inappropriate to place background music at the start of browsing shopping website. The marketer must manipulated placement methods of background music for a web store carefully.

  20. Advantages of laparoscopic stented choledochorrhaphy over T-tube placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, A M; Griniatsos, J; Karvounis, E; Arbuckle, J D

    2004-07-01

    Postoperative complications after laparoscopic choledochotomy are mainly related to the T tube. Both laparoscopic endobiliary stent placement with primary closure of the common bile duct (CBD) and primary closure of the CBD without drainage have been proposed as safe and effective alternatives to T tube placement. This was a retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively on 53 consecutive patients suffering from proven choledocholithiasis who underwent laparoscopic CBD exploration through a choledochotomy between January 1999 and January 2003. In the early period a T tube was placed at the end of the procedure (n = 32). Biliary stent placement and primary CBD closure was performed from June 2001 (n = 21). There were no significant differences in epidemiological characteristics, preoperative factors or intraoperative findings between the groups. Seven patients developed complications, six in the T tube group and one in the stent group. Univariate analysis revealed a significantly lower morbidity rate and shorter postoperative hospital stay in the stent group. Placement of a biliary endoprosthesis after laparoscopic choledochotomy achieves biliary decompression, and avoids the complications of a T tube, leading to a shorter postoperative hospital stay. The method is a safe and effective alternative method of CBD drainage after laparoscopic choledochotomy. Copyright 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. International Myeloma Working Group Consensus Statement for the Management, Treatment, and Supportive Care of Patients With Myeloma Not Eligible for Standard Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Antonio; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; San Miguel, Jesus F.; Larocca, Alessandra; Niesvizky, Ruben; Morgan, Gareth; Landgren, Ola; Hajek, Roman; Einsele, Hermann; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Richardson, Paul G.; Cavo, Michele; Spencer, Andrew; Stewart, A. Keith; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Lonial, Sagar; Sonneveld, Pieter; Durie, Brian G.M.; Moreau, Philippe; Orlowski, Robert Z.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an update on recent advances in the management of patients with multiple myeloma who are not eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature on diagnostic criteria is provided, and treatment options and management of adverse events are summarized. Results Patients with symptomatic disease and organ damage (ie, hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, or bone lesions) require immediate treatment. The International Staging System and chromosomal abnormalities identify high- and standard-risk patients. Proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, corticosteroids, and alkylating agents are the most active agents. The presence of concomitant diseases, frailty, or disability should be assessed and, if present, treated with reduced-dose approaches. Bone disease, renal damage, hematologic toxicities, infections, thromboembolism, and peripheral neuropathy are the most frequent disabling events requiring prompt and active supportive care. Conclusion These recommendations will help clinicians ensure the most appropriate care for patients with myeloma in everyday clinical practice. PMID:24419113

  2. Optimal accelerometer placement on a robot arm for pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Sanford, Joseph D.; Abubakar, Shamsudeen; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Das, Sumit K.; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    The performance of robots to carry out tasks depends in part on the sensor information they can utilize. Usually, robots are fitted with angle joint encoders that are used to estimate the position and orientation (or the pose) of its end-effector. However, there are numerous situations, such as in legged locomotion, mobile manipulation, or prosthetics, where such joint sensors may not be present at every, or any joint. In this paper we study the use of inertial sensors, in particular accelerometers, placed on the robot that can be used to estimate the robot pose. Studying accelerometer placement on a robot involves many parameters that affect the performance of the intended positioning task. Parameters such as the number of accelerometers, their size, geometric placement and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are included in our study of their effects for robot pose estimation. Due to the ubiquitous availability of inexpensive accelerometers, we investigated pose estimation gains resulting from using increasingly large numbers of sensors. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed with a two-link robot arm to obtain the expected value of an estimation error metric for different accelerometer configurations, which are then compared for optimization. Results show that, with a fixed SNR model, the pose estimation error decreases with increasing number of accelerometers, whereas for a SNR model that scales inversely to the accelerometer footprint, the pose estimation error increases with the number of accelerometers. It is also shown that the optimal placement of the accelerometers depends on the method used for pose estimation. The findings suggest that an integration-based method favors placement of accelerometers at the extremities of the robot links, whereas a kinematic-constraints-based method favors a more uniformly distributed placement along the robot links.

