WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard cell design

  1. Design for manufacturability of a VDSM standard cell library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chong; Zeng Jianping; Chen Lan; Yin Minghui; Zhao Jie

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method of designing a 65 nm DFM standard cell library. By reducing the amount of the library largely, the process of optical proximity correction (OPC) becomes more efficient and the need for large storage is reduced. This library is more manufacture-friendly as each cell has been optimized according to the DFM rule and optical simulation. The area penalty is minor compared with traditional library, and the timing, as well as power has a good performance. Furthermore, this library has passed the test from the Technology Design Department of Foundry. The result shows this DFM standard cell library has advantages that improve the yield. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Mechanical Design of the LHC Standard Half-Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, A.; Brunet, J. C.; Cruikshank, P.; Genet, M.; Parma, V.; Rohmig, P.; Saban, R.; Tavian, L.; Veness, R.; Vlogaert, J.; Williams, L. R.

    1997-05-01

    The LHC Conceptual Design Report issued on 20th October 1995 (CERN/AC/95-05 (LHC) - nicknamed "Yellow Book") introduced significant changes to some fundamental features of the LHC standard half-cell, composed of one quadrupole, 3 dipoles and a set of corrector magnets. A separate cryogenic distribution line was introduced, which was previously inside the main cryostat. The dipole length has been increased from 10 to 15 m and independent powering of the focusing and defocusing quadrupole magnets was chosen. Individual quench protection diodes were introduced in magnets interconnects and many auxiliary bus bars were added to feed in series the various families of correcting superconducting magnets. The various highly intricate basic systems such as: cryostats and cryogenics feeders, superconducting magnets and their electrical feeding and protection, vacuum beam screen and its cooling, support and alignment devices have been redesigned, taking into account the very tight space available. These space constraints are given by the necessity to have maximum integral bending field strength for maximum LHC energy, and the existing LHC tunnel. Finally, cryogenic and vacuum sectorisation have been introduced to reduce downtimes and facilitate commissioning.

  3. An efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation for optimized standard cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samboju, Nagaraj C.; Choi, Soo-Han; Arikati, Srini; Cilingir, Erdem

    2015-03-01

    As the technology continues to shrink below 14nm, triple patterning lithography (TPT) is a worthwhile lithography methodology for printing dense layers such as Metal1. However, this increases the complexity of standard cell design, as it is very difficult to develop a TPT compliant layout without compromising on the area. Hence, this emphasizes the importance to have an accurate stitch generation methodology to meet the standard cell area requirement as defined by the technology shrink factor. In this paper, we present an efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation technique for optimized standard cell design. The basic idea here is to first identify the conflicting polygons based on the Fix Guidance [1] solution developed by Synopsys. Fix Guidance is a reduced sub-graph containing minimum set of edges along with the connecting polygons; by eliminating these edges in a design 3-color conflicts can be resolved. Once the conflicting polygons are identified using this method, they are categorized into four types [2] - (Type 1 to 4). The categorization is based on number of interactions a polygon has with the coloring links and the triangle loops of fix guidance. For each type a certain criteria for keep-out region is defined, based on which the final stitch guidance locations are generated. This technique provides various possible stitch locations to the user and helps the user to select the best stitch location considering both design flexibility (max. pin access/small area) and process-preferences. Based on this technique, a standard cell library for place and route (P and R) can be developed with colorless data and a stitch marker defined by designer using our proposed method. After P and R, the full chip (block) would contain the colorless data and standard cell stitch markers only. These stitch markers are considered as "must be stitch" candidates. Hence during full chip decomposition it is not required to generate and select the stitch markers again for the

  4. Experimental design and reporting standards for metabolomics studies of mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Sarah; Maker, Garth L; Mullaney, Ian; Trengove, Robert D

    2017-12-01

    Metabolomics is an analytical technique that investigates the small biochemical molecules present within a biological sample isolated from a plant, animal, or cultured cells. It can be an extremely powerful tool in elucidating the specific metabolic changes within a biological system in response to an environmental challenge such as disease, infection, drugs, or toxins. A historically difficult step in the metabolomics pipeline is in data interpretation to a meaningful biological context, for such high-variability biological samples and in untargeted metabolomics studies that are hypothesis-generating by design. One way to achieve stronger biological context of metabolomic data is via the use of cultured cell models, particularly for mammalian biological systems. The benefits of in vitro metabolomics include a much greater control of external variables and no ethical concerns. The current concerns are with inconsistencies in experimental procedures and level of reporting standards between different studies. This review discusses some of these discrepancies between recent studies, such as metabolite extraction and data normalisation. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of a standardised experimental approach to any cultured cell metabolomics study and suggests an example procedure fully inclusive of information that should be disclosed in regard to the cell type/s used and their culture conditions. Metabolomics of cultured cells has the potential to uncover previously unknown information about cell biology, functions and response mechanisms, and so the accurate biological interpretation of the data produced and its ability to be compared to other studies should be considered vitally important.

  5. Civil Engineering & Design Standards Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Vänttinen, Eetu

    2014-01-01

    Civil Discipline Engineering department in Foster Wheeler Energia Oy takes care of the construction of foundation, steel frame, platforms, cladding/roofing, HVAC, elevator, hoist and central vacuum system of the boiler building. The goal of the thesis was to compile a design manual for the department to ease up the startup of the design of a new project and standardize the design. Main objective was to gather together all the existing guidelines, standards and directives regarding the des...

  6. MAN-004 Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Timothy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  7. UMTRA Project remedial action planning and disposal cell design to comply with the proposed EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] standards (40 CFR Part 192)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project involves stabilizing 24 inactive uranium mill tailings piles in 10 states. Remedial work must meet standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Remedial action must be designed and constructed to prevent dispersion of the tailings and other contaminated materials, and must prevent the inadvertent use of the tailings by man. This report is prepared primarily for distribution to parties involved in the UMTRA Project, including the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and states and tribes. It is intended to record the work done by the DOE since publication of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards, and to show how the DOE has attempted to respond and react in a positive way to the new requirements that result from the proposed standards. This report discusses the groundwater compliance strategies now being defined and implemented by the DOE, and details the changes in disposal cell designs that result from studies to evaluate ways to facilitate compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. This report also serves to record the technical advances, planning, and progress made on the UMTRA Project since the appearance of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. The report serves to establish, document, and disseminate technical approaches and engineering and groundwater information to people who may be interested or involved in similar or related projects. 24 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  8. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 16 details the application of Human Factors Engineering in the design process

  9. System 80+trademark standard design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. The documents in this series describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+ TM Standard Design

  10. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 10 discusses the Steam and Power Conversion System and Radioactive Waste Management

  11. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 11 discusses Radiation Protection, Conduct of Operations, and the Initial Test Program

  12. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems

  13. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 17 provides Appendix A of this report, closure of unresolved and Genetic Safety Issues

  14. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls

  15. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 18 provides Appendix B, Probabilistic Risk Assessment

  16. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This volume contain Chapter 18 -- Human Factors Engineering. Topics covered include: design team organization and responsibilities; design goals and design bases; design process and application to human factors engineering; functional task analysis; control room configuration; information presentation and panel layout evaluation; control and monitoring outside the main control room; and verification and validation

  17. Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Ababneh, Ziad Waleed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education through the analysis of the theoretical basis and previous studies related to this subject. This study has identified the list of standards of Multimedia, Graphic Design, each of which has a set indicator through which the quality of Multimedia can be evaluated in…

  18. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  19. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'', and DOE 6430.1A, ''General Design Criteria''. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ''Glove Box Fire Protection'' and ''Filter Plenum Fire Protection''. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities

  20. Design Standards for School Art Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Art Education Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Design Standards for School Art Facilities" is an invaluable resource for any school or school district looking to build new facilities for the visual arts or renovate existing ones. Discover detailed information about spaces for the breadth of media used in the visual arts. Photographs illustrate all types of features including…

  1. Business School's Performance Management System Standards Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Anton Mulyono; Simatupang, Togar M.; Wibisono, Dermawan; Basri, Mursyid Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to compare various Performance Management Systems (PMS) for business school in order to find the strengths of each standard as inputs to design new model of PMS. There are many critical aspects and gaps notified for new model to improve performance and even recognized that self evaluation performance management is not well…

  2. Seismic design standardization of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) of Nuclear Facilities have to be designed for normal operating loads such as dead weight, pressure, temperature etc., and accidental loads such as earthquakes, floods, extreme, wind air craft impact, explosions etc. Man made accidents such as aircraft impact, explosions etc., some times may be considered as design basis event and some times taken care by providing administrative controls. This will not be possible in the case of natural events such as earthquakes, flooding, extreme winds etc. Among natural events earthquakes are considered as most devastating and need to be considered as design basis event. It is generally felt design of SSCs for earthquake loads is very time consuming and expensive. Conventional seismic design approaches demands for large number of supports for systems and components. This results in large space occupation and in turn creates difficulties for maintenance and in service inspection of systems and components. In addition, complete exercise of design need to be repeated for plants being located at different sites due to different seismic demands. However, advanced seismic response control methods will help to standardize the seismic design meeting the safety and economy. These methods adopt passive, semi active and active devices, and base isolators to control the seismic response. In nuclear industry, it is advisable to go for passive devices to control the seismic responses. Ideally speaking, these methods will make the designs made for normal loads can also satisfy the seismic demand without calling for change in material, geometry, layout etc. in the SSCs. This paper explain the basic ideas of seismic response control methods, demonstrate the effectiveness of control methods through case studies and eventually give the procedure to be adopted for seismic design standardization of nuclear facilities

  3. Hot laboratory design on the basis of standardized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadrot, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the principal effects on hot laboratory design brought about over the last 15 years by the use of standardized components developed jointly with the CEA and the industrial associates of AFINE. After a rapid survey of the various advantages of standardization, the author turns to the specific case of a laboratory producing mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuels, giving a brief description of the glove-boxes and ancillary equipment. He then deals with the design of an isotope production laboratory. The basic component is the DR 200 standard cell, which permits the civil engineering work to be effected on modular principles. Use of a safety-flow pressure regulating valve makes possible pneumatic automation of the production-cell internals. A substantial gain in output is the result. In the next section the paper refers to a pilot facility for irradiated fuel studies, and describes the components used, which require taking into account the high activities and intense radiations encountered in studies of this type. The author then demonstrates the flexibility with which standardized components can be adapted to different uses, thus solving many distinct problems, an example of which is represented by a semi-hot box for handling up to 100g of americium-241. Finally, the paper offers a rapid summary of the effects of standardization at the various stages concerned, from initial design to the commissioning of a hot laboratory. (author)

  4. Updated Design Standards and Guidance from the What Works Clearinghouse: Regression Discontinuity Designs and Cluster Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Russell; Deke, John; Seftor, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) maintains design standards to identify rigorous, internally valid education research. As education researchers advance new methodologies, the WWC must revise its standards to include an assessment of the new designs. Recently, the WWC has revised standards for two emerging study designs: regression discontinuity…

  5. A Design Study for Standard Nanofluid Coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, In Cheol; Heo, Gyun Young

    2007-01-01

    The experimental data for nanofluids in thermal-fluid systems have shown that the new fluids promise to become advanced heat transfer fluids in terms of thermal performance. While enhancing thermal characteristics, the solid-liquid mixtures present an unavoidable disadvantage in terms of pumping cost for economic operation of thermal-fluid systems. In addition, there is a lack of agreement between experimental data provided in the literature. We can find that this issue of nanofluids resembles that of designing new materials. Many nanofluids researchers tend to view the nanofluid field as a highly coupled 'tetrahedro' whose four vertices (performance, properties, structure, and processes) are interconnected to each other. The present design study has a big merit to systemize the nanofluid work and to reduce a lot of trial-error efforts. The present work found that there would be no comprehensible design strategy in developing nanofluids. In this work, the Axiomatic Design (AD) theory is applied to standardize the design of nanofluids in order to bring its practical use forward. According to the Independence Axiom of the AD theory, the excessive couplings between the functional requirements and the parameters of a nanofluid system prevent from meeting the functional goals of the entire system. At a parametric level, the design of a nanofluid system is inherently coupled due to the characteristics of thermal-fluid system; the design parameters physically affect each other sharing sub-level parameters for nanoparticles with making a feedback loop. Even though parts of the nanofluids are naturally coupled, it is possible to reduce and/or eliminate the degree of coupling by help of AD principles. From the perspective of AD, this implies that we are able to ascertain which nanofluid system is better one in the light of functional achievement

  6. Standard mirror fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the work of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Division's reactor study group during FY 1976 on the standard mirror reactor. The ''standard'' mirror reactor is characterized as a steady state, neutral beam sustained, D-T fusioning plasma confined by a Yin-Yang magnetic mirror field. The physics parameters are obtained from the same physics model that explains the 2XIIB experiment. The model assumes that the drift cyclotron loss cone mode occurs on the boundary of the plasma, and that it is stabilized by warm plasma with negligible energy investment. The result of the study was a workable mirror fusion power plant, steady-state blanket removal made relatively simple by open-ended geometry, and no impurity problem due to the positive plasma potential. The Q (fusion power/injected beam power) turns out to be only 1.1 because of loss out the ends from Coulomb collisions, i.e., classical losses. This low Q resulted in 77% of the gross electrical power being used to power the injectors, thereby causing the net power cost to be high. The low Q stimulated an intensive search for Q-enhancement concepts, resulting in the LLL reactor design effort turning to the field reversal mirror and the tandem mirror, each having Q of order 5

  7. New Buildings Energy Performance Improvement through Incorporation of New Proven Technologies into Standard Designs. Standard Design for TEMF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhivov, Alexander M

    2004-01-01

    ISSUES: Current Army Standard Designs don't specify potential energy saving and sustainable design opportunities, available energy saving technologies, and technologies resulting in better indoor air quality...

  8. Design and fabrication of NDA standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Plutonium Facility, TA-55, at Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently producing NDA calibration standards used by various laboratories in the DOE complex. These NIST traceable standards have been produced to calibrate NDA instruments for accountability measurements used for resolving shipper/receiver differences, and for accountability in process residues and process waste. Standards are needed to calibrate various NDA (Non-destructive Assay) instruments such as neutron coincidence counters, gamma-ray counters, and calorimeters. These instruments measure various ranges of nuclear material being produced in the DOE nuclear community. Los Alamos National Laboratory has taken a lead role in fabrication of uranium and plutonium standards, along with other actinides such as neptunium and americium. These standards have been fabricated for several laboratories within the complex. This paper will summarize previous publications detailing the careful planning encompassing components such as precise weighing, destructive analysis, and the use of post fabrication NDA measurements to confirm that the standards meet all preliminary expectations before use in instrument calibration. The paper will also describe the specialized containers, diluents, and the various amount of nuclear materials needed to accommodate the calibration ranges of the instruments

  9. 38 CFR 39.22 - Architectural design standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Architectural design...-16-10) Standards and Requirements for Project § 39.22 Architectural design standards. The..., Ontario, CA 91761-2816. (a) Architectural and structural requirements—(1) Life Safety Code. Standards must...

  10. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All borrowers... system design, construction standards, and the use of RUS accepted materials. Borrowers must comply with...

  11. State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

  12. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 3: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 3, in conjunction with Volume 2, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

  13. Standard guide for design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any chemical or physical form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. Not included in the criteria are systems auxiliary to the glovebox systems such as utilities, ventilation, alarm, and waste disposal. Also not addressed are hot cells or open-face hoods. The scope of this guide excludes specific license requirements relating to provisions for criticality prevention, hazards control, safeguards, packaging, and material handling. Observance of this guide does not relieve the user of the obligation to conform to all federal, state, and local regulations for design and construction of glovebox systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user...

  14. Beamline standard component designs for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Barraza, J.; Brite, C.; Chang, J.; Sanchez, T.; Tcheskidov, V.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has initiated a design standardization and modularization activity for the APS synchrotron radiation beamline components. These standard components are included in components library, sub-components library and experimental station library. This paper briefly describes these standard components using both technical specifications and side view drawings

  15. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains 2 technical specifications bases as part of Appendix 16 A Tech Spec Bases. They are TS B3.8 Electrical Power Technical Systems Bases and TS B3.9 Refueling Operations Bases. All 3 parts of section 17 (QA) and all 10 parts of section 18 (Human Factors) of the ADM Design and Analysis are contained in this volume. Topics covered in section 17 are: design phase QA; operations phase QA; and design phase reliability assurance. Topics covered by section 18 are: design team organization; design goals; design process; functional task analysis; control room configuration; information presentation; control and monitoring; verification and validation; and review documents

  16. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  17. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains part 16 References and Appendix 19 A Design Alternatives for section 19 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Also covered is section 20 Unresolved Safety Issues of the ADM Design and Analysis. Finally sections 1--6 of the ADM Emergency Operations Guidelines are contained in this volume. Information covered in these sections include: standard post-trip actions; diagnostic actions; reactor trip recovery guideline; LOCA recovery; SG tube rupture recovery

  18. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 8: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls.

  19. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 11: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 11 discusses Radiation Protection, Conduct of Operations, and the Initial Test Program.

  20. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 9: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems.

  1. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains Appendices 6A, 6B, and 6C for section 6 (Engineered Safety Features) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Also, parts 1--5 of section 7 (Instrumentation and Control) of the ADM Design and Analysis are covered. The following information is covered in these parts: introduction; reactor protection system; ESF actuation system; system required for safe shutdown; and safety-related display instrumentation

  2. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains parts 2-7 and appendix 15A for section 15 (Accident Analysis) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered in these parts are: decrease in heat removal; decrease in RCS flow rate; power distribution anomalies; increase in RCS inventory; decrease in RCS inventory; release of radioactive materials. The appendix covers radiological release models. Also contained here are five technical specifications for section 16 (Technical Specifications) of the ADM Design and Analysis. They are: TS 1.0 Use and Applications; TS 2.0 Safety Limits; TS 3.0 LCO Availability; TS 3.1 Reactivity Control; and TS 3.2 Power Distribution

  3. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains all five parts of section 12 (Radiation Protection) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: ALARA exposures; radiation sources; radiation protection; dose assessment; and health physics program. All six parts and appendices A and B for section 13 (Conduct of Operations) of the ADM Design and Analysis are also contained in this volume. Topics covered are: organizational structure; training program; emergency planning; review and audit; plant procedures; industrial security; sabotage protection (App 13A); and vital equipment list (App 13B)

  4. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains the following technical specifications of section 16 (Technical Specifications) of the ADM Design and Analysis: TS 3.3 Instrumentation; TS 3.4 Reactor Coolant System; TS 3.5 Emergency Core Cooling System; TS 3.6 Containment Systems; TS 3.7 Plant Systems; TS 3.8 Electrical Power Systems; TS 3.9 Refueling Operations; TS 4.0 Design Features; TS 5.0 Administrative Controls. Appendix 16 A Tech Spec Bases is also included. It contains the following: TS B2.0 Safety Limits Bases; TS B3.0 LCO Applicability Bases; TS B3.1 Reactivity Control Bases; TS B3.2 Power Distribution Bases

  5. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers the DCD introduction and contains sections 1 and parts 1--7 of section 2 of the CDM. Parts 1--7 included the following: (2.1) Design of SSC; (2.2) Reactor; (2.3) RCS and connected systems; (2.4) Engineered Safety Features; (2.5) Instrumentation and Control; (2.6) Electric Power; and (2.7) Auxiliary Systems

  6. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers parts 6 and 7 and appendix 7A for section 7 (Instrumentation and Control) of the ADM Design and Analysis. The topics covered by these are: other systems required for safety; control systems not required by safety; and CMF evaluation of limiting faults. Parts 1--3 of section 8 (Electric Power) of the ADM are also included in this volume. Topics covered by these parts are: introduction; offsite power system; and onsite power system

  7. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains five technical specification bases that are part of Appendix 16 A of the ADM Design and Analysis. They are: TS B3.3 Instrumentation Bases; TS B3.4 RCS Bases; TS B3.5 ECCS Bases; TS B3.6 Containment Systems Bases; and TS B3.7 Plant Systems Bases

  8. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains parts 1--10 of section 19 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: methodology; initiating event evaluation; accident sequence determination; data analysis; systems analysis; external events analysis; shutdown risk assessment; accident sequence quantification; and sensitivity analysis. Also included in this volume are Appendix 19.8A Shutdown Risk Assessment and Appendix A to Appendix 19.8A Request for Information

  9. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers the following information of the CDM: (2.8) Steam and power conversion; (2.9) Radioactive waste management; (2.10) Tech Support Center; (2.11) Initial test program; (2.12) Human factors; and sections 3, 4, and 5. Also covered in this volume are parts 1--6 of section 1 (General Plant Description) of the ADM Design and Analysis

  10. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains sections 7--11 of the ADM Emergency Operations Guidelines. Topics covered are: excess steam demand recovery; loss of all feedwater; loss of offsite power; station blackout recovery; and functional recovery guideline. Appendix A Severe Accident Management Guidelines and Appendix B Lower Mode Operational Guidelines are also included

  11. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  12. Update of bridge design standards in Alabama for AASHTO LRFD seismic design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) has been required to update their bridge design to the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. This transition has resulted in changes to the seismic design standards of bridges in the state. Multiple bridg...

  13. Computing tools for implementing standards for single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ting; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Chen, Ming-E

    2015-11-01

    In the single-case design (SCD) literature, five sets of standards have been formulated and distinguished: design standards, assessment standards, analysis standards, reporting standards, and research synthesis standards. This article reviews computing tools that can assist researchers and practitioners in meeting the analysis standards recommended by the What Works Clearinghouse: Procedures and Standards Handbook-the WWC standards. These tools consist of specialized web-based calculators or downloadable software for SCD data, and algorithms or programs written in Excel, SAS procedures, SPSS commands/Macros, or the R programming language. We aligned these tools with the WWC standards and evaluated them for accuracy and treatment of missing data, using two published data sets. All tools were tested to be accurate. When missing data were present, most tools either gave an error message or conducted analysis based on the available data. Only one program used a single imputation method. This article concludes with suggestions for an inclusive computing tool or environment, additional research on the treatment of missing data, and reasonable and flexible interpretations of the WWC standards. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  15. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  16. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept

  17. Legislatation, standards and awareness of inclusive design in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej; Herriott, Richard

    This presents an overview of the design professions´response to government policies on accessibility and inclusive design. Architectural firms and industrial design firms have different levels of awareness and willingness to implement inclusive design and accessibility objectives. This is driven ...... in part by variation in standards and regulations between industry sectors. Interest groups apparently do not approach accessibility and design-inclusivity objectives in an orchestrated fashion and do not show an awareness of design a means to provide solution.......This presents an overview of the design professions´response to government policies on accessibility and inclusive design. Architectural firms and industrial design firms have different levels of awareness and willingness to implement inclusive design and accessibility objectives. This is driven...

  18. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In widespread use globally, renewable electricity standards (RES) are one of the most widely adopted renewable energy policies and a critical regulatory vehicle to accelerate renewable energy deployment. This policy brief provides an introduction to key RES design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific RES policy design.

  19. Achieving IT-supported standardized nursing documentation through participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Lyng, Karen Marie; Jensen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    that support guideline-based highly structured standard documentation in a large organization with many stakeholders. Applying a participatory design (PD) approach at many organizational levels has involved the stakeholders actively in the design process. Developing a set of design principles has concurrently......In the Capital Region of Denmark a full-scale pilot project on IT-supported nursing documentation is - after running for two months at one full university hospital - showing promising results. In this paper we discuss participatory design as a method to design clinical documentation templates...

  20. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  1. Investigations of Laser Pumped Gas Cell Atomic Frequency Standard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volk, C. H; Camparo, J. C; Frueholz, R. P

    1981-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested that the performance characteristics of a rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standard might be improved by replacing the standard rubidium discharge lamp with a single mode laser diode...

  2. Design control for standard U.S. EPRTM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Toney A.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. EPR TM design is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for reference by utility applicants to build and operate EPR TM nuclear reactors in the United States. While the U.S. EPR TM Design Certification and utility Combined License Applications are being reviewed by the NRC, the AREVA-Bechtel Consortium for Engineering Procurement and Construction is proceeding with developing the detailed design. Multiple, parallel regulatory and engineering activities require carefully prepared documents and rigorous design control processes. This paper will review the design control processes used by the AREVA-Bechtel Consortium. Design control must consider the basic design processes required to achieve an integrated, functional design, as well as design change control. Sources of change and the need to keep design bases and licensing bases consistent must be thoroughly understood. An objective of the U.S. EPR TM reactor deployment program for the United States is to achieve maximum standardization of common features of the plant. Such standardization is necessary for economics, speed-of-construction, and operational efficiencies available from a 'fleet' approach to deployment. (author)

  3. Design and standardization of PCR primers and protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: Report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J. J. M.; Langerak, A. W.; Brüggemann, M.; Evans, P. A. S.; Hummel, M.; Lavender, F. L.; Delabesse, E.; Davi, F.; Schuuring, E.; García-Sanz, R.; van Krieken, J. H. J. M.; Droese, J.; González, D.; Bastard, C.; White, H. E.; Spaargaren, M.; González, M.; Parreira, A.; Smith, J. L.; Morgan, G. J.; Kneba, M.; Macintyre, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    In a European BIOMED-2 collaborative study, multiplex PCR assays have successfully been developed and standardized for the detection of clonally rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes and the chromosome aberrations t(11; 14) and t(14; 18). This has resulted in 107 different

  4. Design and standardization of PCR primers and protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.J.M. van; Langerak, A.W.; Bruggemann, M.; Evans, P.; Hummel, M.; Lavender, F.L.; Delabesse, E.; Davi, F.; Schuuring, E.; Garcia-Sanz, R.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Droese, J.; Gonzalez, D.; Bastard, C.; White, H.E.; Spaargaren, M.C.; Gonzalez, M.; Parreira, A.; Smith, J.L.; Morgan, G.J.; Kneba, M.; Macintyre, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    In a European BIOMED-2 collaborative study, multiplex PCR assays have successfully been developed and standardized for the detection of clonally rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes and the chromosome aberrations t(11;14) and t(14;18). This has resulted in 107 different

  5. Development of standard logic network for PWR NSSS system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Kyu; Lee, Byeong Ryeong; Lee, Pan Kwon; Lee, Hae Joon; Park, Joon Won; Song, Tae Gil; Kim, Dong Hui; Choi, Hyeon Ho

    1993-05-01

    The self-reliance of NSSS System Design is required not only the design capability to perform the system design but also the management capability to control the resource and time for the Project effectively. The purpose of this study is to develop the simplified standard Logic Network that is scheduled on the time and resource using the PERT/CPM method. That is mainly focused on Ulchin 3, 4 Project. We prepare the management tool of NSSS System Design project. And we can utilize it as a reference tool for the similar project which are complex and long term in a next project. (Author)

  6. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  7. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L. [Duke Engineering & Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Turk, R.S. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.

  8. Design standard issues for ITER in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1994-01-01

    Unique requirements that must be addressed by a structural design code for the ITER have been summarized. Existing codes such as ASME Section III, or the French RCC-MR were developed primarily for fission reactor out-of-core components and are not directly applicable to the ITER. They may be used either as a guide for developing a design code for the ITER or as interim standards. However, new rules will be needed for handling the irradiation-induced embrittlement problems faced by the ITER blanket components. Design standards developed in the past for the design of fission reactor core components in the United States can be used as guides in this area

  9. Application of Standardized ITAAC to the APR1400 Design Certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Deogji; Kim, Yunho [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Design certification applications (DCAs) submitted pursuant to 10 CFR Part 52 contain two tiers of information, Tier 1 and Tier 2. Tier 1 contains information that is to be certified through rulemaking, and includes the inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria (ITAAC). Tier 2 contains more detailed information and is the source for information included in Tier1. DC applicants have developed the ITAAC with their own format and contents. This has caused the ineffectiveness of the review process by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the design certification stage. Standardizing the format and content of Tier 1 and ITAAC will achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness for Tier 1 and ITAAC development and NRC review, and for ITAAC implementation and verification. NRC provided the proposed standardized ITAAC for APR1400, and KHNP is considering the application of the proposed ITAAC. The strategy for application of the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC to the APR1400 design certification is now under developing, and a meeting with NRC to review the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC is expected to be held in the near future. In this review process, establishment of industry position on the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC is very important. The support from NEI and US industry is expected to be gained.

  10. Application of Standardized ITAAC to the APR1400 Design Certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Deogji; Kim, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Design certification applications (DCAs) submitted pursuant to 10 CFR Part 52 contain two tiers of information, Tier 1 and Tier 2. Tier 1 contains information that is to be certified through rulemaking, and includes the inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria (ITAAC). Tier 2 contains more detailed information and is the source for information included in Tier1. DC applicants have developed the ITAAC with their own format and contents. This has caused the ineffectiveness of the review process by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the design certification stage. Standardizing the format and content of Tier 1 and ITAAC will achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness for Tier 1 and ITAAC development and NRC review, and for ITAAC implementation and verification. NRC provided the proposed standardized ITAAC for APR1400, and KHNP is considering the application of the proposed ITAAC. The strategy for application of the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC to the APR1400 design certification is now under developing, and a meeting with NRC to review the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC is expected to be held in the near future. In this review process, establishment of industry position on the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC is very important. The support from NEI and US industry is expected to be gained

  11. Safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation in the UK, Europe and internationally. Management of health and safety in the UK is discussed, and the characteristics of phosphoric acid (PAFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MCFC), solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells are described. Fuel cell power plant standards and manufacture in the UK, design and operational considerations, end of life disposal, automotive fuel cell system, and fuelling and vehicular concerns are explored, and standards, legislation and codes of practice are explained in the appendix.

  12. Codes, standards, and requirements for DOE facilities: natural phenomena design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The basic requirements for codes, standards, and requirements are found in DOE Orders 5480.1A, 5480.4, and 6430.1. The type of DOE facility to be built and the hazards which it presents will determine the criteria to be applied for natural phenomena design. Mandatory criteria are established in the DOE orders for certain designs but more often recommended guidance is given. National codes and standards form a great body of experience from which the project engineer may draw. Examples of three kinds of facilities and the applicable codes and standards are discussed. The safety program planning approach to project management used at Westinghouse Hanford is outlined. 5 figures, 2 tables

  13. Study of elevated temperature design standard against thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai; Morishita, Masaki

    2001-01-01

    Elevated temperature components must be designed against both pressure and thermal loads. In the case of sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors, a restriction from the pressure load becomes small because of the high boiling point of sodium. Design approaches for thermal loads (displacement-controlled) are compared with those against pressure loads (load-controlled). Considering differences between those two approaches, a concept of the elevated temperature design standard that takes the nature of thermal loads fully into account is proposed. This concept is a basis of load evaluation techniques and an inelastic analysis guide, that are being developed. Finally, problems and plans to realize the above concept are discussed. (author)

  14. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bailey, Bruce [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  15. Standard guide for hot cell specialized support equipment and tools

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 This guide presents practices and guidelines for the design and implementation of equipment and tools to assist assembly, disassembly, alignment, fastening, maintenance, or general handling of equipment in a hot cell. Operating in a remote hot cell environment significantly increases the difficulty and time required to perform a task compared to completing a similar task directly by hand. Successful specialized support equipment and tools minimize the required effort, reduce risks, and increase operating efficiencies. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This guide may apply to the design of specialized support equipment and tools anywhere it is remotely operated, maintained, and viewed through shielding windows or by other remote viewing systems. 1.2.2 Consideration should be given to the need for specialized support equipment and tools early in the design process. 1.2.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conv...

  16. SNL/CA Facilities Management Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabb, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, Eva [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in California (SNL/CA), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/CA applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule.

  17. Reporting Qualitative Research: Standards, Challenges, and Implications for Health Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peditto, Kathryn

    2018-04-01

    This Methods column describes the existing reporting standards for qualitative research, their application to health design research, and the challenges to implementation. Intended for both researchers and practitioners, this article provides multiple perspectives on both reporting and evaluating high-quality qualitative research. Two popular reporting standards exist for reporting qualitative research-the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) and the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR). Though compiled using similar procedures, they differ in their criteria and the methods to which they apply. Creating and applying reporting criteria is inherently difficult due to the undefined and fluctuating nature of qualitative research when compared to quantitative studies. Qualitative research is expansive and occasionally controversial, spanning many different methods of inquiry and epistemological approaches. A "one-size-fits-all" standard for reporting qualitative research can be restrictive, but COREQ and SRQR both serve as valuable tools for developing responsible qualitative research proposals, effectively communicating research decisions, and evaluating submissions. Ultimately, tailoring a set of standards specific to health design research and its frequently used methods would ensure quality research and aid reviewers in their evaluations.

  18. Standardization of green building technologies for environment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benuzh Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the structure and field of standardization ISO / TC 205 “Building environment design”, provides examples of green building technologies. The main purpose of the article is to show the interaction between international ISO / TC 205 “Building environment design” and created in Russia in 2016 the Technical Committee of Standardization № 366 “Green technology of the build environment and green innovative products”. Both of these technical committees promote green building technologies for environment design, thereby deal with the negative impact on the environment and the reasons of global warming. Instead of buildings that attempt to suppress and overcome nature, why not design buildings that integrate with the environment, on every possible level? The international standardization work which ISO/TC 205 “Building environment design” performs seeks, in addition to lowering trade barriers for engineering design, to promote and facilitate the design of high performance buildings: higher performing as economic assets for their owners, higher performing as buildings that provide amenable indoor environment for their occupants, and higher performing with respect to resource utilization and environmental impact.

  19. Design Performance Standards for Large Scale Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark

    2009-01-01

    of connection into the Eastern Australian power system under the Rules and guidelines set out by AEMC and NEMMCO (AEMO). Where applicable some international practices are also mentioned. Standards are designed to serve as a technical envelope under which wind farm proponents design the plant and maintain...... ongoing technical compliance of the plant during its operational lifetime. This report is designed to provide general technical information for the wind farm connection engineer to be aware of during the process of connection, registration and operation of wind power plants interconnected into the HV TSO......’s network. No special NER Rule has been used in this document, however V30 (year 2009) has been used as the latest reference on some of the topics discussed. Care has been taken to emphasise certain wind farm design and connection issues that could be considered throughout different stages of the wind farm...

  20. Lessons learned from standardized plant design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, B.

    1999-01-01

    Following France's hydropower program, Electricite de France began producing electricity with nuclear power during the 60s with units that were all different. In the early 70s, EDF launched an extensive nuclear program which was fueled by the 1973 oil crisis. The particularity of this program is based on the standardization of the design which enables the cost of engineering studies, components and construction to be reduced. As all of the sites presented various conditions, a single design was possible except for the heat sink, connection to the grid and foundations. In order to follow technical progress, the program was divided into several homogeneous series: CP0, CP1 and CP2 for 900 MWe reactors, P4 and P'4 for 1300 MWe reactors and N4 for 1450 MWe reactors. EDF has managed to apply standardization throughout the service life of the plant: all units of the same series are modified in the same manner and with a same batch of modifications. The standardization of operations is also the EDF's rule: technical specifications, safety reports, and safety procedures are normally the same for units belonging to the same series. Nevertheless, when plant design and operations, and heavy maintenance are considered, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain strict standardization across the board: when examined closely, variations are possible-as regards the chemical specifications of the secondary system, for instance. On the other hand, at the fabrication stage, it is difficult to maintain fabrication procedures and alloy compositions rigorously the same. Standardization offers a tremendous advantage representing 30-40% of construction costs. The main drawback is the risk of generic defects. On the other hand, the risk is rather small owing to the small differences among units. (author)

  1. Leo Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines: A Proposed NASA Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, G. B.; Ferguson, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) spacecraft have gradually required ever-increasing power levels. As a rule, this has been accomplished through the use of high voltage systems. Recent failures and anomalies on such spacecraft have been traced to various design practices and materials choices related to the high voltage solar arrays. NASA Glenn has studied these anomalies including plasma chamber testing on arrays similar to those that experienced difficulties on orbit. Many others in the community have been involved in a comprehensive effort to understand the problems and to develop practices to avoid them. The NASA Space Environments and Effects program, recognizing the timeliness of this effort, commissioned and funded a design guidelines document intended to capture the current state of understanding. This document, which was completed in the spring of 2003, has been submitted as a proposed NASA standard. We present here an overview of this document and discuss the effort to develop it as a NASA standard.

  2. American National Standard: nuclear data sets for reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard identifies and describes the specifications for developing, preparing, and documenting nuclear data sets to be used in reactor design calculations. The specifications include criteria for acceptance of evaluated nuclear data sets, criteria for processing evaluated data and preparation of processed continuous data and averaged data sets, and identification of specific evaluated, processed continuous, and averaged data sets which meet these criteria for specific reactor types

  3. American National Standard nuclear data sets for reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A standard is presented which identifies and describes the specifications for developing, preparing, and documenting nuclear data sets to be used in reactor design calculations. The specifications include (a) criteria for acceptance of evaluated nuclear data sets, (b) criteria for processing evaluated data and preparation of processed continuous data and averaged data sets, and (c) identification of specific evaluated, processed continuous, and averaged data sets which meet these criteria for specific reactor types

  4. PathwayAccess: CellDesigner plugins for pathway databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, John L; Dickerson, Julie A

    2010-09-15

    CellDesigner provides a user-friendly interface for graphical biochemical pathway description. Many pathway databases are not directly exportable to CellDesigner models. PathwayAccess is an extensible suite of CellDesigner plugins, which connect CellDesigner directly to pathway databases using respective Java application programming interfaces. The process is streamlined for creating new PathwayAccess plugins for specific pathway databases. Three PathwayAccess plugins, MetNetAccess, BioCycAccess and ReactomeAccess, directly connect CellDesigner to the pathway databases MetNetDB, BioCyc and Reactome. PathwayAccess plugins enable CellDesigner users to expose pathway data to analytical CellDesigner functions, curate their pathway databases and visually integrate pathway data from different databases using standard Systems Biology Markup Language and Systems Biology Graphical Notation. Implemented in Java, PathwayAccess plugins run with CellDesigner version 4.0.1 and were tested on Ubuntu Linux, Windows XP and 7, and MacOSX. Source code, binaries, documentation and video walkthroughs are freely available at http://vrac.iastate.edu/~jlv.

