WorldWideScience

Sample records for standard candle flickers

  1. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Case, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    -100 keV band with GBM, Swift /BAT, and INTEGRAL /IBIS. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE /PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a ~ 3 year timescale are also seen independently...

  2. Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Esparza-Arredondo, Donají; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.

  3. Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [CONACYT Research Fellow - Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padua (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain); Esparza-Arredondo, Donají [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Morelia (Mexico); Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión, E-mail: alenka@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.

  4. Flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that discusses flicker metrics, contributing factors, and consequences in addition to comparing the flicker attributes of a sample of conventional and LED sources.

  5. How Real Detector Thresholds Create False Standard Candles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Nemiroff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    GRB satellites are relatively inefficient detectors of dim hard bursts. For example, given two bursts of identical peak luminosity near the detection threshold, a dim soft burst will be preferentially detected over a dim hard burst. This means that a high E peak burst will need a higher peak luminosity to be detected than a low E peak GRB. This purely detector-created attribute will appear as a correlation between E peak and luminosity, and should not be interpreted as a real standard candle effect. This result derives from Monte Carlo simulations utilizing a wide range of initial GRB spectra, and retriggering to create a final ''detected'' sample. In sum, E peak is not a good standard candle, and its appearance as such in seeming correlations such as the Amati and other L iso vs. E peak relations is likely a ghost of real energy-related detection thresholds.

  6. Investigating the Effect of Cosmic Opacity on Standard Candles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Yu, H.; Wang, F. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Standard candles can probe the evolution of dark energy over a large redshift range. But the cosmic opacity can degrade the quality of standard candles. In this paper, we use the latest observations, including Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the “joint light-curve analysis” sample and Hubble parameters, to probe the opacity of the universe. A joint fitting of the SNe Ia light-curve parameters, cosmological parameters, and opacity is used in order to avoid the cosmological dependence of SNe Ia luminosity distances. The latest gamma-ray bursts are used in order to explore the cosmic opacity at high redshifts. The cosmic reionization process is considered at high redshifts. We find that the sample supports an almost transparent universe for flat ΛCDM and XCDM models. Meanwhile, free electrons deplete photons from standard candles through (inverse) Compton scattering, which is known as an important component of opacity. This Compton dimming may play an important role in future supernova surveys. From analysis, we find that about a few per cent of the cosmic opacity is caused by Compton dimming in the two models, which can be corrected.

  7. How Beatrice Tinsley Destroyed Sandage's Quest for a Standard Candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The goal of cosmology and most extragalactic optical astronomy during the heroic period spanning the half century from Hubble to Sandage (1920s - 1970s) was a search for two numbers, the Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter. Standard candles were needed to establish the measure of the universe. In 1968, Beatrice Tinsley, then a postdoctoral fellow in the astronomy department of the University of Texas at Austin showed that the great enterprise at Palomar of calibrating the galaxies was in need of major revision. At the 132nd AAS Meeting (June 1970, Boulder, Colorado) she presented a paper on galactic evolution on the magnitude-redshift relation. In her Abstract she boldly wrote: "My present conclusion is opposite to that reached by most cosmologists." In fact her claims caused great consternation among cosmologists. In 1972 she published eight papers on the evolution of galaxies, and the effects of that evolution for observational cosmology and the origin of structure.

  8. Modality Switching in a Property Verification Task: An ERP Study of What Happens When Candles Flicker after High Heels Click.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Coulson, Seana

    2011-01-01

    The perceptual modalities associated with property words, such as flicker or click, have previously been demonstrated to affect subsequent property verification judgments (Pecher et al., 2003). Known as the conceptual modality switch effect, this finding supports the claim that brain systems for perception and action help subserve the representation of concepts. The present study addressed the cognitive and neural substrate of this effect by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants performed a property verification task with visual or auditory properties in key trials. We found that for visual property verifications, modality switching was associated with an increased amplitude N400. For auditory verifications, switching led to a larger late positive complex. Observed ERP effects of modality switching suggest property words access perceptual brain systems. Moreover, the timing and pattern of the effects suggest perceptual systems impact the decision-making stage in the verification of auditory properties, and the semantic stage in the verification of visual properties.

  9. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Z boson as ''the standard candle'' for high-precision W boson physics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasny, M.W.; Fayette, F.; Placzek, W.; Siodmok, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a strategy for measuring the inclusive W boson production processes at LHC. This strategy exploits simultaneously the unique flexibility of the LHC collider in running variable beam particle species at variable beam energies, and the configuration flexibility of the LHC detectors. We propose their concrete settings for a precision measurement of the standard model parameters. These dedicated settings optimise the use of the Z boson and Drell-Yan-pair production processes as ''the standard reference candles''. The presented strategy allows one to factorise and to directly measure those of the QCD effects that affect differently the W and Z production processes. It reduces to a level of O(10 -4 ) the impact of uncertainties in the partonic distribution functions (PDFs) and in the transverse momentum of the quarks on the measurement precision. Last but not the least, it reduces by a factor of 10 the impact of systematic measurement errors, such as the energy scale and the measurement resolution, on the W boson production observables. (orig.)

  11. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  12. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  13. SN 2016jhj at redshift 0.34: extending the Type II supernova Hubble diagram using the standard candle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; Galbany, L.; Filippenko, A. V.; González-Gaitán, S.; Yasuda, N.; Maeda, K.; Tanaka, M.; Morokuma, T.; Moriya, T. J.; Tominaga, N.; Nomoto, K.; Komiyama, Y.; Anderson, J. P.; Brink, T. G.; Carlberg, R. G.; Folatelli, G.; Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Zheng, W.

    2017-12-01

    Although Type Ia supernova cosmology has now reached a mature state, it is important to develop as many independent methods as possible to understand the true nature of dark energy. Recent studies have shown that Type II supernovae (SNe II) offer such a path and could be used as alternative distance indicators. However, the majority of these studies were unable to extend the Hubble diagram above redshift z = 0.3 because of observational limitations. Here, we show that we are now ready to move beyond low redshifts and attempt high-redshift (z ≳ 0.3) SN II cosmology as a result of new-generation deep surveys such as the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. Applying the 'standard candle method' to SN 2016jhj (z = 0.3398 ± 0.0002; discovered by HSC) together with a low-redshift sample, we are able to construct the highest-redshift SN II Hubble diagram to date with an observed dispersion of 0.27 mag (i.e. 12-13 per cent in distance). This work demonstrates the bright future of SN II cosmology in the coming era of large, wide-field surveys like that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  14. Accurate weak lensing of standard candles. II. Measuring σ8 with supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartin, Miguel; Marra, Valerio; Amendola, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Soon the number of type Ia supernova (SN) measurements should exceed 100 000. Understanding the effect of weak lensing by matter structures on the supernova brightness will then be more important than ever. Although SN lensing is usually seen as a source of systematic noise, we will show that it can be in fact turned into signal. More precisely, the non-Gaussianity introduced by lensing in the SN Hubble diagram dispersion depends rather sensitively on the amplitude σ8 of the matter power spectrum. By exploiting this relation, we are able to predict constraints on σ8 of 7% (3%) for a catalog of 100 000 (500 000) SNe of average magnitude error 0.12, without having to assume that such intrinsic dispersion and its redshift evolution are known a priori. The intrinsic dispersion has been assumed to be Gaussian; possible intrinsic non-Gaussianities in the data set (due to the SN themselves and/or to other transients) could be potentially dealt with by means of additional nuisance parameters describing higher moments of the intrinsic dispersion distribution function. This method is independent of and complementary to the standard methods based on cosmic microwave background, cosmic shear, or cluster abundance observables.

  15. Flammability Parameters of Candles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balog Karol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the assessment of selected fire safety characteristics of candles. Weight loss of a candle during the burning process, candle burning rate, soot index, heat release rate and yield of carbon oxides were determined. Soot index was determined according to EN 15426: 2007 - Candles - Specification for Sooting Behavior. All samples met the prescribed amount of produced soot. Weight loss, heat release rate and the yield of carbon oxides were determined for one selected sample. While yield of CO increased during the measurement, the yield of CO2 decreased by half in 40 minutes.

  16. A Hubble Space Telescope survey for novae in M87 - III. Are novae good standard candles 15 d after maximum brightness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha F.; Pagnotta, Ashley; Garland, James T.; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Goerl, Ariel; Kovetz, Attay; Machac, Tamara; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer

    2018-02-01

    Ten weeks of daily imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has yielded 41 nova light curves of unprecedented quality for extragalactic cataclysmic variables. We have recently used these light curves to demonstrate that the observational scatter in the so-called maximum-magnitude rate of decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae is so large as to render the nova-MMRD useless as a standard candle. Here, we demonstrate that a modified Buscombe-de Vaucouleurs hypothesis, namely that novae with decline times t2 > 10 d converge to nearly the same absolute magnitude about two weeks after maximum light in a giant elliptical galaxy, is supported by our M87 nova data. For 13 novae with daily sampled light curves, well determined times of maximum light in both the F606W and F814W filters, and decline times t2 > 10 d we find that M87 novae display M606W,15 = -6.37 ± 0.46 and M814W,15 = -6.11 ± 0.43. If very fast novae with decline times t2 < 10 d are excluded, the distances to novae in elliptical galaxies with stellar binary populations similar to those of M87 should be determinable with 1σ accuracies of ± 20 per cent with the above calibrations.

  17. A Large and Pristine Sample of Standard Candles across the Milky Way: ∼100,000 Red Clump Stars with 3% Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Hawkins, Keith; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2018-05-01

    Core helium-burning red clump (RC) stars are excellent standard candles in the Milky Way. These stars may have more precise distance estimates from spectrophotometry than from Gaia parallaxes beyond 3 kpc. However, RC stars have values of T eff and {log}g that are very similar to some red giant branch (RGB) stars. Especially for low-resolution spectroscopic studies where T eff, {log}g, and [Fe/H] can only be estimated with limited precision, separating RC stars from RGB through established methods can incur ∼20% contamination. Recently, Hawkins et al. demonstrated that the additional information in single-epoch spectra, such as the C/N ratio, can be exploited to cleanly differentiate RC and RGB stars. In this second paper of the series, we establish a data-driven mapping from spectral flux space to independently determined asteroseismic parameters, the frequency and the period spacing. From this, we identify 210,371 RC stars from the publicly available LAMOST DR3 and APOGEE DR14 data, with ∼9% of contamination. We provide an RC sample of 92249 stars with a contamination of only ∼3%, by restricting the combined analysis to LAMOST stars with S/Npix ≥ 75. This demonstrates that high-signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), low-resolution spectra covering a broad wavelength range can identify RC samples at least as pristine as their high-resolution counterparts. As coming and ongoing surveys such as TESS, DESI, and LAMOST will continue to improve the overlapping training spectroscopic-asteroseismic sample, the method presented in this study provides an efficient and straightforward way to derive a vast yet pristine sample of RC stars to reveal the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Milky Way.

  18. Z boson as ``the standard candle'' for high-precision W boson physics at LHC TH1"-->

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, M. W.; Fayette, F.; Płaczek, W.; Siódmok, A.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we propose a strategy for measuring the inclusive W boson production processes at LHC. This strategy exploits simultaneously the unique flexibility of the LHC collider in running variable beam particle species at variable beam energies, and the configuration flexibility of the LHC detectors. We propose their concrete settings for a precision measurement of the standard model parameters. These dedicated settings optimise the use of the Z boson and Drell Yan-pair production processes as “the standard reference candles”. The presented strategy allows one to factorise and to directly measure those of the QCD effects that affect differently the W and Z production processes. It reduces to a level of mathcal{O}(10^{-4}) the impact of uncertainties in the partonic distribution functions (PDFs) and in the transverse momentum of the quarks on the measurement precision. Last but not the least, it reduces by a factor of 10 the impact of systematic measurement errors, such as the energy scale and the measurement resolution, on the W boson production observables.

  19. Stellar candles for the extragalactic distance scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    This volume reviews the current status with respect to both theory and observation of the extragalactic distance scale. A sufficient accuracy is required both for a precise determination of the cosmological parameters and also in order to achieve a better understanding of physical processes in extragalactic systems. The "standard candles", used to set up the extragalactic distance scale, reviewed in this book include cepheid variables, RR Lyrae variables, novae, Type Ia and Type II supernovae as well as globular clusters and planetary nebulae.

  20. Type Ia supernovae, standardizable candles, and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bill S.; Li, Baojiu

    2018-04-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally accepted to act as standardizable candles, and their use in cosmology led to the first confirmation of the as yet unexplained accelerated cosmic expansion. Many of the theoretical models to explain the cosmic acceleration assume modifications to Einsteinian general relativity which accelerate the expansion, but the question of whether such modifications also affect the ability of SNe Ia to be standardizable candles has rarely been addressed. This paper is an attempt to answer this question. For this we adopt a semianalytical model to calculate SNe Ia light curves in non-standard gravity. We use this model to show that the average rescaled intrinsic peak luminosity—a quantity that is assumed to be constant with redshift in standard analyses of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology data—depends on the strength of gravity in the supernova's local environment because the latter determines the Chandrasekhar mass—the mass of the SN Ia's white dwarf progenitor right before the explosion. This means that SNe Ia are no longer standardizable candles in scenarios where the strength of gravity evolves over time, and therefore the cosmology implied by the existing SN Ia data will be different when analysed in the context of such models. As an example, we show that the observational SN Ia cosmology data can be fitted with both a model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.62 ,0.38 ) and Newton's constant G varies as G (z )=G0(1 +z )-1/4 and the standard model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.3 ,0.7 ) and G is constant, when the Universe is assumed to be flat.

  1. Lighting that One Little Candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which fifth graders made observations of candles. Discusses the progress of the lesson and the necessity of instructing students in what and how to watch and measure. Stresses that this can be easily accomplished inexpensively with imagination. (CW)

  2. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes

    OpenAIRE

    Bothe, Melanie; Donahue, Neil McPherson

    2010-01-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In rep...

  3. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Melanie; Donahue, Neil McPherson

    2010-09-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In repeated experiments, we observed rapid and substantial SOA formation after ozone addition; this process must therefore be considered when assessing the risks and benefits of using citronella candle to repel insects.

  4. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Novae in M87. II. Snuffing out the Maximum Magnitude–Rate of Decline Relation for Novae as a Non-standard Candle, and a Prediction of the Existence of Ultrafast Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha; Zurek, David [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Baltz, Edward A. [KIPAC, SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kovetz, Attay [School of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Madrid, Juan P. [CSIRO, Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Mikołajewska, Joanna [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Neill, J. D. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Prialnik, Dina [Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Welch, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1, Ontario (Canada); Yaron, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-04-20

    The extensive grid of numerical simulations of nova eruptions from the work of Yaron et al. first predicted that some classical novae might significantly deviate from the Maximum Magnitude–Rate of Decline (MMRD) relation, which purports to characterize novae as standard candles. Kasliwal et al. have announced the observational detection of a new class of faint, fast classical novae in the Andromeda galaxy. These objects deviate strongly from the MMRD relationship, as predicted by Yaron et al. Recently, Shara et al. reported the first detections of faint, fast novae in M87. These previously overlooked objects are as common in the giant elliptical galaxy M87 as they are in the giant spiral M31; they comprise about 40% of all classical nova eruptions and greatly increase the observational scatter in the MMRD relation. We use the extensive grid of the nova simulations of Yaron et al. to identify the underlying causes of the existence of faint, fast novae. These are systems that have accreted, and can thus eject, only very low-mass envelopes, of the order of 10{sup −7}–10{sup −8} M {sub ⊙}, on massive white dwarfs. Such binaries include, but are not limited to, the recurrent novae. These same models predict the existence of ultrafast novae that display decline times, t {sub 2,} to be as short as five hours. We outline a strategy for their future detection.

  5. Electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of functionalized candle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and G (graphite) phase of carbon present in the candle soots. The electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test and impedance spectroscopy in 1MH2SO4 electrolyte. The functionalized candle soot electrode showed an enhanced specific capacitance value of ...

  6. A Simple Predictive Method of Critical Flicker Detection for Human Healthy Precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Zai Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interharmonics and flickers have an interrelationship between each other. Based on International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC flicker standard, the critical flicker frequency for a human eye is located at 8.8 Hz. Additionally, eye strains, headaches, and in the worst case seizures may happen due to the critical flicker. Therefore, this paper introduces a worthwhile research gap on the investigation of interrelationship between the amplitudes of the interharmonics and the critical flicker for 50 Hz power system. Consequently, the significant findings obtained in this paper are the amplitudes of two particular interharmonics are able to detect the critical flicker. In this paper, the aforementioned amplitudes are detected by adaptive linear neuron (ADALINE. After that, the critical flicker is detected by substituting the aforesaid amplitudes to the formulas that have been generated in this paper accordingly. Simulation and experimental works are conducted and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm which utilizes ADALINE is similar, as compared to typical Fluke power analyzer. In a nutshell, this simple predictive method for critical flicker detection has strong potential to be applied in any human crowded places (such as offices, shopping complexes, and stadiums for human healthy precaution purpose due to its simplicity.

  7. Measurement of the Inclusive $Z \\to ee$ Production Cross Section in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7TeV and $Z \\to ee$ Decays as Standard Candles for Luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Jeremy [Princeton U.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis comprises a precision measurement of the inclusive \\Zee production cross section in proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV and the absolute luminosity based on \\Zee decays. The data was collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector near Geneva, Switzerland during the year of 2010 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $\\int\\mathcal{L}dt = 35.9\\pm 1.4$~pb$^{-1}$. Electronic decays of $Z$ bosons allow one of the first electroweak measurements at the LHC, making the cross section measurement a benchmark of physics performance after the first year of CMS detector and LHC machine operations. It is the first systematic uncertainty limited \\Zee cross section measurement performed at $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV. The measured cross section pertaining to the invariant mass window $M_{ee}\\in (60,120)$~GeV is reported as: $\\sigma(pp\\to Z+X) \\times \\mathcal{B}( Z\\to ee ) = 997 \\pm 11 \\mathrm{(sta t)} \\pm 19 \\mathrm{(syst)} \\pm 40 \\mathrm{(lumi)} \\textrm{ pb}$, which agrees with the theoretical prediction calculated to NNLO in QCD. Leveraging \\Zee decays as ``standard candles'' for measuring the absolute luminosity at the LHC is examined; they are produced copiously, are well understood, and have clean detector signatures. Thus the consistency of the inclusive \\Zee production cross section measurement with the theoretical prediction motivates inverting the measurement to instead use the \\Zee signal yield to measure the luminosity. The result, which agrees with the primary relative CMS luminosity measurement calibrated using Van der Meer separation scans, is not only the most precise absolute luminosity measurement performed to date at a hadron collider, but also the first one based on a physics signal at the LHC.

  8. 75 FR 44224 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately and South Deerfield, MA Pursuant to... special-purpose subzone at the candle and gift set manufacturing and distribution facilities of Yankee... activity related to the manufacturing and distribution of candles and gift sets at the facilities of Yankee...

  9. Flicker Interaction Studies and Flickermeter Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Rong

    2009-06-04

    Flicker is one of the most important power quality aspects. It is the noticeable light intensity variation of a lamp caused by rapid voltage fluctuations in the electrical power system. It is annoying to human eyes. In the Netherlands, the grid operators' database of complaints on voltage quality shows that almost 60% of all complaints are about flicker. The statistical measurement database shows that the average long-term flicker indicator P{sub lt} increased from 1996 to 2004 in the low-voltage grid in the Netherlands. The evaluation and measurement of flicker becomes therefore an important issue. Firstly, the research aimed at the improvement of the classical flicker measurement method, i.e. the UIE/IEC flickermeter method. Since nowadays more and more lamp types are applied in the market, the world-wide used UIE/IEC flickermeter cannot generate results (P{sub st}) that correlate well with the customer sensitivity for different lamp types. This is due to the fact that the UIE/IEC flickermeter model is built by only considering the incandescent lamp as the reference lamp. Flicker response (illuminance flicker response) measurements of five lamp types (the incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp, halogen lamp, energy saving lamp and LED lamp) have been made in the Power Quality Lab of TUE. To analyze and evaluate the measured data, Fourier analysis is done and different filter types are tested using Matlab. The five lamp types flicker response models are derived by using linear system identification methods based on the results of the flicker response (illuminance flicker response) measurements. The lamp flicker response models are studied and tested by using the Matlab/System Identification Toolbox. These lamp flicker response models are implemented into the improved flickermeter models, which can provide the better match between the output and customer complaints for specific lamp types. Secondly, light spectrum flicker response measurements of different lamp

  10. Electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of functionalized candle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    soots have excellent optical property like luminescence in the. 241 .... cation SEM images of as bare candle soot, which clearly dis- plays that the sample is composed of .... of oxygenated compounds present on the surface of BCS apparently ...

  11. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity of contents shall be expressed in terms of count and measure (e.g., length and diameter), to the extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this chapter...

  12. Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiryan, M.

    Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

  13. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  14. 'CANDLE' burnup regime after LWR regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Akito

    2008-01-01

    CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) burnup strategy can derive many merits. From safety point of view, the change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and the core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. About 40% of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission without the conventional reprocessing and enrichment. If the LWR produced energy of X Joules, the CANDLE reactor can produce about 50X Joules from the depleted uranium left at the enrichment facility for the LWR fuel. If we can say LWRs have produced energy sufficient for full 20 years, we can produce the energy for 1000 years by using the CANDLE reactors with depleted uranium. We need not mine any uranium ore, and do not need reprocessing facility. The burnup of spent fuel becomes 10 times. Therefore, the spent fuel amount per produced energy is also reduced to one-tenth. The details of the scenario of CANDLE burnup regime after LWR regime will be presented at the symposium. (author)

  15. Candle Soot-Driven Performance Enhancement in Pyroelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Puneet; Singh, V. P.; Vaish, Rahul

    2018-05-01

    We observed substantial enhancement in pyroelectric output with the help of candle soot coating on the surface of lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Candle soot of varying thicknesses was coated by directly exposing pyroelectric material to the candle flame. The open-circuit pyroelectric voltage and closed-circuit pyroelectric current were recorded while applying infrared heating across the uncoated and candle soot-coated samples for different heating and cooling cycles. In comparison to the uncoated sample, the maximum open-circuit voltage improves seven times for the candle soot-coated sample and electric current increases by eight times across a resistance of 10Å. Moreover, the harvested energy is enhanced by 50 times for candle soot-coated sample. Results indicate that candle soot coating is an effective and economic method to improve infrared sensing performance of pyroelectric materials.

  16. Finding Flicker: Critical Differences in Temporal Frequency Capture Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik; Alais, David

    2011-01-01

    Rapid visual flicker is known to capture attention. Here we show slow flicker can also capture attention under reciprocal temporal conditions. Observers searched for a target line (vertical or horizontal) among tilted distractors. Distractor lines were surrounded by luminance modulating annuli, all flickering sinusoidally at 1.3 or 12.1 Hz, while the target’s annulus flickered at frequencies within this range. Search times improved with increasing target/distractor frequency differences. For ...

  17. Optical flickering of the symbiotic star CH Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, K. A.; Martí, J.; Zamanov, R.; Dimitrov, V. V.; Kurtenkov, A.; Sánchez-Ayaso, E.; Bujalance-Fernández, I.; Latev, G. Y.; Nikolov, G.

    2018-02-01

    Here we present quasi-simultaneous observations of the flickering of the symbiotic binary star CH Cyg in U, B and V bands. We calculate the flickering source parameters and discuss the possible reason for the flickering cessation in the period 2010-2013.

  18. EEG-based characterization of flicker perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazo, M.; Tsoneva, T.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2013-01-01

    Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) is an oscillatory electrical response appearing in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in response to flicker stimulation. The SSVEP manifests more prominently in electrodes located near the visual cortex and has oscillatory components at the stimulation

  19. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax... contained in USITC Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China...

  20. EEG-based characterization of flicker perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lazo, M.; Tsoneva, T.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2013-01-01

    Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) is an oscillatory electrical response appearing in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in response to flicker stimulation. The SSVEP manifests more prominently in electrodes located near the visual cortex and has oscillatory components at the stimulation frequency and/or harmonics. The phase and amplitude of the SSVEP are sensitive to stimulus parameters such as frequency, modu-lation depth, and spatial frequency. Research related to SSVEP and the human...

  1. Review of Voltage Flicker Estimation Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijith Augustine; Dr. T. Ruban Deva Prakash

    2014-01-01

    The quality of electric power is of supreme importance to electrical utilities and their customers. Modern equipments are more sensitive to power system anomalies than in the past. Microprocessor based controls and power electronics devices are sensitive to many types of disturbances. Minor power disruptions, which once would have been noticed only as a momentary flickering of the lights, may now completely interrupt whole automated factories because of sensitive electronic controllers or mak...

  2. Pulse cleaning flow models and numerical computation of candle ceramic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Gui-shan; Ma, Zhen-ji; Zhang, Xin-yi; Xu, Ting-xiang

    2002-04-01

    Analytical and numerical computed models are developed for reverse pulse cleaning system of candle ceramic filters. A standard turbulent model is demonstrated suitably to the designing computation of reverse pulse cleaning system from the experimental and one-dimensional computational result. The computed results can be used to guide the designing of reverse pulse cleaning system, which is optimum Venturi geometry. From the computed results, the general conclusions and the designing methods are obtained.

  3. Design study on small CANDLE reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, H; Yan, M [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. Here important points are that the solid fuel is fixed at each position and that any movable burnup reactivity control mechanisms such as control rods are not required. This burnup strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors especially for high burnup reactors. The transportation and storage of replacing fuels become easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. In our previous works it is appeared that application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. The average burnup of the spent fuel is about 40% that is equivalent to 40% utilization of the natural uranium without the reprocessing and enrichment. This reactor can be realized for large reactor, since the neutron leakage becomes small and its neutron economy becomes improved. In the present paper we try to design small CANDLE reactor whose performance is similar to the large reactor by increasing its fuel volume ration of the core, since its performance is strongly required for local area usage. Small long life reactor is required for some local areas. Such a characteristic that only natural uranium is required after second core is also strong merit for this case. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is

  4. Design study on small CANDLE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Yan, M.

    2007-01-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. Here important points are that the solid fuel is fixed at each position and that any movable burnup reactivity control mechanisms such as control rods are not required. This burnup strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors especially for high burnup reactors. The transportation and storage of replacing fuels become easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. In our previous works it is appeared that application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. The average burnup of the spent fuel is about 40% that is equivalent to 40% utilization of the natural uranium without the reprocessing and enrichment. This reactor can be realized for large reactor, since the neutron leakage becomes small and its neutron economy becomes improved. In the present paper we try to design small CANDLE reactor whose performance is similar to the large reactor by increasing its fuel volume ration of the core, since its performance is strongly required for local area usage. Small long life reactor is required for some local areas. Such a characteristic that only natural uranium is required after second core is also strong merit for this case. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is

  5. Attractive Flicker--Guiding Attention in Dynamic Narrative Visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Manuela; Le Muzic, Mathieu; Bernhard, Matthias; Purgathofer, Werner; Viola, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Focus+context techniques provide visual guidance in visualizations by giving strong visual prominence to elements of interest while the context is suppressed. However, finding a visual feature to enhance for the focus to pop out from its context in a large dynamic scene, while leading to minimal visual deformation and subjective disturbance, is challenging. This paper proposes Attractive Flicker, a novel technique for visual guidance in dynamic narrative visualizations. We first show that flicker is a strong visual attractor in the entire visual field, without distorting, suppressing, or adding any scene elements. The novel aspect of our Attractive Flicker technique is that it consists of two signal stages: The first "orientation stage" is a short but intensive flicker stimulus to attract the attention to elements of interest. Subsequently, the intensive flicker is reduced to a minimally disturbing luminance oscillation ("engagement stage") as visual support to keep track of the focus elements. To find a good trade-off between attraction effectiveness and subjective annoyance caused by flicker, we conducted two perceptual studies to find suitable signal parameters. We showcase Attractive Flicker with the parameters obtained from the perceptual statistics in a study of molecular interactions. With Attractive Flicker, users were able to easily follow the narrative of the visualization on a large display, while the flickering of focus elements was not disturbing when observing the context.

  6. Flicker Mitigation of Grid Connected Wind Turbines Using STATCOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    to the point of common coupling (PCC) to relieve the flicker produced by grid connected wind turbines and the corresponding control scheme is described in detail. Simulation results show that STATCOM is an effective measure to mitigate the flicker level during continuous operation of grid connected wind......Grid connected wind turbines may produce flicker during continuous operation. In this paper flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators is investigated during continuous operation. A STATCOM using PWM voltage source converter (VSC) is connected in shunt...

  7. Flickering light a history of neon

    CERN Document Server

    Ribbat, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Without neon, Las Vegas might still be a sleepy desert town in Nevada and Times Square merely another busy intersection in New York City. Transformed by the installation of these brightly colored signs, these destinations are now world-famous, representing the vibrant heart of popular culture. But for some, neon lighting represents the worst of commercialism. Energized by the conflicting love and hatred people have for neon, Flickering Light explores its technological and intellectual history, from the discovery of the noble gas in late nineteenth-century London to its fading popul

  8. Proper Use of Candles During a Power Outage

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Home fires are a threat after a natural disaster and fire trucks may have trouble getting to your home. If the power is out, use flashlights or other battery-powered lights if possible, instead of candles.

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Roger H.L.; Kiriakidis, Alejandro C.; Peng, Steve W.

    1997-01-01

    This study aims at the development of an effective nondestructive evaluation technique to predict the remaining useful life of a ceramic candle filter during a power plant's annual maintenance shutdown. The objective of the present on-going study is to establish the vibration signatures of ceramic candle filters at varying degradation levels due to different operating hours, and to study the various factors involving the establishment of the signatures

  10. Flicker Reduction in LED-LCDs with Local Backlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Local backlight dimming of LCD with LED backlight can reduce power consumption and improve quality of displayed images and videos. However, important variations of LED over time produce a visually annoying artifact called flickering. In this work, we propose a new algorithm to reduce flickering w...

  11. Reducing flicker due to ambient illumination in camera captured images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwoong; Bengtson, Kurt; Li, Lisa; Allebach, Jan P.

    2013-02-01

    The flicker artifact dealt with in this paper is the scanning distortion arising when an image is captured by a digital camera using a CMOS imaging sensor with an electronic rolling shutter under strong ambient light sources powered by AC. This type of camera scans a target line-by-line in a frame. Therefore, time differences exist between the lines. This mechanism causes a captured image to be corrupted by the change of illumination. This phenomenon is called the flicker artifact. The non-content area of the captured image is used to estimate a flicker signal that is a key to being able to compensate the flicker artifact. The average signal of the non-content area taken along the scan direction has local extrema where the peaks of flicker exist. The locations of the extrema are very useful information to estimate the desired distribution of pixel intensities assuming that the flicker artifact does not exist. The flicker-reduced images compensated by our approach clearly demonstrate the reduced flicker artifact, based on visual observation.