  3. FtsZ placement in nucleoid-free bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pazos

    Full Text Available We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO. A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*, a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement.

  4. FtsZ Placement in Nucleoid-Free Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Margolin, William; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO). A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min) involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*), a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement. PMID:24638110

  5. FtsZ placement in nucleoid-free bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Margolin, William; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO). A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min) involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*), a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement.

  6. Practitioner perspectives on extended clinical placement programs in optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Sharon A; Cartledge, Amy; Guest, Daryl J; Cappuccio, Skye; Woods, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    Some universities are looking to provide a more diverse range of clinical learning experiences through extended clinical placement programs. This approach will potentially have a significant impact on practitioners. The aim of this study was to conduct a national survey of optometrists to ascertain their perspectives on participating in extended clinical placement programs. Members of Optometry Australia were invited to participate in a survey conducted during June and July 2014. A total of 268 practitioners participated (six per cent of registered Australian optometrists): 159 were predominantly employees or locums and 109 were owners or managers who identified as the key representative of a practice or organisation for the purpose of this survey. Almost two-thirds (65 per cent) of participants, who were employees or locums were supportive of extended clinical placement programs. Among this group, females were more likely to be supportive than males (p = 0.033). In comparison, just over one-third (34 per cent) of participants who were key decision-makers were supportive, with 30 per cent possibly supportive and 36 per cent not supportive. Among key decision-makers, males were more likely to be supportive (p = 0.009). The top three perceived advantages of supervising a student were: opportunity to mentor early career development, opportunity to give back to the profession and future recruitment. The top three perceived disadvantages were: burden on time, decrease in number of patients examined and burden on support staff. Suggested incentives for supervising students were credit for continuing professional development and financial remuneration. There appears to be moderate support for extended clinical placement programs; however, there are incentives that might engage a larger proportion of the profession in the future. These findings can inform the development of effective and sustainable clinical training programs for optometry students. Additionally

  7. Promoting the Learning Mobility of Future Workers: Experiments with Virtual Placements in University-Business Arrangements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, C.A.; Herrero de Egaña y Espinosa de los Monteros, A.; Lansu, A.; Kocsis Baán, M.; Virkus, S.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual placements are learning arrangements, which generate new possibilities for accumulating professional (work-based) knowledge. Virtual placements are beneficial in many ways; they merit increased training opportunities, exposure to not/never-thought-of occupations, integration of disadvantaged

  8. Does out-of-home placement mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and adult criminality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; Spatz Widom, Cathy

    2009-11-01

    Existing research on child welfare interventions as mediators of the criminal consequences of child maltreatment has focused on juvenile delinquency rather than adult criminality. This study uses a prospective sample of 772 maltreated youth to examine out-of-home placement as a mediator of adult criminality. Arrest data were collected from official records when the full sample was a mean age of 31.8, having ample opportunity for involvement with the criminal justice system. Overall, out-of-home placement showed a neutral or slightly positive effect on adult criminality compared to no placement, consistent with earlier findings. However, prior delinquency and placement instability were significant risk factors for adult criminality. Gender, not race, was identified as a significant moderator of the relationship between placement and adult criminality, with different patterns of response to placement for males and females. Thus, whether placement experiences influence adult criminal consequences of child maltreatment might depend on prior delinquency, placement stability, and gender.