  5. Hot cell design in the vitrification plant China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yubo; Wang Guangkai; Zhang Wei; Liang Runan; Dou Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In the area of reprocessing and radioactive waste management, gloveboxes and cells are a kind of non-standard equipments providing an isolated room to operate radioactive material inside, while the operator outside with essential biological shield and protection. The hot cell is a typical one, which could handle high radioactive material with various operating means and tight enclosure. The dissertation is based on Vitrification Plant China, a cooperation project between China and Germany. For the sino-western difference in design philosophy, it was presented how to draft an acceptable design proposal of applicable huge hot cells by analysing the design requirements, such as radioprotection, observation, illumination, remote handling, transportation, maintenance and decontamination. The construction feasibility of hot cells was also approved. Thanks to 3D software Autodesk Inventor, digital hot cell was built to integrate all the interfaces inside, which validated the design by checking the mechanical interference. (author)

  6. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  7. A standardized method for beam design in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.: Harrington, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A desirable end point for a given beam design for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) should be quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage. Achieving this goal will ultimately rely on data from NCT human clinical trials. Traditional descriptions of beam designs have used a variety of assessment methods to quantify proposed or installed beam designs. These methods include measurement and calculation of open-quotes free fieldclose quotes parameters, such as neutron and gamma flux intensities and energy spectra, and figures-of-merit in tissue equivalent phantoms. The authors propose here a standardized method for beam design in NCT. This method would allow all proposed and existing NCT beam facilities to be compared equally. The traditional approach to determining a quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage in NCT research may be described by the following path: Beam design → dosimetry → macroscopic effects → microscopic effects. Methods exist that allow neutron and gamma fluxes and energy dependence to be calculated and measured to good accuracy. By using this information and intermediate dosimetric quantities such as kerma factors for neutrons and gammas, macroscopic effect (absorbed dose) in geometries of tissue or tissue-equivalent materials can be calculated. After this stage, for NCT the data begins to become more sparse and in some areas ambiguous. Uncertainties in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of some NCT dose components means that beam designs based on assumptions considered valid a few years ago may have to be reassessed. A standard method is therefore useful for comparing different NCT facilities

  8. Development of the design of standardized units for the production of artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The production of artificial radionuclides began more than 20 years ago and has seen continuous growth at the rate over 20% a year. Technology has had to be adapted constantly to this growth in order to guarantee production and at the same time ensure the safety of personnel. The Department, which started its career in underground workings at Chatillon and then moved to the Saclay hot laboratories, is now housed in a building designed specially for the production of artificial radionuclides and equipped with standard production units. The first generation of standard units was sufficient to handle production which had begun to grow. Subsequently, thanks to the experience gained, there came into being a second generation of standardized units perfectly adapted to the new production requirements. The paper describes the evolution of design solutions between the first and the second standard, relating to contained cells, cell containment, remote control, interchangeability of cells, ventilation, waste discharge systems and repair of internal equipment. A highly positive evaluation can be made of the experience gained from the present standard. (author)

  9. Regulatory issues resolved through design certification on the System 80+trademark standard plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.; Brinkman, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review of the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design, approving advanced design features and closing severe accident licensing issues. Final Design Approval was granted in July 1994. The NRC review was extensive, requiring written responses to over 4,950 questions and formal printing of over 50,000 Safety Analysis Report pages. New safety issues never before addressed in a regulatory atmosphere had to be resolved with detailed analysis and evaluation of design features. the System 80+ review demonstrated that regulatory issues can be firmly resolved only through presentation of a detailed design and completion of a comprehensive regulatory review

  10. System 80+TM standard plant: Design and operations overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Ritterbusch, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The System 80+ Standard Plant Design is a 1400 MWe evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR), designed to meet the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) and the demands of the international market for nuclear power plants which are not only safer but also more economical to maintain and operate. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power used a defense-in-depth process that (1) adds design margin to basic components to improve performance during normal operation and to decrease the likelihood of an unanticipated transient or an accident, (2) improves the redundancy and diversity of safety systems in order to mitigate design basis accidents and prevent severe accidents, and (3) improves severe accident mitigation capability. This paper describes the most important improved systems and components with emphasis on severe accident prevention and mitigation capability. The improved design features were implemented in an evolutionary manner using proven components. This approach ensures that the plant operates safely and economically, as demonstrated by operating plants in the US and the Republic of Korea. Detailed studies, summarized in this paper, have shown that the System 80+ plant availability is expected to exceed the ALWR requirement of 87% and that the annual operations and maintenance costs are expected to be reduced by $14 million. (author)

  11. Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.

    1996-09-01

    High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

  12. Standard-Cell, Open-Architecture Power Conversion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boroyevich, D; Wang, F; Lee, F. C; Odendaal, W. G; Edwards, S

    2005-01-01

    ...). This project was purposefully aimed to develop a standardized hierarchical design and analysis methodology for modular power electronics conversion systems using as basis the ISO/OSI seven-layer reference model...

  13. Evaluation of Standard Concepts Design of Library Interior Physical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debri Harindya Putri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the function of a room is not only used as a shelter, the function of the room itself to be increased as a refreshing or relaxation area for users to follow the development of creativity and technology in the field of design. The comfortable factor becomes the main factor that indicates a successful process of creating a space. No exception library. The nature of library seemed stiff because of its function as a place to read, now can be developed and made into more dynamic with the special design concepts or color patterns used. Libraries can be created a special concept that suits the characteristics of the users themselves. Most users of the library, especially in college libraries are teenagers. Naturally, teenagers like to gather with their friends and we have to facilitate this activity in our library design concept. In addition we can also determine the needs of users through research by questionnaire method. The answers of users can be mapped and drawn conclusions. To explore the research, the author reviewed some literature about library interior design and observed the library of Ma Chung University as a case study. The combined results of the method can be concluded and the discovery of ideal standards of physical environment. So, the library can be made as a comfortable reading environment so as to increased interest in reading behavior and the frequent visits of students in the library

  14. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  15. Standard-D hydrogen monitoring system, system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    During most of the year, it is assumed that the vapor space in the 177 radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Project site contain a uniform mixture of gases. Several of these waste tanks (currently twenty-five, 6 Double Shell Tanks and 19 Single Shell Tanks) were identified as having the potential for the buildup of gasses to a flammable level. An active ventilation system in the Double Shell Tanks and a passive ventilation system in the Single Shell Tanks provides a method of expelling gasses from the tanks. A gas release from a tank causes a temporary rise in the tank pressure, and a potential for increased concentration of hydrogen gas in the vapor space. The gas is released via the ventilation systems until a uniform gas mixture in the vapor space is once again achieved. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) is designed to monitor and quantify the percent hydrogen concentration during these potential gas releases. This document describes the design of the Standard-D Hydrogen Monitoring System, (SHMS-D) and its components as it differs from the original SHMS

  16. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  17. Creating transient cell membrane pores using a standard inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczak, Alexander B; Shuford, Stephen O; Wood, Scott T; Deitch, Sandra; Dean, Delphine

    2012-03-16

    Bioprinting has a wide range of applications and significance, including tissue engineering, direct cell application therapies, and biosensor microfabrication. Recently, thermal inkjet printing has also been used for gene transfection. The thermal inkjet printing process was shown to temporarily disrupt the cell membranes without affecting cell viability. The transient pores in the membrane can be used to introduce molecules, which would otherwise be too large to pass through the membrane, into the cell cytoplasm. The application being demonstrated here is the use of thermal inkjet printing for the incorporation of fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers into cells. The advantage of using thermal ink-jet printing to inject molecules into cells is that the technique is relatively benign to cells. Cell viability after printing has been shown to be similar to standard cell plating methods. In addition, inkjet printing can process thousands of cells in minutes, which is much faster than manual microinjection. The pores created by printing have been shown to close within about two hours. However, there is a limit to the size of the pore created (~10 nm) with this printing technique, which limits the technique to injecting cells with small proteins and/or particles. A standard HP DeskJet 500 printer was modified to allow for cell printing. The cover of the printer was removed and the paper feed mechanism was bypassed using a mechanical lever. A stage was created to allow for placement of microscope slides and coverslips directly under the print head. Ink cartridges were opened, the ink was removed and they were cleaned prior to use with cells. The printing pattern was created using standard drawing software, which then controlled the printer through a simple print command. 3T3 fibroblasts were grown to confluence, trypsinized, and then resuspended into phosphate buffered saline with soluble fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers. The cell suspension was pipetted into the

  18. A reliable parameter to standardize the scoring of stem cell spheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhou

    Full Text Available Sphere formation assay is widely used in selection and enrichment of normal stem cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs, also known as tumor initiating cells (TICs, based on their ability to grow in serum-free suspension culture for clonal proliferation. However, there is no standardized parameter to accurately score the spheres, which should be reflected by both the number and size of the spheres. Here we define a novel parameter, designated as Standardized Sphere Score (SSS, which is expressed by the total volume of selected spheres divided by the number of cells initially plated. SSS was validated in quantification of both tumor spheres from cancer cell lines and embryonic bodies (EB from mouse embryonic stem cells with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  19. Design and Characterization of a Photometer-Colorimeter Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Rácz, Miklós

    2004-05-01

    A photometer and tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to realize a color scale. A novel construction was developed to implement the spectral-responsivity-based scale with small uncertainty. The new device can be used as a reference illuminance and luminance meter as well. Temperature-controlled filter combinations, with 5-8 layers in one package, are used to match the responsivity of a silicon tunnel-trap detector to the CIE color-matching functions with small spectral mismatch values (f1'). Design considerations to extend the tunnel-trap detector with replaceable single and double apertures and changeable filter combinations are described. The design and fabrication of the filter packages and the dependence of the f1' values on the thickness of the filter layers are discussed. The colorimeter was characterized for angular, spatial, and spectral responsivity. An improved preamplifier can convert current to voltage in an 11-decade dynamic range with 0.01% uncertainty.

  20. Standard High Solids Vessel Design De-inventory Simulant Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Linn, Diana T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the de-inventory (residual high-density tank solids cleanout) process. Its basis and target characteristics are defined in 24590-WTP-ES-ENG-16-021 and implemented through PNNL Test Plan TP-WTPSP-132 Rev. 1.0. This document describes the de-inventory Newtonian carrier fluid (DNCF) simulant composition that will satisfy the basis requirement to mimic the density (1.18 g/mL ± 0.1 g/mL) and viscosity (2.8 cP ± 0.5 cP) of 5 M NaOH at 25 °C.1 The simulant viscosity changes significantly with temperature. Therefore, various solution compositions may be required, dependent on the test stand process temperature range, to meet these requirements. Table ES.1 provides DNCF compositions at selected temperatures that will meet the density and viscosity specifications as well as the temperature range at which the solution will meet the acceptable viscosity tolerance.

  1. Standard practice for cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Nguyen, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; Holmes, Kevin L

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid growth in the number of BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories in the USA and an increase in demand for infectious cell sorting in BSL-3 laboratories. In 2007, the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Biosafety Committee published standards for the sorting of unfixed cells and is an important resource for biosafety procedures when performing infectious cell sorting. Following a careful risk assessment, if it is determined that a cell sorter must be located within a BSL-3 laboratory, there are a variety of factors to be considered prior to the establishment of the laboratory. This chapter outlines procedures for infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 environment to facilitate the establishment and safe operation of a BSL-3 cell sorting laboratory. Subjects covered include containment verification, remote operation, disinfection, personal protective equipment (PPE), and instrument-specific modifications for enhanced aerosol evacuation.

  2. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  3. Design of wind turbines for non-standard air density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soraperra, Giusepe

    2005-01-01

    -standard density is intrinsically different, it is impossible to reach the standard rated power at the standard rated speed. Three scenarios are possible (i) to keep the standard rated speed of the turbine by changing the size of the electric generator; (ii) to change the rated speed of the turbine by adopting...... a different pitch angel setting; (iii) adoption of extendeders to the blades can also help in restraining the standard rated power at the standard rated speed for p less than pst. The power curves for the three turbine configurations, each in three different air density conformations, have been calculated...

  4. Standard cell-based implementation of a digital optoelectronic neural-network hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K D; Beckstein, C; Blickhan, R; Erhard, W

    2001-03-10

    A standard cell-based implementation of a digital optoelectronic neural-network architecture is presented. The overall structure of the multilayer perceptron network that was used, the optoelectronic interconnection system between the layers, and all components required in each layer are defined. The design process from VHDL-based modeling from synthesis and partly automatic placing and routing to the final editing of one layer of the circuit of the multilayer perceptrons are described. A suitable approach for the standard cell-based design of optoelectronic systems is presented, and shortcomings of the design tool that was used are pointed out. The layout for the microelectronic circuit of one layer in a multilayer perceptron neural network with a performance potential 1 magnitude higher than neural networks that are purely electronic based has been successfully designed.

  5. 75 FR 52860 - Final Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 21 Final Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando Helicopter Airways (OHA), Inc... Existence of Proposed Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando...

  6. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  7. The STEP standard as an approach for design and prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Plantec , Alain; Ribaud , Vincent

    1998-01-01

    International audience; STEP is an ISO standard (ISO-10303) for the computer-interpretable representation and exchange of product data. Parts of STEP standardize conceptual structures and usage of information in generic or specific domains. The standardization process of these constructs is an evolutionary approach , which uses generated prototypes at different phases of the process. This paper presents a method for the building of prototype generators, inspired by this standardization proces...

  8. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-05-22

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.

  9. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel ( 239 Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket

  10. Standard-B Hydrogen Monitoring System, system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    During most of the year, it is assumed that the vapor in the 177 radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Project site contain a uniform mixture of gases. Several of these waste tanks (currently twenty five, 6 Double Shell Tanks and 19 Single Shell Tanks) were identified as having the potential for the buildup of gases to a flammable level. An active ventilation system in the Double Shell Tanks and a passive ventilation system in the Single Shell Tanks provides a method of expelling gases from the tanks. A gas release from a tank causes a temporary rise in the tank pressure, and a potential for increased concentration of hydrogen gas in the vapor space. The gas is released via the ventilation systems until a uniform gas mixture in the vapor space is once again achieved. This document describes the design of the Standard-B Hydrogen Monitoring System, (SHMS) and its components as it differs from the original SHMS. The differences are derived from changes made to improve the system performance but not implemented in all the installed enclosures

  11. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; Housley, G.K.; Sohal, M.S.; Milobar, D.G.; Cable, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ∼10 (micro)m thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ∼1400 (micro)m thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900 C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is

  12. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  13. Impact of chemistry on Standard High Solids Vessel Design mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-02

    The plan for resolving technical issues regarding mixing performance within vessels of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility directs a chemical impact study to be performed. The vessels involved are those that will process higher (e.g., 5 wt % or more) concentrations of solids. The mixing equipment design for these vessels includes both pulse jet mixers (PJM) and air spargers. This study assesses the impact of feed chemistry on the effectiveness of PJM mixing in the Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). The overall purpose of this study is to complement the Properties that Matter document in helping to establish an acceptable physical simulant for full-scale testing. The specific objectives for this study are (1) to identify the relevant properties and behavior of the in-process tank waste that control the performance of the system being tested, (2) to assess the solubility limits of key components that are likely to precipitate or crystallize due to PJM and sparger interaction with the waste feeds, (3) to evaluate the impact of waste chemistry on rheology and agglomeration, (4) to assess the impact of temperature on rheology and agglomeration, (5) to assess the impact of organic compounds on PJM mixing, and (6) to provide the technical basis for using a physical-rheological simulant rather than a physical-rheological-chemical simulant for full-scale vessel testing. Among the conclusions reached are the following: The primary impact of precipitation or crystallization of salts due to interactions between PJMs or spargers and waste feeds is to increase the insoluble solids concentration in the slurries, which will increase the slurry yield stress. Slurry yield stress is a function of pH, ionic strength, insoluble solids concentration, and particle size. Ionic strength and chemical composition can affect particle size. Changes in temperature can affect SHSVD mixing through its effect on properties such as viscosity, yield stress, solubility

  14. Materials for Consideration in Standardized Canister Design Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Enos, David George; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    This document identifies materials and material mitigation processes that might be used in new designs for standardized canisters for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It also addresses potential corrosion issues with existing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) that could be addressed in new canister designs. The major potential corrosion risk during storage is stress corrosion cracking of the weld regions on the 304 SS/316 SS canister shell due to deliquescence of chloride salts on the surface. Two approaches are proposed to alleviate this potential risk. First, the existing canister materials (304 and 316 SS) could be used, but the welds mitigated to relieve residual stresses and/or sensitization. Alternatively, more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic or duplex stainless steels, could be used. Experimental testing is needed to verify that these alternatives would successfully reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking during fuel storage. For disposal in a geologic repository, the canister will be enclosed in a corrosion-resistant or corrosion-allowance overpack that will provide barrier capability and mechanical strength. The canister shell will no longer have a barrier function and its containment integrity can be ignored. The basket and neutron absorbers within the canister have the important role of limiting the possibility of post-closure criticality. The time period for corrosion is much longer in the post-closure period, and one major unanswered question is whether the basket materials will corrode slowly enough to maintain structural integrity for at least 10,000 years. Whereas there is extensive literature on stainless steels, this evaluation recommends testing of 304 and 316 SS, and more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic, duplex, and super-duplex stainless steels, at repository-relevant physical and chemical conditions. Both general and localized corrosion testing methods would be used to

  15. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  16. Standardized orthotopic xenografts in zebrafish reveal glioma cell-line-specific characteristics and tumor cell heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M. Welker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is a deadly brain cancer, for which few effective drug treatments are available. Several studies have used zebrafish models to study GBM, but a standardized approach to modeling GBM in zebrafish was lacking to date, preventing comparison of data across studies. Here, we describe a new, standardized orthotopic xenotransplant model of GBM in zebrafish. Dose-response survival assays were used to define the optimal number of cells for tumor formation. Techniques to measure tumor burden and cell spread within the brain over real time were optimized using mouse neural stem cells as control transplants. Applying this standardized approach, we transplanted two patient-derived GBM cell lines, serum-grown adherent cells and neurospheres, into the midbrain region of embryonic zebrafish and analyzed transplanted larvae over time. Progressive brain tumor growth and premature larval death were observed using both cell lines; however, fewer transplanted neurosphere cells were needed for tumor growth and lethality. Tumors were heterogeneous, containing both cells expressing stem cell markers and cells expressing markers of differentiation. A small proportion of transplanted neurosphere cells expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP or vimentin, markers of more differentiated cells, but this number increased significantly during tumor growth, indicating that these cells undergo differentiation in vivo. By contrast, most serum-grown adherent cells expressed GFAP and vimentin at the earliest times examined post-transplant. Both cell types produced brain tumors that contained Sox2+ cells, indicative of tumor stem cells. Transplanted larvae were treated with currently used GBM therapeutics, temozolomide or bortezomib, and this resulted in a reduction in tumor volume in vivo and an increase in survival. The standardized model reported here facilitates robust and reproducible analysis of glioblastoma tumor cells in real time and provides a

  17. Effect of standards on new equipment design by new international standards and industry restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endelman, Lincoln L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of international standards to further trade is one of the objectives of creating a standard. By having form fit and function compatible the free interchange of manufactured goods can be handled without hindrance. Unfortunately by setting up standards that are peculiar to a particular country or district it is possible to exclude competition from a group of manufacturers. A major effort is now underway to develop international laser standards. In the May I 990 issue of Laser Focus World Donald R. Johnson the director of industrial technology services for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST formerly the National Bureau of Standards) is quoted as follows: " The common means of protectionism has been through certification for the market place. " The article goes on to say " Mr. Johnson expects this tradition to continue and that the new European Community (EC) will demand not just safety standards but performance standards as well. . . . the American laser industry must move very quickly on this issue or risk being left behind the European standards bandwagon. " The article continues laser companies must get involved in the actual standards negotiating process if they are to have a say in future policy. A single set of standards would reduce the need to repeatedly recalibrate products for different national markets. " As a member of ISO TC-72 SC9 I am

  18. IS standards in designing business-to-government collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flugge, B.

    2010-01-01

    Elaborating the impact of standards on inter-organizational collaborations, inter-organizational studies demonstrated a standard’s positive impact on the collaboration between governmental and business partners. How and under which conditions information systems (IS) standards contribute to the

  19. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project system design standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of system design standards intended to assure the completeness and quality of designs developed for PC research and development projects is established. The standards presented address the areas of problem definition, initial design plan, design specification, and re-evaluation.

  20. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Standards in capstone design courses and the engineering curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In 1990, I was the group leader of Research and Development for Surgitek, a urological device manufacturer in Racine, Wisconsin, which was the market leader in ureteral stents. I recognized the need for an industry standard for ureteral stents, felt that taking a leadership role in the development of a new standard would be a good professional development activity, and volunteered to serve as the chair of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, now known as ASTM International) Task Group on Ureteral Stents. After several years, the standard was approved, and I continue to serve as the chair of the ASTM Subcommittee on Urological Materials and Devices. This experience helped me understand the value of industry standards, expanded my professional network and visibility within the medical device industry, and helped develop my leadership skills.

  2. New filterability and compressibility test cell design for nuclear products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Féraud, J.P. [CEA Marcoule, DTEC/SGCS/LGCI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bourcier, D., E-mail: damien.bourcier@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DTEC/SGCS/LGCI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Ode, D. [CEA Marcoule, DTEC/SGCS/LGCI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Puel, F. [Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR5007, Laboratoire d‘Automatique et de Génie des Procédés (LAGEP), CPE-Lyon, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Test easily usable without tools in a glove box. • The test minimizes the slurry volume necessary for this type of study. • The test characterizes the flow resistance in a porous medium in formation. • The test is performed at four pressure levels to determine the compressibility. • The technical design ensures reproducible flow resistance measurements. -- Abstract: Filterability and compressibility tests are often carried out at laboratory scale to obtain data required to scale up solid/liquid separation processes. Current technologies, applied with a constant pressure drop, enable specific resistance and cake formation rate measurement in accordance with a modified Darcy's law. The new test cell design described in this paper is easily usable without tools in a glove box and minimizes the slurry volume necessary for this type of study. This is an advantage for investigating toxic and hazardous products such as radioactive materials. Uranium oxalate precipitate slurries were used to test and validate this new cell. In order to reduce the test cell volume, a statistical approach was applied on 8 results obtained with cylindrical test cells of 1.8 cm and 3 cm in diameter. Wall effects can therefore be ignored despite the small filtration cell diameter, allowing tests to be performed with only about one-tenth of the slurry volume of a standard commercial cell. The significant reduction in the size of this experimental device does not alter the consistency of filtration data which may be used in the design of industrial equipment.

  3. New filterability and compressibility test cell design for nuclear products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Féraud, J.P.; Bourcier, D.; Ode, D.; Puel, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Test easily usable without tools in a glove box. • The test minimizes the slurry volume necessary for this type of study. • The test characterizes the flow resistance in a porous medium in formation. • The test is performed at four pressure levels to determine the compressibility. • The technical design ensures reproducible flow resistance measurements. -- Abstract: Filterability and compressibility tests are often carried out at laboratory scale to obtain data required to scale up solid/liquid separation processes. Current technologies, applied with a constant pressure drop, enable specific resistance and cake formation rate measurement in accordance with a modified Darcy's law. The new test cell design described in this paper is easily usable without tools in a glove box and minimizes the slurry volume necessary for this type of study. This is an advantage for investigating toxic and hazardous products such as radioactive materials. Uranium oxalate precipitate slurries were used to test and validate this new cell. In order to reduce the test cell volume, a statistical approach was applied on 8 results obtained with cylindrical test cells of 1.8 cm and 3 cm in diameter. Wall effects can therefore be ignored despite the small filtration cell diameter, allowing tests to be performed with only about one-tenth of the slurry volume of a standard commercial cell. The significant reduction in the size of this experimental device does not alter the consistency of filtration data which may be used in the design of industrial equipment

  4. CytometryML: a data standard which has been designed to interface with other standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2007-02-01

    Because of the differences in the requirements, needs, and past histories including existing standards of the creating organizations, a single encompassing cytology-pathology standard will not, in the near future, replace the multiple existing or under development standards. Except for DICOM and FCS, these standardization efforts are all based on XML. CytometryML is a collection of XML schemas, which are based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) datatypes. The CytometryML schemas contain attributes that link them to the DICOM standard and FCS. Interoperability with DICOM has been facilitated by, wherever reasonable, limiting the difference between CytometryML and the previous standards to syntax. In order to permit the Resource Description Framework, RDF, to reference the CytometryML datatypes, id attributes have been added to many CytometryML elements. The Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification and the Flowcyt standards development effort employ RDF syntax. Documentation from DICOM has been reused in CytometryML. The unity of analytical cytology was demonstrated by deriving a microscope type and a flow cytometer type from a generic cytometry instrument type. The feasibility of incorporating the Flowcyt gating schemas into CytometryML has been demonstrated. CytometryML is being extended to include many of the new DICOM Working Group 26 datatypes, which describe patients, specimens, and analytes. In situations where multiple standards are being created, interoperability can be facilitated by employing datatypes based on a common set of semantics and building in links to standards that employ different syntax.

  5. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  6. Identification of Producibility Inhibitors in Standard NAVSEA Ship Design Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkins, James R; Kraine, Gilbert L; LaChance, George M; Burnett, Victor R

    1993-01-01

    .... This report provides the results of interviews with and questionnaires returned from various shipyards, ship design agents and supervisors of shipbuilding who were asked to identify producibility...

  7. International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry cell sorter biosafety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kevin L; Fontes, Benjamin; Hogarth, Philip; Konz, Richard; Monard, Simon; Pletcher, Charles H; Wadley, Robert B; Schmid, Ingrid; Perfetto, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    Flow cytometric cell sorting of biological specimens has become prevalent in basic and clinical research laboratories. These specimens may contain known or unknown infectious agents, necessitating precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from biohazards arising from the use of sorters. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) was proactive in establishing biosafety guidelines in 1997 (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99-117) and subsequently published revised biosafety standards for cell sorting of unfixed samples in 2007 (Schmid et al., Cytometry Part A J Int Soc Anal Cytol 2007;71A:414-437). Since their publication, these documents have become recognized worldwide as the standard of practice and safety precautions for laboratories performing cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 2007, and the document requires an update. The new Standards provides guidance: (1) for laboratory design for cell sorter laboratories; (2) for the creation of laboratory or instrument specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and (3) on procedures for the safe operation of cell sorters, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and validation of aerosol containment. Published © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  8. Communication Standards Suitable for MES Systems Designed for SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej WINKLER

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A MES (Manufacturing Execution System is a system that large companies use to measure or control critical production activities. Individual parts of this system can be used as a model for development of tools suitable for small and medium enterprises (SMEs. It can demonstrate how manufacturing systems works and which communication standards are usable. The communication standards enable data acquisition, data processing, storing and their conversion for any production report. Furthermore, interfaces for web clients allow displaying the raw or transformed data as a text or a graphic chart. The development of tools for an access to the data retrieved from MES software is described in this paper.

  9. Designing RF control subsystems using the VXIbus standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.D.; Vong, F.C.; Bridges, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Various components are being designed to control the RF system of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS). The associated control electronics (phase shifters, amplitude modulators, phase detectors, automatic tuning control, and local feedback control) are designed as modular cards with multiple channels for ease of replacement as well as for compact design. Various specifications of the VXIbus are listed and the method used to simplify the design of the control subsystem is shown. A commercial VXI interface board was used to speed the design cycle. Required manpower and actual task times are included. A discussion of the computer architecture and software development of the device drivers which allowed computer control from a VME processor located in a remote crate operating under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Controls Software (EPICS) program is also presented

  10. Windmills by Design: Purposeful Curriculum Design to Meet Next Generation Science Standards in a 9-12 Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) challenges science teachers to think beyond specific content standards when considering how to design and implement curriculum. This lesson, "Windmills by Design," is an insightful lesson in how science teachers can create and implement a cross-cutting lesson to teach the concepts…

  11. Designing Standardized Patient Assessments to Measure SBIRT Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satterfield, Jason M.; Satre, Derek D.; McCance-Katz, Elinore; Batki, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Resident physicians report insufficient experience caring for patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). Resident training in Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) has been recommended. We describe the development of a standardized patient (SP) assessment to measure SBIRT skills, resident perceptions of…

  12. Military Housing: Status of the Services' Implementation of the Current Barracks Design Standard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... In November 1995, DOD adopted a new barracks construction standard, referred to as the 1+1 design standard, that called for more space and increased privacy in new barracks for service members permanently assigned to an installation...

  13. History of Road Design Standards in LADOTD : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    According to the Louisiana Statewide Transportation Plan, Louisianas highway : network is comprised of over 60,000 miles, of which over 16,000 miles are : maintained by the state. The roadways were designed and constructed : according to the desig...

  14. SOA and Web services interface design principles, techniques, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, James

    2009-01-01

    SOA offers solutions to the most intractable business problems faced by every enterprise, but getting the SOA service interface right requires the practical design knowledge this book uniquely delivers

  15. An investigation into standards in sustainable design and manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, AVC; Harrison, DJ; Griffiths, BJ; Lam, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports upon the application of standards to reduce the negative environmental impacts of manufacturing through product lifecycle planning and closed loop production. By eliminating waste and retaining the energy embodied within materials and components, manufacturing can become more sustainable from both ecological and financial perspectives. Energy consumption and the associated carbon pollution can thus be minimised. Environmental Management System implementation is also cons...

  16. Design and Characterization of Vertical Mesh Capacitors in Standard CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais

    2001-01-01

    This paper shows how good RF capacitors can be made in a standard digital CMOS process. The capacitors which are also well suited for binary weighted switched capacitor banks show very good RF performance: Q-values of 57 at 4.0 GHz, a density of 0.27 fF/μ2, 2.2 μm wide shielded unit capacitors, 6...

  17. Using a standards committee to design practical procedure system improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Plung, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the post-Three Mile Island (TMI) environment, numerous reports have been issued on how to improve the quality of procedures used at government and commercial nuclear facilities. The studies tend to be long on what is wrong with existing procedures and short on practical directions on how to fix those faults. Few of these studies have been conducted by practitioners with full-time procedure-managing or procedure writing experience. None of these studies go into detail on how to improve the procedure system itself. Over the last 10 yr, various nuclear facilities within the US Department of Energy (DOE) have carried out individual programs to develop procedures that meet post-TMI standards. However, ∼2 yr ago, DOE formed a Procedures Standards Committee to advise DOE in developing a set of post-TMI guidelines that could be consistently applied throughout all DOE nuclear facilities. The committee has achieved not only its original mission by producing a series of integrated guidance documents but has also evolved a systems approach to procedures management that sets new standards for procedure quality and efficiency. As members of this committee, the authors want to describe what has made the group's approach so successful. The lessons learned may be translatable to a wide range of government and commercial industry procedure programs

  18. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  19. 24 CFR 941.203 - Design and construction standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... national building code, such as Uniform Building Code, Council of American Building Officials Code, or Building Officials Conference of America Code; (2) Applicable State and local laws, codes, ordinances, and... intended to serve. Building design and construction shall strive to encourage in residents a proprietary...

  20. Designation Of The Standard Stratotype And Age Of Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The type locality of Nsukka Formation was designated north of Nsukka in an area along Nadu River, without any formal description of the type section. Field mapping of the type locality was undertaken with the intention to formally define the type section. The thickest and best exposed is a 40 meter thick, stream section at ...

  1. Recent developments for fast reactor structural design standard (FDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, N.; Nakamuria, K.; Morishita, M.; Shibamoto, H.; Nagashima, H.; Inoue, K.

    2005-01-01

    For realization of reliable and economical fast reactor (FR) plants, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company(JAPC) are cooperating on 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle Systems'. To certify the design concepts through evaluation of their structural integrity, the research and development of 'Elevated Temperature Structural Design Guide for Commercialized Fast Reactor (FDS)' is recognized as an essential theme. FDS focuses on particular failure modes of FRs such as ratchet deformation and creep fatigue damages due to cyclic thermal loads. To evaluate these modes, three main developments are in progress. One is 'Refinement of Failure Criteria' for particular modes of FRs. Next is development of 'Guidelines for Inelastic Design Analysis' in order to predict elastic plastic and creep behaviors. Furthermore, efforts are being made toward preparing 'Guidelines for Thermal Load Modeling' for FR component design where thermal loads are dominant. These studies were performed under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japanese government. (authors)

  2. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document provides the requirements for a test simulant suitable for demonstrating the mixing requirements for the Single High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). This simulant has not been evaluated for other purposes such as gas retention and release or erosion. The objective of this work is to provide an underpinning for the simulant properties based on actual waste characterization.

  3. The development of an ergonomics standard for the design of operator interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, B.; Reed, J.; Litherland, M.

    1990-01-01

    BNFL has realised the need to take a consistent approach to the ergonomic design of operator interfaces. Towards this aim, a design standard document has been produced under the direction of a principal design engineer based on the key ergonomics aspects of plant design. The standard was requested by the designers, and the original standard was produced by ergonomists working on BNFL projects. This standard was then reviewed by a large number of key design and operations personnel, and a series of multidisciplinary meetings produced the final version. The standard contains six sections (ergonomics requirements for the design of Control Rooms, Consoles and Panels Design, Labelling, VDU Systems, Alarm Systems and Colour Coding) containing approximately 180 guidelines in text format or supplemented by diagrams and tables. Each guideline is classified as either mandatory or advisory. A high proportion of effort concentrated on making the document usable by designers. The standard is not intended to be fully comprehensive, since the range of possible variations in the designs of interfaces makes such a task intractable at this stage. However, the document does ensure that account is taken of ergonomics throughout the design phase, and particularly in the early phases whilst design change is still cost-effective, and that designers are aware of the important issues and principles. (author)

  4. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birbraer, A N [St. Petersburg Research and Design Institute Atomenergoproject, St. Petersburt (Russian Federation)

    1993-07-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  5. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birbraer, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  6. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  7. Overview of the IFMIF test cell design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslang, A.; Daum, E.; Jitsukawa, S.; Noda, K.; Viola, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has entered its second and final year, and an outline design has been developed. Initial evaluations of the potential of this high flux, high intensity D-Li source have shown that the main materials testing needs can be fulfilled. According to these needs, Vertical Test Assemblies will accommodate test modules for the high flux (0.5 liter, 20 dpa/a, 250-1000 C), the medium flux (6 liter, 1-20 dpa/a, 250-1000 C), the low flux (7.5 liter, 0.1-1 dpa/a), and the very low flux (> 100 liter, 0.01-0.1 dpa/a) regions. Detailed test matrices have been defined for the high and medium flux regions, showing that on the basis of small specimen test technologies, a database for an engineering design of an advanced fusion reactor (DEMO) can be established for a variety of structural materials and ceramic breeders. The design concepts for the Test Cell, including test assemblies, remote handling equipment and Hot Cell Facilities with capacity for investigating all irradiation specimens at the IFMIF site are described

  8. A multicenter study to standardize reporting and analyses of fluorescence-activated cell-sorted murine intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magness, Scott T.; Puthoff, Brent J.; Crissey, Mary Ann; Dunn, James; Henning, Susan J.; Houchen, Courtney; Kaddis, John S.; Kuo, Calvin J.; Li, Linheng; Lynch, John; Martin, Martin G.; May, Randal; Niland, Joyce C.; Olack, Barbara; Qian, Dajun; Stelzner, Matthias; Swain, John R.; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Jiafang; Wang, Xinwei; Yan, Kelley; Yu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is an essential tool for studies requiring isolation of distinct intestinal epithelial cell populations. Inconsistent or lack of reporting of the critical parameters associated with FACS methodologies has complicated interpretation, comparison, and reproduction of important findings. To address this problem a comprehensive multicenter study was designed to develop guidelines that limit experimental and data reporting variability and provide a foundation for accurate comparison of data between studies. Common methodologies and data reporting protocols for tissue dissociation, cell yield, cell viability, FACS, and postsort purity were established. Seven centers tested the standardized methods by FACS-isolating a specific crypt-based epithelial population (EpCAM+/CD44+) from murine small intestine. Genetic biomarkers for stem/progenitor (Lgr5 and Atoh 1) and differentiated cell lineages (lysozyme, mucin2, chromogranin A, and sucrase isomaltase) were interrogated in target and control populations to assess intra- and intercenter variability. Wilcoxon's rank sum test on gene expression levels showed limited intracenter variability between biological replicates. Principal component analysis demonstrated significant intercenter reproducibility among four centers. Analysis of data collected by standardized cell isolation methods and data reporting requirements readily identified methodological problems, indicating that standard reporting parameters facilitate post hoc error identification. These results indicate that the complexity of FACS isolation of target intestinal epithelial populations can be highly reproducible between biological replicates and different institutions by adherence to common cell isolation methods and FACS gating strategies. This study can be considered a foundation for continued method development and a starting point for investigators that are developing cell isolation expertise to study physiology and

  9. Low power and reliable SRAM memory cell and array design

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Success in the development of recent advanced semiconductor device technologies is due to the success of SRAM memory cells. This book addresses various issues for designing SRAM memory cells for advanced CMOS technology. To study LSI design, SRAM cell design is the best materials subject because issues about variability, leakage and reliability have to be taken into account for the design.

  10. Design of a safe cylindrical lithium/thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. H.; Ayers, A. D.; Zupancic, R. L.; Alberto, V. S.; Bailey, J. C.