  12. Finding flicker: Critical differences in temporal frequency capture attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eCass

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid visual flicker is known to capture attention. Here we show slow flicker can also capture attention under reciprocal temporal conditions. Observers searched for a target line (vertical or horizontal among tilted distractors. Distractor lines were surrounded by luminance modulating annuli, all flickering sinusoidally at 1.3 or 12.1 Hz, while the target’s annulus flickered at frequencies within this range. Search times improved with increasing target/distractor frequency differences. For target-distractor frequency separations > 5 Hz reaction times were minimal with high frequency targets correctly identified more rapidly than low frequency targets (~400ms. Critically, however, at these optimal frequency separations search times for low and high frequency targets were unaffected by set size (slow flicker popped out from high flicker, and vice versa, indicating parallel and symmetric search performance when searching for high or low frequency targets. In a ‘cost’ experiment using 1.3 and 12.1 Hz flicker, the unique flickering annulus sometimes surrounded a distractor and, on other trials, surrounded the target. When centred on a distractor, the unique frequency produced a clear and symmetrical search cost. Together, these symmetric pop-out and search costs demonstrate that temporal frequency is a pre-attentive visual feature capable of capturing attention, and that it is relative rather than absolute frequencies that are critical. The shape of the search functions strongly suggest that early visual temporal frequency filters underlie these effects.

  13. [Sensitivity and specificity of flicker perimetry with Pulsar. Comparison with achromatic (white-on-white) perimetry in glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, K; Erb, C

    2013-02-01

    The early detection of functional glaucoma damage plays an increasingly more central role in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma disease. Using selective perimetry detection of early glaucomatous defects is more likely and one of these methods is flicker perimetry with Pulsar. Flicker perimetry is used to analyze the temporal visual function in combination with spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity as opposed to standard automated perimetry which measures the differential light sensitivity with a non-specific stimulus. This study showed a higher sensitivity and specificity of Pulsar perimetry in comparison to achromatic perimetry in glaucoma patients.

  14. Application of Candle burnup to small fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Satoshi, T.

    2004-01-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. An equilibrium state was obtained for a large fast reactor (core radius is 2 m and reflector thickness is 0.5 m) successfully by using a newly developed direct analysis code. However, it is difficult to apply this burnup strategy to small reactors, since its neutron leakage becomes large and neutron economy becomes worse. Fuel enrichment should be increased in order to sustain the criticality. However, higher enrichment of fresh fuel makes the CANDLE burnup difficult. We try to find some small reactor designs, which can realize the CANDLE burnup. We have successfully find a design, which is not the CANDLE burnup in the strict meaning, but satisfies qualitatively its characteristics mentioned at the top of this abstract. In the final paper, the general description of CANDLE burnup and some results on the obtained small fast reactor design are presented.(author)

  15. Optimized Design and Discussion on Middle and Large CANDLE Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Chai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of reactor is highly economical, safe and efficiently saves resources, thus extending large scale fission nuclear energy utilization for thousands of years, benefitting the whole of society. For many developing countries with a large population and high energy demands, such as China and India, middle (1000 MWth and large (2000 MWth CANDLE fast reactors are obviously more suitable than small reactors [2]. In this paper, the middle and large CANDLE reactors are investigated with U-Pu and combined ThU-UPu fuel cycles, aiming to utilize the abundant thorium resources and optimize the radial power distribution. To achieve these design purposes, the present designs were utilized, simply dividing the core into two fuel regions in the radial direction. The less active fuel, such as thorium or natural uranium, was loaded in the inner core region and the fuel with low-level enrichment, e.g. 2.0% enriched uranium, was loaded in the outer core region. By this simple core configuration and fuel setting, rather than using a complicated method, we can obtain the desired middle and large CANDLE fast cores with reasonable core geometry and thermal hydraulic parameters that perform safely and economically; as is to be expected from CANDLE. To assist in understanding the CANDLE reactor’s attributes, analysis and discussion of the calculation results achieved are provided.

  16. Flicker in a twisted nematic spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Hermosillo, Yuliana; García-Márquez, Jorge; Espinosa-Luna, Rafael; Ochoa, Noé Alcalá; López, Víctor; Aguilar, Alberto; Noé-Arias, Enrique; Alayli, Yasser

    2013-06-01

    Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are widely used for their capability to control beams howbeit fluctuations in phase and amplitude. It is then necessary to understand the negative effects of these fluctuations, also known as flicker, and the means to mitigate them. The flicker is observed either as high frequency variations of polarization, attenuation or high phase fluctuations on the wave front modulated by the LCoS device. Here, we compare the flicker behavior in a twisted nematic (TN) LCoS-SLM for different polarization schemes and temperatures. The quantitative evaluation shows that flicker is effectively reduced only by chilling the LCoS panel to temperatures just below 0 °C but, the LCoS modulation capability is also affected.

  17. An attempt to understand flicker vertigo: changes in pupil size and choroidal blood flow under flickering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Maria Gabriella; Peretto, Lorenzo; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2010-02-01

    Light flickering at a rate of 4- 20 cycles per second can produce unpleasant reactions such as nausea and vertigo. In this paper, the possibility of achieving an objective evaluation/prediction of the physiological effects induced by flicker is investigated using a new imaging method based on the pupil size determination. This method is also compared with the blood flow analysis in the choroid.

  18. Sharpening vision by adapting to flicker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Williams, Jeremy D.; Phipps, Natasha E.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is surprisingly malleable. A static stimulus can seem to move after prolonged exposure to movement (the motion aftereffect), and exposure to tilted lines can make vertical lines seem oppositely tilted (the tilt aftereffect). The paradigm used to induce such distortions (adaptation) can provide powerful insights into the computations underlying human visual experience. Previously spatial form and stimulus dynamics were thought to be encoded independently, but here we show that adaptation to stimulus dynamics can sharpen form perception. We find that fast flicker adaptation (FFAd) shifts the tuning of face perception to higher spatial frequencies, enhances the acuity of spatial vision—allowing people to localize inputs with greater precision and to read finer scaled text, and it selectively reduces sensitivity to coarse-scale form signals. These findings are consistent with two interrelated influences: FFAd reduces the responsiveness of magnocellular neurons (which are important for encoding dynamics, but can have poor spatial resolution), and magnocellular responses contribute coarse spatial scale information when the visual system synthesizes form signals. Consequently, when magnocellular responses are mitigated via FFAd, human form perception is transiently sharpened because “blur” signals are mitigated. PMID:27791115

  19. Proper Use of Candles During a Power Outage

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    Home fires are a threat after a natural disaster and fire trucks may have trouble getting to your home. If the power is out, use flashlights or other battery-powered lights if possible, instead of candles.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 8/20/2008.

  20. New Scientific Aspects of the "Burning Candle" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalha, Taha

    2016-01-01

    The "burning candle" experiment is used in middle school education programs to prove that air contains a component that is essential to burning (i.e., oxygen). The accepted interpretation taught by teachers in middle school is this: when burning occurs, oxygen is used up, creating an underpressure that causes a rise in water level inside…

  1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM OF ELECTRONIC CANDLE BASED ON MICROCONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeli Fitri Lianuari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described how the assembly process of designing and developing a series of inflatable candles microkontroller. The series based on electronics is a simple circuit that utilizes condenser microphone as a sensor. The use of these components are suitable for use in an application circuit electronic candles where the workings of this series starts from LEDs that analogous to wax and then lit using a pushbutton that analogy as lighters, and a flame from the LED can be extinguished by blowing. The concept of this series is simple but could be developed into a series of more innovative and interesting. One development is to add the output of the LED running that made candles burn more lively and interesting. Running LED of this circuit works by using a transistor as a switch that controls power of Az IC 368 and IC Az 418 M J. To simplify the development process, combination of a series of electronic candles with LED running can be simulated using the software Livewire and Proteus. Results of designing and developing a tool is not a new thing or that have not been found but the result of this achievement can be a source of inspiring in the world of electronics that can later be developed further so that it becomes a result of more recent example, lights out with once pat.

  2. Di-boson signatures as standard candles for partial compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, Alexander [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying [Univerity of Lyon, Université Lyon 1,CNRS/IN2P3, IPNL, F-69622, Villeurbanne (France); Ferretti, Gabriele [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,Fysikgården, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Flacke, Thomas [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science (IBS),Daejeon, 34051 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea University,Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Parolini, Alberto [Department of Physics, Korea University,Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Serodio, Hugo [Department of Physics, Korea University,Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics,Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2017-01-23

    Composite Higgs Models are often constructed including fermionic top partners with a mass around the TeV scale, with the top partners playing the role of stabilizing the Higgs potential and enforcing partial compositeness for the top quark. A class of models of this kind can be formulated in terms of fermionic strongly coupled gauge theories. A common feature they all share is the presence of specific additional scalar resonances, namely two neutral singlets and a colored octet, described by a simple effective Lagrangian. We study the phenomenology of these scalars, both in a model independent and model dependent way, including the bounds from all the available searches in the relevant channels with di-boson and di-top final states. We develop a generic framework which can be used to constrain any model containing pseudo-scalar singlets or octets. Using it, we find that such signatures provide strong bounds on the compositeness scale complementary to the traditional EWPT and Higgs couplings deviations. In many cases a relatively light scalar can be on the verge of discovery as a first sign of new physics.

  3. Using Quasars as Standard Candles for Studying Dark Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Watson, D.

    2012-01-01

    , which relies on the technique of reverberation mapping to measure time delays between the quasar continuum and emission line variability signatures. Measuring this time delay effectively measures the radius between the central source and the emission-line gas. The emission line gas is photo-ionized...... by the continuum photons, and the radius to this emission-line region scales tightly with the nuclear luminosity - a consequence of the photoionization physics responsible for regulating the production of line-emitting photons. Hence, measuring the radius of the emission-line gas provides a measure...

  4. Evaluation of cone function by a handheld non-mydriatic flicker electroretinogram device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natsuko Nakamura,1 Kaoru Fujinami,1 Yoshinobu Mizuno,2 Toru Noda,2 Kazushige Tsunoda11Laboratory of Visual Physiology, Division of Vision Research, National Institute of Sensory Organs, 2Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization, National Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs are used to evaluate retinal function in patients with various types of hereditary and acquired retinal diseases. However, ERG recordings require relatively invasive procedures, including pupillary dilation and the use of contact lens electrodes. Thus, it would be helpful to have a simpler and noninvasive screening method. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new, handheld, portable ERG device, RETeval™, can be used to screen patients for cone dysfunction.Patients and methods: Thirty-five eyes of 35 patients who had reduced cone responses ascertained by a conventional ERG system using contact lens electrodes were studied. The causative diseases included achromatopsia, cone dystrophy, cone-rod dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, choroidal dystrophy, autoimmune retinopathy, and Stargardt disease. The flicker ERGs were recorded with the RETeval™ under undilated conditions with skin electrodes (stimulus strength, 3.0 cd·s/m2; frequency, 28.3 Hz, and the responses were compared to that of 50 healthy eyes. The amplitudes and implicit times of the fundamental component of the flicker ERGs were analyzed in three age groups: Group A, ≤20 years; Group B, 21–40 years; and Group C, ≥41 years.Results: In all of the age groups, the amplitudes of the ERGs were significantly smaller and the implicit times significantly longer in patients with cone dysfunction than in the control eyes. All but one of the patients had flicker amplitudes lower than the mean −2.0 standard deviation of control eyes.Conclusion: The RETeval™ has a potential of being used to screen for cone dysfunction. The entire examination

  5. Flicker Detection, Measurement and Means of Mitigation: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulkar, V. B.; Aware, M. V.

    2014-04-01

    The voltage fluctuations caused by rapid industrial load change have been a major concern for supply utilities, regulatory agencies and customers. This paper gives a general review about how to examine/assess voltage flicker and methods followed in measuring the flickers due to rapid changing loads and means for its mitigation. It discusses the effects on utilities conditions, compensators response time and compensator capacity of flicker mitigation. A comparison between conventional mitigation techniques and the state-of-art mitigation techniques are carried out. It is shown in many cases that the state-of-art solution provides higher performance compared with conventional mitigation techniques. However, the choice of most suitable solution depends on characteristics of the supply at the point of connection, the requirement of the load and economics.

  6. Line shapes of atomic-candle-type Rabi resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffer, J.G.; Camparo, J.C.; Sickmiller, B.; Presser, A.

    2002-01-01

    When atoms interact with a phase-modulated field, the probability of finding the atom in the excited-state oscillates at the second harmonic of the modulation frequency, 2ω m . The amplitude of this oscillating probability is a resonant function of the Rabi frequency Ω, and this is termed a β Rabi resonance. In this work, we examine the line shape of the β Rabi resonance both theoretically and experimentally. We find that a small-signal theory of the β-Rabi-resonance condition captures much of the line shape's character, and, in particular, that the resonance's 'line Q' (i.e., 2δΩ 1/2 /Ω) is proportional to the modulation frequency. This result can be applied to the atomic candle, where β Rabi resonances are employed to stabilize field strength. Considering our results in the context of developing an optical atomic candle, we find that a free-running diode laser's intensity noise could be improved by orders of magnitude using the atomic candle concept

  7. Light a CANDLE. An innovative burnup strategy of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2005-11-01

    CANDLE is a new burnup strategy for nuclear reactors, which stands for Constant Axial Shape of Neutron Flux, Nuclide Densities and Power Shape During Life of Energy Production. When this candle-like burnup strategy is adopted, although the fuel is fixed in a reactor core, the burning region moves, at a speed proportionate to the power output, along the direction of the core axis without changing the spatial distribution of the number density of the nuclides, neutron flux, and power density. Excess reactivity is not necessary for burnup and the shape of the power distribution and core characteristics do not change with the progress of burnup. It is not necessary to use control rods for the control of the burnup. This booklet described the concept of the CANDLE burnup strategy with basic explanations of excess neutrons and its specific application to a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and a fast reactor with excellent neutron economy. Supplementary issues concerning the initial core and high burnup were also referred. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Flicker as a tool for characterizing planets though asterodensity profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, D. M.; Bastien, F. A.; Stassun, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in the time series brightness of a star on a timescale of 8 hr, known as "flicker," has been previously demonstrated to serve as a proxy for the surface gravity of a star by Bastien et al. Although surface gravity is crucial for stellar classification, it is the mean stellar density t...

  9. Uniaxial flicker analysis of the psychophysical Stiles-Crawford effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochocki, Benjamin; Vohnsen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We report on a semi-automated system for frequency analysis of the Stiles-Crawford effect of the first kind (SCE-I) using flicker methodology designed to gain insight into the temporal dynamics of the perceived visibility for alternating pupil entrance points. We describe the system and its

  10. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  11. 9 CFR 590.506 - Candling and transfer-room facilities and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candling and transfer-room facilities... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.506 Candling and transfer-room... containers are furnished daily. (h) Shell egg conveyors shall be constructed so that they can be thoroughly...

  12. Discovery of optical flickering from the symbiotic star EF Aquilae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanov, R. K.; Boeva, S.; Nikolov, Y. M.; Petrov, B.; Bachev, R.; Latev, G. Y.; Popov, V. A.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Bode, M. F.; Martí, J.; Tomov, T.; Antonova, A.

    2017-07-01

    We report optical CCD photometry of the recently identified symbiotic star EF Aql. Our observations in Johnson V and B bands clearly show the presence of stochastic light variations with an amplitude of about 0.2 mag on a time scale of minutes. The observations point toward a white dwarf (WD) as the hot component in the system. It is the 11-th object among more than 200 symbiotic stars known with detected optical flickering. Estimates of the mass accretion rate onto the WD and the mass loss rate in the wind of the Mira secondary star lead to the conclusion that less than 1 per cent of the wind is captured by the WD. Eight further candidates for the detection of flickering in similar systems are suggested.

  13. Retinal Vascular and Oxygen Temporal Dynamic Responses to Light Flicker in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E; Wanek, Justin; Blair, Norman P; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2017-11-01

    To mathematically model the temporal dynamic responses of retinal vessel diameter (D), oxygen saturation (SO2), and inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) to light flicker and to describe their responses to its cessation in humans. In 16 healthy subjects (age: 60 ± 12 years), retinal oximetry was performed before, during, and after light flicker stimulation. At each time point, five metrics were measured: retinal arterial and venous D (DA, DV) and SO2 (SO2A, SO2V), and OEF. Intra- and intersubject variability of metrics was assessed by coefficient of variation of measurements before flicker within and among subjects, respectively. Metrics during flicker were modeled by exponential functions to determine the flicker-induced steady state metric values and the time constants of changes. Metrics after the cessation of flicker were compared to those before flicker. Intra- and intersubject variability for all metrics were less than 6% and 16%, respectively. At the flicker-induced steady state, DA and DV increased by 5%, SO2V increased by 7%, and OEF decreased by 13%. The time constants of DA and DV (14, 15 seconds) were twofold smaller than those of SO2V and OEF (39, 34 seconds). Within 26 seconds after the cessation of flicker, all metrics were not significantly different from before flicker values (P ≥ 0.07). Mathematical modeling revealed considerable differences in the time courses of changes among metrics during flicker, indicating flicker duration should be considered separately for each metric. Future application of this method may be useful to elucidate alterations in temporal dynamic responses to light flicker due to retinal diseases.

  14. Flicker-noise Spectroscopy In Earthquake Prediction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desherevsky, A. V.; Lukk, A. A.; Sidorin, A. Y.; Timashev, S. F.

    It has been found out that a two-component model including a seasonal and a flicker- noise components occurs to be a more adequate model of statistical structure of time series of long-term geophysical observations' data. Unlike a white noise which sig- nifies absence of any relation between the system's current dynamics and past events in it, presence of flicker-noise indicates that such a relation in the system does ex- ist. Flicker-noise pertains a property of scale invariance. It seems natural to relate self-similarity of statistical properties of geophysical parameters' variations on dif- ferent scales to self-similar (fractal) properties of geophysical medium. At the same time self-similar time variations of geophysical parameters may indicate to presence of deterministic chaos in geophysical system's evolution. An important element of a proposed approach is application of stochastic models of preparation of each concrete large seismic event. Instead of regular, for example bay-form precursor variations, occurrence of precursors of another kind associated in particular with variation in parameter fluctuations should be expected. To solve a problem of large earthquakes prediction we use Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) as a basis of a new approach proposed by us. The basis of the FNS methodology is a postulate about the impor- tant information significance of sequences of various dynamic irregularities (bursts or spikes, jumps with different characteristic values, discontinuities of derivatives) of the measured temporal, spatial and energetic variables on each level of hierarchical orga- nization of studied systems. A proposed new method using integral values of analyzed signals - power spectra and different moments ("structural functions") of a different order as information relations, has demonstrated principally new opportunities in a search of large earthquake precursors already at a preliminary stage of some data analysis. This research was supported by

  15. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From... Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from... order on petroleum wax candles from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  16. Flicker-defined form perimetry in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Mardin, Christian Y; Jünemann, Anselm G; Adler, Werner; Tornow, Ralf P

    2015-03-01

    To assess the potential of flicker-defined form (FDF) perimetry to detect functional loss in patient groups with beginning glaucoma, and to evaluate the dynamic range of the FDF stimulus in individual patients and at individual test positions. FDF perimetry and standard automated perimetry (SAP) were performed at identical test locations (adapted G1 protocol) in 60 healthy subjects and 111 glaucoma patients. All patients showed glaucomatous optic disc appearance. Grouping within the glaucoma cohort was based on SAP-performance: 33 "preperimetric" open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients, 28 "borderline" OAG (focal defects and SAP-mean defect (MD) <2 dB), 33 "early" OAG (SAP-MD < 5 dB), 17 "advanced" OAG. All participants were experienced in psychophysical and perimetric tests. Defect values and the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) in patient groups were statistically compared. The values of FDF-MD in the preperimetric, borderline, and early OAG group were 2.7 ± 3.4 dB, 5.5 ± 2.6 dB, and 8.5 ± 3.4 dB respectively (all significantly above normal). The percentage of patients exceeding normal FDF-MD was 27.3 %, 60.7 %, and 87.9 % respectively. The age-adjusted FDF-mean defect (MD) of the G1X-protocol was not significantly correlated with refractive error, lens opacity, pupil size, or gender. Occurrence of ceiling effects (inability to detect targets at highest contrast) showed a high correlation with visual field losses (R = 0.72, p < 0.001). Local analysis indicates that SAP losses exceeding 5 dB could not be distinguished with the FDF technique. The FDF stimulus was able to detect beginning glaucoma damage. Patients with SAP-MD values exceeding 5 dB should be monitored with conventional perimetry because of its larger dynamic range.

  17. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  18. Observations on the CANDLE burn-up in various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2007-01-01

    We have looked at all geometrical conditions under which an auto catalytically propagating burnup wave (CANDLE burn-up) is possible. Thereby, the Sine Gordon equation finds a new place in the burn-up theory of nuclear fission reactors. For a practical reactor design the axially burning 'spaghetti' reactor and the azimuthally burning 'pancake' reactor, respectively, seem to be the most promising geometries for a practical reactor design. Radial and spherical burn-waves in cylindrical and spherical geometry, respectively, are principally impossible. Also, the possible applicability of such fission burn-waves on the OKLO-phenomenon and the GEOREACTOR in the center of Earth, postulated by Herndon, is discussed. A fast CANDLE-reactor can work with only depleted uranium. Therefore, uranium mining and uranium-enrichment are not necessary anymore. Furthermore, it is also possible to dispense with reprocessing because the uranium utilization factor is as high as about 40%. Thus, this completely new reactor type can open a new era of reactor technology

  19. SYNTHESIS ALKANOLAMIDE TETRAHIDROXY OCTADECANOATE COMPOUND FROM CANDLE NUT OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Candle nut oil could be transesterificated by methanol with concentrated H2SO4 as a catalyst to form fatty acid methyl esther. Methyl linoleate could be separated by Column Chromatography mechanism technic partition from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME mixture, then it was treated by ethanolamine at base condition in benzene as solvent and sodium methylate as a catalyst at reflux condition for 6 hours to form an alkanolamide. Alkanolamide could be epoxydized by tert-buthyl hydroperoxyde and peroxygenase as a catalyst and it was refluxed for 6 hours at 40 °C and nitrogen gas condition to form the epoxy alkanolamide octadecanoate, and then it was hydrolyzed by HCl 0.1 M to form alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate (Polyol. Alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate could be separated by Column Chromatography using silica gel H 40 and the eluent was the mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, formic acid in a ratio 90:10:1 (v/v/v/. Determination of HLB value from alknolamide tetrahydroxy octadecanoate is 13.096. Therefore, this compound was particularly suitable for application as an o/w emulsifiers. All af the reaction steps were confirmed by using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS, Gas Chromatography and TLC.   Keywords: Esterification, Candle nut oil, Surfactant, Amidation, Polyol.

  20. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  1. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidoni, S. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/CUA, Code 674, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Yoshimura, K. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Plowman, J. E., E-mail: silvina.e.guidoni@nasa.gov [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  2. Voltage Flicker Mitigation in Electric Arc Furnace using D-STATCOM

    OpenAIRE

    Deepthisree Madathil; Ilango Karuppasamy; Kirthika Devi V S; Manjula G Nair

    2014-01-01

    The major power quality issue of voltage flicker has resulted as a serious concern for the customers and heavy power companies. Voltage flicker is an impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light source whose luminance fluctuates with time. This phenomenon is experienced when an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) as load is connected to the power system. Flexible AC transmission devices (FACTS) devices were gradually utilized for voltage flicker reduction. In this paper the FACTS ...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADHESIVE CANDLE FILTER SAFEGUARD DEVICE; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John P. Hurley; Ann K. Henderson; Jan W. Nowok; Michael L. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal conversion. Two main types of systems employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles. In both systems, suspended particulates must be cleaned from the gas stream before it enters the turbine so as to prevent fouling and erosion of the turbine blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in use in several facilities. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the particulates on the surface. The three main configurations of the barrier filters are candle, cross-flow, and tube filters. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer on the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle and individual elements can fail, allowing particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Preventing all failure of individual ceramic filter elements is not possible at the present state of development of the technology. Therefore, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the particulates streaming through occasional broken filters from reaching the turbine. However, the SGD must allow for the free passage of gas when it is not activated. Upon breaking of a filter, the SGD must either mechanically close or quickly plug with filter dust to prevent additional dust from reaching the turbine. Production of a dependable rapidly closing autonomous mechanical

  4. Innovative Energy Planning and Nuclear Option Using CANDLE Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, H; Nagata, A; Mingyu, Y [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    A new reactor burn-up strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move upward (or downward) along its core axis. This burn-up strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burn-up is theoretically zero for ideal equilibrium condition, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed during life of operation. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors. The infinite-medium neutron multiplication factor of replacing fuel is less than unity. Therefore, the transportation and storage of replacing fuels becomes easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. Small long life fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up concept has investigated with depleted uranium as a replacing fuel. Both core diameter and height are chosen to be 2.0 m, and the thermal power is 200 MW. Lead-bismuth is used as a coolant, and nitride (enriched N-15) fuel are employed. The velocity of burning region along burn-up is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40 percent. It is about ten times of light water reactor burn-up. The spent fuel volume becomes one-tenth of light water reactor spent fuel. If a light water reactor with a certain power output has been operated for 40 years, the CANDLE reactor can be operated for 2000 years with the same power output and with only depleted uranium left after fuel production for the light water reactor. The system does not need any reprocessing or enrichment. Therefore, the reactor operation becomes very safe, the waste

  5. Innovative Energy Planning and Nuclear Option Using CANDLE Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Nagata, A.; Mingyu, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A new reactor burn-up strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move upward (or downward) along its core axis. This burn-up strategy can derive many merits. The change of excess reactivity along burn-up is theoretically zero for ideal equilibrium condition, and shim rods will not be required for this reactor. The reactor becomes free from accidents induced by unexpected control rods withdrawal. The core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed during life of operation. Therefore, the operation of the reactor becomes much easier than the conventional reactors. The infinite-medium neutron multiplication factor of replacing fuel is less than unity. Therefore, the transportation and storage of replacing fuels becomes easy and safe, since they are free from criticality accidents. Small long life fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up concept has investigated with depleted uranium as a replacing fuel. Both core diameter and height are chosen to be 2.0 m, and the thermal power is 200 MW. Lead-bismuth is used as a coolant, and nitride (enriched N-15) fuel are employed. The velocity of burning region along burn-up is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40 percent. It is about ten times of light water reactor burn-up. The spent fuel volume becomes one-tenth of light water reactor spent fuel. If a light water reactor with a certain power output has been operated for 40 years, the CANDLE reactor can be operated for 2000 years with the same power output and with only depleted uranium left after fuel production for the light water reactor. The system does not need any reprocessing or enrichment. Therefore, the reactor operation becomes very safe, the waste

  6. Individual Alpha Peak Frequency Predicts 10 Hz Flicker Effects on Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; van Viegen, Tara; Wieling, Martijn; Cohen, Michael X; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-10-18

    Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7.5 or 15 Hz) the alpha band. By using a combination of EEG source separation, time-frequency, and single-trial linear mixed-effects modeling, we demonstrate that 10 Hz flicker interfered with stimulus processing more on incongruent than congruent trials (high vs low selective attention demands). Crucially, the effect of 10 Hz flicker on task performance was predicted by the distance between 10 Hz and individual alpha peak frequency (estimated during the task). Finally, the flicker effect on task performance was more strongly predicted by EEG flicker responses during stimulus processing than during preparation for the upcoming stimulus, suggesting that 10 Hz flicker interfered more with reactive than proactive selective attention. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that visual flicker entrained endogenous alpha-band networks, which in turn impaired task performance. Our findings also provide novel evidence for frequency-dependent exogenous modulation of cognition that is determined by the correspondence between the exogenous flicker frequency and the endogenous brain rhythms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we provide novel evidence that the interaction between exogenous rhythmic visual stimulation and endogenous brain rhythms can have frequency-specific behavioral effects. We show that alpha-band (10 Hz) flicker impairs stimulus

  7. Flicker Mitigation Strategy for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator by Torque Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    induction generator is presented to investigate the flicker mitigation. Taking advantage of the large inertia of the wind turbine rotor, a generator torque control (GTC) strategy is proposed, so that the power oscillation is stored as the kinetic energy of the wind turbine rotor, thus the flicker emission...... is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines during continuous operation.......Owing to the rotational sampling of turbulence, wind shear and tower shadow effects grid connected variable speed wind turbines could lead to the power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. A model of an megawatt (MW)-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed...

  8. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-11-30

    Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO(4)) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using (14)C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO(2)), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating PAH-contaminated water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Flicker Adaptation of Low-Level Cortical Visual Neurons Contributes to Temporal Dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Several seconds of adaptation to a flickered stimulus causes a subsequent brief static stimulus to appear longer in duration. Nonsensory factors, such as increased arousal and attention, have been thought to mediate this flicker-based temporal-dilation aftereffect. In this study, we provide evidence that adaptation of low-level cortical visual…

  10. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Lindy, E-mail: purplerauscher@neb.rr.com [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Sakulthaew, Chainarong, E-mail: chainarong@huskers.unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Department of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Comfort, Steve, E-mail: scomfort1@unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantified the efficacy of slow-release permanganate-paraffin candles to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 14}C-labeled PAHs were used to quantify both adsorption and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanganate-treated PAHs were more biodegradable in soil microcosms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A flow-through candle system was used to quantify PAH removal in urban runoff. - Abstract: Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO{sub 4}) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using {sup 14}C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO{sub 2}), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide

  11. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We quantified the efficacy of slow-release permanganate-paraffin candles to degrade and mineralize PAHs. ► 14 C-labeled PAHs were used to quantify both adsorption and transformation. ► Permanganate-treated PAHs were more biodegradable in soil microcosms. ► A flow-through candle system was used to quantify PAH removal in urban runoff. - Abstract: Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin–KMnO 4 ) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2–4 h. Using 14 C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO 2 ), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet–dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to

  12. Stochastic dynamics: Crossover from 1/f3 to flicker noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Nguyen, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Finite time processes within the limits of the Newton equation and zero inertia motion (i.e., road to chaos) are studied by numerically solving the ordinary, stochastic Langevin equation in 1D for a free particle with inertial moving in a medium with viscosity γ. In this simulations, the scaling behaviour of particle trajectories χ(t) and velocities v(t) with time are derived and the inclusion of non-zero particle masses is shown to define the asymptotic time limit τ c at which - independently of γ - the system evolves into the well-known statistically stationary state characterized by 2 (t) > is proportional to t and flicker noise. The time τ c is further analysed from the correlation length given by the 2-point autocorrelation function of the particle velocity at each value of γ. It is found that the noise power spectrum of v(t) is characterized by flicker noise for frequencies f ≤ f c ∼ 1/τ c , whereas for f > f c , the noise power spectra behave as 1/f υ , where υ varies between the limits of Newton's equation (i.e., υ = 3) and road to chaos (i.e., υ = 1). Furthermore, at times τ c and 0 f (γ) while the single particle trajectories are shown to display a rather different subset of exponents on increasing γ. Generic features of this transition are nicely given by Poincare maps in the velocity space. (author). 23 refs, 8 figs

  13. A comparison of Candle Auctions and Hard Close Auctions with Common Values

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Füllbrunn

    2009-01-01

    With this study, we contribute to the literature of auction design by presenting a new auction format: the Candle auction, a popular auction in the Middle Ages. Considering a common value framework, we theoretically and experimentally point out that the Candle auction, where bidding is allowed until a stochastic deadline, yields a better outcome to the seller than the Hard Close auction, the popular eBay online auction format.