  9. A risk score including microdeletions improves relapse prediction for standard and medium risk precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rosemary; Venn, Nicola C; Law, Tamara; Boer, Judith M; Trahair, Toby N; Ng, Anthea; Den Boer, Monique L; Dissanayake, Anuruddhika; Giles, Jodie E; Dalzell, Pauline; Mayoh, Chelsea; Barbaric, Draga; Revesz, Tamas; Alvaro, Frank; Pieters, Rob; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Schrappe, Martin; Dalla Pozza, Luciano; Marshall, Glenn M

    2018-02-01

    To prevent relapse, high risk paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is treated very intensively. However, most patients who eventually relapse have standard or medium risk ALL with low minimal residual disease (MRD) levels. We analysed recurrent microdeletions and other clinical prognostic factors in a cohort of 475 uniformly treated non-high risk precursor B-cell ALL patients with the aim of better predicting relapse and refining risk stratification. Lower relapse-free survival at 7 years (RFS) was associated with IKZF1 intragenic deletions (P 5 × 10 -5 (P < 0·0001) and High National Cancer Institute (NCI) risk (P < 0·0001). We created a predictive model based on a risk score (RS) for deletions, MRD and NCI risk, extending from an RS of 0 (RS0) for patients with no unfavourable factors to RS2 +  for patients with 2 or 3 high risk factors. RS0, RS1, and RS2 +  groups had RFS of 93%, 78% and 49%, respectively, and overall survival (OS) of 99%, 91% and 71%. The RS provided greater discrimination than MRD-based risk stratification into standard (89% RFS, 96% OS) and medium risk groups (79% RFS, 91% OS). We conclude that this RS may enable better early therapeutic stratification and thus improve cure rates for childhood ALL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Is there a need for placement evaluations for specialist practice students? A proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge, Sally Anne

    2014-10-01

    This paper outlines a recent proposal justifying the initiation of standardised placement evaluations across specialist community public health nursing and specialist community nursing students while they undertake their educational programme. Within one approved education institute (AEI) it was identified that there was no standardised tool currently being used across the West Midlands, making the process of quality assurance extremely difficult. A clear rationale is provided for the use of such a tool, including supporting evidence from professional, statutory and regulatory bodies, health and education policies and quality assurance agencies. Placement evaluations are critical to students' learning, ensuring a safe and conducive environment, while providing a continuous cyclical process in conjunction with educational audits to allow the opportunity of regular assessment of the learning environment conforming to the Nursing Midwifery Council's risk-based approach. In light of the recent recommendations from the Francis report, it is pivotal that organisations such as the NHS and AEIs engage proactively together, fostering an open and transparent relationship to ensure standards of care are of the highest quality. Aspects of leadership theory are also discussed to enable the planned change to be successful.

  11. Isolite vs cotton roll isolation in the placement of dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Todd; Viswanathan, Kavitha; McWhorter, Alton

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this split-mouth, randomized, controlled trial was to evaluate the retention rates of sealants placed under Isolite vs cotton roll isolation. A convenience sample of 29 patients, with a mean age of 9.8 years and a total of 96 teeth, was included in this study. Matched contralateral pairs of first and second molars were randomized to receive sealants with Isolite or cotton roll isolation. All sealants were performed by one standardized operator. Sealants were placed on first and second permanent molars that had a matched contralateral molar requiring a sealant as well. Photographs were taken of the sealants on the day of placement, and at 6-month and 12-month recalls. Photographs were viewed, and retention of the sealants was evaluated and scored by three calibrated pediatric dentists. The scores were analyzed via Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. There were no significant differences in the retention rates between sealants placed using Isolite isolation compared with cotton roll isolation. Isolite and cotton roll isolation both appear to be equally effective in creating a favorable environment for sealant placement by a single operator.

  12. Relationship between crown placement and the survival of endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Steven A; Caplan, Daniel J