    1984-05-01

    Cell design criteria have been established which can result in a safe lithium/thionyl chloride cell. A cell vent, a low area internal anode design, cell balance and composition of the cathode-electrolyte solution have been found to be important factors in the design of a safe cell. In addition to routine testing, both undischarged and discharged cells have been subjected to electrical abuse, environmental abuse and mechanical abuse without disassembly.

  11. Design of nuclear spectroscopy electronics based on the EUROsystem standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahor, J.

    1987-11-01

    The development of modular nuclear instruments in the EUROcard system has been continued by the design of a staircase generator; such an instrument is needed for accurate testing of spectroscopy amplifiers. The generator provides very precisely defined steps with the period between them varying from 8 to 50 microseconds, the output voltage continuously variable from 2 to 5 V, and attenuated ion steps between 1 and 100. Great care was taken that individual steps exhibit no overshot, thus providing a very clean signal to the input of a tested amplifier. The circuitry is kept simple, and it can be easily constructed in any electronics laboratory. Figs

  12. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for road design and construction. 223.38 Section 223.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 36 CFR 1281.4 - What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and design standards for Presidential libraries? 1281.4 Section 1281.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.4 What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries? The Archivist is...

  14. Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the

  15. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  16. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  17. The renewable portfolio standard: design considerations and an implementation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.; Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Renewables have social and environmental benefits compared to conventional electricity sources, but are rarely competitive on a strict financial cost basis. This is because conventional sources are sometimes subsidized, their full pollution costs are ignored, and renewables involve newer, higher-cost technologies whose relative costs will fall with commercialization. Governments use several mechanisms to support renewables, including direct financial support (grants, loans), indirect support (R and D, demonstrations), reform of financial costs of conventional sources (subsidy removal, pollution taxes), and the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). The RPS requires a minimum share of electricity from renewable energy sources. Its use is spreading because it maintains an incentive for renewable producers to reduce costs, links the regulated market outcome to an environmental target, and reduces government involvement. Although it is too early to evaluate fully its effectiveness, the survey for this study explored implementation issues in three European countries, nine US states, and Australia, and found the following. The RPS target is usually set to have environmental benefits without causing significant price increases (cost caps are sometimes used). Most jurisdictions limit eligibility to grid-connected, domestic renewables. The RPS is usually applied to producers rather than consumers, and to energy output not capacity. Flexibility mechanisms are desired but a challenge to implement. Administration in the US and Australia is by government with delegation to independent utility regulators, while in Europe it is more the responsibility of government. Everywhere, the RPS is applied alongside other mechanisms of renewables support. (author)

  18. Standard and alternative landfill capping design in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Franz-Georg; Mueller, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    Engineered capping systems are in most cases an indispensable and often the only efficient component required by the long-term safety concept for landfills, mine tailings tips and contaminated land. In Germany the composite liner is the main component of standard landfill cappings for municipal and hazardous waste landfills and the compacted clay liner (CCL) for landfills for inert or low-contamination waste. The composite liner is a technically highly effective but very expensive system. Research and experience has given rise to concern about the proper long-term performance of a conventional single CCL as a landfill capping. Therefore, alternative capping systems are discussed and applied for landfills and for the containment of contaminated sites. This paper gives an overview on various alternative engineered cappings and suitable systems for capping reflecting the state of the art and the expert view in Germany. According to the European Council Directive on the landfill of waste an impermeable mineral layer is recommended for the surface sealing of non-hazardous landfills and a composition of artificial sealing liner and impermeable mineral layer for hazardous landfills. In both cases a drainage layer thickness of at least 0.5 m is suggested. These recommendations should be interpreted flexibly and to some extent modified in the light of the experience and results presented in this paper

  19. C. F. Braun. Standard turbine island design, safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard turbine island used with a BWR is described. It consists of the turbine-generator; steam system; condensate storage, cleanup, and transfer systems; control and instrumentation; water treatment plant; make-up demineralizer; potable and waste water systems; and a compressed air system. The turbine-generator is a tandem-compound nuclear-type turbine with one double-flow high-pressure section and a six-flow low-pressure section in three double-flow low-pressure casings. The turbine is direct connected to an 1800 rpm synchronous a-c generator. A combined moisture separator and two-stage reheater is provided. The main steam system delivers the steam generated in a BWR to the main turbine stop valves. The condensate system maintains proper water inventory. Protective features prevent loss of the system due to electrical failure of a component and isolates faults to ensure continuity of a power supply from alternate sources. (U.S.)

  20. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Naoki, E-mail: takeuchi-naoki-kx@ynu.jp [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.

  1. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits

  2. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic cell under simulated sunlight by means of a calibrated reference cell procedure. 1.2 Electrical performance measurements are reported with respect to a select set of standard reporting conditions (SRC) (see Table 1) or to user-specified conditions. 1.2.1 The SRC or user-specified conditions include the cell temperature, the total irradiance, and the reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method is applicable only to photovoltaic cells with a linear response over the range of interest. 1.4 The cell parameters determined by this test method apply only at the time of test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this s...

  3. Exemplary Design Envelope Specification for Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Fernandez, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Hydropower is an established, affordable renewable energy generation technology supplying nearly 18% of the electricity consumed globally. A hydropower facility interacts continuously with the surrounding water resource environment, causing alterations of varying magnitude in the natural flow of water, energy, fish, sediment, and recreation upstream and downstream. A universal challenge in facility design is balancing the extraction of useful energy and power system services from a stream with the need to maintain ecosystem processes and natural environmental function. On one hand, hydroelectric power is a carbon-free, renewable, and flexible asset to the power system. On the other, the disruption of longitudinal connectivity and the artificial barrier to aquatic movement created by hydraulic structures can produce negative impacts that stress fresh water environments. The growing need for carbon-free, reliable, efficient distributed energy sources suggests there is significant potential for hydropower projects that can deploy with low installed costs, enhanced ecosystem service offerings, and minimal disruptions of the stream environment.

  4. Avelumab: a new standard for treating metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mairead; Cordes, Lisa; Brownell, Isaac

    2018-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer. Although MCC is chemosensitive, responses to traditional chemotherapeutic agents are not durable. Avelumab, a novel anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, recently became the first FDA-approved agent for the treatment of metastatic MCC and represents a new option to improve patient survival. Areas covered: This article presents an overview of MCC and summarizes the development of avelumab in the treatment of metastatic MCC. Preclinical studies, phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials, and the safety profile of avelumab are reviewed. Future perspectives and ongoing studies are also discussed. Expert commentary: Avelumab demonstrated rapid and durable responses and a manageable safety profile in the treatment of metastatic MCC. Patient outcomes are favorable when compared to historical responses to standard chemotherapy. Ongoing clinical trials will continue to characterize avelumab and its optimal use in MCC therapy.

  5. Stress Analysis for Mobile Hot Cell Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Hannan Bahrin; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Mohd Arif Hamzah

    2015-01-01

    Prototype and Plant Development Centre (PDC) is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS), such as teletherapy heads and dry irradiators. At present, there are two units of MHC in the world, one in South Africa and the other one in China. Malaysian Mobile MHC is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design to fulfill the safety requirement in MHC operation. This paper discusses the loading effect analysis from the radiation shielding materials to the MHC wall structure, roof supporting column and window structure. (author)

  6. IEEE standard for design qualification of safety systems equipment used in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This standard is written to serve as a general standard for qualification of all types of safety systems equipment, mechanical and instrumentation as well as electrical. It also establishes principles and procedures to be followed in preparing specific safety systems equipment standards. Guidance for qualifying specific safety systems equipment may be found in various specific equipment qualification standards that are now available or are being prepared. It is required that safety systems equipment in nuclear power generating stations meet or exceed its performance requirements throughout its installed life. This is accomplished by a disciplined program of design qualification and quality assurance of design, production, installation, maintenance and surveillance. This standard is for the design qualification section of the program only. Design qualification is intended to demonstrate the capability of the equipment design to perform its safety function(s) over the expected range of normal, abnormal, design basis event, post design basis event, and in-service test conditions. Inherent to design qualification is the requirement for demonstration, within limitations afforded by established technical state-of-the-art, that in-service aging throughout the qualified life established for the equipment will not degrade safety systems equipment from its original design condition to the point where it cannot perform its required safety function(s), upon demand. The above requirement reflects the primary role of design qualification to provide reasonable assurance that design- and age-related common failure modes will not occur during performance of safety function(s) under postulated service conditions

  7. A Change in Envirocare's Disposal Cell Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.

    2002-01-01

    Envirocare of Utah, Inc. operates a Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and 11e. disposal facility in the Utah west dessert. Envirocare disposes of LLRW in above ground cells. A seven-foot excavation lined with two feet of clay comprises the cell floor. Approximately 22 feet of waste is then placed in the cell in one-foot thick compacted lifts. The cover system consists of a nine-foot clay radon barrier and three-foot rock erosion barrier. This is required to prevent radon emissions at the surface of the radon barrier from exceeding 20 pCi/m2s, the radon release standard in Criterion 6 of 10 CFR 40. The required thickness of the current clay radon barrier cover was based on the original radon flux model used to evaluate the safety of Envirocare's proposed LLRW and 11e.(2) license operations. Because of the lack of actual measurements, universally conservative values were used for the long-term moisture content and the radon diffusion coefficients of the waste and radon barrier material. Since receiving its license, Envirocare has collected a number of samples from the radon barrier and waste material to determine their actual radon attenuation characteristics, including the long-term moisture content and the associated radon diffusion coefficient. In addition, radon flux measurements have been performed to compare the model calculations with the calculated results. The results from these analyses indicate that the initial modeling input parameters, specifically the long-term moisture content and the radon diffusion coefficient, are more conservative than that needed to ensure compliance with the applicable regulatory requirements

  8. 76 FR 14437 - Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0055] Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of Final Design Approval The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a final design approval (FDA) to GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) for the economic...

  9. Combining economic and social goals in the design of production systems by using ergonomics standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); H.J. de Vries (Henk); S. Verschoof (Sandra); W. Eveleens (Wietske); A. Feilzer (Albert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational

  10. Standard Specification for Physical Characteristics of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This specification describes the physical requirements for primary and secondary terrestrial nonconcentrator photovoltaic reference cells. A reference cell is defined as a device that meets the requirements of this specification and is calibrated in accordance with Test Method E1125 or Test Method E1362. 1.2 Reference cells are used in the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices, as stated in Test Methods E948 and E1036. 1.3 Two reference cell physical specifications are described: 1.3.1 Small-Cell Package Design—A small, durable package with a low thermal mass, wide optical field-of-view, and standardized dimensions intended for photovoltaic devices up to 20 by 20 mm, and 1.3.2 Module-Package Design—A package intended to simulate the optical and thermal properties of a photovoltaic module design, but electric connections are made to only one photovoltaic cell in order to eliminate problems with calibrating series and parallel connections of cells. Physical dimensions ...

  11. SRAC: JAERI thermal reactor standard code system for reactor design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Takano, Hideki; Horikami, Kunihiko; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Hara, Toshiharu.

    1983-01-01

    The SRAC (Standard Reactor Analysis Code) is a code system for nuclear reactor analysis and design. It is composed of neutron cross section libraries and auxiliary processing codes, neutron spectrum routines, a variety of transport, 1-, 2- and 3-D diffusion routines, dynamic parameters and cell burn-up routines. By making the best use of the individual code function in the SRAC system, the user can select either the exact method for an accurate estimate of reactor characteristics or the economical method aiming at a shorter computer time, depending on the purpose of study. The user can select cell or core calculation; fixed source or eigenvalue problem; transport (collision probability or Sn) theory or diffusion theory. Moreover, smearing and collapsing of macroscopic cross sections are separately done by the user's selection. And a special attention is paid for double heterogeneity. Various techniques are employed to access the data storage and to optimize the internal data transfer. Benchmark calculations using the SRAC system have been made extensively for the Keff values of various types of critical assemblies (light water, heavy water and graphite moderated systems, and fast reactor systems). The calculated results show good prediction for the experimental Keff values. (author)

  12. Influence of modulation frequency in rubidium cell frequency standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoin, C.; Viennet, J.; Cyr, N.; Vanier, J.

    1983-01-01

    The error signal which is used to control the frequency of the quartz crystal oscillator of a passive rubidium cell frequency standard is considered. The value of the slope of this signal, for an interrogation frequency close to the atomic transition frequency is calculated and measured for various phase (or frequency) modulation waveforms, and for several values of the modulation frequency. A theoretical analysis is made using a model which applies to a system in which the optical pumping rate, the relaxation rates and the RF field are homogeneous. Results are given for sine-wave phase modulation, square-wave frequency modulation and square-wave phase modulation. The influence of the modulation frequency on the slope of the error signal is specified. It is shown that the modulation frequency can be chosen as large as twice the non-saturated full-width at half-maximum without a drastic loss of the sensitivity to an offset of the interrogation frequency from center line, provided that the power saturation factor and the amplitude of modulation are properly adjusted.

  13. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  14. Modified Standard Penetration Test–based Drilled Shaft Design Method for Weak Rocks (Phase 2 Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this project, Illinois-specific design procedures were developed for drilled shafts founded in weak shale or rock. In particular, a modified standard penetration test was developed and verified to characterize the in situ condition of weak shales ...

  15. HSTL IO Standard Based Energy Efficient Multiplier Design using Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madhok, Shivani; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2015-01-01

    standards. Frequency scaling is one of the best energy efficient techniques for FPGA based VLSI design and is used in this paper. At the end we can conclude that we can conclude that there is 23-40% saving of total power dissipation by using SSTL IO standard at 25 degree Celsius. The main reason for power...... consumption is leakage power at different IO Standards and at different frequencies. In this research work only FPGA work has been performed not ultra scale FPGA....

  16. Low Cost Design of an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Processor Using a New Common-Subexpression-Elimination Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chih; Hsiao, Shen-Fu

    In this paper, we propose an area-efficient design of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) processor by applying a new common-expression-elimination (CSE) method to the sub-functions of various transformations required in AES. The proposed method reduces the area cost of realizing the sub-functions by extracting the common factors in the bit-level XOR/AND-based sum-of-product expressions of these sub-functions using a new CSE algorithm. Cell-based implementation results show that the AES processor with our proposed CSE method has significant area improvement compared with previous designs.

  17. [Design and implementation of medical instrument standard information retrieval system based on APS.NET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaijun

    2010-07-01

    This paper Analys the design goals of Medical Instrumentation standard information retrieval system. Based on the B /S structure,we established a medical instrumentation standard retrieval system with ASP.NET C # programming language, IIS f Web server, SQL Server 2000 database, in the. NET environment. The paper also Introduces the system structure, retrieval system modules, system development environment and detailed design of the system.

  18. The design of a calorimetric standard of ionising radiation absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.B.

    1981-05-01

    The design of a calorimetric working standard of ionising radiation absorbed dose is discussed. A brief history of the appropriate quantities and units of measurement is given. Detailed design considerations follow a summary of the relevant literature. The methods to be used to relate results to national standards of measurement are indicated, including the need for various correction factors. A status report is given on the construction and testing program

  19. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  20. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, C.

    2009-01-01

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  1. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  2. A brief comparison of existing regional green building design standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Ren, J.; Cho, S.

    2017-03-01

    A large country with a variety of regional natural, cultural and economic conditions, China has established a number of green building design (GBD) standards both at national and regional (provincial and municipal) levels. Some researches have been conducted to review and compare such standards. The main aim was to provide valuable references for the establishment of new regionally specific GBD standards in different regions of the country. This paper introduces the preliminary results of the researches. The distribution, frameworks and content of the existing regional GBD standards are introduced and compared in relating to the regionally specific climate, resource, economic and cultural conditions. Conclusions are provided and further researches are recommended.

  3. 78 FR 59981 - Proposed Revision to Physical Security-Standard Design Certification and Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Design Certification and Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard... Design Certification and Operating Reactors.'' The NRC seeks comments on the proposed revised section of... subject): Federal Rulemaking Web site: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and search for Docket ID NRC-2013...

  4. Development of Canadian seismic design approach and overview of seismic standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usmani, A. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada); Aziz, T. [TSAziz Consulting Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Historically the Canadian seismic design approaches have evolved for CANDU® nuclear power plants to ensure that they are designed to withstand a design basis earthquake (DBE) and have margins to meet the safety requirements of beyond DBE (BDBE). While the Canadian approach differs from others, it is comparable and in some cases more conservative. The seismic requirements are captured in five CSA nuclear standards which are kept up to date and incorporate lessons learnt from recent seismic events. This paper describes the evolution of Canadian approach, comparison with others and provides an overview and salient features of CSA seismic standards. (author)

  5. Design analysis and comparison between standard and rotary porting systems for IC engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmisano, R.; Ng, H.D. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A method of improving the efficiency of an internal combustion engine was presented. The proposed design used a new sealing technology to optimize a rotary valve design. The design was compared with standard poppet porting system using a computer aided engineering (CAE) method. A double port cylinder configuration was used in order to allow continuous flow into the chamber and minimize the exposed surface area in the combustion chamber. The design also minimized distortion on the component when exposed to high condensation pressures. A transfer case was used to allow for easy adaptation of the configuration to a multi-cylinder engine. A mechanism dynamics extension (MDO) program was used to conduct dynamic analyses on the rotary and standard valve porting systems. The study showed that the poppet system required 62 times more torque than the new rotary valve design. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine the flow properties of both designs. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  6. How to develop a Standard Operating Procedure for sorting unfixed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Written Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. PMID:22381383

  7. How to develop a standard operating procedure for sorting unfixed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid

    2012-07-01

    Written standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an important tool to assure that recurring tasks in a laboratory are performed in a consistent manner. When the procedure covered in the SOP involves a high-risk activity such as sorting unfixed cells using a jet-in-air sorter, safety elements are critical components of the document. The details on sort sample handling, sorter set-up, validation, operation, troubleshooting, and maintenance, personal protective equipment (PPE), and operator training, outlined in the SOP are to be based on careful risk assessment of the procedure. This review provides background information on the hazards associated with sorting of unfixed cells and the process used to arrive at the appropriate combination of facility design, instrument placement, safety equipment, and practices to be followed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The applicability of ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC nuclear design code system on Korean standard PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kookjong; Choi, Kie-Yong; Lee, Hae-Chan; Roh, Eun-Rae

    1996-01-01

    For the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) designed based on Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80, the Westinghouse nuclear design code system ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC was applied to the follow-up design of initial and reload core of KSNPP. The follow-up design results of Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 1, 2 and Yonggwang Unit 4 Cycle 1 have shown good agreements with the measured data. The assemblywise power distributions have shown less than 2% average differences and critical boron concentrations have shown less than 20 ppm differences. All the low power physics test parameters are in good agreement. Consequently, APA design code system can be applied to KNSPP cores. (author)

  9. Index of Non-Government Standards on Human Engineering Design Criteria and Program Requirements/Guidelines. Version 3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poston, Alan

    2002-01-01

    .... Since the designation of documents as standards by non-government standards bodies tends to be somewhat flexible, the scope of non-government standards for the Index was kept quite loose and includes...

  10. The impact of safety standards updating for design purposes in nuclear power plants licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Rabello, Sidney Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian experience of nuclear power plants licensing was consolidated by the use of the Brazilian, American, German and IAEA standards. Independently of the set of norms, standards or guides to be used, this set should be in consonance with the state-of-art or the current state of knowledge in science and technology. In the general design criteria of US NRC or German BMI, or in the Brazilian norms (CNEN) or even, in the IAEA standards, this aspect is always emphasized. On the other hand, the international operational experience of nuclear reactors (for example, TMI accident) also contributes to the updating of norms and standards. The use of new technologies (for example, digital technology) impels the norms and standards to adopt new design criteria related to the new technological context. Moreover, we must add the particular vision that each country can have concerning to specific topics in nuclear safety. This work discusses how the norms, standards and guides used in the nuclear licensing are being reviewed to cope with the requirement of the state-of-art. In order to accomplish this aim we took some general design criteria to exemplify how they are fulfilled, mainly those related directly with the protection of the defense-in-depth barriers: primary coolant system, containment vessel and containment systems, including external events and severe accidents. In complement to the deterministic analysis, it is also discussed the design criteria related to the human factors engineering and probabilistic safety analysis, including severe accidents aspects. (author)

  11. Differences in safety margins between nuclear and conventional design standards with regards to seismic hazard definition and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Orbovic, N.; Dejan, D.

    2006-01-01

    With the surging interest in new build nuclear all over the world and a permanent interest in earthquake resistance of nuclear plants, there is a need to quantify the safety margins in nuclear buildings design in comparison to conventional buildings in order to increase the public confidence in the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear (CAN3-N289 series) and conventional (NBCC 2005) seismic standards have different approaches regarding the design of civil structures. The origin of the differences lays in the safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. Conventional seismic codes contain the minimal requirement destined primarily to safeguard against major structural failure and loss of life. It doesn't limit damage to a certain acceptable degree or maintain function. Nuclear seismic code requires that structures, systems and components important to safety, withstand the effects of earthquakes. The requirement states that for equipment important to safety, both integrity and functionality should be ascertained. The seismic hazard is generally defined on the basis of the annual probability of exceedence (return period). There is a major difference on the return period and the confidence level for design earthquakes between the conventional and the nuclear seismic standards. The seismic design criteria of conventional structures are based on the use of Force Modification Factors to take into account the energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain and the reserve of strength. The use of such factors to lower intentionally the seismic input is consistent with the safety philosophy of the conventional seismic standard which is the 'non collapse' rather than the integrity and/or the operability of the structures or components. Nuclear seismic standard requires that the structure remain in the elastic domain; energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain is not allowed for design basis earthquake conditions. This is

  12. Recent developments in the IAEA safety standards: design and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takehiko

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing a wide variety of safety standards for nuclear and radiation related facilities and activities since 1978. In 1996, a more rigorously structured approach for the preparation and review of its safety standards was introduced. Currently, based on the approach, revision of most of the standards is in completion or near completion. The latest versions of the Safety Requirements for ''Design'' and ''Operation'' of nuclear power plants were respectively published in 2000. Currently, along with this revision of the Safety Requirements, many Safety Guides have been revised. In order to clarify the complicated revision procedure, an example of the entire revision process for a Safety Guide is provided. Through actual example of the revision process, enormous amount of work involved in the revision work is clearly indicated. The current status of all of the Safety Standards for Design and that for Operation of nuclear power plants are summarized. Summary of other IAEA safety standards currently revised and available related IAEA publications, together with information on the IAEA Web Site from where these documents can be downloaded, is also provided. The standards are reviewed to determine whether revision (or new issue) is necessary in five years following publication. The IAEA safety standards will continue to be updated through comprehensive and structured approach, collaboration of many experts of the world, and reflecting good practices of the world. The IAEA safety standards will serve to provide high level of safety assurance. (author)

  13. The design of reliability data bases, part I: review of standard design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Main styles in the design of reliability data banks (RDB's) are reviewed. The conceptual and mathematical tools underlying these designs are summarized. A key point is the method for assessing failure rates for competing failure modes. The theory of independent competing risk and the relation to colored Poisson processes is explained. The notions of observed and naked failure rates are defined, and their equivalence under the assumption of independence is shown. In conclusion, the needs of different users are compared with the information currently offered

  14. Design validation of the ITER EC upper launcher according to codes and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaeh, Peter, E-mail: peter.spaeh@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, Gaetano [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gagliardi, Mario [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); F4E, Fusion for Energy, Joint Undertaking, Barcelona (Spain); Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine; Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weinhorst, Bastian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A set of applicable codes and standards has been chosen for the ITER EC upper launcher. • For a particular component load combinations, failure modes and stress categorizations have been determined. • The design validation was performed in accordance with the “design by analysis”-approach of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section III. - Abstract: The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) upper launcher has passed the CDR (conceptual design review) in 2005 and the PDR (preliminary design review) in 2009 and is in its final design phase now. The final design will be elaborated by the European consortium ECHUL-CA with contributions from several research institutes in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Within this consortium KIT is responsible for the design of the structural components (the upper port plug, UPP) and also the design integration of the launcher. As the selection of applicable codes and standards was under discussion for the past decade, the conceptual and the preliminary design of the launcher structure were not elaborated in straight accordance with a particular code but with a variety of well-acknowledged engineering practices. For the final design it is compulsory to validate the design with respect to a typical engineering code in order to be compliant with the ITER quality and nuclear requirements and to get acceptance from the French regulator. This paper presents typical design validation of the closure plate, which is the vacuum and Tritium barrier and thus a safety relevant component of the upper port plug (UPP), performed with the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Rationales for choosing this code are given as well as a comparison between different design methods, like the “design by rule” and the “design by analysis” approach. Also the selections of proper load specifications and the identification of potential failure modes are covered. In addition to that stress categorizations, analyses

  15. Design validation of the ITER EC upper launcher according to codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaeh, Peter; Aiello, Gaetano; Gagliardi, Mario; Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine; Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro; Weinhorst, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A set of applicable codes and standards has been chosen for the ITER EC upper launcher. • For a particular component load combinations, failure modes and stress categorizations have been determined. • The design validation was performed in accordance with the “design by analysis”-approach of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section III. - Abstract: The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) upper launcher has passed the CDR (conceptual design review) in 2005 and the PDR (preliminary design review) in 2009 and is in its final design phase now. The final design will be elaborated by the European consortium ECHUL-CA with contributions from several research institutes in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Within this consortium KIT is responsible for the design of the structural components (the upper port plug, UPP) and also the design integration of the launcher. As the selection of applicable codes and standards was under discussion for the past decade, the conceptual and the preliminary design of the launcher structure were not elaborated in straight accordance with a particular code but with a variety of well-acknowledged engineering practices. For the final design it is compulsory to validate the design with respect to a typical engineering code in order to be compliant with the ITER quality and nuclear requirements and to get acceptance from the French regulator. This paper presents typical design validation of the closure plate, which is the vacuum and Tritium barrier and thus a safety relevant component of the upper port plug (UPP), performed with the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Rationales for choosing this code are given as well as a comparison between different design methods, like the “design by rule” and the “design by analysis” approach. Also the selections of proper load specifications and the identification of potential failure modes are covered. In addition to that stress categorizations, analyses

  16. A Standardized Rubric for Evaluating Webquest Design: Reliability Analysis of ZUNAL Webquest Design Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Zafer; Bodur, Yasar; Unal, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    Current literature provides many examples of rubrics that are used to evaluate the quality of web-quest designs. However, reliability of these rubrics has not yet been researched. This is the first study to fully characterize and assess the reliability of a webquest evaluation rubric. The ZUNAL rubric was created to utilize the strengths of the…

  17. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  18. Design and standardization of PCR primers and protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: Report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936 : Report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.J.M.; Langerak, A.W.; Bruggemann, M.; Evans, P.A.S.; Hummel, M.; Lavender, F.L.; Delabesse, E.; Davi, F.; Schuuring, E.; Garcia-Sanz, R.; Van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; Droese, J.; Gonzalez, D.; Bastard, C.; White, H.E.; Spaargaren, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Parreira, A.; Smith, J.L.; Morgan, G.J.; Kneba, M.; Macintyre, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    In a European BIOMED-2 collaborative study, multiplex PCR assays have successfully been developed and standardized for the detection of clonally rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes and the chromosome aberrations t(11; 14) and t(14; 18). This has resulted in 107 different

  19. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali...-5] RIN 2060-AN99 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental...

  20. Standardization Efforts for Mechanical Testing and Design of Advanced Ceramic Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Jenkins, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced aerospace systems occasionally require the use of very brittle materials such as sapphire and ultra-high temperature ceramics. Although great progress has been made in the development of methods and standards for machining, testing and design of component from these materials, additional development and dissemination of standard practices is needed. ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics and ISO TC 206 have taken a lead role in the standardization of testing for ceramics, and recent efforts and needs in standards development by Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics will be summarized. In some cases, the engineers, etc. involved are unaware of the latest developments, and traditional approaches applicable to other material systems are applied. Two examples of flight hardware failures that might have been prevented via education and standardization will be presented.

  1. Design and evaluation of a 10-mA DC current reference standard

    CERN Document Server

    Fernqvist, G; Pickering, J; Power, F

    2003-01-01

    A new DC current reference standard has been developed for high- current power converter calibration in the large hadron collider (LHC) project at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). This standard provides a near ideal 10-mA DC current with long-term drift of one part in 10/sup 6/ per year. The paper describes the requirements and the detailed design and evaluation of the unit. Since similar 10-V standards are commercially available, the paper concentrates on the unique current output capability of this device. (4 refs).

  2. Report on design rules of μ-tools for standard insert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Esmoris, Josa Ignacio; Quadroni, A.

    2011-01-01

    -effectively, especially for micro injection moulding. This particular deliverable has the objective to present the design rules for high performance μ-tools and inserts manufacture based on the new standard manufacturing process chains established during the WP 2.2 work. In particular, the achievable features, surfaces......Tooling is one of the critical stages of the process chain for polymer micro products manufacture and in particular for the COTECH process chain. Therefore, within the scope of SP2 “Tooling”, the WP 2.2 “New tool-making solutions for μ-IM and HE” is designed to investigate, develop and standardize...

  3. SSTL I/O Standard Based Green Communication Using Fibonacci Generator Design on Ultra Scale FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagah, Sumi; Kaur, Ravinder; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper six different available classes of Stub-Series Terminated Logic (SSTL) Input/output standard is used for the design of Green Fibonacci generator on 40nm FGPA. That green Fibonacci Generator is used to generate key for Wi-Fi Protected Access in order to make energy efficient communic......In this paper six different available classes of Stub-Series Terminated Logic (SSTL) Input/output standard is used for the design of Green Fibonacci generator on 40nm FGPA. That green Fibonacci Generator is used to generate key for Wi-Fi Protected Access in order to make energy efficient...

  4. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. International Society for Analytical Cytology biosafety standard for sorting of unfixed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ingrid; Lambert, Claude; Ambrozak, David; Marti, Gerald E; Moss, Delynn M; Perfetto, Stephen P

    2007-06-01

    Cell sorting of viable biological specimens has become very prevalent in laboratories involved in basic and clinical research. As these samples can contain infectious agents, precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from hazards arising from the use of sorters are paramount. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) took a lead in establishing biosafety guidelines for sorting of unfixed cells (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99-117). During the time period these recommendations have been available, they have become recognized worldwide as the standard practices and safety precautions for laboratories performing viable cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 1997, and the document requires an update. Initially, suggestions about the document format and content were discussed among members of the ISAC Biosafety Committee and were incorporated into a draft version that was sent to all committee members for review. Comments were collected, carefully considered, and incorporated as appropriate into a draft document that was posted on the ISAC web site to invite comments from the flow cytometry community at large. The revised document was then submitted to ISAC Council for review. Simultaneously, further comments were sought from newly-appointed ISAC Biosafety committee members. This safety standard for performing viable cell sorting experiments was recently generated. The document contains background information on the biohazard potential of sorting and the hazard classification of infectious agents as well as recommendations on (1) sample handling, (2) operator training and personal protection, (3) laboratory design, (4) cell sorter set-up, maintenance, and decontamination, and (5) testing the instrument for the efficiency of aerosol containment. This standard constitutes an updated and expanded revision of the 1997 biosafety guideline document. It is intended to provide

  6. Energy efficient design of cognitive small cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildemeersch, Matthias; Wildemeersch, Matthias; Quek, Tony Q.S.; Rabbachin, Alberto; Slump, Cornelis H.; Huang, Aiping; Kim, Dong-In; Mueller, P.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous networks consisting of a macrocell tier and a small cell tier are considered an attractive solution to cope with the fierce increase of mobile traffic demand. Nevertheless, a massive deployment of small cell access points (SAPs) leads also to a considerable increase in energy

  7. How the new optoelectronic design automation industry is taking advantage of preexisting EDA standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Kevin A.; Carver, Susan

    2014-05-01

    With the advancements in design processes down to the sub 7nm levels, the Electronic Design Automation industry appears to be coming to an end of advancements, as the size of the silicon atom becomes the limiting factor. Or is it? The commercial viability of mass-producing silicon photonics is bringing about the Optoelectronic Design Automation (OEDA) industry. With the science of photonics in its infancy, adding these circuits to ever-increasing complex electronic designs, will allow for new generations of advancements. Learning from the past 50 years of the EDA industry's mistakes and missed opportunities, the photonics industry is starting with electronic standards and extending them to become photonically aware. Adapting the use of pre-existing standards into this relatively new industry will allow for easier integration into the present infrastructure and faster time to market.

  8. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  9. Digitalization as Driver for Standardized Specification and Design of Buildings: In Search of an Efficient Building Design Management Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treldal, Niels

    of this research is, therefore, to increase the understanding of the relation between information needs, standardisation and efficient design management. The research draws on findings from previous research on information management, design management and socio-technical science and focuses in particular......-value adding design iterations will occur too frequently if the variability is not carefully managed. Building a strong community within the design team is found to be critical to reduce variability as it allows project managers to entrust the team to find solutions and coordinate activities more efficiently...... standards were developed in the current research. An IDM package framework is proposed to make the current IDM methodology from buildingSMART more modular and easier to reuse and utilize on projects. A generic LOD framework is proposed to make the agreement on geometry information exchange more pragmatic...

  10. Contributions of the ORNL piping program to nuclear piping design codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.

    1975-11-01

    The ORNL Piping Program was conceived and established to develop basic information on the structural behavior of nuclear power plant piping components and to prepare this information in forms suitable for use in design analysis and codes and standards. One of the objectives was to develop and qualify stress indices and flexibility factors for direct use in Code-prescribed design analysis methods. Progress in this area is described

  11. A basis for standardized seismic design (SSD) for nuclear power plants/critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.; Bellini, F.X.

    1991-01-01

    US Nuclear Power Plants (NPP's) are designed, engineered and constructed to stringent standards. Their seismic adequacy is assured by compliance with regulatory standards and demonstrated by both probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and seismic margin studies. However, present seismic siting criteria requires improvement. Proposed changes to siting criteria discussed here will provide a predictable licensing process and a stable regulatory environment. Two recent state-of-the-art studies evaluate the seismic design for all eastern US (EUS) NPP'S: a Lawrence Livermore National Labs study (LLNL, 1989) funded by the NRC and similar research by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 1989) supported by the utilities. Both confirm that Appendix A 10CFR Part 100 has not provided consistent seismic design levels for all sites. Standardized Seismic Design (SSD) uses a probabilistic framework to accommodate alternative deterministic interpretations. It uses seismic hazard input from EPRI or LLNL to produce consistent bases for future seismic design. SSD combines deterministic and probabilistic insights to provide a comprehensive approach for determining a future site's acceptable seismic design basis

  12. Applicability of ISO 9001: 2000 standard to design and research activities in nuclear objectives and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatopol, M.; Patticu, C.

    2001-01-01

    The ISO 9001: 2000 standard contains the results of the latest studies concerning the design and implementation of quality management systems. The continuous improvement of these systems required a new approach, namely, the process-based approach. A process-based model of quality management is presented in terms of client request, input data, management responsibility, resource management, product realisation, measurement / analysis and optimization, product, output data and client request fulfilment. Thus, the quality management system becomes an ensemble of interconnected or interacting processes. Consequently, to implement such a system the necessary processes have to be identified and their ISO 9001: 2000 standard based management ensured. Process based approach also allows better evidencing the input and output data specific to each process. Such an approach grants a wider applicability to the design and research activities in nuclear objectives and installations. This work aims at identifying additional requirements implied in design and research activities in nuclear field, as stipulated in the following standards / documents: - IAEA SG Q8 'Quality assurance in research and development'; - IAEA SG Q10 'Quality assurance in design'; - CAN / CSA N 286.2 - 00 'Design Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants'; CAN 3 - CSA Z 299.1 'Quality Assurance Program - Category 1'; - NQA - 1, SUPPLEMENT 3S-1 'Supplementary requirements for design control'

  13. Research and development issues for fast reactor structural design standard (FDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Ando, Masanori; Morishita, Masaki

    2003-01-01

    For realization of safe and economical fast reactor (FR) plants, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) are cooperating on 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle Systems'. To certify the design concepts and validate their structural integrity, the research and development of 'Fast Reactor Structural Design Standard (FDS)' is recognized as an essential theme. FDS considers general characteristics of FRs and design needs for their rationalization. Three main subjects were settled in research and development issues of FDS. One is rationalization of failure criteria' taking characteristic design conditions into account. Next is development of 'a guideline on inelastic analysis for design' in order to predict elastic plastic and creep behaviours of high temperature components. Furthermore, efforts are being made toward preparing a guideline on thermal loads modeling' for FR component design where thermal loads are dominant. (author)

  14. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E.; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  15. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  16. Design and initial characterization of the SC-200 proteomics standard mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Andrew; Higdon, Roger; Rapson, Sean; Loiue, Brenton; Hogan, Jason; Stacy, Robin; Napuli, Alberto; Guo, Wenjin; van Voorhis, Wesley; Roach, Jared; Lu, Vincent; Landorf, Elizabeth; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Collart, Frank; Myler, Peter; van Belle, Gerald; Kolker, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput (HTP) proteomics studies generate large amounts of data. Interpretation of these data requires effective approaches to distinguish noise from biological signal, particularly as instrument and computational capacity increase and studies become more complex. Resolving this issue requires validated and reproducible methods and models, which in turn requires complex experimental and computational standards. The absence of appropriate standards and data sets for validating experimental and computational workflows hinders the development of HTP proteomics methods. Most protein standards are simple mixtures of proteins or peptides, or undercharacterized reference standards in which the identity and concentration of the constituent proteins is unknown. The Seattle Children's 200 (SC-200) proposed proteomics standard mixture is the next step toward developing realistic, fully characterized HTP proteomics standards. The SC-200 exhibits a unique modular design to extend its functionality, and consists of 200 proteins of known identities and molar concentrations from 6 microbial genomes, distributed into 10 molar concentration tiers spanning a 1,000-fold range. We describe the SC-200's design, potential uses, and initial characterization. We identified 84% of SC-200 proteins with an LTQ-Orbitrap and 65% with an LTQ-Velos (false discovery rate = 1% for both). There were obvious trends in success rate, sequence coverage, and spectral counts with protein concentration; however, protein identification, sequence coverage, and spectral counts vary greatly within concentration levels.