  14. Load and Flicker Mitigation of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines with DFIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian

    power will result in the flicker emission in the power network, causing consumer annoyance and complaint. These issues make the study on the wind turbine load reduction and the flicker mitigation necessary and imperative. The research documented in this thesis addresses wind turbine load reduction under...... both balanced and unbalanced conditions and flicker mitigation issues of wind turbines system. To reduce the wind turbine loads, PI control based individual pitch control (IPC) scheme is presented. The PI IPC scheme is developed to reduce not only the loads on the blade, but also the loads on the rotor...... the balanced loads but also the unbalanced loads. Flicker emission which is harmful to the power system is induced by voltage fluctuations which are caused by load flow changes in the grid. One way for flicker mitigation is to reduce the power fluctuation from the fluctuation source. Individual pitch control...

  15. Flicker Study on Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yue

    2008-01-01

    capacity, grid impedance angle) are analyzed. Flicker mitigation is realized by output reactive power control of the variable speed wind turbines with PMSG. Simulation results show the output reactive power control is an effective measure to mitigate the flicker during continuous operation of grid......Grid connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbines with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and a full-scale converter developed...... in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated during continuous operation. The dependence of flicker emission on wind characteristics (mean speed, turbulence intensity), 3p torque oscillations due to wind shear and tower shadow effects and grid conditions (short circuit...

  16. Flicker study on variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    to a conclusion that the factors mentioned above have different influences on flicker emission compared with that in the case of the fixed speed wind turbine. Flicker mitigation is realized by output reactive power control of the variable speed wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. Simulation results...... show the wind turbine output reactive power control provides an effective means for flicker mitigation regardless of mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and short circuit capacity ratio.......Grid connected wind turbines may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines...

  17. ''Flicker'' in laser-plasma self-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggeshall, S.V.; Mead, W.C.; Jones, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a new mode of laser-plasma self-focusing can occur which is characterized by a self-sustaining, continual shifting of filament-produced focal spots and a somewhat chaotic redistribution of light at the critical surface. Associated with this phenomenon is the possibility of significant intensity multiplication due to self-focusing. This flickering of laser light is caused by small amplitude, short wavelength ion acoustic waves which are produced near the foci of the filaments and subsequently propagate and convect toward the laser. As these ion fluctuations move toward the laser, they cause further light ray trajectory changes which shift the locations of the foci. New sound waves are launched and the process is self-perpetuated. 7 refs., 5 figs

  18. Flickering of the symbiotic variable CH Cygni during outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, M H [Texas Univ., Austin (USA). Dept. of Astronomy; Africano, J

    1978-11-01

    High-speed and conventional BVRI photometry are reported for the bright symbiotic variable CH Cygni (M6 IIIe), obtained during the course of a recent outburst. Unlike the quiescent symbiotic stars, the presence of flickering similar in nature to that seen in the cataclysmic variables has been confirmed during this active phase. The BVRI photometry for a sample of stars in the field is used to derive the reddening and the distance to CH Cyg. A composite energy distribution is derived from 0.35 to 11.0 ..mu..m which clearly establishes the existence of a variable, blue continuum. The lack of variability in the near infrared suggests that the blue continuum arises from a hot companion. A binary model including a subluminous hot companion accreting material from the stellar wind of an SRa variable is discussed to account for the observed photometric properties.

  19. Fireball flickering: the case for indirect measurement of meteoroid rotation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Martin; Brown, Peter

    2000-08-01

    Data collected during the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Program (MORP) indicate that 4% of bright fireballs show a periodic variation or flickering in brightness. The observed flickering frequencies vary from a few Hz to as high as 500 Hz. We interpret the flickering phenomenon in terms of meteoroid rotation. The MORP data does not reveal any apparent correlation between the flickering frequency and the properties of the meteoroid or the atmospheric flow conditions under which ablation is taking place. It is argued that the most likely cause of the flickering phenomenon is the rotational modulation of the cross-section area presented by the meteoroid to the on-coming airflow. A study is made of the Peekskill fireball and it is concluded that the meteoroid was spun-up during its long flight through the Earth's atmosphere, and that its initial brake up was due to rotational bursting. We also argue that the Peekskill event provides the best observational evidence that the flickering phenomenon is truly related to the rotation rate of the impinging meteoroid. We find that the observed rotation rates of the MORP fireballs are clustered just below the allowed limit set by rotational bursting, but argue that this is due to an observational selection effect that mitigates against the detection of low-frequency flickering.

  20. Inner Retinal Oxygen Extraction Fraction in Response to Light Flicker Stimulation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E.; Wanek, Justin; Blair, Norman P.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Light flicker has been shown to stimulate retinal neural activity, increase blood flow, and alter inner retinal oxygen metabolism (MO2) and delivery (DO2). The purpose of the study was to determine the change in MO2 relative to DO2 due to light flicker stimulation in humans, as assessed by the inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Methods An optical imaging system, based on a modified slit lamp biomicroscope, was developed for simultaneous measurements of retinal vascular diameter (D) and oxygen saturation (SO2). Retinal images were acquired in 20 healthy subjects before and during light flicker stimulation. Arterial and venous D (DA and DV) and SO2 (SO2A and SO2V) were quantified within a circumpapillary region. Oxygen extraction fraction was defined as the ratio of MO2 to DO2 and was calculated as (SO2A − SO2V)/SO2A. Reproducibility of measurements was assessed. Results Coefficients of variation and intraclass correlation coefficients of repeated measurements were <5% and ≥0.83, respectively. During light flicker stimulation, DA, DV , and SO2V significantly increased (P ≤ 0.004). Oxygen extraction fraction was 0.37 ± 0.08 before light flicker and significantly decreased to 0.31 ± 0.07 during light flicker (P = 0.001). Conclusions Oxygen extraction fraction before and during light flicker stimulation is reported in human subjects for the first time. Oxygen extraction fraction decreased during light flicker stimulation, indicating the change in DO2 exceeded that of MO2. This technology is potentially useful for the detection of changes in OEF response to light flicker in physiological and pathological retinal conditions. PMID:26469748

  1. Converter controls and flicker study of PMSG-based grid connected wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Kasem Alaboudy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increased penetration of wind power, the influence of wind turbine generators on the grid power quality stipulates careful investigation and analysis. Direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG with a back-to-back converter set is one of the promising technologies in wind power generation schemes. In this paper, comprehensive models of wind turbine are used to analyze power and voltage fluctuations. The short time flicker index is used to assess the voltage fluctuation emitted. The control scheme of the grid-side converter is supported with a voltage regulation loop to reduce flicker emission. The effects of grid and site parameters on voltage fluctuation are investigated. Simulation results show that reduced flicker emissions are given when the developed voltage regulation loop is activated. Reasonable values of grid and site parameters contribute in the minimization of voltage fluctuation and flicker emission levels.

  2. Time sequence analysis of flickering auroras. I - Application of Fourier analysis. [in atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, F. T.; Silevitch, M. B.; Parsons, N. R.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique that enables one to digitize the brightness of auroral displays from individual fields of a video signal, we have analyzed the frequency content of flickering aurora. Through the application of Fourier analysis to our data, we have found that flickering aurora contains a wide range of enhanced frequencies, although the dominant frequency enhancement generally occurs in the range 6-12 Hz. Each incidence of flickering that we observed was associated with increased radio wave absorption. Furthermore, we have found that flickering occurs in bright auroral surges, the occurrence of which is not limited to the 'breakup' phase of auroral substorms. Our results are interpreted in terms of a recently proposed theory of fluctuating double layers that accounts for a number of the observational features.

  3. Analysis of the Flicker Level Produced by a Fixed-Speed Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppioni, Vinicius; P. Grilo, Ahda

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the analysis of the flicker emission during continuous operation of a mid-scale fixed-speed wind turbine connected to a distribution system is presented. Flicker emission is investigated based on simulation results, and the dependence of flicker emission on short-circuit capacity, grid impedance angle, mean wind speed, and wind turbulence is analyzed. The simulations were conducted in different programs in order to provide a more realistic wind emulation and detailed model of mechanical and electrical components of the wind turbine. Such aim is accomplished by using FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) to simulate the mechanical parts of the wind turbine, Simulink/MatLab to simulate the electrical system, and TurbSim to obtain the wind model. The results show that, even for a small wind generator, the flicker level can limit the wind power capacity installed in a distribution system.

  4. Flicker Mitigation by Individual Pitch Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With DFIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    generatorto investigate the flicker emission and mitigation issues. An individual pitch control (IPC) strategy is proposed to reduce the flicker emission at different wind speed conditions. The IPC scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed according to the generator active power...... and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 1.5-MW upwind reference wind turbine model. Simulation results show that damping the generator active power by IPC is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind......Due to the wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects, grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a model of an MW-level variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction...

  5. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power...... oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.......Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG...

  6. Flicker Noise in GNSS Station Position Time Series: How much is due to Crustal Loading Deformations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebischung, P.; Chanard, K.; Metivier, L.; Altamimi, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of colored noise in GNSS station position time series was detected 20 years ago. It has been shown since then that the background spectrum of non-linear GNSS station position residuals closely follows a power-law process (known as flicker noise, 1/f noise or pink noise), with some white noise taking over at the highest frequencies. However, the origin of the flicker noise present in GNSS station position time series is still unclear. Flicker noise is often described as intrinsic to the GNSS system, i.e. due to errors in the GNSS observations or in their modeling, but no such error source has been identified so far that could explain the level of observed flicker noise, nor its spatial correlation.We investigate another possible contributor to the observed flicker noise, namely real crustal displacements driven by surface mass transports, i.e. non-tidal loading deformations. This study is motivated by the presence of power-law noise in the time series of low-degree (≤ 40) and low-order (≤ 12) Stokes coefficients observed by GRACE - power-law noise might also exist at higher degrees and orders, but obscured by GRACE observational noise. By comparing GNSS station position time series with loading deformation time series derived from GRACE gravity fields, both with their periodic components removed, we therefore assess whether GNSS and GRACE both plausibly observe the same flicker behavior of surface mass transports / loading deformations. Taking into account GRACE observability limitations, we also quantify the amount of flicker noise in GNSS station position time series that could be explained by such flicker loading deformations.

  7. Impaired increase of retinal capillary blood flow to flicker light exposure in arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Martin; Harazny, Joanna M; Ott, Christian; Raff, Ulrike; Bauernschubert, Philipp; Lehmann, Marina; Michelson, Georg; Schmieder, Roland E

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that the increase of retinal capillary blood flow (RCF) to flicker light exposure is impaired in subjects with arterial hypertension. In 146 nondiabetic untreated male subjects with (n=50) or without (n=96) arterial hypertension, RCF was measured before and after flicker light exposure noninvasively and in vivo using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, in a subgroup of 28 subjects, the change of RCF to flicker light exposure was again assessed during parallel infusion of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was lower in patients with untreated hypertension compared with normotensive subjects when expressed in absolute terms (7.69±54 versus 27.2±44 AU; P adjusted=0.013) or percent changes (2.95±14 versus 8.33±12%; P adjusted=0.023). Systolic (β=-0.216; P=0.023) but not diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.117; P=0.243) or mean arterial pressure (β=-0.178; P=0.073) was negatively related to the percent change of RCF to flicker light exposure, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. In the subgroup of 28 subjects, the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was similar at baseline and during parallel infusion of L-NMMA when expressed in absolute terms (20.0±51 versus 22.6±56 AU; P=0.731) or percent changes (7.12±16 versus 8.29±18%; P=0.607). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure is impaired in arterial hypertension. In the subgroup of the total study cohort, nitric oxide was not a major determinant of the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure.

  8. Induction motor voltage flicker analysis and its mitigation measures using custom power devices: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    SANJAY. A. DEOKAR,; Dr. L. M. WAGHMARE

    2010-01-01

    This paper suggests methods for estimating short time flicker (PST) severity on 22/3.3 kV network supplying induction motor loads of municipal integrated water pumping system. The impact of additional connection of induction motors to the same system has been analyzed. Measurements are done at the point of common coupling (PCC) to identify background short time flicker levels and the contribution of the already operating induction motors. The paper also analyses and compares different voltage...

  9. Investigation of Reactive Power Control Effects on Flicker and Harmonics Emission of a DFIG Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Nagizadeh Ghoogdareh; Aref Doroudi; Mohammad Poormonfared Azimi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important power quality aspects in wind farms is voltage fluctuation or flicker which should be investigated due to the nature of wind speed variations. These variations result in power and voltage fluctuations at the load bus. Moreover, the wind generation systems may be assumed as a harmonics source because of their power electronic converters. There are numerous factors that affect flicker and harmonic emission of grid-connected wind turbines during continuous operation, su...

  10. Mitigation of Flicker using STATCOM with Three-Level 12-pulse Voltage Source Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Z a'fari

    2011-01-01

    Voltage flicker is a disturbance in electrical power systems. The reason for this disturbance is mainly the large nonlinear loads such as electric arc furnaces. Synchronous static compensator (STATCOM) is considered as a proper technique to mitigate the voltage flicker. Application of more suitable and precise power electronic converter leads to a more precise performance of the compensator. In this paper a three-level 12-pulse voltage source inverter (VSI) with a 12-term...

  11. 75 FR 49475 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...''); the National Retail Federation (``NRF''); HSE USA, Inc. (``HSE''); Universal Candle Company (``UC... research firm in Malaysia on producers' prices for candles made and sold in Malaysia and stated that the... Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, Sec. 1502, 116 Stat. 2135, 2308-09 2002); Reorganization Plan...

  12. The Amount of Time Dilation for Visual Flickers Corresponds to the Amount of Neural Entrainments Measured by EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    The neural basis of time perception has long attracted the interests of researchers. Recently, a conceptual model consisting of neural oscillators was proposed and validated by behavioral experiments that measured the dilated duration in perception of a flickering stimulus (Hashimoto and Yotsumoto, 2015). The model proposed that flickering stimuli cause neural entrainment of oscillators, resulting in dilated time perception. In this study, we examined the oscillator-based model of time perception, by collecting electroencephalography (EEG) data during an interval-timing task. Initially, subjects observed a stimulus, either flickering at 10-Hz or constantly illuminated. The subjects then reproduced the duration of the stimulus by pressing a button. As reported in previous studies, the subjects reproduced 1.22 times longer durations for flickering stimuli than for continuously illuminated stimuli. The event-related potential (ERP) during the observation of a flicker oscillated at 10 Hz, reflecting the 10-Hz neural activity phase-locked to the flicker. Importantly, the longer reproduced duration was associated with a larger amplitude of the 10-Hz ERP component during the inter-stimulus interval, as well as during the presentation of the flicker. The correlation between the reproduced duration and the 10-Hz oscillation during the inter-stimulus interval suggested that the flicker-induced neural entrainment affected time dilation. While the 10-Hz flickering stimuli induced phase-locked entrainments at 10 Hz, we also observed event-related desynchronizations of spontaneous neural oscillations in the alpha-frequency range. These could be attributed to the activation of excitatory neurons while observing the flicker stimuli. In addition, neural activity at approximately the alpha frequency increased during the reproduction phase, indicating that flicker-induced neural entrainment persisted even after the offset of the flicker. In summary, our results suggest that the

  13. Improved control system of the thyristor flicker suppressor for the KEK 12-GeV PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Baba, H.; Mikawa, K.; Sato, H.; Sueno, T.

    1983-01-01

    Thyristor control system of the 20 MVar flicker suppressor has been improved essentially. The previous feed forward (FF) loop with each single phase reactive current detector of the MR magnet power supply was exchanged to the present by both FF- and NFB-loops. The FF-loops consists of a three phase reactive power detector of the MPS and a forcing pattern generator on the fast but steady line voltage flicker, sag and surge. The NFB-loops control by the slow parts of the flicker and the unbalanced line voltages. These detectors of the reactive power, the voltage flicker and the unbalance have been developed. Sampled voltage flicker data with 12 bit ADC are processed by Z-80A micro computer system and the forcing pattern is generated by the system through 12 bit DAC into the loop. A typical voltage flicker including sag and surge has been reduced within + or - 1.5%, about 1/3 compared to the previous, at 66 kV primary line

  14. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated. The 3p (three times per revolution power oscillation due to wind shear and tower shadow effects is the significant part in the flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines with PMSG during continuous operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.

  15. FTIR Study of Comustion Species in Several Regions of a Candle Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allen R.

    2013-06-01

    The complex chemical structure of the fuel in a candle flame, parafin, is broken down into smaller hydrocarbons in the dark region just above the candle wick during combustion. This creates fuel-rich, fuel-lean, hydrocarbon reaction, and combustion product regions in the flame during combustion that are spectroscopically rich, particularly in the infrared. IR emissions were measured for each reaction region via collection optics focused into an FTIR and used to identify IR active species present in that region and, when possible, temperature of the sampling region. The results of the measurements are useful for combustion reaction modeling as well as for future validation of mass spectroscopy sampling systems.

  16. Improving the Mitigation of Voltage Flicker by Usage of Fuzzy Control in a Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (DSTATCOM)

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abazari; Ebrahim Haghjou; Ghazanfar Shahgholiyan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study about of a fuzzy Controlled STATCOM, which can be applied for mitigation of the voltage flicker in a distribution system. The voltage flicker is produced by a large variable load absorbing continuously changing currents such as an arc furnace. The DSTATCOM includes a voltage-sourced PWM inverter and its control system. The control strategy of the DSTATCOM plays an important role in maintaining the voltage flicker. Here, the DSTATCOM controller is designed with two...

  17. Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing

  18. Investigation of Reactive Power Control Effects on Flicker and Harmonics Emission of a DFIG Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Nagizadeh Ghoogdareh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important power quality aspects in wind farms is voltage fluctuation or flicker which should be investigated due to the nature of wind speed variations. These variations result in power and voltage fluctuations at the load bus. Moreover, the wind generation systems may be assumed as a harmonics source because of their power electronic converters. There are numerous factors that affect flicker and harmonic emission of grid-connected wind turbines during continuous operation, such as wind characteristics (e.g. mean wind speed, turbulence intensity, type of generator and grid conditions (e.g. short circuit capacity, grid impedance angle. In this paper, an IEC based flickermeter is first modeled and then a variable speed wind turbine has been simulated by Matlab/Simulink software. The flicker and harmonics emissions of wind turbines equipped with DFIG during continuous operation and using output reactive control are investigated. The simulation results show that control of wind turbine output reactive power is an effective means for flicker mitigation during continuous operation. However, there should be a compromise between flicker reduction and harmonics level increase to enhance the whole power quality of wind turbine.

  19. Removing flicker based on sparse color correspondences in old film restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Ding, Youdong; Yu, Bing; Xia, Tianran

    2018-04-01

    In the long history of human civilization, archived film is an indispensable part of it, and using digital method to repair damaged film is also a mainstream trend nowadays. In this paper, we propose a sparse color correspondences based technique to remove fading flicker for old films. Our model, combined with multi frame images to establish a simple correction model, includes three key steps. Firstly, we recover sparse color correspondences in the input frames to build a matrix with many missing entries. Secondly, we present a low-rank matrix factorization approach to estimate the unknown parameters of this model. Finally, we adopt a two-step strategy that divide the estimated parameters into reference frame parameters for color recovery correction and other frame parameters for color consistency correction to remove flicker. Our method combined multi-frames takes continuity of the input sequence into account, and the experimental results show the method can remove fading flicker efficiently.

  20. Exploring the Performance Differences on the Flicker Task and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew L.; Shapiro, Steven K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the ability of the flicker task to demonstrate greater utility in discriminating performance in young adults with and without ADHD compared to the Conners' CPT (CCPT). Method: Flicker task and CCPT performance were compared between an ADHD (n = 28) and control (n = 30) group of college students. Results: This study replicated…

  1. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Weihao Hu; Yunqian Zhang; Zhe Chen; Yanting Hu

    2013-01-01

    Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated. The 3p (three times per revolution) power oscillation due to wind shear and tower shadow effects is the sign...

  2. The Candle and the Mirror: One Author's Journey as an Outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi

    1999-01-01

    Chronicles the author's journey as an outsider who authored a book for children about the harvest traditions of the Tohono O'odham people. Describes how her concern about the lack of literature to serve as a mirror and a candle to reflect and illuminate the lives of Tohono O'odham children led her on a journey that was both painful and affirming.…

  3. The Histological and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S.; Ramot, Yuval; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous and often annular, cutaneous eruption. While the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 CANDLE syndrome patients by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder as well as further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe, life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  4. Lung inflammation and genotoxicity in mice lungs after pulmonary exposure to candle light combustion particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Damiao Gouveia, Ana Cecilia; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi

    2017-01-01

    Candle burning produces a large amount of particles that contribute substantially to the exposure to indoor particulate matter. The exposures to various types of combustion particles, such as diesel exhaust particles, have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer by mechanisms that invo......Candle burning produces a large amount of particles that contribute substantially to the exposure to indoor particulate matter. The exposures to various types of combustion particles, such as diesel exhaust particles, have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer by mechanisms...... that involve oxidative stress, inflammation and genotoxicity. The aim of this study was to compare pulmonary effects of candle light combustion particles (CP) with two benchmark diesel exhaust particles (A-DEP and SRM2975). Intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of CP (5mg/kg bodyweight) in C57BL/6n mice produced......-DEP or SRM2975. The i.t. instillation of CP did not generate oxidative damage to DNA in lung tissue, measured as DNA strand breaks and human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase-sensitive sites by the comet assay. The lack of genotoxic response was confirmed in lung epithelial (A549) cells, although the exposure to CP...

  5. Superluminous supernovae as standardizable candles and high-redshift distance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J., E-mail: c.inserra@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSN Ic) as standardizable candles and distance indicators. Their appeal as cosmological probes stems from their remarkable peak luminosities, hot blackbody temperatures, and bright rest-frame ultraviolet emission. We present a sample of 16 published SLSN, from redshifts 0.1 to 1.2, and calculate accurate K corrections to determine uniform magnitudes in 2 synthetic rest-frame filter bandpasses with central wavelengths at 400 nm and 520 nm. At 400 nm, we find an encouragingly low scatter in their uncorrected, raw mean magnitudes with M(400) = –21.86 ± 0.35 mag for the full sample of 16 objects. We investigate the correlation between their decline rates and peak magnitude and find that the brighter events appear to decline more slowly. In a manner similar to the Phillips relation for type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), we define a ΔM {sub 20} decline relation. This correlates peak magnitude and decline over 20 days and can reduce the scatter in standardized peak magnitudes to ±0.22 mag. We further show that M(400) appears to have a strong color dependence. Redder objects are fainter and also become redder faster. Using this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation, a surprisingly low scatter of between ±0.08 mag and ±0.13 mag can be found in peak magnitudes, depending on sample selection. However, we caution that only 8 to 10 objects currently have enough data to test this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation. We conclude that SLSN Ic are promising distance indicators in the high-redshift universe in regimes beyond those possible with SNe Ia. Although the empirical relationships are encouraging, the unknown progenitor systems, how they may evolve with redshift, and the uncertain explosion physics are of some concern. The two major measurement uncertainties are the limited numbers of low-redshift, well-studied objects available to test these relationships and internal dust extinction in the host galaxies.

  6. A flicker noise/IM3 cancellation technique for active mixer using negative impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.; Annema, Anne J.; Wienk, Gerhardus J.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—This paper presents an approach to simultaneously cancel flicker noise and IM3 in Gilbert-type mixers, utilizing negative impedances. For proof of concept, two prototype double-balanced mixers in 0.16- m CMOS are fabricated. The first demonstration mixer chip was optimized for full IM3

  7. Dynamic properties of vision-II : theoretical relationships between flicker and flash thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roufs, J.A.J.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of some general system properties theoretical relationships have been established between parameters which characterise the sensitivity and inertia of the visual system in flicker and flash experiments. The results are in good agreement with the experimental relationships found in Part

  8. Linearized Model of Electrical Arc Furnace Suitable for Analysis of Flicker Mitigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valouch, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 147-156 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2057301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : flicker * electrical arc furnace * unified power quality conditioner Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Individual alpha peak frequency predicts 10 Hz flicker effects on selective attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; van Viegen, Tara; Wieling, Martijn; Cohen, Michael; vanRullen, Rufin

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic visual stimulation (“flicker”) is primarily used to “tag” processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain

  10. Nest site attributes and temporal patterns of northern flicker nest loss: effects of predation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan J; Wiebe, Karen L

    2006-04-01

    To date, most studies of nest site selection have failed to take into account more than one source of nest loss (or have combined all sources in one analysis) when examining nest site characteristics, leaving us with an incomplete understanding of the potential trade-offs that individuals may face when selecting a nest site. Our objectives were to determine whether northern flickers (Colaptes auratus) may experience a trade-off in nest site selection in response to mammalian nest predation and nest loss to a cavity nest competitor (European starling, Sturnus vulgaris). We also document within-season temporal patterns of these two sources of nest loss with the hypothesis that flickers may also be constrained in the timing of reproduction under both predatory and competitive influence. Mammalian predators frequently depredated flicker nests that were: lower to the ground, less concealed by vegetation around the cavity entrance and at the base of the nest tree, closer to coniferous forest edges and in forest clumps with a high percentage of conifer content. Proximity to coniferous edges or coniferous trees increased the probability of nest predation, but nests near conifers were less likely to be lost to starlings. Flickers may thus face a trade-off in nest site selection with respect to safety from predators or competitors. Models suggested that peaks of nest predation and nest loss to eviction occurred at the same time, although a competing model suggested that the peak of nest loss to starlings occurred 5 days earlier than the peak of mammalian predation. Differences in peaks of mammalian predation and loss to starlings may constrain any adjustment in clutch initiation date by flickers to avoid one source of nest loss.

  11. Impact of co-flow air on buoyant diffusion flames flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohari Darabkhani, H., E-mail: h.g.darabkhani@gmail.com [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wang, Q.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Y. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} We present the co-flow effects on flickering behaviour of diffusion flames. {yields} Co-flow air is shown to fully suppress the buoyancy driven flame oscillations. {yields} Schlieren and PIV illustrate the shift of outer vortices beyond the flame zone. {yields} Stability controlling parameter as a ratio of air to fuel velocities is presented. {yields} Equation for linear increase in flickering frequency by co-flow air is presented. - Abstract: This paper describes experimental investigation of co-flow air velocity effects on the flickering behaviour of laminar non-lifted methane diffusion flames. Chemiluminescence, high-speed photography, schlieren and Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), have been used to study the changes in the flame/vortex interactions as well as the flame flickering frequency and magnitude by the co-flow air. Four cases of methane flow rates at different co-flow air velocities are investigated. It has been observed that the flame dynamics and stability of co-flow diffusion flames are strongly affected by the co-flow air velocity. When the co-flow velocity has reached a certain value the buoyancy driven flame oscillation was completely suppressed. The schlieren and PIV imaging have revealed that the co-flow of air is able to push the initiation point of the outer toroidal vortices beyond the visible flame to create a very steady laminar flow region in the reaction zone. Then the buoyancy driven instability is only effective in the plume of hot gases above the visible flame. It is observed that a higher co-flow rate is needed in order to suppress the flame flickering at a higher fuel flow rate. Therefore the ratio of the air velocity to the fuel velocity, {gamma}, is a stability controlling parameter. The velocity ratio, {gamma}, was found to be 0.72 for the range of tested flow rates. The dominant flickering frequency was observed to increase linearly with the co-flow rate (a) as; f = 0.33a + 11. The frequency amplitudes

  12. Correlation between MEG and BOLD fMRI signals induced by visual flicker stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Renxin; Holroyd Tom; Duyn Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate how the MEG signal amplitude correlates with that of BOLD fMRI.To investigate the correlation between fMRI and macroscopic electrical activity, BOLD fMRI and MEG was performed on the same subjects (n =5). A visual flicker stimulus of varying temporal frequency was used to elicit neural responses in early visual areas. A strong similarity was observed in frequency tuning curves between both modalities.Although, averaged over subjects, the BOLD tuning curve was somewhat broader than MEG, both BOLD and MEG had maxima at a flicker frequency of 10 Hz. Also, we measured the first and second harmonic components as the stimuli frequency by MEG. In the low stimuli frequency (less than 6 Hz), the second harmonic has comparable amplitude with the first harmonic, which implies that neural frequency response is nonlinear and has more nonlinear components in low frequency than in high frequency.

  13. A new frequency approach for light flicker evaluation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, Luigi; Langella, Roberto; Testa, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new analytical estimator for light flicker in frequency domain, which is able to take into account also the frequency components neglected by the classical methods proposed in literature, is proposed. The analytical solutions proposed apply for any generic stationary signal affected by interharmonic distortion. The light flicker analytical estimator proposed is applied to numerous numerical case studies with the goal of showing i) the correctness and the improvements of the analytical approach proposed with respect to the other methods proposed in literature and ii) the accuracy of the results compared to those obtained by means of the classical International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) flickermeter. The usefulness of the proposed analytical approach is that it can be included in signal processing tools for interharmonic penetration studies for the integration of renewable energy sources in future smart grids.

  14. Study on small long-life LBE cooled fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up. Part 1. Steady state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Mingyu; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Small long-life reactor is required for some local areas. CANDLE small long-life fast reactor which does not require control rods, mining, enrichment and reprocessing plants can satisfy this demand. In a CANDLE reactor, the shapes of neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power density distributions remain constant and only shift in axial direction. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is used as coolant. From steady state analysis, we obtained the burn-up velocity, output power distribution, core temperature distribution, etc. The burn-up velocity is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long-life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40%. (author)

  15. An SSVEP-actuated brain computer interface using phase-tagged flickering sequences: a cursor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Lei; Sie, Jyun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Ju; Wu, Chi-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Huan; Shu, Chih-Hung; Li, Po-Hung; Sun, Chia-Wei; Shyu, Kuo-Kai

    2010-07-01

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain computer interface (BCI). SSVEPs, induced by phase-tagged flashes in eight light emitting diodes (LEDs), were used to control four cursor movements (up, right, down, and left) and four button functions (on, off, right-, and left-clicks) on a screen menu. EEG signals were measured by one EEG electrode placed at Oz position, referring to the international EEG 10-20 system. Since SSVEPs are time-locked and phase-locked to the onsets of SSVEP flashes, EEG signals were bandpass-filtered and segmented into epochs, and then averaged across a number of epochs to sharpen the recorded SSVEPs. Phase lags between the measured SSVEPs and a reference SSVEP were measured, and targets were recognized based on these phase lags. The current design used eight LEDs to flicker at 31.25 Hz with 45 degrees phase margin between any two adjacent SSVEP flickers. The SSVEP responses were filtered within 29.25-33.25 Hz and then averaged over 60 epochs. Owing to the utilization of high-frequency flickers, the induced SSVEPs were away from low-frequency noises, 60 Hz electricity noise, and eye movement artifacts. As a consequence, we achieved a simple architecture that did not require eye movement monitoring or other artifact detection and removal. The high-frequency design also achieved a flicker fusion effect for better visualization. Seven subjects were recruited in this study to sequentially input a command sequence, consisting of a sequence of eight cursor functions, repeated three times. The accuracy and information transfer rate (mean +/- SD) over the seven subjects were 93.14 +/- 5.73% and 28.29 +/- 12.19 bits/min, respectively. The proposed system can provide a reliable channel for severely disabled patients to communicate with external environments.