    2002-03-01

    Crowns have been considered the restoration of choice for endodontically treated teeth, but their selection has been based primarily on anecdotal evidence. This study tested the hypothesis that crown placement (coronal coverage) is associated with improved survival of endodontically treated teeth when preaccess, endodontic, and restorative factors are controlled. A University of Iowa College of Dentistry treatment database was used to identify permanent teeth that had undergone initial obturation between July 1, 1985, and December 31, 1987. Study patients were restricted to persons with at least 1 dental visit in each 2-year interval from 1985 to 1996; a simple random sample of 280 patients (n = 400 teeth) was selected. Dental charts, radiographs, and computerized databases were examined to ascertain variables of interest and to verify study inclusion criteria. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were generated for the 203 teeth that satisfied study inclusion criteria. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were developed, with standard errors adjusted to account for clustering of teeth within patients. When tooth type and radiographic evidence of caries at access were controlled, the final Cox model showed that endodontically treated teeth not crowned after obturation were lost at a 6.0 times greater rate than teeth crowned after obturation (95% confidence interval: 3.2 to 11.3). Within the limitations of this study, a strong association between crown placement and the survival of endodontically treated teeth was observed. These results may impact treatment planning if long-term tooth retention is the primary goal.

  13. Resection of deep-seated gliomas using neuroimaging for stereotactic placement of guidance catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Kengo; Higashi, Hisato; Tomita, Susumu; Furuta, Tomohisa; Ohmoto, Takashi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    A simple computed tomography- (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided stereotactic method for guided microsurgical resection of either deep-seated gliomas or tumors adjacent to an eloquent area is described. The technique employs the Brown-Roberts-Wells stereotactic system and twist drills, 2.7 mm in diameter, for the stereotactic placement of 2.4 mm diameter scaled guidance catheters through the calvaria. In a patient with a deep-seated small glioma, less than 2 cm diameter, one catheter was implanted into the center of the enhanced mass through the cerebral cortex. In the other 14 patients, three to six catheters were used which made the tumor border clearer. After implantation of the guidance catheters, the stereotactic frame was removed and a standard open craniotomy performed. Target localization is not affected by brain movement, which is inevitable during open surgery. The tumor involved the frontal lobe in eight patients, the parietal lobe in two, and the thalamus in five. In all cases the lesion was quickly localized and radical removal was acheived. Neurological complications occurred in only one patient who suffered transient hemiparesis after the resection of a lesion in the pyramidal tract. The results demonstrate that microsurgery combined with CT- or MR imaging-guided stereotactic placement of guidance catheters is a new option for surgery of deep-seated gliomas or tumors adjacent to an eloquent area. (author).

  14. Impact of Data Placement on Resilience in Large-Scale Object Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carns, Philip; Harms, Kevin; Jenkins, John; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carothers, Christopher

    2016-05-02

    Distributed object storage architectures have become the de facto standard for high-performance storage in big data, cloud, and HPC computing. Object storage deployments using commodity hardware to reduce costs often employ object replication as a method to achieve data resilience. Repairing object replicas after failure is a daunting task for systems with thousands of servers and billions of objects, however, and it is increasingly difficult to evaluate such scenarios at scale on realworld systems. Resilience and availability are both compromised if objects are not repaired in a timely manner. In this work we leverage a high-fidelity discrete-event simulation model to investigate replica reconstruction on large-scale object storage systems with thousands of servers, billions of objects, and petabytes of data. We evaluate the behavior of CRUSH, a well-known object placement algorithm, and identify configuration scenarios in which aggregate rebuild performance is constrained by object placement policies. After determining the root cause of this bottleneck, we then propose enhancements to CRUSH and the usage policies atop it to enable scalable replica reconstruction. We use these methods to demonstrate a simulated aggregate rebuild rate of 410 GiB/s (within 5% of projected ideal linear scaling) on a 1,024-node commodity storage system. We also uncover an unexpected phenomenon in rebuild performance based on the characteristics of the data stored on the system.

  15. The periumbilical approach in ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement: technique and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recinos, Pablo F; Pindrik, Jonathan A; Bedri, Mazen I; Ahn, Edward S; Jallo, George I; Recinos, Violette Renard

    2013-05-01

    low infection rates, and has cosmetically appealing results. It may be considered as an alternative option to standard VP shunt placement techniques.