  17. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  18. Study on Design and Implementation of JAVA Programming Procedural Assessment Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingting, Xu; Hua, Ma; Xiujuan, Wang; Jing, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional JAVA course examination is just a list of questions from which we cannot know students' skills of programming. According to the eight abilities in curriculum objectives, we designed an assessment standard of JAVA programming course that is based on employment orientation and apply it to practical teaching to check the teaching…

  19. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and....S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management... June 11, 2010. Cathy Zoi, Assistant Secretary, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. [FR Doc. 2010...

  20. A Novel Instructional Approach to the Design of Standard Controllers: Using Inversion Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntogramatzidis, Lorenzo; Zanasi, Roberto; Cuoghi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a range of design techniques for standard compensators (Lead-Lag networks and PID controllers) that have been applied to the teaching of many undergraduate control courses throughout Italy over the last twenty years, but that have received little attention elsewhere. These techniques hinge upon a set of simple formulas--herein…

  1. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  2. A Discussion of Change Theory, System Theory, and State Designed Standards and Accountability Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Larry; Christy, W. Keith

    This brief paper is a presentation that preceeded another case of considering the ongoing dialogue on the advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized school-improvement processes. It attempts to raise a number of questions about the relationship between state-designed standards and accountability initiatives and change and…

  3. 78 FR 7251 - Rulemaking Concerning the Standards for Designating Positions in the Competitive Service as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...--Rulemaking Concerning the Standards for Designating Positions in the Competitive Service as National Security... Positions in the Competitive Service as National Security Sensitive and Related Matters Memorandum for the Director of National Intelligence [and] the Director of the Office of Personnel Management The Director of...

  4. A pro-forma design for car-carriers: Low-speed performance-based standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benade R, Berman R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available the constraints of the pro-forma design met the Level 1 requirements of the low-speed PBS. Future work will ensure compliance with the full set of twelve performance standards. It is estimated that the pro-forma approach as compared to doing full assessments would...

  5. Design and Implementation of a Prototype with a Standardized Interface for Transducers in Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Dorronzoro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL do not generally use standards to implement a communication interface between sensors and actuators. This makes these applications isolated solutions because it is so difficult to integrate them into new or existing systems. The objective of this research was to design and implement a prototype with a standardized interface for sensors and actuators to facilitate the integration of different solutions in the field of AAL. Our work is based on the roadmap defined by AALIANCE, using motes with TinyOS telosb, 6LoWPAN, sensors, and the IEEE 21451 standard protocol. This prototype allows one to upgrade sensors to a smart status for easy integration with new applications and already existing ones. The prototype has been evaluated for autonomy and performance. As a use case, the prototype has been tested in a serious game previously designed for people with mobility problems, and its advantages and disadvantages have been analysed.

  6. Towards product design automation based on parameterized standard model with diversiform knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-04-01

    Product standardization based on CAD software is an effective way to improve design efficiency. In the past, research and development on standardization mainly focused on the level of component, and the standardization of the entire product as a whole is rarely taken into consideration. In this paper, the size and structure of 3D product models are both driven by the Excel datasheets, based on which a parameterized model library is therefore established. Diversiform knowledge including associated parameters and default properties are embedded into the templates in advance to simplify their reuse. Through the simple operation, we can obtain the correct product with the finished 3D models including single parts or complex assemblies. Two examples are illustrated later to invalid the idea, which will greatly improve the design efficiency.

  7. A parallel row-based algorithm for standard cell placement with integrated error control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jeff S.; Banerjee, Prith

    1989-01-01

    A new row-based parallel algorithm for standard-cell placement targeted for execution on a hypercube multiprocessor is presented. Key features of this implementation include a dynamic simulated-annealing schedule, row-partitioning of the VLSI chip image, and two novel approaches to control error in parallel cell-placement algorithms: (1) Heuristic Cell-Coloring; (2) Adaptive Sequence Length Control.

  8. Analysis and Design of Fuel Cell Systems for Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kadyk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of fuel cells for the main energy supply of passenger transportation aircraft is discussed. Using a physical model of a fuel cell, general design considerations are derived. Considering different possible design objectives, the trade-off between power density and efficiency is discussed. A universal cost–benefit curve is derived to aid the design process. A weight factor w P is introduced, which allows incorporating technical (e.g., system mass and efficiency as well as non-technical design objectives (e.g., operating cost, emission goals, social acceptance or technology affinity, political factors. The optimal fuel cell design is not determined by the characteristics of the fuel cell alone, but also by the characteristics of the other system components. The fuel cell needs to be designed in the context of the whole energy system. This is demonstrated by combining the fuel cell model with simple and detailed design models of a liquid hydrogen tank. The presented methodology and models allows assessing the potential of fuel cell systems for mass reduction of future passenger aircraft.

  9. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  10. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  11. Views on seismic design standardization of structures, systems and components of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) of nuclear facilities have to be designed for normal operating loads such as dead weight, pressure, temperature etc., and accidental loads such as earthquakes, floods, extreme, wind air craft impact, explosions etc. Manmade accidents such as aircraft impact, explosions etc., sometimes may be considered as design basis event and sometimes taken care by providing administrative controls. This will not be possible in the case of natural events such as earthquakes, flooding, extreme winds etc. Among natural events earthquakes are considered as most devastating and need to be considered as design basis event which has certain annual frequency specified in design codes. For example nuclear power plants are designed for a seismic event has 10000 year return period. It is generally felt that design of SSCs for earthquake loads is very time consuming and expensive. Conventional seismic design approaches demands for large number of supports for systems and components. This results in large space occupation and in turn creates difficulties for maintenance and in service inspection of systems and components. In addition, complete exercise of design need to be repeated for plants being located at different sites due to different seismic demands. However, advanced seismic response control methods will help to standardize the seismic design meeting the safety and economy. These methods adopt passive, semi active and active devices, and base isolators to control the seismic response. In nuclear industry, it is advisable to go for passive devices to control the seismic responses. Ideally speaking, these methods will make the designs made for normal loads can also satisfy the seismic demand without calling for change in material, geometry, layout etc. in the SSCs. This paper explain the basic ideas of seismic response control methods, demonstrate the effectiveness of control methods through case studies and eventually give the procedure to

  12. Standard concerning the design of nuclear power stations in earthquake-prone districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.P.; Anbriashivili, Y.K.; Suvilova, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The measures of security assurance against the effect of radioactive contamination has become more and more complex due to the construction of nuclear power stations of diverse types. The aseismatic measures for the nuclear power stations built in the districts where earthquakes of different intensity occur are important problems. All main machinery and equipments and emergency systems in power stations must be protected from earthquakes, and this makes the solution of problems difficult. At present in USSR, the provisional standard concerning the design of atomic energy facilities built in earthquake-prone districts is completed. The basic philosophy of the standard is to decide the general requirements as the conditions for the design of nuclear power stations built in earthquake-prone districts. The lowest earthquake activity in the construction districts is considered as magnitude 4, and in the districts where earthquake activity is magnitude 9 or more, the construction of nuclear power stations is prohibited. Two levels of earthquake action are specified for the design: design earthquake and the largest design earthquake. The construction sites of nuclear power stations must be 15 to 150 km distant from the potential sources of earthquakes. Nuclear power stations are regarded as the aseismatically guaranteed type when the safety of reactors is secured under the application of the standard. The buildings and installations are classified into three classes regarding the aseismatic properties. (Kako, I.)

  13. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  14. Optimal design and operation of solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert Joseph

    The advent of maturing fuel cell technologies presents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiencies at many scales; thereby, simultaneously extending our finite resources and reducing "harmful" energy-related emissions to levels well below that of near-future regulatory standards. However, before realization of the advantages of fuel cells can take place, systems-level design issues regarding their application must be addressed. Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers optimal system design and operation strategies for stationary solid oxide fuel cell systems applied to single-family detached dwellings. A one-dimensional, steady-state finite-difference model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is generated and verified against other mathematical SOFC models in the literature. Fuel cell system balance-of-plant components and costs are also modeled and used to provide an estimate of system capital and life cycle costs. The models are used to evaluate optimal cell-stack power output, the impact of cell operating and design parameters, fuel type, thermal energy recovery, system process design, and operating strategy on overall system energetic and economic performance. Optimal cell design voltage, fuel utilization, and operating temperature parameters are found using minimization of the life cycle costs. System design evaluations reveal that hydrogen-fueled SOFC systems demonstrate lower system efficiencies than methane-fueled systems. The use of recycled cell exhaust gases in process design in the stack periphery are found to produce the highest system electric and cogeneration efficiencies while achieving the lowest capital costs. Annual simulations reveal that efficiencies of 45% electric (LHV basis), 85% cogenerative, and simple economic paybacks of 5--8 years are feasible for 1--2 kW SOFC systems in residential-scale applications. Design guidelines that offer additional suggestions related to fuel cell

  15. Design issues for optimum solar cell configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    A computer based simulation of solar cell structure is performed to study the optimization of pn junction configuration for photovoltaic action. The fundamental aspects of photovoltaic action viz, absorption, separation collection, and their dependence on material properties and deatails of device structures is discussed. Using SCAPS 1D we have simulated the ideal pn junction and shown the effect of band offset and carrier densities on solar cell performance. The optimum configuration can be achieved by optimizing transport of carriers in pn junction under effect of field dependent recombination (tunneling) and density dependent recombination (SRH, Auger) mechanisms.

  16. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches th...

  17. Fuel cell design using a new heuristic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Montes T, J. L.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper a new method for the pre-design of a typical fuel cell with a structural array of 10 x 10 fuel elements for a BWR is presented. The method is based on principles of maximum dispersion and minimum peaks of local power within the array of fuel elements. The pre-design of the fuel cells is made by simulation in two dimensions (2-D) through the cells physics code CASMO-4. For this purpose of pre-design the search process is guided by an objective function which is a combination of the main neutronic parameters of the fuel cell. The results show that the method is a promising tool that could be used for the design of fuel cells for use in a nuclear plant BWR. (Author)

  18. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  19. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W.

    2005-12-01

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation

  20. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.

    2008-12-01

    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  1. A Standard Nomenclature for Referencing and Authentication of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Andreas; Seltmann, Stefanie; Bairoch, Amos; Bittner, Marie-Sophie; Bruce, Kevin; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Clarke, Laura; Crook, Jeremy M; Daheron, Laurence; Dewender, Johannes; Faulconbridge, Adam; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Gutteridge, Alexander; Hei, Derek J; Kim, Yong-Ou; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kokocinski, Anja Kolb-; Lekschas, Fritz; Lomax, Geoffrey P; Loring, Jeanne F; Ludwig, Tenneille; Mah, Nancy; Matsui, Tohru; Müller, Robert; Parkinson, Helen; Sheldon, Michael; Smith, Kelly; Stachelscheid, Harald; Stacey, Glyn; Streeter, Ian; Veiga, Anna; Xu, Ren-He

    2018-01-09

    Unambiguous cell line authentication is essential to avoid loss of association between data and cells. The risk for loss of references increases with the rapidity that new human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines are generated, exchanged, and implemented. Ideally, a single name should be used as a generally applied reference for each cell line to access and unify cell-related information across publications, cell banks, cell registries, and databases and to ensure scientific reproducibility. We discuss the needs and requirements for such a unique identifier and implement a standard nomenclature for hPSCs, which can be automatically generated and registered by the human pluripotent stem cell registry (hPSCreg). To avoid ambiguities in PSC-line referencing, we strongly urge publishers to demand registration and use of the standard name when publishing research based on hPSC lines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Standard Nomenclature for Referencing and Authentication of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kurtz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unambiguous cell line authentication is essential to avoid loss of association between data and cells. The risk for loss of references increases with the rapidity that new human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC lines are generated, exchanged, and implemented. Ideally, a single name should be used as a generally applied reference for each cell line to access and unify cell-related information across publications, cell banks, cell registries, and databases and to ensure scientific reproducibility. We discuss the needs and requirements for such a unique identifier and implement a standard nomenclature for hPSCs, which can be automatically generated and registered by the human pluripotent stem cell registry (hPSCreg. To avoid ambiguities in PSC-line referencing, we strongly urge publishers to demand registration and use of the standard name when publishing research based on hPSC lines.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories Facilities Management and Operations Center Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Timothy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  4. HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, F.; Kecskes, S.; Aiello, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

  5. Innovating cystic fibrosis clinical trial designs in an era of successful standard of care therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDevanter, Donald R; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Evolving cystic fibrosis 'standards of care' have influenced recent cystic fibrosis clinical trial designs for new therapies; care additions/improvements will require innovative trial designs to maximize feasibility and efficacy detection. Three cystic fibrosis therapeutic areas (pulmonary exacerbations, Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections, and reduced cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR] protein function) differ with respect to the duration for which recognized 'standards of care' have been available. However, developers of new therapies in all the three areas are affected by similar challenges: standards of care have become so strongly entrenched that traditional placebo-controlled studies in cystic fibrosis populations likely to benefit from newer therapies have become less and less feasible. Today, patients/clinicians are more likely to entertain participation in active-comparator trial designs, that have substantial challenges of their own. Foremost among these are the selection of 'valid' active comparator(s), estimation of a comparator's current clinical efficacy (required for testing noninferiority hypotheses), and effective blinding of commercially available comparators. Recent and future cystic fibrosis clinical trial designs will have to creatively address this collateral result of successful past development of effective cystic fibrosis therapies: patients and clinicians are much less likely to accept simple, placebo-controlled studies to evaluate future therapies.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

  7. NASA Alternative Orion Small Cell Battery Design Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Orion Crew Module Reference Design was produced to address large scale thermal runaway (TR) hazard with specific safety controls for the Orion Spacecraft. The design presented provides the description of a full scale battery design reference for implementation as a drop in replacement to meet all spacecraft energy requirements with compatible 120 Vdc electrical and mechanical interface using small cell technology (18650) packaging. The 32V SuperBrick incorporates unique support features and an electrical bus bar arrangement that allows cells negative can insertion into heat sink that is compressively coupled to the battery enclosure to promote good thermal management. The housing design also provides an internal flame suppression "filter tray" and positive venting path internal to the enclosure to allow hot effluent ejecta to escape in the event of single cell TR. Virtual cells (14P Banks) that are supported to provide cell spacing with interstitial materials to prevent side can failures that can produce cell to cell TR propagation. These features were successfully test in four separate TR run with the full scale DTA1 test article in February 2016. Successfully Completed Test Objectives - Four separate TR test runs with Full-Scale DTA1 housing with Two SuperBricks, Two SuperBrick Emulators All Tests resulted in "clean" gas with less than 6 C rise at Battery vent All Tests resulted in less than 2 C temperature rise on cold-plate outlet All Tests resulted in less than 6 psi pressure rise in the battery housing Test Run 1 -One neighbor cell TR, highest remaining neighbor 139 C. Ejecta shorted to bus caused prolonged additional heating, One shorted cell did experience TR after 12 minutes, remaining cells had adequate thermal margin Test Run 2 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 112 C; Test Run 3 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 96 C; Test Run 4 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 101 C; Primary TR testing

  8. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device. (paper)

  9. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Knott, M.J.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Daly, R.T.; Arnold, N.D.; Anderson, M.D.; Anderson, J.B.; Zieman, R.C.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Vong, F.C.; Nawrocki, G.J.; Gunderson, G.R.; Karonis, N.T.; Winans, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  10. Design of a new torque standard machine based on a torque generation method using electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Atsuhiro; Ueda, Kazunaga; Fujii, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    To allow the application of torque standards in various industries, we have been developing torque standard machines based on a lever deadweight system, i.e. a torque generation method using gravity. However, this method is not suitable for expanding the low end of the torque range, because of the limitations to the sizes of the weights and moment arms. In this study, the working principle of the torque generation method using an electromagnetic force was investigated by referring to watt balance experiments used for the redefinition of the kilogram. Applying this principle to a rotating coordinate system, an electromagnetic force type torque standard machine was designed and prototyped. It was experimentally demonstrated that SI-traceable torque could be generated by converting electrical power to mechanical power. Thus, for the first time, SI-traceable torque was successfully realized using a method other than that based on the force of gravity. (paper)

  11. Development of reliability-based design and assessment standards for onshore gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Joe; Rothwell, Brian [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nessim, Maher; Zhou, Wenxing [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Onshore pipelines have traditionally been designed with a deterministic stress based methodology. The changing operating environment has however imposed many challenges to the pipeline industry, including heightened public awareness of risk, more challenging natural hazards and increased economic competitiveness. To meet the societal expectation of pipeline safety and enhance the competitiveness of the pipeline industry, significant efforts have been spent for the development of reliability-based design and assessment (RBDA) methodology. This paper will briefly review the technology development in the RBDA area and the focus will be on the progresses in the past years in standard development within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) organizations. (author)

  12. SSTL I/O Standard Based Environment Friendly Energy Efficient ROM Design on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Neha; Bansal, Meenakshi; Saini, Rishita

    2014-01-01

    are operating ROM with the highest operating frequency of 4th generation i7 processor to test the compatibility of this design with the latest hardware in use. When there is no demand of peak performance, then we can save 74.5% clock power, 75% signal power, and 30.83% I/O power by operating our device with 1......Stub Series Terminated Logic (SSTL) is an Input/output standard. It is used to match the impedance of line, port and device of our design under consideration. Therefore, selection of energy efficient SSTL I/O standard among available different class of SSTL logic family in FPGA, plays a vital role...

  13. Standards and the design of the advanced photon source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Knott, M.J.; Lenkszus, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. (J.P.N.)

  14. Ergonomic Analysis of Tricycle Sidecar Seats: Basis for Proposed Standard Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Godoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics (also called human factors engineering is the study of human characteristics for the appropriate design of the living and work environment. It is applied in various industrial areas which includes transportation.Tricycle being one of the most common means of public transportation in Lipa City has various adaptations to suit the culture, and environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variability in design of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines and propose a standard ergonomically designed tricycle sidecar seat for a greater population. The study was conducted at 26 tricycle terminals with 232 tricycle samples within Lipa City proper including the public market area where 400 commuters were given questionnaires to determine the risk factors associated with the existing tricycle sidecar seat design. Anthropometric measurements of 100 males and 100 female commuters were obtained together with the sidecar dimensions of 232 tricycles to substantiate the observed variations in design. Using the design for the average and design for the extremes, it was found out that most of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines have inappropriate inclined seat and lowered sidecar seat pan height which can result to leg and abdominal pain; narrowed seat pan depth which caused pressure on buttocks and legs; narrowed backrest width which can cause upper and low back pain; low backrest height that can pose upper back pain; which can also result to abdominal pain; inclined backrest and limited vertical clearance which can cause upper back pain and neck pain. The researcher proposed a sidecar seat design standard which can be used by the Land Transportation Office, and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board to provide ease, comfort, and convenience to the passengers.

  15. DTU-ESA millimeter-wave validation standard antenna – requirements and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    from a validation campaign is achieved when a dedicated Validation Standard (VAST) antenna specifically designed for this purpose is available. The driving requirements to VAST antennas are their mechanical stability with respect to any orientation of the antenna in the gravity field and thermal...... are briefly reviewed and the baseline design is described. The emphasis is given to definition of the requirements for the mechanical and thermal stability of the antenna, which satisfy the stringent stability requirement for the mm-VAST electrical characteristics....

  16. Impact of National Ambient Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Designations on Particulate Pollution and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Corwin M; Choirat, Christine; Dominici, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    Despite dramatic air quality improvement in the United States over the past decades, recent years have brought renewed scrutiny and uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of specific regulatory programs for continuing to improve air quality and public health outcomes. We employ causal inference methods and a spatial hierarchical regression model to characterize the extent to which a designation of "nonattainment" with the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 2005 causally affected ambient PM2.5 and health outcomes among over 10 million Medicare beneficiaries in the Eastern United States in 2009-2012. We found that, on average across all retained study locations, reductions in ambient PM2.5 and Medicare health outcomes could not be conclusively attributed to the nonattainment designations against the backdrop of other regional strategies that impacted the entire Eastern United States. A more targeted principal stratification analysis indicates substantial health impacts of the nonattainment designations among the subset of areas where the designations are estimated to have actually reduced ambient PM2.5 beyond levels achieved by regional measures, with noteworthy reductions in all-cause mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and respiratory tract infections. These findings provide targeted evidence of the effectiveness of local control measures after nonattainment designations for the 1997 PM2.5 air quality standard.

  17. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  18. Retrofit designs for small bench-type blood cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes several retrofit designs to correct operational problems associated with small bench-type blood cell counters. Replacement electronic circuits as well as modifications to the vacuum systems are discussed.

  19. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  20. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al Attar, Talal

    2017-05-13

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  1. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al Attar, Talal; Alshehri, Abdullah; Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed; Al-Turki, Abdullah Turki

    2017-01-01

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  2. Design of γ measurement system of neutron source strength standard with a manganese sulphate bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Chen Mingchi; Zhang Hui

    2010-01-01

    It mostly introduced the hardware and software design and test of Measurement System of Neutron Source Strength Standard with a Manganese Sulphate Bath Method. Hardware of system mainly contains six modules named detector, high voltage source, head amplifier, main amplifier, single channel pulse-amplitude analyzer and data acquisition system. The software program of system data acquisition is made up of four functional modules: user login, parameter setting, data collection, and data saving. (authors)

  3. Development of format and contents of safety analysis report for the KNGR standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Yun, Y. K. and others

    1999-01-01

    Referring to the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70 which has been used in the preparation of the SAR for conventional nuclear power plants, the draft guide for format and contents of the SAR for the KNGR standard design was developed based on new regulatory information related to advanced reactors. The draft guide will enable the regulator to make an effective and consistent review on the safety of the KNGR, when this draft guide is used, since the draft guide requires more specific and additional safety information for the standardized NPPs than RG 1.70. In addition, it is expected that the guide for the format and contents of the COL's SAR will be more easily developed using the draft guide suggested in this report. Also, the draft guide can serve as the Korean national guide, with the exception to some industry codes and standards. The experts' review will be performed during the next stage of the project to ensure the objectivity and consistency of the draft guide developed in this study. After reflecting the experts' comments in the guide and revising the contents, it will be utilized in the licensing activities for the KNGR standard design

  4. Standard guide for mechanical drive systems for remote operation in hot cell facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this standard is to provide general guidelines for the design, selection, quality assurance, installation, operation, and maintenance of mechanical drive systems used in remote hot cell environments. The term mechanical drive systems used herein, encompasses all individual components used for imparting motion to equipment systems, subsystems, assemblies, and other components. It also includes complete positioning systems and individual units that provide motive power and any position indicators necessary to monitor the motion. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This standard is intended to be applicable to equipment used under one or more of the following conditions: 1.2.1.1 The materials handled or processed constitute a significant radiation hazard to man or to the environment. 1.2.1.2 The equipment will generally be used over a long-term life cycle (for example, in excess of two years), but equipment intended for use over a shorter life cycle is not excluded. 1.2.1.3 The ...

  5. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  6. A Technique for Designing Variation Resilient Subthreshold Sram Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for designing a variability aware subthreshold SRAM cell. The architecture of the proposed cell is similar to the standard read-decoupled 8-transistor (RD8T SRAM cell with the exception that the access FETS are replaced with transmission gates (TGs. In this work, various design metrics are assessed and compared with RD8T SRAM cell. The proposed design offers 2.14× and 1.75× improvement in TRA (read access time and TWA (write access time respectively compared with RD8T. It proves its robustness against process variations by featuring narrower spread in TRA distribution (2.35× and TWA distribution (3.79× compared with RD8T. The proposed bitcell offers 1.16× higher read current (IREAD and 1.64× lower bitline leakage current (ILEAK respectively compared with RD8T. It also shows its robustness by offering 1.34× (1.58× tighter spread in IREAD (ILEAK compared with RD8T. It exhibits 1.42× larger IREAD to ILEAK ratio. It shows 2.2× higher frequency @ 250 mV with read bitline capacitance of 10 fF. Besides, the proposed bitcell achieves same read stability and write-ability as that of RD8T at the cost of 3 extra transistors. The leakage power of the proposed design is close to that of RD8T.   ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini membentangkan teknik merekabentuk sel bawah ambang SRAM yang bolehubah. Senibina sel yang dicadangkan adalah sama dengan sel SRAM 8-transistor (RD8T “pisahan-bacaan” piawai kecuali FET akses  digantikan dengan sel pintu transmisi (TGs. Di dalam kajian ini, beberapa metrik rekabentuk dinilai dan dibandingkan dengan sel RD8T SRAM. Rekabentuk yang dicadangkan menawarkan  peningkatan 2.14× dan 1.75×  dalam TRA (masa akses baca dan TWA (masa akses tulis berbanding dengan RD8T. Ia membuktikan kekukuhan variasi proses dengan menampilkan tebaran yang lebih sempit dalam pengagihan TRA (2.35 × dan pengagihan TWA (3.79 × berbanding dengan RD8T. Sel-Bit yang dicadangkan mempunyai arus baca 1.16

  7. Conceptual layout design of CFETR Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zheng, E-mail: gongz@mail.ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Qi, Minzhong, E-mail: qiminzhong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Cheng, Yong, E-mail: chengyong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • This article proposed a conceptual layout design for CFETR. • The design principles are to support efficient maintenance to ensure the realization of high duty time. • The preliminary maintenance process and logistics are described in detail. • Life cycle management, maneuverability, risk and safety are in the consideration of design. - Abstract: CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) is new generation of Tokomak device beyond EAST in China. An overview of hot cell layout design for CFETR has been proposed by ASIPP&USTC. Hot Cell, as major auxiliary facility, not only plays a pivotal role in supporting maintenance to meet the requirements of high duty time 0.3–0.5 but also supports installation and decommissioning. Almost all of the Tokomak devices are lateral handling internal components like ITER and JET, but CFETR maintain the blanket module from 4 vertical ports, which is quite a big challenge for the hot cell layout design. The activated in-vessel components and several diagnosis instruments will be repaired and refurbished in the Hot Cell Facility, so the appropriate layout is very important to the Hot Cell Facility to ensure the high duty time, it is divided into different parts equipped with a variety of RH equipment and diagnosis devices based on the functional requirements. The layout of the Hot Cell Facility should make maintenance process more efficient and reliable, and easy to service and rescue when a sudden events taking place, that is the capital importance issue considered in design.

  8. Design of microdevices for long-term live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huaying; Nordon, Robert E; Rosengarten, Gary; Li, Musen

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fluorescent live cell imaging provide high-content information that relates a cell's life events to its ancestors. An important requirement to track clonal growth and development is the retention of motile cells derived from an ancestor within the same microscopic field of view for days to weeks, while recording fluorescence images and controlling the mechanical and biochemical microenvironments that regulate cell growth and differentiation. The aim of this study was to design a microwell device for long-term, time-lapse imaging of motile cells with the specific requirements of (a) inoculating devices with an average of one cell per well and (b) retaining progeny of cells within a single microscopic field of view for extended growth periods. A two-layer PDMS microwell culture device consisting of a parallel-plate flow cell bonded on top of a microwell array was developed for cell capture and clonal culture. Cell deposition statistics were related to microwell geometry (plate separation and well depth) and the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate flow in the microdevices as well as cell–fluid interactions. Analysis of the forces acting upon a cell was used to predict cell docking zones, which were confirmed by experimental observations. Cell–fluid dynamic interactions are important considerations for design of microdevices for long-term, live cell imaging. The analysis of force and torque balance provides a reasonable approximation for cell displacement forces. It is computationally less intensive compared to simulation of cell trajectories, and can be applied to a wide range of microdevice geometries to predict the cell docking behavior. (paper)

  9. Cost analysis of two silicon heterojunction solar cell designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Research and Development of Silicon Heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. This paper investigates the production costs associated with two different SHJ cell designs investigated within the FLASH programme, a

  10. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...

  11. Physical Principles of Development of the State Standard of Biological Cell Polarizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, G. V.; Generalov, K. V.; Generalov, V. M.; Kruchinina, M. V.; Koptev, E. S.; Minin, O. V.; Minin, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    A new state standard of biological cell polarizability based on micron-size latex particles has been developed. As a standard material, it is suggested to use polystyrene. Values of the polarizability calculated for erythrocytes and values of the polarizability of micron-size spherical latex particles measured with measuring-computing complexes agree within the limits of satisfactory relative error. The Standard allows one the unit of polarizability measurements [m3] to be assigned to cells and erythrocytes for the needs of medicine.

  12. Design considerations for a 10-kW integrated hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberecht, M. A.; Miller, T. B.; Rieker, L. L.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    Integration of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem with an alkaline electrolysis subsystem to form a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for low earth orbit (LEO) applications characterized by relatively high overall round trip electrical efficiency, long life, and high reliability is possible with present state of the art technology. A hypothetical 10 kW system computer modeled and studied based on data from ongoing contractual efforts in both the alkaline fuel cell and alkaline water electrolysis areas. The alkaline fuel cell technology is under development utilizing advanced cell components and standard Shuttle Orbiter system hardware. The alkaline electrolysis technology uses a static water vapor feed technique and scaled up cell hardware is developed. The computer aided study of the performance, operating, and design parameters of the hypothetical system is addressed.

  13. Scan cell design for enhanced delay fault testability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brakel, Gerrit; van Brakel, G.; Xing, Yizi; Xing, Y.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    Problems in testing scannable sequential circuits for delay faults are addressed. Modifications to improve circuit controllability and observability for the testing of delay faults are implemented efficiently in a scan cell design. A layout on a gate array is designed and evaluated for this scan

  14. FFTF in-containment cell liner design and installation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umek, A.M.; Swenson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Design features and liner construction techniques are discussed. Cell leak-rate tests and the methods used to locate and repair leaks are described. A brief analysis of the overall experience at FFTF is provided, with recommendations for future plant designs

  15. Safety standards for express roads : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the SAFESTAR project is the formulation of design standards or recommendations exclusively based on safety arguments. Workpackage 3 (WP3) of SAFESTAR, of which this report is the concluding report, should result in design recommendations for single and dual-carriageway express roads

  16. JAERI thermal reactor standard code system for reactor design and analysis SRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro

    1985-01-01

    SRAC, JAERI thermal reactor standard code system for reactor design and analysis, developed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, is for all types of thermal neutron nuclear design and analysis. The code system has undergone extensive verifications to confirm its functions, and has been used in core modification of the research reactor, detailed design of the multi-purpose high temperature gas reactor and analysis of the experiment with a critical assembly. In nuclear calculation with the code system, multi-group lattice calculation is first made with the libraries. Then, with the resultant homogeneous equivalent group constants, reactor core calculation is made. Described are the following: purpose and development of the code system, functions of the SRAC system, bench mark tests and usage state and future development. (Mori, K.)

  17. Materials, Designs and Standards Used in Ski-Boots for Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Moncalero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article reports the recent advances in the study, design and production of ski-boots for alpine skiing. An overview of the different designs and the materials used in ski-boot construction is provided giving particular emphasis to the effect of these parameters on the final performances and on the prevention of injuries. The use of specific materials for ski-boots dedicated to different disciplines (race skiing, mogul skiing, ski-mountaineering etc. has been correlated with the chemical and physical properties of the polymeric materials employed. A review of the scientific literature and the most interesting patents is also presented, correlating the results reported with the performances and industrial production of ski-boots. Suggestions for new studies and the use of advanced materials are also provided. A final section dedicated to the standards involved in ski-boot design completes this review article.

  18. Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, Rochelle P.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Bryan, George H.; Damiani, Rick; Musial, Walt

    2017-06-01

    Offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than category 2. We examine a hurricane's turbulent eyewall using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1. Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall of a category 5 hurricane exceed the current Class I turbine design threshold of 50 m s-1 mean wind and 70 m s-1 gusts. Largest gust factors occur at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts in wind direction suggest that turbines must rotate or yaw faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15-50°) suggest that veer should be considered.

  19. Controlled alpha-sexithiophene nanostructure formation in standard and inverted configuration organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis

    -type domains in the active organic layer. The molecular packing in these is of same importance, as it strongly affects the carrier transport in the cells. In this work, we present the study of alpha-sexithiophene (α 6T) temperature dependent growth for standard, on gold anodes, and inverted, on electron...... accepting C60 layers, solar cell configurations. Furthermore, a comparative study of the correlation between the α-6T morphology and device performance parameters for standard and inverted solar cell configurations is presented. The morphology of the α 6T layer is controlled by means of the substrate...

  20. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    E-cient fuel cell systems have started to appear in many dierent commercial applications and large scale production facilities are already operating to supply fuel cells to support an ever growing market. Fuel cells are typically considered to replace leadacid batteries in applications where...... to conventional PEM fuel cells, that use liquid water as a proton conductor and thus operate at temperatures below 100oC. The HTPEM fuel cell membrane in focus in this work is the BASF Celtec-P polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane that uses phosphoric acid as a proton conductor. The absence of water in the fuel cells...... enables the use of designing cathode air cooled stacks greatly simplifying the fuel cell system and lowering the parasitic losses. Furthermore, the fuel impurity tolerance is signicantly improved because of the higher temperatures, and much higher concentrations of CO can be endured without performance...

  1. The conceptual design of the standard and the reduced fuel assemblies for an advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Yoon, Doo Byung; Dan, Ho Jin; Chae, Hee Tack; Park, Cheol

    2005-01-01

    HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor), is an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor with a thermal power of 30MW. The HANARO has been operating at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1995. Based on the technical experiences in design and operation for the HANARO, the design of an Advanced Research Reactor (ARR) was launched by KAERI in 2002. The final goal of the project is to develop a new and advanced research reactor model which is superior in safety and economical aspects. This paper summarizes the design improvements of the conceptually designed standard fuel assembly based on the analysis results for the nuclear physics. It includes also the design of the reduced fuel assembly in conjunction with the flow tube as the fuel channel and the guide of the absorber rod. In the near future, the feasibility of the conceptually designed fuel assemblies of the ARR will be verified by investigating the dynamic and the thermal behaviors of the fuel assembly submerged in coolant

  2. A studentized permutation test for three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Tobias; Konietschke, Frank; Munk, Axel; Friede, Tim

    2017-03-15

    The 'gold standard' design for three-arm trials refers to trials with an active control and a placebo control in addition to the experimental treatment group. This trial design is recommended when being ethically justifiable and it allows the simultaneous comparison of experimental treatment, active control, and placebo. Parametric testing methods have been studied plentifully over the past years. However, these methods often tend to be liberal or conservative when distributional assumptions are not met particularly with small sample sizes. In this article, we introduce a studentized permutation test for testing non-inferiority and superiority of the experimental treatment compared with the active control in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design. The performance of the studentized permutation test for finite sample sizes is assessed in a Monte Carlo simulation study under various parameter constellations. Emphasis is put on whether the studentized permutation test meets the target significance level. For comparison purposes, commonly used Wald-type tests, which do not make any distributional assumptions, are included in the simulation study. The simulation study shows that the presented studentized permutation test for assessing non-inferiority in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design outperforms its competitors, for instance the test based on a quasi-Poisson model, for count data. The methods discussed in this paper are implemented in the R package ThreeArmedTrials which is available on the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  4. Fuel cells niche market applications and design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Mainstream fuel cell markets such as stationary power and transport propulsion have already received considerable attention. However, the niche areas considered in this report also offer considerable markets that are considered potentially ready for exploitation. This report examines those markets and considers the broad issues for exploitation. This programme of work has been funded under the DTI's Advanced Fuel Cell Programme. The overall aim of this project was to identify and evaluate niche market applications that have the potential to provide early commercially competitive market opportunities for fuel cell systems. Battery replacement, portable, mobile auxiliary power and stationary applications for non-standard generation are covered. (author)

  5. Structural design considerations for micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikar, V. T.; Turner, Kevin T.; Andrew Ie, Tze Yung; Spearing, S. Mark

    Micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells (μSOFCs) are among a class of devices being investigated for portable power generation. Optimization of the performance and reliability of such devices requires robust, scale-dependent, design methodologies. In this first analysis, we consider the structural design of planar, electrolyte-supported, μSOFCs from the viewpoints of electrochemical performance, mechanical stability and reliability, and thermal behavior. The effect of electrolyte thickness on fuel cell performance is evaluated using a simple analytical model. Design diagrams that account explicitly for thermal and intrinsic residual stresses are presented to identify geometries that are resistant to fracture and buckling. Analysis of energy loss due to in-plane heat conduction highlights the importance of efficient thermal isolation in microscale fuel cell design.

  6. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  7. 41 CFR 102-76.25 - What standards must Federal agencies meet in providing architectural and interior design services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agencies meet in providing architectural and interior design services? 102-76.25 Section 102-76.25...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction § 102-76.25 What standards must Federal agencies meet in providing architectural and interior design services...

  8. Research on a methodology for standardization of engineering data in nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K. D.; Moon, C. K.; Baik, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The standardization of data and the integration of system are emerging as important issues since each company should handle various kinds of information which is originated from the distributed resources due to rapid development of information technology. Especially for the case of nuclear power plant, the integration of data is very essential since all the data generated during plant lifetime of 40 to 60 years should be maintained and various entities participated in the phase of design, construction and operation of the plant. It is desirable to adopt SGML as a standard in a long-term base for the standardization of NPP engineering data, however there are some difficulties to apply it in current stage. So it is a viable approach to utilize XML as an interim base. In the case of drawings, it is desirable to apply STEP in a long-term base and to apply CAD system in a near term, which can support IGES. Also IGES can be applied in order to store and exchange the drawings. Furthermore, it can be considered to use VRML as a standard for the three dimensional drawings due to the rapid expansion of internet in recent years

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant...