  16. HyperCube: A Small Lensless Position Sensing Device for the Tracking of Flickering Infrared LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Raharijaona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An innovative insect-based visual sensor is designed to perform active marker tracking. Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by the pixel pitch. With a size of only 1 cm3 and a mass of only 0.33 g, the lensless sensor, called HyperCube, is dedicated to 3D motion tracking and fits perfectly with the drastic constraints imposed by micro-aerial vehicles. Only three photosensors are placed on each side of the cubic configuration of the sensing device, making this sensor very inexpensive and light. HyperCube provides the azimuth and elevation of infrared LEDs flickering at a high frequency (>1 kHz with a precision of 0.5°. The minimalistic design in terms of small size, low mass and low power consumption of this visual sensor makes it suitable for many applications in the field of the cooperative flight of unmanned aerial vehicles and, more generally, robotic applications requiring active beacons. Experimental results show that HyperCube provides useful angular measurements that can be used to estimate the relative position between the sensor and the flickering infrared markers.

  17. Utilizing Retinotopic Mapping for a Multi-Target SSVEP BCI With a Single Flicker Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Alexander; Zhang, Dan; Engel, Andreas K

    2017-07-01

    In brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that use the steady-state visual evoked response (SSVEP), the user selects a control command by directing attention overtly or covertly to one out of several flicker stimuli. The different control channels are encoded in the frequency, phase, or time domain of the flicker signals. Here, we present a new type of SSVEP BCI, which uses only a single flicker stimulus and yet affords controlling multiple channels. The approach rests on the observation that the relative position between the stimulus and the foci of overt attention result in distinct topographies of the SSVEP response on the scalp. By classifying these topographies, the computer can determine at which position the user is gazing. Offline data analysis in a study on 12 healthy volunteers revealed that 9 targets can be recognized with about 95±3% accuracy, corresponding to an information transfer rate (ITR) of 40.8 ± 3.3 b/min on average. We explored how the classification accuracy is affected by the number of control channels, the trial length, and the number of EEG channels. Our findings suggest that the EEG data from five channels over parieto-occipital brain areas are sufficient for reliably classifying the topographies and that there is a large potential to improve the ITR by optimizing the trial length. The robust performance and the simple stimulation setup suggest that this approach is a prime candidate for applications on desktop and tablet computers.

  18. HyperCube: A Small Lensless Position Sensing Device for the Tracking of Flickering Infrared LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharijaona, Thibaut; Mignon, Paul; Juston, Raphaël; Kerhuel, Lubin; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-07-08

    An innovative insect-based visual sensor is designed to perform active marker tracking. Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs) with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by the pixel pitch. With a size of only 1 cm3 and a mass of only 0.33 g, the lensless sensor, called HyperCube, is dedicated to 3D motion tracking and fits perfectly with the drastic constraints imposed by micro-aerial vehicles. Only three photosensors are placed on each side of the cubic configuration of the sensing device, making this sensor very inexpensive and light. HyperCube provides the azimuth and elevation of infrared LEDs flickering at a high frequency (>1 kHz) with a precision of 0.5°. The minimalistic design in terms of small size, low mass and low power consumption of this visual sensor makes it suitable for many applications in the field of the cooperative flight of unmanned aerial vehicles and, more generally, robotic applications requiring active beacons. Experimental results show that HyperCube provides useful angular measurements that can be used to estimate the relative position between the sensor and the flickering infrared markers.

  19. A flickering study of nova-like systems KR Aur and UU Aqr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrotka, A.; Mineshige, S.; Casares, J.

    2012-03-01

    We present a study of the flickering activity in two nova-like systems, KR Aur and UU Aqr. We applied a statistical model of flickering simulations in accretion discs based on turbulent angular momentum transport between two adjacent rings with an exponential distribution of the turbulence dimension scale. The model is based on a steady-state disc model, which is satisfied in the case of hot ionized discs of nova-like cataclysmic variables. Our model successfully fits the observed power-density spectrum of KR Aur with the disc parameter α= 0.10-0.40 and an inner-disc truncation radius in the range Rin= 0.88-1.67 × 109 cm. The exact values depend on the mass-transfer rate in the sense that α decreases and Rin increases with mass-transfer rate. In any case, the inner-disc radius found for KR Aur is considerably smaller than those for quiescent dwarf novae, as predicted by the disc instability model. On the other hand, our simulations fail to reproduce the power-density spectrum of UU Aqr. A tantalizing explanation involves the possible presence of spiral waves, which are expected in UU Aqr because of its low mass ratio but not in KR Aur. In general our model predicts the observed concentration of flickering in the central disc. We explain this by the radial dependence of the angular-momentum gradient.

  20. A Double Candle-Flame-Shaped Solar Flare Observed by SDO and STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, T.; Liu, R.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.; Zhuang, B.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate an M1.4 flare occurring on 2011 January 28 near the northwest solar limb. The flare loop system exhibits a double candle-flame configuration in SDO/AIA's hot passbands, sharing a much larger cusp-shaped structure. The results of DEM analysis show that each candle flame has a similar temperature distribution as the famous Tsuneta flare. STEREO-A provides us a view from directly above the flare, and in SECCHI/EUVI 195 Å the post-flare loops are observed to propagate eastward. We performed a 3D reconstruction of the pos-flare loops with AIA and EUVI data. With the aid of the squashing factor Q based on a potential extrapolation of the photospheric field, we recognized that the footpoints of the post-flare loops were slipping along high-Q lines on the photosphere, and the reconstructed loops share similarity with the filed lines that are traced starting from the high-Q lines. The heights of the loops increase as they slip horizontally eastward, giving the loop-top a velocity of about 10 km/s. An extremely large EUV late phase in Fe XVI 33.5 nm observed by SDO/EVE is suggested to be related to the slipping magnetic reconnection occurring in the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) whose photosheric footprints are featured by the high-Q lines.

  1. Comparing the detection and agreement of parapapillary atrophy progression using digital optic disk photographs and alternation flicker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBeek, Brian L; Smith, Scott D; Radcliffe, Nathan M

    2010-09-01

    Parapapillary atrophy (PPA) progression has been associated with progressive glaucoma, but has proven to be difficult to assess clinically. We compared inter- and intra-observer agreement using a novel automated alternation flicker technology and side-by-side digital photography inspection for the evaluation of PPA progression. Consecutive patients with serial digital optic nerve photographs at least 1 year apart were included. Two graders (NR, BV) masked to image chronology assessed a set of photographs for progressive PPA using predefined criteria based on reference photographs containing mild, moderate, extensive or no PPA progression. At a separate session, the graders evaluated photographs using alternation flicker (EyeIC, Narberth, PA, USA) applying the same criteria. The order of patients and technique was randomized. Graders then assessed the same set of flickers and photographs a second time with the order of presentation reversed. The main outcome measure was the assessment of progressive PPA as identified by alternation flicker and digital photography inspection. Inter- and intra-observer agreement using each technique was assessed using the kappa statistic. A bootstrap method for comparing correlated kappa coefficients was used to assess statistical significance. Serial photographs from 131 eyes of 68 patients were evaluated. Both graders identified significantly more cases of PPA progression using flicker compared to photography (27-34% vs 8-13%; both pphotographs (kappa=0.52 vs 0.18, p=0.02). Intra-observer agreement was similar for both graders (photos: kappa=0.58 vs 0.57, p=0.97; flicker: kappa=0.61 vs 0.70, p=0.37). When progression was assessed by the number of progressive quadrants identified by each grader using a weighted kappa statistic, flicker inter-observer agreement was still moderate (kappa=0.45) and significantly better (p=0.01) than photography, which showed poor agreement (kappa=0.15). Intra-observer agreement with a weighted kappa for

  2. Flicker Mitigation by Active Power Control of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines With Full-Scale Back-to-Back Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Zhaoan

    2009-01-01

    /EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated. Reactive power compensation is mostly adopted for flicker mitigation. However, the flicker mitigation technique shows its limits, when the grid impedance angle is low in some distribution networks. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling active...... power is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the dc-link voltage of the full-scale converter. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power oscillation by using the flicker mitigation controller...... is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable-speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters during continuous operation....

  3. Fabrication of Water Jet Resistant and Thermally Stable Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Spray Coating of Candle Soot Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahtan, Talal F; Gondal, Mohammed A; Alade, Ibrahim O; Dastageer, Mohammed A

    2017-08-08

    A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m 2 g -1 . As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle fabricated from direct candle flame soot deposition (candle-based coating). This study proved that water jet resistant and thermally stable superhydrophobic surfaces can be easily fabricated by simple spray coating of CNP dispersion gathered from incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame and this technique can be used for different applications with the potential for the large scale fabrication.

  4. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifah, Maryam, E-mail: maryam.afifah210692@gmail.com; Su’ud, Zaki [Nuclear Research Group, FMIPA, Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Miura, Ryosuke; Takaki, Naoyuki [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Sekimoto, H. [Emerritus Prof. of Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Inst. of Technology (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don’t need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  5. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Mark D; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D

    2012-10-01

    Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600 μg L(-1)) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (K(h)=0.5 md(-1)) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4 cm long and either 5. cm or 7.6 cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15 months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flicker sensitivity as a function of target area with and without temporal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovamo, J; Donner, K; Näsänen, R; Raninen, A

    2000-01-01

    Flicker sensitivities (1-30 Hz) in foveal, photopic vision were measured as functions of stimulus area with and without strong external white temporal noise. Stimuli were circular, sinusoidally flickering sharp-edged spots of variable diameters (0.25-4 degrees ) but constant duration (2 s), surrounded by a uniform equiluminant field. The data was described with a model comprising (i) low-pass filtering in the retina (R), with a modulation transfer function (MTF) of a form derived from responses of cones; (ii) normalisation of the temporal luminance distribution by the average luminance; (iii) high-pass filtering by postreceptoral neural pathways (P), with an MTF proportional to temporal frequency; (iv) addition of internal white neural noise (N(i)); (v) integration over a spatial window; and (vi) detection by a suboptimal temporal matched filter of efficiency eta. In strong external noise, flicker sensitivity was independent of spot area. Without external noise, sensitivity increased with the square root of stimulus area (Piper's law) up to a critical area (A(c)), where it reaches a maximum level (S(max)). Both A(c) and eta were monotonic functions of temporal frequency (f), such that log A(c) increased and log eta decreased linearly with log f. Remarkably, the increase in spatial integration area and the decrease in efficiency were just balanced, so A(c)(f)eta(f) was invariant against f. Thus the bandpass characteristics of S(max)(f) directly reflected the composite effect of the distal filters R(f) and P(f). The temporal equivalent (N(it)) of internal neural noise (N(i)) decreased in inverse proportion to spot area up to A(c) and then stayed constant indicating that spatially homogeneous signals and noise are integrated over the same area.

  7. Fast entrainment of human electroencephalogram to a theta-band photic flicker during successful memory encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki eSato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Theta band power (4-8Hz in the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG is thought to be stronger during memory encoding for subsequently remembered items than for forgotten items. According to simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measurements, the memory-dependent EEG theta is associated with multiple regions of the brain. This suggests that the multiple regions cooperate with EEG theta synchronization during successful memory encoding. However, a question still remains: What kind of neural dynamic organizes such a memory-dependent global network? In this study, the modulation of the EEG theta entrainment property during successful encoding was hypothesized to lead to EEG theta synchronization among a distributed network. Then, a transient response of EEG theta to a theta-band photic flicker with a short duration was evaluated during memory encoding. In the results, flicker-induced EEG power increased and decreased with a time constant of several hundred milliseconds following the onset and the offset of the flicker, respectively. Importantly, the offset response of EEG power was found to be significantly decreased during successful encoding. Moreover, the offset response of the phase locking index was also found to associate with memory performance. According to computational simulations, the results are interpreted as a smaller time constant (i.e., faster response of a driven harmonic oscillator rather than a change in the spontaneous oscillatory input. This suggests that the fast response of EEG theta forms a global EEG theta network among memory-related regions during successful encoding, and it contributes to a flexible formation of the network along the time course.

  8. Fast entrainment of human electroencephalogram to a theta-band photic flicker during successful memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Theta band power (4-8 Hz) in the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is thought to be stronger during memory encoding for subsequently remembered items than for forgotten items. According to simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements, the memory-dependent EEG theta is associated with multiple regions of the brain. This suggests that the multiple regions cooperate with EEG theta synchronization during successful memory encoding. However, a question still remains: What kind of neural dynamic organizes such a memory-dependent global network? In this study, the modulation of the EEG theta entrainment property during successful encoding was hypothesized to lead to EEG theta synchronization among a distributed network. Then, a transient response of EEG theta to a theta-band photic flicker with a short duration was evaluated during memory encoding. In the results, flicker-induced EEG power increased and decreased with a time constant of several hundred milliseconds following the onset and the offset of the flicker, respectively. Importantly, the offset response of EEG power was found to be significantly decreased during successful encoding. Moreover, the offset response of the phase locking index was also found to associate with memory performance. According to computational simulations, the results are interpreted as a smaller time constant (i.e., faster response) of a driven harmonic oscillator rather than a change in the spontaneous oscillatory input. This suggests that the fast response of EEG theta forms a global EEG theta network among memory-related regions during successful encoding, and it contributes to a flexible formation of the network along the time course.

  9. Development of CANDLES low background HPGe detector and half-life measurement of 180Tam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. M.; Kishimoto, T.; Umehara, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Suzuki, K.; Yoshida, S.; Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Fushimi, K.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Tamagawa, Y.; Hazama, R.; Takemoto, Y.; Nakatani, N.; Takihira, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Kakubata, H.; Trang, V. T. T.; Ohata, T.; Tetsuno, K.; Maeda, T.; Khai, B. T.; Li, X. L.; Batpurev, T.

    2018-01-01

    A low background HPGe detector system was developed at CANDLES Experimental Hall for multipurpose use. Various low background techniques were employed, including hermatic shield design, radon gas suppression, and background reduction analysis. A new pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method was specially created for coaxial Ge detector. Using this PSD method, microphonics noise and background event at low energy region less than 200 keV can be rejected effectively. Monte Carlo simulation by GEANT4 was performed to acquire the detection efficiency and study the interaction of gamma-rays with detector system. For rare decay measurement, the detector was utilized to detect the nature's most stable isomer tantalum-180m (180Tam) decay. Two phases of tantalum physics run were completed with total livetime of 358.2 days, which Phase II has upgraded shield configuration. The world most stringent half-life limit of 180Tam has been successfully achieved.

  10. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin-electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  11. Self-organized complex space charge configurations at the origin of flicker noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, S.; Lozneanu, E.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Based on experimental results obtained from a plasma diode we explain the fluctuations of the voltage supported by a non-linear gaseous conductor by the dynamical behavior of spatiotemporal patterns, in the form of moving double layers, formed after self-organization. Such phenomena appear when the system is subjected to an external constraint that creates and maintains a local gradient of electron kinetic energy. The described phenomenology suggests a plausible explanation for the appearance of flicker noise also in other physical systems, as for example semiconductors and, implicitly, offers a new model for the so-called self-organized criticality concept

  12. [A new hypothesis for the treatment of amblyopia: the flicker stimulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrozzani, A; Fedriga, P; Ferrari, E; De Vincentiis, L

    1984-01-01

    A variety of cells are involved in the pathogenesis of amblyopia : ON, OFF, ON-OFF cells, postsynaptic cells, neurons of striate cortex and the select interest of the macula. The need for stimulation of these cells in treating amblyopia forms the theoretical basis of the Flicker stimulator with red monochromatic light (LED, 655 nm). The authors present a clinical investigation on 35 subjects with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, before extensive treatment with classic anti-amblyopic techniques without satisfactory improvement obtaining significant statistical results (p less than 0,001).

  13. Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Won; Park, Jun-Hee; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2015-09-07

    Recently, low-frequency driving of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels to minimize power consumption has drawn much attention. In the case in which an LCD panel is driven by a fringe-field at a low frequency, the image flickering phenomenon occurs when the sign of the applied electric field is reversed. We investigated image flickering induced by the flexoelectric effect in a fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid crystal cell in terms of the transmittance difference between frames and the ripple phenomenon. Experimental results show that image flicker due to transmittance difference can be eliminated completely and that the ripple phenomena can be reduced significantly by applying a bipolar voltage wave to the FFS cell.

  14. Optimal Tuning of Multivariable Disturbance-Observer-Based Control for Flicker Mitigation Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Multivariable disturbance accommodated observer based control (DOBC) scheme is presented to mitigate loads generated due to wind shear and tower shadow using individual blade pitch for above-rated wind speed condition of wind turbine. Wind shear and tower shadow add flickers as 1p, 3p, 6p and so on......, (p is the rotor rotational frequency) for three-bladed wind turbine. Novel DOBC with individual pitch control (IPC) to mitigate the flickers is presented and linear state-space model of wind turbine with tower dynamics is developed. The proposed controller is tuned using optimal control theory...... density of generator speed, drive-train torsion and tower fore-aft moment shows better mitigation to the flickers by proposed controller as compared with proportional–integral (PI) and disturbance accommodation control (DAC) with collective pitch control. Furthermore, it shows less degradation...

  15. Application of a single-flicker online SSVEP BCI for spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Zhang, Dan; Engel, Andreas K; Gong, Qin; Maye, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A promising approach for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employs the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) for extracting control information. Main advantages of these SSVEP BCIs are a simple and low-cost setup, little effort to adjust the system parameters to the user and comparatively high information transfer rates (ITR). However, traditional frequency-coded SSVEP BCIs require the user to gaze directly at the selected flicker stimulus, which is liable to cause fatigue or even photic epileptic seizures. The spatially coded SSVEP BCI we present in this article addresses this issue. It uses a single flicker stimulus that appears always in the extrafoveal field of view, yet it allows the user to control four control channels. We demonstrate the embedding of this novel SSVEP stimulation paradigm in the user interface of an online BCI for navigating a 2-dimensional computer game. Offline analysis of the training data reveals an average classification accuracy of 96.9±1.64%, corresponding to an information transfer rate of 30.1±1.8 bits/min. In online mode, the average classification accuracy reached 87.9±11.4%, which resulted in an ITR of 23.8±6.75 bits/min. We did not observe a strong relation between a subject's offline and online performance. Analysis of the online performance over time shows that users can reliably control the new BCI paradigm with stable performance over at least 30 minutes of continuous operation.

  16. Quenching of light flickering in synthetic guanine crystals in aqueous solutions under strong static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootha, A.; Takanezawa, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

    2018-05-01

    The present study focused on the vibration of micro crystal particles of guanine due to Brownian motion. The organic particle has a refractive index of 1.83 and caused a flickering of light. To test the possibility of using magnetic properties under wet conditions, changes in the frequency of particle vibration by applying magnetic fields were investigated. At first, we found that the exposure at 5 T inhibited the flickering light intensities and the particle vibration slightly decreased. Next, we carried out a high speed camera measurement of the Brownian motion of the particle with a time resolution of 100 flame per second (fps) with and without magnetic field exposures. It was revealed that the vibrational speed of synthetic particles was enhanced at 500 mT. Detailed analyses of the particle vibration by changing the direction of magnetic fields versus the light source revealed that the Brownian motion's vibrational frequency was entrained under magnetic fields at 500 mT, and an increase in vibration speed to 20Hz was observed. Additional measurements of light scattering fluctuation using photo-detector and analyses on auto-correlation also confirmed this speculation. The studied Brownian vibration may be influenced by the change in mechanical interactions between the vibration particles and surrounding medium. The discovered phenomena can be applied for molecular and biological interactions in future studies.

  17. Flicker licker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, T.

    1988-02-24

    Discusses the use of high frequency (h.f.) electronic ballasts to control fluorescent lighting. H.F. ballasts consume about 25% less power than conventional, switch-start control gear to produce the same light intensity. They eliminate stuttering starts and, according to a recent report, halve the number of headaches caused by lamps operating on a conventional 50Hz supply. H.F. ballasts are also smaller, lighter and have fewer parts than conventional ballasts, but they are more expensive. The high power factor in h.f. lighting gives two further advantages - one is lower demand on the building's ventilation system because the lamps produce less heat. Another benefit from low power consumption is an increase in a lamp's useful life. It is estimated that 2 years is a realistic payback on h.f. lighting in offices where lights are on about 12 hours per day. Sales in h.f. ballasts are now beginning to accelerate. There is a consensus between manufacturers to make their ballasts compatible with a range of fluorescent lamps. The exception is Phillips, who have chosen an argon lamp specially designed for use with its h.f. ballast. Their strategy is based on dimmer control - argon lamps are easier to dim smoothly than krypton lamps. Dimming allows adjustment of light levels to suit a given job and can also be used as part of an energy management system to dim or raise the lighting levels according to conditions.

  18. The impact of candle burning during All Saints' Day ceremonies on ambient alkyl-substituted benzene concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Kłos, Andrzej

    2013-11-01

    Research findings concerning benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylene as well as styrene (BTEXS) emission at public cemeteries during All Saints' Day are presented here. Tests were carried out at town-located cemeteries in Opole and Grodków (southern Poland) and, as a benchmark, at the centres of those same towns. The purpose of the study was to estimate BTEXS emissions caused by the candle burning and, equally important to examine, whether emissions generated by the tested sources were similar to the BTEXS emissions generated by road transport. During the festive period, significant increases in benzene concentrations, by 200 % and 144 %, were noted at the cemeteries in Opole and Grodków, as well as in toluene, by 366 % and 342 %, respectively. Styrene concentrations also increased. It was demonstrated that the ratio of toluene to benzene concentrations from emissions caused by the burning candles are comparable to the ratio established for transportation emissions.

  19. Perimetric measurements with flicker-defined form stimulation in comparison with conventional perimetry and retinal nerve fiber measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Folkert K; Tornow, Ralf P; Jünemann, Anselm G; Laemmer, Robert; Kremers, Jan

    2014-04-11

    We compared the results of flicker-defined form (FDF) perimetry with standard automated perimetry (SAP) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). A total of 64 healthy subjects, 45 ocular hypertensive patients, and 97 "early" open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients participated in this study. Definition of glaucoma was based exclusively on glaucomatous optic disc appearance. All subjects underwent FDF perimetry, SAP, and peripapillary measurements of the RNFL thickness. The FDF perimetry and SAP were performed at identical test locations (G1 protocol). Exclusion criteria were subjects younger than 34 years, SAP mean defect (SAP MD) > 5 dB, eye diseases other than glaucoma, or nonreliable FDF measurements. The correlations between the perimetric data on one hand and RNFL thicknesses on the other hand were analyzed statistically. The age-corrected sensitivity values and the local results from the controls were used to determine FDF mean defect (FDF MD). The FDF perimetry and SAP showed high concordance in this cohort of experienced patients (MD values, R = -0.69, P < 0.001). Of a total of 42 OAG patients with abnormal SAP MD, 38 also displayed abnormal FDF MD. However, FDF MD was abnormal in 28 of 55 OAG patients with normal SAP MD. The FDF MD was significantly (R = -0.61, P < 0.001) correlated with RNFL thickness with a (nonsignificantly) larger correlation coefficient than conventional SAP MD (R = -0.48, P < 0.001). The FDF perimetry is able to uncover functional changes concurrent with the changes in RNFL thickness. The FDF perimetry may be an efficient functional test to detect early glaucomatous nerve atrophy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00494923.).

  20. Cone function studied with flicker electroretinogram during progressive retinal degeneration in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, I; Lund, R D; Sauvé, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat has a primary defect in retinal pigment epithelial cells that leads to the progressive loss of photoreceptors and central visual responsiveness. While most rods are lost by 90 days of age (P90), cones degenerate more slowly, and can be detected anatomically up to 2 years of age, despite massive neuronal death and retinal remodelling. To examine how this progressive degenerative process impacts on cone function, we recorded the electroretingram to white light flashes (1.37 log cd s m(-2)) presented at frequencies ranging from 3 to 50 Hz, under light adapted conditions (29.8 cd m(-2)). Pigmented dystrophic and congenic non-dystrophic RCS rats aged from 18 to 300 days were studied. In all responsive animals at all ages, maximal amplitudes were obtained at 3 Hz. In both non-dystrophic and dystrophic rats, there was an increase from P18 to P21 in response amplitude and critical fusion frequency. After P21, these two parameters declined progressively with age in dystrophic rats. Other changes included prolongation in latency, which was first detected prior to the initiation of amplitude reduction. While phase shifts were also detected in dystrophic RCS rats, they appeared at later degenerative stages. The latest age at which responses could be elicited in dystrophic rats was at P200, with positive waves being replaced by negative deflections. The effect of increments in the intensity of background illumination was tested at P50 in both groups. This caused a diminution in flicker response amplitude and critical fusion frequencies in non-dystrophics, while in dystrophic animals, response amplitudes were reduced only at low frequencies and critical fusion frequencies were unaltered. In conclusion, although dystrophic RCS rats undergo a progressive decline in cone function with age, the flicker responsiveness at P21 is comparable to that of non-dystrophic congenic rats, suggesting normal developmental maturation of the cone system in

  1. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  2. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  3. Background studies of high energy γ rays from (n,γ) reactions in the CANDLES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Akutagawa, K.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Dokaku, F.; Fushimi, K.; Kakubata, H.; Kanagawa, K.; Katagiri, S.; Kawasaki, K.; Khai, B. T.; Kino, H.; Kinoshita, E.; Kishimoto, T.; Hazama, R.; Hiraoka, H.; Hiyama, T.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Moser, M.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Sato, H.; Shamoto, K.; Shimada, M.; Shokati, M.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Takihira, Y.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Teranishi, K.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Tsuzuki, M.; Umehara, S.; Wang, W.; Yoshida, S.; Yotsunaga, N.

    2018-07-01

    High energy γ rays with several MeV produced by (n,γ) reactions can be a trouble for low background measurements in the underground laboratories such as double beta decay experiments. In the CANDLES project, which aimed to observe the neutrino-less double beta decay from 48Ca, γ rays caused by (n,γ) reactions were found to be the most significant background. The profile of the background was studied by measurements with a neutron source and a simulation with a validity check of neutron processes in Geant4. The observed spectrum of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions was well reproduced by the simulated spectra, which were originated from the surrounding rock and a detector tank made of stainless steel. The environmental neutron flux was derived by the observed event rate of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions using the simulation. The thermal and non-thermal neutron flux were found to be (1.3 ± 0.6) ×10-6 cm-2s-1 and (1.1 ± 0.5) ×10-5 cm-2s-1 , respectively. It is necessary to install an additional shield to reduce the background from (n,γ) reaction to the required level.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE PCFBC-EXPOSED AND ACCELERATED LIFE-TESTED CANDLE FILTERS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Alvin

    1999-01-01

    Development of the hot gas filtration technology has been the focus of DOE/FETC and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation during the past twenty years. Systems development during this time has successfully lead to the generation and implementation of high temperature Siemens Westinghouse particulate filtration systems that are currently installed and are operational at Demonstration Plant sites, and which are ready for installation at commercial plant sites. Concurrently, materials development has advanced the use of commercially available oxide- and nonoxide-based monoliths, and has fostered the manufacture and use of second generation, oxide-based, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites and filament wound materials. This report summarizes the material characterization results for commercially available and second generation filter materials tested in Siemens Westinghouse's advanced, high temperature, particulate removal system at the Foster Wheeler, pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion, pilot-scale test facility in Karhula, Finland, and subsequent extended accelerated life testing of aged elements in Siemens Westinghouse pressurized fluidized-bed combustion simulator test facility in Pittsburgh, PA. The viability of operating candle filters successfully for over 1 year of service life has been shown in these efforts. Continued testing to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring three years of service operation on aged filter elements is recommended

  5. Statistical Analysis of Bending Rigidity Coefficient Determined Using Fluorescence-Based Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskocz, Joanna; Drabik, Dominik; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Przybyło, Magdalena; Langner, Marek

    2018-06-01

    Bending rigidity coefficient describes propensity of a lipid bilayer to deform. In order to measure the parameter experimentally using flickering noise spectroscopy, the microscopic imaging is required, which necessitates the application of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) lipid bilayer model. The major difficulty associated with the application of the model is the statistical character of GUV population with respect to their size and the homogeneity of lipid bilayer composition, if a mixture of lipids is used. In the paper, the bending rigidity coefficient was measured using the fluorescence-enhanced flicker-noise spectroscopy. In the paper, the bending rigidity coefficient was determined for large populations of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine vesicles. The quantity of obtained experimental data allows to perform statistical analysis aiming at the identification of the distribution, which is the most appropriate for the calculation of the value of the membrane bending rigidity coefficient. It has been demonstrated that the bending rigidity coefficient is characterized by an asymmetrical distribution, which is well approximated with the gamma distribution. Since there are no biophysical reasons for that we propose to use the difference between normal and gamma fits as a measure of the homogeneity of vesicle population. In addition, the effect of a fluorescent label and types of instrumental setups on determined values has been tested. Obtained results show that the value of the bending rigidity coefficient does not depend on the type of a fluorescent label nor on the type of microscope used.

  6. Quantitative retinal and choroidal blood flow during light, dark adaptation and flicker light stimulation in rats using fluorescent microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yen-Yu I; Wang, Lin; De La Garza, Bryan H; Li, Guang; Cull, Grant; Kiel, Jeffery W; Duong, Timothy Q

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to quantify retinal and choroidal blood flow (BF) during light, dark adaptation and flicker light stimulation using the microsphere technique. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. Eyes were dark (Group I, n = 8), light (Group II, n = 8) adapted or stimulated with 10 Hz flicker light (Group III, n = 10). Retinal and choroidal BF were measured by a previously established method, using a mixture of 8 µm yellow-green and 10 µm red fluorescent microspheres. The microspheres were counted ex vivo in the dissected retina and choroid and in the reference arterial blood under a fluorescent microscope. The choroidal BF was 64.8 ± 29 µl/min (mean ± SD) during dark adaptation, not significantly different from that during light adaptation (66.0 ± 17.8 µl/min). The retinal BF was 13.5 ± 3.2 µl/min during 10 Hz flickering light stimulation, significantly higher than that during dark adaptation in the control fellow eyes (9.9 ± 2.9 µl/min). The choroidal BF values were not statistically different between flicker stimulation and dark adaptation. Retinal BF was 11.6 ± 2.9 µl/min during light adaptation. Dark adaptation did not increase retinal BF (Group I, 8.2 ± 2.4 µl/min; Group II, 9.9 ± 2.9 µl/min). These findings argue against a dark-induced or flicker-induced functional hyperemia in the choroid as a result of the demands of the outer retina. Retinal BF was not higher during dark adaptation. Our data support the conclusion that the inner retina has a higher energy demand in flicker conditions relative to dark.