  16. Standardized Testing Placement and High School GPA as Predictors of Success in Remedial Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if a relationship existed between success in elementary algebra and a set of predictor variables including COMPASS score and high school GPA. Relationships for intermediate algebra and college credit accumulation over three semesters were also examined with COMPASS score and high school GPA…

  17. Short implants versus bone grafting and standard-length implants placement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Juan A V; Garcia, Jaime Jiménez; Caramês, João M M; Quirynen, Marc; da Silva Marques, Duarte Nuno

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to compare the survival rates between short implants (length implants (≥ 10 mm) inserted in grafted bone. As secondary outcomes, marginal bone loss and survival rates of the implant supported prostheses were also analysed. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared both techniques were searched on three electronic databases till June 2016, a manual search was performed on the bibliography of the collected articles, and the authors were contacted for additional references. The estimates of the interventions were expressed in relative risk (RR), mean implant survival rates and mean differences in marginal bone. Eight RCTs were included in this study. From a total of 458 short implants, 15 failed (mean survival rates = 96.7%), While from 488 regular implants, 13 failed (mean survival rates = 97.3%). The technique did not significantly affect: the implant failure rate (P > 0.05), with RR of 1.34 (95% CI 0.67-2.87), the mean differences of marginal bone loss (P = 0.18; MD - 0.04 mm [- 0.10; 0.02] 95% CI), at loading or prosthesis failures rates (RR:0.98; 95% CI 0.40-2.41). The mean differences of marginal bone at 1 year follow-up (post loading) presented significant marginal changes in the short implant group (P = 0.002; MD - 0.10 mm [- 0.16; - 0.03] 95% CI) although a significant high heterogeneity was found between groups. This systematic review suggests no difference between both techniques in the treatment of atrophic arches. However, more long-term RCTs are needed to evaluate the predictability at the long run. The use of short implants might be considered an alternative treatment, since it usually requires fewer surgical phases and tends to be a more affordable option.

  18. 22 CFR 96.50 - Placement and post-placement monitoring until final adoption in incoming cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assumes responsibility for making another placement of the child. (e) The agency or person acts promptly... appropriate in light of the child's age and maturity and, when required by State law, obtains the consent of... origin, if that is determined to be in the child's best interests; (3) How the child's wishes, age...

  19. Advanced Placement Chemistry: Project Advance and the Advanced Placement Program: A Comparison of Students' Performance on the AP Chemistry Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Syracuse University Project Advance (PA) chemistry students (N=35) with advanced placement (AP) candidates on the AP chemistry examination. PA students scored slightly above the national average on the examination, and students who performed well (B or better) in AP chemistry also did well on the examination. (JN)

  20. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  1. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in naturally infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: comparison of a standard co-culture technique with a newly developed microculture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, B; Baur, A; Neundorfer, M; Jahn, G

    1991-05-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 29 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were cultured by two different methods. One was the standard co-culture technique, the other a newly developed microculture method. In this assay 10(6) PBMCs were cultivated in 250 microliters medium, no activating agents or allogeneic cells were present. P24 antigen production measured by this method was found in 7 out of 11 PBMC cultures of patients in the Walter Reed (WR) stage 1 or 2, whereas only 4 samples were positive by the co-culture procedure. Cultures from patients in the later stages of the disease (WR 5/6) showed a higher p24 production by the co-culture method than by the microculture assay. It is assumed that rapidly growing HIV strains can be better assessed by the co-culture method which may select for these strains. P24 expression can be more easily obtained by the microculture technique even in cases where slowly replicating strains may be present. In conclusion, results from the microculture procedure described may be a useful supplementation to findings observed by the co-culture method.

  2. Assessing standardization of molecular testing for non-small-cell lung cancer: results of a worldwide external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for EGFR mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, S; Normanno, N; Blackhall, F; Murray, S; Kerr, K M; Dietel, M; Filipits, M; Benlloch, S; Popat, S; Stahel, R; Thunnissen, E