  10. Transvers Impedance Measurements of the Modified DARHT-2 Accelerator Cell Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, Dick; Waldron, Will

    2005-01-01

    The DARHT-2 accelerator cells have been redesigned to make their high voltage performance more robust. At the outset of the DARHT-2 development program about 8 years ago, an extensive campaign was mounted to minimize the transverse impedance of the original cell design. Since the initial spec on the machine was a beam current of 4 kA, the control of beam-breakup (BBU) amplification with a 2 microsecond pulse length was considered to be one the most critical issues in the design. Even after advances in detector technology allowed the beam current requirement to be lowered to 2 kA, the goal for the standard cell impedance was kept at ∼300 ohms/meter to allow for the possibility of future beam current upgrades to 4 kA without any modifications in the cells. The results of this campaign to minimize the transverse impedance are described in detail in Reference 1. After several iterations in the design of ferrite dampers and the anode finger stock shape, the measured (peak) impedance of the original standard cell was determined to be about 280 ohms/meter. (As a reference point, the measured impedance of the DARHT-1 cell is about 880 ohms/meter). This impedance provided such a wide safety margin against BBU amplification at 2 kA that it was felt that the cell redesign could focus on voltage holding without any detailed considerations of impacts on the transverse impedance. Now that a baseline design for the DARHT-2 cell has been established and tested, however, it was felt that a measurement of its impedance would be prudent. The results of these impedance measurements are presented in this note. The objective was mainly to do a ''quick check'' to ensure that there were no surprises, and to provide an estimate of the BBU frequencies and growth rates to the experimental test program

  11. Developing standardized connection analysis techniques for slim hole core rod designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, G.; Bailey, E.I.

    1994-01-01

    Slim hole core rod design remains essentially in the proprietary domain. API standardization provides the ability to perform engineering analyses and dimensional inspections through the use of documents, ie: Specifications, Bulletins, and Recommended Practices. In order to provide similar engineering capability for non-API slim hole connections, this paper develops the initial phase of what may evolve into an engineering tool to provide at least an indication of relative serviceability between two connection styles for a given application. The starting point for this process will look at bending strength ratios and connection strength calculations. Since empirical data are yet needed to verify the approaches proposed in this paper, it is recognized that the alternatives presented here are only a first step to developing useful rules of thumb which may lead to later standardization

  12. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  13. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  14. Design of Standards and Labeling programs in Chile: Techno-Economic Analysis for Refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division.; McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division.; Pavon, Mariana [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division.; Lutz, Wolfgang F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division.

    2013-05-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a global leader in the study of energy efficiency and its effective implementation through government policy. The Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department of LBNL’s Environmental Energy Technologies Division provides technical assistance to help federal, stat e and local government agencies in the United States, and throughout the world, develop long-term strategies, policy, and programs to encourage energy efficiency in all sectors and industries. In the past, LBNL has assisted staff of various countries government agencies and their con tractors in providing methodologies to analyze cost-effectiveness of regulations and asses s overall national impacts of efficiency programs. The paper presents the work done in collaboration with the Ministry of Energy (MoE) in Chile and the Collaborative Labeling Appliance Standards Programs (CLASP) on designing a Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) and ext ending the current labeling program for refrigerators.

  15. Neurorestorative clinical application standards for the culture and quality control of olfactory ensheathing cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Xiao,1,2 Lin Chen,3 Gengsheng Mao,1 Wenyong Gao,1,2 Ming Lu,4 Xijing He,5 Hongyun Huang1,2 On behalf of the Neurorestoratology Professional Committee of Chinese Medical Doctors Association (Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology 1Institute of Neurorestoratology, The General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Cell Therapy Center, Beijing Hongtianji Neuroscience Academy, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Neurosurgery, 163 Hospital of PLA (Second Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Orthopedics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xian, Shanxi Provine, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs are a novel type of glial cell that can perform and promote many neurorestorative processes in vivo after transplant. To date, dozens of preclinical and clinical studies have confirmed that OECs have unique restoring effects in animal models and human subjects with neurological degeneration or damage, such as spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, and motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical applications utilizing this type of cell, it is important to standardize cell-culture and quality-control processes. Based on a comprehensive review of published clinical studies, as well as existing methods of OEC culture and quality control currently utilized by hospitals and biomedical enterprises, the Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology has developed a set of standards for the culture and quality control of olfactory ensheathing cells for use in clinical applications. These guidelines include standardized training and management procedures for

  16. Clinical Trial Design for HIV Prevention Research: Determining Standards of Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Liza; Zwerski, Sheryl

    2015-06-01

    This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not yet widely available in the countries where they most urgently needed. The ethical tensions in this field of clinical research are well known and have been the subject of extensive debate. There is no single clinical trial design that can optimize all the ethically important goals and commitments involved in research. Several recent articles have described the current ethical difficulties in designing HIV prevention trials, especially in resource limited settings; however, there is no consensus on how to handle clinical trial design decisions, and existing international ethical guidelines offer conflicting advice. This article acknowledges these deep ethical dilemmas and moves beyond a simple descriptive approach to advance an organized method for considering what clinical trial designs will be ethically acceptable for HIV prevention trials, balancing the relevant criteria and providing justification for specific design decisions. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Design, Modeling, Fabrication & Characterization of Industrial Si Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ahrar Ahmed

    Photovoltaic is a viable solution towards meeting the energy demand in an ecofriendly environment. To ensure the mass access in photovoltaic electricity, cost effective approach needs to be adapted. This thesis aims towards substrate independent fabrication process in order to achieve high efficiency cost effective industrial Silicon (Si) solar cells. Most cost-effective structures, such as, Al-BSF (Aluminum Back Surface Field), FSF (Front Surface Field) and bifacial cells are investigated in detail to exploit the efficiency potentials. First off, we introduced two-dimensional simulation model to design and modeling of most commonly used Si solar cells in today's PV arena. Best modelled results of high efficiency Al-BSF, FSF and bifacial cells are 20.50%, 22% and 21.68% respectively. Special attentions are given on the metallization design on all the structures in order to reduce the Ag cost. Furthermore, detail design and modeling were performed on FSF and bifacial cells. The FSF cells has potentials to gain 0.42%abs efficiency by combining the emitter design and front surface passivation. The prospects of bifacial cells can be revealed with the optimization of gridline widths and gridline numbers. Since, bifacial cells have metallization on both sides, a double fold cost saving is possible via innovative metallization design. Following modeling an effort is undertaken to reach the modelled result in fabrication the process. We proposed substrate independent fabrication process aiming towards establishing simultaneous processing sequences for both monofacial and bifacial cells. Subsequently, for the contact formation cost effective screen-printed technology is utilized throughout this thesis. The best Al-BSF cell attained efficiency ˜19.40%. Detail characterization was carried out to find a roadmap of achieving >20.50% efficiency Al-BSF cell. Since, n-type cell is free from Light Induced degradation (LID), recently there is a growing interest on FSF cell. Our

  18. Mammalian designer cells: Engineering principles and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology is a widely interdisciplinary field focusing on the use of living cells or organisms to solve established problems in medicine, food production and agriculture. Synthetic biology, the science of engineering complex biological systems that do not exist in nature, continues to provide the biotechnology industry with tools, technologies and intellectual property leading to improved cellular performance. One key aspect of synthetic biology is the engineering of deliberately reprogrammed designer cells whose behavior can be controlled over time and space. This review discusses the most commonly used techniques to engineer mammalian designer cells; while control elements acting on the transcriptional and translational levels of target gene expression determine the kinetic and dynamic profiles, coupling them to a variety of extracellular stimuli permits their remote control with user-defined trigger signals. Designer mammalian cells with novel or improved biological functions not only directly improve the production efficiency during biopharmaceutical manufacturing but also open the door for cell-based treatment strategies in molecular and translational medicine. In the future, the rational combination of multiple sets of designer cells could permit the construction and regulation of higher-order systems with increased complexity, thereby enabling the molecular reprogramming of tissues, organisms or even populations with highest precision. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Measurement of cell respiration and oxygenation in standard multichannel biochips using phosphorescent O2-sensitive probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashina, Alina V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Dmitriev, Ruslan I

    2013-09-07

    Measurement of cell oxygenation and oxygen consumption is useful for studies of cell bioenergetics, metabolism, mitochondrial function, drug toxicity and common pathophysiological conditions. Here we present a new platform for such applications which uses commercial multichannel biochips (μ-slides, Ibidi) and phosphorescent O2 sensitive probes. This platform was evaluated with both extracellular and intracellular O2 probes, several different cell types and treatments including mitochondrial uncoupling and inhibition, depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) and inhibition of V-ATPase and histone deacetylases. The results show that compared to the standard microwell plates currently used, the μ-slide platform provides facile O2 measurements with both suspension and adherent cells, higher sensitivity and reproducibility, and faster measurement time. It also allows re-perfusion and multiple treatments of cells and multi-parametric analyses in conjunction with other probes. Optical measurements are conducted on standard fluorescence readers and microscopes.

  20. Automated platform for designing multiple robot work cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, N. S.; Rahman, M. A. A.; Rahman, A. A. Abdul; Kamsani, S. H.; Bali Mohamad, B. M.; Mohamad, E.; Zaini, Z. A.; Rahman, M. F. Ab; Mohamad Hatta, M. N. H.

    2017-06-01

    Designing the multiple robot work cells is very knowledge-intensive, intricate, and time-consuming process. This paper elaborates the development process of a computer-aided design program for generating the multiple robot work cells which offer a user-friendly interface. The primary purpose of this work is to provide a fast and easy platform for less cost and human involvement with minimum trial and errors adjustments. The automated platform is constructed based on the variant-shaped configuration concept with its mathematical model. A robot work cell layout, system components, and construction procedure of the automated platform are discussed in this paper where integration of these items will be able to automatically provide the optimum robot work cell design according to the information set by the user. This system is implemented on top of CATIA V5 software and utilises its Part Design, Assembly Design, and Macro tool. The current outcomes of this work provide a basis for future investigation in developing a flexible configuration system for the multiple robot work cells.

  1. Design of a novel magnetic platform for cell manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Gioia; Iacovacci, Veronica; Gouveia, Pedro J.; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2018-02-01

    Cell manipulation tasks, especially in lab-on-a-chip applications for personalized medicine, could greatly benefit from mobile untethered microdevices able to wirelessly navigate in fluidic environments by means of magnetic fields. In this paper, the design, fabrication and testing of a magnetic platform enabling the controlled locomotion and immersion of microrobots placed at the air/liquid interface is proposed and exploited for cell manipulation. The proposed microrobot consists of a polymeric magnetic thin film that acts as cell transporter and a specific coating strategy, devised to enhance a safe cancer cell adhesion to the magnetic film. Experimental results demonstrated an overall cell viability and a fine control of magnetic microrobot locomotion. The proposed technologies are promising in view of future cell manipulation tasks for personalized medicine applications.

  2. Designing a water calorimeter as primary standard of gamma rays at IPEN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra, Felipe B. de; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to describe the present stage and the next steps of the development of a water calorimeter of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN. This calorimeter will be used as a primary standard of gamma ray sources at the laboratory. Between the design and the construction step it will be shown how this model was chosen and how it is modeled virtually with computer simulation. The two main codes used, MCNP and Fluent, to characterize the prototype before its construction are presented. (author)

  3. A Comparison of Effective Tension Calculation for Design Belt Conveyor between CEMA and DIN Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satria Iman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era, many industries are demanding material transfer equipment that works maximally and cheaply. Belt Conveyor is one of the most efficient material transfer equipment compared to heavy equipment or other transportation equipment, because it can transport the material in large capacity. When designing conveyor belts, many industries want large transport capacity at low cost. One of the cost savings can be done with low motor power consumption. Many standards describe the effective tension calculation on the conveyor belt in detail with the parameters, since the effective tension calculation results are essential for determining motor power. This paper aims to analyze the effective tension on conveyor belts using CEMA 5th, CEMA 6th and DIN 22101 standards with case studies of 1000 TPH carrying capacity and 3 m/s conveyor speed. The difference between CEMA and DIN when determining the effective tension is on the use of coefficient of friction, because DIN uses a global coefficient of friction while CEMA uses different friction coefficients on idler, belt and material. This difference in coefficient of friction results in different ways of calculating the resistance being the accumulation of the effective tension. The result is an effective tension value using DIN 22101 standard of 22,148.16 N with motor power consumption of 66.5 kW, while effective tension value using CEMA 5th standard is 32.201.66 N with motor power consumption 96.47 kW, and effective tension value using CEMA 6th standard is 29,686.48 N with 89.06 kW motor power consumption.

  4. Taking the stairs instead: The impact of workplace design standards on health promotion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Comprehensive health promotion in Western Australia has been conducted from the point of views of policy development, promotion, education and service delivery. Much of this recent work has been focused on supporting workplaces – but there has yet to be any real focus on the design of the actual physical workplace environment from a health promotion perspective. Aims This paper is aimed at highlighting the gap in health promotion knowledge by addressing how the disciplines of architecture and health promotion can work together to challenge the regulations that dictate design practice and ultimately bridge that gap for long-term change. The overarching aim is to undertake further evidenced-based research that will inform best practice in the planning and design of workplaces to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase opportunities for physical activity. Method Within this wide objective this paper focuses in particular on the idea of stairs-versus-lift movement strategies within office buildings. By examining building design guidelines from a health promotion perspective we expose a central dichotomy, where health promotion posters say “Take the stairs instead” whereas the language of building design suggests that the lift is best. Results From a design point of view, the National Codes of Construction (NCC, formally known as the Building Codes of Australia (BCA, the essential technical regulation for all building design and construction, primarily addresses the concepts of ‘egress’ and ‘travel distance’ for escape in the event of fire, and building access in terms of universal access. Additionally, The Property Council of Australia’s Guide to Office Building Quality prioritises lift performance criteria along with the quality and experience of lift use as a major grading factor. There is no provision in either set of standards for staircase quality and experience. Conclusion The stairs, despite being promoted

  5. Cernavoda nuclear power plant: Modifications in the fire protection measures of the CANDU 6 standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, V.

    1998-01-01

    Having as purpose the improvement of fire safety at the Cernavoda NPP - both in the prevention and the protection aspects in the case of fire - we implemented some modifications in the CANDU 6 standard design. These improvements are inspired, mainly, from two sources: the world-wide achievements in the field of fire protection techniques, introduced in nuclear power plants since the middle of 70's, when the CANDU 6 design was completed; the national practice and experience in fire protection, usually applied in industrial objectives (conventional power plants, in particular). The absence of any incident may be considered as a proof of the efficiency of the implemented fire preventing and protection measures. (author)

  6. Analysis and design of a standardized control module for switching regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.; Kolecki, J. C.

    1982-07-01

    Three basic switching regulators: buck, boost, and buck/boost, employing a multiloop standardized control module (SCM) were characterized by a common small signal block diagram. Employing the unified model, regulator performances such as stability, audiosusceptibility, output impedance, and step load transient are analyzed and key performance indexes are expressed in simple analytical forms. More importantly, the performance characteristics of all three regulators are shown to enjoy common properties due to the unique SCM control scheme which nullifies the positive zero and provides adaptive compensation to the moving poles of the boost and buck/boost converters. This allows a simple unified design procedure to be devised for selecting the key SCM control parameters for an arbitrarily given power stage configuration and parameter values, such that all regulator performance specifications can be met and optimized concurrently in a single design attempt.

  7. Efficient Computational Design of a Scaffold for Cartilage Cell Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajsoleiman, Tannaz; Jafar Abdekhodaie, Mohammad; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2018-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity of mammalian cell cultures, understanding the influence of operating conditions during a tissue generation procedure is crucial. In this regard, a detailed study of scaffold based cell culture under a perfusion flow is presented with the aid of mathematical modelling...... and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). With respect to the complexity of the case study, this work focuses solely on the effect of nutrient and metabolite concentrations, and the possible influence of fluid-induced shear stress on a targeted cell (cartilage) culture. The simulation set up gives the possibility...... of predicting the cell culture behavior under various operating conditions and scaffold designs. Thereby, the exploitation of the predictive simulation into a newly developed stochastic routine provides the opportunity of exploring improved scaffold geometry designs. This approach was applied on a common type...

  8. The Design of a Five-Cell Superconducting RF Module with a PBG Coupler Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Simakov, Evgenya I.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the problem of incorporating a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cell into a superconducting accelerating module of 5 cells designed for the operational frequency of 2.1 GHz. The reason for using a PBG cell is to provide a good accelerating mode confinement and good Higher Order Mode (HOM) suppression. PBG cell can potentially be used for placing HOM and fundamental mode couplers. However, because of the naturally higher ratio of the peak magnetic field to the accelerating field in the PBG cell, it should be designed to operate at a lower accelerating gradient than the other cells of the module. This ensures that the probability of quench in the PBG cell would be no higher than in other elliptical cells of the structure.

  9. Maintenance and neuronal cell differentiation of neural stem cells C17.2 correlated to medium availability sets design criteria in microfluidic systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural stem cells (NSCs play an important role in developing potential cell-based therapeutics for neurodegenerative disease. Microfluidics has proven a powerful tool in mechanistic studies of NSC differentiation. However, NSCs are prone to differentiate when the nutrients are limited, which occurs unfavorable by fast medium consumption in miniaturized culture environment. For mechanistic studies of NSCs in microfluidics, it is vital that neuronal cell differentiation is triggered by controlled factors only. Thus, we studied the correlation between available cell medium and spontaneous neuronal cell differentiation of C17.2 NSCs in standard culture medium, and proposed the necessary microfluidic design criteria to prevent undesirable cell phenotype changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of microchannels with specific geometric parameters were designed to provide different amount of medium to the cells over time. A medium factor (MF, defined as the volume of stem cell culture medium divided by total number of cells at seeding and number of hours between medium replacement successfully correlated the amount of medium available to each cell averaged over time to neuronal cell differentiation. MF smaller than 8.3×10(4 µm3/cell⋅hour produced significant neuronal cell differentiation marked by cell morphological change and significantly more cells with positive β-tubulin-III and MAP2 staining than the control. When MF was equal or greater than 8.3×10(4 µm3/cell⋅hour, minimal spontaneous neuronal cell differentiation happened relative to the control. MF had minimal relation with the average neurite length. SIGNIFICANCE: MFs can be controlled easily to maintain the stem cell status of C17.2 NSCs or to induce spontaneous neuronal cell differentiation in standard stem cell culture medium. This finding is useful in designing microfluidic culture platforms for controllable NSC maintenance and differentiation. This study also

  10. Cell design for the DARHT linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.; Allison, P.; Earley, L.; Liska, D.; Mockler, C.; Ruhe, J.; Tucker, H.; Walling, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility will employ two linear induction accelerators to produce intense, bremsstrahlung x- ray pulses for flash radiography. The accelerator cell design for a 3- kA, 16--20 MeV, 60-ns flattop, high-brightness electron beam is presented. The cell is optimized for high-voltage stand-off while also minimizing the its transverse impedance. Measurements of high- voltage and rf characteristics are summarized. 7 refs., 5 figs

  11. The family of standard hydrogen monitoring system computer software design description: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    In March 1990, 23 waste tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation were identified as having the potential for the buildup of gas to a flammable or explosive level. As a result of the potential for hydrogen gas buildup, a project was initiated to design a standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) for use at any waste tank to analyze gas samples for hydrogen content. Since it was originally deployed three years ago, two variations of the original system have been developed: the SHMS-B and SHMS-C. All three are currently in operation at the tank farms and will be discussed in this document. To avoid confusion in this document, when a feature is common to all three of the SHMS variants, it will be referred to as ''The family of SHMS.'' When it is specific to only one or two, they will be identified. The purpose of this computer software design document is to provide the following: the computer software requirements specification that documents the essential requirements of the computer software and its external interfaces; the computer software design description; the computer software user documentation for using and maintaining the computer software and any dedicated hardware; and the requirements for computer software design verification and validation

  12. Design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent self-management system (PICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bargen, Tobias; Gietzelt, Matthias; Britten, Matthias; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Kohlmann, Martin; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change and a diminishing care workforce there is a growing need for personalized decision support. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent care systems (PICS). PICS makes consistent use of internationally accepted standards such as the Health Level 7 (HL7) Arden syntax for the representation of the decision logic, HL7 Clinical Document Architecture for information representation and is based on a open-source service-oriented architecture framework and a business process management system. Its functionality is exemplified for the application scenario of a patient suffering from congestive heart failure. Several vital signs sensors provide data for the decision support system, and a number of flexible communication channels are available for interaction with patient or caregiver. PICS is a standards-based, open and flexible system enabling personalized decision support. Further development will include the implementation of components on small computers and sensor nodes.

  13. Some considerations in standard gas leak designs and their applications to computer control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, C.R.; Wedel, T.A.

    The primary difficulty with flow rate measurements below 10 -10 standard cubic centimeters per second (std. cc/sec) is that there are no commercially available standards. The requirements, however, dictate that the problem of design and construction of a qualifiable standard in the ultra-sensitive range had to be solved. There are a number of leak types which were considered: capillary leaks, orifice leaks, and the pore type leaks, among others. The capillary leak was not used because of the cracking or sorting effects that are common to this type leak. For example, a gas blend flowing through a capillary leak will result in the lighter gases passing through the leak first. The difficulty of fabricating the proper hole size in relation to the flow rate requirements ruled out the orifice type leak. The selected choice was the pore type leak which utilizes the basic concept of a stainless steel knife edge driven into a fixed section composed of stainless steel with a gold overlay and maintained under force

  14. Design considerations for teleoperation systems operating in gas-tight argon cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nuclear industry, mechanical engineers spend a significant portion of their time designing equipment such as manipulators, bogies, mechanical grippers, and so on. Some customized designs can be considered as standard mechanical equipment in this area, although it is not unusual to find that an existing design cannot simply be copied from one project to another. Varied performance requirements can dictate that redesign, often quite extensive redesign, is required. However, if something similar has been done before, engineers could use that as a starting point for the new project. In this regard, this study presents several guidelines inspired by previous design knowledge for similar development cases. Moreover, this study presents more detailed suggestions such as design guidelines for an argon-based hot cell atmosphere and design experience for a large-scale practical hot cell facility. Design considerations and case studies dealt with in this study are dedicated to teleoperation manipulators that are used at a large-scale argon cell facility for pyroprocess integrated inactive demonstration (PRIDE, at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In particular, for case studies to support the suggested recommendations, a fabricated telemanipulator system for PRIDE is introduced, and several kinds of experimental results associated with it are presented.

  15. Emerging Semitransparent Solar Cells: Materials and Device Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; Yan, Feng

    2017-09-01

    Semitransparent solar cells can provide not only efficient power-generation but also appealing images and show promising applications in building integrated photovoltaics, wearable electronics, photovoltaic vehicles and so forth in the future. Such devices have been successfully realized by incorporating transparent electrodes in new generation low-cost solar cells, including organic solar cells (OSCs), dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this review, the advances in the preparation of semitransparent OSCs, DSCs, and PSCs are summarized, focusing on the top transparent electrode materials and device designs, which are all crucial to the performance of these devices. Techniques for optimizing the efficiency, color and transparency of the devices are addressed in detail. Finally, a summary of the research field and an outlook into the future development in this area are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Thermal Design for Extra-Terrestrial Regenerative Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, R.; Guzik, M.; Jakupca, I.; Bennett, W.; Smith, P.; Fincannon, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 C versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  17. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  18. MIMO wireless networks channels, techniques and standards for multi-antenna, multi-user and multi-cell systems

    CERN Document Server

    Clerckx, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This book is unique in presenting channels, techniques and standards for the next generation of MIMO wireless networks. Through a unified framework, it emphasizes how propagation mechanisms impact the system performance under realistic power constraints. Combining a solid mathematical analysis with a physical and intuitive approach to space-time signal processing, the book progressively derives innovative designs for space-time coding and precoding as well as multi-user and multi-cell techniques, taking into consideration that MIMO channels are often far from ideal. Reflecting developments

  19. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  20. Design Principles for Cell Phone Learning in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong

    2010-01-01

    Cell phone learning (C-learning), as an instructional approach, has been gaining more and more attention in the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in the last 10 years. While studies have proved C-learning an effective instructional approach in research settings, a review of literature indicates the lack of design principles to…

  1. Fuel Cell Car Design Project for Freshman Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Steve R.; Davis, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Samuel Ginn College of Engineering at Auburn University, we have integrated a semester long design project based on a toy fuel cell car into our freshman "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Class." The project provides the students a basic foundation in chemical reactions, energy, and dimensional analysis that facilitates…

  2. Design of metallic bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This project focused on the design and production of metallic bipolar plates for use in PEM fuel cells. Different metals were explored : and stainless steel was found out to be best suited to our purpose. Following the selection of metal, it was calc...

  3. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  4. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless

  5. SMI Compatible Simulation Scheduler Design for Reuse of Model Complying with SMP Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hea Koo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Software reusability is one of key factors which impacts cost and schedule on a software development project. It is very crucial also in satellite simulator development since there are many commercial simulator models related to satellite and dynamics. If these models can be used in another simulator platform, great deal of confidence and cost/schedule reduction would be achieved. Simulation model portability (SMP is maintained by European Space Agency and many models compatible with SMP/simulation model interface (SMI are available. Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI is developing hardware abstraction layer (HAL supported satellite simulator to verify on-board software of satellite. From above reasons, KARI wants to port these SMI compatible models to the HAL supported satellite simulator. To port these SMI compatible models to the HAL supported satellite simulator, simulation scheduler is preliminary designed according to the SMI standard.

  6. Evaluation of a standard provision versus an autonomy promotive exercise referral programme: rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Kate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute of Clinical Excellence in the UK has recommended that the effectiveness of ongoing exercise referral schemes to promote physical activity should be examined in research trials. Recent empirical evidence in health care and physical activity promotion contexts provides a foundation for testing the utility of a Self Determination Theory (SDT-based exercise referral consultation. Methods/Design Design: An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial comparing standard provision exercise on prescription with a Self Determination Theory-based (SDT exercise on prescription intervention. Participants: 347 people referred to the Birmingham Exercise on Prescription scheme between November 2007 and July 2008. The 13 exercise on prescription sites in Birmingham were randomised to current practice (n = 7 or to the SDT-based intervention (n = 6. Outcomes measured at 3 and 6-months: Minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity per week assessed using the 7-day Physical Activity Recall; physical health: blood pressure and weight; health status measured using the Dartmouth CO-OP charts; anxiety and depression measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and vitality measured by the subjective vitality score; motivation and processes of change: perceptions of autonomy support from the advisor, satisfaction of the needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness via physical activity, and motivational regulations for exercise. Discussion This trial will determine whether an exercise referral programme based on Self Determination Theory increases physical activity and other health outcomes compared to a standard programme and will test the underlying SDT-based process model (perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, motivation regulations, outcomes via structural equation modelling. Trial registration The trial is registered as Current Controlled trials ISRCTN07682833.

  7. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Water Quality Standards - Table G Lake Classifications and Use Designations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains Missouri Water Quality Standards (WQS) lake classifications and use designations described in the Missouri Code of State Regulations (CSR), 10...

  8. Extent and Impacts of the Virginia Department of Transportation’s Exception Process for Access Management Design Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) Road Design Manual requires that new commercial entrances meet certain minimum spacing standards depending on a facilitys speed limit and functional classification. Landowners, however, may request ...

  9. Application of objective provision tree to development of standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Moo-Hoon; Suh, Namduk; Choi, Yongwon; Shin, Andong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A systematic methodology was developed for the standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design. The process is first to develop an objective provision tree of sodium-cooled fast reactor for the reactivity control safety function. The provision tree is generally developed by designer to confirm whether the design satisfies the defense-in-depth concept. Then applicability of the current standard review plan of nuclear design for light water reactor to sodium-cooled fast reactor was evaluated and complemented by the developed objective provision tree.

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design and performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  11. Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2010-08-15

    The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified.

  12. DESIGNING UNIVERSITY TEXTBOOK “FUNDAMENTALS OF BUSINESS INFORMATICS” IN ACCORDANCE WITHREQUIREMENTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ю В Фролов; К Р Овчинникова

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses step by step the process of designing an interdisciplinary tutorial on the basics of business informatics in the context of the requirements Federal state educational and professional standards. Taken into account comparison between the hierarchy of educational results, which are reflected in the structural elements of the textbook, and levels of skill requirements in the professional standard. Based on Layer-technology didactic designing described the sequence of action...

  13. Designing electronic equipment on the basis of standard mechanical structures using internet re­sour­ces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlangach A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a method to design electronic equipment based on functional-node design method that involves the use of 2D- and 3D- models mechanical structures for electronic equipment as a way to reduce development time and errors when creating design documentation for electronic equipment. At present, most areas of science and technology are computerized, more problems in designing electronic equipment are dealt with using computer-aided design (CAD and Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM to reduce the time required for development and manufacturing of electronic equipment. Development of design documentation also requires a more effective approach, because the less the time for development of the design documentation is, the faster the developed device will go into production. The aim of the study is to develop a method of designing electronic equipment using 2D and 3D models of standard mechanical structures for electronic equipment using Internet resources. Based on the presented methods is an example of designing a device from standard bearing structures. Compared with traditional technology, the method of designing electronic equipment using standard parts has the following advantages: - reduces time and improves quality of development through the use of existing design documentation; - accelerates the implementation and introducing into production processes; - increases unification of design solutions.

  14. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation. The first half of the dissertation is devoted to the physics of high-efficiency solar cells. As solar cells approach fundamental efficiency limits, their internal physics transforms. Photonic considerations, instead of electronic ones, are the key to reaching the highest voltages and efficiencies. Proper photon management led to Alta Device's recent dramatic increase of the solar cell efficiency record to 28.3%. Moreover, approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit for any solar cell technology will require light extraction to become a part of all future designs. The second half of the dissertation introduces inverse design as a new computational paradigm in photonics. An assortment of techniques (FDTD, FEM, etc.) have enabled quick and accurate simulation of the "forward problem" of finding fields for a given geometry. However, scientists and engineers are typically more interested in the inverse problem: for a desired functionality, what geometry is needed? Answering this question breaks from the emphasis on the forward problem and forges a new path in computational photonics. The framework of shape calculus enables one to quickly find superior, non-intuitive designs. Novel designs for optical cloaking and sub-wavelength solar cell applications are presented.

  15. Photonic Nanostructures Design and Optimization for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a semiconducting photonic nanostructure capable of wide range absorption and tunable optical resonance has been designed with a proposed theoretical optimization model. The design consists of ZnO/CdS core-shell nanowire arrays as well as multilayer thin films that act to absorb incident electromagnetic (EM waves over a broad frequency range. Theoretical, as well as numerical, studies of the nanostructure inside a solar cell plate have been conducted in order to validate the proposed microstructural design. Excellent energy absorption rates of EM waves have been achieved in the high frequency range by using the optical resonance of the nanowire array. By combining multilayer thin film with the core-shell nanowire in the unit cell of a photonic solar cell, a broadband high absorption has been achieved. Moreover, the geometry of the proposed photonic nanostructure is obtained through the implementation of a genetic algorithm. This avoids local minima and an optimized absorption rate of ~90% over the frequency range of 300 to 750 THz has been obtained in the solar cell.

  16. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  17. Proton exchange fuel cell : the design, construction and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzen, M.R.; Simoes, G.C.; Da Silva, L. [Univ. do Vale do Itajai, Sao Jose, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Energia; Fiori, M.A.; Paula, M.M.S. [Univ. do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Santa Catarina (Brazil). Lab. de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais; Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) convert the chemical energy stored in the fuel directly into electrical energy without intermediate steps. The PEMFC operates at a relatively low operating temperature making it a good choice for mobile applications, but a high power density is needed in order to decrease the total weight of the vehicles. This paper presented a simple methodology to construct a PEMFC-type fuel cell, with particular reference to the gaseous diffuser, cell structure, the fixing plate, mounting bracket, gas distribution plates, and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The geometric design and meshing of the PEMFC were also described. The electrode was made using graphite with flow-field geometry. The PEMFC was tested for 100 hour of continuous work, during which time the current and voltage produced were monitored in order to evaluate the performance of the PEMFC. The materials used in the preparation of the fuel cell proved to be suitable. There was no loss of efficiency during the tests. The most relevant aspects affecting the PEMFC design were examined in an effort to optimize the performance of the cell. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Solar-cell interconnect design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Useful solar cell interconnect reliability design and life prediction algorithms are presented, together with experimental data indicating that the classical strain cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material does not account for the statistical scatter that is required in reliability predictions. This shortcoming is presently addressed by fitting a functional form to experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data, which thereby yields statistical fatigue curves enabling not only the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, but also the quantitative interpretation of data from accelerated thermal cycling tests. Optimal interconnect cost reliability design algorithms are also derived which may allow the minimization of energy cost over the design life of the array field.

  19. Standardized 3D Bioprinting of Soft Tissue Models with Human Primary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimann, Markus; Bono, Epifania; Annaheim, Helene; Bleisch, Matthias; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Cells grown in 3D are more physiologically relevant than cells cultured in 2D. To use 3D models in substance testing and regenerative medicine, reproducibility and standardization are important. Bioprinting offers not only automated standardizable processes but also the production of complex tissue-like structures in an additive manner. We developed an all-in-one bioprinting solution to produce soft tissue models. The holistic approach included (1) a bioprinter in a sterile environment, (2) a light-induced bioink polymerization unit, (3) a user-friendly software, (4) the capability to print in standard labware for high-throughput screening, (5) cell-compatible inkjet-based printheads, (6) a cell-compatible ready-to-use BioInk, and (7) standard operating procedures. In a proof-of-concept study, skin as a reference soft tissue model was printed. To produce dermal equivalents, primary human dermal fibroblasts were printed in alternating layers with BioInk and cultured for up to 7 weeks. During long-term cultures, the models were remodeled and fully populated with viable and spreaded fibroblasts. Primary human dermal keratinocytes were seeded on top of dermal equivalents, and epidermis-like structures were formed as verified with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining. However, a fully stratified epidermis was not achieved. Nevertheless, this is one of the first reports of an integrative bioprinting strategy for industrial routine application. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  20. Plasmonic Solar Cells: From Rational Design to Mechanism Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Seokhyoung; Quan, Li Na; Chung, Kyungwha; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-28

    Plasmonic effects have been proposed as a solution to overcome the limited light absorption in thin-film photovoltaic devices, and various types of plasmonic solar cells have been developed. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art progress on the design and fabrication of plasmonic solar cells and their enhancement mechanism. The working principle is first addressed in terms of the combined effects of plasmon decay, scattering, near-field enhancement, and plasmonic energy transfer, including direct hot electron transfer and resonant energy transfer. Then, we summarize recent developments for various types of plasmonic solar cells based on silicon, dye-sensitized, organic photovoltaic, and other types of solar cells, including quantum dot and perovskite variants. We also address several issues regarding the limitations of plasmonic nanostructures, including their electrical, chemical, and physical stability, charge recombination, narrowband absorption, and high cost. Next, we propose a few potentially useful approaches that can improve the performance of plasmonic cells, such as the inclusion of graphene plasmonics, plasmon-upconversion coupling, and coupling between fluorescence resonance energy transfer and plasmon resonance energy transfer. This review is concluded with remarks on future prospects for plasmonic solar cell use.

  1. From the Analysis of Work-Processes to Designing Competence-Based Occupational Standards and Vocational Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutlys, Vidmantas; Spöttl, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore methodological and institutional challenges on application of the work-process analysis approach in the design and development of competence-based occupational standards for Lithuania. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical analysis is based on the review of scientific literature and the analysis of…

  2. Comparative design of the superstructure of timber bridges, using norm np 005 - 2003 and provisions of european standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiotan Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The norms and standards for design of timber bridges, as well as other structures built from this material, were obsolete, design standards that were used dated from 1978 to 1980. The introduction of European Standards has created a new legislative framework in the field of designing and building timber bridges. Currently the design of such constructions use Norm NP 005-2003 and SR EN 1995-1-1: 2004 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. Part 1-1: General. Common rules and rules for buildings, SR EN 1995-2: 2005 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. Part 2: Bridges, along with their national annexes. The aim of this paper is to analyze the design of the beams for timber bridges in parallel, using on one hand Norm NP 005 - 2003, and on the other hand provisions of European standards. The design requirements for both norms as well as the results of a case study for a structural element of a timber bridge will be presented.

  3. Comparison of clinical grade type 1 polarized and standard matured dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Donia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    induction of type 1 effector T cells. Standard matured clinical grade DCs “sDCs” were compared with DCs matured with either of two type 1 polarizing maturation cocktails; the alpha-type-1 DCs “αDC1s” (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IFN-α, Poly(I:C)) and “mDCs” (monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), IFN-γ) or a mixed cocktail...... – “mpDCs”, containing MPL, IFN-γ and PGE2. αDC1s and mDCs secreted IL-12 directly and following re-stimulation with CD40L-expressing cells and they mainly secreted the T effector cell attracting chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5 as opposed to sDCs that mainly secreted CCL22, known to attract regulatory T cells...