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Candle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Candle NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, and lake-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  8. Wind turbines, flicker, and photosensitive epilepsy: characterizing the flashing that may precipitate seizures and optimizing guidelines to prevent them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Graham; Harding, Pamela; Wilkins, Arnold

    2008-06-01

    Wind turbines are known to produce shadow flicker by interruption of sunlight by the turbine blades. Known parameters of the seizure provoking effect of flicker, i.e., contrast, frequency, mark-space ratio, retinal area stimulated and percentage of visual cortex involved were applied to wind turbine features. The proportion of patients affected by viewing wind turbines expressed as distance in multiples of the hub height of the turbine showed that seizure risk does not decrease significantly until the distance exceeds 100 times the hub height. Since risk does not diminish with viewing distance, flash frequency is therefore the critical factor and should be kept to a maximum of three per second, i.e., sixty revolutions per minute for a three-bladed turbine. On wind farms the shadows cast by one turbine on another should not be viewable by the public if the cumulative flash rate exceeds three per second. Turbine blades should not be reflective.

  9. CANDLE reactor: an option for simple, safe, high nuclear proliferation resistant , small waste and efficient fuel use reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    The innovative nuclear energy systems have been investigated intensively for long period in COE-INES program and CRINES activities in Tokyo Institute of Technology. Five requirements; sustainability, safety, waste, nuclear-proliferation, and economy; are considered as inevitable requirements for nuclear energy. Characteristics of small LBE cooled CANDLE fast reactor developed in this Institute are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies clearly four requirements; safety, nonproliferation and safeguard, less wastes and sustainability. For the remaining requirement, economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown

  10. Effects of Constant Flickering Light on Refractive Status, 5-HT and 5-HT2A Receptor in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Luo, Xiumei; Li, Tao; Zheng, Changyue; Ji, Shunmei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of constant flickering light on refractive development, the role of serotonin (i.e.5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)and 5-HT2A receptor in myopia induced by flickering light in guinea pigs. Forty-five guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: control, form deprivation myopia (FDM) and flickering light induced myopia (FLM) groups(n = 15 for each group). The right eyes of the FDM group were covered with semitransparent hemispherical plastic shells serving as eye diffusers. Guinea pigs in FLM group were raised with illumination of a duty cycle of 50% at a flash frequency of 0.5Hz. The refractive status, axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature(CRC) were measured by streak retinoscope, A-scan ultrasonography and keratometer, respectively. Ultramicroscopy images were taken by electron microscopy. The concentrations of 5-HTin the retina, vitreous body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, the retinal 5-HT2A receptor expression was evaluated by immunohistofluorescence and western blot. The refraction of FDM and FLM eyes became myopic from some time point (the 4th week and the 6th week, respectively) in the course of the experiment, which was indicated by significantly decreased refraction and longer AL when compared with the controls (plight could cause progressive myopia in guinea pigs. 5-HT and 5-HT2A receptor increased both in form deprivation myopia and flickering light induced myopia, indicating that 5-HT possibly involved in myopic development via binding to5-HT2A receptor.

  11. Reduced transposed flicker noise in microwave oscillators using gaas-based feedforward amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Jeremy K A; Broomfield, Carl D

    2007-06-01

    Transposed flicker noise reduction and removal is demonstrated in 7.6 GHz microwave oscillators for offsets greater than 10 kHz. This is achieved by using a GaAs-based feedforward power amplifier as the oscillation-sustaining stage and incorporating a limiter and resonator elsewhere in the loop. 20 dB noise suppression is demonstrated at 12.5 kHz offset when the error correcting amplifier is switched on. Three oscillator pairs have been built. A transmission line feedback oscillator with a Qo of 180 and two sapphire-based, dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs) with a Qo of 44,500. The difference between the two DROs is a change in the limiter threshold power level of 10 dB. The phase noise rolls-off at (1/f)(2) for offsets greater than 10 kHz for the transmission line oscillator and is set by the thermal noise to within 0-1 dB of the theoretical minimum. The noise performance of the DROs is within 6-12 dB of the theory. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are presented.

  12. Meteoroid rotation and fireball flickering: a case study of the Innisfree fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Martin

    2001-09-01

    Some 5 per cent of bright meteors show rapid, quasi-periodic brightness variations. It is argued that this effect, observationally known as flickering, is a manifestation of the rotational modulation of surface mass loss through ablation of a non-spherical meteoroid. We develop a set of time-dependent, single-body ablation equations that include the effect of cross-section area modulation. We present a discussion of the effects that the rotation of a non-spherical meteoroid has on the resultant meteor light curve, and we look in depth at the data related to the fireball associated with the fall of the Innisfree meteorite. We find that the parent object to the Innisfree meteorite was spinning at a rotation frequency of 2.5Hz when it encountered the Earth's upper atmosphere. We also find that the Innisfree parent body had an initial mass of about 20kg and that the ratio of its semiminor and semimajor axes was about 0.5.

  13. Emotion has no impact on attention in a change detection flicker task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colin Alan Bendall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Past research provides conflicting findings regarding the influence of emotion on visual attention. Early studies suggested a broadening of attentional resources in relation to positive mood. However, more recent evidence indicates that positive emotions may not have a beneficial impact on attention, and that the relationship between emotion and attention may be mitigated by factors such as task demand or stimulus valence. The current study explored the effect of emotion on attention using the change detection flicker paradigm. Participants were induced into positive, neutral, and negative mood states and then completed a change detection task. A series of neutral scenes were presented and participants had to identify the location of a disappearing item in each scene. The change was made to the centre or the periphery of each scene and it was predicted that peripheral changes would be detected quicker in the positive mood condition and slower in the negative mood condition, compared to the neutral condition. In contrast to previous findings emotion had no influence on attention and whilst central changes were detected faster than peripheral changes, change blindness was not affected by mood. The findings suggest that the relationship between emotion and visual attention is influenced by the characteristics of a task, and any beneficial impact of positive emotion may be related to processing style rather than a broadening of attentional resources.

  14. The rotation of accretion-disks and the power spectra of X-rays 'flickering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaohe; Bao Gang

    1990-07-01

    The X-ray producing, inner region of the accretion disk in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is likely to be non-stationary and non-axisymmetric. This non-stationarity and non-axisymmetry in disk surface brightness may be modeled by considering the pre-sense of many 'hot spots' on a steady, axisymmetric disk. As long as a 'spot' can survive for a few orbital periods, its orbital frequency can be introduced into the light curve either by relativistic orbital motion or by eclipsing of the spot by the disk. These rotational effects vary with the local properties of the spot population. Depending on the radial variation of spot brightness, lifetime and number density, the observed variability power spectrum may differ from that due to the intrinsic variability of spots alone, within the orbital frequency range in which these spots occur. In this paper, we explore the relation between properties assumed for the spot population and the resulting predictions for the observed variability. The implications of our results for the 'flickering' of X-ray sources powered by accretion disks (both AGN and galactic sources) are also discussed. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs

  15. Robust spatial memory maps in flickering neuronal networks: a topological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaghian, Yuri; Babichev, Andrey; Memoli, Facundo; Chowdhury, Samir; Rice University Collaboration; Ohio State University Collaboration

    It is widely accepted that the hippocampal place cells provide a substrate of the neuronal representation of the environment--the ``cognitive map''. However, hippocampal network, as any other network in the brain is transient: thousands of hippocampal neurons die every day and the connections formed by these cells constantly change due to various forms of synaptic plasticity. What then explains the remarkable reliability of our spatial memories? We propose a computational approach to answering this question based on a couple of insights. First, we propose that the hippocampal cognitive map is fundamentally topological, and hence it is amenable to analysis by topological methods. We then apply several novel methods from homology theory, to understand how dynamic connections between cells influences the speed and reliability of spatial learning. We simulate the rat's exploratory movements through different environments and study how topological invariants of these environments arise in a network of simulated neurons with ``flickering'' connectivity. We find that despite transient connectivity the network of place cells produces a stable representation of the topology of the environment.

  16. Reliability of Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Measuring Macular Pigment Optical Density among Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha M. McCorkle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Macular pigment optical density (MPOD—assessed using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP—is related to better cognition and brain lutein among adults. However, the reliability of MPOD assessed by cHFP has not been investigated in children. We assessed inter-session reliability of MPOD using modified cHFP. 7–10-year-olds (n = 66 underwent cHFP over 2 visits using 11 examiners. Reliability was also assessed in a subsample (n = 46 with only 2 examiners. Among all participants, there was no significant difference between the two sessions (p = 0.59—session 1: 0.61 ± 0.28; session 2: 0.62 ± 0.27. There was no significant difference in the MPOD of boys vs. girls (p = 0.56. There was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.52x + 0.31; R2 = 0.29, p ≤ 0.005, with a reliability of 0.70 (Cronbach’s α. Among the subsample with 2 examiners, there was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.54x + 0.31; R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005, with a reliability of 0.72 (Cronbach’s α. In conclusion, there is moderate reliability for modified cHFP to measure MPOD in preadolescents. These findings provide support for future studies aiming to conduct noninvasive assessments of retinal xanthophylls and study their association with cognition during childhood.

  17. SVC or VSC for reduction of voltage sags and flicker. Trends in power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, M; Schnettler, A [ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG, Mannheim (Germany); Halvarsson, P [ABB Power Systems AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    1997-07-01

    In the past complaints about insufficient power quality were often caused by flicker observed in the neighbourhood of industrial networks. Voltage sags due to faults in the power system pass, however, mostly unnoticed as not-so-common events. Now electronic controls are penetrating more and more in industry. Electronic controllers on factory machines - particularly those for variable speed motors - are vulnerable to voltage sags. A one-tenth second sag can cause a $200.000 downtime incident in a big factory. Therefore the demands on power quality are rising in industry as well. The costly separation in clean networks for residential areas and dirty networks for industrial grids is no perfect solution to avoid such problems. Static VAr Compensators (SVC) are traditionally one means to control the voltage in industrial networks. Because of the recent development of powerful gate turn-off semiconductor devices another type of converter has gained new interest for mitigation of system disturbances, the voltage-source converter (VSC). The characteristics of both types of power electronics in view of their possibilities for this application are presented. (orig.)

  18. Radiology reading-caused fatigue and measurement of eye strain with critical flicker fusion frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Akai, Hiroyuki; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Sasaki, Hiroki; Matsuda, Izuru; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate eye fatigue that could impair diagnostic accuracy by measuring the critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF) before and after reading. CFFF was measured before and after about 4 h of health checkup reading in seven healthy volunteer radiologists. A questionnaire was also completed on duration of sleep the night before the experiment, average duration of sleep, and subjective fatigue using a visual analog scale (corrected to a 0-1 scale, 0 indicating the worst fatigue ever experienced). After-reading subjective fatigue was significantly greater (before 0.52±0.15, after 0.42±0.15), and CFFF was significantly lower (before 40.9±2.4, after 39.9±2.0). There was no significant correlation between subjective fatigue and CFFF, either before or after or between before- and after-reading differences in subjective fatigue and CFFF. Shorter duration of sleep the night before significantly correlated with lower CFFF (Pearson's correlation coefficient): before 0.42, P=0.0047; after 0.52, P=0.0003. CFFF declines after reading and can be considered useful as an indicator of fatigue induced by radiology reading. CFFF declines significantly when sleep is reduced the day before reading without correlation with subjective fatigue, meaning that sleep deprivation can cause an unaware decline in visual function. (author)

  19. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  20. A contingency-based approach to the etiology of 'disorganized' attachment: the 'flickering switch' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koós, O; Gergely, G

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a new approach to the etiology of disorganized attachment based on contingency detection theory. According to this view, the relevant common factor in parental maltreatment and unresolved loss that leads to disorganized attachment has to do with the type of "deviant contingency environment" that both of these conditions generate. In such environments, infants experience periods of being in control followed by periods of sudden loss of control over the caregiver's behavior. The authors hypothesize that this adversely affects the developmental unfolding of the infant's innate "contingency detection module" (Gergely & Watson, 1999), which normally involves a maturational shift around 3 months from an initial attention bias for perfectly contingent stimulation to an emerging preference for less-than-perfect social contingencies. The periodically changing controllability of abusive and dissociating "unresolved" attachment figures is hypothesized to block this process and to lead to the defensive fixation of a dysfunctional "flickering contingency switch" mechanism with two dominant and competing target positions (self-oriented vs. other-oriented). This results in the dissociative style of attention and behavioral organization characteristic of disorganized infant attachment. The authors summarize the preliminary results of an empirical study that provides support for this model in 6.5-month-old infants using a modified Still-Face situation (the Mirror Interaction Situation). The study demonstrates differential emotional and behavioral reactions to sudden loss of maternal contingency and a specific interest in exploring the perfectly contingent self-image in the mirror in infants who at 12 months become categorized as "disorganized" in the Strange Situation.

  1. Modelos de horno de arco eléctrico para estudios del efecto flicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González Castaño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de este artículo es evaluar las fluctuaciones de voltaje o flicker de dos modelos de un horno de arco eléctrico a través de la comparación con datos reales. Método: El primer modelo se fundamenta a partir del principio de conservación de la energía, de la cual se obtiene una ecuación diferencial no lineal que captura la característica voltaje – corriente del arco eléctrico. Las fluctuaciones de voltaje se generan con un circuito de caos que modula la amplitud del voltaje del arco eléctrico. El segundo modelo está basado en las relaciones empíricas entre la longitud de arco, la tensión y la corriente a través del arco. Las fluctuaciones de voltaje se obtienen agregando una señal aleatoria a la longitud del arco eléctrico. Ambos modelos son implementados en PSCADTM. Resultados: Los resultados de ambos modelos son comparados con mediciones reales tomadas en la etapa más crítica de la operación del horno, y muestran que el modelo basado en la conservación de la potencia presenta un menor error medio cuadrático promedio en los voltajes y corrientes de 5,6 V y 1.7 kA frente a 27,2 V y 3.38 kA obtenidos con el segundo modelo. Conclusiones: Ambos modelos consideran la no linealidad y comportamiento aleatorio que exhibe este tipo de carga, validando su inclusión en modelos computacionales de sistemas eléctricos de potencia.

  2. Flickering AGN can explain the strong circumgalactic O VI observed by COS-Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Segers, Marijke; Schaye, Joop; Richings, Alexander J.; Crain, Robert A.

    2018-03-01

    Proximity zone fossils (PZFs) are ionization signatures around recently active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where metal species in the circumgalactic medium remain overionized after the AGNs have shut off due to their long recombination time scales. We explore cosmological zoom hydrodynamic simulations, using the EAGLE (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) model paired with a non-equilibrium ionization and cooling module including time-variable AGN radiation to model PZFs around star-forming disc galaxies in the z ˜ 0.2 Universe. Previous simulations typically underestimated the O VI content of galactic haloes, but we show that plausible PZF models increase O VI column densities by 2 - 3 × to achieve the levels observed around COS-Halos star-forming galaxies out to 150 kpc. Models with AGN bolometric luminosities ≳ 1043.6erg s- 1, duty cycle fractions ≲ 10 per cent, and AGN lifetimes ≲ 106 yr are the most promising, because their supermassive black holes grow at the cosmologically expected rate and they mostly appear as inactive AGN, consistent with COS-Halos. The central requirement is that the typical star-forming galaxy hosted an active AGN within a time-scale comparable to the recombination time of a high metal ion, which for circumgalactic O VI is ≈107 yr. H I, by contrast, returns to equilibrium much more rapidly due to its low neutral fraction and does not show a significant PZF effect. O VI absorption features originating from PZFs appear narrow, indicating photoionization, and are often well aligned with lower metal ion species. PZFs are highly likely to affect the physical interpretation of circumgalactic high ionization metal lines if, as expected, normal galaxies host flickering AGN.

  3. Visual stimuli for the P300 brain-computer interface: a comparison of white/gray and green/blue flicker matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kouji; Komatsu, Tomoaki; Hata, Naoki; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    The white/gray flicker matrix has been used as a visual stimulus for the so-called P300 brain-computer interface (BCI), but the white/gray flash stimuli might induce discomfort. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of green/blue flicker matrices as visual stimuli. Ten able-bodied, non-trained subjects performed Alphabet Spelling (Japanese Alphabet: Hiragana) using an 8 x 10 matrix with three types of intensification/rest flicker combinations (L, luminance; C, chromatic; LC, luminance and chromatic); both online and offline performances were evaluated. The accuracy rate under the online LC condition was 80.6%. Offline analysis showed that the LC condition was associated with significantly higher accuracy than was the L or C condition (Tukey-Kramer, p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between L and C conditions. The LC condition, which used the green/blue flicker matrix was associated with better performances in the P300 BCI. The green/blue chromatic flicker matrix can be an efficient tool for practical BCI application.

  4. Effect of the green/blue flicker matrix for P300-based brain–computer interface: an EEG–fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eIkegami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual P300 brain–computer interface (BCI, a popular system for EEG-based BCI, utilizes the P300 event-related potential to select an icon arranged in a flicker matrix. In the conventional P300 BCI speller paradigm, white/gray luminance intensification of each row/column in the matrix is used. In an earlier study, we applied green/blue luminance and chromatic change in the P300 BCI system and reported that this luminance and chromatic flicker matrix was associated with better performance and greater subject comfort compared with the conventional white/gray luminance flicker matrix. In this study, we used simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings to identify brain areas that were more enhanced in the green/blue flicker matrix than in the white/gray flicker matrix, as these may highlight areas devoted to improved P300-BCI performance. The peak of the positive wave in the EEG data was detected under both conditions, and the peak amplitudes were larger at the parietal and occipital electrodes, particularly in the late components, under the green/blue condition than under the white/gray condition. fMRI data showed activation in the bilateral parietal and occipital cortices, and these areas, particularly those in the right hemisphere, were more activated under the green/blue condition than under the white/gray condition. The parietal and occipital regions more involved in the green/blue condition were part of the areas devoted to conventional P300s. These results suggest that the green/blue flicker matrix was useful for enhancing the so-called P300 responses.

  5. CALiPER Report 20.2: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-31

    This report focuses on the flicker and power quality performance of the Series 20 lamps at full output and various dimmed levels. All of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps that manufacturers claimed to be dimmable (including all halogen lamps) were evaluated individually (one lamp at a time) both on a switch and under the control of a phase-cut dimmer designed for use with "all classes of bulbs." Measurements of luminous flux, flicker, and power quality were taken at 10 target dimmed settings and compared with operation on a switch. Because only a single unit of each product was evaluated on a single dimmer that may or may not have been recommended by its manufacturer, this report focuses on the performance of the products relative to each other, rather than the best-case performance of each lamp or variation in performance delivered from each lamp. Despite these limitations, the results suggest that LED performance is improving, and performance trends are beginning to emerge, perhaps due in part to the identification of preferred LED driver strategies for lamp products.

  6. Estimating annoyance to calculated wind turbine shadow flicker is improved when variables associated with wind turbine noise exposure are considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicescu, Sonia A; Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara; van den Berg, Frits; Broner, Norm; Lavigne, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The Community Noise and Health Study conducted by Health Canada included randomly selected participants aged 18-79 yrs (606 males, 632 females, response rate 78.9%), living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from operational wind turbines. Annoyance to wind turbine noise (WTN) and other features, including shadow flicker (SF) was assessed. The current analysis reports on the degree to which estimating high annoyance to wind turbine shadow flicker (HAWTSF) was improved when variables known to be related to WTN exposure were also considered. As SF exposure increased [calculated as maximum minutes per day (SFm)], HAWTSF increased from 3.8% at 0 ≤ SFm wind turbine-related features, concern for physical safety, and noise sensitivity. Reported dizziness was also retained in the final model at p = 0.0581. Study findings add to the growing science base in this area and may be helpful in identifying factors associated with community reactions to SF exposure from wind turbines.

  7. The JPL Hg(sup +) Extended Linear Ion Trap Frequency Standard: Status, Stability, and Accuracy Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, R. L.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.

    1996-01-01

    Microwave frequency standards based on room temperature (sup 199)Hg(sup +) ions in a Linear Ion Trap (LITS) presently achieve a Signal to Noise and line Q inferred short frequency stability. Long term stability has been measured for averaging intervals up to 5 months with apparent sensitivity to variations in ion number/temperature limiting the flicker floor.

  8. Isolation of bacteria from diabetic foot ulcers with special reference to anaerobe isolation by simple two-step combustion technique in candle jar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Haldar

    2017-01-01

    Results: All the 43 samples were culture positive, of which aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB predominated, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus and diphtheroids. Anaerobes isolated from 21 samples were Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Veillonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens by both GasPak and in-house developed and modified candle jar techniques. Imipenem and metronidazole were most sensitive while clindamycin, penicillin and cefoxitin were least sensitive drugs for anaerobes. Aerobic GNB were found to be multidrug resistant, especially to penicillin and cephalosporins. The most sensitive drug was piperacillin-tazobactam. Interpretation & conclusions: For isolation of anaerobes from clinical specimens such as diabetic foot ulcers, modified candle jar technique was found to be as reliable as GasPak system. This modified technique needs to be tested for many other clinical materials which are not yet evaluated.

  9. Study on the application of CANDLE burnup strategy to several nuclear reactors. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H13-002 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2005-03-01

    The CANDLE burnup strategy is a new reactor burnup concept, where the distributions of fuel nuclide densities, neutron flux, and power density move with the same constant speed from bottom to top (or from top to bottom) of the core and without any change in their shapes. Therefore, any burnup control mechanisms are not required, and reactor characteristics do not change along burnup. The reactor is simple and safe. When this burnup scheme is applied to some neutron rich fast reactors, either natural or depleted uranium can be utilized as fresh fuel after second core and the burnup of discharged fuel is about 40%. It means that the nuclear energy can be utilized for many hundreds years without new mining, enrichment and reprocessing, and the amount of spent fuel can be reduced considerably. However, in order to perform such a high fuel burnup some innovative technologies should be developed. Though development of innovative fuel will take a lot of time, intermediate re-cladding may be easy to be employed. Compared to fast reactors, application of CANDLE burnup to prismatic fuel high-temperature gas cooled reactors is very easy. In this report the application of CANDLE burnup to both these types of reactors are studied. (author)

  10. The reliability and internal consistency of one-shot and flicker change detection for measuring individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailian, Hrag; Halberda, Justin

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of the one-shot change detection task for estimating visual working memory (VWM) storage capacity-and also introduced and tested an alternative flicker change detection task for estimating these limits. In three experiments, we found that the one-shot whole-display task returns estimates of VWM storage capacity (K) that are unreliable across set sizes-suggesting that the whole-display task is measuring different things at different set sizes. In two additional experiments, we found that the one-shot single-probe variant shows improvements in the reliability and consistency of K estimates. In another additional experiment, we found that a one-shot whole-display-with-click task (requiring target localization) also showed improvements in reliability and consistency. The latter results suggest that the one-shot task can return reliable and consistent estimates of VWM storage capacity (K), and they highlight the possibility that the requirement to localize the changed target is what engenders this enhancement. Through a final series of four experiments, we introduced and tested an alternative flicker change detection method that also requires the observer to localize the changing target and that generates, from response times, an estimate of VWM storage capacity (K). We found that estimates of K from the flicker task correlated with estimates from the traditional one-shot task and also had high reliability and consistency. We highlight the flicker method's ability to estimate executive functions as well as VWM storage capacity, and discuss the potential for measuring multiple abilities with the one-shot and flicker tasks.

  11. Identification of predominant odorants in thai desserts flavored by smoking with "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa

    2009-02-11

    "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.

  12. Facile Fabrication and Characterization of a PDMS-Derived Candle Soot Coated Stable Biocompatible Superhydrophobic and Superhemophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, R; Majhy, B; Sen, A K

    2017-09-13

    We report a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and one-step method for the fabrication of a stable and biocompatible superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface. The proposed surface comprises candle soot particles embedded in a mixture of PDMS+n-hexane serving as the base material. The mechanism responsible for the superhydrophobic behavior of the surface is explained, and the surface is characterized based on its morphology and elemental composition, wetting properties, mechanical and chemical stability, and biocompatibility. The effect of %n-hexane in PDMS, the thickness of the PDMS+n-hexane layer (in terms of spin coating speed) and sooting time on the wetting property of the surface is studied. The proposed surface exhibits nanoscale surface asperities (average roughness of 187 nm), chemical compositions of soot particles, very high water and blood repellency along with excellent mechanical and chemical stability and excellent biocompatibility against blood sample and biological cells. The water contact angle and roll-off angle is measured as 160° ± 1° and 2°, respectively, and the blood contact angle is found to be 154° ± 1°, which indicates that the surface is superhydrophobic and superhemophobic. The proposed superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface offers significantly improved (>40%) cell viability as compared to glass and PDMS surfaces.

  13. The Impact of the Shallow-Trench Isolation Effect on Flicker Noise of Source Follower MOSFETs in a CMOS Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C C; Chiu, Y C; Liu, C; Lai, W W; Cheng, C H; Lin, D L; Li, G R; Lo, Y H; Chang, C W; Tsai, C C; Chang, C Y

    2018-06-01

    The flicker noise of source follower transistors is the dominant noise source in image sensors. This paper reports a systematic study of the shallow trench isolation effect in transistors with different sizes under high temperature conditions that correspond to the quantity of empty defect sites. The effects of shallow trench isolation sidewall defects on flicker noise characteristics are investigated. In addition, the low-frequency noise and subthreshold swing degrade simultaneously in accordance to the device gate width scaling. Both serious subthreshold leakage and considerable noise can be attributed to the high trap density near the STI edge. Consequently, we propose a coincidental relationship between the noise level and the subthreshold characteristic; its trend is identical to the experiments and simulation results.

  14. Flicker noise comparison of direct conversion mixers using Schottky and HBT dioderings in SiGe:C BiCMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present flicker noise measurements of two X-band direct conversion mixers implemented in a SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Both mixers use a ring structure with either Schottky diodes or diode-connected HBTs for double balanced operation. The mixers are packaged in a metal casing on a...... circuit demonstrates a 1/f noise corner frequency around 10 kHz....

  15. Higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease the mean velocity index of the retinal artery during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelić, Vladimir; Drnovšek Olup, Brigita; Žižek, Bogomir; Skitek, Milan; Jerin, Aleš

    2016-10-31

    To determine whether higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease mean velocity (MV) index of the central retinal artery (CRA) during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The study was performed in the period from 2008 to 2015 at the University Eye Clinic in Ljubljana. 41 patients with T1D and 37 participants without diabetes were included. MV in the CRA was measured using Doppler ultrasound diagnostics in basal conditions and during 8 Hz flickering light irritation. The plasma levels of glucose, fructosamine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Patients with T1D had significantly higher levels of blood glucose (Ptriglycerides (P=0.108), cholesterol (P=0.531), and LDL (P=0.645) between the groups. Patients with T1D also had a significantly lower MV index in the CRA (1.11±0.15 vs 1.24±0.23; P=0.010). In the T1D group, a significant negative correlation was found between the level of glucose (r=0.58; Pindex in the CRA. At the same time, in this group fructosamine and 8-OHdG levels had a separate effect on the MV index (adjusted R2=0.38, Pglucose levels, the medium-term glucose level, and systemic oxidative stress could importantly reduce retinal vasodilatation during flickering light irritation in patients with T1D.

  16. [Investigation of the distribution of water clusters in vegetables, fruits, and natural waters by flicker noise spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, A V; Zubov, K V; Zubov, V A

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of water clusters in fresh rain water and in rain water that was aged for 30 days (North Germany, 53 degrees 33' N, 12 degrees 47' E, 293 K, rain on 25.06.06) as well as in fresh vegetables and fruits was studied by flicker noise spectroscopy. In addition, the development of water clusters in apples and potatoes during ripening in 2006 was investigated. A different distribution of water clusters in irrigation water (river and rain) and in the biomatrix of vegetables (potatoes, onions, tomatoes, red beets) and fruits (apples, bananas) was observed. It was concluded that the cluster structure of irrigation water differs from that of water of the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits and depends on drought and the biomatrix nature. Water clusters in plants are more stable and reproducible than water clusters in natural water. The main characteristics of cluster formation in materials studied were given. The oscillation frequencies of water clusters in plants (biofield) are given at which they interact with water clusters of the Earth hydrosphere. A model of series of clusters 16(H2O)100 4(H2O)402 2(H2O)903 (H2O)1889 in the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits was discussed.

  17. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ( f licker ) of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested

  18. Reliability characterization of SiON and MGHK MOSFETs using flicker noise and its correlation with the bias temperature instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnakay, Rameez; Balandin, Alexander A.; Srinivasan, Purushothaman

    2017-09-01

    Bias temperature instability (BTI) is one of the critical device degradation mechanisms in poly-Si/SiON and metal gate/high-k complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. Using the pre- and post-BTI flicker noise measurements, we investigated the bulk trap density, Nt, in both of these technologies. The low-frequency noise spectra were predominantly of 1/fγ type with γ engineering team at Globalfoundries, Inc. during the summer of 2014. He has currently authored or co-authored 10 journal publications and numerous conference presentations. His current research interests include 1/f noise in high-k dielectrics and fabricated 2D van der Waal thin-film devices Mr. Samnakay's awards and honors include the Dean's Distinguished Fellowship Award (University of California-Riverside) and induction into the IEEE-HKN honors society. He also serves as a reviewer for 6 journals including Applied Physics Letters, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Nanotechnology journals.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of impact of voltage fluctuate, flicker and power factor wave electric generator to local distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Nik Azran Ab; Rashid, Wan Norhisyam Abd; Hashim, Nik Mohd Zarifie; Mohamad, Najmiah Radiah; Kadmin, Ahmad Fauzan

    2017-10-01

    Electricity is the most powerful energy source in the world. Engineer and technologist combined and cooperated to invent a new low-cost technology and free carbon emission where the carbon emission issue is a major concern now due to global warming. Renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind and wave are becoming widespread to reduce the carbon emissions, on the other hand, this effort needs several novel methods, techniques and technologies compared to coal-based power. Power quality of renewable sources needs in depth research and endless study to improve renewable energy technologies. The aim of this project is to investigate the impact of renewable electric generator on its local distribution system. The power farm was designed to connect to the local distribution system and it will be investigated and analyzed to make sure that energy which is supplied to customer is clean. The MATLAB tools are used to simulate the overall analysis. At the end of the project, a summary of identifying various voltage fluctuates data sources is presented in terms of voltage flicker. A suggestion of the analysis impact of wave power generation on its local distribution is also presented for the development of wave generator farms.