    2014-07-15

    The external quality assurance (EQA) process aims at establishing laboratory performance levels. Leading European groups in the fields of EQA, Pathology, and Medical and Thoracic Oncology collaborated in a pilot EQA scheme for somatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutational analysis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EQA samples generated from cell lines mimicking clinical samples were provided to participating laboratories, each with a mock clinical case. Participating laboratories performed the analysis using their usual method(s). Anonymous results were assessed and made available to all participants. Two subsequent EQA rounds followed the pilot scheme. One hundred and seventeen labs from 30 countries registered and 91 returned results. Sanger sequencing and a commercial kit were the main methodologies used. The standard of genotyping was suboptimal, with a significant number of genotyping errors made. Only 72 out of 91 (72%) participants passed the EQA. False-negative and -positive results were the main sources of error. The quality of reports submitted was acceptable; most were clear, concise and easy to read. However, some participants reported the genotyping result in the absence of any interpretation and many obscured the interpretation required for clinical care. Even in clinical laboratories, the technical performance of genotyping in EGFR mutation testing for NSCLC can be improved, evident from a high level of diagnostic errors. Robust EQA can contribute to global optimisation of EGFR testing for NSCLC patients.

  3. Experimental comparison of standard fuel cells PEM in radial configuration, coil and spiral; Comparacion experimental de celdas de combustible tipo PEM en configuracion radial, serpentin y espiral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Andrade, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    After analyzing each one of the possible energy sources to replace oil the following question arises: which of all the possible sources is the suitable one? With no doubt another important factor in the election of this source is due to take into account, which has to do with the great problem that the humanity deals on a daily basis: the greenhouse effect. Taking into account the greenhouse effect, the fuel cells on the basis of hydrogen are the more viable energy source to substitute oil, since in their operation they are friendly with the environment since they do not produce polluting agents, reducing enormously the problem of global heating in which the planet is bottled. It is very certain that many disadvantages in these fuel cells on the basis of hydrogen still exist, but the arduous investigations realized until the present time foresee an excellent future where the planet will be able to satisfy its daily energy demand on the basis of the hydrogen technology. In future works one must have special care of the humidity control of gases before entering the fuel cell, since it is an important parameter in the correct operation of the standard fuel cells PEM. In the present investigation the advance in the state-of-the-art of the hydrogen technology is illustrated, specifically with the generation of electricity on the basis of the novel configurations of standard fuel cells PEM. Until the moment similar work it has not been found in the bibliography similar work where it is experienced with this type of radial configuration for the hydrogen technologies. The geometry and the results presented/displayed in this analysis correspond to a work of the highest category in the state-of-the-art of the fuel cells; in addition, an ample expectation due to the highly satisfactory results found, either numerically as well as experimentally, in comparison with other geometries is obtained. [Spanish] Despues de analizar cada una de las posibles fuentes de energia para

  4. 76 FR 17963 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Application for Job Placement and Training Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... training program, which provides vocational/technical training, related counseling, guidance, job placement... the job placement and training program, which provides vocational/technical training, related... Application for Job Placement and Training Services; Request for Comments AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  5. 75 FR 80067 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Application for Job Placement and Training Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Application for Job Placement and Training Services; Request for Comments AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Application for Job Placement and Training Services. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB... information collection conducted under 25 CFR part 26 to administer the job placement and training program...

  6. 25 CFR 26.15 - What makes an applicant eligible for Job Placement and Training services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.15 What makes an applicant eligible for Job Placement and Training services? You are eligible for services if: (a) You meet the definition... show a need for job training or placement services in order to become gainfully and meaningfully...

  7. 25 CFR 26.5 - Who may be eligible for Job Placement and Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may be eligible for Job Placement and Training? 26.5 Section 26.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.5 Who may be eligible for Job Placement and Training? You may...

  8. Characteristics of People Providing Family Placements to Adult Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Roy; McConaghie, Jayne; Roberts, Paul; King, Diana

    2005-01-01

    The success of family placement schemes depends largely on the recruitment of suitable people who are willing to offer placements in their own home yet little research has been undertaken of their characteristics and the reasons for their involvement. Thirty providers of family based placements to adult persons with intellectual disabilities were…

  9. 37 CFR 211.6 - Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... placement of mask work notice. 211.6 Section 211.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.6 Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice. (a) General. (1) This section specifies methods of affixation and placement...