  4. Comparison of the General Electric BWR/6 standard plant design to the IAEA NUSS codes and guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ardenne, W.H.; Sherwood, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The General Electric BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds current requirements of published International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) codes and guides. This conclusion is based on a review of the NUSS codes and guides by General Electric and by the co-ordinated US review of the NUSS codes and guides during their development. General Electric compared the published IAEA NUSS codes and guides with the General Electric design. The applicability of each code and guide to the BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design was determined. Each code or guide was reviewed by a General Electric engineer knowledgeable about the structures, systems and components addressed and the technical area covered by that code or guide. The results of this review show that the BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds the applicable requirements of the published IAEA NUSS codes and guides. The co-ordinated US review of the IAEA NUSS codes and guides corroborates the General Electric review. In the co-ordinated US review, the USNRC and US industry organizations (including General Electric) review the NUSS codes and guides during their development. This review ensures that the NUSS codes and guides are consistent with the current US government regulations, guidance and regulatory practices, US voluntary industry codes and standards, and accepted US industry design, construction and operational practices. If any inconsistencies are identified, comments are submitted to the IAEA by the USNRC. All US concerns submitted to the IAEA have been resolved. General Electric design reviews and the Final Design Approval (FDA) issued by the USNRC have verified that the General Electric BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds the current US requirements, guidance and practices. Since these requirements, guidance and practices meet or exceed those of the NUSS codes and guides, so does the General Electric design. (author)

  5. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  6. Influence of voluntary standards and design modifications on trampoline injury in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Karen; Eager, David; D'Elia, Angelo; Day, Lesley

    2015-10-01

    To examine the influence of the voluntary Australian trampoline standard (AS 4989-2006) and market-driven design modifications on relevant trampoline injuries. Trend and intervention analysis on frequencies and proportions of hospital-treated trampoline-related injury in Victoria, Australia, extracted from the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2013. The injuries relevant to the AS were contact with spring and frame, and multiple-user injury. Falls from trampolines were relevant for netted trampolines, a market-driven modification. Frequency of all trampoline injuries increased by 11.4% (95% CI 10.0% to 11.7%) on average each year. Spring and frame, and fall injuries increased to a lesser extent (8.7%, 95% CI 6.9% to 9.8% and 7.3%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.3%, respectively). Multiple-user injuries increased by 21.0% (95% CI 16.3% to 21.9%). As a proportion of all trampoline injuries, spring and frame injury and falls injury decreased, while multiple-user injuries increased. The intervention analysis showed no significant change in spring and frame injuries associated with the AS (p=0.17). A significant increase was found for multiple-user injuries (p=0.01), in particular for the 0-year to 4-year age group (ptrampolines appear to be associated with a decrease in falls from trampolines but an increase in injuries to multiple users. A mandated trampoline safety standard and a safety campaign including warnings about multiple users is recommended. Continued monitoring of injury data will be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Novel Design for a Diffusive Solar Cell Window

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ruei-Tang; Kang, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Jeng-Feng; Chiou, Sheng-Wei; Cheng, Hung-Hsiang; Lai, Chih-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are an important application of future solar energy development. The incorporation of solar cells into windows must not only maintain indoor natural lighting but also generate electrical power at the same time. In our continuing effort to improve the design of diffusion solar window, a more fundamental and efficient three-layer structure—glass/EVA with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded/glass—was proposed. In this work, a well-established ASAP ray-tracing mod...

  8. Design standards for experimental and field studies to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of tests for infectious diseases in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, E; Thakur, K K; Gardner, I A; Hick, P; Moody, N J G; Crane, M S J; Ernst, I

    2018-05-01

    Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Of the 56 DAS identified, 41 were based on field testing, eight on experimental challenge studies and seven on both. Also, we adapted human and terrestrial-animal standards and guidelines for DAS structure for use in aquatic animal diagnostic research. Through this process, we identified and addressed important metrics for consideration at the design phase: study purpose, targeted disease state, selection of appropriate samples and specimens, laboratory analytical methods, statistical methods and data interpretation. These recommended design standards for DAS are presented as a checklist including risk-of-failure points and actions to mitigate bias at each critical step. Adherence to standards when designing DAS will also facilitate future systematic review and meta-analyses of DAS research literature. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Design of large aperture 500 MHz 5-cell superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yelong; Feng Ziqiang; Lu Changwang; Yu Haibo; Liu Jianfei; Hou Hongtao; Ma Zhenyu; Mao Dongqing

    2012-01-01

    With the potential application of Energy Recovery Linac (ERL), the superconducting (SC) cavities were developed to deliver much higher current than before. Nowadays, the current of the international SC accelerator designed has already exceeded 100 mA. This paper presents the design of a new 500 MHz 5-cell SC cavity (SINAP 5-cell cavity), in which the parameters r/Q= 515.5 Ω of the fundamental mode and the geometry factor G=275.8 are under an acceptable Radio Frequency (RF) field level. (B peak /E acc =4.31 mT/MV/m and E peak /E acc =2.48). This design employs a larger beam pipe to propagate the Higher Order Modes (HOMs) out of the cavity and increases the damping efficiently for the dangerous HOMs. By simulation technique, it has been found that almost all the dangerous HOMs (including TE 111 , TM 110 , and TM 011 ) can be propagated into the beam pipe and are absorbed by ferrite absorbers, when the beam pile is enlarged. Finally, the loss factor for the new 5-cell cavity is also calculated. (authors)

  10. DESIGNING UNIVERSITY TEXTBOOK “FUNDAMENTALS OF BUSINESS INFORMATICS” IN ACCORDANCE WITHREQUIREMENTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю В Фролов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses step by step the process of designing an interdisciplinary tutorial on the basics of business informatics in the context of the requirements Federal state educational and professional standards. Taken into account comparison between the hierarchy of educational results, which are reflected in the structural elements of the textbook, and levels of skill requirements in the professional standard. Based on Layer-technology didactic designing described the sequence of action necessary for the design of the textbook, substantive content of which is aimed at achieving the required learning outcomes.

  11. Designing Innovative Lessons Plans to Support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) issued earlier in 2013 provide the opportunity to enhance pre-college curricula through a new focus on the ';Big Ideas' in Science, more attention to reading and writing skills needed for college and career readiness, and incorporation of engineering and technology. We introduce a set of lesson plans about scientific ocean drilling which can serve as a exemplars for developing curricula to meet NGSS approaches. Designed for middle and high school students, these can also be utilized in undergraduate courses. Development of these lessons was supported through a grant from the Deep Earth Academy of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership. They will be disseminated through websites of the Deep Earth Academy (http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/deep-earth-academy/) and Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers (http://www.earth2class.org), as well as through workshops at science education conferences sponsored by the National Earth Science Teachers Association (www.nestanet.org) and other organizations. Topics include 'Downhole Logging,' 'Age of the Ocean Floors,' 'Tales of the Resolution,' and 'Continental Shelf Sediments and Climate Change Patterns.' 'Downhole Logging' focuses on the engineering and technology utilized to obtain more information about sediments and rocks cored by the JOIDES Resolution scientific drilling vessel. 'Age of the Ocean Floor' incorporates the GeoMap App visualization tools (http://www.geomapapp.org/) to compare sea bottom materials in various parts of the world. 'Tales of the Resolution' is a series of ';graphic novels' created to describe the scientific discoveries, refitting of the JOIDES Resolution, and variety of careers available in the marine sciences (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/BRG/outreach/media/tales/). The fourth lesson focuses on discoveries made during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 313, which investigated patterns in the sediments beneath the continental shelf off New

  12. The cell pattern correction through design-based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyeon; Lee, Kweonjae; Chang, Jinman; Kim, Taeheon; Han, Daehan; Lee, Kyusun; Hong, Aeran; Kang, Jinyoung; Choi, Bumjin; Lee, Joosung; Yeom, Kyehee; Lee, Jooyoung; Hong, Hyeongsun; Lee, Kyupil; Jin, Gyoyoung

    2015-03-01

    Starting with the sub 2Xnm node, the process window becomes smaller and tighter than before. Pattern related error budget is required for accurate critical-dimension control of Cell layers. Therefore, lithography has been faced with its various difficulties, such as weird distribution, overlay error, patterning difficulty etc. The distribution of cell pattern and overlay management are the most important factors in DRAM field. We had been experiencing that the fatal risk is caused by the patterns located in the tail of the distribution. The overlay also induces the various defect sources and misalignment issues. Even though we knew that these elements are important, we could not classify the defect type of Cell patterns. Because there is no way to gather massive small pattern CD samples in cell unit block and to compare layout with cell patterns by the CD-SEM. The CD- SEM is used in order to gather these data through high resolution, but CD-SEM takes long time to inspect and extract data because it measures the small FOV. (Field Of View) However, the NGR(E-beam tool) provides high speed with large FOV and high resolution. Also, it's possible to measure an accurate overlay between the target layout and cell patterns because they provide DBM. (Design Based Metrology) By using massive measured data, we extract the result that it is persuasive by applying the various analysis techniques, as cell distribution and defects, the pattern overlay error correction etc. We introduce how to correct cell pattern, by using the DBM measurement, and new analysis methods.

  13. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring system. 4 figs

  14. Designing a Distributed Space Systems Simulation in Accordance with the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Simulations are essential for engineering design. These virtual realities provide characteristic data to scientists and engineers in order to understand the details and complications of the desired mission. A standard development simulation package known as Trick is used in developing a source code to model a component (federate in HLA terms). The runtime executive is integrated into an HLA based distributed simulation. TrickHLA is used to extend a Trick simulation for a federation execution, develop a source code for communication between federates, as well as foster data input and output. The project incorporates international cooperation along with team collaboration. Interactions among federates occur throughout the simulation, thereby relying on simulation interoperability. Communication through the semester went on between participants to figure out how to create this data exchange. The NASA intern team is designing a Lunar Rover federate and a Lunar Shuttle federate. The Lunar Rover federate supports transportation across the lunar surface and is essential for fostering interactions with other federates on the lunar surface (Lunar Shuttle, Lunar Base Supply Depot and Mobile ISRU Plant) as well as transporting materials to the desired locations. The Lunar Shuttle federate transports materials to and from lunar orbit. Materials that it takes to the supply depot include fuel and cargo necessary to continue moon-base operations. This project analyzes modeling and simulation technologies as well as simulation interoperability. Each team from participating universities will work on and engineer their own federate(s) to participate in the SISO Spring 2011 Workshop SIW Smackdown in Boston, Massachusetts. This paper will focus on the Lunar Rover federate.

  15. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring

  16. Design of nuclear cells with re linking of trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, A.; Campos S, Y.; Ortiz S, J.J.; Montes, J.L.; Perrusquia, R.; Hernandez, J.L.; Torres, M.

    2006-01-01

    Presently work the results obtained with the Ohtli-RT system obtained when implementing the combinatory optimization technique well-known as Trajectories re linking or Path Re linking in English. The problem to solve is the radial design of nuclear fuel, taking like base nuclear fuel assembles for boiling water reactors (BWR Boiling Water Reactor by its initials in English). To evaluate the objective function used in the system the code in two dimensions Heliums 1.5 was used, which calculates the cross sections of the proposed design. The parameters that were considered for the evaluation of the objective function are the Power peak factor of the bar that generates bigger power in the cell and the Infinite Multiplication Factor. To prove the system its were used assembles 10x10 with 2 water channels. The obtained radial designs of nuclear fuel fulfilled the restrictions imposed to the considered limits, with regard to the involved parameters. (Author)

  17. Current Standards of Care and Long Term Outcomes for Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonat, Satheesh; Quinn, Charles T

    2017-01-01

    Thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD) are disorders of hemoglobin that affect millions of people worldwide. The carrier states for these diseases arose as common, balanced polymorphisms during human history because they afforded protection against severe forms of malaria. These complex, multisystem diseases are reviewed here with a focus on current standards of clinical management and recent research findings. The importance of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary and lifelong system of care is also emphasized.

  18. French codes and standards for design, construction and in-service inspection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugot, G.; Grandemange, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    In 1970, France decided that its future power plants would be of the Pressurized Water Reactor type. This choice proved to be successful since it resulted in more than 60 PWR units in operation or under construction in France and abroad. At the beginning of such a program, the French engineering and manufacturing industry, the national electrical utility and the Safety Authorities had to face the many challenges imposed by the implementation of an imported technology. The government reorganised the licensing process. FRAMATOME, the NSSS vendor, and EDF (Electricite de France), the national utility, decided to create 'AFCEN', the French Association for Design and Construction Rules for Nuclear Island Components. These rules, the RCC's (Regles de Construction et de conception), which are approved by French Safety Authorities deal with mechanical and electrical equipment as well as with nuclear fuel and civil works. They are now being supplemented by in service inspection rules, the RSE's (Regles d'inspection en Service). The paper presents these Codes and their main updating following experience of application, technical progress and evolution of standards. Status of discussion concerning reference to European standardisation and developments of rules applicable to the EPR project will also be discussed

  19. TWRS hydrogen mitigation portable standard hydrogen monitoring system platform design and fabrication engineering task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The primary function of portable gas monitoring is to quickly determine tank vapor space gas composition and gas release rate, and to detect gas release events. Characterization of the gas composition is needed for safety analysis. The lower flammability limit, as well as the peak burn temperature and pressure, are dependent upon the gas composition. If there is little or no knowledge about the gas composition, safety analysis utilize compositions that yield the worst case in a deflagration or detonation. This conservative approach to unknowns necessitates a significant increase in administrative and engineering costs. Knowledge of the true composition could lead to reductions in the assumptions and therefore contribute to a reduction in controls and work restrictions. Also, knowledge of the actual composition will be required information for the analysis that is needed to remove tanks from the Watch List. Similarly, the rate of generation and release of gases is required information for performing safety analysis, developing controls, designing equipment, and closing safety issues. To determine release rate, both the gas concentrations and the dome space ventilation rates (exhauster flow rate or passive dome/atmosphere exchange rate) are needed. Therefore, to quickly verify waste tank categorization or to provide additional characterization for tanks with installed gas monitoring, a temporary, portable standard hydrogen monitoring system is needed that can be used to measure gas compositions at both high and low sensitivities

  20. Minimum Information about T Regulatory Cells: A Step toward Reproducibility and Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Fuchs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapies with CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs hold promise of efficacious treatment for the variety of autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as posttransplant complications. Nevertheless, current manufacturing of Tregs as a cellular medicinal product varies between different laboratories, which in turn hampers precise comparisons of the results between the studies performed. While the number of clinical trials testing Tregs is already substantial, it seems to be crucial to provide some standardized characteristics of Treg products in order to minimize the problem. We have previously developed reporting guidelines called minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, which allows the comparison between different preparations of tolerance-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Having this experience, here we describe another minimum information about Tregs (MITREG. It is important to note that MITREG does not dictate how investigators should generate or characterize Tregs, but it does require investigators to report their Treg data in a consistent and transparent manner. We hope this will, therefore, be a useful tool facilitating standardized reporting on the manufacturing of Tregs, either for research purposes or for clinical application. This way MITREG might also be an important step toward more standardized and reproducible testing of the Tregs preparations in clinical applications.

  1. The System 80+ standard plant design reduces operations and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chari, D.R.; Robertson, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To be cost-competitive, nuclear power plants must maximize plant availability and minimize operations and maintenance (O and M) costs. A plant whose design supports these goals will generate more power at less cost and thereby have a lower unit generating cost. The ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) System 80+ Standard Nuclear Power Plant, rated at 1400 megawatts electric (MWe), is designed for high availability at reduced cost. To demonstrate that the duration of refueling outages, the major contributor to plant unavailability, can be shortened, ABB-CE developed a detailed plan that shows a System 80+ plant can safely perform a refueling and maintenance outage in 18 days. This is a significant reduction from the average current U.S. plant outages of 45 days, and is possible due to a two-part outage strategy: use System 80+ advanced system design features and relaxed technical specification (TS) time limits to shift some maintenance from outages to operating periods: and, use System 80+ structural, system, and component features, such as the larger operating floor, permanent pool seal, integral reactor head area cable tray system and missile shield, and longer life reactor coolant pump seals, to reduce the scope and duration of outage maintenance activities. Plant staffing level is the major variable, or controllable contributor to operations costs. ABB-CE worked with the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) to perform detailed staffing analyses that show a System 80+ plant can be operated reliably with 30 percent less staff than currently operating nuclear plants of similar size. Safety was not sacrificed when ABB-CE developed the System 80+ refueling outage plan and staffing level. The outage plan was developed utilizing a defense-in-depth concept for shutdown safety. The defense in-depth concept is implemented via systematic control of outage risk evaluation (SCORE) cards. The SCORE cards identify primary and alternate means of

  2. The EUR assessment process, methodology and highlights of the compliance analysis for the EU-APWR standard design - 15235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facciolo, L.; Welander, D.; Nuutinen, P.

    2015-01-01

    In August 2007 the European Utility Requirements organisation (EUR) received an initial application from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries asking for submitting the EU-APWR standard design to the EUR assessment. The EU-APWR is an advanced PWR, 1700 MWe class, 4-loops, 14 ft active core fuel length. The EU-APWR Standard Design documentation has been assessed against the EUR Volume 2 - Generic Nuclear Island requirements - Revision D. The assessment is divided into 20 chapters for a total of over 4000 individual requirements. A Synthesis Report for each chapter was written by the assessment performers. The Synthesis Reports showed that the EU-APWR Standard Design was in compliance with 77% of the EUR requirements. The percentage increases to 85% when taking into account the requirements where the design has been considered in compliance with the objectives. The requirements resulting in a non-compliance assessment correspond to less than 2%. This confirms the overall good level of compliance. From the Utilities point of view it is possible to state that the differences in standards, codes and regulations applied in Japan and in Europe contribute to a series of discrepancies between the EU-APWR Standard Design and the EUR, regarding, for instance, outage durations, operational capability, layout, personal protection or radiation monitoring. Some disagreements are easy to overcome, others require particular attention

  3. Experimental Study and Comparison of Various Designs of Gas Flow Fields to PEM Fuel Cells and Cell Stack Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen; Juarez-Robles, Daniel; Wang, Kai; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm 2 . The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still favorable, giving the best single fuel cell performance amongst all the studied flow channel designs. A novel symmetric serpentine flow field was proposed for a relatively large sized fuel cell application. Four fuel cell stacks each including four cells were assembled using different designs of serpentine flow channels. The output power performances of fuel cell stacks were compared and the novel symmetric serpentine flow field design is recommended for its very good performance.

  4. Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced Frame attuned with Indian Standard code and its Seismic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Purvang Dalal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Performance Based Plastic design method, the failure is predetermined; making it famous throughout the world. But due to lack of proper guidelines and simple stepwise methodology, it is not quite popular in India. In this paper, stepwise design procedure of Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced frame attuned with the Indian Standard code has been presented. The comparative seismic performance evaluation of a six storey concentrically braced frame designed using the displacement based Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD method and currently used force based Limit State Design (LSD method has also been carried out by nonlinear static pushover analysis and time history analysis under three different ground motions. Results show that Performance Based Plastic Design method is superior to the current design in terms of displacement and acceleration response. Also total collapse of the frame is prevented in the PBPD frame.

  5. Sustainable design of fuel cell systems and components. Paper no. IGEC-1-148

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, D.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology are touted as the major future enabler for a renewable energy future. This is particularly true for vehicular applications were there are few competitive alternatives. However, without zero-emission production of hydrogen, this will not be a very sustainable solution. Hydrogen generation from biomass, solar, hydro or wind energy will allow this realization. In addition, we need to evaluate the whole life cycle of a fuel cell system in order to make sure that it is truly 'green'. Hydrogenics has in place corporate initiatives to ensure that sustainability is part of the corporate objectives and philosophy. A sustainable future ensures that this generation does not prevent future generations from a similar (or better) standard of living. Fuel cell recyclability and reusability will be a major factor in ensuring a renewable, sustainable future. This is accomplished using sustainable design methodology whereby fuel cell system components are analyzed for their total life cycle impact. This concept of 'cradle to grave' product design responsibility is applied to Hydrogenics fuel cell products and is discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  7. The Development of a B2G Online Authentication Standard: a design perspective of the policy consultation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Campbell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus in design science research is the development of innovative and useful system artifacts. Apart from IT-centric artifacts such as software and hardware, design research outputs can also include constructs, models, methods and better theories. However, there is very little published research concerned with these alternative artifact genres. The research reported in this paper focuses on one of these alternative design outputs that are of particular interest to information systems; the development of innovative technology standards. In this paper it is argued that much can be learnt from using a design science approach to analyze these types of information systems artifacts. A design science theory of punctuated action is presented and used to briefly explore the public consultation process in the development of a B2G online authentication standard for the Australian Federal Government.

  8. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, Golnaz; Taki, Mohamad Javad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-10-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617) was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls. C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  9. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Vaseghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Materials and Methods: In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617 was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Results: Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls.  Conclusion: C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis.  The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories Facilities Management and Operations Center Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattor, Steven [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The manual contains general requirements that apply to nonnuclear and nonexplosive facilities. For design and construction requirements for modifications to nuclear or explosive facilities, see the project-specific design requirements noted in the Design Criteria.

  11. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation....

  12. Recommendations for codes and standards to be used for design and fabrication of high level waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermingham, A.J.; Booker, R.J.; Booth, H.R.; Ruehle, W.G.; Shevekov, S.; Silvester, A.G.; Tagart, S.W.; Thomas, J.A.; West, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    This study identifies codes, standards, and regulatory requirements for developing design criteria for high-level waste (HLW) canisters for commercial operation. It has been determined that the canister should be designed as a pressure vessel without provision for any overpressure protection type devices. It is recommended that the HLW canister be designed and fabricated to the requirements of the ASME Section III Code, Division 1 rules, for Code Class 3 components. Identification of other applicable industry and regulatory guides and standards are provided in this report. Requirements for the Design Specification are found in the ASME Section III Code. It is recommended that design verification be conducted principally with prototype testing which will encompass normal and accident service conditions during all phases of the canister life. Adequacy of existing quality assurance and licensing standards for the canister was investigated. One of the recommendations derived from this study is a requirement that the canister be N stamped. In addition, acceptance standards for the HLW waste should be established and the waste qualified to those standards before the canister is sealed. A preliminary investigation of use of an overpack for the canister has been made, and it is concluded that the use of an overpack, as an integral part of overall canister design, is undesirable, both from a design and economics standpoint. However, use of shipping cask liners and overpack type containers at the Federal repository may make the canister and HLW management safer and more cost effective. There are several possible concepts for canister closure design. These concepts can be adapted to the canister with or without an overpack. A remote seal weld closure is considered to be one of the most suitable closure methods; however, mechanical seals should also be investigated

  13. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  14. Design of Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells Optimized for Varied Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Band gap engineering provides an opportunity to not only provide higher overall conversion efficiencies of the reference AM1.5 spectra but also customize PV device design for specific geographic locations and microenvironments based on atmospheric conditions characteristic to that particular location. Indium gallium nitride and other PV materials offer the opportunity for limited bandgap engineering to match spectra. The effects of atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, cloud cover, water vapor, and air mass have been shown to cause variations in spectral radiance that alters PV system performance due to both overrating and underrating. Designing PV devices optimized for spectral radiance of a particular region can result in improved PV system performance. This paper presents a new method for designing geographically optimized PV cells with using a numerical model for bandgap optimization. The geographic microclimate spectrally resolved solar flux for twelve representative atmospheric conditions for the incident radiation angle (zenith angle of 48.1° and fixed array angle of 40° is used to iteratively optimize the band gap for tandem, triple, and quad-layer of InGaN-based multijunction cells. The results of this method are illustrated for the case study of solar farms in the New York region and discussed.

  15. Designing an evaluation framework for WFME basic standards for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Grant, Janet; Mmari, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    To create an evaluation plan for the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) accreditation standards for basic medical education. We conceptualized the 100 basic standards from "Basic Medical Education: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement: The 2012 Revision" as medical education program objectives. Standards were simplified into evaluable items, which were then categorized as inputs, processes, outputs and/or outcomes to generate a logic model and corresponding plan for data collection. WFME standards posed significant challenges to evaluation due to complex wording, inconsistent formatting and lack of existing assessment tools. Our resulting logic model contained 244 items. Standard B 5.1.1 separated into 24 items, the most for any single standard. A large proportion of items (40%) required evaluation of more than one input, process, output and/or outcome. Only one standard (B 3.2.2) was interpreted as requiring evaluation of a program outcome. Current WFME standards are difficult to use for evaluation planning. Our analysis may guide adaptation and revision of standards to make them more evaluable. Our logic model and data collection plan may be useful to medical schools planning an institutional self-review and to accrediting authorities wanting to provide guidance to schools under their purview.

  16. JPL Thermal Design Modeling Philosophy and NASA-STD-7009 Standard for Models and Simulations - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The Standard JPL thermal engineering practice prescribes worst-case methodologies for design. In this process, environmental and key uncertain thermal parameters (e.g., thermal blanket performance, interface conductance, optical properties) are stacked in a worst case fashion to yield the most hot- or cold-biased temperature. Thus, these simulations would represent the upper and lower bounds. This, effectively, represents JPL thermal design margin philosophy. Uncertainty in the margins and the absolute temperatures is usually estimated by sensitivity analyses and/or by comparing the worst-case results with "expected" results. Applicability of the analytical model for specific design purposes along with any temperature requirement violations are documented in peer and project design review material. In 2008, NASA released NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations. The scope of this standard covers the development and maintenance of models, the operation of simulations, the analysis of the results, training, recommended practices, the assessment of the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) credibility, and the reporting of the M&S results. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project thermal control system M&S activity was chosen as a case study determining whether JPL practice is in line with the standard and to identify areas of non-compliance. This paper summarizes the results and makes recommendations regarding the application of this standard to JPL thermal M&S practices.

  17. A preliminary study on the design in architecture of nuclear and radiation safety standard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Dahu; Zhang Chi; Yang Lili; Li Bin; Liu Yingwei; An Hongzhen; Gao Siyi; Liu Ting; Meng De

    2014-01-01

    The connotation and function of nuclear and radiation safety standards are analyzed, and their relationships with the relevant laws and regulations are discussed in the paper. Some suggestions and blue print of overall architecture to build nuclear and radiation safety standard system are proposed, on the basis of researching the application status quo, existing problems and needs for nuclear and radiation safety standards in China. This work is a beneficial exploration and attempt to establish China's nuclear and radiation safety standards. (authors)

  18. 10 CFR 51.55 - Environmental report-standard design certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... costs and benefits of severe accident mitigation design alternatives, and the bases for not incorporating severe accident mitigation design alternatives in the design to be certified. (b) Each applicant... either renders a severe accident mitigation design alternative previously rejected in an environmental...

  19. Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2014-04-01

    Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a

  20. Solid polymer fuel cell stationary power generation design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyke, S.H.; Wood, A.; Williams, G.J.; Kearney, P.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating potential markets for solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) stationary power generating systems and evaluating design options for grid connected and stand-alone systems. The specification of potential application for SPFC systems, initial modelling and economic analysis of twelve candidate SPFC applications, and the ranking and evaluation of candidate applications are examined. Details are given of performance modelling and economic analysis of four preferred SPFC systems (domestic, commercial, light industrial, and transportable generation), and comparison of SPFC with competing technologies. The economics of SPFC and conventional technologies for commercial applications are compared and market opportunities and potential barriers to commercialisation are identified.

  1. Production and Reliability Oriented SOFC Cell and Stack Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauth, Martin; Lawlor, Vincent; Cartellieri, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative development methodology for a production and reliability oriented SOFC cell and stack design aiming at improving the stacks robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost. Multi-physics models allowed a probabilistic approach to consider statistical variations...... in production, material and operating parameters for the optimization phase. A methodology for 3D description of spatial distribution of material properties based on a random field models was developed and validated by experiments. Homogenized material models on multiple levels of the SOFC stack were...... and output parameters and to perform a sensitivity analysis were developed and implemented. The capabilities of the methodology is illustrated on two practical cases....

  2. Design guides for cell atmosphere controls, utilities and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.J. Jr.; Peishel, F.L.; Slattery, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Facilities for handling radioactive and toxic materials must be designed not only for efficient operation, but also for protection of the operating personnel and the public. The ventilation system is of primary importance in maintaining containment of any airborne radioactivity. The type, number, and location of in-cell services must be adequate for planned operations, but also must allow flexibility to accommodate expansion in the scope of operations or changes in programs. Fire protection systems and operational controls are mandatory to maintain containment of radioactivity in the event of an operating error or process accident that may result in a fire

  3. Design considerations for a 10-KW integrated hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoberecht, M.A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.D.; Miller, T.B.; Rieker, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Integration of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem with an alkaline electrolysis subsystem to form a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for low-earth-orbit (LEO) applications characterized by relatively high overall round-trip electrical efficiency, long life, and high reliability is possible with present state-of-the-art technology. A hypothetical 10-kW system is being computer modeled and studied based on data from ongoing contractual efforts in both the alkaline fuel cell and alkaline water electrolysis areas. The alkaline fuel cell technology is being developed under an NASA-LeRC program with United Technologies Corporation (UTC), utilizing advanced cell components and standard Shuttle-Orbiter system hardware. The alkaline electrolysis technology is that of Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), which uses a static water vapor feed technique and scaled-up cell hardware being developed under an NASA-LeRC program. This paper addresses the computeraided study of the performance, operating, and design parameters of the hypothetical system

  4. Cask and plug handling system design in port cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Jean-Pierre; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre; Gabellini, Eros; Keller, Delphine; Levesy, Bruno; Selvi, Anna; Tesini, Alessandro; Utin, Yuri; Wagrez, Julien

    2011-01-01

    The ITER maintenance strategy relies partly on the remote transfer of components from vacuum vessel to hot cells. This function will be fulfilled by transfer cask systems. This paper describes the recent design progresses on interfaces in order to increase components handling feasibility by implementing continuous guiding features that avoid cantilevered loads on the in-cask tractor. Also the design has progressed in order to allow generic docking of the casks. When the cask is connected to the port, it becomes part of the machine first confinement boundary, thus it must provide tightness continuity. This high level safety function was one of the main concerns of a finite element analysis study that has been performed to assess the behavior of the whole system. Numerical analysis methodology and results are explained and shown in order to highlight how it has reinforced the knowledge of the system.

  5. Methods for investigating the relationship between accidents, road user behaviour and road design standards. Annex III to SWOV-report `Safety effects of road design standards', R-94-7 (see C 2838 (IRRD 866221).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maycock, G. & Summersgill, I.

    1995-01-01

    This volume is one of the annexes to a main report on safety effects of road design standards which was compiled by SWOV in collaboration with other European partners, in 1993-1994. For the covering abstract of the report or the report itself, see C 2838. This annex summarises the alternative

  6. Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Bickford, W.E.; Willingham, C.E.; Ghose, S.K.; Walker, M.G.

    1979-09-01

    This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

  7. Recent progress on test evidence, standardization and design of protection for exterior openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strøm Ruth Astrid

    2016-01-01

    A number of different fire scenarios that elements in vented facades/constructions can be exposed to have been studied. New test standards have been developed for the last few years and are explained. Finally, this paper evaluate how different fire stop products perform in different fire scenarios and which test standards are applicable.

  8. Design Of Measurements For Evaluating Readiness Of Technoware Components To Meet The Required Standard Of Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Ilham; Muharram Hasby, Fariz; Irianto, Dradjad

    2018-03-01

    Although government is able to make mandatory standards that must be obeyed by the industry, the respective industries themselves often have difficulties to fulfil the requirements described in those standards. This is especially true in many small and medium sized enterprises that lack the required capital to invest in standard-compliant equipment and machineries. This study aims to develop a set of measurement tools for evaluating the level of readiness of production technology with respect to the requirements of a product standard based on the quality function deployment (QFD) method. By combining the QFD methodology, UNESCAP Technometric model [9] and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), this model is used to measure a firm’s capability to fulfill government standard in the toy making industry. Expert opinions from both the governmental officers responsible for setting and implementing standards and the industry practitioners responsible for managing manufacturing processes are collected and processed to find out the technological capabilities that should be improved by the firm to fulfill the existing standard. This study showed that the proposed model can be used successfully to measure the gap between the requirements of the standard and the readiness of technoware technological component in a particular firm.

  9. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K

    2015-01-01

    solar charge inverter. We also observed maximum total power reduction in LVCMOS18 (Artix-7 FPGA) as compared to other I/O standards at 10 GHz. Also there is maximum total power reduction in POD12 (Ultra Scale Kintex) as compared to other I/O standards at 2 GHz. There is also a significant change...

  10. 75 FR 63462 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... further discussion with stakeholders and an analysis of the standards' cyber security protections, NIST.... 1. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) \\1\\ lays out the policy of the United..., including protocols and model standards for information management.\\2\\ EISA directs the National Institute...

  11. Designer interphases for the lithium-oxygen electrochemical cell

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Wan, Charles Tai-Chieh; Al Sadat, Wajdi I.; Tu, Zhengyuan; Lau, Sampson; Zachman, Michael J.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical cell based on the reversible oxygen reduction reaction: 2Li+ + 2e− + O2 ↔ Li2O2, provides among the most energy dense platforms for portable electrical energy storage. Such Lithium-Oxygen (Li-O2) cells offer specific energies competitive with fossil fuels and are considered promising for electrified transportation. Multiple, fundamental challenges with the cathode, anode, and electrolyte have limited practical interest in Li-O2 cells because these problems lead to as many practical shortcomings, including poor rechargeability, high overpotentials, and specific energies well below theoretical expectations. We create and study in-situ formation of solid-electrolyte interphases (SEIs) based on bromide ionomers tethered to a Li anode that take advantage of three powerful processes for overcoming the most stubborn of these challenges. The ionomer SEIs are shown to protect the Li anode against parasitic reactions and also stabilize Li electrodeposition during cell recharge. Bromine species liberated during the anchoring reaction also function as redox mediators at the cathode, reducing the charge overpotential. Finally, the ionomer SEI forms a stable interphase with Li, which protects the metal in high Gutmann donor number liquid electrolytes. Such electrolytes have been reported to exhibit rare stability against nucleophilic attack by Li2O2 and other cathode reaction intermediates, but also react spontaneously with Li metal anodes. We conclude that rationally designed SEIs able to regulate transport of matter and ions at the electrolyte/anode interface provide a promising platform for addressing three major technical barriers to practical Li-O2 cells.

  12. Designer interphases for the lithium-oxygen electrochemical cell

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-04-20

    An electrochemical cell based on the reversible oxygen reduction reaction: 2Li+ + 2e− + O2 ↔ Li2O2, provides among the most energy dense platforms for portable electrical energy storage. Such Lithium-Oxygen (Li-O2) cells offer specific energies competitive with fossil fuels and are considered promising for electrified transportation. Multiple, fundamental challenges with the cathode, anode, and electrolyte have limited practical interest in Li-O2 cells because these problems lead to as many practical shortcomings, including poor rechargeability, high overpotentials, and specific energies well below theoretical expectations. We create and study in-situ formation of solid-electrolyte interphases (SEIs) based on bromide ionomers tethered to a Li anode that take advantage of three powerful processes for overcoming the most stubborn of these challenges. The ionomer SEIs are shown to protect the Li anode against parasitic reactions and also stabilize Li electrodeposition during cell recharge. Bromine species liberated during the anchoring reaction also function as redox mediators at the cathode, reducing the charge overpotential. Finally, the ionomer SEI forms a stable interphase with Li, which protects the metal in high Gutmann donor number liquid electrolytes. Such electrolytes have been reported to exhibit rare stability against nucleophilic attack by Li2O2 and other cathode reaction intermediates, but also react spontaneously with Li metal anodes. We conclude that rationally designed SEIs able to regulate transport of matter and ions at the electrolyte/anode interface provide a promising platform for addressing three major technical barriers to practical Li-O2 cells.

  13. Design of a photovoltaic-hydrogen-fuel cell energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P A; Chamberlin, C E [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (US). Dept. of Environmental Resources Engineering

    1991-01-01

    The design of a stand-alone renewable energy system using hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the energy storage medium and a fuel cell as the regeneration technology is reported. The system being installed at the Humboldt State University Telonicher Marine Laboratory consists of a 9.2 kW photovoltaic (PV) array coupled to a high pressure, bipolar alkaline electrolyser. The array powers the Laboratory's air compressor system whenever possible; excess power is shunted to the electrolyser for hydrogen and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. When the array cannot provide sufficient power, stored hydrogen and oxygen are furnished to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell which, smoothly and without interruption, supplies the load. In reporting the design, details of component selection, sizing, and integration, control system logic and implementation, and safety considerations are discussed. Plans for a monitoring network to chronicle system performance are presented, questions that will be addressed through the monitoring program are included, and the present status of the project is reported. (Author).

  14. Designer cells programming quorum-sensing interference with microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Hell, Dennis; Müller, Marius; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2018-05-08

    Quorum sensing is a promising target for next-generation anti-infectives designed to address evolving bacterial drug resistance. The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a key quorum-sensing signal molecule which regulates bacterial group behaviors and is recognized by many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Here we report a synthetic mammalian cell-based microbial-control device that detects microbial chemotactic formyl peptides through a formyl peptide sensor (FPS) and responds by releasing AI-2. The microbial-control device was designed by rewiring an artificial receptor-based signaling cascade to a modular biosynthetic AI-2 production platform. Mammalian cells equipped with the microbial-control gene circuit detect formyl peptides secreted from various microbes with high sensitivity and respond with robust AI-2 production, resulting in control of quorum sensing-related behavior of pathogenic Vibrio harveyi and attenuation of biofilm formation by the human pathogen Candida albicans. The ability to manipulate mixed microbial populations through fine-tuning of AI-2 levels may provide opportunities for future anti-infective strategies.