  20. Quantum fluctuations of the Coulomb potential as a source of flicker noise: the influence of external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, Kirill A

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuations of the electromagnetic field produced by quantized matter in an external electric field are investigated. A general expression for the power spectrum of fluctuations is derived within the long-range expansion. It is found that in the whole measured frequency band, the power spectrum of fluctuations exhibits an inverse frequency dependence. A general argument is given showing that for all practically relevant values of the electric field, the power spectrum of induced fluctuations is proportional to the field strength squared. As an illustration, the power spectrum is calculated explicitly using a kinetic model with a relaxation-type collision term. Finally, it is shown that the magnitude of fluctuations produced by a sample generally has a Gaussian distribution around its mean value, and its dependence on the sample geometry is determined. In particular, it is demonstrated that for geometrically similar samples the power spectrum is inversely proportional to the sample volume. Application of the results obtained to the problem of flicker noise is discussed

  1. Compilation of Published PM2.5 Emission Rates for Cooking, Candles and Incense for Use in Modeling of Exposures in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Tianchao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    recent analysis of health impacts from air pollutant inhalation in homes found that PM2.5 is the most damaging at the population level. Chronic exposure to elevated PM2.5 has the potential to damage human respiratory systems, and may result in premature death. PM2.5 exposures in homes can be mitigated through various approaches including kitchen exhaust ventilation, filtration, indoor pollutant source reduction and designing ventilation systems to reduce the entry of PM2.5 from outdoors. Analysis of the potential benefits and costs of various approaches can be accomplished using computer codes that simulate the key physical processes including emissions, dilution and ventilation. The largest sources of PM2.5 in residences broadly are entry from outdoors and emissions from indoor combustion. The largest indoor sources are tobacco combustion (smoking), cooking and the burning of candles and incense. Data on the magnitude of PM2.5 and other pollutant emissions from these events and processes are required to conduct simulations for analysis. The goal of this study was to produce a database of pollutant emission rates associated with cooking and the burning of candles and incense. The target use of these data is for indoor air quality modeling.

  2. Evidence of Flicker-Induced Functional Hyperaemia in the Smallest Vessels of the Human Retinal Blood Supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Duan

    Full Text Available Regional changes in blood flow are initiated within neural tissue to help fuel local differences in neural activity. Classically, this response was thought to arise only in larger arterioles and venules. However, recently, it has been proposed that a the smallest vessels of the circulation make a comparable contribution, and b the response should be localised intermittently along such vessels, due to the known distribution of contractile mural cells. To assess these hypotheses in human neural tissue in vivo, we imaged the retinal microvasculature (diameters 3-28 μm non-invasively, using adaptive optics, before and after delivery of focal (360 μm patches of flickering visible light. Our results demonstrated a definite average response in 35% of all vessel segments analysed. In these responding vessels, the magnitude of proportional dilation (mean ± SEM for pre-capillary arterioles 13 ± 5%, capillaries 31 ± 8%, and post-capillary venules 10 ± 3% is generally far greater than the magnitudes we and others have measured in the larger retinal vessels, supporting proposition a above. The dilations observed in venules were unexpected based on previous animal work, and may be attributed either to differences in stimulus or species. Response heterogeneity across the network was high; responses were also heterogeneous along individual vessels (45% of vessel segments showed demonstrable locality in their response. These observations support proposition b above. We also observed a definite average constriction across 7% of vessel segments (mean ± SEM constriction for capillaries -16 ± 3.2%, and post-capillary venules -18 ± 12%, which paints a picture of dynamic redistribution of flow throughout the smallest vessel networks in the retina in response to local, stimulus-driven metabolic demand.

  3. Radial velocity variations of photometrically quiet, chromospherically inactive Kepler stars: A link between RV jitter and photometric flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wright, Jason T. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Aigrain, Suzanne [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Basri, Gibor [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johnson, John A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Walkowicz, Lucianne M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We compare stellar photometric variability, as measured from Kepler light curves by Basri et al., with measurements of radial velocity (RV) rms variations of all California Planet Search overlap stars. We newly derive rotation periods from the Kepler light curves for all of the stars in our study sample. The RV variations reported herein range from less than 4 to 135 m s{sup –1}, yet the stars all have amplitudes of photometric variability less than 3 mmag, reflecting the preference of the RV program for chromospherically 'quiet' stars. Despite the small size of our sample, we find with high statistical significance that the RV rms manifests strongly in the Fourier power spectrum of the light curve: stars that are noisier in RV have a greater number of frequency components in the light curve. We also find that spot models of the observed light curves systematically underpredict the observed RV variations by factors of ∼2-1000, likely because the low-level photometric variations in our sample are driven by processes not included in simple spot models. The stars best fit by these models tend to have simpler light curves, dominated by a single relatively high-amplitude component of variability. Finally, we demonstrate that the RV rms behavior of our sample can be explained in the context of the photometric variability evolutionary diagram introduced by Bastien et al. We use this diagram to derive the surface gravities of the stars in our sample, revealing many of them to have moved off the main sequence. More generally, we find that the stars with the largest RV rms are those that have evolved onto the 'flicker floor' sequence in that diagram, characterized by relatively low amplitude but highly complex photometric variations which grow as the stars evolve to become subgiants.

  4. Effects of flickering light on refraction and changes in eye axial length of C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Chen, Hui; Tuo, Jingsheng; Zhu, Yin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of inducing myopia in mice by flickering-light (FL) stimulation. Forty-five 28-day-old C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly assigned to three groups: control group, FL stimulation group and form deprivation (FD) group. Mice in the control group were raised under 250 lux illumination from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Mice in the FL group were raised under illumination with a duty cycle of 50% at a flash rate of 2 Hz from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. for 6 weeks. Mice in the FD group were raised under the same conditions as the control group; the right eyes of the mice were covered with semitransparent hemispherical plastic shells serving as eye diffusers. The refractive state and axial length (AL) of the right eyes were measured by eccentric infrared photorefraction and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively, before treatment and after 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks' treatment. After 6 weeks' exposure to FL, the refraction became more myopic compared with the control group as indicated by longer AL compared with the control group (p < 0.05); the FD eyes were more myopic than the FL eyes (p < 0.05). However, some mice lost their eye diffusers, and lens opacities were found. Myopia can be induced by FL in B6 mice. The myopic shift induced by FL is less than that induced by FD, but FL causes fewer side effects, and is safery and easier to manipulate. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  6. Haugh Unit: Gold Standard of Egg Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapidly determining shell egg quality in an objective manner is not an easy task. Candling is most often utilized as a quick method for assessing egg quality in a non-destructive manner, but it is a highly subjective method. As you have experienced this week, when candling, it is almost impossibl...

  7. Modulation of enrofloxacin binding in OmpF by Mg2+ as revealed by the analysis of fast flickering single-porin current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauser, Annemarie; Schroeder, Indra; Gutsmann, Thomas; Cosentino, Cristian; Moroni, Anna; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    One major determinant of the efficacy of antibiotics on Gram-negative bacteria is the passage through the outer membrane. During transport of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin through the trimeric outer membrane protein OmpF of Escherichia coli, the antibiotic interacts with two binding sites within the pore, thus partially blocking the ionic current. The modulation of one affinity site by Mg2+ reveals further details of binding sites and binding kinetics. At positive membrane potentials, the slow blocking events induced by enrofloxacin in Mg2+-free media are converted to flickery sojourns at the highest apparent current level (all three pores flickering). This indicates weaker binding in the presence of Mg2+. Analysis of the resulting amplitude histograms with β distributions revealed the rate constants of blocking (kOB) and unblocking (kBO) in the range of 1,000 to 120,000 s−1. As expected for a bimolecular reaction, kOB was proportional to blocker concentration and kBO independent of it. kOB was approximately three times lower for enrofloxacin coming from the cis side than from the trans side. The block was not complete, leading to a residual conductivity of the blocked state being ∼25% of that of the open state. Interpretation of the results has led to the following model: fast flickering as caused by interaction of Mg2+ and enrofloxacin is related to the binding site at the trans side, whereas the cis site mediates slow blocking events which are also found without Mg2+. The difference in the accessibility of the binding sites also explains the dependency of kOB on the side of enrofloxacin addition and yields a means of determining the most plausible orientation of OmpF in the bilayer. The voltage dependence suggests that the dipole of the antibiotic has to be adequately oriented to facilitate binding. PMID:22689827

  8. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the area of the Teller, Bendeleben, Candle, and Kateel River Quadrangles, Seward Peninsula and vicinity, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-05-01

    During July-August 1976, 2026 natural waters and 2085 bottom sediments were collected from 2209 sample locations (at a nominal density of one location each 23 km 2 ) on streams and small lakes throughout the Teller, Bendeleben, Candle, and western one-third of the Kateel River NTMS quadrangles, Alaska. Total uranium was measured in the waters by fluorometry and in the sediments and a few waters by delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of the waters ranged from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to a high of 14.50 ppB, averaging 0.44 ppB, and that of the sediments ranged from a low of 0.2 parts per million (ppM) to a high of 107.4 ppM, averaing 3.93 ppM. The uranium data for water and sediment are separately presented--as computer listings that include pertinent field measurements from each location, as graphically portrayed concentration overlays at 1:250,000 scale for each quadrangle, and as reduced figures showing contours drawn at various concentration levels for each quadrangle--and their areal distributions are compared and correlated with the known features and uranium showings. A test of increasingly detailed methods of data evaluation shows that the more extensive the evaluation, the more useful the reconnaissance uranium data are likely to be. The validity and potential usefulness of the HSSR uranium data are conclusively substantiated by the fact that evidence of all 23 of the reported uranium showings in the 50,000-km 2 study area can be discerned. Several new locations of interest for further field investigation are identified in each of the quadrangles, and most notably in the Bendeleben Mountains. However, the data presented would appear equally useful in guiding field investigation around the uranium occurrences already known, as noteworthy samples often come from close by but on tributary drainages adjacent, opposite, or above them

  9. Improvement of Frequency Locking Algorithm for Atomic Frequency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Ho; Kang, Hoonsoo; Heyong Lee, Soo; Eon Park, Sang; Lee, Jong Koo; Lee, Ho Seong; Kwon, Taeg Yong

    2010-09-01

    The authors describe a novel method of frequency locking algorithm for atomic frequency standards. The new algorithm for locking the microwave frequency to the Ramsey resonance is compared with the old one that had been employed in the cesium atomic beam frequency standards such as NIST-7 and KRISS-1. Numerical simulations for testing the performance of the algorithm show that the new method has a noise filtering performance superior to the old one by a factor of 1.2 for the flicker signal noise and 1.4 for random-walk signal noise. The new algorithm can readily be used to enhance the frequency stability for a digital servo employing the slow square wave frequency modulation.

  10. Study of Standard Model processes with leptons of high transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Petridis, Andreas

    This PhD thesis has taken up various aspects in experimental particle physics by analyzing the first data of the ATLAS detector. The main subject of the thesis is the production cross section measurement of the ZZ process at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV of proton-proton collisions. In order to study this, the author has contributed to various topics, such as detector related issues, the study of standard candle processes and Monte Carlo studies. In specic, this thesis presents a detailed study for the improvement of the hit position and peaking time resolution of the CSCs with 0.6% and 0.4% relative errors respectively. This thesis has also contributed to the first Z inclusive cross section measurement at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, by analyzing the first 316 nb-1 of data recorded by the Atlas detector. The Z->ll cross section measurement is used as a standard candle for detector performance assessment as well as for the tuning of theoretical predictions at the new energy regime. The fiducial and total cross sections have ...

  11. FLICKERING OF 1.3 cm SOURCES IN SGR B2: TOWARD A SOLUTION TO THE ULTRACOMPACT H II REGION LIFETIME PROBLEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pree, C. G.; Monsrud, A. [Agnes Scott College, 141 East College Avenue, Decatur, GA 30030 (United States); Peters, T. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Mac Low, M.-M. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Wilner, D. J.; Keto, E. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Galván-Madrid, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Klessen, R. S. [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Accretion flows onto massive stars must transfer mass so quickly that they are themselves gravitationally unstable, forming dense clumps and filaments. These density perturbations interact with young massive stars, emitting ionizing radiation, alternately exposing and confining their H II regions. As a result, the H II regions are predicted to flicker in flux density over periods of decades to centuries rather than increase monotonically in size as predicted by simple Spitzer solutions. We have recently observed the Sgr B2 region at 1.3 cm with the Very Large Array in its three hybrid configurations (DnC, CnB, and BnA) at a resolution of ∼0.''25. These observations were made to compare in detail with matched continuum observations from 1989. At 0.''25 resolution, Sgr B2 contains 41 ultracompact (UC) H II regions, 6 of which are hypercompact. The new observations of Sgr B2 allow comparison of relative peak flux densities for the H II regions in Sgr B2 over a 23 year time baseline (1989-2012) in one of the most source-rich massive star forming regions in the Milky Way. The new 1.3 cm continuum images indicate that four of the 41 UC H II regions exhibit significant changes in their peak flux density, with one source (K3) dropping in peak flux density, and the other three sources (F10.303, F1, and F3) increasing in peak flux density. The results are consistent with statistical predictions from simulations of high mass star formation, suggesting that they offer a solution to the lifetime problem for UC H II regions.

  12. Memorial Candles: Beauty as Consolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Weisel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Do we ever get used to the feelings of loss? Time supposedly heals all wounds. Does it really? Or do we take that time and take that loss and turn it into something else, something that takes the shape and the form of our loss. Is this perhaps the source of the deepest art? Is it the art that actually gives our lives meaning? There are clearly feelings that are beyond comprehension. It is these feelings that are put into the music, poetry, painting, photography, prose, and theater that enrich our lives, and that are addressed in this book. The women in “Daughters of Absence” all have one thing in common: as daughters of Holocaust survivors they have found a strong voice through their work. For these creative women, their work has been both life force and life saver.

  13. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  14. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  15. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  16. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  17. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  18. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  19. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  20. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  1. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  2. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  3. Better to light a candle than curse the darkness: illuminating spatial localization and temporal dynamics of rapid microbial growth in the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Herron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rhizosphere is a hotbed of microbial activity in ecosystems, fueled by carbon compounds from plant roots. Basic questions about the location and dynamics of plant-spurred microbial growth in the rhizosphere are difficult to answer with standard, destructive soil assays mixing a multitude of microbe-scale microenvironments in a single, often sieved, sample. Soil microbial biosensors designed with the luxCDABE reporter genes fused to a promoter of interest enable continuous imaging of the microbial perception of (and response to environmental conditions in soil. We used the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host to plasmid pZKH2 containing a fusion between the strong constituitive promoter nptII and luxCDABE (coding for light-emitting proteins from Vibrio fischeri. Experiments in liquid media demonstrated that high light production by KT2440/pZKH2 was associated with rapid microbial growth supported by high carbon availability. We applied the biosensors in microcosms filled with non-sterile soil in which corn (Zea mays L., black poplar (Populus nigra L. or tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. was growing. We detected minimal light production from microbiosensors in the bulk soil, but biosensors reported continuously from around roots for as long as six days. For corn, peaks of luminescence were detected 1-4 and 20-35 mm along the root axis behind growing root tips, with the location of maximum light production moving farther back from the tip as root growth rate increased. For poplar, luminescence around mature roots increased and decreased on a coordinated diel rhythm, but was not bright near root tips. For tomato, luminescence was dynamic, but did not exhibit a diel rhythm, appearing in acropetal waves along roots. KT2440/pZKH2 revealed that root tips are not always the only, or even the dominant, hotspots for rhizosphere microbial growth, and carbon availability is highly variable in space and time around roots.

  4. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  5. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  6. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  7. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  8. Standard Fortran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its vast software investment in Fortran programs, the nuclear community has an inherent interest in the evolution of Fortran. This paper reviews the impact of the new Fortran 77 standard and discusses the projected changes which can be expected in the future

  9. Discourse, the Moral Imperative and Faraday's Candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers two lines of inquiry into the work of Ideland and Malmberg: the role of discourse in shaping teachers' responses to Roberts' (2011) Visions of Science and the moral imperatives that will accompany any shifts between Vision I and II. Vision I of science has accreted to itself great power and prestige, both of which shape…

  10. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  11. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  12. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the

  13. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  14. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  15. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  16. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  17. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  18. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  19. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  20. Standardisation in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The following observations are offered by one who has served on national and international standards-writing committees and standards review committees. Service on working groups consists of either updating previous standards or developing new standards. The process of writing either type of document proceeds along similar lines. The first order of business is to recognise the need for developing or updating a standard and to identify the potential user community. It is also necessary to ensure that there is a required number of members willing to do the writing. A justification is required as to why a new standard should be developed, and this is written as a new work item proposal or a project initiation notification system form. This document must be filed officially and approved, and a search is then undertaken to ensure that the proposed new standard will not duplicate a standard that has already been published or is underway in another standards organisation. (author)

  1. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  2. Some considerations about standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewez, Ph L; Fanjas, Y R [C.E.R.C.A., Romans (France)

    1985-07-01

    Complete standardization of research reactor fuel is not possible. However the transition from HEU to LEU should be an opportunity for a double effort towards standardization and optimization in order to reduce cost. (author)

  3. BTS statistical standards manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  4. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  5. Some considerations about standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, Ph.L.; Fanjas, Y.R.

    1985-01-01

    Complete standardization of research reactor fuel is not possible. However the transition from HEU to LEU should be an opportunity for a double effort towards standardization and optimization in order to reduce cost. (author)

  6. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  7. Making standards work

    OpenAIRE

    Stigzelius, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Social and environmental standards can function as tools for companies that want to improve their conduct in social and environmental areas in the supply chain. However, relatively little attention has been given to how the adoption of social and environmental standards may influence the actual business practices in the supply chain. The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the institutional context surrounding the adoption of social and environmental standards and how these standards inf...

  8. Standards, the users perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The term standard has little meaning until put into the proper context. What is being standardized? What are the standard conditions to be applied? The list of questions that arise goes on and on. In this presentation, answers to these questions are considered in the interest of providing a basic understanding of what might be useful to the electrical power industry in the way of standards and what the limitations on application of them would be as well. 16 figs

  9. Radiological Control Technician: Standardized technician Qualification Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Qualification Standard states and defines the knowledge and skill requirements necessary for successful completion of the Radiological Control Technician Training Program. The standard is divided into three phases: Phase I concerns RCT Academic training. There are 13 lessons associated with the core academics program and 19 lessons associated with the site academics program. The staff member should sign the appropriate blocks upon successful completion of the examination for that lesson or group of lessons. In addition, facility specific lesson plans may be added to meet the knowledge requirements in the Job Performance Measures (JPM) of the practical program. Phase II concerns RCT core/site practical (JPMs) training. There are thirteen generic tasks associated with the core practical program. Both the trainer/evaluator and student should sign the appropriate block upon successful completion of the JPM. In addition, facility specific tasks may be added or generic tasks deleted based on the results of the facility job evaluation. Phase III concerns the oral examination board successful completion of the oral examination board is documented by the signature of the chairperson of the board. Upon completion of all of the standardized technician qualification requirements, final qualification is verified by the student and the manager of the Radiological Control Department and acknowledged by signatures on the qualification standard. The completed Qualification Standard shall be maintained as an official training record

  10. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  11. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  12. Calibration of Flick standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmann, Ruedi; Spiller, Jürg; Küng, Alain; Jusko, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Flick standards or magnification standards are widely used for an efficient and functional calibration of the sensitivity of form measuring instruments. The results of a recent measurement comparison have shown to be partially unsatisfactory and revealed problems related to the calibration of these standards. In this paper the influence factors for the calibration of Flick standards using roundness measurement instruments are discussed in detail, in particular the bandwidth of the measurement chain, residual form errors of the device under test, profile distortions due to the diameter of the probing element and questions related to the definition of the measurand. The different contributions are estimated using simulations and are experimentally verified. Also alternative methods to calibrate Flick standards are investigated. Finally the practical limitations of Flick standard calibration are shown and the usability of Flick standards both to calibrate the sensitivity of roundness instruments and to check the filter function of such instruments is analysed. (paper)

  13. Precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and Review of Drell-Yan and vector boson plus jets measurements with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calace, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    The inclusive productions of the W and the on- or off-shell Z/γ* bosons are standard candles at hadron colliders, while the productions of light and heavy-flavour jets in association with a W or a Z boson are important processes to study quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) in multi-scale environments. The measurements of their production cross-sections integrated and differential in several variables have been measured at 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies and are compared to high-order QCD calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. These measurements have an impact on our knowledge of the parton densities of the proton, and test soft resummation effects and hard emissions for small and large momentum transfers and in multi-scale processes. Precision measurements of fundamental Standard Model parameters in Drell-Yan final states are also performed to describe the angular distributions of the decay lepton. Run-1 studies carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration are re-viewed and first LHC Run-2 results are included

  14. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  15. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1993-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is highly successful, although it is obviously not a complete or final theory. In this presentation the author argues that the structure of the standard model gives some quite concrete, compelling hints regarding what lies beyond. Essentially, this presentation is a record of the author's own judgement of what the central clues for physics beyond the standard model are, and also it is an attempt at some pedagogy. 14 refs., 6 figs

  16. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  17. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  18. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  19. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  20. The Standard Model course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Suggested Readings: Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0001118. - The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0502010. - The Standard Model of Particle Physics/A Pich The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics will be described. A detailed discussion of the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory will be given, together with an overview of the most important experimental facts which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of particle interactions.

  1. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  2. Position paper on standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The ''NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants'' creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. One of the key elements of the Strategic Plan is a comprehensive industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The NPOC plan proposes four stages of standardization in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The first stage is established by the ALWR Utility Requirements Document which specifies owner/operator requirements at a functional level covering all elements of plant design and construction, and many aspects of operations and maintenance. The second stage of standardization is that achieved in the NRC design certification. This certification level includes requirements, design criteria and bases, functional descriptions and performance requirements for systems to assure plant safety. The third stage of standardization, commercial standardization, carries the design to a level of completion beyond that required for design certification to enable the industry to achieve potential increases in efficiency and economy. The final stage of standardization is enhanced standardization beyond design. A standardized approach is being developed in construction practices, operating, maintenance training, and procurement practices. This comprehensive standardization program enables the NRC to proceed with design certification with the confidence that standardization beyond the regulations will be achieved. This confidence should answer the question of design detail required for design certification, and demonstrate that the NRC should require no further regulatory review beyond that required by 10 CFR Part 52

  3. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... rule that revised Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost... Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of...

  4. State Skill Standards: Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  5. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  6. How many standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school...

  7. Environmental radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs

  8. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality...

  9. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  10. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  11. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  12. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...

  13. Environmental radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, L.D.G.; Morley, F.; Kelley, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  14. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  15. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  16. A case of standardization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Morten Hulvej; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2016-01-01

    the ones envisioned by the makers of standards. In 2012, the Danish National Health Authorities introduced a set of health promotion guidelines that were meant to guide the decision making and priority setting of Denmark's 98 local governments. The guidelines provided recommendations for health promotion...... and standardization. It remains an open question whether or not the guidelines lead to more standardized policies and interventions, but we suggest that the guidelines promote a risk factor-oriented approach as the dominant frame for knowledge, reasoning, decision making and priority setting in health promotion. We...

  17. The Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Christine

    1994-01-01

    The initial evidence from Fermilab for the long awaited sixth ('top') quark puts another rivet in the already firm structure of today's Standard Model of physics. Analysis of the Fermilab CDF data gives a top mass of 174 GeV with an error of ten per cent either way. This falls within the mass band predicted by the sum total of world Standard Model data and underlines our understanding of physics in terms of six quarks and six leptons. In this specially commissioned overview, physics writer Christine Sutton explains the Standard Model

  18. Wireless installation standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hwang Bin

    2007-12-01

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  19. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  20. International radiofrequency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, J.

    2001-01-01

    Of the various radiofrequency standards in use around the world, many are based on or similar to the Guidelines published by ICNIRP (The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection). This organisation is a working group operating in co-operation with the Environmental Health division of the World Health Organisation (WHO). This paper presents a very brief overview of current international standards, beginning with a summary of the salient points of the ICNIRP Guidelines. It should be remembered that these are guidelines only and do not exist as a separate standard. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  1. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1990-04-01

    The unresolved issues of the standard model are reviewed, with emphasis on the gauge hierarchy problem. A possible mechanism for generating a hierarchy in the context of superstring theory is described. 24 refs

  2. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  3. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  4. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  5. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which....... Originality/value – The paper is based on the understanding that a vast array of different factors in a complex dynamic environment goes into the determination of the outcome of such standardization games. However, the battle between 3G standards has already reached a level, where relatively certain...... predictions can be made. And, the paper contributes with a methodologically based discussion concerning the outcome of the battle between 3G standards....

  6. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  7. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  8. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  9. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  10. Nuclear radiation gauge standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described, comprising a body of superposed interleaved thin layers of a moderating material containing hydrogen in the molecular structure thereof and of a substantially non-moderating material

  11. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  12. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleitez, V.

    1994-01-01

    The search for physics laws beyond the standard model is discussed in a general way, and also some topics on supersymmetry theories. An approach is made on recent possibilities rise in the leptonic sector. Finally, models with SU(3) c X SU(2) L X U(1) Y symmetry are considered as alternatives for the extensions of the elementary particles standard model. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Testing the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.; Marciano, W.; Williams, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize here the results of the standard model group which has studied the ways in which different facilities may be used to test in detail what we now call the standard model, that is SU/sub c/(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The topics considered are: W +- , Z 0 mass, width; sin 2 theta/sub W/ and neutral current couplings; W + W - , Wγ; Higgs; QCD; toponium and naked quarks; glueballs; mixing angles; and heavy ions

  14. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  15. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  16. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture...

  17. Standard software for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the U.S. Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories have jointly specified standard software for use with CAMAC. Three general approaches were followed: the definition of a language called IML for use in CAMAC systems, the definition of a standard set of subroutine calls, and real-time extensions to the BASIC language. This paper summarizes the results of these efforts. 1 table

  18. Standards update -- 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    What a year this has been! Not since 1986, when SGML was being finished, has there been so much activity in the SGML world. In ISO, there are new standards being completed and old ones (some of which are not really all that old) being revised. As you`ll be hearing, there is lots of SGML activity in the applications world--particularly on the Internet--and that`s causing other kinds of standards activity. WG8 divides its work into five ``Rapporteur Groups`` (or ``RGs``) for DSSSL, Font Description and Interchange, SGML, SPDL, and Hypermedia Languages. Since interest is in DSSSL, SGML, and Hypermedia Languages, the author only mentions that the other groups have been active, too. The Fronts group has been doing amendments to its standards, ISO/IEC 9541 and ISO/IEC 10036. The Fronts groups has been active in providing support for ISO/IEC 10646, the massive character coding standard that has drawn a lot of attention in the SGML world. The SPDL group has at long last finished its standard, the Standard Page Description Language (ISO/IEC 10180) and is about to publish it. More detailed discussions are given for activity in SGML, DSSSL, and Hypermedia Languages.

  19. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  20. Technical standards in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  1. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  2. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  3. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.

    1995-01-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who's Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed

  4. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  5. IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series comprises publications of a regulatory nature covering nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive material, the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and management systems. These publications are issued under the terms of Article III of the IAEA’s Statute, which authorizes the IAEA to establish “standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property”. Safety standards are categorized into: • Safety Fundamentals, stating the basic objective, concepts and principles of safety; • Safety Requirements, establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure safety; and • Safety Guides, recommending measures for complying with these requirements for safety. For numbering purposes, the IAEA Safety Standards Series is subdivided into General Safety Requirements and General Safety Guides (GSR and GSG), which are applicable to all types of facilities and activities, and Specific Safety Requirements and Specific Safety Guides (SSR and SSG), which are for application in particular thematic areas. This booklet lists all current IAEA Safety Standards, including those forthcoming

  6. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  7. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  8. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  9. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  10. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.

    1987-01-01

    The standard model of particle interactions is a complete and relatively simple theoretical framework which describes all the observed fundamental forces. It consists of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and of the electro-weak theory of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. The former is the theory of colored quarks and gluons, which underlies the observed phenomena of strong interactions, the latter leads to a unified description of electromagnetism and of weak interactions. The inclusion of the classical Einstein theory of gravity completes the set of established basic knowledge. The standard model is in agreement with essentially all of the experimental information which is very rich by now. The recent discovery of the charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons of weak interactions at the expected masses has closed a really important chapter of particle physics. Never before the prediction of new particles was so neat and quantitatively precise. Yet the experimental proof of the standard model is not completed. For example, the hints of experimental evidence for the top quark at a mass ∼ 40 GeV have not yet been firmly established. The Higgs sector of the theory has not been tested at all. Beyond the realm of pure QED, even remaining within the electro-weak sector, the level of quantitative precision in testing the standard model does not exceed 5% or so. Furthermore, the standard model does not look as the ultimate theory. To a closer inspection a large class of fundamental questions emerges and one finds that a host of crucial problems are left open by the standard model

  11. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  12. The Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cliff; Moore, Guy

    2012-04-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgments; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Field theory review; 2. The standard model: general features; 3. Cross sections and lifetimes; Part II. Applications: Leptons: 4. Elementary boson decays; 5. Leptonic weak interactions: decays; 6. Leptonic weak interactions: collisions; 7. Effective Lagrangians; Part III. Applications: Hadrons: 8. Hadrons and QCD; 9. Hadronic interactions; Part IV. Beyond the Standard Model: 10. Neutrino masses; 11. Open questions, proposed solutions; Appendix A. Experimental values for the parameters; Appendix B. Symmetries and group theory review; Appendix C. Lorentz group and the Dirac algebra; Appendix D. ξ-gauge Feynman rules; Appendix E. Metric convention conversion table; Select bibliography; Index.

  13. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  14. Low Impact Development Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The goal of the LID Standards is to provide guidance on the planning, design, construction and maintenance of green infrastructure (GI) features at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The success of LID at LANL is dependent on maintaining a consistent approach to achieve effective application, operation, and maintenance of these storm water control features.

  15. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  16. GASB Achieves Standardization, Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, George E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Governmental Accounting Standards Board, created to solidify accounting principles for government entities, enumerated Generally Accepted Accounting Principles endorsed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Council on Governmental Accounting. These principles have recently been approved for school…

  17. Standard hakkab tootma Mercedesele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    AS Standard sõlmis ühe maailma suurema autotootjaga DaimlerChrysler AG koostöölepingu, mille kohaselt hakkab ettevõte tootma ning müüma kontori- ja teenindussaalide mööblit kontserni kuuluva Mercedes-Benzi Euroopa diileritele

  18. Elevating standards, improving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2014-08-01

    In our latest 'technical guidance' article, Richard Clarke, sales and marketing director at one of the UK's leading lift and escalator specialists, Schindler, examines some of the key issues surrounding the specification, maintenance, and operation of lifts in hospitals to help ensure the highest standards of safety and reliability.