  10. Breakdown of teenage placements in Danish out-of-home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Olsson, Martin; Høst, Anders

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the problem of breakdown in out-of-home placements for Danish teenagers. How often are these placements prematurely terminated against the requests and intentions of the child welfare authorities? Which factors seem to increase and decrease placement breakdown? The sample...

  11. Waarschuwingen, beroemheden en brand placement: de effecten van type waarschuwing en geloofwaardigheid op kijkerreacties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, K.; van Reijmersdal, E.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies on product placement have been conducted, effects of celebrities in product placement remained unstudied. In addition, new legislation forces television programs to show warnings for sponsored content. However, effects of such warnings for product placement are unknown. The

  12. Actinic keratosis associated with squamous and basal cell carcinomas: an evaluation of neoplastic progression by a standardized AgNOR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Giuffrè

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the neoplastic progression in different stages of actinic keratosis (AK, a standardized AgNOR analysis was performed in 94 cases of AK, 35 of which were associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC, and in 31 cases of SCC and 22 cases of BCC. The cases were subdivided into low- and high- AgNOR-expressing (AgNOR status AK by using the mean area of AgNORs per cell (NORA value (3.996 ?m2 as the cut-off. In AK samples, a progressive increase of the mean NORA value from Stage I to Stage IV was encountered. In addition, a significantly higher mean NORA value was found in the AK cases associated with SCC, in comparison to those without SCC; by contrast, no significant differences in the mean NORA value were noted between AK cases with or without BCC. A highly significant association between a high AgNOR quantity and the coexistence of SCC was encountered in AK; no association was appreciable between the AgNOR quantity and the co-occurrence of BCC. Moreover, when the co-existence of SCC in AK was considered as the reference point, the AK cases associated with SCC mostly (95.5% presented a high AgNOR quantity (high sensitivity, but only 57.6% of cases without SCC displayed a low AgNOR quantity (low specificity. Additionally, our data document that the standardised AgNOR analysis represents a strong negative predictor for the association between SCC and AK. Indeed, a low AgNOR quantity mostly is associated with AK cases without SCC.

  13. Comparison of the permeability of metoprolol and labetalol in rat, mouse, and Caco-2 cells: use as a reference standard for BCS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incecayir, Tuba; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate labetalol as a potential high permeability reference standard for the application of Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). Permeabilities of labetalol and metoprolol were investigated in animal intestinal perfusion models and Caco-2 cell monolayers. After isolating specific intestinal segments, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusions (SPIP) were performed in rats and mice. The effective permeabilities (Peff) of labetalol and metoprolol, an FDA standard for the low/high Peff class boundary, were investigated in two different segments of rat intestine (proximal jejunum and distal ileum) and in the proximal jejunum of mouse. No significant difference was found between Peff of metoprolol and labetalol in the jejunum and ileum of rat (0.33 ± 0.11 × 10(-4) vs 0.38 ± 0.06 × 10(-4) and 0.57 ± 0.17 × 10(-4) vs 0.64 ± 0.30 × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively) and in the jejunum of mouse (0.55 ± 0.05 × 10(-4) vs 0.59 ± 0.13 × 10(-4) cm/s). However, Peff of metoprolol and labetalol were 1.7 and 1.6 times higher in the jejunum of mouse, compared to the jejunum of rat, respectively. Metoprolol and labetalol showed segmental-dependent permeability through the rat intestine, with increased Peff in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal jejunum. Most significantly, Peff of labetalol was found to be concentration-dependent. Decreasing concentrations of labetalol in the perfusate resulted in decreased Peff compared to Peff of metoprolol. The intestinal epithelial permeability of labetalol was lower than that of metoprolol in Caco-2 cells at both apical pH 6.5 and 7.5 (5.96 ± 1.96 × 10(-6) vs 9.44 ± 3.44 × 10(-6) and 15.9 ± 2.2 × 10(-6) vs 23.2 ± 7.1 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively). Labetalol exhibited higher permeability in basolateral to apical (BL-AP) compared to AP-BL direction in Caco-2 cells at 0.1 times the highest dose strength (HDS) (46.7 ± 6.5 × 10(-6) vs 14.2 ± 1.5 × 10(-6) cm/s). The P