  15. Structure-based, rational design of T cell receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eZoete

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cell transfer using engineered T cells is emerging as a promising treatment for metastatic melanoma. Such an approach allows one to introduce TCR modifications that, while maintaining the specificity for the targeted antigen, can enhance the binding and kinetic parameters for the interaction pMHC. Using the well-characterized 2C TCR/SIYR/H-2K(b structure as a model system, we demonstrated that a binding free energy decomposition based on the MM-GBSA approach provides a detailed and reliable description of the TCR/pMHC interactions at the structural and thermodynamic levels. Starting from this result, we developed a new structure-based approach, to rationally design new TCR sequences, and applied it to the BC1 TCR targeting the HLA-A2 restricted NY-ESO-1157-165 cancer-testis epitope. 54% of the designed sequence replacements exhibited improved pMHC-binding as compared to the native TCR, with up to 150 fold increase in affinity, while preserving specificity. Genetically-engineered CD8+ T cells expressing these modified TCRs showed an improved functional activity compared to those expressing BC1 TCR. We measured maximum levels of activities for TCRs within the upper limit of natural affinity. Beyond the affinity threshold at KD < 1 μM we observed an attenuation in cellular function. We have also developed a homology modeling-based approach, TCRep 3D, to obtain accurate structural models of any TCR-pMHC complexes. We have complemented the approach with a simplified rigid method to predict the TCR orientation over pMHC. These methods potentially extend the use of our TCR engineering method to entire TCR repertoires for which no X-ray structure is available. We have also performed a steered molecular dynamics study of the unbinding of the TCR-pMHC complex to get a better understanding of how TCRs interact with pMHCs. This entire rational TCR design pipeline is now being used to produce rationally optimized TCRs for adoptive cell therapies of

  16. Evaluation of a standardized procedure for [corrected] microscopic cell counts [corrected] in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jane F; Emerson, Scott S

    2005-01-01

    A standardized urinalysis and manual microscopic cell counting system was evaluated for its potential to reduce intra- and interoperator variability in urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts. Replicate aliquots of pooled specimens were submitted blindly to technologists who were instructed to use either the Kova system with the disposable Glasstic slide (Hycor Biomedical, Inc., Garden Grove, CA) or the standard operating procedure of the University of California-Irvine (UCI), which uses plain glass slides for urine sediments and hemacytometers for CSF. The Hycor system provides a mechanical means of obtaining a fixed volume of fluid in which to resuspend the sediment, and fixes the volume of specimen to be microscopically examined by using capillary filling of a chamber containing in-plane counting grids. Ninety aliquots of pooled specimens of each type of body fluid were used to assess the inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of the measurements. The variability of replicate Hycor measurements made on a single specimen by the same or different observers was compared with that predicted by a Poisson distribution. The Hycor methods generally resulted in test statistics that were slightly lower than those obtained with the laboratory standard methods, indicating a trend toward decreasing the effects of various sources of variability. For 15 paired aliquots of each body fluid, tests for systematically higher or lower measurements with the Hycor methods were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Also examined was the average difference between the Hycor and current laboratory standard measurements, along with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the true average difference. Without increasing labor or the requirement for attention to detail, the Hycor method provides slightly better interrater comparisons than the current method used at UCI. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Development of a HFE program for an operating NPP: Balancing between existing design practices and human factors standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, Leena; Savioja, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes HFE program development project conducted at a Finnish power company Fortum. The aim of developing a formal HFE program was to improve integration of human factors issues in design of technical systems and to systematically document the HFE process of the company. As Fortum has a long tradition of designing control room solutions, the starting point of the HFE program development was the existing own design practices. On the other hand, the aim was to create a program which would comply with international guidelines such as NUREG-0711. The program development was conducted by tracing the HFE design practices in an on-going I and C modernization project. This empirical work was carried out by interviews of designers and other HFE key stake holders. After the explication of the current practices, the gaps, overlaps and differences in relation to the international standards and guidelines were identified. Based on an analysis of current practices and guidelines and standards a new HFE process model was created. The design process model can be followed in modifications which concern systems with human user interfaces of any kind. The model consists of five separate phases which comply with the general engineering design process model utilized at the company. The HFE program is intended to be both a practical guide on how to take human factors issues into consideration in the design of NPP systems and also a tool for the management of HFE activities

  18. Optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchangers conforming to TEMA standards with designs motivated by constructal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Fan, Aiwu; Liu, Wei; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A design method of heat exchangers motivated by constructal theory is proposed. • A genetic algorithm is applied and the TEMA standards are rigorously followed. • Three cases are studied to illustrate the advantage of the proposed design method. • The design method will reduce the total cost compared to two other methods. - Abstract: A modified optimization design approach motivated by constructal theory is proposed for shell-and-tube heat exchangers in the present paper. In this method, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is divided into several in-series heat exchangers. The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) standards are rigorously followed for all design parameters. The total cost of the whole shell-and-tube heat exchanger is set as the objective function, including the investment cost for initial manufacture and the operational cost involving the power consumption to overcome the frictional pressure loss. A genetic algorithm is applied to minimize the cost function by adjusting parameters such as the tube and shell diameters, tube length and tube arrangement. Three cases are studied which indicate that the modified design approach can significantly reduce the total cost compared to the original design method and traditional genetic algorithm design method

  19. Design and validation of standardized clinical and functional remission criteria in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosolov, Sergey N; Potapov, Andrey V; Ushakov, Uriy V; Shafarenko, Aleksey A; Kostyukova, Anastasiya B

    2014-01-01

    Background International Remission Criteria (IRC) for schizophrenia were developed recently by a group of internationally known experts. The IRC detect only 10%–30% of cases and do not cover the diversity of forms and social functioning. Our aim was to design a more applicable tool and validate its use – the Standardized Clinical and Functional Remission Criteria (SCFRC). Methods We used a 6-month follow-up study of 203 outpatients from two Moscow centers and another further sample of stable patients from a 1-year controlled trial of atypical versus typical medication. Diagnosis was confirmed by International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD10) criteria and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, including intensity threshold, and further classified using the Russian domestic remission criteria and the level of social and personal functioning, according to the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). The SCFRC were formulated and were validated by a data reanalysis on the first population sample and on a second independent sample (104 patients) and in an open-label prospective randomized 12-month comparative study of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) versus olanzapine. Results Only 64 of the 203 outpatients (31.5%) initially met the IRC, and 53 patients (26.1%) met the IRC after 6 months, without a change in treatment. Patients who were in remission had episodic and progressive deficit (39.6%), or remittent (15%) paranoid schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder (17%). In addition, 105 patients of 139 (51.7%), who did not meet symptomatic IRC, remained stable within the period. Reanalysis of data revealed that 65.5% of the patients met the SCFRC. In the controlled trial, 70% of patients in the RLAI group met the SCFRC and only 19% the IRC. In the routine treatment group, 55.9% met the SCFRC and only 5.7% the IRC. Results of the further independent

  20. 10 CFR 170.21 - Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of standard referenced design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of standard referenced design approvals, special projects, inspections and import and export... AMENDED Schedule of Fees § 170.21 Schedule of fees for production and utilization facilities, review of...

  1. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  2. Standard practice for design and use of safety alert system for hazardous work locations in the coatings and lining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice covers a safety alert system for hazardous work locations and materials for the coatings and lining application industry. This practice is designed for multi-employer work sites. Limitations--This practice does not identify specific hazardous materials or work locations but provides a means for rating each. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  3. Design of improved fuel cell controller for distributed generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen Berenguer, F.A. [Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste, 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina); Molina, M.G. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste, 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The world has been undergoing a deregulation process which allowed competition in the electricity generation sector. This situation is bringing the opportunity for electricity users to generate power by using small-scale generation systems with emerging technologies, allowing the development of distributed generation (DG). A fuel cell power plant (FCPP) is a distributed generation technology with a rapid development because it has promising characteristics, such as low pollutant emissions, silent operation, high efficiency and long lifetime because of its small number of moving parts. The power conditioning system (PCS) is the interface that allows the effective connection to the electric power system. With the appropriate topology of the PCS and its control system design, the FCPP unit is capable of simultaneously performing both instantaneous active and reactive power flow control. This paper describes the design and implementation of a novel high performance PCS of an FCPP and its controller, for applications in distributed generation systems. A full detailed model of the FCPP is derived and a new three-level control scheme is designed. The dynamic performance of the proposed system is validated by digital simulation in SimPowerSystems (SPS) of MATLAB/Simulink. (author)

  4. Design and evaluation of basic standard encryption algorithm modules using nanosized complementary metal oxide semiconductor molecular circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Massoud; Raissi, Farshid; Ahmadian, Mahmoud; Keshavarzi, Parviz

    2006-01-01

    We are proposing that the recently proposed semiconductor-nanowire-molecular architecture (CMOL) is an optimum platform to realize encryption algorithms. The basic modules for the advanced encryption standard algorithm (Rijndael) have been designed using CMOL architecture. The performance of this design has been evaluated with respect to chip area and speed. It is observed that CMOL provides considerable improvement over implementation with regular CMOS architecture even with a 20% defect rate. Pseudo-optimum gate placement and routing are provided for Rijndael building blocks and the possibility of designing high speed, attack tolerant and long key encryptions are discussed.

  5. Stormwater Design Return Period Standards for U.S. Transportation Infrastructure: How Are States Approaching Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, C.; Lopez, T.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of precipitation in many regions, which is relevant for stormwater engineering designs and resilience in the transportation sector. Existing and future stormwater infrastructure is generally designed for historical and stationary hydrologic conditions. For example, the design return period is based on statistical analysis of past precipitation events, often over a 50-year historical timeline. The design return period translates into how much peak precipitation volume a system is designed for in a state, and provides information about the performance of a drainage structure. The higher the design period used by an engineer for a given stormwater system, the more peak stormwater volume the system can convey. Therefore, design return periods can be associated with a design's near-term and long-term resilience. However, there is a tradeoff between the choice of design return period, the total infrastructure capital cost, and the resilience of a system to heavy precipitation events. This study analyzes current stormwater infrastructure design guidelines for state departments of transportation in the contiguous United States, in order to understand how stormwater design return periods vary across states and provide insight into the resilience of current stormwater systems design. The study found that the design return period varies considerably across the United States by roadway functional class and drainage classification, as well as within climate regions. Understanding this variation will help states identify possible vulnerabilities, highlight deficiencies across states and infrastructure types, and help in updating design return periods to increase the climate resilience of stormwater infrastructure.

  6. Bilateral Comparison of Mercury and Gallium Fixed-Point Cells Using Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovski, J.; Veliki, T.; Zvizdić, D.; Drnovšek, J.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of project EURAMET 1127 (Bilateral comparison of triple point of mercury and melting point of gallium) in the field of thermometry is to compare realization of a triple point of mercury (-38.8344 °C) and melting point of gallium (29.7646 °C) between the Slovenian national laboratory MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and the Croatian national laboratory HMI/FSB-LPM using a long-stem 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). MIRS/UL/FE-LMK participated in a number of intercomparisons on the level of EURAMET. On the other hand, the HMI/LPM-FSB laboratory recently acquired new fixed-point cells which had to be evaluated in the process of intercomparisons. A quartz-sheathed SPRT has been selected and calibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB at the triple point of mercury, the melting point of gallium, and the water triple point. A second set of measurements was made at MIRS/UL/FE-LMK. After its return, the SPRT was again recalibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB. In the comparison, the W value of the SPRT has been used. Results of the bilateral intercomparison confirmed that the new gallium cell of the HMI/LPM-FSB has a value that is within uncertainty limits of both laboratories that participated in the exercise, while the mercury cell experienced problems. After further research, a small leakage in the mercury fixed-point cell has been found.

  7. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  8. The political economy of regulation: Investigation of the relationship between design and performance standards in surface coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Research concerning political and economic regulatory policy was conducted on 15 randomly selected surface coal mines in Tennessee. Data on violations were collected over a 6-year period from 1979 through 1984. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the approaches of the Carter and Reagan administrations concerning the implementation of design and performance regulations of Public Law 95-87. The study concluded that: (1) A change in political administration affects regulatory policy concerning enforcement practices. (2) Regulatory policy is altered in the direction of economic activity believed by an administration to be desirable to society and its constituents. (3) Elaborate rule making activity constrains market activity. (4) The coupling of design and performance standards should be retained. No difference was found in the number of violations for design and associated performance standards. Findings support the theory that it is the administration that affects change in regulatory policy, and not the regulatory construct for compliance with a mandate

  9. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  10. USAGE OF STANDARD PERSONAL COMPUTER PORTS FOR DESIGNING OF THE DOUBLE REDUNDANT FAULT-TOLERANT COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafig SAMEDOV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for designing of the fault-tolerant control systems by using standard personal computers, the ports have been investigated, different structure versions have been designed and the method for choosing of an optimal structure has been suggested. In this scope, first of all, the ÇİFTYAK system has been defined and its work principle has been determined. Then, data transmission ports of the standard personal computers have been classified and analyzed. After that, the structure versions have been designed and evaluated according to the used data transmission methods, the numbers of ports and the criterions of reliability, performance, truth, control and cost. Finally, the method for choosing of the most optimal structure version has been suggested.

  11. Improving the K-12 Online Course Design Review Process: Experts Weigh in on iNACOL National Standards for Quality Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, David; Barbour, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Within the K-12 online learning environment there are a variety of standards that designers can utilize when creating online courses. To date, the only research-based standards available are proprietary in manner. As such, many jurisdictions have begun adopting online course design standards from the leading advocacy organization, which that have…

  12. User's design handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC to DC Converters, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    A unified design procedure is presented for selecting the key SCM control parameters for an arbitrarily given power stage configuration and parameter values, such that all regulator performance specifications can be met and optimized concurrently in a single design attempt. All key results and performance indices, for buck, boost, and buck/boost switching regulators which are relevant to SCM design considerations are included to facilitate frequent references.

  13. Design and validation of standardized clinical and functional remission criteria in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosolov SN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sergey N Mosolov,1 Andrey V Potapov,1 Uriy V Ushakov,2 Aleksey A Shafarenko,1 Anastasiya B Kostyukova11Department of Mental Disorders Therapy, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia; 2Moscow Psychiatric Outpatient Services #21, Moscow, RussiaBackground: International Remission Criteria (IRC for schizophrenia were developed recently by a group of internationally known experts. The IRC detect only 10%–30% of cases and do not cover the diversity of forms and social functioning. Our aim was to design a more applicable tool and validate its use – the Standardized Clinical and Functional Remission Criteria (SCFRC.Methods: We used a 6-month follow-up study of 203 outpatients from two Moscow centers and another further sample of stable patients from a 1-year controlled trial of atypical versus typical medication. Diagnosis was confirmed by International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD10 criteria and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Patients were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, including intensity threshold, and further classified using the Russian domestic remission criteria and the level of social and personal functioning, according to the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP. The SCFRC were formulated and were validated by a data reanalysis on the first population sample and on a second independent sample (104 patients and in an open-label prospective randomized 12-month comparative study of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI versus olanzapine.Results: Only 64 of the 203 outpatients (31.5% initially met the IRC, and 53 patients (26.1% met the IRC after 6 months, without a change in treatment. Patients who were in remission had episodic and progressive deficit (39.6%, or remittent (15% paranoid schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder (17%. In addition, 105 patients of 139 (51.7%, who did not meet symptomatic IRC, remained stable within the period. Reanalysis of

  14. Design Multilayer Antireflection Coatings for Terrestrial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300–870 nm (dual junction and 300–1850 nm (triple junction under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR, shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible.

  15. The evolution of IRRR nuclear standards from the single failure criterion and their impact on system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    One of the first industry standards developed in the United States to meet regulatory agency criteria for the design and installation of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation systems was prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., abbreviated IEEE. This was IEEE Std. 279, first issued in 1968. It was subsequently revised and reissued as IEEE Std. 279-1971 ''IEEE Standard: Criteria for Protection Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations''. Not only has the implementation of this standard had a tremendous impact on nuclear power plant design in the United States, it has been the base document from which subsequent IEEE nuclear standards have been developed. Three major concepts which are addressed by IEEE 279, and which have had a major impact upon control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants are the following : 1) Single failure criterion. 2) Equipment qualification. 3) Channel independence. Each of these concepts has resulted in the development of subsequent IEEE Nuclear Standards. The impact of some of these on control and instrumentation systems are discussed. (author)

  16. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  17. Standards for the culture and quality control of umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells for neurorestorative clinical application (2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Q

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Qiang Ao,1,* Juan Xiao,2,3,* Yanqiu Yu,4 Gengsheng Mao,2 Qingyan Zou,5 Wenyong Gao,2,3 Hongyun Huang2,3 On behalf of Neurorestoratology Professional Committee of Chinese Medical Doctor Association (Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology 1Department of Tissue Engineering, China Medical University, Shen Yang, 2Institute of Neurorestoratology, General Hospital of Armed Police Forces, Beijing, 3Cell Therapy Center, Beijing Hongtianji Neuroscience Academy, Beijing, 4Department of Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shen Yang, 5Guangdong 999 Brain Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Formulating common standards for the culture and quality control of umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is crucial for the standardization of clinical neurorestorative therapy. But to date, there have been no standardized guidelines for the culture and quality control of MSCs in neurorestorative clinical application. Based on a relatively comprehensive review of published clinical studies as well as the existing methods of MSC culture and quality control, the Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology has developed standards for the culture and quality control of umbilical cord MSCs which possess the potential in neurorestorative clinical application. These guidelines include standardized training and management procedures for laboratory operators; standardized use and management of materials and equipment; standardized collection, culture and proliferation of umbilical cord MSCs; standardized management for cell preservation, transport and related safeguard measures; as well as standardization of a clean environment, routine maintenance and related tests and examinations and so on. These guidelines represent the minimum required standards for the culture and quality control of umbilical cord MSCs for potential use in current neurorestorative clinical therapy, and will be further

  18. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... red blood cells. Children are particularly vulnerable to Pb exposure, in part because they are more... of Pb. Urban children are also of particular risk if the mother is exposed to lead. The harmful...

  19. Systematic Approach to Design Tailor Made Fuel Blends That Meets ASTM Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree; H., Choudhury

    2015-01-01

    point, vapor pressure, and heat content were determined using analytical instruments according to their respective American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Most of the properties complied well with the industry standards. However, model gasoline had a comparatively low RVP....... On the other hand, model diesel had a significantly higher cloud point and pour point than what is recommended. This deviation will have an impact on the cold flow properties of the fuels. For both fuels, different additives along with their composition have also been determined using the same computational...

  20. Research needs and improvement of standards for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Moreadith, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    The need for research and improvement of code requirements, for both economy and safety reasons is discussed for the following topics relevant to nuclear power plant structural analysis: Earthquake definition; dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads; design for postulated pipe rupture; code requirements for loading combinations for concrete structures, reinforcing steel splicing, reinforced concrete structural design for thermal effects. (Auth.)

  1. Easy simulation and design of on-chip inductors in standard CMOS processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Jørgensen, Allan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to CMOS inductor modelling, that allow easy simulation in SPICE-like simulators. A number of test results are presented concerning optimal center hole, inductor area, wire spacing and self-inductance. Finally a comprehensive design guide is provided on how to design...... close-to-optimal inductors without the use of electromagnetic simulators...

  2. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Chuan; Norhamidi Muhamad; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  3. GCtool for fuel cell systems design and analysis : user documentation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.

    1999-01-15

    GCtool is a comprehensive system design and analysis tool for fuel cell and other power systems. A user can analyze any configuration of component modules and flows under steady-state or dynamic conditions. Component models can be arbitrarily complex in modeling sophistication and new models can be added easily by the user. GCtool also treats arbitrary system constraints over part or all of the system, including the specification of nonlinear objective functions to be minimized subject to nonlinear, equality or inequality constraints. This document describes the essential features of the interpreted language and the window-based GCtool environment. The system components incorporated into GCtool include a gas flow mixer, splitier, heater, compressor, gas turbine, heat exchanger, pump, pipe, diffuser, nozzle, steam drum, feed water heater, combustor, chemical reactor, condenser, fuel cells (proton exchange membrane, solid oxide, phosphoric acid, and molten carbonate), shaft, generator, motor, and methanol steam reformer. Several examples of system analysis at various levels of complexity are presented. Also given are instructions for generating two- and three-dimensional plots of data and the details of interfacing new models to GCtool.

  4. DESHARKY: automatic design of metabolic pathways for optimal cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Carrera, Javier; Prather, Kristala Jones; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2008-11-01

    The biological solution for synthesis or remediation of organic compounds using living organisms, particularly bacteria and yeast, has been promoted because of the cost reduction with respect to the non-living chemical approach. In that way, computational frameworks can profit from the previous knowledge stored in large databases of compounds, enzymes and reactions. In addition, the cell behavior can be studied by modeling the cellular context. We have implemented a Monte Carlo algorithm (DESHARKY) that finds a metabolic pathway from a target compound by exploring a database of enzymatic reactions. DESHARKY outputs a biochemical route to the host metabolism together with its impact in the cellular context by using mathematical models of the cell resources and metabolism. Furthermore, we provide the sequence of amino acids for the enzymes involved in the route closest phylogenetically to the considered organism. We provide examples of designed metabolic pathways with their genetic load characterizations. Here, we have used Escherichia coli as host organism. In addition, our bioinformatic tool can be applied for biodegradation or biosynthesis and its performance scales with the database size. Software, a tutorial and examples are freely available and open source at http://soft.synth-bio.org/desharky.html

  5. Standardization of domestic human reliability analysis and experience of human reliability analysis in probabilistic safety assessment for NPPs under design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Jung, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the background and development activities of domestic standardization of procedure and method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) to avoid the intervention of subjectivity by HRA analyst in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as possible, and the review of the HRA results for domestic nuclear power plants under design studied by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. We identify the HRA methods used for PSA for domestic NPPs and discuss the subjectivity of HRA analyst shown in performing a HRA. Also, we introduce the PSA guidelines published in USA and review the HRA results based on them. We propose the system of a standard procedure and method for HRA to be developed

  6. Reliability and standard market design : a square plug and a round socket, the fundamental flaw of the market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekman, K.

    2003-01-01

    A electricity power system is designed and built to deliver reliable power supplies. A failure of a single component should not lead to the failure of the entire system. Oversupply results in prices at marginal cost of production, inadequate return on capital investment and economic failure of supplies. Uneconomic sources of supply would pull out in cases of oversupply. Competitive markets need flexible supply and demand and scarcity pricing in order to promote new investment. The problem with such a scenario is that scarcity reduces the level of reliability. An oversupply, while ensuring reliability, offers an inadequate return on capital. This presentation included several graphs depicting results of market failure with reference to NYMEX analysis of credit quality, NEPOOL summer capacity 2001, NYS summer capacity 2001, and PJM summer capacity 2001. A graph illustrating a New England 2002 load duration curve and its analysis was also included. According to the author, the market design is flawed because it does not pay for reliability. It fails to compensate generation for capital at risk, and it fails to address the fact that nearly half of the capacity supplies less than 10 per cent energy. He notes that the liquidity crisis will continue and grow unless changes are made and new entrants come into the market. 8 figs

  7. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery.

  8. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang

    2017-01-01

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery

  9. Standard for design criteria for decommissioning of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, H.B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper was developed by the ANSI Standards Committee N46. Deactivation or shutdown followed by continued operation on the same site does not constitute decommissioning. It is felt that abandonment with entombment of the highly radioactive parts of the plant is the only economically feasible alternative

  10. Evaluation of a performance-based standards approach to heavy vehicle design to reduce pavement wear

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of successful initiatives in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the introduction of a performance-based standards (PBS) approach in the heavy vehicle sector in South Africa was identified by the Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  11. Design and implementation of a standard framework for KSTAR control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woongryol; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Taegu; Lee, Sangil; Yun, Sangwon; Park, Jinseop; Park, Kaprai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed a standardized of control system in KSTAR. • EPICS based software framework is developed for the realization of various control systems. • The applicability of the framework is widened from a simple command dispatcher to the real time application. • Our framework supports the implementation of embedded IOC in FPGA board. - Abstract: Standardization of control system is an important issue in KSTAR which is organized with various heterogeneous systems. Diverse control systems in KSTAR have been adopting new application software since 2010. Development of this software was launched for easy implementation of a data acquisition system but it is extended to as a Standard Framework (SFW) of control system in KSTAR. It is composed with a single library, database, template, and descriptor files. The SFW based controller has common factors. It has non-blocking control command method with a thread. The internal sequence handler makes it can be synchronized with KSTAR experiment. It also has a ring buffer pool mechanism for streaming input data handling. Recently, there are two important functional improvements in the framework. Processor embedded FPGA was proposed as a standard hardware platform for specific application. These are also manipulated by the SFW based embedded application. This approach gives single board system an ability of low level distributed control under the EPICS environments. We also developed a real time monitoring system as a real time network inspection tool in 2012 campaign using the SFW

  12. Reassessing RCTs as the "Gold Standard": Synergy Not Separatism in Evaluation Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Pam; Chambers, Bette; Haslam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly used to evaluate educational interventions in the UK. However, RCTs remain controversial for some elements of the research community. This paper argues that the widespread use of the term "gold standard" to describe RCTs is problematic, as it implies that other research methods are…

  13. Effect of the standard design of forest roads clearing limit on stand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aidin

    clearing limit as well as the difference between standard and existing trees stock growth in different slope classes ... clearing trees. At this phase, trees and other large vegetation within the right-of-way boundaries should be felled and bucked. In addition hazardous snags and ... androseamum) and fern (Polystichum sp.).

  14. Improved safety of the system 80+TM standard plants design through increased diversity and redundancy of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, Regis A.; Carpentino, Frederick L.; Robertson, James E.

    1996-01-01

    Safely systems in the System 80+ TM Standard Plant are designed with more redundancy, diversity and simplicity than earlier nuclear power plant designs. These gains were accomplished by an evolutionary process that preserved the desirable and proven features in currently operating nuclear plants, while improving reliability and defense-in-depth. The System 80+ safety systems are the primary contributors to a core damage frequency that is more than 100 times lower than 1980's vintage U. S. designs, including the predecessor System 80 R standard nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design. The System 80+ design includes significant improvements to the safety injection system, emergency feedwater system, shutdown cooling system, containment spray system, reactor coolant gas vent system, and to their vital support systems. These improvements enhance performance for traditional design basis events and significantly reduce the probability of a severe accident. The System 80+ design also incorporates safety systems to mitigate a severe accident. The added systems include the rapid depressurization system, the in-containment refueling water storage tank, the cavity flooding system. These systems fully address the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (US NRC) severe accident policy. The System 80+ safety systems are integrated with the System 80+ Nuclear Island (NI) design. The NI general arrangement provides quadrant separation of the safety systems for protection from fire and flooding, and large equipment pull spaces and lay down areas for maintenance. This paper will describe the System 80+ safety systems advanced design features, the improved accident prevention and mitigation capabilities, and startup, operating and maintenance benefits

  15. Cell and stack design alternatives. Final report, August 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Jr., D. Q.; King, Robert B.

    1980-02-01

    The work described comprised the first phase of a planned six phase program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) driven on-site integrated energy systems (OS/IES). The Phase I effort was organized as three major technical tasks; (1) study of system design alternatives; (2) fuel cell design alternatives; and (3) methane conditioner study. It was decided that comprehensive modeling of one application would most effectively utilize the resources available for the study of systems design alternatives. A 48 unit apartment complex located in Albany, New York and built to HUD minimum standards was selected as being typical of the applications that will be served by the systems. The time varying space conditioning (HVAC) and electrical requirements including the effects of varying weather conditions, living habits and occupancy patterns were modeled. These requirements formed the basis for comparing the performance and cost of the alternative configurations with each other and with a conventional system. Five basic alternative OS/IES configurations plus four variations were selected from a preliminary list of 13 basic configurations for detailed performance nd cost evaluations. Study procedures and results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  16. Current status and future prospects of Korean standardized nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieh, C.-H.; Park, S.-K.; Lee, B.-R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reviewed a brief history of Korean nuclear industry since the first Kori-1 plant operation in 1978 with special emphasis on the NSSS and BOP design and engineering, and the design approaches for nuclear power plants in the future. Continued effort to enhance plant economy and operational safety has been made by increasing plant size, and improving safety features, systems and component reliability in various design aspects. Korean nuclear industry is now trying to be one of the major contributors to the world nuclear field in sharing nuclear technology gained from past experience and developed through internation technical cooperation programs

  17. How to Implement an Experimental Course on Analog IC design in a Standard Semester Schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Marker-Villumsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    how the sequences of courses in integrated analog electronics at the Technical University of Denmark have been modified to enable this. It is outlined how a course can be designed using the three elements in constructive alignment: intended learning objectives, teaching activities and assessment....... As an example it is described in detail how a new course is designed. The course is the first of two new courses and the scope of the course is to teach the students the flow an IC designer has to go through when designing analog circuits. Additionally the course has a large focus on strengthening the generic...... engineering competences of the students. This is achieved by running the course as a project in a company with status meetings and a review meeting where the teacher acts as a manager. Finally, the course evaluation based on the Course Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ) is presented and based on this future...

  18. Comparison between Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization Methods on Standard Test Functions and Machine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    , genetic algorithm and particle swarm are shortly presented in this paper. These two algorithms are tested to determine their performance on five different benchmark test functions. The algorithms are tested based on three requirements: precision of the result, number of iterations and calculation time....... Both algorithms are also tested on an analytical design process of a Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Generator to observe their performances in an electrical machine design application.......Nowadays the requirements imposed by the industry and economy ask for better quality and performance while the price must be maintained in the same range. To achieve this goal optimization must be introduced in the design process. Two of the best known optimization algorithms for machine design...

  19. Designing business charts with Excel based on the standards of HICHERT SUCCESS

    CERN Document Server

    Gerths, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This e-book offers a comprehensive range of knowledge for creating professional business charts based on the concept of HICHERT®SUCCESS. Given this knowledge, the SUCCESS rules of designing good business charts can be followed easily. This training is based on one complex example. The tips and trick learned can be transferred to other Excel chart types easily. Contents: Introduction to the HICHERT®SUCCESS design rules.Tips and tricks for Excel 2003 and 2007/2010.Comprehensive trai

  20. Facility for gamma irradiations of cultured cells at low dose rates: design, physical characteristics and functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Anello, Pasquale; Pecchia, Ilaria; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Campa, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a low dose/dose rate gamma irradiation facility (called LIBIS) for in vitro biological systems, for the exposure, inside a CO_2 cell culture incubator, of cells at a dose rate ranging from few μGy/h to some tens of mGy/h. Three different "1"3"7Cs sources are used, depending on the desired dose rate. The sample is irradiated with a gamma ray beam with a dose rate uniformity of at least 92% and a percentage of primary 662 keV photons greater than 80%. LIBIS complies with high safety standards. - Highlights: • A gamma irradiation facility for chronic exposures of cells was set up at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. • The dose rate uniformity and the percentage of primary 662 keV photons on the sample are greater than 92% and 80%, respectively. • The GEANT4 code was used to design the facility. • Good agreement between simulation and experimental dose rate measurements has been obtained. • The facility will allow to safely investigate different issues about low dose rate effects on cultured cells.

  1. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  2. A Standardized Method for In Vivo Mouse Pancreas Imaging and Semiquantitative β Cell Mass Measurement by Dual Isotope SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijs, I.; Xavier, C.; Peleman, C.; Caveliers, V.; Brom, M.; Gotthardt, M.; Herrera, P.L.; Lahoutte, T.; Bouwens, L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate future β cell tracers in vivo, we aimed to develop a standardized in vivo method allowing semiquantitative measurement of a prospective β cell tracer within the pancreas.2-[(123)I]Iodo-L-phenylalanine ([(123)I]IPA) and [Lys(40)([(111)In]DTPA)]exendin-3 ([(111)In]Ex3) pancreatic

  3. A standardized method for in vivo mouse pancreas imaging and semiquantitative beta cell mass measurement by dual isotope SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijs, I.; Xavier, C.; Peleman, C.; Caveliers, V.; Brom, M.; Gotthardt, M.; Herrera, P.L.; Lahoutte, T.; Bouwens, L.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In order to evaluate future beta cell tracers in vivo, we aimed to develop a standardized in vivo method allowing semiquantitative measurement of a prospective beta cell tracer within the pancreas. PROCEDURES: 2-[(123)I]Iodo-L-phenylalanine ([(123)I]IPA) and

  4. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  5. Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

  6. Designing Collaborative Developmental Standards by Refactoring of the Earth Science Models, Libraries, Workflows and Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, E.; Iredell, M.

    2015-12-01

    The operational (OPS) NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suite, traditionally, consist of a large set of multi- scale HPC models, workflows, scripts, tools and utilities, which are very much depending on the variety of the additional components. Namely, this suite utilizes a unique collection of the in-house developed 20+ shared libraries (NCEPLIBS), certain versions of the 3-rd party libraries (like netcdf, HDF, ESMF, jasper, xml etc.), HPC workflow tool within dedicated (sometimes even vendors' customized) HPC system homogeneous environment. This domain and site specific, accompanied with NCEP's product- driven large scale real-time data operations complicates NCEP collaborative development tremendously by reducing chances to replicate this OPS environment anywhere else. The NOAA/NCEP's Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) missions to develop and improve numerical weather, climate, hydrological and ocean prediction through the partnership with the research community. Realizing said difficulties, lately, EMC has been taken an innovative approach to improve flexibility of the HPC environment by building the elements and a foundation for NCEP OPS functionally equivalent environment (FEE), which can be used to ease the external interface constructs as well. Aiming to reduce turnaround time of the community code enhancements via Research-to-Operations (R2O) cycle, EMC developed and deployed several project sub-set standards that already paved the road to NCEP OPS implementation standards. In this topic we will discuss the EMC FEE for O2R requirements and approaches in collaborative standardization, including NCEPLIBS FEE and models code version control paired with the models' derived customized HPC modules and FEE footprints. We will share NCEP/EMC experience and potential in the refactoring of EMC development processes, legacy codes and in securing model source code quality standards by using combination of the Eclipse IDE, integrated with the

  7. IFMIF target and test cell - design and integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    2007-01-01

    The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) aims at the qualification of appropriate materials for a Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO) to a fluence of up to 150 dpa (displacement per atom) at a DEMO typical neutron spectrum. It comprises two accelerators each providing a deuteron beam with 125 mA and 40 MeV. The deuterons strike a lithium target and create via stripping reactions neutrons. The neutrons are mainly forward directed into the High-Flux-Test-Module (HFTM). The Medium Flux-Test-Modules (MFTM) and the Low-Flux-Test-Modules (LFTM) are arranged in beam direction behind. In the HFTM a damage rate in steel of more than 20 dpa/fpy (displacement per atome per full power year) will be provide in a volume of 0.5 litre. The neutron spectrum is prone to produce helium and tritium in steel like in the first wall of a DEMO reactor. The Medium- Flux-Test-Modules are designed for creep fatigues in situ and tritium release test. The test modules are cooled with helium. The target is a lithium jet with a free surface towards the deuteron beams. The jet follows a concave curved so called back wall. Centrifugal forces increase the static pressure, which prevents lithium boiling at the beam tube pressure and the power release of 10 MW due to the deuteron beams. The target and Test Cell (TTC) houses the target and the test modules as well as the lithium supply tubes and a quench tank into which the lithium splashes after the target. The lithium containing components have a temperature of 250 to 350 C. Nuclear reactions mainly in beam direction contribute to heat releases in TTC components. The TTC is filled with a noble gas with almost atmospheric pressure. Natural convection transfers heat to the walls but also mitigates temperature peaks. The Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) has developed or validated tools for: - The extended Monte Carlo Code McDeLicious for calculations of the neutron source term, dpa rates in the material specimens, activation

  8. Standard practice for determining damage-Based design Stress for fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) materials using acoustic emission

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice details procedures for establishing the direct stress and shear stress damage-based design values for use in the damage-based design criterion for materials to be used in FRP vessels and other composite structures. The practice uses data derived from acoustic emission examination of four-point beam bending tests and in-plane shear tests (see ASME Section X, Article RT-8). 1.2 The onset of lamina damage is indicated by the presence of significant acoustic emission during the reload portion of load/reload cycles. "Significant emission" is defined with historic index. 1.3 Units - The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in brackets are mathematical conversions to SI units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health pr...

  9. The method of using current regulations and standards in designing management and technologies of construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinenko Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic efficiency of using funds in construction of buildings and structures begins from an effective, proper design, which is based on modern, cutting-edge, advanced equipment, streamlined organization and process solutions of construction operations. In the light of this it is considered application of “Self-Organization and Technology of Building” multifunctional software package capable of solving various engineering tasks on designing management of construction operations in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations in view of using software for automatic generation of workflow. Implementing this software in the construction management processes may help to solve management tasks at the construction site.

  10. Rational design of nanoparticles towards targeting antigen-presenting cells and improved T cell priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Eva; Curato, Caterina; Paisana, Maria; Rodrigues, Catarina; Porat, Ziv; Viana, Ana S; Afonso, Carlos A M; Pinto, João; Gaspar, Rogério; Moreira, João N; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Jung, Steffen; Florindo, Helena F

    2017-07-28

    Vaccination is a promising strategy to trigger and boost immune responses against cancer or infectious disease. We have designed, synthesized and characterized aliphatic-polyester (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) to investigate how the nature of protein association (adsorbed versus entrapped) and polymer/surfactant concentrations impact on the generation and modulation of antigen-specific immune responses. The ability of the NP formulations to target dendritic cells (DC), be internalized and activate the T cells was characterized and optimized in vitro and in vivo using markers of DC activation and co-stimulatory molecules. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used as a model antigen in combination with the engraftment of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, carrying a transgenic OVA-responding T cell receptor (TCR), to trace and characterize the activation of antigen-specific CD4 + and CD8 + lymph node T cells upon NP vaccination. Accordingly, the phenotype and frequency of immune cell stimulation induced by the NP loaded with OVA, isolated or in combination with synthetic unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) motifs, were characterized. DC-NP interactions increased with incubation time, presenting internalization values between 50 and 60% and 30-40%, in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Interestingly, animal immunization with antigen-adsorbed NP up-regulated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHCII), while NP entrapping the antigen up-regulated MHCI, suggesting a more efficient cross-presentation. On the other hand, rather surprisingly, the surfactant used in the NP formulation had a major impact on the activation of antigen presenting cells (APC). In fact, DC collected from lymph nodes of animals immunized with NP prepared using poly(vinil alcohol) (PVA), as a surfactant, expressed significantly higher levels of CD86, MHCI and MHCII. In addition, those NP prepared with PVA and co-entrapping OVA and the toll

  11. Metadata Design in the New PDS4 Standards - Something for Everybody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raugh, Anne C.; Hughes, John S.