  19. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  20. Standard Model festival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-10-15

    The 'Standard Model' of modern particle physics, with the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of inter-quark forces superimposed on the unified electroweak picture, is still unchallenged, but it is not the end of physics. This was the message at the big International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies, held in Hamburg from 27-31 July.

  1. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1997-05-01

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  2. Standardized terminology in electronic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallas, R.

    1985-01-01

    The correct definitions of the most usual terms on standardization and homologation are given. Then the factors concerning the safety of electrical equipments are reviewed, as they are considered in most of the present legislations. Last, the state of homologations in Spain and Europe is included. (author)

  3. Standard Model festival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The 'Standard Model' of modern particle physics, with the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of inter-quark forces superimposed on the unified electroweak picture, is still unchallenged, but it is not the end of physics. This was the message at the big International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies, held in Hamburg from 27-31 July

  4. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and string theory will be presented.

  5. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  6. Mixed RIA standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talan, P.; Mucha, J.; Krizan, J.

    1986-01-01

    For the radioimmunoassay of digoxin, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and α 1 -fetoprotein a mixed standard was prepared of these substances in a gamma globulin solution at a concentration of 0.8 to 1.4 wt.% in an aqueous buffer at pH within the range of 6 - 9. The standard contains digoxin at a concentration of 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l, 17β-estradiol at 10 -4 to 2 nmol/l, progesteron at 10 -4 to 100 nmol/l, testosterone at 1o -4 to 21 nmol/l, and α 1 -fetoprotein at 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l with at least two of these substances having concentrations higher than 10 -3 nmol/l. Examples are given of the preparation of the mixed standard with different concentrations of the components. The use of the standard has the following advantages: it is labor saving, reduces the risk of failure in the manufacture of RIA kits, eliminates mistakes in the selection of kits for the determination of different substances and allows a more economical use of material. (E.S.)

  7. Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    With the federal No Child Left Behind Act underscoring the wide variation in what states demand of their students, people on both sides of the political aisle are again making the case for national standards, curricula, and tests. It wasn't so long ago--during the Clinton and George H.W. Bush administrations--that similar proposals went down in…

  8. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  9. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  10. DOE standard: Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ''Occupational Radiation Protection''. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835

  11. Seminar on standards, standardization, quality control and interlaboratory test programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bievre, P. [Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1978-12-15

    The author gives a resume on the proper use of standards and standardization of measurement procedures. Results of measurements obtained on the same instrument and on the same series of standards of different isotopic compositions are displayed.

  12. Department of Energy Standards Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  13. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... major inputs into production); and factors related to the ability to shift supply among different... proportion of the total domestic production of the product. In its original determination and its expedited... the same or comparable products which the Commission conducts under Title VII of the Act, or in...

  14. Dark Candles of the Universe: Black Hole Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykutalp, Aycin

    2016-03-01

    In 1916, when Karl Schwarzschild solved the Einstein field equations of general relativity for a spherically symmetric, non-rotating mass no one anticipated the impact black holes would have on astrophysics. I will review the main formation channels for black hole seeds and their evolution through cosmic time. In this, emphasis will be placed on the observational diagnostics of astrophysical black holes and their role on the assembly of galaxy formation and evolution. I then review how these observations put constrain on the seed black hole formation theories. Finally, I present an outlook for how future observations can shed light on our understanding of black holes. This work is supported by NSF Grant AST-1333360.

  15. Alternatives to coal and candles: wind power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, Debra J.

    2000-01-01

    China is in a unique position to be able to exploit her vast wind resources to satisfy both the rapidly growing energy demand which fuels her economy as well as needs of approximately 72 million people who live in rural areas and have no access to conventional electricity services. China, mainly through the efforts of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, has already successfully disseminated over 150,000 small-scale wind electric generators which power households in rural areas, through a well-coordinated combination of local research and development, technology transfer, industry support, end-user incentives, and an infrastructure for information dissemination and technical training. In this paper, we review China's utilisation of wind energy and discuss how it can be increased for both rural electrification and the rapidly growing power sector. We find that novel approaches in technical implementation of wind power use may help to better meet China's needs. Use of hybrid systems may help to provide higher quality, more reliable power for rural households and villages than is currently provided through wind-only systems. Grid-connected wind power, which currently is more costly and less reliable than coal power, can become cost-competitive and more reliable through local, mass production of wind turbines combined with storage systems. We examine governmental support, through policy, infrastructure development and financial incentives, that have fostered the successes of dissemination of small-scale wind turbines and also the support, or lack thereof, that has hindered commercial development of large-scale wind power, We find that a better policy and regulatory framework is the most important measure that China can take to increase the use of this indigenous, clean resource. (Author)

  16. On Picturing a Candle: The Prehistory of Imagery Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKisack, Matthew; Aldworth, Susan; Macpherson, Fiona; Onians, John; Winlove, Crawford; Zeman, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The past 25 years have seen a rapid growth of knowledge about brain mechanisms involved in visual mental imagery. These advances have largely been made independently of the long history of philosophical - and even psychological - reckoning with imagery and its parent concept 'imagination'. We suggest that the view from these empirical findings can be widened by an appreciation of imagination's intellectual history, and we seek to show how that history both created the conditions for - and presents challenges to - the scientific endeavor. We focus on the neuroscientific literature's most commonly used task - imagining a concrete object - and, after sketching what is known of the neurobiological mechanisms involved, we examine the same basic act of imagining from the perspective of several key positions in the history of philosophy and psychology. We present positions that, firstly, contextualize and inform the neuroscientific account, and secondly, pose conceptual and methodological challenges to the scientific analysis of imagery. We conclude by reflecting on the intellectual history of visualization in the light of contemporary science, and the extent to which such science may resolve long-standing theoretical debates.

  17. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  18. Standarder for god undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab...

  19. Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ''Beyond the Standard Model'' for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e + e - colliders

  20. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  1. Beyond standard quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Despite the many empirical successes of QCD, there are a number of intriguing experimental anomalies that have been observed in heavy flavor hadroproduction, in measurements of azimuthal correlations in deep inelastic processes, and in measurements of spin correlations in hadronic reactions. Such phenomena point to color coherence and multiparton correlations in the hadron wavefunctions and physics beyond standard leading twist factorization. Two new high precision tests of QCD and the Standard Model are discussed: classical polarized photoabsorption sum rules, which are sensitive to anomalous couplings and composite structure, and commensurate scale relations, which relate physical observables to each other without scale or scheme ambiguity. The relationship of anomalous couplings to composite structure is also discussed

  2. Testing the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Riles, K

    1998-01-01

    The Large Electron Project (LEP) accelerator near Geneva, more than any other instrument, has rigorously tested the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles. LEP measurements have probed the theory from many different directions and, so far, the Standard Model has prevailed. The rigour of these tests has allowed LEP physicists to determine unequivocally the number of fundamental 'generations' of elementary particles. These tests also allowed physicists to ascertain the mass of the top quark in advance of its discovery. Recent increases in the accelerator's energy allow new measurements to be undertaken, measurements that may uncover directly or indirectly the long-sought Higgs particle, believed to impart mass to all other particles.

  3. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  4. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements

  5. Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The attempts to develop models beyond the Standard Model are briefly reviewed paying particular regard to the mechanisms responsible for symmetry breaking and mass generation. A comparison is made of the theoretical expectations with recent precision measurements for theories with composite Higgs and for supersymmetric theories with elementary Higgs boson(s). The implications of a heavy top quark and the origin of the light quark and lepton masses and mixing angles are considered within these frameworks. ((orig.))

  6. New standard environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, Luca; Luciani, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The ISO 14001:2004 standard, like ISO 9001:2000 on quality management, transcends the preventive approach (based on a rigid and more or less adequate process-management model still mainly inspired by traditional production methods) and introduces in its stead a highly flexible approach applicable to any socio-economic activity. It is structured by processes rather than system elements, and is based on the quest for efficacy and ongoing improvement [it

  7. Standard Model physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Altarelli, Guido

    1999-01-01

    Introduction structure of gauge theories. The QEDand QCD examples. Chiral theories. The electroweak theory. Spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Higgs mechanism Gauge boson and fermion masses. Yukawa coupling. Charges current couplings. The Cabibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and CP violation. Neutral current couplings. The Glasow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism. Gauge boson and Higgs coupling. Radiative corrections and loops. Cancellation of the chiral anomaly. Limits on the Higgs comparaison. Problems of the Standard Model. Outlook.

  8. Standard model and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1984-09-01

    The SU(3)/sub c/ circle crossSU(2)/sub L/circle crossU(1)/sub Y/ gauge theory of ineractions among quarks and leptons is briefly described, and some recent notable successes of the theory are mentioned. Some shortcomings in our ability to apply the theory are noted, and the incompleteness of the standard model is exhibited. Experimental hints that Nature may be richer in structure than the minimal theory are discussed. 23 references

  9. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  10. Natural matrix standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental radiochemistry needs, for use in analytical intercomparision and as standard reference materials, very large homogeneous samples of a variety of matrices, each naturally contaminated by a variety of longer-lived radionuclides, at several different ranges of concentrations. The reasons for this need are discussed, and the minimum assortment of matrices of radionuclides, and of concentrations is established. Sources of suitable materials are suggested, and the international approach to meeting this need is emphasized

  11. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  12. Natural matrix standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental radiochemistry needs, for use in analytical inter-comparison and as standard reference materials, very large homogeneous samples of a variety of longer-lived radionuclides, at several different ranges of concentrations. The reasons for this need are discussed, and the minimum assortment of matrices, of radionuclides, and of concentrations is established. Sources of suitable materials are suggested, and the international approach to meeting this need is emphasized. (author)

  13. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  14. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  15. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  16. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  17. Emission- and product standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, P. de

    1988-01-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

  18. US Topo Product Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Michael J.; Davis, Larry R.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Lestinsky, Helmut; Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    This document defines a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital topographic map. This map series, named “US Topo,” is modeled on what is referred to as the standard USGS 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) topographic map series that was created during the period from 1947 to approximately 1992. The US Topo map product has the same extent, scale, and general layout as the older standard topographic maps. However, unlike the previous maps, US Topo maps are published using Adobe Systems Inc. Portable Document Format (PDF) with a geospatial extension that is called Georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF), patented by TerraGo Technologies. In addition, the US Topo map products incorporate an orthorectified image along with data that was included in the standard 7.5-minute topographic maps. US Topo maps are intended to serve conventional map users by providing Geographic Information System (GIS) information in symbolized form in the customary topographic map layout. The maps are not intended for GIS analysis applications.

  19. The IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbassioun, Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the NUSS standards, wide consultation was carried out with all the Member States to obtain a consensus and the programme was supervised by a Senior Advisory Group consisting of senior safety experts from 13 countries. This group of senior regulators later became what is now known as the Nuclear Safety Standards Advisory Group (NUSSAG) and comprises of senior regulatory experts from 16 countries. The standards that were developed comprise of four types of documents: safety fundamentals; codes of practice; safety guides; and safety practices. The safety fundamentals set out the basic objectives, concepts and principles for nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The codes of practice, are of a legislative nature, and establish the general objectives that must be fulfilled to ensure adequate nuclear power plant safety. They cover five areas: governmental organization; siting, design, operation and quality assurance. The safety guides, administrative in character, recommend procedures and acceptable technical solutions to implement the codes and guides by presenting further details gained from Member States, on the application and interpretation of individual concepts in the NUSS codes and guides. In total in the NUSS series there is currently one Fundamentals document, five Codes of Practice and fifty-six Safety Guides

  20. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  1. ISO radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.; West, N.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', the work of its Sub-Committee (SC) 2 ''Radiation Protection'' is described in some detail. Several international standards on subjects closely related to radiation protection have already been published, for example ISO-361 (Basic radiation protection symbol), ISO-1757 (Photographic dosimeters), ISO-1758 and 1759 (Direct and indirect-reading pocket exposure meters), ISO-2889 (Sampling of airborne radioactive materials), ISO-4037 (X and gamma reference radiations for calibration) and ISO-4071 (Testing of exposure meters and dosimeters). TC 85/SC 2 has currently eight active Working Groups (WG) dealing with 14 standards projects, mostly in advanced stages, in such fields as neutron and beta reference radiations, and X and gamma radiations of high and low dose-rates and high energies for calibration purposes, reference radiations for surface contamination apparatus, ejection systems for gamma radiography apparatus, industrial and laboratory irradiators, lead shielding units, protective clothing, thermoluminescence dosemeters, radioelement gauges, and surface contamination and decontamination. (author)

  2. 75 FR 3705 - Foreign-Trade Zone 201-Holyoke, MA; Application for Subzone; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Economic Development and Industrial Corporation, grantee of FTZ 201, requesting special-purpose subzone...; and Site 4 (9.6 acres) warehousing facility located at 14 Industrial Drive West, South Deerfield. The... indicates that the savings from FTZ procedures would help improve the plant's international competitiveness...

  3. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  4. Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykken, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest - to those who get close enough to listen

  5. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  6. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest

  7. Standard Wiggler magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Helm, R.H.

    1977-09-01

    Interest in Wiggler magnets (a close sequence of transverse fields with alternating polarity) to extend and enhance the spectrum of synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings has increased significantly during the past few years. Standard wigglers, i.e., wigglers in which interference effects on the spectrum of synchrotron radiation are not important, are considered. In standard wigglers the spectrum of synchrotron radiation has the same general shape as the spectrum from ring bending magnets. However, the critical energy of the wiggler spectrum may be different. The critical energy of the wiggler spectrum is given by epsilon/sub CW/ = epsilon/sub CB/(B/sub W//B/sub B/) where epsilon/sub CB/ is the critical energy from the bending magnets and B/sub W/ and B/sub B/ are the magnetic field strengths of the wiggler magnet and bending magnets respectively. Since most electron storage rings operate with relatively low bending magnet fields (B/sub B/ less than or equal to 12 kG), even a modest wiggler magnet field (less than or equal to 18 kG) can significantly increase the critical energy. Such magnets are planned for ADONE and SPEAR. Higher field (30 to 50 kG) superconducting magnets are planned at Brookhaven, Daresbury, and Novosibirsk to produce even larger increase in the critical energy. For some standard wigglers a further enhancement of the spectrum is produced due tothe superposition of the radiation from the individual poles. Wiggler designs are discussed as well as the effect of wigglers on the synchrotron radiation spectrum and on the operation of storage rings

  8. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  9. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  10. Quasi standard model physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Possible small extensions of the standard model are considered, which are motivated by the strong CP problem and by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Phenomenological arguments are given which suggest that imposing a PQ symmetry to solve the strong CP problem is only tenable if the scale of the PQ breakdown is much above M W . Furthermore, an attempt is made to connect the scale of the PQ breakdown to that of the breakdown of lepton number. It is argued that in these theories the same intermediate scale may be responsible for the baryon number of the Universe, provided the Kuzmin Rubakov Shaposhnikov (B+L) erasing mechanism is operative. (orig.)

  11. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  12. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  13. Standard-model bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan; Donagi, Ron; Ovrut, Burt; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We describe a family of genus one fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds with fundamental group ${\\mathbb Z}/2$. On each Calabi-Yau $Z$ in the family we exhibit a positive dimensional family of Mumford stable bundles whose symmetry group is the Standard Model group $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ and which have $c_{3} = 6$. We also show that for each bundle $V$ in our family, $c_{2}(Z) - c_{2}(V)$ is the class of an effective curve on $Z$. These conditions ensure that $Z$ and $V$ can be used for a phenomenologically relevant compactification of Heterotic M-theory.

  14. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  15. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  16. Repeated Interaction in Standard Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larouche, Pierre; Schütt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    As part of the standard-setting process, certain patents become essential. This may allow the owners of these standard-essential patents to hold up implementers of the standard, who can no longer turn to substitute technologies. However, many real-world standards evolve over time, with several

  17. Standard cross-section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of neutron cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross-section and the errors associated with using it. Any improvement in the standard immediately improves all cross-section measurements which have been made relative to that standard. Light element, capture and fission standards are discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  19. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  20. Standards for Lithotripter Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Reiner; Doerffel, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Standards for lithotripsy have been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the FDA. In addition to the existing regulations and norms for the manufacturers, special standards were developed to address a treatment method developed in the early 1980's using extracorporeal shock waves. Initially, the FDA regulated the premarket approval process for lithotripters as a Class III device but reclassified lithotripters in 2000 to a Class II device. The corresponding guidance document for showing the substantial equivalence of new devices with predicate devices will be described in detail. The FDA guidance document is very useful in helping device manufacturers: (i) develop technical performance testing for a shock wave lithotripter within the parameters of an FDA submission, and (ii) conduct clinical performance testing via at least one clinical confirmation study with a small number of subjects. Unfortunately although the submitted data are available at the FDA they are not available in the marketplace and this causes difficulties for physicians in deciding which device to use. The results of the technical performance testing of the LithoGold™ are provided.

  1. Standards for backscattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.V.; Eschbach, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The need for backscattering standards appears to be twofold and depends on the uses and requirements of the users. The first is as a calibrated reference by which samples of a similar nature to the standard may be absolutely compared. The second is as a means of intercomparing the relative results obtained by different laboratories using, as near as possible, identical samples. This type of comparison is of a relative nature and the absolute values are not necessarily required. In the present work the authors try to satisfy both needs by providing identical samples which have been absolutely calibrated to a high accuracy. Very thin copper and vanadium layers were evaporated onto bismuth implanted silicon crystals and on glass plates under carefully controlled conditions. The mass of the deposits was determined in situ using a sensitive UHV microbalance. In addition, two quartz oscillator monitors were used. The samples have been analysed by Rutherford backscattering and the absolute quantity of bismuth determined by a comparison with the known amounts of deposited material. (Auth.)

  2. The standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1994-03-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to provide a survey of the standard model with emphasis on its renormalizability and electroweak radiative corrections. Since this is a school, I will try to be somewhat pedagogical by providing examples of loop calculations. In that way, I hope to illustrate some of the commonly employed tools of particle physics. With those goals in mind, I have organized my presentations as follows: In Section 2, renormalization is discussed from an applied perspective. The technique of dimensional regularization is described and used to define running couplings and masses. The utility of the renormalization group for computing leading logs is illustrated for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In Section 3 electroweak radiative corrections are discussed. Standard model predictions are surveyed and used to constrain the top quark mass. The S, T, and U parameters are introduced and employed to probe for ''new physics''. The effect of Z' bosons on low energy phenomenology is described. In Section 4, a detailed illustration of electroweak radiative corrections is given for atomic parity violation. Finally, in Section 5, I conclude with an outlook for the future

  3. The illusory nature of standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implications of the paradoxical situation in which standard setters are placed when standardising human practice. Contrary to standards, human practices are ambiguous, heterogeneous, and highly context dependent; in contrast, standards...... creation is innate in the practice of standardisation and therefore the risk of creating untrustworthy standards is prevalent for standard setters. Originality/value – The paper provides a new understanding of standards and demonstrates the need to research standardization processes in depth and bring...

  4. Optical spectrophotometry of oscillations and flickering in AE Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William F.; Horne, Keith; Oke, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    We observed rapid variations in the nova-like cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii for 1.7 hr with 4.3 s time resolution using the 30-channel (3227-10494 A) spectrophotometer on the Hale 5 m telescope. The 16.5 and 33.0 s oscillations show a featureless blue spectrum that can be represented by a blackbody with temperature and area much smaller than the accretion disk. Models consisting of the sum of a K star spectrum and a hydrogen slab in LTE at T = 6000-10,000 K can fit the spectrum of AE Aquarii reasonably well. The spectrum of a flare indicates optically thin gas with T = 8000-12,000 K. The energy released by the flare is large compared to typical stellar flares.

  5. Flicker (1/f) noise in tunnel junction DC SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Clarke, J.; Goubau, W.M.; Martinis, J.M.; Pegrum, C.M.; Van Harlingen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured the spectral density of the 1/f voltage noise in current-biased resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions and dc SQUIDs. A theory in which fluctuations in the temperature give rise to fluctuations in the critical current and hence in the voltage predicts the magnitude of the noise quite accurately for junctions with areas of about 2 x 10 4 μm 2 , but significantly overestimates the noise for junctions with areas of about 6 μm 2 . DC SQUIDs fabricated from these two types of junctions exhibit substantially more 1/f voltage noise than would be predicted from a model in which the noise arises from critical current fluctuations in the junctions. This result was confirmed by an experiment involving two different bias current and flux modulation schemes, which demonstrated that the predominant 1/f voltage noise arises not from critical current fluctuations, but from some unknown source that can be regarded as an apparent 1/f flux noise. Measurements on five different configurations of dc SQUIDs fabricated with thin-film tunnel junctions and with widely varying areas, inductances, and junction capacitances show that the spectral density of the 1/f equivalent flux noise is roughtly constant, within a factor of three of (10 -10 /f)phi 2 0 Hz -1 . It is emphasized that 1/f flux noise may not be the predominant source of 1/f noise in SQUIDS fabricated with other technologies

  6. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....... be contributing to accountability overload. This article seeks to provide an explanation for why hospital staff seems to accept, albeit grudgingly and partially, the imposition of a new, comprehensive accountability system with questionable clinical merits. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s analytics of government...

  7. Standard model baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M.B.; Orloff, J.; Pene, O

    1994-01-01

    Simply on CP arguments, we argue against a Standard Model explanation of baryogenesis via the charge transport mechanism. A CP-asymmetry is found in the reflection coefficients of quarks hitting the electroweak phase boundary created during a first order phase transition. The problem is analyzed both in an academic zero temperature case and in the realistic finite temperature one. At finite temperature, a crucial role is played by the damping rate of quasi-quarks in a hot plasma, which induces loss of spatial coherence and suppresses reflection on the boundary even at tree-level. The resulting baryon asymmetry is many orders of magnitude below what observation requires. We comment as well on related works.

  8. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A5 B 942 943 943 ASM SA 69 D, 8115 056; ASTM D 5118 FABRICATION OF FIBERBOARD SM AS B 941 943 943 A SM SA 69 Di- N 8115 0562 ASTM D 5168 FAB AND...DR&E(AR)759 STANDARDIZATION PROJECTS REPORT - 1ST QTR FY 1994 PREPARING ACTIVITY LISTING PA AAPAA p BPP .A- G/ASA NC AC 21 RC G CSOL- Qý yqFyýFT7RL AL...941 943 943 A SM SA 69 DH N 8115 0562 ASTM D 5168 FAB AND CLOSURE TRIPLE WALL SM AS B 941 943 943 A SM SA 69 DH N 8125 0379 V’L-B-61000 BOTTLES

  9. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  10. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 3. Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-5 Table 3-4. Constant-Bandwidth FM Subcarrier Channels Frequency Criteria\\Channels: A B C D E F G H Deviation ...Telemetry Standards , RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-i CHAPTER 3 Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards Acronyms...Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards ................................ 3-1 3.1 General

  11. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  12. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  13. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  14. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliott, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.; Mrenna, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors briefly review the necessity of going beyond the Standard Model. We argue that certain types of composite models of quarks and leptons may resolve some of the difficulties of the SM. Furthermore the authors argue that, even without a full specification of a composite model, one may predict some observable effects following from the compositeness hypothesis. The effects are most easily seen in reaction channels in which there is little competition from known processes predicted by the SM, typically in neutrino induced reactions. The authors suggest that above a certain characteristic energy, neutrino cross sections rise well above those predicted within the framework of the SM and the difference between the characteristic features of lepton and hadron induced reactions is blurred. The authors claim that there is some (so far, tenuous) evidence for the phenomenon we just alluded to: in certain high energy cosmic ray interactions it appears that photons and/or neutrinos behave in a manner which is inconsistent with the SM. The authors analyze the data and conclude that the origin of the anomaly in the observational data arises from an increased neutrino interaction cross section

  15. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  16. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  17. Intelligent Transportation Systems : critical standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards are industry-consensus standards that provide the details about how different systems interconnect and communicate information to deliver the ITS user services described in the National ITS Architect...

  18. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  19. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  20. Shielding standards: a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the sequence of events leading from the inception of a standard to its transmittal to the ANSI Board of Standards Review will be given. The standard referred to is entitled, ''Neutron and Gamma-Ray Flux-to-Dose-Rate Factors,'' (ANSI N666). Certain questions raised during the review process and the compatibility of this standard with the USA Code of Federal Regulations will be discussed

  1. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.

    2016-01-01

    organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions...

  2. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  3. Standardization of splash device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María; Peters, Piet

    2017-04-01

    The erosion is a complex process that has been studied extensively by numerous researchers, requiring a prolongued time effort and a large economic investment. To be effective, the measurements of erosion should be precise, controlled and replicable, and to assure efectiveness, measurement devices of erosion should be properly designed, constructed, well calibrated and also they should be operated by a trained person (Stroosnijder, 2005). Because researchers try to improve old devices, the equipment is constantly being redesigned, making the measurements not comparable and furthermore, producing a lack of available standarized device. The lack of standardization of erosion equipment is more obvious in the case of the local splash erosion, where the nature of the process makes very difficult to isolate its effects. In this article we compare the results obtained from five of the most common splash erosion devices (selected from more than 16 different currently types), under the same rain conditions, with the objective of facilitate the standardization of the method that will be more easy to build, minimizing the error. A set of six splash devices were setted in well known positions under simulated rain, to measured the differences, among devices and the accuracy of the data recovered after 10 minutes of rainfall simulation under different intensities (from 60 to 130 mm/h). The rainfall simulator of Wageningen was used, using sand as splash erosion source. Differences in the infiltration were also measured, and a calibration of sizes and speeds of the raindrops was done using the photography method (Hamidreza-Sadeghi et al., 2013). The splash devices selected for this study were unbounded splash devices (like the funnel, the cup (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010) and the splash flume (Jomaa et al., 2010)), and bounded devices that allow the calculation of splash rate, (like the new cup (Scholten et al., 2011) and the Morgan tray). The behaviour of different splash devices

  4. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    Wuppertal, Germany (Chaotic and Complex Systems); F W Nijhoff, University of Leeds, UK (Mathematical Physics); G Ghirardi, Universita di Trieste, Italy (Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information Theory); G Dunne, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA (Classical and Quantum Field Theory); and L Turner, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA (Fluid and Plasma Theory). It will be an honour and a pleasure to work together with all these talented people towards the high-minded goal of running a world-class scientific journal. As Editor-in-Chief of J. Phys. A, my principal objective will be to raise the standards of this first-rate journal to even higher levels by raising the quality of accepted papers. I believe that this goal will be possible to accomplish. Despite an already high rejection rate, paper submissions are rising rapidly and I anticipate that we will need to be even more stringent in our assessment of quality next year. A letter has already been sent to referees urging them to raise their standards for acceptance. I believe we will make rapid progress in this direction. (I have heard a few people criticize the journal for being a `write-only' journal. My goal is for the worldwide community of mathematical physicists to view J. Phys. A as essential reading.) I am extremely optimistic about the future of J. Phys. A. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to decision. I am confident that we will continue to improve the quality of the papers published in this already first-class journal. I look forward to working with the journal's excellent staff, the Board of Editors, and the Advisory Panel.

  5. Activities of Radiation Standard Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, A.; Rao, P.S.; Sachadev, R.N.; Shaha, V.V.; Sharma, D.; Srivastava, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    A brief account of the various facilities and services provided by the Radiation Standards Section (RSS) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay is given. RSS maintains the primary and secondary standards of various parameters of radiation measurements. It ensures accurate radiological measurements as per international requirements, through periodic international intercomparisons of national standards. It also provides calibration services to various users of radiation sources and instruments. The activities of RSS are described under the headings: (1) Radiological Metrology Standards, (2) Radionuclide Standards, Neutron Metrology, (4) Instruments Calibration, (5) Non-ionizing Radiations, and (6) Instrumentation. (author). figs., tabs

  6. Vocational High School Effectiveness Standard ISO 9001: 2008 for Achievement Content Standards, Standard Process and Competency Standards Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Ratih Pratiwi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Efektivitas Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Berstandar ISO 9001:2008 terhadap Pencapaian Standar Isi, Standar Proses dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of the achievement of the content standards, process standards, and competency standards in vocational already standard ISO 9001: 2008 with CMS that has not been standardized ISO 9001: 2008 both in public schools and private schools. Data collection using the questionnaire enclosed Likert scale models. Analysis of data using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. The results showed: (1 there is no difference in effectiveness between public SMK ISO standard ISO standards with private SMK (P = 0.001; (2 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK SMK ISO standards with ISO standards have not (P = 0.000; (3 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK ISO standards with private vocational yet ISO standards (P = 0.000; (4 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational school with vocational standard ISO standard ISO country has not (P = 0.015; (5 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational bertandar ISO with private vocational yet standardized ISO (P = 0.000; (6 there was no difference in the effectiveness of public SMK has not been standardized by the ISO standard ISO private SMK yet. Key Words: vocational high school standards ISO 9001: 2008, the standard content, process standards, competency standards Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan efektivitas pencapaian standar isi, standar proses, dan standar kompetensi lulusan pada SMK yang sudah berstandar ISO 9001:2008 dengan SMK yang belum berstandar ISO 9001:2008 baik pada sekolah negeri maupun sekolah swasta. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner tertutup model skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way menggunakan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 ada perbedaan

  7. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 8. Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    incorrect word count/message and illegal mode codes are not considered bus errors. 8.6.2 Source Signal The source of data is a signal conforming to...Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 8, July 2017 CHAPTER 8 Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard Acronyms...check FCS frame check sequence HDDR high-density digital recording MIL-STD Military Standard msb most significant bit PCM pulse code modulation

  8. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  9. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  10. The German radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Klaus; Neider, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities are traditionally the principles of radiation protection and dosimetry, applied medical dosimetry, and medical health physics. The German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE), which is concerned mostly with instrumentation standards. The Material Testing Committee (FNM), which is responsible for radiation protection in nonmedical radiography. The current body of over one hundred standards and draft standards was established to supplement the Federal German radiation protection legislation, because voluntary standards can deal in more detail with the specific practical problems. The number of standards is steadily expanding due to the vigorous efforts of about thirty working groups, consisting of essentially all leading German experts of this field. Work is supported by the industry and the Federal Government. A review of the present status and future plans, and of the international aspects with regard to European and world (ISO, etc.) standards will be presented

  11. Commensuration and Legitimacy in Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    This paper claims that commensuration is a form of valuation crucial for the legitimacy of standards. It is thus far poorly understood how standards are constructed in a legitimate manner, let alone the role of commensuration, the micro-process of converting qualities into measurable quantities...... for the purpose of comparison. The aim is to show how commensuration affects legitimacy at different phases of a standard's formation and diffusion. In order to do this, the lens is placed upon the relationship between the commensuration processes and input and output legitimacies. Research on the Active House...... legitimacy in different stages, either technical for the standard's specifications or contextual for the standard's implementation. Based on these findings, the paper offers a model of the commensurative development undergone in order to develop the legitimacy of a standard....