  14. Pharmacognostical Analysis and Protective Effect of Standardized Extract and Rizonic Acid from Erythrina velutina against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline H.; Fonseca, Francisco Noé; Pimenta, Antônia T. A.; Lima, MaryAnne S.; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Viana, Glauce S. B.; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M. M.; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythrina velutina is a tree common in the northeast of Brazil extensively used by traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. Objective: To develop a standardized ethanol extract of E. velutina (EEEV) and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of the extract and rizonic acid (RA) from E. velutina on neuronal cells. Materials and methods: The plant drug of E. velutina previously characterized was used for the production of EEEV. Three methods were evaluated in order to obtain an extract with higher content of phenols. The neuroprotective effect of standardized EEEV (HPLC-PDA) and RA was investigated on SH-SY5Y cell exposure to the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Results: The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse and several quality control parameters were determined. EEEV produced by percolation gave the highest phenol content when related to others extractive methods, and its HPLC-PDA analysis allowed to identify four flavonoids and RA, some reported for the first time for the species. EEEV and RA reduced significantly the neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells determined by the MTT assay and the nitrite concentration. EEEV also showed a free radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: This is the first pharmacological study about E. velutina which used a controlled standardized extract since the preparation of the herbal drug. This extract and RA, acting as an antioxidant, presents a neuroprotective effect suggesting that they have potential for future development as a therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disease as Parkinson. SUMMARY The powder of Erythrina velutina was classified as moderately coarse and several quality-control parameters were determined.Ethanolic extract from E. velutina (EEEV) produced by percolation gave the highest phenol content when related to others extractive methods and its HPLC–PDA analysis of EEEV allowed to identify four flavonoids and rizonic

  15. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  16. The MinD protein is a membrane ATPase required for the correct placement of the Escherichia coli division site.

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, P A; Crossley, R E; Hand, A R; Rothfield, L I

    1991-01-01

    The proper placement of the cell division site in Escherichia coli requires the site-specific inactivation of potential division sites at the cell poles in a process that is mediated by the MinC, MinD and MinE proteins. During the normal division cycle MinD plays two roles. It activates the MinC-dependent mechanism that is responsible for the inactivation of potential division sites and it also renders the division inhibition system sensitive to the topological specificity factor MinE. MinE s...

  17. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  18. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  19. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  20. Brand Placement in Establishing Corporate Identity - A University Example -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With competition becoming ever fiercer, brands must conform to modern marketing and become more influential on consumer perceptions by developing strategies according to the needs and demands of consumers. Hence it is very important to determine how the br and is perceived and placed in the consumer’s mind. Branding is a key issue on the modern agenda. As universities have understood the importance of establishing corporate identity and brand placement, they have joined the race and begun developing social strategies to develop their brand values. These include establishing brand belongingness, advertising and promotions and efforts to make the university stand out among similar ones. Brand placement in the minds of users is attempted through the name, logo , colors, characters and fonts representing the university used on clothing, office material and similar. Brand placement efforts include definitions by consumers of the product or service or attempts to distinguish these from those of competitors. This r esearch deals with a clothing b rand representing a university, brand image and product perceptions as well as the brand placement efforts. The scanning method was used in the research. The brand of casual clothing used as an example for brand placement as well as similarly known brands were examined for their product variety, prices and consumer portfolios. Measurement devices were prepared for the brand placement of the apparel designed and produced for the university, and a pilot trial was performed. I n the pilot trial, a set of questions was asked to a group of randomly chosen 242 people, consisting of academics, university students and administrative staff. The data obta ined were analyzed using SPSS 16 .0. Findings were given in tables according to sta tus variables. The finding of the research indicate that in brand placing efforts, for the intended consumer the apparel’s fabric, stitching and print/embroidery quality, its price