    2015-11-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, supports, and distributes data of diverse targets, from diverse sources, to diverse users. One of the core problems addressed by the PDS4 data standard redesign was that of metadata - how to accommodate the increasingly sophisticated demands of search interfaces, analytical software, and observational documentation into label standards without imposing limits and constraints that would impinge on the quality or quantity of metadata that any particular observer or team could supply. And yet, as an archive, PDS must have detailed documentation for the metadata in the labels it supports, or the institutional knowledge encoded into those attributes will be lost - putting the data at risk.The PDS4 metadata solution is based on a three-step approach. First, it is built on two key ISO standards: ISO 11179 "Information Technology - Metadata Registries", which provides a common framework and vocabulary for defining metadata attributes; and ISO 14721 "Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model", which provides the framework for the information architecture that enforces the object-oriented paradigm for metadata modeling. Second, PDS has defined a hierarchical system that allows it to divide its metadata universe into namespaces ("data dictionaries", conceptually), and more importantly to delegate stewardship for a single namespace to a local authority. This means that a mission can develop its own data model with a high degree of autonomy and effectively extend the PDS model to accommodate its own metadata needs within the common ISO 11179 framework. Finally, within a single namespace - even the core PDS namespace - existing metadata structures can be extended and new structures added to the model as new needs are identifiedThis poster illustrates the PDS4 approach to metadata management and highlights the expected return on the development investment for PDS, users and data

  12. Standards Based Design: Teaching K-12 Educators to Build Quality Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, René E.; Ritter, Nicola L.; Li, Yun; Newton, Rhonda C.; Palkar, Trupti

    2016-01-01

    The number of online courses, programs, and schools are growing exponentially in K-12 education. Given the unique nature of online courses and the distinct skills necessary to create a quality online course, it is essential that effective professional development be provided for teachers designing online courses. Online courses need to be of the…

  13. FPGA Based Low Power Router Design Using High Speed Transeceiver Logic IO Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thind, Vandana; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2015-01-01

    and information. Router is main component of computer networks is an intelligent device uses to transfer data packets between various computer networks. Router must consume low power to perform its work in an efficient manner. To achieve the same the work has been done to make a FPGA based low power design using...

  14. Co-simulation Design towards Cyber-Physical Robotic Applications : Leveraging FMI Standard and CSP Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Zhou; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2017-01-01

    Designing a software controller for multi-task automated service robotics is becoming increasingly complex. The combination of discrete (cyber) and continuous (physical) domains and multiple engineering fields makes it quite challenging to couple different subsystems as a whole for further

  15. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  16. 78 FR 28258 - mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection. 5.3.1 Reactor Vessel ML12272A008 Materials. 5.3.2 Pressure-Temperature... focus on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) designs. The Commission directed the staff to more... Containment. 6.2.6 Containment Leakage ML12276A127 Testing. 6.2.7 Fracture Prevention of ML12278A103...

  17. 75 FR 29933 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Federal agency has significant control over the design of the building (e.g., ``lease-constructs''). DOE..., relocation facilities, telecommuting centers, similar Federal facilities, and any other buildings or..., harbor, flood control, reclamation or power projects, for chemical manufacturing or development projects...

  18. STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION AS A POSSIBLE STRATEGY FOR TREATING STANDARD THERAPY-RESISTANT ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Gaidukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the literature dealing with studies of the efficiency and safety of stem cell transplantation (SCT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS through the electronic resources Pubmed and Medline by using the keywords «bone marrow transplantation», «hematopoietic stem cell transplantation», «ankylosing spondylitis», «autoimmune diseases», and «sacroiliac joint biopsy». The paper describes four cases of SCT in AS patients, including transplantation that was carried out in one patient with lymphoma concurrent with AS, in two AS patients without blood cancers, and in one patient with AS concurrent with myeloid leukemia. Drug-free remission was achieved in 3 cases: lymphoma concurrent with AS (n=1, AS concurrent with myeloid leukemia (n=1, and AS without comorbidities (n=1. In addition to an improvement in the course of AS, there were also two cases with clinical presentations of AS after SCT. The given cases show that SCT can be basically used to induce drug-free remission in patients with severe forms of standard therapy-resistant AS. However, the introduction of SCT in clinical practice needs to adjust the technique to the specific features of AS patients. 

  19. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  20. Modeling a clean energy standard for electricity: Policy design implications for emissions, supply, prices, and regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Anthony; Palmer, Karen; Woerman, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The electricity sector is responsible for roughly 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and a reduction in CO 2 emissions from electricity generation is an important component of the U.S. strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Toward that goal, several proposals for a clean energy standard (CES) have been put forth, including one espoused by the Obama administration that calls for 80% clean electricity by 2035 phased in from current levels of roughly 40%. This paper looks at the effects of such a policy on CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector, the mix of technologies used to supply electricity, electricity prices, and regional flows of clean energy credits. The CES leads to a 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions between 2013 and 2035 and results in dramatic reductions in generation from conventional coal. The policy also results in fairly modest increases on national electricity prices, but this masks a wide variety of effects across regions. - Highlights: ► We model a clean energy standard (CES) for electricity at 80% by 2035. ► We analyze effects on CO 2 emissions, investment, prices, and credit trading. ► 80% CES leads to 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions by 2035. ► Modest national average electricity price increase masks regional heterogeneity

  1. The design and numerical analysis of tandem thermophotovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hao-Yu; Liu Ren-Jun; Wang Lian-Kai; Lü You; Li Tian-Tian; Li Guo-Xing; Zhang Yuan-Tao; Zhang Bao-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, numerical analysis of GaSb =(E g = 0.72 eV)/Ga 0.84 In 0.16 As 0.14 Sb 0.86 (E g = 0.53 eV) tandem thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells is carried out by using Silvaco/Atlas software. In the tandem cells, a GaSb p-n homojunction is used for the top cell and a GaInAsSb p-n homojunction for the bottom cell. A heavily doped GaSb tunnel junction connects the two sub-cells together. The simulations are carried out at a radiator temperature of 2000 K and a cell temperature of 300 K. The radiation photons are injected from the top of the tandem cells. Key properties of the single- and dual-junction TPV cells, including I–V characteristic, maximum output power (P max ), open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (I sc ), etc. are presented. The effects of the sub-cell thickness and carrier concentration on the key properties of tandem cells are investigated. A comparison of the dual-TPV cells with GaSb and GaInAsSb single junction cells shows that the P max of tandem cells is almost twice as great as that of the single-junction cells. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. Reliability evaluation of high-performance, low-power FinFET standard cells based on mixed RBB/FBB technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Cui, Xiaoxin; Ni, Yewen; Liao, Kai; Liao, Nan; Yu, Dunshan; Cui, Xiaole

    2017-04-01

    With shrinking transistor feature size, the fin-type field-effect transistor (FinFET) has become the most promising option in low-power circuit design due to its superior capability to suppress leakage. To support the VLSI digital system flow based on logic synthesis, we have designed an optimized high-performance low-power FinFET standard cell library based on employing the mixed FBB/RBB technique in the existing stacked structure of each cell. This paper presents the reliability evaluation of the optimized cells under process and operating environment variations based on Monte Carlo analysis. The variations are modelled with Gaussian distribution of the device parameters and 10000 sweeps are conducted in the simulation to obtain the statistical properties of the worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage for each cell. For comparison, a set of non-optimal cells that adopt the same topology without employing the mixed biasing technique is also generated. Experimental results show that the optimized cells achieve standard deviation reduction of 39.1% and 30.7% at most in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage respectively while the normalized deviation shrinking in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage can be up to 98.37% and 24.13%, respectively, which demonstrates that our optimized cells are less sensitive to variability and exhibit more reliability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306040), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB057201), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152020), and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2015A030313147).

  3. Design of a wireless, standard-based patient monitoring system for operating rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalobos Cervantes, A.; Alamo Ramiro, J.M. del

    2016-07-01

    In the last decades, IT has brought several successful innovations into the healthcare field, such as wearable devices or hospital information systems. However, IT adoption in surgical environments has followed a slower pace. In this kind of interventions, the large number of wired monitoring equipment limits the efficiency and movements of surgical staff in the room. Therefore, wireless intercommunication between these devices has become a priority. This paper proposes a solution to these needs, and describes the design of a system that uses wireless technologies to collect data from different monitors and display physicians an integrated vision of the patient’s status. Finally, a functional prototype was developed to validate the proposed design. (Author)

  4. Structural Design of the DTU-ESA MM-Wave Validation Standard Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Markussen, Christen Malte

    2015-01-01

    A new specially designed antenna to be used for inter-comparisons and validation of antenna test facilities is under development in cooperation between DTU and TICRA under a contract from the European Space Agency. The antenna is designed to be extremely thermally and mechanically stable...... in the range of temperatures 20±5°C under arbitrary orientation in the gravity field. The antenna has a characteristic length of approximately 500mm. And in order to obtain very low measuring error, the allowable deformations of the reflector and feeds are down to 2.5μm. The antenna is modelled structurally...... is connected via a glued contact formulation in MSC.MARC. Because of the size and the complexity of the model a computer cluster is applied to solve the analyses. This paper describes the structural solution to meet these extremely strict stability requirements and the structural analyses done in order...

  5. CAGE: A standard design application to nuclear power plants of Cofrentes, Almaraz and Trillo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubian Martinez, B.; Gomez Gomez, M.; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, J.; Turrion Lopez, F.; Barrio, M. A. del; Cobos Perabad, A.; Garcia-Serrano, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Design, engineering, supply, construction, assembly, supervision and quality control, construction management and commissioning of Alternative Emergency Management Centres (CAGES) of nuclear power plants Cofrentes (CNC), Almaraz (CNA) and Trillo (CNT) were awarded in the first half of 2014 to Iberdrola Engineering and Construction (IIC). After obtaining the required building permits issued by municipalities, following the delivery of the corresponding, basic project and execution, in January 2015, began civil works at CNA, CNT and in February of this year in CNC. (Author)

  6. Lattice Designs in Standard and Simple Implicit Multi-linear Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Wooten, Rebecca D.

    2016-01-01

    Statisticians generally use ordinary least squares to minimize the random error in a subject response with respect to independent explanatory variable. However, Wooten shows illustrates how ordinary least squares can be used to minimize the random error in the system without defining a subject response. Using lattice design Wooten shows that non-response analysis is a superior alternative rotation of the pyramidal relationship between random variables and parameter estimates in multi-linear r...

  7. Use of standard reliability levels in design and safety assessment of in-pile loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, G.; Verre, A.; Balestreri, S.; Colombo, A.G.; Luisi, T.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a logic-probabilistic analysis technique for a critical design review and safety assessment of in-pile loops. The examples in this paper refer to the analysis performed for the experimental loops already constructed or under construction in the ESSOR reactor of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, as irradiation facilities for fuel element research and development tests. The proposed technique is based on the classification into categories of components and protective device malfunctions. Such subdivision into categories was agreed upon by the Italian Safety Authority and Euratom JRC, and adopted for the safety assessment of the ESSOR reactor in-pile loops. For each category, the method makes a link with a corresponding malfunction probability range (probability level). This probability level is defined taking into account design, construction, inspection and maintenance criteria as well as periodic controls; therefore the quality level and consequently the reliability level are thus also defined. The analysis is developed in the following stages: (1) definition of the analysis object (top event) and drawing of the relative fault-tree; (2) loop design analysis and preliminary optimization based on logic criteria; (3) classification into categories of the fault-tree primary events; (4) final loop design analysis and optimization based on defined component quality requirements. Stages 2 and 4 are quite different since stage 2 mainly consists of a redundance optimization, while stage 4 acts on the component quality level in such a way that each minimum cut-set leading to the top has an acceptable probability level. During analysis development, use is made of computer codes which, among other things enable the verification of fault-tree logic makeup, the listing of the minimum cut-sets with and without event categorization, and the evaluation of each cut-set order. (author)

  8. A Web Resource for Standardized Benchmark Datasets, Metrics, and Rosetta Protocols for Macromolecular Modeling and Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Ó Conchúir

    Full Text Available The development and validation of computational macromolecular modeling and design methods depend on suitable benchmark datasets and informative metrics for comparing protocols. In addition, if a method is intended to be adopted broadly in diverse biological applications, there needs to be information on appropriate parameters for each protocol, as well as metrics describing the expected accuracy compared to experimental data. In certain disciplines, there exist established benchmarks and public resources where experts in a particular methodology are encouraged to supply their most efficient implementation of each particular benchmark. We aim to provide such a resource for protocols in macromolecular modeling and design. We present a freely accessible web resource (https://kortemmelab.ucsf.edu/benchmarks to guide the development of protocols for protein modeling and design. The site provides benchmark datasets and metrics to compare the performance of a variety of modeling protocols using different computational sampling methods and energy functions, providing a "best practice" set of parameters for each method. Each benchmark has an associated downloadable benchmark capture archive containing the input files, analysis scripts, and tutorials for running the benchmark. The captures may be run with any suitable modeling method; we supply command lines for running the benchmarks using the Rosetta software suite. We have compiled initial benchmarks for the resource spanning three key areas: prediction of energetic effects of mutations, protein design, and protein structure prediction, each with associated state-of-the-art modeling protocols. With the help of the wider macromolecular modeling community, we hope to expand the variety of benchmarks included on the website and continue to evaluate new iterations of current methods as they become available.

  9. Analytical Evaluation of Preliminary Drop Tests Performed to Develop a Robust Design for the Standardized DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Morton, D.K.; Smith, N.L.; Snow, S.D.; Rahl, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a design concept for a set of standard canisters for the handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository, of DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The standardized DOE SNF canister has to be capable of handling virtually all of the DOE SNF in a variety of potential storage and transportation systems. It must also be acceptable to the repository, based on current and anticipated future requirements. This expected usage mandates a robust design. The canister design has four unique geometries, with lengths of approximately 10 feet or 15 feet, and an outside nominal diameter of 18 inches or 24 inches. The canister has been developed to withstand a drop from 30 feet onto a rigid (flat) surface, sustaining only minor damage - but no rupture - to the pressure (containment) boundary. The majority of the end drop-induced damage is confined to the skirt and lifting/stiffening ring components, which can be removed if de sired after an accidental drop. A canister, with its skirt and stiffening ring removed after an accidental drop, can continue to be used in service with appropriate operational steps being taken. Features of the design concept have been proven through drop testing and finite element analyses of smaller test specimens. Finite element analyses also validated the canister design for drops onto a rigid (flat) surface for a variety of canister orientations at impact, from vertical to 45 degrees off vertical. Actual 30-foot drop testing has also been performed to verify the final design, though limited to just two full-scale test canister drops. In each case, the analytical models accurately predicted the canister response

  10. Tax design-tax evasion relationship in Serbia: New empirical approach to standard theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence on the impact of the change in income tax rates and the degree of its progressivity on the scale of labour taxes evasion in Serbia, using the tax-benefit microsimulation model and econometric methods, on 2007 Living Standard Measurement Survey data. The empirical analysis is based on novel assumption that individual's tax evasion decision depends on a change in disposable income, which is captured by the variation in their Effective Marginal Tax Rates (EMTR, rather than on a change in after-tax income. The results suggest that the elasticity of tax evasion to EMTR equals -0.3, confirming the Yitzhaki's theory, while the propensity to evade is decreasing in the level of wages and increasing in the level of self-employment income. The results also show that introduction of revenue-neutral, progressive taxation of labour income would lead to increase in labour tax evasion by 1 percentage point.

  11. The Optimal Design Method and Standardized Mathematical Model of Tooth Profile Modification of Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a tooth profile modification method of spur gear. After establishing a standardized mathematical model for optimized tooth profile and simulating meshing process with ANSYS finite element analysis, we obtained 625 groups of gear models with different modification parameters. The group with minimum transmission errors owns the optimal parameters. Genetic algorithm was adopted in the entire process for the purpose of reducing the variation of transmission errors in meshing process. The arc and parabolic modification were doing the same processing. After comparing the transmission errors fluctuation produced by the meshing process of gear of nonmodification with arc modification and parabolic modification, we found that the best modification effects of arc modification and parabolic modification were both reduced by 90%. The modification method makes the gear drive process more stable and efficient, and it is also promising in general application for gear drive.

  12. Design of Blast-Loaded Glazing Windows and Facades: A Review of Essential Requirements towards Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Larcher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the blast protection level of laminated glass windows and facades is of crucial importance, and it is normally done by using experimental investigations. In recent years numerical methods have become much more powerful also with respect to this kind of application. This paper attempts to give a first idea of a possible standardization concerning such numerical simulations. Attention is drawn to the representation of the blast loading and to the proper description of the behaviour of the material of the mentioned products, to the geometrical meshing, and to the modelling of the connections of the glass components to the main structure. The need to validate the numerical models against reliable experimental data, some of which are indicated, is underlined.

  13. Optimizing NSSS power and turbine/generator performance for standardized nuclear power plant designs in tropical climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parece, M.V.; Stack, T.G.; Huffman, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The EPR was developed by AREVA as a standardized nuclear power plant design that could be deployed throughout the world. The first EPR is currently being constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. Many of the plant systems for this first-of-a-kind unit are optimized for the climate and heat rejection method (once-through cooling) used at Olkiluoto. Two such systems are the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) and the Turbine/Generator (T/G) system. To achieve the EPR's target net electrical output for tropical climates and various condenser heat rejection methods, design studies were performed that showed that the NSSS and T/G system designs developed for the Olkiluoto site conditions required modification. The business case for EPR on U.S. sites where average ambient temperature is above 60 F, implies an economical design that provides an average net electrical output of at least 1600 MWe. It has been shown through parametric studies that the key features of the design needed to achieve this goal are: -) rated core thermal power of 4590 MWth, which is supported by plant systems, structures and components; -) the use of mechanical draft cooling towers rather than natural draft cooling towers; -) a low pressure turbine design with reduced exhaust annulus area; and -) a multi-pressure condenser configuration

  14. How do different cigarette design features influence the standard tar yields of popular cigarette brands sold in different countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, R J; Hammond, D; McNeill, A; King, B; Kozlowski, L T; Giovino, G A; Cummings, K M

    2008-09-01

    To examine the associations among cigarette design features and tar yields of leading cigarette brands sold in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. Government reports and numbers listed on packs were used to obtain data on International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/Federal Trade Commission (FTC) yields for the tar of 172 cigarette varieties sold in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. We used standardised methods to measure the following 11 cigarette design parameters: filter ventilation, cigarette pressure drop, filter pressure drop, tobacco rod length, filter length, cigarette diameter, tipping paper length, tobacco weight, filter weight, rod density and filter density. Filter ventilation was found to be the predominant design feature accounting for the variations between brands in ISO/FTC tar yields in each of the four countries. After accounting for filter ventilation, design parameters such as overwrap length, tobacco weight and rod density played comparatively minor roles in determining tar yields. Variation in ISO/FTC tar yields are predicted by a limited set of cigarette design features, especially filter ventilation, suggesting that governments should consider mandatory disclosure of cigarette design parameters as part of comprehensive tobacco product regulations.

  15. Cellular Cultivation: Growing HeLa Cells Using Standard High School Laboratory Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschak, Gayle; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes experiments to culture cells in a laboratory that provide students with hands-on experience in manipulating cells and a chance to observe cell growth characteristics first hand. Exposes students to sterile technique, cell culture, cell growth concepts, and eukaryotic cell structure. (JRH)

  16. SSTL I/O Standard Based Arithmetic Circuits Design on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    -Tiryagbhyam”. SSTL135_R is minimum I/O power consumer. SSTL135_DCI is maximum power consumer. When we use SSTL135_R in place of SSTL12, SSTL12_DCI, SSTL15, and SSTL135_DCI, there is 42.5%, 82.7%, 28.12%, and 72.9% reduction in I/O power at 21oC, 40oC, 53.5oC and 56.7oC. This design is implemented on Artix-7 FPGA...

  17. [Design of standard voice sample text for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Yan-yan; Xu, Wen

    2010-09-01

    To design a speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders. The principles for design of a speech voice sample text are: The short text should include the 21 initials and 39 finals, this may cover all the phonemes in Mandarin. Also, the short text should have some meanings. A short text was made out. It had 155 Chinese words, and included 21 initials and 38 finals (the final, ê, was not included because it was rarely used in Mandarin). Also, the text covered 17 light tones and one "Erhua". The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text were statistically similar as those in Mandarin according to the method of similarity of the sample and population (r = 0.742, P text were statistically not similar as those in Mandarin (r = 0.731, P > 0.05). A speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin was made out. The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text are similar as those in Mandarin. Its value for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders need further study.

  18. Antireflection coating design for series interconnected multi-junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiken, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    AR coating design for multi-junction solar cells can be more challenging than in the single junction case. Reasons for this are discussed. Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub SC)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design can be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  19. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C.

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report

  20. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report.

  1. A Model of Yeast Cell-Cycle Regulation Based on a Standard Component Modeling Strategy for Protein Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphan Laomettachit

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a "standard component" modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with "standard components" can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast.

  2. Standard Practice for Design and Construction of Aerospace Cleanrooms and Contamination Controlled Areas

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this practice is to provide design and construction guidelines for contamination controlled facilities used in the assembly and integration of aerospace hardware. The guidelines herein are intended to ensure that the facilities, when used properly, will meet the cleanliness requirements of aerospace hardware and processes. The objective is to limit contamination due to the deposition of particulate and molecular contaminants on flight hardware surfaces. 1.2 One cleanliness classification of a facility is the airborne particle concentrations in accordance with ISO 14644-1 and 14644-2. Airborne particle concentrations in accordance with FED-STD-209E are included for reference. This simple classification is inadequate to describe a facility that will support the assembly and integration of spacecraft. The extended duration of hardware exposure during fabrication and testing, the sensitivity of the hardware to hydrocarbons and other molecular contaminants, and the changing requirements during ...

  3. SPSS programs for the measurement of nonindependence in standard dyadic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, Valentim R; Kenny, David A

    2009-02-01

    Dyadic research is becoming more common in the social and behavioral sciences. The most common dyadic design is one in which two persons are measured on the same set of variables. Very often, the first analysis of dyadic data is to determine the extent to which the responses of the two persons are correlated-that is, whether there is nonindependence in the data. We describe two user-friendly SPSS programs for measuring nonindependence of dyadic data. Both programs can be used for distinguishable and indistinguishable dyad members. Inter1.sps is appropriate for interval measures. Inter2.sps applies to categorical variables. The SPSS syntax and data files related to this article may be downloaded as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  4. Standard sub-thermoneutral caging temperature influences radiosensitivity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Povinelli

    Full Text Available The production of new blood cells relies on a hierarchical network of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs. To maintain lifelong hematopoiesis, HSPCs must be protected from ionizing radiation or other cytotoxic agents. For many years, murine models have been a valuable source of information regarding factors that either enhance or reduce the survival of HSPCs after exposure of marrow to ionizing radiation. In a recent series of studies, however, it has become clear that housing-related factors such as the cool room temperature required for laboratory mice can exert a surprising influence on the outcome of experiments. Here we report that the mild, but chronic cold-stress endured by mice housed under these conditions exerts a protective effect on HSPCs after both non-lethal and lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI. Alleviation of this cold-stress by housing mice at a thermoneutral temperature (30°C resulted in significantly greater baseline radiosensitivity to a lethal dose of TBI with more HSPCs from mice housed at thermoneutral temperature undergoing apoptosis following non-lethal TBI. Cold-stressed mice have elevated levels of norepinephrine, a key molecule of the sympathetic nervous system that binds to β-adrenergic receptors. We show that blocking this signaling pathway in vivo through use of the β-blocker propanolol completely mitigates the protective effect of cold-stress on HSPC apoptosis. Collectively this study demonstrates that chronic stress endured by the standard housing conditions of laboratory mice increases the resistance of HSPCs to TBI-induced apoptosis through a mechanism that depends upon β-adrenergic signaling. Since β-blockers are commonly prescribed to a wide variety of patients, this information could be important when predicting the clinical impact of HSPC sensitivity to TBI.

  5. Standard sub-thermoneutral caging temperature influences radiosensitivity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Benjamin J; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Eng, Jason W-L; Dougher, Christopher W; Curtin, Leslie; Capitano, Maegan L; Sailsbury-Ruf, Christi T; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Nemeth, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The production of new blood cells relies on a hierarchical network of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To maintain lifelong hematopoiesis, HSPCs must be protected from ionizing radiation or other cytotoxic agents. For many years, murine models have been a valuable source of information regarding factors that either enhance or reduce the survival of HSPCs after exposure of marrow to ionizing radiation. In a recent series of studies, however, it has become clear that housing-related factors such as the cool room temperature required for laboratory mice can exert a surprising influence on the outcome of experiments. Here we report that the mild, but chronic cold-stress endured by mice housed under these conditions exerts a protective effect on HSPCs after both non-lethal and lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI). Alleviation of this cold-stress by housing mice at a thermoneutral temperature (30°C) resulted in significantly greater baseline radiosensitivity to a lethal dose of TBI with more HSPCs from mice housed at thermoneutral temperature undergoing apoptosis following non-lethal TBI. Cold-stressed mice have elevated levels of norepinephrine, a key molecule of the sympathetic nervous system that binds to β-adrenergic receptors. We show that blocking this signaling pathway in vivo through use of the β-blocker propanolol completely mitigates the protective effect of cold-stress on HSPC apoptosis. Collectively this study demonstrates that chronic stress endured by the standard housing conditions of laboratory mice increases the resistance of HSPCs to TBI-induced apoptosis through a mechanism that depends upon β-adrenergic signaling. Since β-blockers are commonly prescribed to a wide variety of patients, this information could be important when predicting the clinical impact of HSPC sensitivity to TBI.

  6. Conceptual Design of Simulation Models in an Early Development Phase of Lunar Spacecraft Simulator Using SMP2 Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoon Hee; Koo, Cheol Hea; Moon, Sung Tae; Han, Sang Hyuck; Ju, Gwang Hyeok

    2013-08-01

    The conceptual study for Korean lunar orbiter/lander prototype has been performed in Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). Across diverse space programs around European countries, a variety of simulation application has been developed using SMP2 (Simulation Modelling Platform) standard related to portability and reuse of simulation models by various model users. KARI has not only first-hand experience of a development of SMP compatible simulation environment but also an ongoing study to apply the SMP2 development process of simulation model to a simulator development project for lunar missions. KARI has tried to extend the coverage of the development domain based on SMP2 standard across the whole simulation model life-cycle from software design to its validation through a lunar exploration project. Figure. 1 shows a snapshot from a visualization tool for the simulation of lunar lander motion. In reality, a demonstrator prototype on the right-hand side of image was made and tested in 2012. In an early phase of simulator development prior to a kick-off start in the near future, targeted hardware to be modelled has been investigated and indentified at the end of 2012. The architectural breakdown of the lunar simulator at system level was performed and the architecture with a hierarchical tree of models from the system to parts at lower level has been established. Finally, SMP Documents such as Catalogue, Assembly, Schedule and so on were converted using a XML(eXtensible Mark-up Language) converter. To obtain benefits of the suggested approaches and design mechanisms in SMP2 standard as far as possible, the object-oriented and component-based design concepts were strictly chosen throughout a whole model development process.

  7. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  8. Accelerated and Rational Design of Improved CHO Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grav, Lise Marie

    Recombinant production of therapeutic proteins provides huge benefits to human health and promises solutions to some of the most devastating and currently untreatable diseases in healthcare. Key to the development of new therapeutic proteins is to optimize and engineer living cells, namely cell...... of a number of novel tools is reported that aim to accelerate the construction of production cell lines for therapeutic proteins with optimal phenotypic attributes for industrial processes. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the predominant production host for therapeutic proteins, and are the cell factory...... of interest in this thesis. The core of the thesis is revolved around the development and application of genome editing techniques that enable us to precisely engineer the genome of CHO cells by either rendering specific-targeted genes unfunctional or inserting new genes in precise genomic locations...

  9. A Method to Design Synthetic Cell-Cycle Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke-Ke, Miao

    2009-01-01

    The interactions among proteins, DNA and RNA in an organism form elaborate cell-cycle networks which govern cell growth and proliferation. Understanding the common structure of cell-cycle networks will be of great benefit to science research. Here, inspired by the importance of the cell-cycle regulatory network of yeast which has been studied intensively, we focus on small networks with 11 nodes, equivalent to that of the cell-cycle regulatory network used by Li et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101(2004)4781] Using a Boolean model, we study the correlation between structure and function, and a possible common structure. It is found that cascade-like networks with a great number of interactions between nodes are stable. Based on these findings, we are able to construct synthetic networks that have the same functions as the cell-cycle regulatory network. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  10. Further experience with the local lymph node assay using standard radioactive and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Basketter, David; Schrage, Arnhild; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    In a previous study, the predictive capacity of a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) based on cell counts, the LNCC, was demonstrated to be closely similar to that of the original assay. In addition, a range of substances, including some technical/commercial materials and a range of agrochemical formulations (n = 180) have also been assessed in both methods in parallel. The results in the LNCC and LLNA were generally consistent, with 86% yielding an identical classification outcome. Discordant results were associated with borderline data and were evenly distributed between the two methods. Potency information derived from each method also demonstrated good consistency (n = 101), with 93% of predictions being close. Skin irritation was observed only infrequently and was most commonly associated with positive results; it was not associated with the discordant results. Where different vehicles were used with the same test material, the effect on sensitizing activity was modest, consistent with historical data. Analysis of positive control data indicated that the LNCC and LLNA displayed similar levels of biological variation. When taken in combination with the previously published results on LLNA Performance Standard chemicals, it is concluded that the LNCC provides a viable non-radioactive alternative to the LLNA for the assessment of substances, including potency predictions, as well as for the evaluation of preparations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Designing the stem cell microenvironment for guided connective tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Danielle R; Lu, Helen H

    2017-12-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine because of their ability to self-renew and their capacity for multilineage differentiation and tissue regeneration. For connective tissues, such as ligaments or tendons, MSCs are vital to the modulation of the inflammatory response following acute injury while also interacting with resident fibroblasts to promote cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. To date, MSC injection for connective tissue repair has yielded mixed results in vivo, likely due to a lack of appropriate environmental cues to effectively control MSC response and promote tissue healing instead of scar formation. In healthy tissues, stem cells reside within a complex microenvironment comprising cellular, structural, and signaling cues that collectively maintain stemness and modulate tissue homeostasis. Changes to the microenvironment following injury regulate stem cell differentiation, trophic signaling, and tissue healing. Here, we focus on models of the stem cell microenvironment that are used to elucidate the mechanisms of stem cell regulation and inspire functional approaches to tissue regeneration. Recent studies in this frontier area are highlighted, focusing on how microenvironmental cues modulate MSC response following connective tissue injury and, more importantly, how this unique cell environment can be programmed for stem cell-guided tissue regeneration. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Insights of the periodic reviews regarding the physical protection of nuclear power plants designed to earlier standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, A.

    2001-01-01

    Among other prerequisites for licensing a nuclear activity, the German Atomic Energy Act stipulates that the necessary physical protection against malevolent acts has to be approved before granting a license. This is required for nuclear power plants in paragraph 7 of the Atomic Energy Act. The licenses for nuclear power plants designed to earlier standards were granted about 20 years ago and more. All NPPs are under the supervision of the Supervisory Authority in order to ensure that all conditions of the license are met during the whole plant operation period. The 'Periodic Safety Review', PSR, is designated to provide the Supervisory Authority with additional information on the safety status. One part of the PSR is the 'Deterministic Security Analysis', DSA. The subject of the DSA is the actual physical protection of a NPP. The following document outlines the experiences gained during the evaluation of DSA reports by GRS as an external expert organisation under contract of the Supervisory Authorities. (author)

  13. Standardization of Schwarz-Christoffel transformation for engineering design of semiconductor and hybrid integrated-circuit elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, A. A.

    1985-04-01

    A semiconductor or hybrid structure into a calculable two-dimensional region mapped by the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation and a universal algorithm can be constructed on the basis of Maxwell's electro-magnetic-thermal similarity principle for engineering design of integrated-circuit elements. The design procedure involves conformal mapping of the original region into a polygon and then the latter into a rectangle with uniform field distribution, where conductances and capacitances are calculated, using tabulated standard mapping functions. Subsequent synthesis of a device requires inverse conformal mapping. Devices adaptable as integrated-circuit elements are high-resistance film resistors with periodic serration, distributed-resistance film attenuators with high transformation ratio, coplanar microstrip lines, bipolar transistors, directional couplers with distributed coupling to microstrip lines for microwave bulk devices, and quasirregular smooth matching transitions from asymmetric to coplanar microstrip lines.

  14. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohno Summer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths. Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of

  15. Design and implementation of fixed-order robust controllers for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Hsuan-Tsung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei (China)

    2009-03-15

    This paper applies fixed-order multivariable robust control strategies to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system, and implements the designed controllers on a microchip for system miniaturization. In previous studies, robust control was applied to guarantee system stability and to reduce hydrogen consumption for a PEMFC system. It was noted that for standard robust control design, the order of resulting H{sub {infinity}} controllers is dictated by the plants and weighting functions. However, for hardware implementation, controllers with lower orders are preferable in terms of computing efforts and cost. Therefore, in this paper the PEMFC is modeled as multivariable transfer matrices, then three fixed-order robust control algorithms are applied to design controllers with specified orders for a PEMFC. Finally, the designed controllers are implemented on a microchip to regulate the air and hydrogen flow rates. From the experimental results, fixed-order robust control is deemed effective in supplying steady power and reducing fuel consumption. (author)

  16. Fuel cell mining vehicles: design, performance and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betournay, M.C.; Miller, A.R.; Barnes, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for using fuel cell technology in underground mining equipment was discussed with reference to the risks associated with the operation of hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery systems. This paper presented some of the initiatives for mine locomotives and fuel cell stacks for underground environments. In particular, it presents the test results of the first applied industrial fuel cell vehicle in the world, a mining and tunneling locomotive. This study was part of an international initiative managed by the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute which consists of several mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and fuel cell technology developers. Some of the obvious benefits of fuel cells for underground mining operations include no exhaust gases, lower electrical costs, significantly reduced maintenance, and lower ventilation costs. Another advantage is that the technology can be readily automated and computer-based for tele-remote operations. This study also quantified the cost and operational benefits associated with fuel cell vehicles compared to diesel vehicles. It is expected that higher vehicle productivity could render fuel cell underground vehicles cost-competitive. 6 refs., 1 tab

  17. Evaluation of Standard Concepts Design of Library Interior Physical Environment (Case Study at University of Ma Chung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debri Haryndia Putri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the function of a room is not only used as a shelter, the function of the room itself to be increased as a refreshing or relaxation area for users to follow the development of creativity and technology in the field of design. The comfortable factor becomes the main factor that indicates a successful process of creating a space. No exception library. The nature of library seemed stiff because of its function as a place to read, now can be developed and made into more dynamic with the special design concepts or color patterns used. Libraries can be created a special concept that suits the characteristics of the users themselves. Most users of the library, especially in college libraries are teenagers. Naturally, teenagers like to gather with their friends and we have to facilitate this activity in our library design concept. In addition we can also determine the needs of users through research by questionnaire method. The answers of users can be mapped and drawn conclusions. To explore the research, the author reviewed some literature about library interior design and observed the library of Ma Chung University as a case study. The combined results of the method can be concluded and the discovery of ideal standards of physical environment. So, the library can be made as a comfortable reading environment so as to increased interest in reading behavior and the frequent visits of students in the library.

  18. Design and Photovoltaic Properties of Graphene/Silicon Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dikai; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Lifei; Yang, Deren

    2018-04-01

    Graphene/silicon (Gr/Si) Schottky junction solar cells have attracted widespread attention for the fabrication of high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells. However, their performance is still limited by the working principles of Schottky junctions. Modulating the working mechanism of the solar cells into a quasi p-n junction has advantages, including higher open-circuit voltage (V OC) and less carrier recombination. In this study, Gr/Si quasi p-n junction solar cells were formed by inserting a tunneling Al2O3 interlayer in-between graphene and silicon, which led to obtain the PCE up to 8.48% without antireflection or chemical doping techniques. Our findings could pave a new way for the development of Gr/Si solar cells.

  19. Challenges in Design of an Orientation free Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (µDMFC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hales, Jan Harry

    2014-01-01

    the challenges in design and manufacturing of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) as the power generator in hearing aid devices is investigated. Among the different challenges in design for μDMFC, the CO2 bubble management and orientation independency of the cell are addressed by proposing a spring loaded...

  20. Performance of a vanadium redox flow battery with tubular cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Simon; Laube, Armin; Fischer, Simon; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Struckmann, Thorsten

    2017-07-01

    We present a vanadium redox flow battery with a tubular cell design which shall lead to a reduction of cell manufacturing costs and the realization of cell stacks with reduced shunt current losses. Charge/discharge cycling and polarization curve measurements are performed to characterize the single test cell performance. A maximum current density of 70 mAcm-2 and power density of 142 Wl-1 (per cell volume) is achieved and Ohmic overpotential is identified as the dominant portion of the total cell overpotential. Cycling displays Coulomb efficiencies of ≈95% and energy efficiencies of ≈55%. During 113 h of operation a stable Ohmic cell resistance is observed.