  12. EG type radioactive calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    EG standards are standards with a radioactive substance deposited as a solution on filtration paper and after drying sealed into a plastic disc or cylinder shaped casing. They serve the official testing of X-ray and gamma spectrometers and as test sources. The table shows the types of used radionuclides, nominal values of activity and total error of determination not exceeding +-4%. Activity of standards is calculated from the charge and the specific activity of standard solution used for the preparation of the standard. Tightness and surface contamination is measured for each standard. The manufacturer, UVVVR Praha, gives a guarantee for the given values of activity and total error of determination. (M.D.)

  13. Towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available in a better user experience. Standards compliance allows for the separation of concerns: HTML for content, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for presentation and JavaScript for dynamic behaviour. Standards compliant documents are also...) and cascading style sheets through CSS (CSS n.d.), whilst the JavaScript specification has been standardised by Ecma International (another standards organisation for information and communication systems), in the form of EcmaScript (Ecma...

  14. General philosophy of safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Safety standards should be related to the form and magnitude of the risk they aim to limit. Because of the lack of direct information at the exposure levels experienced, radiation protection standards have to be based on risk assumptions that, while plausible, are not proven. The pressure for standards has come as much from public perceptions and fears as from the reality of the risk. (author)

  15. Action plan for photovoltaic standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldach, R.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the present situation regarding international standards governing photovoltaic (PV) systems and components, and seeks to identify barriers to the commercialisation of PV systems in the UK due to the absence of standards and codes of practice, and develop an action plan to overcome these barriers. An overview of standardisation bodies and standard generation mechanisms is presented, and the PV cells and modules, stand-alone PV systems, utility interconnection with PV systems, and building integration of PV are reviewed.

  16. Standard English and Language Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    ソランキ, ネイディン

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudes and opinions surrounding Standard English (SE) within the United Kingdom. The definition of SE, for the purposes of this study, is standard grammar and standard pronunciation of southern English, commonly referred to as 'BBC English'. The subject of SE and attitudes towards different accents and dialects of British English is emotive and attracts strong opinions. The main issues discussed here are the place of language in society, the social implications ...

  17. The Emerging JBIG2 Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, P.; Kossentini, F.; Martins, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG), an international study group affiliated with ISO/IEC and ITU-T, is in the process of drafting a new standard for lossy and lossless compression of bi-level images. The new standard, informally referred to as JBIG2, will support model-based coding...... with imperceptible loss of quality. It is expected that JBIG2 will become an International Standard by 2000....

  18. Standardization of the bakery goods

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Goryńska-Goldmann

    2010-01-01

    The article presents selected aspects of the standardization, highly valued factor that stimulates the economic development of the country. The attention was paid to the purpose of the standardization, basic normative documents and standardizing activity. Different proposals for the classification of bread applied in practice or appearing in scientific studies were presented. It was emphasised that currently legal mess exists in Poland, in terms of use of the bread classification. The necessi...

  19. Core labour standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Siroën, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    (english) Core labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal, but applied very differently across countries. Compliance is much higher in high income countries. However, the causality between improved labour standards and economic growth remains a controversial issue. Export-led growth strategies might encourage developing countries to curb the process of standards improvement. In this way, they can raise the volume of their unskilled labour endowments (child and/or forced labour)...

  20. Synthesised standards in natural matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of securing the most reliable standards for the accurate analysis of radionuclides is discussed in the paper and in the comment on the paper. It is contended in the paper that the best standards can be created by quantitative addition of accurately known spiking solutions into carefully selected natural matrices. On the other hand it is argued that many natural materials can be successfully standardized for numerous trace constituents. Both points of view are supported with examples. (U.K.)

  1. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  2. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication

  3. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Weill, J.

    1978-01-01

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  4. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  5. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  6. Data converters for wireless standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  7. The Future of Geospatial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Simonis, I.

    2016-12-01

    The OGC is an international not-for-profit standards development organization (SDO) committed to making quality standards for the geospatial community. A community of more than 500 member organizations with more than 6,000 people registered at the OGC communication platform drives the development of standards that are freely available for anyone to use and to improve sharing of the world's geospatial data. OGC standards are applied in a variety of application domains including Environment, Defense and Intelligence, Smart Cities, Aviation, Disaster Management, Agriculture, Business Development and Decision Support, and Meteorology. Profiles help to apply information models to different communities, thus adapting to particular needs of that community while ensuring interoperability by using common base models and appropriate support services. Other standards address orthogonal aspects such as handling of Big Data, Crowd-sourced information, Geosemantics, or container for offline data usage. Like most SDOs, the OGC develops and maintains standards through a formal consensus process under the OGC Standards Program (OGC-SP) wherein requirements and use cases are discussed in forums generally open to the public (Domain Working Groups, or DWGs), and Standards Working Groups (SWGs) are established to create standards. However, OGC is unique among SDOs in that it also operates the OGC Interoperability Program (OGC-IP) to provide real-world testing of existing and proposed standards. The OGC-IP is considered the experimental playground, where new technologies are researched and developed in a user-driven process. Its goal is to prototype, test, demonstrate, and promote OGC Standards in a structured environment. Results from the OGC-IP often become requirements for new OGC standards or identify deficiencies in existing OGC standards that can be addressed. This presentation will provide an analysis of the work advanced in the OGC consortium including standards and testbeds

  8. Standardization of the bakery goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Goryńska-Goldmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the standardization, highly valued factor that stimulates the economic development of the country. The attention was paid to the purpose of the standardization, basic normative documents and standardizing activity. Different proposals for the classification of bread applied in practice or appearing in scientific studies were presented. It was emphasised that currently legal mess exists in Poland, in terms of use of the bread classification. The necessity of legal regulations of this issue by standard regulations was pointed out.

  9. Non-standard patch test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Adelia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In managing contact dermatitis, identification of the causative agent is essential to prevent recurrent complaints. Patch test is the gold standard to identify the causative agent. Nowadays, there are many patch test standard materials available in the market, but do not include all the materials that potentially cause contact dermatitis. Patch test using patient’s own products or later we refer to as non-standard materials, is very helpful in identifying the causative agents of contact dermatitis. Guidance is needed in producing non-standard patch test materials in order to avoid test results discrepancy.

  10. IMPLEMENTING A RISK MANAGEMENT STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After risk management “conquered” more and more project managers’ minds and showed its benefits for business and programs, the need to have a global risk management standard has become a crucial issue in the world of risk management. But having a global risk management standard has been a big challenge, starting from the decision of developing the standard (March-June 2005, to the moment of publishing it, November 2009. So, developing the ISO 31000:2009 standard has been more or less like a bumpy ride. Apparently, the people involved in developing the global risk management standard understood from the very beginning that no challenges are too big, nor any tasks too small and that the task of having a new, comprehensive global risk management standard should be completed with excellence: defining the principles and the framework guiding the risk management process applicable for all type of organizations and for a wide range of activities. Coming up with a global standard should always be based on the real organizations’ needs and should fulfill real risk management requirements. The article is trying to present the pros and cons of risk management standard implementation, challenging the implementation process itself and the added value of implementing the standard due to the lack of implementation enablers, like risk culture, a real problem especially in an international environment.

  11. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  12. The metabolomics standards initiative (MSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiehn, O.; Robertson, D.; Griffin, J.; Werf, M. van der; Nikolau, B.; Morrison, N.; Sumner, L.W.; Goodacre, R.; Hardy, N.W.; Taylor, C.; Fostel, J.; Kristal, B.; Kaddurah-Daouk, R.; Mendes, P.; Ommen, B. van; Lindon, J.C.; Sansone, S.-A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Metabolomics Standards Initiative has been formed. An outline and general introduction is provided to inform about the history, structure, working plan and intentions of this initiative. Comments on any of the suggested minimal reporting standards are welcome to be sent to the open

  13. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  14. PIAAC Technical Standards and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will establish technical standards and guidelines to ensure that the survey design and implementation processes of PIAAC yield high-quality and internationally comparable data. This document provides a revised version of the technical standards and guidelines originally…

  15. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1987-02-01

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs

  16. Standards development status. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

  17. Mapping standards for home networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaa, G. van de; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Vries, H.J. de

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we apply a step-by-step approach for the identification of standards for home networking. We develop a classification and we use this classification to categorize sixty-four (sets of) standards. By developing this categorization, we have brought order to the chaos of home networking

  18. Standard model without Higgs particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, S.G.

    1992-10-01

    A modification of the standard model of electroweak interactions with the nonlocal Higgs sector is proposed. Proper form of nonlocality makes Higgs particles unobservable after the electroweak symmetry breaking. They appear only as a virtual state because their propagator is an entire function. We discuss some specific consequences of this approach comparing it with the conventional standard model. (author). 12 refs

  19. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  20. The radiation safety standards programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the development of radiation safety standards by the IAEA which is a statutory function of the IAEA is presented. The latest editions of the basic safety standards published by the IAEA in cooperation with ICRP, FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO and WHO are reviewed

  1. Simplified propagation of standard uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    An essential part of any measurement control program is adequate knowledge of the uncertainties of the measurement system standards. Only with an estimate of the standards'' uncertainties can one determine if the standard is adequate for its intended use or can one calculate the total uncertainty of the measurement process. Purchased standards usually have estimates of uncertainty on their certificates. However, when standards are prepared and characterized by a laboratory, variance propagation is required to estimate the uncertainty of the standard. Traditional variance propagation typically involves tedious use of partial derivatives, unfriendly software and the availability of statistical expertise. As a result, the uncertainty of prepared standards is often not determined or determined incorrectly. For situations meeting stated assumptions, easier shortcut methods of estimation are now available which eliminate the need for partial derivatives and require only a spreadsheet or calculator. A system of simplifying the calculations by dividing into subgroups of absolute and relative uncertainties is utilized. These methods also incorporate the International Standards Organization (ISO) concepts for combining systematic and random uncertainties as published in their Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty. Details of the simplified methods and examples of their use are included in the paper

  2. Premise for Standardized Sepsis Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Daniel G; Ayala, Alfred; Chaudry, Irshad; Coopersmith, Craig M; Deutschman, Clifford; Hellman, Judith; Moldawer, Lyle; Osuchowski, Marcin

    2018-06-05

    Sepsis morbidity and mortality exacts a toll on patients and contributes significantly to healthcare costs. Preclinical models of sepsis have been used to study disease pathogenesis and test new therapies, but divergent outcomes have been observed with the same treatment even when using the same sepsis model. Other disorders such as diabetes, cancer, malaria, obesity and cardiovascular diseases have used standardized, preclinical models that allow laboratories to compare results. Standardized models accelerate the pace of research and such models have been used to test new therapies or changes in treatment guidelines. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandated that investigators increase data reproducibility and the rigor of scientific experiments and has also issued research funding announcements about the development and refinement of standardized models. Our premise is that refinement and standardization of preclinical sepsis models may accelerate the development and testing of potential therapeutics for human sepsis, as has been the case with preclinical models for other disorders. As a first step towards creating standardized models, we suggest 1) standardizing the technical standards of the widely used cecal ligation and puncture model and 2) creating a list of appropriate organ injury and immune dysfunction parameters. Standardized sepsis models could enhance reproducibility and allow comparison of results between laboratories and may accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis.

  3. Standards and (self)implosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja; Staunæs, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    of standards often tends to conceptualize the travelling of standards as contagious processes resulting in epidemic spreads. In this article, the abstract metaphor of epidemic spread is replaced by an analytical configuration of a new mode of educational governance in which orchestrating webs of incentives...

  4. Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtowicz, S.; Trechcinski, R.; Rybka, M.; Ryszkowska, A.; Wardaszko, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The most important tasks of the Section in 1996 were: preparation of national standards and program of future work on standards for nuclear instrumentation and electronic equipment in nuclear engineering; organization of activities and participation in the meetings of the Commissions for Standardization No 173 Microprocessor Systems, No 266 Nuclear Instrumentation; giving opinions and expertises on national and international standards for equipment in nuclear engineering; cooperation with the Commission for Standardization No 246 Radiological Protection; control of inventiveness activity; The quality of the technical products is being improved by: a) selection of the proper types of interface systems, technical coordination and quality control; b) creation of standards at a high technical level; The Section works mainly for the Polish Committee for Standardization, the National Atomic Energy Agency, Association of Polish Electrical Engineers and Research Institutes in Poland. The activity of the Section is useful for all national institutions where backplane busses and nuclear electronic equipment is produced or used. The Section participates in the following international organizations: IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) TC 45 (Nuclear Instrumentation); ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTCl SC26 (Microprocessor systems); ESONE (European Studies on Norms for Electronics); The section takes part in popularization of nuclear technology and instrumentation in the following ways: distribution of standards and technical documentation to national institutions dealing with nuclear apparatus; collecting and distributing technical information from international organizations (e.g. ESONE); organization of technical and scientific, national and international conferences (New Generation Nuclear Power Plants - September 96, QNX in Real World - January 96); participation in the technical conference organized by the Polish Committee for

  5. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara Anne

    In this thesis I address how experimental standards are used in the new governance paradigm to further sustainability transitions. Focusing on the case of the Active House standard in the building sector, I investigate experimental standards in three research papers examining the following dynamics......: (1) the relationship between commensuration and legitimacy in the formulation and diffusion of a standard’s specifications; (2) the role of awareness in standardizing green default rules to establish sustainable consumption in buildings; and (3) the significance of focus on humans in the development...... of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013...

  6. Development of fusion safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Dinneen, G.A.; Herring, J.S.; DeLooper, J.; Levine, J.D.; Gouge, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standards have been prepared to assist in the design and regulation of magnetic fusion facilities. They are DOE-STD-6002-96, 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Requirements,' and DOE-STD-6003-96 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Guidance.' The first standard sets forth requirements, mostly based on the Code of Federal Regulations, deemed necessary for the safe design and operation of fusion facilities and a set of safety principles to use in the design. The second standard provides guidance on how to meet the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96. It is written specifically for a facility such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the DOE regulatory environment. As technical standards, they are applicable only to the extent that compliance with these standards is included in the contracts of the developers. 7 refs., 1 fig

  7. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  8. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  9. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  10. Contrast of Korean industrial standard and overseas standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    2006-12-01

    This book introduces Korean Industrial Standard and Overseas Standard, which deals with furniture, plasticizers, valcaning agents, gaskets, steel pipes and tubes. It covers wooden furniture for offices, washing dresser, children crib, chairs and desks for students, chairs and desks made from synthetic resins, tricresyl phosphate, dibutyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate, phtalic acid dieptil, V packing, vulcanization accelerator CBS(CZ), vulcanization accelerator MBT(M), vulcanization accelerator Zn BDC, steel pipe for heating furnace and carbon steel pope for high voltage piping.

  11. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  12. The Elusive Standard of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K; Worsham, Elizabeth; Reisfield, Gary M

    2017-09-01

    In medical negligence cases, the forensic expert must explain to a trier of fact what a defendant physician should have done, or not done, in a specific set of circumstances and whether the physician's conduct constitutes a breach of duty. The parameters of the duty are delineated by the standard of care. Many facets of the standard of care have been well explored in the literature, but gaps remain in a complete understanding of this concept. We examine the standard of care, its origins, and who determines the prevailing standard, beginning with an overview of the historical roots of the standard of care and, using case law, tracing its evolution from the 19th century through the early 21st century. We then analyze the locality rule and consider local, state, and national standards of care. The locality rule requires a defendant physician to provide the same degree of skill and care that is required of a physician practicing in the same or similar community. This rule remains alive in some jurisdictions in the United States. Last, we address the relationship between the standard of care and clinical practice guidelines. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  13. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17, Chapter 4, Pulse Code Modulation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A-4 Appendix 4-B. Citations ...investigation can be found in a paper by J. L. Maury, Jr. and J. Styles , “Development of Optimum Frame Synchronization Codes for Goddard Space Flight Center...Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 4, July 2017 B-1 APPENDIX 4-B Citations Aeronautical Radio, Inc. Mark 33 Digital Information Transfer

  14. State Standard-Setting Processes in Brief. State Academic Standards: Standard-Setting Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about academic standards, whether created by states from scratch or adopted by states under the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) banner, have drawn widespread media attention and are at the top of many state policymakers' priority lists. Recently, a number of legislatures have required additional steps, such as waiting periods for…

  15. Air Force standards for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Warren; Milden, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are presented in viewgraph form and include Air Force nickel hydrogen standardization goals, philosophy, project outline, cell level standardization, battery level standardization, and schedule.

  16. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  17. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  18. Repair mechanisms and exposure standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed; public policy for setting radiation standards; use of linear, nonthreshold theory in setting radiation standards; dose-rate dependence; occupational exposure to radiation; radon inhalation from radium in the soil in the vicinity of the phosphate industry; relation of repair mechanisms for cell survival to cancer induction; application of information on genetic repair to humans and to cancer induction; importance of repair processes in radiation protection standards; corrective factors for repair processes; relation of repair processes to age, sex, and other factors; and population distribution in radiosensitivity

  19. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  20. Pellets standard on the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laeng, H.-P.

    2001-01-01

    This short article introduces the Swiss standard that has been adapted from the German standard for heating pellets made of untreated wood. The various requirements placed on the materials used in the manufacture of the pellets and their influence on the pollution emissions produced by boilers and ovens using the pellets as a heating fuel are listed. Further points in the standard referring to declarations to be made by the manufacturer, size and specific weight of the pellets and instructions for the storage and burning of the pellets are discussed

  1. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  2. Literacy Standards for Preschool Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.; Paynter, Diane E.

    1999-01-01

    Preschool and kindergarten teachers can help young learners meet early literacy standards without sacrificing developmentally appropriate practice. Several professional associations have described appropriate expectations for children of different age levels known as milestones, developmental accomplishments, and benchmarks. (MLH)

  3. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  4. Time and Standards - An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guinot, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    ...? This paper attempts to answer this question. After recalling current performances of time and frequency standards and their use in establishing time scales, the author considers their limitations in astronomical observations and studies...

  5. ISO standardization in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, D [Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Cermak, O [Urad pro Normalizaci a Mereni, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1984-10-01

    The activity is described of the technical commission ISO/TC 85 which is currently divided into 4 subcommissions (SC) and 24 working groups. SC 1 ''Terminology, definitions, units, abbreviations'' has one working group. The most important document of this SC is ISO 921-1972 (Dictionary of nuclear technology). SC 2 ''Radiation protection'' has 9 working groups and has processed standards in dosimetry. SC 3 ''Technology of power reactors'' has 6 working groups and its work is related to IAEA activities within the NUSS program. SC 4 ''Technology of nuclear fuels'' has 8 working groups. SC 4 has compiled the basic standards for sealed sources and methods of testing their tightness. The results of the work of this group have been reflected into the standardization work of CMEA. A list is given of published international standards within TC 85.

  6. Standard exercise report format (SERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This talk summarizes the reasons for the development of draft SERF the Standard Exercise Report Format used for reporting the results of emergency preparedness exercises, and gives a summary of the format and rational behind it

  7. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  8. Imaging standards for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Richard N.; Ray, Lawrence A.

    1996-02-01

    "Smart cards" are plastic cards the size of credit cards which contain integrated circuits for the storage of digital information. The applications of these cards for image storage has been growing as card data capacities have moved from tens of bytes to thousands of bytes. This has prompted the recommendation of standards by the X3B10 committee of ANSI for inclusion in ISO standards for card image storage of a variety of image data types including digitized signatures and color portrait images. This paper will review imaging requirements of the smart card industry, challenges of image storage for small memory devices, card image communications, and the present status of standards. The paper will conclude with recommendations for the evolution of smart card image standards towards image formats customized to the image content and more optimized for smart card memory constraints.

  9. Conservation Law Enforcement Program Standardization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Stan

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate goal of standardization is to develop a safe and effective program that is recognized within the USAF, DoD, and by other Federal and state law enforcement agencies, and the general public...

  10. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    across borders led many economies to adopt the. International ... Keywords: Reporting Standards, Value, Relevance, Earnings, Management ..... nal of Applied Economics and Business Re- search ... accounting in emerging markets: Evidence.

  11. Equipment standards for interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, A.; Gallagher, A.; Walsh, C.; Malone, J.

    2005-01-01

    Interventional radiology has seen rapid growth in cardiology and represents an alternative to hazardous surgery. Recently there has been a substantial growth in the number of procedures being performed and interventional cardiology (IC) procedures are the most common interventional procedures in Europe. Advances in imaging technology have facilitated the development of increasingly complex radiological IC equipment. Currently, the technology is developing at a rate ahead of supporting research, equipment standards and a regulatory framework. International standards play a key role in the design, manufacture and performance of radiological IC equipment. A survey of 12 IC systems (15 imaging chains) was conducted in Irish hospitals. The aim of the study was to assess the imbalance between rapidly advancing technology and existing standards and to propose recommendations for new IC equipment standards. The results demonstrate the need for definitive equipment requirements and standardisation in the design, manufacture, acceptance and maintenance of IC equipment. (authors)

  12. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  13. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  14. Argentine nuclear energy standardization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, Norma; Corcuera, Roberto; Palacios, Tulio A.; Hey, Alfredo M.; Berte, G.; Trama, L.

    2004-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has more than 200 Technical Committees that develop technical standards. During April 2004 took place in Buenos Aires the 14th Plenary of the ISO/TC 85 Nuclear Energy Committee. During this Plenary issues as Nuclear Terminology, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Reactors and Irradiation Dosimetry was dealt with. 105 International delegates and 45 National delegates (belonging to CNEA, ARN, NASA, INVAP, CONUAR, IONICS and other organizations) attended the meetings. During this meeting ISO/TC 85 changed its scope; the new scope of the Committee is 'Standardization in the fields of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and of the protection of individuals against all sources of ionizing radiations'. This work summarizes the most important advances and resolutions about the development of standards taken during this meeting as well as the main conclusions. (author) [es

  15. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  16. Standardization or Stigmatization? Challenges Confronting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    lects, the separation of the standard language from its own dialects and the .... from areas such as Mapulaneng, Bolobedu and Bot√okwa sent their children to ..... gave this assignment to the Sesotho sa Leboa National Language Body. This.

  17. Rethinking wood dust safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasingam, Jega; Wai, Lim Tau; Ramasamy, Geetha; Ioras, Florin; Tadin, Ishak; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Buckinghamshire New University; Centre for Occupational Safety and Health Singapore

    2015-01-01

    The current universal work safety and health standards pertaining to wood dust in factories lack the localisation required. As a study has shown, there is a urgent need to reevaluate the current guidelines and practices.

  18. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV

    1999-01-01

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  19. Civil Engineering & Design Standards Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Vänttinen, Eetu

    2014-01-01

    Civil Discipline Engineering department in Foster Wheeler Energia Oy takes care of the construction of foundation, steel frame, platforms, cladding/roofing, HVAC, elevator, hoist and central vacuum system of the boiler building. The goal of the thesis was to compile a design manual for the department to ease up the startup of the design of a new project and standardize the design. Main objective was to gather together all the existing guidelines, standards and directives regarding the des...

  20. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a ''standard model''. The ''standard model'' consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the ''standard model'' to determine if the requirements of ''non-standard'' architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the ''standard model'' are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature

  1. Projected Standard on neutron skyshine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, R.M.; Williams, D.S.

    1987-07-01

    Current interest in neutron skyshine arises from the application of dry fuel handling and storage techniques at reactor sites, at the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility and at other facilities being considered as part of the civilian radioactive waste management programs. The chairman of Standards Subcommittee ANS-6, Radiation Protection and Shielding, has requested that a work group be formed to characterize the neutron skyshine problem and, if necessary, prepare a draft Standard. The work group is comprised of representatives of storage cask vendors, architect engineering firms, nuclear utilities, the academic community and staff members of national laboratories and government agencies. The purpose of this presentation summary is to describe the activities of the work group and the scope and contents of the projected Standard, ANS-6.6.2, ''Calculation and Measurement of Direct and Scattered Neutron Radiation from Nuclear Power Operations.'' The specific source under consideration by the work group is an array of dry fuel casks located at a reactor site. However, it is recognized that the scope of the standard should be broad enough to encompass other neutron sources. The Standard will define appropriate methodology for properly characterizing the neutron dose due to skyshine. This dose characterization is necessary, for example, in demonstrating compliance with pertinent regulatory criteria

  2. Fluorescent standards for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belko, N.; Kavalenka, S.; Samtsov, M.

    2016-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is an evolving technique for treatment of various oncological diseases. This method employs photosensitizers - species that lead to death of tumor cells after the photoactivation. For further development and novel applications of photodynamic therapy new photosensitizers are required. After synthesis of a new photosensitizer it is important to know its concentration in different biological tissues after its administration and distribution. The concentration is frequently measured by the extraction method, which has some disadvantages, e.g. it requires many biological test subjects that are euthanized during the measurement. We propose to measure the photosensitizer concentration in tissue by its fluorescence. For this purpose fluorescent standards were developed. The standards are robust and simple to produce; their fluorescence signal does not change with time. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescent standards seems to depend linearly on the dye concentration. A set of standards thus allow the calibration of a spectrometer. Finally, the photosensitizer concentration can be determined by the fluorescence intensity after comparing the corresponding spectrum with spectra of the set of fluorescent standards. A biological test subject is not euthanized during this kind of experiment. We hope this more humane technique can be used in future instead of the extraction method.

  3. Standards in neurosonology. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojcza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specifi c brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specifi c clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-toleft shunts, confi rmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional effi ciency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  4. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojczal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  5. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  6. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS…

  7. Beyond the standard model; Au-dela du modele standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuypers, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-05-01

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs.

  8. Standard Black English: Upheld by What Standard of Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Marquita D.

    1995-01-01

    Explains how teachers might go about equitably and fairly teaching standard written English when African American students in the class speak black English. Argues that black English, which has been 400 years in the making, is worthy of tolerance and respect for all its richness. (TB)

  9. 76 FR 75840 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Flexibility Act Certification C. OMB Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 D. Federalism E. State... meaning of Section 652(8) when a significant risk of material harm exists in the workplace and the standard would substantially reduce or eliminate that workplace risk. This NPRM would not reduce the...

  10. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Determinations A. Legal Considerations B. Final Economic Analysis and Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification C... within the meaning of Section 652(8) when a significant risk of material harm exists in the workplace and the standard would substantially reduce or eliminate that workplace risk. This DFR will not reduce the...

  11. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a open-quotes standard modelclose quotes. The open-quotes standard modelclose quotes consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes to determine if the requirements of open-quotes non-standardclose quotes architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural features

  12. ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Competency Standards Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Both professional development programs for teachers currently in the classroom and programs for preparing future teachers should provide technology-rich experiences throughout all aspects of the training. Standards and resources within the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)'s project "Information and…

  13. 40 CFR 403.6 - National pretreatment standards: Categorical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... falls within that particular subcategory. If an existing Industrial User adds or changes a process or... best of my knowledge and belief, true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW...

  14. Calibration of working standard ionization chambers and dose standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmahoud, A. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements were performed for the calibration of two working standard ionization chambers in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory of Sudan. 600 cc cylindrical former type and 1800 cc cylindrical radical radiation protection level ionization chambers were calibrated against 1000 cc spherical reference standard ionization chamber. The chamber were calibrated at X-ray narrow spectrum series with beam energies ranged from (33-116 KeV) in addition to 1''3''7''Cs beam with 662 KeV energy. The chambers 0.6 cc and 0.3 cc therapy level ionization were used for dose standardization and beam output calibrations of cobalt-60 radiotherapy machine located at the National Cancer Institute, University of Gazira. Concerning beam output measurements for 6''0''Co radiotherapy machine, dosimetric measurements were performed in accordance with the relevant per IAEA dosimetry protocols TRS-277 and TRS-398. The kinetic energy released per unit mass in air (air kerma) were obtained by multiplying the corrected electrometer reading (nC/min) by the calibration factors (Gy/n C) of the chambers from given in the calibration certificate. The uncertainty of measurements of air kerma were calculated for the all ionization chambers (combined uncertainty) the calibration factors of these ionization chambers then were calculated by comparing the reading of air kerma of secondary standard ionization chambers to than from radical and farmer chambers. The result of calibration working standard ionization chambers showed different calibration factors ranged from 0.99 to 1.52 for different radiation energies and these differences were due to chambers response and specification. The absorbed dose to to water calculated for therapy ionization chamber using two code of practice TRS-277 and TRS-398 as beam output for 6''0''Co radiotherapy machine and it can be used as a reference for future beam output calibration in radiotherapy dosimetry. The measurement of absorbed dose to water showed that the

  15. Standardization efforts in IP telephony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengodan, Senthil; Bansal, Raj

    1999-11-01

    The recent interest in IP telephony has led to a tremendous increase of standardization activities in the area. The three main standards bodies in the area of IP telephony are the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU-T) Study Group (SG) 16, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the European Telecommunication Standards Institute's (ETSI) TIPHON project. In addition, forums such as the International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium (IMTC), the Intelligent Network Forum (INF), the International Softswitch Consortium (ISC), the Electronic Computer Telephony Forum (ECTF), and the MIT's Internet Telephony Consortium (ITC) are looking into various other aspects that aim at the growth of this industry. This paper describes the main tasks (completed and in progress) undertaken by these organizations. In describing such work, an overview of the underlying technology is also provided.

  16. Can Environmental Law be standardized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendler, H.

    1981-01-01

    The author makes basic considerations on standardizability both in Constitutional Law and in simple Legislative Law. He discusses in detail a key issue of Environmental Law, namely the standardization of the right of third parties affected to file suit. In painstaking detail work one has to differentiate between standards having and not having an effect which protects third parties, and how far the protection of third parties goes. The limits to standardizability are reached with the use of undetermined legal terms. The shortcomings of standardizability for the legislator could and should be made up for by the statutory power which has to reify standards in a way which could guarantee efficient execution. (HSCH) [de

  17. Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tèmítọ́pẹ́ Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

  18. on International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łazarowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and assesses proposals for changes concerning the objective of financial reportingbased on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, presented in comments on the exposuredraft of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting (2015. The majority of respondents thinkthat the objective of financial reporting should give more prominence to the importance of providinginformation about management’s stewardship. Moreover, some respondents suggest introducing thedefinition of stewardship into the Conceptual Framework and presenting implications of shifts in theobjective of financial reporting for the future standard setting and for preparing financial statements.Based on the analysis of comment letters and the review of accounting literature, the conclusion is thatthe objective of financial reporting should be changed. It is, however, disputable, if stewardship should bea separate object. There is too little research on the relation between the stewardship and decisionusefulnessobjectives. The findings of this research could show accounting standard-setters the potentialtrade-offs and conflicts between these objectives.

  19. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron; Lassen, Benny; Rechenbach, Björn; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O’Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation. (paper)